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Sample records for claus process

  1. Modified Claus process probabilistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Laguna (Spain)

    2006-03-15

    A model is proposed for the simulation of an industrial Claus unit with a straight-through configuration and two catalytic reactors. Process plant design evaluations based on deterministic calculations does not take into account the uncertainties that are associated with the different input variables. A probabilistic simulation method was applied in the Claus model to obtain an impression of how some of these inaccuracies influences plant performance. (orig.)

  2. The influence of animacy on relative clause processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, W.M.; Vonk, W.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In previous research it has been shown that subject relative clauses are easier to process than object relative clauses. Several theories have been proposed that explain the difference on the basis of different theoretical perspectives. However, previous research tested relative clauses only with an

  3. Claus recycle with double combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bishtawi, Ribhi; Haimour, No' man [University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2004-12-15

    A new modification is developed on conventional Claus process to increase the overall sulfur recovery as well as to decrease the costs. The modification combines both oxygen enrichment and recycling. The process is simulated and studied for various N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios with and without using SURE double combustion technique. The predictions show that using pure oxygen in combustion, condensing water vapor in a condenser following the first sulfur condenser and recycling the effluent gas to combine it with fresh acid gas feed leads to large savings in the production cost and to a clean environment. However, it leads to a high adiabatic flame temperature which exceeds the maximum allowable temperature of the furnace material of construction as well as its refractory. To avoid these effects, it is necessary to use SURE double combustion technique. The oxygen flow rate to the first combustion stage should not exceed 78% O{sub 2}.

  4. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sen

  5. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  6. Reaction Mechanism for m-Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed S; Chung, Suk Ho

    2015-09-24

    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation.

  7. Reachability for Finite-state Process Algebras Using Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an algorithm for solving the reachability problem in finite systems that are modelled with process algebras. Our method is based on Static Analysis, in particular, Data Flow Analysis, of the syntax of a process algebraic system with multi-way synchronisation. The results...

  8. Reaction Mechanism for m- Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2015-09-24

    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  9. Processing of Relative Clauses is Made Easier by Frequency of Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale corpus analysis indicating that pronominal object relative clauses are significantly more frequent than pronominal subject relative clauses when the embedded pronoun is personal. This difference was reversed when impersonal pronouns constituted the embedded noun phrase. This pattern of distribution provides a suitable…

  10. Parsing Strategies in L1 and L2 Sentence Processing: A Study of Relative Clause Attachment in Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Despina; Clahsen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    To contribute to a better understanding of second language (L2) sentence processing, the present study examines how L2 learners parse temporarily ambiguous sentences containing relative clauses. Results are reported from both off-line and on-line experiments with three groups of advanced learners of Greek whose native languages (L1s) were Spanish,…

  11. Sulfur Recovery from Acid Gas Using the Claus Process and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sassi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-bearing compounds are very detrimental to the environment and to industrial process equipment. They are often obtained or formed as a by-product of separation and thermal processing of fuels containing sulfur, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. The two sulfur compounds, which need special attention, are: hydrogen sulfide (H2S and sulfur dioxide (SO2. H2S is a highly corrosive gas with a foul smell. SO2 is a toxic gas responsible for acid rain formation and equipment corrosion. Various methods of reducing pollutants containing sulfur are described in this paper, with a focus on the modified Claus process, enhanced by the use of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC technology in the Claus furnace. The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. Nowadays strict air pollution regulations regarding hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions call for nearly 100% efficiency, which can only be achieved with process modifications. High temperature air combustion technology or otherwise called flameless (or colorless combustion is proposed here for application in Claus furnaces, especially those employing lean acid gas streams, which cannot be burned without the use of auxiliary fuel or oxygen enrichment under standard conditions. With the use of HiTAC it has been shown, however, that fuel-lean, Low Calorific Value (LCV fuels can be burned with very uniform thermal fields without the need for fuel enrichment or oxygen addition. The uniform temperature distribution favors clean and efficient burning with an additional advantage of significant reduction of NOx, CO and hydrocarbon emission.

  12. Toluene destruction in the Claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2014-10-22

    The presence of aromatics such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) as contaminants in the H2S gas stream entering Claus sulfur recovery units has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX forms soot particles and clogs and deactivates the catalysts. BTX oxidation, before they enter catalyst beds, can solve this problem. A theoretical investigation is presented on toluene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to study toluene radical (benzyl, o-methylphenyl, m-methylphenyl, and p-methylphenyl)-SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radical through one of the O atoms rather than the S atom. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers of 4.8-6.1 kJ/mol for different toluene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO. The reaction rate constants are evaluated to facilitate process simulations. Among four toluene radicals, the resonantly stabilized benzyl radical exhibited lowest SO2 addition rate. A remarkable similarity between toluene oxidation by O2 and by SO2 is observed.

  13. Benzene destruction in claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2014-07-02

    Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are present as contaminants in the H 2S gas stream entering a Claus furnace. The exhaust gases from the furnace enter catalytic units, where BTX form soot particles. These particles clog and deactivate the catalysts. A solution to this problem is BTX oxidation before the gases enter catalyst beds. This work presents a theoretical investigation on benzene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to develop a detailed mechanism for phenyl radical -SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition to phenyl radical after overcoming an energy barrier of 6.4 kJ/mol. This addition reaction is highly exothermic, where a reaction energy of 182 kJ/mol is released. The most favorable pathway involves O-S bond breakage, leading to the release of SO. A remarkable similarity between the pathways for phenyl radical oxidation by O2 and its oxidation by SO2 is observed. The reaction rate constants are also evaluated to facilitate process simulations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Defective Arbitration Clauses in International Commercial Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tolkušinas, Kasparas

    2011-01-01

    Usually in a drafting process of a contract arbitration clause is left at the end of a contract. Sometimes it happens that parties really do not wish start discussions on how should arbitration clause look like or what details should it contain, because either parties think they would never come to a conflict or they are short in time and leave arbitration clause unconsidered. Absence of proper attention when drafting arbitration clauses is likely to give rise to defective arbitration clauses...

  15. Children's Processing of Ambiguous Sentences: A Study of Relative Clause Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felser, Claudia; Marinis, Theodore; Clahsen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigate children's and adults' relative clause attachment preferences in sentences such as "The student photographed the fan of the actress who was looking happy." Twenty-nine 6- to 7-year-old monolingual English children and 37 adult native speakers of English participated both in an auditory questionnaire study and in an…

  16. The Role of Working Memory and Contextual Constraints in Children's Processing of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieghall, Anna R.; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2011-01-01

    An auditory sentence comprehension task investigated the extent to which the integration of contextual and structural cues was mediated by verbal memory span with 32 English-speaking six- to eight-year-old children. Spoken relative clause sentences were accompanied by visual context pictures which fully (depicting the actions described within the…

  17. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was

  18. Claus Bonderup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    -oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way...... house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful...

  19. Research progress of application of CLAUS process in sulfur recovery%克劳斯工艺在硫回收中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利波; 董利刚; 王君华; 樊文娟

    2015-01-01

    CLAUS process is an industrial method for conversion of H2S to sulfur. The advantages of applying liquid sulfur to complete H2S conversion lies in the ability to use the soluble H2S existed liquid sulfur,and that the CLAUS process and super-CLAUS process's high-efficiency catalyst can be used. This paper made overview to the research progress of CLAUS reaction in liquid sulfur,and described different detection experiments and their relevant conclusions.%克劳斯工艺是将硫化氢转变为硫磺的工业方法,应用液硫完成H2S的转换优势在于能够利用液硫中溶解的H2S,且可以应用克劳斯工艺和超克劳斯工艺的高效催化剂.文中概述了液硫中的克劳斯反应研究进展,阐述了不同的检测实验及其相关结论.

  20. Are Subject Small Clauses Really Small Clauses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Miori

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the ongoing debate over small clauses concerning the structure of the verb phrase in "I consider Bill smart." It is demonstrated that the subject constituent in question is not a small clause, but a Noun Phrase (NP), following Noun (N). It is shown that some peculiar phenomena under the small clause analysis are natural…

  1. 基于Aspen Plus的克劳斯硫回收过程模拟%Analog of ClausSulfur Recovery Process Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林发现; 丁玲; 陈延林; 李繁荣; 师慧灵; 邹隐文

    2011-01-01

    Adopting Aspen Plus process analog calculation software,process flow for Claus sulfur recovery was simulated,simulated data was good coincident with the data demarcated by analog software used specially for sulfur recovery;on that basis,author has studied the influence of Claus key data on process flow by use of Aspen Plus modular analysis function,its conclusion was coincident with practical production process;result indicates that it has optimizing role for both design calculation and production operation based on the Claus sulfur recovery process analog.%采用Aspen P lus工艺模拟计算软件模拟了克劳斯硫回收工艺过程,模拟数据与硫回收专用模拟软件的标定数据吻合较好;在此基础上,利用Aspen P lus模块化分析功能,研究了克劳斯工艺的关键数据对工艺过程的影响,其结论与实际生产过程相符合;结果表明,基于Aspen P lus的克劳斯硫回收过程模拟,对设计计算和生产操作均具有优化作用。

  2. 48 CFR 232.7004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Submission and Processing of Payment Requests and Receiving Reports 232.7004 Contract clause. Except as provided in 232.7002(a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  3. Sulphur condensation influence in Claus catalyst performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, R L

    2000-12-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H(2)S from acid gas streams and this is widely practised in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulphur recovery from the Claus unit in order to minimise sulphur-containing effluent. The most widely used Claus catalyst in sulphur recovery units is non-promoted spherical activated alumina. Properties associated with optimum non-promoted Claus catalyst performance include high surface area, appropriate pore size distribution and enhanced physical properties. The objective of this paper is to outline a procedure in order to estimate Claus catalyst effectiveness after pore plugging due to sulphur condensation. Catalyst deactivation due to pore plugging by sulphur is modelled employing a Bethe lattice and its corresponding performance is described by means of a modified effectiveness factor. Model results show an improvement in the modified effectiveness factor due to modifications in catalyst porous structure.

  4. CLAUS与ZZ-PRO工艺相结合优化硫磺回收工艺%Optimization of sulfur recovery process by combining CLAUS and ZZ-PRO processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周姜维

    2015-01-01

    This paper described technical features of CLAUS and ZZ-PRO processes,analyzed the process reason causing So2 in tail gas out of limit in application of CLAUS process,and based on the specific application example,analyzed that the combination of these two processes can realize up-to-standard emission.%文中阐述了CLAUS和ZZ-PRO硫磺回收工艺的技术特点,分析CLAUS工艺中尾气出现SO2超标的工艺原因,结合具体的应用实例,分析了2种工艺相结合可以实现装置的达标排放。

  5. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  6. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  7. An fMRI Study Dissociating Distance Measures Computed by Broca’s Area in Movement Processing: Clause boundary vs Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of sentence comprehension suggest that processing long-distance dependencies is subject to interference effects when Noun Phrases (NP similar to the dependency head intervene the dependency. Neuroimaging studies converge in localizing such effects to Broca’s area, showing that activity in Broca’s area increases with the number of NP interveners crossed by a moved NP of the same type. To test if NP interference effects are modulated by adding an intervening clause boundary, which should by hypothesis increase the number of successive-cyclic movements, we conducted an fMRI study contrasting NP interveners with clausal (CP interveners. Our design thus had two components: (I the number of NP interveners crossed by movement was parametrically modulated; (II CP-intervention was contrasted with NP-intervention. The number of NP interveners parametrically modulated a cluster straddling left BA44/45 of Broca’s area, replicating earlier studies. Adding an intervening clause boundary did not significantly modulate the size of the NP interference effect in Broca’s area. Yet, such an interaction effect was observed in the Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG. Therefore, the involvement of Broca’s area in processing syntactic movement is best captured by memory mechanisms affected by a grammatically instantiated type-identity (ie, NP intervention.

  8. 主、宾语关系从句加工难度比较综述%A Review of Comparing the Processing Difficulty between Subject and Object Relative Clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邴文铎; 王慧莉

    2013-01-01

      关系从句加工是心理语言学研究的重要课题,主、宾语关系从句的加工难度差异在印欧语言中得到较一致的结论,为主语关系从句的加工优势。但在汉语中,一些研究者得出与之相反的汉语宾语关系从句的加工优势。因此,要想更合理地解释汉语等语言的差异结论,则需要更多手段、更全面的研究论证。%The study of relative clause processing is a significant topic in Psycholinguistics. Universal agreement has been reached about the processing difficulty of subject and object relative in many Indo-European languages, which is subject relative clause preference. However, in languages like Chinese, some researchers have found an opposite conclusion of object relative clause preference. To provide better account for the processing difficulty of subject and object relative clauses in languages like Chinese, more research methods and more comprehensive studies are necessary.

  9. 三级克劳斯工艺的应用及改造%Use of 3-Stage Claus Process and Renovation Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义琴

    2015-01-01

    The sulfur recovery process flow and operation conditions of the unit of conventional 3-stage Claus process are introduced,and the renovation before and after trial production,and revamp situation during first time heavy maintenance are described.The operation for more than 2 years suggests that the sulfur recovery unit can satisfy the demand of continuous production,and theφ(H2 S +SO2 )in exhaust emission can generally meet the design requirement of ≤0.6%.%介绍了普通三级克劳斯硫黄回收工艺流程及装置运行情况,阐述了试生产前期改造、试生产后的改造以及第1次大修时的改造情况。通过2年多的运行,该硫回收装置可满足连续生产的要求,排出的尾气中φ(H2 S +SO2)基本能够达到≤0.6%的设计要求。

  10. Clause Types in Southeastern Tepehuan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas L.

    The clause in Southeastern Tepehuan consists of a predicate, its associated arguments, and other modifying elements. This paper seeks to show the various types of semantic and surface clauses and the relation between them. The semantic clause consists of various semantic components, both nuclear and peripheral, semantic prosodies, and certain…

  11. An Overview of Relative Clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖飒

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one kind of important modifiers among English grammar. It is a widely used clauses in English con-text. In order to get an overview of relative clause, this essay will analyze it in terms of form, meaning and use.

  12. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination...

  13. Claus Achton Friis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Grafiker, professor Claus Achton Friis 1917-1999 er en central skikkelse i det 20.århundredes danske brugsgrafik. Han er ophavsmand til en mængde emballager, frimærker og heraldik og desuden formgiver af en række fremragende skrifter. Han var elev af grafikeren professor Gunnar Biilmann Petersen og...

  14. On-line Processing of German Number-marked Relative Clauses in the Visual-world Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Adelt

    2014-04-01

    (3 Filler: Wo ist das Schwein mit dem Ballon? (Where is the pig with the balloon? All sentences are randomized and presented auditorily. Simultaneously, colored illustrations of animals performing an action are shown on a computer screen (see Figure 1. Participants have to identify via button press (left/right the target animal to which the question refers. During this task, eye movements are collected as an on-line measure of sentence processing. Off-line comprehension is measured in terms of accuracy of target identification. Ten IWAs with sentence comprehension deficits and 30 healthy controls are tested. Discussion Following Burchert et al. (2003, we expect the IWA’s off-line comprehension of SRCs and ORCs to be at chance level, while controls make hardly any errors. In the on-line data, the number of fixations to the target picture are supposed to increase only at the verb or shortly after the sentence offset, since disambiguation occurs sentence finally at the verb. Controls are expected to show faster or longer fixations to the target in SRCs compared to ORCs (Caplan et al., 2007. In line with Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011, IWA’s fixations to the target should not differ qualitatively from those of controls, at least for correct responses, but eye gaze patterns may be delayed. Data collection and analysis is still ongoing. Results will be ready by October and presented and discussed at the Academy of Aphasia conference.

  15. Compiling HPSG type constraints into definite clause programs

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, T; Goetz, Thilo; Meurers, Walt Detmar

    1995-01-01

    We present a new approach to HPSG processing: compiling HPSG grammars expressed as type constraints into definite clause programs. This provides a clear and computationally useful correspondence between linguistic theories and their implementation. The compiler performs off-line constraint inheritance and code optimization. As a result, we are able to efficiently process with HPSG grammars without having to hand-translate them into definite clause or phrase structure based systems.

  16. Improving SAT Solvers via Blocked Clause Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jingchao

    2016-01-01

    The decision variable selection policy used by the most competitive CDCL (Conflict-Driven Clause Learning) SAT solvers is either VSIDS (Variable State Independent Decaying Sum) or its variants such as exponential version EVSIDS. The common characteristic of VSIDS and its variants is to make use of statistical information in the solving process, but ignore structure information of the problem. For this reason, this paper modifies the decision variable selection policy, and presents a SAT solvi...

  17. 48 CFR 3019.708 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 3019.708... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 3019.708 Contract clauses....

  18. 48 CFR 16.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... commercial item) is contemplated. If the contract is with an educational institution, modify the clause by... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.307 Contract clauses. (a)(1)...

  19. 48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  20. 48 CFR 1632.617 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 1632.617 Contract clause. The clause at (FAR) 48 CFR 52.232-17 will be modified in all FEHBP...

  1. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...

  2. 48 CFR 923.903 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 923.903... Environmental Management Systems § 923.903 Contract clause. The FAR Environmental Management Systems clause at 52.223-XX should be used in contracts where the contractor operates a DOE site or portion...

  3. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to...

  4. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract....

  5. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly...

  6. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance,...

  7. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract...

  8. 48 CFR 19.1407 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 19.1407... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business Procurement Program 19.1407 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause 52.219-27, Notice of Total...

  9. 48 CFR 19.1104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 19.1104... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns 19.1104 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.219-23, Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for...

  10. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause...

  11. 48 CFR 219.708 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 219.708 Contract clauses. (b)(1)(A) Use the clause at 252.219-7003, Small Business Subcontracting Plan... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses....

  12. 48 CFR 2103.571 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 2103.571 Contract clause. The clause at 2152.203-70... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause....

  13. 48 CFR 819.709 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 819.709 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  14. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Responsibility to Avoid Improper Business Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71,...

  15. 48 CFR 19.1308 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 19.1308... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Historically Underutilized Business Zone (HUBZone) Program 19.1308 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause 52.219-3, Notice of Total HUBZone...

  16. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.203-7003 in solicitations and contracts that include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  17. 48 CFR 32.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 32.908... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 32.908 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at 52.232-26... specify a period longer than 7 days for constructive acceptance or constructive approval, if required...

  18. 48 CFR 233.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 233.215....215 Contract clause. Use Alternate I of the clause at FAR 52.233-1, Disputes, when— (1) The... (v) Tracked combat vehicles (vi) Related electronic systems; (2) The contracting officer...

  19. Influence of sulfur physical properties in Claus unit operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of la Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H{sub 2}S from acid gas streams and it has been widely practiced in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulfur recovery and high stream factor from the Claus units in order to minimize sulfur-containing effluents. As has been widely reported Claus unit's damages mainly occur during start up and shutdown. These operations involve scheduled warm-up and cool-down of the unit, usually burning refinery fuel-gas, which if not properly made can produce severe pipe and equipment plugging as well as catalyst deactivation. Sulfur products remaining in the unit during a shutdown period can produce dramatic unit corrosion episodes diminishing sulfur recovery unit stream factor. In the present paper some guidelines are given based on sulfur physical properties singularities which help to improve start-up/shut-down procedures. (orig.)

  20. Relative Clauses in Classical Nahuatl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langacker, Ronald W.

    1975-01-01

    Jane Rosenthal's paper on relative clauses in Classical Nahuatl is discussed, and it is argued that she misses an important generalization. An alternative analysis to a class of relative pronouns and new rules for the distribution of relative pronouns are proposed. (SC)

  1. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  2. RELATIVE CLAUSES FROM ENGLISH TO ALBANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suela Koça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the use of relative clauses in English and Albanian by comparing different clause types. Some theoretical issues addressed in this article include the definition of relative clauses, the relativized elements, and the use of relative pronouns and adverbs in both languages. Distinctions and similarities are identified by analyzing the way in which these clauses are translated from English into Albanian. The theoretical part is illustrated by examples extracted from “Animal Farm” by George Orwell and “Pride and Prejudice” by Jane Austin, and their translated versions in Albanian, “Ferma e Kafshëve” and “Krenari dhe Paragjykime”.

  3. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.21 Safeguard clause....

  4. Santa Claus ’Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒冰

    2005-01-01

    A ustria—Christkind Belgium and the N etherlands—N oel Saint Nicholas C hristkind and Black Pete Brazil—Papa;N oel D enm ark—Julinisse England—Father Christm as Finland—O ld M an C hristm asFrance—Pere N oel or le Petit Germ any—K riss Kringle Christkind or Saint N icholas Italy—B efana Japan—Santa K urohsu M exico—Three Kings Poland—Star M an or W ise M en Spain—Three Kings R ussia—B asbouschka ?Santa Claus ’Names@寒冰

  5. 48 CFR 13.303-4 - Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) The contracting officer shall insert in each BPA the clauses prescribed elsewhere in this part that are required for or applicable to the particular BPA. (b) Unless a clause prescription specifies..., the amount to be compared to that threshold is that of any particular order under the BPA....

  6. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting...

  7. 48 CFR 704.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 704.404... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 704.404 Contract clause. If the contract involves access to classified (“Confidential”, “Secret”, or “Top Secret”), or...

  8. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The...

  9. 48 CFR 519.708 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 519.708 Section 519.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 519.708 Contract clauses....

  10. 48 CFR 1019.708 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1019.708 Section 1019.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 1019.708 Contract clauses....

  11. 48 CFR 19.708 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 19.708 Contract clauses. (a... affecting section 19.708, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses....

  12. 48 CFR 511.404 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 511.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 511.404 Contract clauses. In... shelf-life period is 12 months or less, and lengthy acceptance testing may be involved. For items...

  13. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses....

  14. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a...

  15. 48 CFR 32.412 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 32.412 Section 32.412 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING... rapid liquidation appropriate, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its Alternate III....

  16. 48 CFR 532.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 532.908... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 532.908 Contract clauses. (a) GSA has a FAR deviation that... Information for Electronic Funds Transfer Payment; and (iii) For which the order is placed, and the...

  17. 48 CFR 23.602 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 23.602... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Notice of Radioactive Material 23.602 Contract clause. The contracting officer..., aircraft, ammunition, missiles, vehicles, electronic tubes, instrument panel gauges, compasses...

  18. 48 CFR 538.273 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 538.273... Schedules 538.273 Contract clauses. (a) Multiple award schedules. Insert in solicitations and contracts: (1) 552.238-70, Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the...

  19. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clauses. 2446.710... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 23.1005 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-To-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements 23.1005 Contract clause. (a) Insert the clause at 52.223-5, Pollution Prevention and...

  1. The acquisition of mood selection in Spanish relative clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Leroux, A T

    1998-10-01

    Although children acquire Spanish subjunctive morphology early in the process of language acquisition, they only master mood selection in a staged process that lasts for several years. This paper examines the possibility that the acquisition of subjunctive mood selection in particular syntactic contexts is constrained by cognitive development in the area of representational theory of mind. Acquisition of the epistemic aspects of the semantics of subjunctive are shown to be associated with the understanding of false beliefs, a landmark development in children's cognition. Twenty-two Spanish speaking children between the ages of 3;5 and 6;11 participated in an elicited production study designed to test whether children's ability to produce subjunctive relative clauses was related to their ability to pass a false belief task. Results indicate a strong correlation between children's ability to use the subjunctive mood in relative clauses and their capacity for understanding false beliefs.

  2. Using Boolean Constraint Propagation for Sub-clause Deduction

    OpenAIRE

    Darras, Sylvain; Dequen, Gilles; Devendeville, Laure; Mazure, Bertrand; Ostrowski, Richard; Sais, Lahkdar

    2005-01-01

    Boolean Constraint Propagation (BCP) is recognized as one of the most use- ful technique for efficient satisfiability checking. In this paper a new extension of the scope of boolean constraint propagation is proposed. It makes an original use of BCP to achieve further reduction of boolean formulas. Considering the impli- cation graph generated by the constraint propagation process as a resolution tree, sub-clauses from the original formula can be deduced. Then, we show how such extension can ...

  3. 48 CFR 970.3270 - Standard financial management clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard financial management clauses. (a) The following DEAR and FAR clauses are standard financial... Accounting Standards. (b) The following DEAR clauses are standard financial management clauses. The... systems: (1) 970.5232-7, Financial management system. (2) 970.5232-8, Integrated accounting. (c)...

  4. 48 CFR 52.252-2 - Clauses Incorporated by Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., with the same force and effect as if they were given in full text. Upon request, the Contracting Officer will make their full text available. Also, the full text of a clause may be accessed... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  5. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how relative clause (RC constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2. The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH (Keenan & Comrie, 1977. In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic environment, was audio-recorded regularly over two years, and the development of RC constructions was compared with the acquisition of other English morphological and syntactic structures as represented within Processability Theory (PT (Pienemann, 1998; Pienemann, Di Biase, & Kawaguchi, 2005; Pienemann & Keßler, 2011. Although PT predicts that subordinate clauses are acquired at the highest stage in processability hierarchy, the results in this longitudinal study show that some types of RC constructions emerge at earlier stages in L2 English acquisition. The results also show that RC constructions in the Japanese child’s English L2 develop in the similar way to those reported in L1 studies (e.g., Diessel, 2004.Keywords: relative clause constructions, English L2, Processability Theory, the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy, Japanese child

  6. The Information Structure of Adverbial Clauses in Chinese Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Fang Wang

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated adverbial clauses in spoken as well as written Chinese discourse. The adverbial clauses in the spoken data were categorized into (i) initial clauses that occur in the initial position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, (ii) final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, and (iii) final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across...

  7. 48 CFR 2432.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... commercial services awarded pursuant to FAR part 12. (2) The Contracting Officer shall insert a clause...-reimbursement type solicitations and contracts when vouchers are to be sent directly to the paying office....

  8. PENALTY CLAUSES WITHIN DIFFERENT LEGAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas Vitkus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the regulation in regard of penalty clauses within two different legal traditions, i.e. common law tradition and continental law tradition, is analyzed. In general a penalty clause implies a fixed sum, which has to be paid by a party for the failure to perform its contractual duties timely and duly. In common law world penalty clauses are rendered unenforceable, whereas civil law countries, including the Republic of Lithuania, consider such clauses enforceable to the extent that the stipulated amount is not excessive. Moreover, in the article attempts to reach a uniform regulation throughout various legal instruments are revealed. Purpose: to analyze the regulation of penalty clauses within different legal systems. Methodology: a systematic method was used in order to ascertain the content and true meaning of the legislation concerning penalty clauses, whereas comparative method allowed comparing such legislation among different jurisdictions. On the basis of analytical method conclusions were withdrawn. Findings: common law courts on the basis of just compensation principle may declare a clause, which stands for a penalty, unenforceable, whereas civil law courts may only reduce grossly excessive amount. However, under major soft law instruments, such as the UNIDROIT Principles , PECL and DCRF , the divergence from common law rules of non-enforcement of penalty clauses is evident. Although there is a lack of binding transnational rules that control the enforceability of penalty clauses across the countries, it seems that today the most feasible solution consists of the approval of national rules, which would shield the enforcement of penalties in international commercial contracts in common law jurisdictions. Research limitations: in the light of the civil law system terms of liquidated damages and penalty clause are used interchangeably, since both are enforceable. However, a distinction between the two can be made on the basis

  9. 48 CFR 416.670 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 416.670 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall limit the Government's obligation under a time-and-materials...

  10. Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin

    We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.

  11. The Information Structure of Adverbial Clauses in Chinese Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fang Wang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated adverbial clauses in spoken as well as written Chinese discourse. The adverbial clauses in the spoken data were categorized into (i initial clauses that occur in the initial position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, (ii final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, and (iii final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across final intonation. Those in the written data were classified into (i initial and (ii final clauses that occur in the initial or final clauses that occur in the initial or final position, respectively, with respect to their main clauses. An analysis of the spoken and written data shows that the temporal, conditional, and concessiveclauses are quite different from the other adverbial clauses. Specifically, the causal clauses commonly appear in the final position with respect to their associated material in the spoken data, while the initial and final causal clauses are nearly evenly distributed in the written data. The data suggest that temporal, conditional, and concessive clauses, like topics, are presupposed parts of their sentences; i.e., all of them may be thought of as establishing frameworks for the interpretation of propositions that follow, which seem to be prototypically textual in their functioning. By contrast, causal clauses in Chinese are noticeably distinct from other adverbial clauses not only in spoken data, but also in written data; they play interactional as well as textual roles in discourse linking.

  12. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context. The well known problems of interpretation of quantum mechanics mean that physical law lacks physical basis. Aims. To abstract the formalism of quantum mechanics from assertions about the world with clear physical meaning. Methods. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is prepared and the final state is to be measured. Results. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, spacetime continuum. A continuum of kets, |x> for x in R^3, is constructed from linear combinatio...

  13. 48 CFR 1316.601-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 1316.601-70 Contract clauses. Insert clause 1352.216-77, Ceiling Price, in all time-and-materials contracts....

  14. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  15. Institute Cargo Clauses : Nova verzija 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses, 2009. znače izmijenjene i dopunjene Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta leže u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenom transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose niz rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u odnosu na rješenja Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906. Redaktori novih uvjeta vodili su računa i o tome da pojedine odredbe budu jasnije form...

  16. Trajanje osiguranja prema Institute Cargo Clauses (2009.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petrinović, Ranka; Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses iz 2009. zapravo su izmjene i dopune Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni su razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo-osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenome transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose više rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u usporedbi s onima u Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906., pa se prezentiraju kao klauzule za novo tisućljeće. Među bitnim promjenama koje donose ...

  17. 48 CFR 3447.7000 - Foreign travel clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign travel clause... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 3447.7000 Foreign travel clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.247-70, Foreign Travel, in all solicitations and resultant...

  18. 48 CFR 41.501 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 41.501 Section 41.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Contract Clauses 41.501 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a) Because the terms and conditions... substantially the same as the provision at 52.241-1, Electric Service Territory Compliance Representation,...

  19. 48 CFR 1615.470-1 - Investment income clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment income clause. 1615.470-1 Section 1615.470-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470-1 Investment income clause. The clause set forth in...

  20. 78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... rights clause for ski area permits issued by the Forest Service. There will be several stations at the... Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will be another...

  1. 48 CFR 52.241 - Utility Services Provisions and Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility Services Provisions and Clauses. 52.241 Section 52.241 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.241 Utility Services Provisions and Clauses....

  2. 48 CFR 970.0370-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0370... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370-2 Contract clause. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  3. 48 CFR 619.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 619.811... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.811-3 Contract clauses. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at FAR...

  4. 48 CFR 519.870-8 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 519.870... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 519.870-8 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the following clauses in solicitations, contracts,...

  5. 48 CFR 1403.570-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.570... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 1403.570-3 Contract clause. CO's shall include the clause at 1452.203-70, Restriction on Endorsements, in...

  6. 48 CFR 203.570-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 203.570-3 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.203-7001, Prohibition on Persons... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  7. 48 CFR 1319.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1319.811... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 1319.811-3 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause 1352.219-70, Section...

  8. 48 CFR 970.0371-9 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0371... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-9 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  9. 48 CFR 19.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 19.811-3... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 19.811-3 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.219-11, Special...

  10. 48 CFR 219.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 219.811..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 219.811-3 Contract clauses. (1) Use the clause at 252.219-7009, Section...

  11. 48 CFR 52.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using... clause that can be accessed electronically by the offeror or prospective contractor may be incorporated... contracting officer includes in the solicitation and contract a statement that— (1) Identifies all...

  12. 48 CFR 2446.502-70 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 2446.502-70 Section 2446.502-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Acceptance 2446.502-70 Contract clause. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at...

  13. 48 CFR 229.402-70 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance will be in Spain. (f) Use the clause at 252.229-7006, Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom.... (i) Use the clause at 252.229-7009, Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel (Passenger... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses...

  14. 48 CFR 970.5001-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Act 970.5001-4 Contract clause. When use of the clause at 48 CFR 52.250-1, Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804, Alternate 1 is appropriate, the contracting officer may substitute the words... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  15. 48 CFR 333.215-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 333.215... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 333.215-70 Contract clauses. (a) The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.233-70, Choice of Law (Overseas),...

  16. 48 CFR 2832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 2832.1110 Section 2832.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General Contracting Requirements CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 2832.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. When the clause at FAR 52.232-34, Payment by Electronic Funds...

  17. 48 CFR 232.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 232.1110 Section 232.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 232.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. Use the clause at 252.232-7009,...

  18. 48 CFR 32.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 32.1110 Section 32.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at— (1)...

  19. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

  20. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  1. The Meaning of Mood – Embedded Clauses in Spanish as a Case in Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Dam

    2011-01-01

    to be the result of an interpretive process. This article explains how mental space theory can be used in an analysis of mood in embedded clauses in Spanish. It starts from the assumption that the meaning of mood is constructed by interlocutors in an interpretive process on the basis of information from the modal...

  2. INHERENT VICE & INSUFFICIENT PACKING CLAUSES FOR ALL RISKS INSURANCE POLICIES UNDER BRITISH INSTITUTE CARGO CLAUSES : legal issues arising from claims of loss during sea transportation of large technical equipments

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Analysis and presentation of this thesis is supported by studies of many relevant cases where the major arguments are set around the exclusion clauses concerning the ‘all risks cover’ policy as found in Institute Cargo Clauses. Two cases are especially emphasized, namely Mayban General Assurance BHD v. Alstom Power Plants Ltd. and Global Process Systems Inc v. Syarikat Takaful Malaysia Berhad , mainly because of the special nature of the subject matter insured in these cases. The legal i...

  3. An audit questionnaire that examines specifically the management of technical activities clauses in ISO 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, T F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an audit questionnaire that focuses on the management of the technical activities in a Diagnostic Pathology Laboratory. The ISO 15189 Standard is written in such a way that it continually moves back and forth from topics where the auditor needs to question bench level staff, to topics where the auditor needs to question Technical Management Staff. This makes for a disjointed audit process - both Bench Staff and Technical Managers are repeatedly interrupted. The solution was to do a clause by clause analysis of the Standard and assign the major responsibility for the compliance to each clause to either Technical Managers or Bench Staff. The Clauses were then grouped under four topic headings regardless of whether they were a Section 4 or Section 5 Clause. Two questionnaires have emerged - the one described in this work and one directed primarily towards the activities of bench staff. There are 95 questions and it takes approximately two hours to complete. PMID:23105892

  4. Clause/Term Resolution and Learning in the Evaluation of Quantified Boolean Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Giunchiglia, E; Tacchella, A; 10.1613/jair.1959

    2011-01-01

    Resolution is the rule of inference at the basis of most procedures for automated reasoning. In these procedures, the input formula is first translated into an equisatisfiable formula in conjunctive normal form (CNF) and then represented as a set of clauses. Deduction starts by inferring new clauses by resolution, and goes on until the empty clause is generated or satisfiability of the set of clauses is proven, e.g., because no new clauses can be generated. In this paper, we restrict our attention to the problem of evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBFs). In this setting, the above outlined deduction process is known to be sound and complete if given a formula in CNF and if a form of resolution, called Q-resolution, is used. We introduce Q-resolution on terms, to be used for formulas in disjunctive normal form. We show that the computation performed by most of the available procedures for QBFs --based on the Davis-Logemann-Loveland procedure (DLL) for propositional satisfiability-- corresponds to a tree...

  5. Relative clauses in French children's narrative texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisa, H; Kern, S

    1998-10-01

    This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French-speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were coded following the categories defined by Dasinger & Toupin (1994) into two main functional classes: general discourse and narrative functions. The results show that the use of relative clauses in general discourse functions precedes their use in more specific narrative functions. An analysis of textual connectivity (Berman & Slobin, 1994) in one episode reveals that children and adults differ in their choice of preferred structures. The results also show that children use fewer transitive predicates in relative clauses than do adults. Transitive verbs are essential for advancing the narrative plot (Hopper & Thompson, 1980). While subject relative clauses are acquired early and used frequently, the development of their multifunctional use in diverse narrative functions extends well beyond childhood.

  6. Head Position and Internally Headed Relative Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilico, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines "Head Movement" in internally headed relative clauses (IHRCs). The article shows that in some cases, head movement to an external position need not take place and demonstrates that this movement of the head to a sentence-internal position results from the quantificational nature of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping hypothesis (1990, 1992). (56…

  7. 48 CFR 811.204 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.204 Section 811.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 811.204...

  8. Retrenchment Clauses in Faculty Union Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Examination of retrenchment clauses in the faculty union contracts at 42 colleges and universities focused on implications for tenure rights and the roles prescribed for faculty and administrators. Concepts of financial exigency and shared governance are highlighted. Contracts were found to provide faculty with a limited and reactive role during…

  9. 48 CFR 927.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is a domestic small business or nonprofit organization as defined at (FAR) 48 CFR 27.301, except... (but see (FAR) 48 CFR 27.304-3 regarding contracts for construction work or architect-engineer services... use the clause at (FAR) 48 CFR 52.227-12 except in situations where patent counsel grants a...

  10. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 503.1004 Section 503.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  11. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.1004 Section 1403.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  12. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.7003 Section 923.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS..., the contract or subcontract must include language to specify the extent of applicability of...

  13. The occupational health of Santa Claus

    OpenAIRE

    Straube, Sebastian; Fan, Xiangning

    2015-01-01

    Previous publications in the field of Santa studies have not focused on health and safety issues arising from Santa’s workplace activities. However, it should be acknowledged that unique occupational hazards exist for Santa Claus. Major occupational health issues affecting Santa are discussed, along with suggestions for future research directions.

  14. 48 CFR 44.204 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract, awarded on the basis of adequate price competition or whose prices are set by law or regulation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 44.204 Section 44.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT...

  15. 48 CFR 1808.870 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1808.870 Section 1808.870 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Printing and Related Supplies 1808.870 Contract...

  16. 48 CFR 22.202 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.202 Section 22.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... employment of convict labor; (b) The supplies or services are to be purchased from Federal Prison...

  17. Santa Claus:The True Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ (1) I remember my first Christmas party with Grandma.I was just a kid.Iremeber Iwas running across town on my bike to Grandma's on the day my big sister said:"There's no Santa Claus. Even a fool knows that!"

  18. 48 CFR 13.302-5 - Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirement unless the existing requirement is deleted. Also, do not delete a paragraph without providing for... cannot be set aside for small business concerns and trade agreements apply (see Subpart 25.4), substitute the clause at FAR 52.225-3, Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act, used...

  19. 48 CFR 46.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, in solicitations and contracts when performance specifications or design are of major importance; a fixed-price supply, service, or research and... clause at 52.246-19, Warranty of Systems and Equipment under Performance Specifications or...

  20. 48 CFR 1809.670 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1809.670 Section 1809.670 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... than one legal entity, such as a joint venture....

  1. PODI AND ODI IN CLAUSE CONSTRUCTION OF KEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Budiarta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals podi and odi in clause construction of Kemak. Specifically, this article is aimed at finding out in what construction  podi and odi appear. Moreover, this article is also aimed at finding out the function of podi and odi in the clause construction of Kemak. Before exploring podi and odi in clause construction, the first discussion will examine the morphology of the verb of Kemak to find out how the verbs are formed in Kemak as they have the main role to fill the predicate. The discussion continues to examine the clause with nonverbal (verbless and verbal predicate. Clause with nonvebral (verbless predicate will begin the discussion on clause construction in Kemak. Then, the discussion goes to clause with verbal predicate. The clause with verbal predicate includes intransitive and transtive. The disscussion of transitive clause covers monotransitive and  ditransitive clause. The  study on transitive clause is related to the presence of podi and odi in the construction.The result shows that all verbs are basic verbs. Verbs in Kemak are morphologically unmarked (no affixes and there is no agreement between the verb and its arguments. The clause with nonverbal predicate in Kemak is filled by  noun, adjective, numeral, and prepositional phrase. Clause with nonverbal predicate requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. As cluase with nonverbal predicate, intransitive clause in Kemak also requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. Meanwhile, monotransitive clause requires two arguments, preverbal and postverbal argument. Ditranstive clause requires three arguments, one preverbal and two postverbal argument. Moreover, it was found that  podi appears in ditransitive clause (applicative/benefactive construction. Podi has the function to increase the verb valence from monotransitive into ditransitive. Meanwhile, odi appears in monotransitive clause  The presence of odi in monotrasitive is as the

  2. 78 FR 73475 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... include your name, company name (if any), and ``DFARS Case 2013-D026'' on your attached document. Email... INFORMATION: I. Background In order to facilitate use of automated contract writing systems, DoD is processing... proposes to make the following changes: Amend section 235.072, Additional Contract Clauses, to reflect...

  3. Claus plant tail gas treatment; Traitement des gaz de queue du procede claus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalley, J.C.; Laperdrix, E. [Institut des Sciences de la Matiere et du Rayonnement, UMR 6506, Lab. Catalyse et Spectrochimie, 14 - Caen (France); Universite Chouaib Doukali, Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Chimie Physique, El Jadida (Morocco)

    2002-07-01

    Tail gas of Claus plants generally contains COS, CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. In order to satisfy the new environmental requirements, COS and CS{sub 2} hydrolysis have to be improved, whereas the oxidation of H{sub 2}S in sulfur, S{sub n}, appears to be one of the most satisfactory processes for the removal of slight amounts of H{sub 2}S. IR studies evidence that sulfate species are reduced by H{sub 2}S at 320 deg C on TiO{sub 2}, contrary to results obtained on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, explaining why TiO{sub 2} is much more effective than alumina when the CS{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O feed also contains H{sub 2}S and O{sub 2} traces. A CuO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was used for selective oxidation of H{sub 2}S into sulfur at 110 deg C. It is shown that polysulfide species are formed during the reaction, constituting an uniqueness of this catalyst. Elemental sulfur appears from the cleavage of too-long polysulfide chains. Storage of sulfur in the catalyst porosity provokes its deactivation whereas the catalyst ability to form sulfate species is poor. (author)

  4. WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEGRÃO Esmeralda Vailati

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP, by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate relationship established under agreement makes Comp a proper governor for traces in subject position under its scope. The analysis proposed makes a distinction between two processes of relative clause formation. One in which que is an operator that transforms sentences into predicates and sits in the Comp position of a CP whose specifier can be occupied by a QP functioning as the subject of the predication. The other, in which que is a WH-word, traditionally treated as a pronoun, occupying the specifier position of a QP and introducing relative clauses as we know them.

  5. 硫磺回收超级克劳斯工艺设备常见故障的处理%Common Fault Disposal of the Equipment on Sulfur Recovery with Super Clause Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利亚; 宋文中; 张秀英

    2012-01-01

    @@%忠县天然气净化厂硫磺回收装置采用了超级克劳斯(Super Claus)工艺,该工艺由1个热反应段,3个常规克劳斯加1个超级克劳斯催化反应段,液硫脱气和尾气焚烧及排放系统组成,设计硫磺回收率大于99.2%.装置仪表失灵的可能原因包括点火枪损坏、在线分析仪失灵、联锁阀调节阀故障、测量仪表偏差过大或失灵.结合忠县天然气净化厂超级克劳斯工艺装置投产以来的运行情况,就超级克劳斯工艺日常操作和开停车过程中常见故障进行分析,并提出相应的解决措施.

  6. What undertakings are protected under Umbrella Clauses of BITs.

    OpenAIRE

    Khasanov, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is discusses what is the scope of Umbrella Clauses. State undertakings must satisfy the condition of being investment. That is the first requirement of applicability of investment regime to state undertakings. Despite state undertakings was seen as wide concept (by some tribunals) the language of the clause and prevailing view support undertakings must be limited to contractual undertakings (in practice some viewed that Umbrella Clause can be extended to municipal law obligations) ...

  7. 12 CFR 34.5 - Due-on-sale clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due-on-sale clauses. 34.5 Section 34.5 Banks... General § 34.5 Due-on-sale clauses. A national bank may make or acquire a loan or interest therein, secured by a lien on real property, that includes a due-on-sale clause. Except as set forth in 12...

  8. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Eid Alroudhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs, as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2 research. The present study discusses the syntactic structure of RRCs in English and Arabic with regard to the use of resumptive pronouns and the use of overt versus covert relative markers as related to the definiteness of the head noun. This study is carried out using an acceptability judgment test as the tool for data collection. A sample of 100 male and female adult Arabic speakers is used with the aim of identifying potential acquisition problems. The results obtained provide further support for first language (L1 transfer. This study concludes that participants accepted the use of resumptive pronouns and preferred the overt relative markers determined by definiteness. It is further discovered that certain factors influenced the acquisition process such as participants’ age, age of learning, and age of immersion. The current study has some pedagogical implications for the teaching of relative clauses in the EFL context.Keywords: English Relative Clauses, Restrictive Relative Clauses, Relative pronoun, Arab Learners of English

  9. Two types of Temporal when clauses in Hausa

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoulaye, Mahamane L.

    2009-01-01

    23; International audience; Hausa has simple temporal clauses, introduced by the conjunction dà ‘when', that many researchers derive from temporal relative clauses introduced by lookàcin dà ‘time that', through the deletion of the pseudo head word lookàcii ‘time'. This paper shows that this analysis, however natural it may appear, is inadequate. Indeed, the two temporal clauses have different uses, which would not be surprising if simple temporal clauses are derivationally independent from te...

  10. A Corpus-based Approach to English Subordinate Clause I dentification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The complex sentence structure of English is a bottleneck to our practical machi ne translation system. The simplification of English subordinate clauses will gr eatly relieves the burden of parsing and other grammatical or semantic analysis of a complex sentence, thus improves the output quality of the MT system. But th ere have not any satisfactory research achievements reported in this field up t o now as we know. In this paper, author's work on a corpus-based approach to English subordinate clause identification is reported. The approach integrate s rule-base d and statistical methods to get the left and right boundaries of the subordinat e clauses. The Penn Treebank corpus is used as the training standard. The precis ion and recall ratios of subordinate clause identification are tested on both cl osed and open corpora. A result of 92.9% precision and 91.26% recall is obtained for the closed test and the open test result is 80.34% precision and 83.93% rec all. This algorithm has been integrated into our machine translation system. The method can also be applied to processing of any other language.

  11. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  12. 48 CFR 2437.110 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.237-73, Conduct of Work and Technical... part 12. (e) The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.237-75, Clearance of..., Observance of Legal Holidays and Administrative Leave, in all solicitations and contracts where...

  13. 48 CFR 709.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitation or resulting contract or both include a provision in accordance with (48 CFR) FAR 9.507-1, or a clause in accordance with (48 CFR) FAR 9.507-2, establishing a restraint on the contractor's eligibility... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  14. 48 CFR 538.7004 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and contract clauses. 538.7004 Section 538.7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING FEDERAL SUPPLY SCHEDULE CONTRACTING Cooperative... insert the clause at 552.238-79, Use of Federal Supply Schedule Contracts by Certain...

  15. 48 CFR 3427.472 - Advertising of awards clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards... Copyrights 3427.472 Advertising of awards clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.227-72, Advertising of Awards, in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders....

  16. 48 CFR 1019.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1019.811... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 1019.811-3 Contract clauses. (d)(3) Insert theclause at DTAR 1052.219-18, Notification of...

  17. 48 CFR 1503.500-72 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Responsibility To Avoid Improper Business Practices 1503.500-72 Contract clause. As required by EPAAR 1503.500-71(b), the contracting... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause....

  18. 48 CFR 970.5201 - Text of provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Text of provisions and clauses. 970.5201 Section 970.5201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5201 Text of provisions and clauses....

  19. On the phrasing properties of Hindi relative clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryllia, S.; Féry, C.; Kügler, F.; Pandey, P.; The, Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from a production experiment in Hindi, showing that differences in attachment site of object relative clauses result in prosodic differences when the antecedent of the relative clause (RC) is part of a complex NP with the structure N1 of N2. In particular, based on durati

  20. 48 CFR 3032.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 3032.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a)(1) Contracting officer shall insert FAR 48 CFR 52.232-33, Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Central Contractor... contract clauses. 3032.1110 Section 3032.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  2. 41 CFR 60-250.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contractor's organization, and positions lasting three days or less. This term includes full-time employment, temporary employment of more than three days' duration, and part-time employment. ii. Executive and top... opportunity clause in the contract. It is not necessary that the equal opportunity clause be quoted...

  3. 41 CFR 60-300.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be filled from within the contractor's organization, and positions lasting three days or less. This term includes full-time employment, temporary employment of more than three days' duration, and part... opportunity clause in the contract. It is not necessary that the equal opportunity clause be quoted...

  4. 32 CFR 643.55 - Mandatory revocation clause in lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mandatory revocation clause in lease. 643.55... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.55 Mandatory revocation clause in lease. Each lease will contain a provision permitting the SA to revoke the lease at any time, unless it is determined that the omission...

  5. The Elicited Production of Korean Relative Clauses by Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Ellis, Sunyoung

    2011-01-01

    In response to new theoretical claims and inconclusive empirical findings regarding relative clauses in East Asian languages, this study examined the factors relevant to relative clause production by Korean heritage speakers. Gap position (subject vs. object), animacy (plus or minus animate), and the topicality of head nouns (plus or minus…

  6. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  7. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    CERN Document Server

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  8. 48 CFR 1436.270-3 - Part II-Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part II-Contract clauses... Construction 1436.270-3 Part II—Contract clauses. For Section I, Contract clause, include any clauses required by law or by the FAR (including subpart 36.5), the DIAR (including subpart 1436.5), and...

  9. Punctuation and Intonation Effects on Clause and Sentence Wrap-Up: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotani, Masako; Frazier, Lyn; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Three eye movement studies examined the role of punctuation in reading. In Experiment 1, although a comma at the end of a clause facilitated overall reading times for the sentence, first pass times were longer at the end of comma-marked clauses than clauses without a comma (or the same material in clause medial position). The data supported the…

  10. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    Danish grammatical tradition has it that V2 and V3 word order are signals of the syntactic difference between main and subordinate clauses. However, several studies have shown that both word orders appear in both clause types (Heltoft 2005, Christensen 2007, Jensen forthc.). Though V2 and V3...... studies of two age cohorts of speakers in Copenhagen, recorded in the 1980s and again in 2005-07, and on recent recordings with two age cohorts of speakers from the western part of Jutland. This makes it possible to study variation and change with respect to word order in subordinate clauses in both real...

  11. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  12. Enhancing Extraction of Drug-Drug Interaction from Literature Using Neutral Candidates, Negation, and Clause Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Diaz, Alberto; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Motivation Supervised biomedical relation extraction plays an important role in biomedical natural language processing, endeavoring to obtain the relations between biomedical entities. Drug-drug interactions, which are investigated in the present paper, are notably among the critical biomedical relations. Thus far many methods have been developed with the aim of extracting DDI relations. However, unfortunately there has been a scarcity of comprehensive studies on the effects of negation, complex sentences, clause dependency, and neutral candidates in the course of DDI extraction from biomedical articles. Results Our study proposes clause dependency features and a number of features for identifying neutral candidates as well as negation cues and scopes. Furthermore, our experiments indicate that the proposed features significantly improve the performance of the relation extraction task combined with other kernel methods. We characterize the contribution of each category of features and finally conclude that neutral candidate features have the most prominent role among all of the three categories. PMID:27695078

  13. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  14. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  15. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  16. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  17. 48 CFR 339.7103 - Solicitation and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause. 339.7103 Section 339.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Information Security Management...-72, Security Requirements for Federal Information Technology Resources, in solicitations...

  18. A U-Shaped Relative Clause Attachment Preference in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Edson T.; Gibson, Edward; Pearlmutter, Neal J.; Aikawa, Takako; Miyagawa, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    Presents results from a self-paced reading experiment in Japanese investigating attachment preferences for relative clauses to three ensuing potential nominal heads. Results are discussed in light of two types of parsing models. (Author/VWL)

  19. 48 CFR 570.604 - Deviations to provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contingent Fees, FAR 52.215-2, Audit and Records—Negotiation). The authorizing statue must allow for a waiver. (c) Certain clauses required by non-GSA regulations require approval of the issuing agency before...

  20. Complex Clause Syntax in the Italian Classroom – the Learners Between Transfer and Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Italian as a foreign language, learners’ insecurities about using conjunctions and tenses in subordinate clauses can be noticed very early. Temporality, relative temporality and modality are signalled by Italian verb forms which function in a largely different (or apparently similar way in comparison to Slovene. If ‘true’ similarities can be exploited in the process of teaching/learning by means of a positive transfer, apparent ‘similarities’ and ‘differences’ between the two language systems should, on the other hand, be clarified to avoid negative transfer (interference. During the whole learning process language awareness should be developed, also through contrastive insights into the linguistic systems concerned. Taking as a starting point a text suitable for level B1, some problematic points are presented, for which a series of tasks can be suggested with the aim of helping the learner master complex clause syntax and develop language awareness. Key words: Italian, foreign/second language, complex clause, syntax, transfer, language awareness

  1. Conversion of Claus plants of Kurkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naman, S.A.; Veziroglu, A. [Duhok Univ., Duhok City (Iraq). Dept. of Chemistry; International Association for Hydrogen Energy, Miami, FL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Two Claus plants in Kirkuk, Iraq, convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur at a capacity of 2,200 tons/day. One of the plants is working at a capacity of only 400 tons/day with an old Claus process. The other uses a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 tons/day. Both of the plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance. As such, the agricultural area surrounding Kirkuk is highly polluted. This paper described 2 pilot desulphurization plants that have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant. The first pilot plant is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30 per cent dithanolamine to separate and recycle hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing zeolite 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H{sub 2}S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H{sub 2}S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials. The pilot plants were suitable with cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H{sub 2}S decomposition only. The goal for the second pilot plant was to supply the heat using a solar energy concentrator instead of electricity. It was concluded that a hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas. The pilot plants can produce about 140 tons of hydrogen gas per day from these waste gases.

  2. From Pauses to Clauses: Prosody Facilitates Learning of Syntactic Constituency

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, Kara; Gerken, LouAnn

    2014-01-01

    Learning to parse the speech stream into syntactic constituents is a crucial prerequisite to adult-like sentence comprehension, and prosody is one source of information that could be used for this task. To test the role of prosody in facilitating constituent learning, 19-month-olds were familiarized with non-word sentences with 1-clause (ABCDEF) or 2-clause (ABC, DEF) prosody and were then tested on sentences that represent a grammatical (DEF, ABC) or ungrammatical (EFA, BCD) 'movement' of th...

  3. Asymmetries in children's production of relative clauses: data from English and Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae-Eun; O'Grady, William

    2016-09-01

    We report here on a series of elicited production experiments that investigate the production of indirect object and oblique relative clauses by monolingual child learners of English and Korean. Taken together, the results from the two languages point toward a pair of robust asymmetries: children manifest a preference for subject relative clauses over indirect object relative clauses, and for direct object relative clauses over oblique relative clauses. We consider various possible explanations for these preferences, of which the most promising seems to involve the requirement that the referent of the head noun be easily construed as what the relative clause is about. PMID:26264784

  4. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  5. Syntactic and Semantic Coordination in Finite Complement-Clause Constructions: A Diary-Based Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Brandt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L…

  6. 22 CFR 124.9 - Additional clauses required only in manufacturing license agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing license agreements. 124.9 Section 124.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... Additional clauses required only in manufacturing license agreements. (a) Clauses for all manufacturing license agreements. The following clauses must be included only in manufacturing license agreements:...

  7. 37 CFR 401.14 - Standard patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the support of scientific research or education; and (4) It will make efforts that are reasonable... research work to be performed by a small business firm or domestic nonprofit organization. The... developmental or research work the patent rights clause required by (cite section of agency...

  8. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  9. 48 CFR 970.2702 - Patent related clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent related clauses. 970.2702 Section 970.2702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702...

  10. U.S. Foreign Medical Students: After the "Guadalajara Clause"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1977-01-01

    The controversial issues surrounding the "Guadalajara Clause" of the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 are detailed. At issue is whether Americans studying in foreign medical schools should be admitted to third and fourth year classes if they can pass part one of the National board examinations. (BT)

  11. 48 CFR 511.204 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Schedule containing information technology Special Item Numbers; or (ii) Federal Supply Schedules for... contracting officer shall include the clause 552.211-92, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using Passive... Consolidated Products and Services Schedule containing information technology Special Item Numbers; or...

  12. 48 CFR 803.570-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.570-2 Section 803.570-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 803.570-2...

  13. 48 CFR 3.502-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 3.502-3 Section 3.502-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 3.502-3...

  14. 48 CFR 503.570-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 503.570-2 Contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 503.570-2..., including acquisitions of leasehold interests in real property, if the contract amount is expected to...

  15. 48 CFR 3.503-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 3.503-2 Section 3.503-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 3.503-2...

  16. 48 CFR 815.304-71 - Solicitation provision and clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Evaluation Factors, in competitively... include VAAR clause 852.215-70, Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Evaluation... AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection...

  17. 48 CFR 16.506 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business set-aside, use the clause with its Alternate III (but see subparagraph (5) below). (5) If the... may be acquired on a brand-name basis; and (ii) Involves a partial small business set-aside, use the... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts...

  18. The Acquisition of Chinese Relative Clauses: Contrasting Two Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenai; Gavarró, Anna; Vernice, Mirta; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension of relative clauses by Chinese-speaking children, and evaluates the validity of the predictions of the Dependency Locality Theory (Gibson, 1998, 2000) and the Relativized Minimality approach (Friedmann, Belletti & Rizzi, 2009). One hundred and twenty children from three to eight years of age were tested by…

  19. 41 CFR 60-4.3 - Equal opportunity clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that the concrete benefits of the program are reflected in the Contractor's minority and female... regulations, or these specifications, the Director shall proceed in accordance with 41 CFR 60-4.8. 14. The...) The equal opportunity clause published at 41 CFR 60-1.4(a) of this chapter is required to be...

  20. 48 CFR 904.404 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause. 904.404 Section 904.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... DOE's security authority is derived from the Atomic Energy Act which contains specific language...

  1. THE EFFICACY OF THE ARBITRATION CLAUSE IN A SIMULATED ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Vlad RĂDULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the effects that an arbitration clause can still produce when it is contained in a simulated operation, whether it is in the apparent act or in the secret one, depending on the forms of simulation.

  2. 48 CFR 50.206 - Solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.206 Solicitation provisions and contract clause. (a) Insert the provision at 52.250-2, SAFETY Act Coverage Not Applicable, in solicitations if— (1) The...

  3. 48 CFR 5416.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 5416.203-4 Section 5416.203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... established price or cost index may be derived from sales prices in the marketplace, quotes, or assessments...

  4. Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2015-01-01

    Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence...

  5. 48 CFR 32.206 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 32.206 Section 32.206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...) of this section); (iii) Liquidation of those financing payments by delivery payments (see...

  6. 48 CFR 32.502-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 32.502-4 Section 32.502-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING... concerns for the progress payment and liquidation rate indicated. (3) If an unusual progress payment...

  7. Coreference relations in complex sentence with a complement clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskovljević-Popović Jasmina D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze different co reference relations which can be established in a complex sentence between one of the arguments of the matrix clause and the understood/implicit subject of the complement clause introduced by the complementizer “da”. Various patterns of control relations which are present in contemporary Serbian - obligatory, non-obligatory, and shared control - have been enumerated and exemplified. Different types of constructions and different classes of verbs which introduce (or may introduce control relations have been identified and patterns of control instantiated by them have been described. It has been argued that the analysis of the Serbian data indicates that a type of the matrix predicate is not the only factor which determines the control relations established in a complex sentence, but that a type of situation/event described in the complement clause, as well as the relationship between the events denoted by the matrix and the complement clauses have their influence too. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Standardni srpski jezik: sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja

  8. From Sound to Syntax: The Prosodic Bootstrapping of Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Kara

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that prosodic cues may facilitate syntax acquisition (e.g., Morgan, 1986). Previous studies have shown that infants are sensitive to violations of typical correlations between clause-final prosodic cues (Hirsh-Pasek et al., 1987) and that prosody facilitates memory for strings of words (Soderstrom et al., 2005). This…

  9. Arbitration clauses in contracts between providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, F

    1998-01-01

    Arbitration clauses in contracts between health care providers and their patients can offer benefits to both parties. However, practitioners need to ensure that their contracts will not be judged unenforceable by a court. This article outlines the contractual and constitutional issues involved in arbitration agreements and provides advice to practitioners on drafting such an agreement. PMID:10662267

  10. 48 CFR 27.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business innovation research contract (see paragraph (h) of this section); (iv) To be performed outside the... determines, in accordance with 27.404-2(b), to adopt the alternate definition of “Limited Rights Data” in... the contract is a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, insert the clause at...

  11. Relative clauses in Suriname creoles and Gbe languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Huttar; E.O. Aboh; F.K. Ameka

    2013-01-01

    Two creoles of Suriname, Ndyuka and Saramaccan, are compared with each other and with Western Gbe, Eastern Gbe, and other languages of West Africa with respect to relative clause formation. Relativization strategies are described for the syntactic positions subject, direct object, and indirect objec

  12. 48 CFR 5119.1071 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... THE ARMY ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SMALL BUSINESS AND SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program 5119.1071 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a) DFARS provision 252.219-7012 shall be inserted in all solicitations issued under the Small...

  13. 48 CFR 1535.007-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 1552.235-71, Treatment of Confidential Business Information,...

  14. 48 CFR 1427.201-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1427.201-2 Section 1427.201-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... the CCO with legal review and concurrence....

  15. 48 CFR 25.1103 - Other provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses 25.1103 Other provisions..., in solicitations and contracts if anticipating translation into another language. (c) Foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other provisions...

  16. 48 CFR 2825.901 - Omission of audit clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Omission of audit clause. 2825.901 Section 2825.901 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic... in by the contracting activity's legal counsel prior to being approved by the authorized...

  17. Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naman, S.A. [Chemistry Dept., Univ. of Duhok, Duhok (Iraq); Veziroglu, A. [International Association of Hydrogen Energy, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H{sub 2}S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H{sub 2}S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H{sub 2}S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO{sub 2} 10% and H{sub 2}S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H{sub 2}S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 {sup o}C. and the solar intensity is about

  18. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  19. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-02-08

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  20. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  1. The Appositive NP-Complement Clause and Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Inada, Shun'ichiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines properties of Japanese Af-ga-aru construction involving an appositive NP-complement clause and presents a new approach to restructuring. The new analysis can explain the monoclausality of. sentences with an appositive NP-complement as well as that of restructuring constructions with a VP-complement. I will show that the former construction has the same properties as the latter while the former cannot be restructured at base structure or by overt operations based on two poi...

  2. Role of the direct reaction H2S + SO2 in the homogeneous Claus reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendt, Karina; Haynes, Brian S

    2005-09-15

    Quantum chemical methods at the Gaussian-2 and -3 levels of theory have been used to investigate the reactions between H(2)S, SO(2), and S(2)O such as might occur in the front-end furnace of the Claus process. The direct reaction between H(2)S and SO(2) occurs via a 5-centered transition state with an initial barrier of approximately 135 kJ mol(-1) and an overall barrier of approximately 153 kJ mol(-1) to produce S(2)O and H(2)O. We indicate approximate values here because there are a number of isomers in the reaction pathway that have barriers slightly different from those quoted. The presence of a water molecule lowers this by approximately 60 kJ mol(-1), but the van der Waals complex required for catalysis by water is thermodynamically unfavorable under the conditions in the Claus reactor. The direct reaction between H(2)S and S(2)O can occur via two possible pathways; the analogous reaction to H(2)S + SO(2) has an initial barrier of approximately 117 kJ mol(-1) and an overall barrier of approximately 126 kJ mol(-1) producing S(3) and H(2)O, and a pathway with a 6-centred transition state has a barrier of approximately 111 kJ mol(-1), producing HSSSOH. Rate constants, including a QRRK analysis of intermediate stabilization, are reported for the kinetic scheme proposed here.

  3. Animacy-Based Accessibility and Competition in Relative Clause Production in Hindi and Malayalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, C K; Srivastava, A K

    2016-08-01

    Two studies investigated interaction of animacy-based accessibility and competition processes with language specific constraints in shaping production preferences. Relative clause elicitation tasks (Gennari et al. in Cogn Psychol 65:141-176, 2012) were performed by two groups with 40 participants in each. Significantly more passives were produced with animate question/focus and assigned subject function to them in Malayalam, while the difference was insignificant in Hindi with animacy not equating with grammatical function assignment. Both languages produced active objects with OSV order significantly more with animate question/focus. This indicates animacy effect on word order. Animacy also influenced the expression of the agent phase in both languages as a tendency was found to omit the agent by-phase or to delay its appearance, when the two animate nouns entering into the structure are highly similar. The results point to language specific constraints in relative clause production and variability in the role of animacy-based retrieval order across languages. PMID:26108301

  4. Licensing clausal complements : The case of Russian čto-clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Knyazev, M

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation describes and explains the distribution of Russian complement clauses with the complementizer čto. It is shown that complement clauses with čto display distributional restrictions that are not manifested by their English and Dutch counterparts and that do not follow from the standard account of complement clauses in the literature. Two classes of environments are discussed where such restrictions are observed, namely, complements of speech act verbs in their non-agentive use...

  5. Santa Claus Schedules Jobs on Unrelated Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Ola

    2010-01-01

    One of the classic results in scheduling theory is the 2-approximation algorithm by Lenstra, Shmoys, and Tardos for the problem of scheduling jobs to minimize makespan on unrelated machines, i.e., job j requires time p_{ij} if processed on machine i. More than two decades after its introduction it is still the algorithm of choice even in the restricted model where processing times are of the form p_{ij} in {p_j, \\infty}. This problem, also known as the restricted assignment problem, is NP-hard to approximate within a factor less than 1.5 which is also the best known lower bound for the general version. Our main result is a polynomial time algorithm that estimates the optimal makespan of the restricted assignment problem within a factor 33/17 + \\epsilon \\approx 1.9412 + \\epsilon, where \\epsilon > 0 is an arbitrary small constant. The result is obtained by upper bounding the integrality gap of a certain strong linear program, known as configuration LP, that was previously successfully used for the related Santa...

  6. 面向信息处理的“二标三句式”复句层次关系判定%Recognition of Hierarchy and Semantic Relations of Compound Sentence Made up of Two Marks and Three Clauses Faced to Chinese Information Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锋文

    2012-01-01

    It is significant for parsing analysis in computational linguistics and information engineering in compound sentences to recog- nize hierarchy and semantic relations of compound sentence. In order to solve the problem that marks appeared in compound sentence are not sufficient to identify hierarchy and semantic relations among clauses, the formal syntax and semantic knowledge of compound sentences needs fully explore, and the knowledge can be available to understand by computers. This paper discusses how subject' s consistency and predicate' s semantic correlation affect clause semantic association, deeply analyzes four kinds of modes compound sen- tences that is made of two marks and three sentences, and extracts 11 rules which determine hierarchy and semantic relations of com- pound sentence.%复句层次关系识别对计算语言学句法分析和复句信息工程意义重大。为解决关系标记显现不充足给复句层次关系识别所带来的困扰,需要充分挖掘可供计算机理解的复句关联的形式化句法语义知识。本文探讨了分句主语指称一致性和谓语语义相关性对分句语义关联的影响,深入分析了4种联结模式的"二标三句式"复句的句法语义特点,总结提取出11条层次关系判定规则,以期为复句层次关系识别奠定基础。语例验证表明,该研究能有效解决"二标三句式"复句的层次关系判定问题。

  7. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  8. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject......-initial and non-subject-initial V2 clauses, the former being only IPs and the latter CPs, as suggested by Travis (1984, 1986, 1991) and Zwart (1990, 1991). Below we will refer to this analysis as the 'V2 asymmetry' analysis. The other alternative analysis is that V2 takes place inside IP, as suggested by Diesing...

  9. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  10. Advances in computational modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D.; Lo, J. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Center for Applied Catalysis and Industrial Sulfur Chemistry

    2010-01-15

    This poster session discussed advances in computation modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery, focusing on the hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (S{sub O}2) absorption of non-alumina Claus active metal oxides, such as titanium oxide and vanadium oxide. These metal oxides were chosen because they promote carbon disulphide (CS{sub 2}) conversion and have a potential use in olefin chemistry. The redox process of H{sub 2}S dissociation on vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can take place in single-site reaction or multiple site reactions. Both mechanisms lead to the production of V{sub 2}O{sub 4}S, water (H{sub 2}O) and other species. The overall process of forming VO{sub 4}S is neutral, but kinetics is a controlling factor. The surface sulfidation to form V{sub 2}O{sub 3}S{sub 2} requires a small energy cost but possesses a huge reaction barrier. The formation of H{sub 2}S{sub 2} is energetically favorable. The silica (SiO{sub 2})-supported V{sub 2}O{sub 2} catalyst was described. A proposed mechanism of H{sub 2}S conversion to H{sub 2}O and V=S group was presented along with another reaction route in which the dissociative absorption of H{sub 2}S takes place on O-bridges instead of V=O. Two vanadia catalysts were compared: V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. 7 figs.

  11. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  12. Rahft: A Tool for Verifying Horn Clauses Using Abstract Interpretation and Finite Tree Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Morales, José F.

    2016-01-01

    We present Rahft (Refinement of Abstraction in Horn clauses using Finite Tree automata), an abstraction refinement tool for verifying safety properties of programs expressed as Horn clauses. The paper describes the architecture, strength and weakness, implementation and usage aspects of the tool...

  13. 48 CFR 339.201-70 - Required provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clause. 339.201-70 Section 339.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Electronic and Information Technology 339.201-70 Required provision and contract clause. (a) The Contracting Officer shall insert...

  14. 48 CFR 639.107-70 - DOSAR solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provision and contract clause. 639.107-70 Section 639.107-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...-70 DOSAR solicitation provision and contract clause. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the... electronic access to Department information that directly supports the mission of the Department. (b)...

  15. An Improved Separation of Regular Resolution from Pool Resolution and Clause Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the graph tautology principles of Alekhnovich, Johannsen, Pitassi and Urquhart have polynomial size pool resolution refutations that use only input lemmas as learned clauses and without degenerate resolution inferences. We also prove that these graph tautology principles can be refuted by polynomial size DPLL proofs with clause learning, even when restricted to greedy DPLL search.

  16. SHORT CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE PRECIPUT CLAUSE IN RELATION TO MATRIMONIAL CONVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela FIERBINŢEANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The preciput clause is a subject of dispute since the new Civil Code entered into force.Several question arise in this field: is this clause a liberality or a donation, which matrimonial regime is compatible with the preciput clause, for what reason the legislature choose to regulate preciput as a clause and not as an agreement and the expressed doubts can be continued as regard to the new civil law.The authors of this article are not having in mind to put an end to all those debates they are just proposing an investigation of the preciput clause under two aspects:legal nature and aplicability as related to the matrimonial regimes – legal community, separation of assets and conventional community with accents on the normative evolution as a result of social and economic changes.

  17. 48 CFR 852.271-72 - Time spent by counselee in counseling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... counseling process. 852.271-72 Section 852.271-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Clauses 852.271-72 Time spent by counselee in counseling process. As prescribed in 871.212, insert the following clause: Time Spent by Counselee in Counseling Process (APR 1984) The contractor agrees that...

  18. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  19. Visual salience modulates structure choice in relative clause production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-06-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants' question-answering task can change as a function of visual salience of entities in the picture. Less salient entities require a longer visual search of the scene, which causes the speaker to notice or attend more to the non-target competitors in the picture. As a result, it becomes more important in answering the question for the speaker to contrast the target item with a salient competitor. This effect is different from other effects of visual salience, which tend to find that more salient entities take more prominent grammatical roles in the sentence. We interpret this discrepancy as evidence that visual salience does not have a single effect on sentence production, but rather its effect is modulated by task and linguistic context.

  20. Cause Clue Clauses: Error Localization using Maximum Satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Manu

    2010-01-01

    Much effort is spent everyday by programmers trying to reduce long, failing execution traces to the cause of the error. We present a new algorithm for error cause localization based on a reduction to the maximal satisfiability problem (MAX SAT), which asks what is the maximum number of clauses of a Boolean formula that can be satisfied by an assignment. At an intuitive level, our algorithm takes as input a program and a failing test, and comprises the following three steps. First, as in symbolic execution, we encode a trace of a program as a Boolean trace formula which is satisfiable iff the trace is feasible. Second, for a failing program execution (e.g., one that violates an assertion or a post condition), we construct an unsatisfiable formula by taking the trace formula and additionally asserting that the input is the failing test and that the post-condition holds. Third, using MAX-SAT, we find a maximal set of clauses in this formula that can be satisfied together, and output the complement set as a poten...

  1. 48 CFR 1832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 1832.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA... contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)). 1832.1110 Section 1832.1110 Federal... the clause at FAR 52.232-34, Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Other than Central...

  2. THE ROLE OF THE GRAMMAR ON PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOKS: A LOOK ON TEACHING OF RELATIVE CLAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliana Lopes CÂMARA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how the textbooks of Portuguese Language of Secondary School, approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático-2014, approach the teaching of grammar, in particular as regards the treatment of the relative subordinate clause. For this, first we start with the comparison between the proposals manuals for teaching grammar and what was accomplished in the student book. Furthermore, we propose here an interface between the results of the analysis of textbooks and functional description of the relative clause. In other words, we try to verify as some descriptive aspects can be used in the teaching of relative clause, with the aim of developing reading and writing skills. In order to do that, we take as theoretical framework the different conceptions of grammar proposed in Travaglia (2009, 2011 and Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008. This research points to the need to emphasize the cohesive role established by the relative pronoun that introduces the relative clause, to understand the non-restrictive relative clause from its argumentative function and to review the distinction between subtypes of adjective clause from the criteria of omission of the subordinate clause.

  3. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from......Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work...... abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components....

  4. Pharmacist conscience clauses and access to oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, D P

    2008-07-01

    The introduction of conscience clauses after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade allowed physicians and nurses to opt out of medical procedures, particularly abortions, to which they were morally opposed. In recent years pharmacists have requested the same consideration with regard to dispensing some medicines. This paper examines the pharmacists' role and their professional and moral obligations to patients in the light of recent refusals by pharmacists to dispense oral contraceptives. A review of John Rawls's concepts of the "original position" and the "veil of ignorance", along with consideration of the concept of compartmentalisation, are used to assess pharmacists' requests and the moral and legal rights of patients to have their prescriptive needs met.

  5. Role of toluene in hydrogen sulfide combustion under Claus condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Examined the role of toluene addition in hydrogen sulfide combustion. • Effect of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 5% of toluene in H2S gas stream was examined. • Toluene addition triggers production of H2 which provides oxidation competition to H2S. • Increased amount of toluene in H2S gas reduced SO2 and increased asymptotic value of H2S. • Toluene addition enhanced the formation of CO and COS. - Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of different amounts of toluene addition to H2S combustion in oxygen under Claus condition (Φ = 3) are presented. Three toluene concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% in H2S are presented and compared with the baseline case of 100% H2S oxygen combustion. Temperature data showed that addition of toluene to H2S gas stream increases the flame temperature because of large heating value associated with toluene. Addition of toluene resulted in the production of H2, which increased with increase in the amounts of toluene addition. Furthermore, increased addition of toluene concentration increased the asymptotic minimum value of hydrogen sulfide due to oxidation competition between the formed H2 and H2S. The results also showed that the presence of CO triggers the formation of COS with toluene addition due to reaction of CO with SO2. The results showed that SO2 mole fraction increased to a maximum value then decayed with distance along the reactor. Addition of toluene increased the rate of SO2 decay. These results have direct impact on sulfur capture in the Claus reactor and its performance

  6. The influence of context on word order processing - an fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Burholt; Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund;

    2013-01-01

    In languages that have subject-before-object as their canonical word order, e.g. German, English and Danish, behavioral experiments have shown more processing difficulties for object-initial clauses (OCs) than for subject-initial clauses (SCs). For processing of OCs in such languages, neuroimagin...

  7. Subject of Subordinate Clause as Object with Verbs of Perception, Thought, and Communication in Old Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Pichkhadze

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Old Russian construction involving verbs of perception, thought, and communication. In this construction, a single semantic argument corresponds to two syntactic constituents: a direct object and a finite subordinate clause, the subject of which is coreferential with the direct object of the main clause. The Old Russian construction is seen as an instantiation of a cross-linguistic option in the argument structure of these verbs (above all, of the perception verbs, that is, to take the subject of the subordinate clause as the direct object.

  8. 75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... 72 FR 69177 on December 7, 2007. This final rule revises and combines the two clauses into a single... include ``hush houses,'' test hangars and comparable structures, and other designated areas....

  9. 77 FR 66466 - General Services Administration Regulation; Information Collection; Packing List Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Regulation; Information Collection; Packing List Clause AGENCY... information collection documents from the General Services Administration, Regulatory Secretariat (MVCB),...

  10. Labor clauses in regional trade agreements and effects on labor conditions : an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    KAMATA Isao; 鎌田, 伊佐生

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of bilateral or plurilateral trade agreements (or regional trade agreements: RTAs) include "labor clauses" that require or urge the signatory countries to commit to maintaining a certain level of labor standards. This paper performs an empirical analysis of the impacts of such labor clauses provided in RTAs on working conditions that laborers in the RTA signatory countries actually face, using macro-level data for a wide variety of countries. The paper first examines the ...

  11. 12 CFR 591.5 - Limitation on exercise of due-on-sale clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation on exercise of due-on-sale clauses. 591.5 Section 591.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PREEMPTION OF STATE DUE-ON-SALE LAWS § 591.5 Limitation on exercise of due-on-sale clauses. (a) General. Except as provided in § 591.4 (c) and (d)(4)...

  12. Considerations concerning the criminal clause, expression of contractual principle and law abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Andreea Daghie

    2009-01-01

    The criminal clause is an accessory convention through which the parts evaluate in advance the prejudiceinterestswhich come from the inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligations. This convention named criminalclause is the expression of the contractual liberty principle and presents a singular practical utility but also someinconveniences. Thus the criminal clause allows avoiding the difficulties of judicial evaluation of prejudices-interests.In this way, the creditor is not obliged ...

  13. Supreme Court to hear ADA suit involving arbitration clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-20

    The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review a third case under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) this year. The Supreme Court previously agreed to hear [name removed] v. [Name removed], involving a dentist who refused to treat an HIV-positive patient in his office. The second case is Pennsylvania Department of Corrections v. [Name removed], in which the State asserts that the ADA does not apply to prisons. The third involves whether an arbitration clause in a labor union's collective bargaining agreement prevents a court from hearing a union member's discrimination claim. [Name removed] longshoreman [name removed] alleges that the [name removed] and several employers violated the ADA when they refused to help him for employment referral. [Name removed] previously settled a workers' compensation disability claim with [name removed] and Terminal Co., his employer. Three years later he applied for work at the International Longshoreman's Association hiring hall and was referred to four different employers. The employers discovered he had received a worker's compensation settlement and would no longer accept [name removed] for employment referral. The case is important because union members can continue to file ADA charges with the EEOC and the outcomes will vary depending on the circuit where the union member happens to file the claim. PMID:11365192

  14. Considerations concerning the criminal clause, expression of contractual principle and law abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Andreea Daghie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The criminal clause is an accessory convention through which the parts evaluate in advance the prejudiceinterestswhich come from the inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligations. This convention named criminalclause is the expression of the contractual liberty principle and presents a singular practical utility but also someinconveniences. Thus the criminal clause allows avoiding the difficulties of judicial evaluation of prejudices-interests.In this way, the creditor is not obliged to evidence the existence and the size of the prejudice, in order to obtain thepayment of the amount of money or carrying out other patrimonial value established in the criminal clause beingsufficient the proof of non inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligation. The criminal clause has also a strongcomminatory purpose, exercising a pressure on the debtor to make all possible to execute precisely the contractualobligation. Due to these reasons it is seen in doctrine by some of the authors as one of the main guarantees in our law.Also in the doctrine however, it is shown that the debtor can be constrained in some situations to accept establishing avery high amount in the criminal clause, sometimes with inequitable consequences, with damaging effect for thedebtor.

  15. Development and industrial application of catalyzer for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis of Claus tail gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of more strict national environmental protection laws, energy conservation, emission reduction and clean production will present higher requirements for sulfur recovery tail gas processing techniques and catalyzers. As for Claus tail gas, conventional hydrogenation catalyzers are gradually being replaced by low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers. This paper concentrates on the development of technologies for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis catalyzers, preparation of such catalyzers and their industrial application. In view of the specific features of SO2 hydrogenation and organic sulfur hydrolysis during low-temperature hydrogenation, a new technical process involving joint application of hydrogenation catalyzers and hydrolysis catalyzers was proposed. In addition, low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers and low-temperature hydrolysis catalyzers suitable for low-temperature conditions were developed. Joint application of these two kinds of catalyzers may reduce the inlet temperatures in the conventional hydrogenation reactors from 280 °C to 220 °C, at the same time, hydrogenation conversion rates of SO2 can be enhanced to over 99%. To further accelerate the hydrolysis rate of organic sulfur, the catalyzers for hydrolysis of low-temperature organic sulfur were developed. In lab tests, the volume ratio of the total sulfur content in tail gas can be as low as 131 × 10−6 when these two kinds of catalyzers were used in a proportion of 5:5 in volumes. Industrial application of these catalyzers was implemented in 17 sulfur recovery tail gas processing facilities of 15 companies. As a result, Sinopec Jinling Petrochemical Company had outstanding application performances with a tail gas discharging rate lower than 77.9 mg/m3 and a total sulfur recovery of 99.97%.

  16. A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing%A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边宛

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to find out the role of LI transfer on the problems of attributive clauses. By the application of Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis, the study shows, Chinese belongs to the left-branching language, while English is the right- branching one in terms of the structure of attributive clauses.

  17. THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elena BELU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract based on objective criteria, not imputable to the party that no longer can properly fulfil the obligations that had been undertaken when the contract had been made. However, this solution only is provided after all means of negotiation and mediation between parties are exhausted. The clause meets current market requirements, under which many companies have to deal with bad paying partners.

  18. Perisylvian functional connectivity during processing of sentential negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg eBahlmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Every language has the means to reverse the truth value of a sentence by using specific linguistic markers of negation. In the present study we investigated the neural processing costs afforded by the construction of meaning in German sentences containing negation in different clause types. We studied negations within and across clause boundaries as well as single and double negations. Participants read German sentences comprising of affirmations, single negations in the main or in the subordinate clause, or double negations. As a result, we found a network including the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars triangularis, BA 45, and the left inferior parietal gyrus (BA 40 to be activated whenever negations in the main clause had to be processed. Additionally, we found increased functional coupling between the left pars triangularis (BA 45, left pars opercularis (BA 44, left SMA (BA 6, and left superior temporal gyrus (BA 42 during the processing of main clause negations. The study shows that in order to process negations that require semantic integration across clause boundaries left BA 45 interplays with other areas that have been related to language processing and/or the processing of cognitive demands and logical/conditional reasoning. Thus, the results indicate that the left perisylvian language network synchronizes in order to resolve negations, in particular, whenever requirements on meaning integration are enhanced.

  19. Infinitival before and after-clauses in European Portuguese: temporal and aspectual properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Silvano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to discuss temporal and aspectual features of sentences with clauses introduced by the connectives antes de + Infinitivo (‘before’ + Infinitive and depois de + Infinitivo (‘after’ + Infinitive combined with situations in the Pretérito Perfeito in European Portuguese. Our discussion is based on the widespread view that these clauses are locating adverbials (cf. Kamp and Reyle (1993 with temporal information of anteriority, in the case of antes de, and posteriority, in the case of depois de. However, this analysis is not as straightforward as one would expect, because, while before-clauses consistently render the same temporal relation (of anteriority, after-clauses may convey a temporal relation of inclusion, in addition to the standard posteriority relation. We put forward the hypothesis that aspectual characteristics play an important role in these differences, insofar as allowing a temporal reading that at first sight is not predicted from the semantic nature of the connective. In order to maintain a uniform treatment of before and after-clauses with respect to their temporal features, accounting simultaneously for the differences that emerge in their linguistic behaviour, we claim, along with Beaver & Condoravdi (2003 and Condoravdi (2010, that the locating time interval provided by these clauses is bounded to the left, but not to the right, that is, what is focused is the initial frontier of the situation that provides the time interval, leaving the final one undetermined. Furthermore, we show that, although the temporal mechanisms are parallel, the interference of aspectual properties leads to interesting differences in the final interpretation of before and after-sentences.

  20. 46 CFR 308.536 - Declaration where failure to comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inadvertent, Form MA-314. 308.536 Section 308.536 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Insurance § 308.536 Declaration where failure to comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314. An... sufficient to meet the requirements of Clause 21 of the Policy shall file this Declaration, Form...

  1. 8 CFR 204.7 - Preservation of benefits contained in savings clause of Immigration and Nationality Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... savings clause of Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1976. 204.7 Section 204.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.7 Preservation of benefits contained in savings clause of Immigration and Nationality...

  2. 14 CFR 91.23 - Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.23 Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional... January 2, 1973, shall execute a written lease or contract and include therein a written...

  3. Development of Word Order in German Complement-Clause Constructions: Effects of Input Frequencies, Lexical Items, and Discourse Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Silke; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of word order in German children's spontaneous production of complement clauses. From soon after their second birthday, young German children use both verb final complements with complementizers and verb-second complements without complementizers. By their third birthday they use both kinds of complement clauses with…

  4. Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article...... turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question....

  5. Generation Y and their awareness of the Santa Claus Village in Rovaniemi

    OpenAIRE

    Saarinen, Hanna; Nordström, Tiia

    2015-01-01

    The Santa Claus Village is one of the biggest tourism attractions in Northern Finland, and the city of Rovaniemi has been titled as the “Official Hometown of Santa Claus”. This thesis studies the level of knowledge of the Santa Claus Village and the affect the village has on the incoming tourism in the Rovaniemi. More specifically the focus is on the perceptions of different nationalities and generation Y, as in young adults with no children. The thesis was commissioned by Rovaniemi Touri...

  6. 中医学英语定语从句的状语化译法探讨%Study on the Shifted Translation of English Attributive Clause into Adverbial for Medical (TCM) English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡倩华; 丁年青

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨中医学英语定语从句的状语化译法.方法:主要结合具体例句分析其语法现象,从而探讨医学英语定语从句翻译的技巧之一——转译法,即译成状语从句,并指出其翻译技巧的指导意义.结果:在英语译成汉语的过程中,应该首先判断主句、从句语义上的逻辑关系,翻译时摆脱英语表达形式的束缚,按照汉语的行文习惯,将定语从句转译成状语从句形式的翻译.结论:定语从句在医学英语中广泛应用,正确理解及翻译定语从句对于学习中医学英语非常重要.%Objective; To study the shifted translation of attributive clause into adverbial for medical (TCM) English. Methods .-This paper analyzed the grammatical phenomena in specific sentences and discussed one of the translation skills of the attributive clause in medical ( TCM) English -- shifted translation, which referred to the translation into adverbial. It also gave instructive significance of this trans-lation skill. Results;In the process of E-C Translation,the semantic logic between the main sentence and the clause should be judged. The translation should get rid of the shackles of the English expression forms,the attributive clause should be translated into the form of adverbial clause in accordance with the language habits of the Chinese. Conclusion: The attributive clause is widely used in medical English, so the correct understanding and translation of attributive clause is very important to study medical (TCM) English.

  7. Discussion on Stable Operation Factors in Claus Sulfur Recovery%克劳斯硫回收稳定运行因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the national economy, our coal chemical industry has been rapid developed. Meanwhile, in order to make emissions meet the national environmental protection requirements, sulfur recovery process also continues to develop and progress. At present, the main technology is the claus process sulfur recovery. This method is usually used to treat the acid gas containing 15% ~17% hydrogen sulfide. By analyzing Claus sulfur recovery works and process, process control was discussed to improve the sulfur recovery rate and reduce SO2 emissions.%随着我国国民经济的快速增长,我国的煤化工领域也得到了高速发展。同时为了使尾气排放达到国家环保要求,硫回收工艺也在不断的发展进步。目前国内硫回收的主要技术是克劳斯法,此法通常处理含硫化氢为15%~100%的酸性气。本文通过克劳斯硫回收的工作原理、工艺流程,探讨了如何通过工艺控制,进而达到提高硫磺回收率、降低SO2排放的目的。

  8. Acceptability and processing of long-distance dependencies in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Long-distance dependencies have been the object of much theoretical interest in the Scandinavian languages and in general, but the empirical foundation for theorizing has been limited. The present paper investigates extraction from complement and adverbial clauses in Danish using acceptability...... acceptable. It is concluded that under the conditions investigated extraction from adverbial clauses in Danish is associated with a processing cost and very low acceptability ratings, despite semantic cohesion....

  9. The acoustic characteristics of clause, sentence and paragraph boundaries in Chinese Putonghua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bei; YANG Yufang; L(U) Shinan

    2006-01-01

    The acoustic and perceptive characteristics of discourse units, including clauses,simple sentences, compound sentences and paragraphs, were studied. The acoustic characteristics were based on the analysis of a speech corpus consisted of ten monologues. The Perceived Boundary Strength (PBS) of the monologues was labeled on a five-point scale by 25 participants. The main results are as follows: (1) There is a significant difference in the PBS of clauses (corresponding to intonational phrase), sentences (including simple sentences and compound sentences) and paragraphs. But the PBS of simple sentences and compound sentences is the same, and the pitch reset and pause are also not significantly different between these two kinds of boundaries. (2) The pitch-based cue used to distinguish clauses, sentences and paragraphs appears to be the difference between pre- and post-boundary syllables, but not simply the pitch value of either syllable alone. (3) Declination mainly occurs within intonational phrases,whereas there is no consistent global declination in sentences or in paragraphs. (4) Pauses are longer and more varied at the boundary of larger discourse units. Moreover, there is a significant positive correlation between pause duration and degree of pitch reset at clause boundaries,but not at sentence or paragraph boundaries.

  10. 48 CFR 970.2703-1 - Purposes of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... not have advance class waiver under 10 CFR part 784, the patent rights clause at 970.5227-11 is... 10 CFR part 784. Under such contracts, the M&O contractor assumes responsibilities for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purposes of patent...

  11. A constraint-based bottom-up counterpart to definite clause grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A new grammar formalism, CHR Grammars (CHRG), is proposed that provides a constraint-solving approach to language analysis, built on top of the programming language of Constraint Handling Rules in the same way as Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) on Prolog. CHRG works bottom-up and adds the following...

  12. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  13. 37 CFR 401.3 - Use of the standard clauses at § 401.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... clauses at § 401.14. (a) Each funding agreement awarded to a small business firm or nonprofit organization... have a place of business located in the United States or is subject to the control of a foreign... agreements with nonprofit organizations or small business firms shall accumulate and, at the request of...

  14. 48 CFR 728.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 728.313 Section 728.313 Federal Acquisition...) USAID is required by law to include language in all its direct contracts and subcontracts ensuring...

  15. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  16. An Inplementation of Pure Horn Clause Logic Programming in a Reduction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许满武

    1993-01-01

    Many reduction systems have been presented for implementing functional programming languages.We propose here an extension of a reduction architecture to realize a kind of logic programming-pure Horn clause logic programming.This is an attempt to approach amalgamation of the two important programming paradigms.

  17. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-07-22

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  18. Clause, Sentence, and Discourse Patterns in Selected Languages of Nepal: Part I, General Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Austin

    This volume, the first in a series of four on the languages of Nepal, contains the following papers: "Toward the Systematization of Display Grammar,""Clause Patterns in Kham,""Tentative Systemic Organization of Nepali Sentences,""Maithili Sentences,""Notation for Simultaneous Representation of Grammatical and Sememic Components in Connected…

  19. Interpreting conjoined noun phrases and conjoined clauses: collective versus distributive preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that show that introducing event participants in a conjoined noun phrase (NP) favours a single event (collective) interpretation, while introducing them in separate clauses favours a separate events (distributive) interpretation. In Experiment 1, acceptability judgements were speeded when the bias of a predicate toward separate events versus a single event matched the presumed bias of how the subjects' referents were introduced (as conjoined noun phrases or in conjoined clauses). In Experiment 2, reading of a phrase containing an anaphor following conjoined noun phrases was facilitated when the anaphor was they, relative to when it was neither/each of them; the opposite pattern was found when the anaphor followed conjoined clauses. We argue that comprehension was facilitated when the form of an anaphor was appropriate for how its antecedents were introduced. These results address the very general problem of how we individuate entities and events when presented with a complex situation and show that different linguistic forms can guide how we construe a situation. The results also indicate that there is no general penalty for introducing the entities or events separately-in distinct clauses as "split" antecedents. PMID:22512324

  20. 48 CFR 970.2703-2 - Patent rights clause provisions for management and operating contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dedicated to naval nuclear propulsion or weapons related programs. That clause provides for DOE's statutory...-exempted areas of technology or in operation of DOE facilities primarily dedicated to naval nuclear propulsion or weapons related programs. (b) Allocation of Principal Rights: Government title. (1) The...

  1. Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

  2. Lichomolgus longicauda (Claus, 1860), Copepod parasite of Sepia, in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, J.H.

    1956-01-01

    Lichomolgus longicauda (CLAUS, 1860), is recorded from the gills of Sepia officinalis, captured on 5 different occasions in the North Sea and the Dutch Waddensea. This means a northward extension of the range of this species of more than 8 degrees of latitude. Figures of the parasite have been provi

  3. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences...

  4. A Discourse Explanation of the Grammar of Relative Clauses in English Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Barbara A.; Thompson, Sandra A.

    1990-01-01

    In communicating, conversationalists constantly make decisions about their interlocutors' state of knowledge and on the basis of these decisions make lexical, grammatical, and intonational choices about how to manage the "flow" of information. This paper focuses on how such decision making affects choices in relative clause constructions in…

  5. 29 CFR 2580.412-19 - Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-19 Term of the bond, discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses... new bond must be obtained each year. There is nothing in the Act that prohibits a bond for a...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 226 - Open-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... problem with the quality of property or services that you purchased with a credit card, and you have tried... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open-End Model Forms and Clauses G Appendix G to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  7. 48 CFR 719.273-11 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause. 719.273-11 Section 719.273-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The U.S. Agency for...

  8. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  9. The Origination Clause, the Affordable Care Act, and Indirect Constitutional Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, Tessa L

    2015-01-01

    "All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills." U.S. Const. art. I, § 7, cl. 1 (Origination Clause). "As we have often noted, '[c]onstitutional rights would be of little value if they could be . . . indirectly denied.'" United States Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton, 514 U.S. 779, 829 (1995) The Supreme Court's opinion in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, upholding the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) as a permissible exercise of Congress's taxing power rekindled an old question about the constitutionality of the Act: Was the Act unconstitutional under the Origination Clause? The bill that became the ACA, H.R. 3590, originated in the House as the Service Members Home Ownership Tax Act of 2009. It was gutted by the Senate and replaced with the ACA before being passed and sent back to the House for final passage. The Supreme Court has heard very few cases on the Origination Clause, and Origination Clause challenges have met with little success. Most of these cases have developed over the questions of whether the bill is actually a revenue-raising bill that is constitutionally required to be originate in the House, and, if so, whether the Senate amendments were appropriate. But United States Term Limits v. Thornton provides another angle under which to examine the constitutionality of the ACA: an indirect violation of a constitutional prohibition. In this Article, I will provide an overview of the ACA's passage and analyze it through the lenses of traditional Origination Clause arguments and the Term Limits approach.

  10. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  11. 48 CFR 1352.237-70 - Security processing requirements-high or moderate risk contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in 48 CFR 1337.110-70 (b), insert the following clause: Security Processing Requirements—High or...—Moderate Background Investigation (MBI). (2) Investigative requirements for IT Service Contracts are:...

  12. Trap of a Ceteris Paribus Clause in Inductive Argument : An Essay on Theory of Confirmation (No.1)

    OpenAIRE

    ハラダ, アキノブ; Akinobu, Harada

    1999-01-01

    Modern inductive sciences, e.g., mathematical theory of probability, statistics and economics, are now in the face of a lack of reality. This paper argues the logical problem on a variety of petitio principii arisen from a ceteris paribus clause available to usual inference. The problem concretely is that on the validity of a ceteris paribus clause to confirmation of hypothesis from the point of view of epistemology, not from that of mathematics. First, we tentatively define conditional proba...

  13. Whatever happened to the Norwegian Medical Need Clause? Lessons for current debates in EU pharmaceutical regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Until 1994, pharmaceutical products seeking market authorisation in Norway were required to demonstrate a fulfilment of unmet medical need. This clause enabled the national regulator to dramatically limit the number of products on the market whilst encouraging price competition to keep drug expenditure low and was credited with encouraging the development of drugs with genuine added therapeutic value and reducing the incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Norway was forced to abandon its Medical Need Clause (MNC) when it joined the European Economic Area as it was incompatible with the acquis communautaire of the European Union. This article reviews Norway's experience with its MNC in light of contemporary debates in European health policy. It discusses the potential contribution of an MNC-style regulation to improving health, reducing illness, ensuring sustainable health systems and fostering pharmaceutical innovation. It concludes by asking how these findings can inform current European Union debates over the growing cost of prescription drugs and direction of pharmaceutical development. PMID:26564268

  14. 英语定语从句的翻译%Translation of English Attributive Clause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亚卓

    2015-01-01

    Attributive clause doesn’t exist in Chinese, but is widely used in English. It is also one of the major obstacles to translators in translation. The structures of the English attributive clauses are simple or complex, translators need to take the appropriate translation skills to translate them flexibly.%定语从句是汉语中没有而英语中却广泛使用的语言现象,也是译者翻译中的重大障碍之一。英语定语从句的结构有简有繁,翻译时需要采取恰当的翻译技巧来灵活处理。

  15. Justifying a revised voting rights act: The Guarantee Clause and the problem of minority rule

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, GJ

    2014-01-01

    In Shelby County v. Holder, the Supreme Court invalidated Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which required certain jurisdictions with histories of discrimination to "preclear" changes to their voting practices under Section 5 before those changes could become effective. This Article proposes that Congress ground its responsive voting rights legislation in the Constitution's Guarantee Clause, in addition to the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. The Court has made clear that the Gu...

  16. [The physician's conscience, conscience clauses, and religious belief: A Catholic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    2014-01-01

    This Essay explores how physicians may handle conflicts or conscience facing Roman Catholic Health practitioners regarding "human life" issues, especially through conscience clauses. In five parts, the author examines "first, why conscientious objection is so important in our day; second, the moral grounding for freedom in the exercise of conscience; third, the components of the physician's conscience; fourth, specific conflicts of conscience for Catholic physicians and institutions; and fifth, competing models of conflict resolution".

  17. On food security stocks, peace clauses, and permanent solutions after Bali:

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses potential solutions to the current impasse related to food security stocks, including a concrete proposal by the author on language to be included in the Agreement on Agriculture that may help comply with the mandate of the Bali Ministerial to find a solution in the next four years. The paper begins with an explanation of the background to the debate of the links between food security and WTO agricultural and trade negotiations and the interim solution (the peace clause) ...

  18. 从顺应论看英文定语从句的汉译%On Translation of Attributive Clause from the Perspective of Adaptation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小芳

    2015-01-01

    According to the Adaptation theory, the language use is always accompanied by the selecting and adap-ting effort of the participants.As a matter of fact, a translator also needs to make choices and adaptations in the course of translation in his translating process.When the translation of attributive clause into Chinese is concerned, the translator is supposed to achieve the faithfulness to the source language and the smoothness in the target lan-guage, which requires the adaptation to the Chinese language.This paper probes into the translation of attributive clause from the approach of the adaptation theory.%顺应论认为语言的使用过程始终伴随着交际双方的选择和适应。从本质上来说,翻译的过程也是译者不断进行选择和适应的过程。就定语从句的汉译而言,译者既要忠实于原文,同时要确保译文通顺,这就意味着要顺应汉语的语言习惯和要求。本文拟从顺应论的角度诠释英语定语从句汉译的不同处理手法。

  19. Development and reactivity tests of Ce-Zr-based Claus catalysts for coal gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No-Kuk Park; Dong Cheul Han; Gi Bo Han; Si Ok Ryu; Tae Jin Lee; Ki Jun Yoon [Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk (Republic of Korea). National Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2007-09-15

    Claus reaction (2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} 3/nS{sub n} + 2H{sub 2}O) was used to clean the gasified coal gas and the reactivity of several metal oxide-based catalysts on Claus reaction was investigated at various operating conditions. In order to convert H{sub 2}S contained in the gasified coal gas to elemental sulfur during Claus reaction, the catalysts having the high activity under the highly reducing condition with the moisture should be developed. CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Ce{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} catalysts were prepared for Claus reaction and their reactivity changes due to the existence of the reducing gases and H{sub 2}O in the fuel gas was investigated in this study. The Ce-based catalysts shows that their activity was deteriorated by the reduction of the catalyst due to the reducing gases at higher than 220{sup o}C. Meanwhile, the effect of the reducing gases on the catalytic activity was not considerable at low temperature. The activities of all three catalysts were degraded on the condition that the moisture existed in the test gas. Specifically, the Ce-based catalysts were remarkably deactivated by their sulfation. The Ce-Zr-based catalyst had a high catalytic activity when the reducing gases and the moisture co-existed in the simulated fuel gas. The deactivation of the Ce-Zr-based catalyst was not observed in this study. The lattice oxygen of the Ce-based catalyst was used for the oxidation of H{sub 2}S and the lattice oxygen vacancy on the catalyst was contributed to the reduction of SO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2} added to the Ce-Zr-based catalyst improved the redox properties of the catalyst in Claus reaction by increasing the mobility of the lattice oxygen of CeO{sub 2}. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  20. The effectiveness of take-or-pay clauses under the Brazilian courts; A eficacia das clausulas de 'take-or-pay' nos tribunais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno A.; Travassos, Cristiano H. [Tess Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The international energy industry, where the sale of their commodities (oil, natural gas, biofuels and its derivatives), typically uses in its long-term contracts clauses take-or-pay. However, questioning about the Brazilian judicial effectiveness of such clauses appears each day. This paper aims to establish a rationale clause of take-or-pay; have terms and typical conditions of one clause of take-or-pay; discuss the existing national law on the subject; list the main questions arising from the applicability of the terms of take-or-pay, and the potential solutions to the current scenario.

  1. Die dramatiese discours in Pas de deux van Hugo Claus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vaughan

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Drama is action, verbal drama is speech action, and the dramatic text is subject to a similar set of rules as that governing the extra-literary communication situation. Dramatic irony, the very essence of drama itself, is generated by a dual, mutually interactive process of communication, whereby the audience is “written into” the text in a way distinguishing it from other literary genres, and by a systematic flouting of the rules governing communication. Pas de deux demonstrates the peculiar duality of dramatic discourse by its complex exploitation of the breakdown/non-breakdown of Grice’s Co-operative Principle-. communication/non-communication becomes reversible and, therefore, mutually constitutive concepts “releasing meaning” and conveying the “ideology” of this play.

  2. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  3. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  4. FAITH-BASED ARBITRATION CLAUSES AS A GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE TO DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Albert D. Spalding

    2014-01-01

    DynCorp International, LLC, a U.S. company, and Aramco, a Saudi-owned corporation, entered into a contract for a computer system which was to be manufactured in the U.S. and installed at Aramco’s facilities in Saudi Arabia. The contract contained a choice of law provision requiring the application of Saudi Arabian law even though the contract was entered into and significantly performed in the United States. The contract also contained an arbitration clause, requiring that any disputes be r...

  5. Claus工艺硫磺回收装置优化改造%Optimization for operation of Claus sulfur recovery unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀军; 王高兴

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modification for sulfur recovery unit to reduce energy consumption with the help of CRC two-stage Claus process designed by Jiangsu Chengyi. The improvement of liquid sulfur sealing and replacement of abundant industry wind from blower have received good results in operation.%结合江苏晟宜设计CRC两段法超优Claus回收工艺对二期硫回收装置运行中出现问题进行改造优化,以达到节能降耗目的;特别利用管网富余工业风代替鼓风机及液硫封设计缺陷的改造,取得了很好运行效果.

  6. Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Steen

    2003-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)......Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)...

  7. Linguistic change: the grammatical environment of participial non-finite clauses in Old English and in present-day English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper reports on the final results 1 of the author's study of the use of participial nonfinite clauses and dependent clauses in Old English (OE and in present-day English (PE, in relation to the nature of their respective grammatical environment. It ensues from the research into the early stages of syntactic change, which started as team work at the universities of Ljubljana and Maribor in 1986, under the guidance and coordination of Janez Orešnik.

  8. The Noncompete Clause and the Nurse Anesthetist: An Assessment of Knowledge, Perception, and Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseroll, Briana K; Apatov, Nathaniel M; Rutledge, Carolyn M

    2015-10-01

    Economic pressures and the challenge to maintain competitive advantage have resulted in many healthcare entities requiring their practitioners to contractually enter into noncompete clauses (NCCs). Many student registered nurse anesthetists (SRNAs) and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) are unaware of NCCs in employee contracts. An anonymous, web-based questionnaire regarding NCCs was distributed to SRNAs and CRNAs nationwide. Of 242 practicing CRNAs who responded, 147 (60.7%) were employed without a noncompete clause and 22 (9.1%) were unaware whether they had such a provision in their employment contracts. The knowledge level of the nurse anesthetist respondents was low (average score of 55.3%). There was a significant difference in knowledge level between independently practicing CRNAs and group-practice CRNAs (P = .007) as well as practicing CRNAs vs SRNAs (n = 8, P = .006). Independent CRNAs had more experience with declining positions, changing positions, and loss of employment due to NCCs. More CRNAs believed the NCC is not applicable to practice, and no evidence existed to show a relationship between geographic location and having an NCC. Business-minded CRNAs with a practical knowledge of keyterms, concepts, and legal implications of NCCs are in a better position to bargain and negotiate against objectionable provisions. PMID:26638454

  9. Lazy Clause Generation: Combining the Power of SAT and CP (and MIP?) Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Peter J.

    Finite domain propagation solving, the basis of constraint programming (CP) solvers, allows building very high-level models of problems, and using highly specific inference encapsulated in complex global constraints, as well as programming the search for solutions to take into account problem structure. Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solving allows the construction of a graph of inferences made in order to determine and record effective nogoods which prevent the searching of similar parts of the problem, as well as the determination of those variables which form a tightly connected hard part of the problem, thus allowing highly effective automatic search strategies concentrating on these hard parts. Lazy clause generation is a hybrid of CP and SAT solving that combines the strengths of the two approaches. It provides state-of-the-art solutions for a number of hard combinatorial optimization and satisfaction problems. In this invited talk we explain lazy clause generation, and explore some of the many design choices in building such a hybrid system, we also discuss how to further incorporate mixed integer programming (MIP) solving to see if we can also inherit its advantages in combinatorial optimization.

  10. Portuguese spoken in Almoxarife, Sao Tome: relative clauses with “ku” and “com” [with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.

  11. 48 CFR 1827.404 - Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) 1827.404 Section 1827.404 Federal... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 1827.404 Basic rights in data clause. (NASA...) NASA's intent is to ensure the most expeditious dissemination of computer software developed by it...

  12. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Bohnacker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are more common than others in clause-initial position, and their frequencies in Swedish differ substantially from German (subjects, fronted objects, certain adverbs. Nonnative cross-sectional production data from Swedish learners of German at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels are compared with native control data, matched for age and genre (Bohnacker 2005, 2006, Rosén 2006. The learners’ V2 syntax is largely targetlike, but their beginnings of sentences are unidiomatic. They have problems with the language-specific linguistic means that have an impact on information structure: They overapply the Swedish principle of “rheme later” in their L2 German, indicating L1 transfer at the interface of syntax and discourse pragmatics, especially for structures that are frequent in the L1 (subject-initial and expletive-initial clauses, and constructions with så (‘so’ and object det (‘it/that’.

  13. Where Theory and Law Meet: Trends in Establishment Clause Jurisprudence in the US Federal Courts and Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lance E.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, federal court opinions and writings of legal scholars, spanning 63 years of establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts were analysed in an effort to determine dominant trends in judicial philosophy that are of significance to science educators. The study's findings suggest that the dominant legal theory…

  14. 48 CFR 927.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (DOE coverage-paragraphs (a), (h), (s), and (t))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research contract (See paragraph (l) of FAR 27.409); (vi) For management and operation... administration of this contract, such as financial, administrative, cost and pricing, or management information. (4) Form, fit, and function data, as used in this clause, means data relating to items,...

  15. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  16. Switch-attention (aka switch-reference in South-American temporal clauses: facilitating oral transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik van Gijn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultures without a written tradition depend entirely on the oral channel to transmit sometimes highly complex information. It is therefore not surprising that in the languages of such cultures linguistic devices evolve that enhance textual coherence, and thus comprehension. These devices should ideally also be economical in terms of morphosyntactic complexity in order to facilitate both production and comprehension. In this paper, I will argue that switch-attention (a term preferred over the traditional switch-reference systems in temporal clauses fulfill these requirements of cohesion and complexity reduction, making them particularly apt for orally transmitting texts. Moreover, switch-reference systems seem to diffuse relatively easily. These features taken together are suggested to be (partly responsible for the widely attested phenomenon in areas without a lengthy written tradition.

  17. Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Kuyper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

  18. Can a medical need clause help manage the growing costs of prescription drugs in the EU?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Innovation in the development of new drugs has to balance the needs of health actors and administrators, the pharmaceutical industry and patients. Differing perspectives on what constitutes an innovation, where research and development should be directed and how new drugs should be evaluated and priced cause ongoing tensions within the regulatory framework. In the current climate, where Europe's health systems face rising demand for health services and increasingly restricted resources, the efficiency of pharmaceutical regulation and drug development is under even greater scrutiny. How can regulation foster innovation and industry growth while also serving the public health needs of society, and what is the EU's role in pursuing this objective? Drawing on a provision which formerly existed in Norwegian pharmaceutical legislation, this article explores the potential of a medical need clause (MNC) in addressing these issues. In restricting market authorisations to those drugs that offer an added therapeutic value, might a MNC foster innovation and spending efficiency in Europe's health systems? PMID:26333920

  19. 48 CFR 48.103 - Processing value engineering change proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... engineering change proposals. 48.103 Section 48.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.103 Processing value engineering... Government are included in paragraphs (c) and (d) of the value engineering clauses prescribed in subpart...

  20. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An Assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  1. The evaluation of so-called take-or-pay clauses with respect to the civil law; Die zivilrechtliche Beurteilung sog. ToP-Klauseln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Knut Werner [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, deutsches and europaeisches Handels- und Wirtschaftsrecht

    2012-10-15

    In the general transits of goods take-or-pay clauses between companies (business-to-business) are not common. Depending on the arrangement of these take-or-pay clauses in an actual single case, the purchaser is obliged to pay the price for a fixed quantity independently from receiving the goods. The evaluation of take-or-pay-clauses with respect to the civil law has not been considered intensively up to now. This includes their legal classification, their efficiency regarding to the civil law and their reliability as a part of the general terms and conditions of the supplier. A judicature of the supreme courts on this topic is missing. Only a few partly contradictory literature contributions are available. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on an evaluation of so-called take-or-pay clauses with respect to the civil law.

  2. Take-or-Pay clauses in the natural gas industry. An economic-legal analysis; Take-or-Pay-Klauseln in der Gaswirtschaft. Eine oekonomisch-juristische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    The author of the book under consideration reports on the take-or-pay clauses (ToP clauses) in the gas industry. First of all, the author describes the gas industry. Natural gas is introduced as an energy supplier. The various players in the gas industry are designated. The development of the liberalization of the gas market is described. The focus is on long-term gas supply contracts. Then, the ToP clause in the gas industry is reviewed for their compatibility with the competition law. In this connection, the delimitation of the market is a focus of this review. Furthermore, the ToP clause also is reviewed by means of the contract law.

  3. Admissibility of take-or-pay clauses in gas and electricity supply contracts; Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln im Rahmen von Gas- und Stromliefervertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronemeyer, Achim [Clifford Chance, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Electricity and gas supply contracts often contain so-called take-or-pay (ToP) clauses. Such clauses compel the customer to assume an unconditional payment obligation for the contractually agreed minimum quantity, regardless of actual consumption. The quantity risk thus lies with the consumer. ToP clauses can in particular give rise to questions relating to the content review of electricity and gas supply contracts pursuant to the regulations governing general terms and conditions as laid down in paragraph paragraph 305 ff. of the German Civil Code. As regards cartel law the Federal Cartel Office has recently brought about an administrative ruling on the problems associated with ToP clauses in terms of cartel law.

  4. Does the Incoterms 2010 FOB and DDP guarantee the rights for the buyer in case of violation the delivery clause in the contract?

    OpenAIRE

    Jankauskas, Vilius

    2014-01-01

    ICC – International Chamber of commerce in 1936 first time introduced Incoterms clause. The Incoterms in the most simply way that may be defined as delivery terms. It represents seller’s and buyer’s (manufacturer and customer) relationship in the sales of good contract regarding the goods delivery clause. There were more than one revision of Incoterms until the latest 2010 versions has been released. Incoterms 2010 separated delivery terms into two different transportation ways – sea and inla...

  5. Variation and Change in the Grammatical Marking of Stance: The Case of That-Complement Clauses in Research Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarolta Godnič Vičič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the genre of research articles has been extensively studied across different disciplines and languages; however, diachronic change and intradisciplinary variation in this academic genre have received less attention. Therefore this paper aims to shed light on change and variation in research articles within a multidisciplinary field of research by focusing on the use of that-complement clause constructions which are known to mark stance. The corpus-based study uses tourism studies as an example, and covers the time span from 1995 to 2010. Diachronic change in the use of that-complement clause constructions was found in instances when they are marked by a verb as well as in the kinds of stance meanings conveyed. Significant intradisciplinary variation was also found across the journals.

  6. Th e Similarities and Difefr ences betwen the Attributive Clauses inR ussian and English%俄英定语从句差异之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑杰

    2014-01-01

    The attributive clause is one of the main points in Russian teaching ,and it is also one of the difficult points in Russian grammar .This article compares Russian attributive clause with English attributive clause in three aspects .It can help students , who have learnt English , to find the differences and similarities between Russian attributive clause and English attributive clause .If students can master Russian attributive clause well , they can increase their interests to learn Russian .At the same time ,teachers can do successful reforms in Rus-sian teaching .%定语从句是俄语教学中的一个重点,也是俄语语法中的一个难点,本文从三个方面对俄英定语从句进行了对比,旨在使学生在已有的英语基础上寻找俄英定语从句的差同,从而较好地掌握俄语定语从句,增强学生学习俄语的兴趣,更好地深化俄语教学改革。

  7. The Acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg Order in Embedded Clauses in Swedish: A Microparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of embedded verb placement in Swedish children, focusing on Neg-V and V-Neg order. It is proposed that a principle of economy of movement creates an overuse of V-Neg order in embedded clauses and that the low frequency of the target-consistent Neg-V order in child-directed speech obstructs children from…

  8. Massenloyalität und Wohlfahrtsstaat : Anmerkungen zu Claus Offes Thesen zur Funktion des Wohlfahrtsstaates im Spätkapitalismus

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, Carsten G.

    2004-01-01

    "Die Frage der Massenloyalität ist eines der zentralen Themen in Claus Offes Aufsatzsammlung 'Contradictions of the Welfare State' (1984). Als Massenloyalität bezeichnet Offe dabei die 'Fähigkeit des administrativen Systems (...) zu bewirken, dass die Strukturen und Prozesse dieses Systems sowie die faktischen policy outcomes in ihrer sozialen Inzidenz faktisch akzeptiert werden' (1973: 219 [1984: 60]). Mit dieser Definition setzt Offe sich deutlich von naiven Legitimitätskonzepten ab. Zum ei...

  9. Topics, Presuppositions, and Theticity: An Empirical Study of Verb-Subject Clauses in Albanian, Greek, and Serbo-Croat

    OpenAIRE

    Matic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Verb-Subject order is often claimed to be the surface expression of thetic utterances, which are supposed to be ontologically different from the classical Aristotelian categoric type: thetic utterances are not divided in two parts (subject and predicate, topic and comment), but represent the information they convey as a cognitive whole. The purpose of the present study is to offer a detailed description of the clauses with this word order in Albanian, Greek, and Serbo-Croat, in which the verb...

  10. Proportionality And The Limitation Clauses Of The South African Bill Of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM (Ig Rautenbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign systems, namely whether the limitation pursues a legitimate aim, whether the limitation is capable of achieving this aim, whether the act impairs the right as little as possible and the so-called balancing stage when it must be determined whether the achievement of the aim outweighs the limitation imposed. The German academic Alexy (Theorie der Grundrechte (1986 developed what he called a mathematical weight formula to deal with the balancing stage. An overview is provided of how the elements of proportionality were dealt with in the text of the South African interim Constitution of 1994, the early jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, and in the text of the final Constitution of 1996. Contemporary South African academic criticism of the use of the concept is also analysed. The article then endeavours to relate the elements of Alexy’s weight formula to both the elements of the South African general limitation clause in section 36 of the Constitution and to the appearance of such elements in the formulation of specific rights in the Bill of Rights. Although the levels of abstraction reached in the debates on the Alexy formula are so daunting that it is most unlikely that South African courts and practitioners will ever use it, certain valuable insights can be gained from it for the purposes of dealing with proportionality within the context of the limitation of rights in South Africa. Despite opposition from certain academics, proportionality is a prominent feature of the application of the limitation clauses in the South African Constitution. The elements of proportionality provides a useful tool for the application, within the context of the

  11. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness

  12. Analysis of Chinese Sentences without Main Clause Translating into Japanese%浅析汉语无主句日译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨友梅

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对汉语无主句和日语无主句的异同对比分析,得出汉语无主句同多异少,而且汉语无主句的情况多于日语,所以在日译汉语无主句时,要区别对待,分类处理。本文认为在日译汉语无主句时,为了使译文的句子结构符合语法规范,译者一般应该采取对应相关日语无主句、增补主语、改变句子结构的方法,同时辅之以其它方法。%Based on the Chinese and Japanese sentences without sentences with no similarities and differences compared and analyzed with multi Sentences Without little different, but without the main clause Chinese than Japanese, so when the Chinese translation of sentences without date, to distinction, classification. This paper argues that the Chinese translation of the day when there is no main clause, sentence structure in order to make the translation grammatical norms, the translator should generally take no correspondence related to the Japanese main clause, add the subject, change the way the sentence structure, but complemented by other methods.

  13. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: Different profiles of syntactic impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eSzterman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9-12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. An analysis of the reading and paraphrasing of each participant exposed two different patterns of syntactic impairment. Some hearing-impaired children paraphrased the object relatives incorrectly but could still read the homograph, indicating impaired assignment of thematic roles alongside good syntactic structure building; other hearing-impaired children could neither read the homograph nor paraphrase the sentence, indicating a structural deficit in the syntactic tree. Further testing of these children confirmed the different impairments: some are impaired only in Wh-movement, whereas others have CP impairment. The syntactic impairment correlated with whether or not a hearing device was fitted by the age of one year, but not with the type of hearing device or the depth of hearing loss: children who had a hearing device fitted during the first year of life had better syntactic abilities than children whose hearing devices were fitted later.

  14. Effect of oxygen enrichment in air on acid gas combustion under Claus conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Salisu

    2013-09-01

    Results are presented to examine the combustion of acid gas (H2S and CO2) in hydrogen-fueled flames using a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen under Claus conditions (Φ = 3). Specifically the effect of oxygen enrichment in the above flames is examined. The compositions of acid gas examined are100% H2S and 50% H2S/50% CO2 with different percentages of oxygen enrichment (0%, 19.3% and 69.3%) in the oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The results revealed that combustion of acid gas formed SO2 wherein the mole fraction of SO2 increased to an asymptotic value at all the oxygen concentrations examined. In addition, increase in oxygen enrichment of the air resulted in increased amounts of SO2 rather than the formation of more desirable elemental sulfur. In case of 50% H2S/50% CO2 acid gas, carbon monoxide mole fraction increased with oxygen enrichment which is an indicator to the availability of additional amounts of oxygen into the reaction pool. This gas mixture resulted in the formation of other sulfurous–carbonaceous compounds (COS and CS2) due to the presence of carbon monoxide. The results showed that the rate of COS formation increased with oxygen enrichment due to the availability of higher amounts of CO while that of CS2 reduced. The global reactions responsible for this observed phenomenon are presented.

  15. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.

  16. Independence as a practice issue in occupational therapy: the safety clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cherry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Williamson, Peter; Manor, Debra; Whybrow, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    This article reports findings from interviews that explored the meanings occupational therapists attach to independence as a value and a therapeutic goal in interactions with elderly clients. Through a historical review of the literature, we trace the changing use of this term and identify two analytically distinct concepts associated with it: independence as self-reliance in activity and independence as autonomy, self-determination, or choice. We show how the latter has emerged in contemporary service contexts to represent an ideal of client-centered practice for persons with chronic disabilities, such as frail elderly clients. Using a "critical incident" interview approach with 12 Australian occupational therapists, we identified the therapists' explicit and implicit understandings of independence as a value concept and practice issue. Our findings suggest that a mismatch often exists between idealized and practice-based talk about independence and that therapists narrativize this opposition around what we call "the safety clause." That is, therapists invoke concerns about safety and duty of care as a caveat to implementing their independence ideals and justifying the retention of professional control. We identify key issues that therapists need to address if the rhetoric of independence-related client-centered practice is to be achieved in reality. PMID:12125826

  17. Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties. This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

  18. About the carel legal and civil legal validity of take-or-play clauses in gas supply contracts with distribution; Zur kartell- und zivilrechtlichen Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln in Gasliefervertraegen mit Weiterverteilern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegerich, Christine [Eggers Malmendier Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany); Seiferth, Conrad [Kermel und Scholtka Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Gas supply contracts of all market stages contain ToP clauses (ToP = Take or Pay). These clauses obligate the consumers of gas to the payment of a certain minimum quantity of gas independently of the actually removed mass of gas. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the cartel legal and civil legal validity of ToP clauses in gas supply contracts with distribution. These clauses represent a control-free price agreement. A clear substantiation of an inadequate disadvantage of the consumer of gas by ToP clauses is not to be furnished. The ToP clauses do not deviate from legal or contract-typical principles. With the conclusion of a contract, the contracting parties assume that the obligation of payment of the customer corresponds to the obligation of supply by the supplier.

  19. Determination of the Effectiveness of Standard Clauses%格式条款效力的判断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷光曙

    2012-01-01

    在现代社会,格式条款已被大量订入商业合同和消费合同之中,随着交易的规模化、频繁化,契约的天平正在向资本倾斜,实践中有关格式条款效力的纠纷也大量发生,需要强化对格式条款效力的规制。对影响格式条款效力因素的考量已从条款使用人的垄断地位发展到合同当事人之间交涉力量是否均衡、法律效果是否公平,以及其他影响着格式条款效力的因素之上。我国关于格式条款效力的相关立法及其司法解释合理与否的思考以及应对策略具有重要的实践意义,也是本文试图探讨的问题。%In modern society,the standard clauses have been set into commercial contracts and consumer contracts.With the trade scale and frequency,the balance is tilted to capital.In practice the disputes about the effectiveness of standard clauses have occurred in a large scale.So we need to strengthen the regulation of the effectiveness of the standard clauses.The consideration of affecting the effectiveness of standard clauses has changed from the user's monopoly position to the contract party's power to negotiate,the fair legal effect,and the other factors.The reflections on whether our legislation and judicial interpretation about the standard clauses reasonable or not and the coping strategies have important practical significance.

  20. Transcending the dilemma of "public interest"-on the meaning of the taking clause in the U.S. Constitution and its significance for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qianfan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution and recent trends in the development of the constitutional concept of "public use" in the case-law history of the United States starting from the source of US government's taking powers and the original meaning of the Taking Clause in the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution. Since the concepts of "public use" and "public interest" are extremely difficult to be defined, it is very hard for the US courts to develop a relevant operative criterion. In the United States, the safeguard of "public interest" in taking mainly lies legislative rather than judicial control.In a democratic society, legislative judgment is highly respected by the courts and the entire takeovers that conform to public use as determined by the Congress are usually deemed constitutional. In this sense, the Congress is a "public interest machine", which automatically generates laws and decisions on behalf of public interests through the democratic representative process. The paper eventually suggests that China should divert its attention from the theoretical definition of "public interest" to institutional construction, and should make the National and Local People's Congresses and their standing committees to play major roles in deciding taking and compensation schemes.

  1. Syntrophin proteins as Santa Claus: role(s) in cell signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Hina F; Adams, Marvin E; Khanday, Firdous A

    2013-07-01

    Syntrophins are a family of cytoplasmic membrane-associated adaptor proteins, characterized by the presence of a unique domain organization comprised of a C-terminal syntrophin unique (SU) domain and an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that is split by insertion of a PDZ domain. Syntrophins have been recognized as an important component of many signaling events, and they seem to function more like the cell's own personal 'Santa Claus' that serves to 'gift' various signaling complexes with precise proteins that they 'wish for', and at the same time care enough for the spatial, temporal control of these signaling events, maintaining overall smooth functioning and general happiness of the cell. Syntrophins not only associate various ion channels and signaling proteins to the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC), via a direct interaction with dystrophin protein but also serve as a link between the extracellular matrix and the intracellular downstream targets and cell cytoskeleton by interacting with F-actin. They play an important role in regulating the postsynaptic signal transduction, sarcolemmal localization of nNOS, EphA4 signaling at the neuromuscular junction, and G-protein mediated signaling. In our previous work, we reported a differential expression pattern of alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1) protein in esophageal and breast carcinomas. Implicated in several other pathologies, like cardiac dys-functioning, muscular dystrophies, diabetes, etc., these proteins provide a lot of scope for further studies. The present review focuses on the role of syntrophins in membrane targeting and regulation of cellular proteins, while highlighting their relevance in possible development and/or progression of pathologies including cancer which we have recently demonstrated. PMID:23263165

  2. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (ČAK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  3. Escape Clauses and Targeting of the Real Exchange Rate: The Case of Nominal Exchange Rate Pegging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo González M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    We consider an economy under a fixed exchange rate system, but with bounds (a minimum level or a band on the real exchange rate. The international price of the tradable good is characterized by the continuous arrival of shocks that change its level. In a model with microfoundations, we investigate the effects of targeting the real exchange rate through nominal exchange rate changes that preclude the real exchange from trespassing the imposed bounds.

    A stochastic general equilibrium model with two goods and fixed non-tradable goods price level is developed. We analyze the cases in which a lower bound or a band on the real exchange rate is introduced. The general conclusion is that when bounds are established, then welfare effects can be expected, which are generated at the expense of the levels of consumption that go in the opposite direction than what the policy intended. This short-run effect is present even in the case the targeting policy is never exercised. This result is similar to the one we find in the target zones literature, in the sense that just the existence of this tolerance band changes the behavior of the economy.

    An interesting result is that, in the case in which home goods prices are fixed, the imposition of the band on the real exchange rate does not change its behavior within the band. However, this result is not true of other real variables in the economy. In other words, although the targeted variable within the band behaves identically to the case in which there are no bounds, the rest of the real variables in the economy behave differently, even if the targeted variable remains within the band and the escape clause is not triggered.

  4. Developmental differences in visual and auditory processing of complex sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J R; MacWhinney, B; Harasaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Children aged 8 through 11 (N = 250) were given a word-by-word sentence task in both the visual and auditory modes. The sentences included an object relative clause, a subject relative clause, or a conjoined verb phrase. Each sentence was followed by a true-false question, testing the subject of either the first or second verb. Participants were also given two memory span measures: digit span and reading span. High digit span children slowed down more at the transition from the main to the relative clause than did the low digit span children. The findings suggest the presence of a U-shaped learning pattern for on-line processing of restrictive relative clauses. Off-line accuracy scores showed different patterns for good comprehenders and poor comprehenders. Poor comprehenders answered the second verb questions at levels that were consistently below chance. Their answers were based on an incorrect local attachment strategy that treated the second noun as the subject of the second verb. For example, they often answered yes to the question "The girl chases the policeman" after the object relative sentence "The boy that the girl sees chases the policeman." Interestingly, low memory span poor comprehenders used the local attachment strategy less consistently than high memory span poor comprehenders, and all poor comprehenders used this strategy less consistently for harder than for easier sentences. PMID:11016560

  5. Appositive Clauses in EST and Their Translation%科技英语中的同位语从句及其翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓利蓉

    2013-01-01

    首先从定义、分类、以及同位语从句与定语从句的区别等分析了同位语从句.然后,结合实例探讨了同位语从句的翻译方法,以提高对同位语从句的识别认知能力和翻译技巧.%After describing the appositive clause in EST from its definition,classification and difference from the attributive clause,this paper probes into some ways of its translation with real examples,hoping it will be useful for improving the cognition of appositive clauses in EST and translation skills.

  6. 论地方体育立法中奖励条款的设置%On the Setting of Reward Clause of Local Sports Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛群

    2014-01-01

    The setting of reward clause of local sports legislation can promote the development of sports cause and expand the awarders’ awarding channels .Through the study of the proportion of reward clause in local statute ,we can draw a conclusion that there are still shortcomings and defi-ciencies in the reward clause of local sports legislation in our country ,which to some extent affect not only the functions of reward clause but also the development of local sports course .In order to perfect the setting of reward clause of local sports statute and promote the establishment of sports legislation system ,we should increase the number of reward clause ,make clear the awarding sub-ject ,and perfect the mechanism of supervision .%地方体育立法中奖励条款的设置具有促进体育事业发展和扩大受奖者奖励途径的功能和价值。通过研究奖励条款在地方性法规中所占比例的情况,能够看出我国地方体育法规在奖励条款的设置上仍然存在缺陷和不足。这些缺陷在一定程度上影响了奖励条款功能的发挥,也不利于地方体育事业的发展。完善地方体育法规中奖励条款的设置,应增加奖励条款的数量,明确授奖主体,努力完善监督机制以更好地促进体育立法体系的建立。

  7. Language Design in the Processing of Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses in French as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Lapole, Amandine

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a lively debate on the nature of learners' morphological competence and use. Some argue that a breakdown in acquisition of second-language (L2) is expected whenever features required for the analysis of L2 input are not present in the L1. Others argue that features have the same nature and etiology in first…

  8. Legal Assumption towards Inserting Arbitration Clause in Sino- Foreign Tax Treaties%中外税收协定引入仲裁条款之法律构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵朱励

    2012-01-01

    The traditional Mutual Agreement Procedure is the only method to settle Sino - foreign tax treaty dis- putes, but the defects of this method are obvious. In order to overcome drawbacks of traditional MAP, more and more countries have accepted international tax arbitration. Arbitration clause in OECD Model Treaty, EU Arbitration Con- vention and ICC Arbitration Standard Clause reflect the newest development of international tax arbitration. It is nec- essary to inserting arbitration clause in Sino - foreign tax treaties in the process of further accepting foreign invest- ment in China, which can settle tax treaty disputes better. In order to defend state tax sovereignty, arbitration in Sino - foreign tax treaty should be supplementary, mandatory, the taxpayer should be given limited rights to participate in arbitration, the community authorities should not be subject to international tax arbitration awards unless the taxpay- er accept it.%传统的相互协商程序是目前中外税收协定争议解决的唯一方法,但是这一方法存在一定的弊端。为了弥补传统相互协商程序的缺陷,国际税收仲裁被越来越多的国家所接受。目前OECD税收协定范本中的仲裁条款、欧盟仲裁公约、国际商会的仲裁标准条款反映了国际税收仲裁的最新发展。我国在进一步引进外资的过程中有必要在税收协定中引入仲裁条款,以更好解决税收协定争议。为了维护国家税收主权,中外税收协定中的仲裁应该是一种“补充性”的争议解决方法.应该采用强制性仲裁的方式,应该赋予纳税人一定程度参与仲裁的权利,国际税收仲裁裁决只应在纳税人同意接受后才对缔约国主管当局有约束力。

  9. Classification of the characters in the set of clauses of propositional logic%命题逻辑的子句集中文字的分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓鹏; 徐扬

    2015-01-01

    The detection and elimination of redundant clauses from prepositional logic formulas is a fundamental is-sue that has been widely researched in artificial intelligence ( AI) . The concept for division in the set of clauses of propositional logic is combined with the concepts of redundant clause and redundant character so as to research the classification of the characters in the set of clauses of propositional logic. The characters are classified into three cat-egories:necessary characters, useful characters, and useless characters, and thereby definitions of them are given, respectively. The property of three kinds of characters and irredundant equivalent subsets is discussed, some equiv-alent descriptions of these three kinds of characters and non-redundant equivalent subsets are given respectively. The judging method for these three kinds of characters in the set of clauses of propositional logic is obtained, and by virtue of the satisfiability of the set of clauses, the equivalent conditions of satisfiability for these three kinds of characters and the set of clauses are derived. These results provide a variety of alternative methods for judging the attributes of the characters of the set of clauses in propositional logic, laying a theoretical foundation for simplifying propositional logic formulas.%检测和消除命题逻辑公式中的冗余文字,是人工智能领域广泛研究的基本问题. 针对命题逻辑的子句集中子句的划分,结合冗余子句和冗余文字的概念,将命题逻辑的子句集中的文字分为必需文字、有用文字和无用文字3类,并分别给出其定义. 讨论3种文字与无冗余等价子集的性质,给出其等价子集的等价描述方法. 得到题逻辑的子句集中必需文字、有用文字和无用文字的判定方法,借助子句集的可满足性得到3种文字与子句集的可满足性的等价条件. 上述结果对命题逻辑中文字属性的判断提供了多种可选择方法,同时

  10. The theory of clause as nucleus and the study & teaching of sentence patterns%小句中枢说与句型研究和教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳杰

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this paper is, on one hand, to verify the theory of clause asnucleus through the study and teaching of simple sentence patterns, and on the otherhand, to examine the study and teaching of simple sentence patterns with the theory ofclause as nucleus. The two aims are complementary to each other, i.e. we can corroboratethe value of the theory of clause as nucleus and find a new approach to the study and teaching of simple sentence patterns. That will lead to the conclusion that the theory of clauseas nucleus can serve as the theoretical basis for teaching Chinese grammar to foreign learners.

  11. Where Theory and Law Meet: Trends in establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts and implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lance E.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, federal court opinions and writings of legal scholars, spanning 63 years of establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts were analysed in an effort to determine dominant trends in judicial philosophy that are of significance to science educators. The study's findings suggest that the dominant legal theory underpinning the adjudication of establishment clause cases on the US Supreme Court has undergone a shift from one that emphasizes separation of church and state to one that favours integration of religion in the public sphere. This development poses significant challenges to science educators who are charged with the task of teaching in accordance with state science standards that emphasize topics that are considered controversial (e.g. evolution and global climate change) by many in the faith-based community. These findings constitute a basis for forecasting future actions in US courts regarding the role of government in establishing religious practices in the public sphere-particularly where such actions intersect with the roles of teachers in the nation's public K-12 science classrooms. Finally, we argue that scientists and science educators must adopt an assertive stance in defining science in curricular frameworks, providing something for the courts to draw upon in future decisions.

  12. The impact on pension liabilities of Malaysian government pension scheme from remarriage due to removal of pension clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-12-01

    In the event of death of any government employee, their monthly pension will be given to their widow and their child. The government will stop paying that pension when the widow died and when the widow chooses to remarry. However, in 1st January 2002, the remarriage clause has been removed from the regulations. This would allow all widows who remarried to receive pension as usual. In view of this, there are possibilities that those widows who are still young might remarried. If many of the widows choose to remarry, it will be a burden to the government as it would increase the pension liabilities. However, we do not know how many of the widow will remarry. In view of this, the purpose of the study is to assess the impact to pension liabilities of government pension schemes on individual life due to removal clause of the remarriage by determining the pension factor and to assess to what extent the pension liabilities of government pension schemes would be affected.

  13. An (un)clear conscience clause: the causes and consequences of statutory ambiguity in state contraceptive mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle-Ward, Rachel; Hollis-Brusky, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    Since 1996, twenty-eight states have adopted legislation mandating insurance coverage of prescription contraceptives for women. Most of these policies include language that allows providers to opt out of the requirement because of religious or moral beliefs-conscience clause exemptions. There is striking variation in how these exemptions are defined. This article investigates the sources and consequences of ambiguous versus precise statutory language in conscience clauses. We find that some forms of political and institutional fragmentation (party polarization and gubernatorial appointment power) are correlated with the degree of policy specificity in state contraceptive mandates. This finding reinforces previous law and policy scholarship that has shown that greater fragmentation promotes ambiguous statutory language because broad wording acts as a vehicle for compromise when actors disagree. Interestingly, it is the more precisely worded statutes that have prompted court battles. We explain this with reference to the asymmetry of incentives and mobilizing costs between those disadvantaged by broad (primarily female employees) versus precisely worded statutes (primarily Catholic organizations). Our findings suggest that the impact of statutory ambiguity on court intervention is heavily contextualized by the resources and organization of affected stakeholders. PMID:23645878

  14. 48 CFR 1352.237-72 - Security processing requirements-national security contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in 48 CFR 1337.110-70(d), use the following clause: Security Processing Requirements—National... the performance of their work. Regardless of the contractor employees' location, appropriate security... Office of Security before start of work. (2) The Contracting Officer's Representative must send...

  15. The Issue of Unilateral Option Clause in Footballer’s Contract%职业足球联赛中单边续约选择条款问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席志文

    2016-01-01

    The Unilateral Option Clause in footballer’s contract is a common practice in the area of football law and management .As a financial and player control mechanism ,the unilateral op‐tion clause is used to reduce the financial risk of the club and to keep the competitive balance . However ,due to the optional clause’s ‘unilateral’ feature ,and in violation of the legal frame‐work of regulations of FIFA ,Dispute Resolution Center of FIFA (DRC ) and Court of Arbitra‐tion of Sports (CAS )are always inclined to declare the unilateral extension option invalid .The guiding criteria for deciding the option clause’s validity is gradually formed by DRC and CAS during the dealing process .Nevertheless ,DRC and CAS show different approaches to deal with the disputed unilateral optional clause ,DRC is more inclined to declare its invalid ,while CAS a‐dopts to take a case by case approach to assess the option clause’s validity and fully checking the background specifics of each case .Football Clubs should rebuilt and transform the unilater‐al optional clause in accordance with the relative criteria ,and at meantime fully respect and pro‐tect the footballer’s right of known and freedom of choice by strictly abiding by the principle of contract law and labor law during the process of performing the contract ,which will contrib‐ute to keep the balance of contractual stability and player mobility in modern football world .%足球球员合同中的单边续约选择条款是足球法律与实务经常面对的问题。单边续约选择条款作为一项财政平衡与球员控制机制,有助于俱乐部降低财政风险,同时保持足球运动的竞争平衡。但是,由于单边选择条款在实践中往往因其仅有利于俱乐部一方的单边性特征,违反了国际足球联合会(以下简称“国际足联”)关于球员合同的基本规则,而被国际足联争议解决庭与国际体育仲裁院认定无效。然而,国

  16. Discussions and Amending Recommendations for the Clause "Terms and Definitions"of IEC 61347-1∶2010%关于IEC61347-1∶2010标准中“定义与术语”的讨论及修改建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自力

    2012-01-01

    The development process of IEC 61347 series standards is briefly introduced.Some of the definitions in clause "terms and definitions" of IEC 61347-1∶2010 are discussed and amending recommendations are presented.%简单介绍了IEC 61347系列标准的发展过程;针对IEC 61347-1∶2010标准中的一些"术语和定义"进行了讨论,并提出了修改建议。

  17. Free and depedent small clauses in Brazilian Portuguese Mini-orações livres e dependentes em Português Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Aizawa Kato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines free small clauses, which, unlike dependent small clauses, exhibit peculiar properties: (a they are restricted to occur with individual level and event adjectives, (b they have to appear with the subject postposed. After considering several hypotheses on the nature of this inversion, it is proposed that these adjectives are of the ergative type, while the stage level adjectives are unergatives. Small clauses with ergative adjectives can be complements of a third copula distinct from the attributive 'ser' and the stative 'estar', which underlies cleft constructions. The derivation of free small clauses is parallel to canonical cleft sentences.Este artigo examina o que chamamos de mini-orações livres, que, diferentemente de mini-orações dependentes, exibem algumas propriedades peculiares: (a é restrita a ocorrer com adjetivos de indivíduo ou de evento, (b tem que ter o sujeito posposto. Após considerar várias hipóteses sobre a natureza dessa inversão, propôs-se que os adjetivos que nela aparecem são do tipo ergativo. Essas mini-orações podem ser complementos de um tipo especial de cópula, do tipo que aparece com construções clivadas. As derivações das mini-orações livres seriam paralelas à derivação de construções clivadas.

  18. 宪法“人格尊严”条款的规范地位之辨%Debates on the Normative Status of the"Personal Dignity" Clause under Constitutional Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤君

    2012-01-01

    placed in General Principles or in the front of the chapter of "The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens".It cannot obtain the above mentioned normative status in constitutional laws of other countries' even if it is read with the clause of "The State respects and protects human rights".Personal dignity in the Chinese Constitution belongs to an independent clause and also a fundamental right,possessing concrete legal contents.Thus,it can be regarded as a norm corresponding with specific constitutional facts in the process of constitutional interpretation to prove that the personal dignity of citizens is violated.

  19. Optimal Time-Consistent Investment Strategy for a DC Pension Plan with the Return of Premiums Clauses and Annuity Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Lei Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Defined contribution and annuity contract are merged into one pension plan to study both accumulation phase and distribution phase, which results in such effects that both phases before and after retirement being “defined”. Under the Heston’s stochastic volatility model, this paper focuses on mean-variance insurers with the return of premiums clauses to study the optimal time-consistent investment strategy for the DC pension merged with an annuity contract. Both accumulation phase before retirement and distribution phase after retirement are studied. In the time-consistent framework, the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations associated with the optimization problem are established. Applying stochastic optimal control technique, the time-consistent explicit solutions of the optimal strategies and the efficient frontiers are obtained. In addition, numerical analysis illustrates our results and also deepens our knowledge or understanding of the research results.

  20. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. PMID:22530616

  1. Magic for Filter Optimization in Dynamic Bottom-up Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Minnen, G

    1996-01-01

    Off-line compilation of logic grammars using Magic allows an incorporation of filtering into the logic underlying the grammar. The explicit definite clause characterization of filtering resulting from Magic compilation allows processor independent and logically clean optimizations of dynamic bottom-up processing with respect to goal-directedness. Two filter optimizations based on the program transformation technique of Unfolding are discussed which are of practical and theoretical interest.

  2. Unsteady catalytic processes and sorption-catalytic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic processes that occur under conditions of the targeted unsteady state of the catalyst are considered. The highest efficiency of catalytic processes was found to be ensured by a controlled combination of thermal non-stationarity and unsteady composition of the catalyst surface. The processes based on this principle are analysed, in particular, catalytic selective reduction of nitrogen oxides, deep oxidation of volatile organic impurities, production of sulfur by the Claus process and by hydrogen sulfide decomposition, oxidation of sulfur dioxide, methane steam reforming and anaerobic combustion, selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, etc.

  3. Unsteady catalytic processes and sorption-catalytic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoruiko, A N [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic processes that occur under conditions of the targeted unsteady state of the catalyst are considered. The highest efficiency of catalytic processes was found to be ensured by a controlled combination of thermal non-stationarity and unsteady composition of the catalyst surface. The processes based on this principle are analysed, in particular, catalytic selective reduction of nitrogen oxides, deep oxidation of volatile organic impurities, production of sulfur by the Claus process and by hydrogen sulfide decomposition, oxidation of sulfur dioxide, methane steam reforming and anaerobic combustion, selective oxidation of hydrocarbons, etc.

  4. The general clause of right abuse as longa manus function of civil responsibility institute
    A cláusula geral do abuso de direito como função longa manus do instituto da responsabilidade civil

    OpenAIRE

    Franciel Munaro

    2007-01-01

    The new Civil Code brings the institute of right abuse as a general clause. This clause, through its structural elements, as good-faith, good-customs and the social and economical aims, will find the responsibility of the agent into compensate another person who has overtook the limits of the law. The right abuse institute, however, goes further one to the civil order and the responsibility institute, coming around another fields of the law as well the institute of civil responsibility, match...

  5. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana; Jorge Antonio Villagra Cayamana

    2013-01-01

    Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention ...

  6. WARMING UP THE “CHILLING EFFECT”: A COMMENT ON THE MOTIVE CLAUSE DISCUSSIONS IN R V KHAWAJA (2010) AND R V KHAWAJA (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    J.L. Savarese

    2015-01-01

    Following the attacks on September 11, 2001, biased surveillance and discriminatory law enforcement approaches gained momentum. In 2003, Reem Bahdi published “No Exit: Racial Profiling and Canada‟s War Against Terrorism.” She analyzed the influence that the declaration of a war against terrorism by Western nations, including Canada, was having on Arabs and Muslims. Other scholars critiqued aspects of Canada‟s anti-terrorism response, including the incorporation of a motive clause into the Cri...

  7. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  8. Processing Subject-Object Ambiguities in the L2: A Self-Paced Reading Study With German L2 Learners of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, E.M.; Roberts, L.; Hout, R.W.N.M. van; Schreuder, R.; Haverkort, M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of two self-paced reading experiments are reported, which investigated the online processing of subject-object ambiguities in Dutch relative clause constructions like Dat is de vrouw die de meisjes heeft/hebben gezien by German advanced second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Native spea

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 205 - Model Disclosure Clauses and Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Electronic check conversion. You may authorize a merchant or other payee to make a one-time... process the payment as a check transaction. (b)—Alternative Notice About Electronic Check Conversion... statement shows transfers that you did not make, including those made by card, code or other means, tell...

  10. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of dama

  11. 48 CFR 1827.303-70 - NASA solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.303-70 NASA solicitation provisions and contract... technique. (4) Testing of, evaluation of, or experimentation with a machine, process, concept, or technique...—Acquisition by the Government. For this purpose, the contracting officer may presume that a contractor is...

  12. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of damages and determine which contractual party benefits from including liquidated damage rules. Furthermore, we show that the effect of the payment of damages on the efficiency of the consummated deals ...

  13. An audit questionnaire that examines specifically the management of technical activities clauses in ISO 15189

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, T F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an audit questionnaire that focuses on the management of the technical activities in a Diagnostic Pathology Laboratory. The ISO 15189 Standard is written in such a way that it continually moves back and forth from topics where the auditor needs to question bench level staff, to topics where the auditor needs to question Technical Management Staff. This makes for a disjointed audit process — both Bench Staff and Technical Managers are repeatedly interrupted....

  14. Cooperation between Top-Down and Bottom-Up Theorem Provers by Subgoal Clause Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    Top-down and bottom-up theorem proving approaches have each specific ad-vantages and disadvantages. Bottom-up provers profit from strong redundancycontrol and suffer from the lack of goal-orientation, whereas top-down provers aregoal-oriented but have weak calculi when their proof lengths are considered. Inorder to integrate both approaches our method is to achieve cooperation betweena top-down and a bottom-up prover: The top-down prover generates subgoalclauses, then they are processed by a ...

  15. The decimation process in random k-SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Coja-Oghlan, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Let F be a uniformly distributed random k-SAT formula with n variables and m clauses. Non-rigorous statistical mechanics ideas have inspired a message passing algorithm called Belief Propagation Guided Decimation for finding satisfying assignments of F. This algorithm can be viewed as an attempt at implementing a certain thought experiment that we call the Decimation Process. In this paper we identify a variety of phase transitions in the decimation process and link these phase transitions to the performance of the algorithm.

  16. K.Schmidtke-Bode: A Typology of Purpose Clauses (2009)%《目的小句类型学研究》述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹洪波

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.引言 (A Typology of Purpose Clauses)的作者是德国Jena Friedrich Schiller大学的Karsten Schmidtke-Bode.全书正文共五章.正文前有目录、致谢、缩写及符号表.正文后附有参考文献、作者索引、语言索引和重要概念词语索引,以及"语言类型学研究"系列88部著作的书目.下面分述各章内容,然后做一个简评.

  17. Environmental quality and energy conservation in coal conversion processes. [Overall minimization of energy required for sulfur pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.L.; Hill, A.H.; Fleming, D.K.

    1979-01-01

    In general, controlling emissions from a coal conversion process is an energy consuming process. In this paper, a parametric assessment of energy requirements for sulfur management in a coal gasification process to produce substitute natural gas is presented. The results of this assessment suggest that the least energy intensive sulfur management practice to utilize in coal gasification plants using low sulfur coal (< 3.5%) is an H/sub 2/S selective removal process providing a Claus plant feed-stream containing 10% or less H/sub 2/S with tail gas from the Claus plant being incinerated in the coal-fired boiler and the additional SO/sub 2/ removed in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. For high sulfur coals (> 3.5%), energy consumptions for all combinations were similar for a given FGD SO/sub 2/ removal specification. As the SO/sub 2/ specification increases for the FGD system, the total energy required for sulfur management also increases. Finally, contrary to expectations, the total energy requirements for sulfur management decrease with increasing sulfur content of the feed coal indicating that the energy requiements of the H/sub 2/S removal process dominates. The total energy requirements for the two Claus plant tail gas treatment processes are similar. Incineration in the boiler is slightly more energy efficient. For low sulfur coals (< 3.5%) the total energy requirements decreased rapidly as the level of H/sub 2/S selective acid-gas removal process decreased from 30% to 10%. For high sulfur coals (> 3.5%) the total energy requirements were similar for all levels of H/sub 2/S in the Claus plant feed gas with a possible minimum in energy requirements for the 15% H/sub 2/S cases.

  18. 由2011年高考题谈what和that引导的名词性从句及解题思路%The Noun Clauses Led by What and That and Their Problem-solving Thought from 2011 NMET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕紫袆

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes problem-solving thought of the noun clauses led by what and that and summarizes the usage of what and that in the noun clauses starting off from the test questions in 2011 NMET.%本文从2011年高考英语试卷中的试题入手,分析了考查what和that引导的名词性从句的试题的解题思路,归纳了引导词what和that在名词性从句中的用法。

  19. PROMOTION OF NON-SUBJECT NOUN PHRASE TO SUBJECT IN CLAUSE OF SABU LANGUAGE, SABU RAIJUA REGENCY, EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sukendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive-qualitative one exploring the relation of non subject THAT was promoted to the slot of subject. From the syntactic point of view, two informants were considered adequate in the present study. The reason was that the Sabu language ‘Bahasa Sabu (hereinafter referred to as BS, as a langue, was homogenous in nature. The data needed were collected through observation and interview. The words, phrases, clauses and sentences focused on the topic of the study were note taken. In addition, the data were also collected by recording the speeches made by the BS speakers and the informants using a tape recorder and an electronic recorder. In this manner, it was possible to obtain as many data as possible. From the analysis, it was found that the clausal construction in BS could promote the non subject NP to the subject as the original subject could not be deleted. The other finding was that the promotion of the non-subject NP could be promoted to the slot of subject in the transitive and intransitive clauses. The clausal construction which could allow the promotion of the non-subject NP to the clausal construction was the clausal construction which had semantic roles as the MOTION, AFFECT, and CORPOREAL verbs. The clausal construction which could not allow the non-subject NP to be promoted to the subject was the instrumental clausal construction whose verb was realized by the verb hernabi ‘tutup’ [close].

  20. Incorporation of Jurisdiction and Arbitration Clause in Contract%论合同中管辖及仲裁条款的并入

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓琳

    2012-01-01

    在英美法系,合同中管辖及仲裁条款的并入分为将行业标准条款并入合同,把一个合同中的管辖或仲裁条款并入另一个合同,以及把一方当事人的标准条款并入合同三种情形。在中国国际航运中也经常发生并入的情形,但适用标准不统一。%In common -law system, there are three cases in the incorporation of jurisdiction and arbitration clause in contract. They are to incorporate industry standard terms into the contract, to incorporate the jurisdiction or arbitra- tion clause of one contract into another one, and to incorporate standard terms of one party into the contract. There are also incorporations in China' s international shipping, but the standards are not uniform.

  1. The Legally Dogmatical Interpretation of "The Abuse of Authority" Clause in the Administrative Proceedings%行政诉讼中“滥用职权”条款之法教义学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天昊

    2011-01-01

    "滥用职权"条款的理解与适用一直存在较多争议。从法教义学的视角出发,通过回归立法者意志、探寻法律规范之间的脉络关系,可以理清该条款的法律含义;结合司法案例,可以归纳出此条款适用的基本方法与标准;将目光往复于法律含义与司法实践之间,使我们对该条款的内涵、适用以及地位的认识更为清晰。%There are always many arguments in the understanding and practice of "The Abuse of Authori- ty" clause. Based on the view of between different law regulations Dogmatic of law, following the legislator' s will and seeking the relation can make us understand the legal content of this clause. Combining with judicial cases can induce the basic method and standard of applying this clause. And, focusing.on the legal content and judicial practice will make us clearly recognize the content, application and rank of this clause.

  2. Arbitration clause and null contracts: autonomy of the arbitration clause and the favor Contractus Principle Cláusula compromissória e contratos nulos: breves anotações sobre a autonomia e a conservação do contrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carneiro Sampaio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This presentation aims the study of an important issue related to arbitration: the arbitration clause and the principle of separability. Firstly, it’s necessary to identify the principle and its peculiarities, the reason for existence, and its function. Then, favor contractus principle, a subject quite discussed by contemporary practices, will be approached. The valid arbitration clause inserted into a null contract is discussed with theoretical and practical arguments. As a conclusion, the prevalence of the separability is reached. In a practical case, the arbitration clause shall prevail and the discussions shall be settled by arbitration procedure.Trata-se do estudo de um dos desafios práticos da arbitragem: o princípio da autonomia da cláusula compromissória. Num primeiro momento identifica-se o princípio, suas peculiaridades, razão de existência e sua função. Posteriormente, faz-se sua aproximação ao princípio da conservação dos contratos, tema bastante discutido pelos contratualistas contemporâneos. A cláusula compromissória válida inserida em contrato nulo é discutida com fundamentos teóricos e práticos. Conclui-se pela prevalência do princípio da autonomia sobre a nulidade dos contratos, de forma que o procedimento arbitral, se eleito, deverá ser a forma de solução do conflito, mesmo que o conflito seja a nulidade do próprio contrato.

  3. Exploring Language and Diplomatic Thinking through Process Types: A Contrastive Study on Sino-British Diplomatic Thinking Based on the China-UK Joint Declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The China-UK Joint Declaration on Building a Global Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for the 21st Century is one of the fruits of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s recent official state visit to the Great Britain. As a typical and important diplomatic language document, the Joint Declaration deserves scientific research. In this paper, based on the six process types of Halliday’s Transitivity system, we attempt to disclose the diplomatic thinking underlying the employment of process types and make a contrastive study of the diplomatic thinking of both China and the UK. The research leads to three findings. Firstly, the high frequency of material process clause in both Chinese and English versions reflects the “Action thinking”, a shared diplomatic thinking adopted by the two nations. Secondly, the Chinese version employs more relational process clauses than the English version, which is an indication of the “Relationality thinking” underlying Chinese diplomacy and it is much less emphasized or even absent in British diplomacy. Thirdly, the analysis of the mental process clauses reveals that China has an “Inclusive thinking” in its diplomatic exchange with Britain whereas the UK a “Friendship thinking”.Keywords: process types; diplomatic thinking; contrastive study; Action thinking; Relationality thinking; Inclusive thinking; Friendship thinking

  4. Model for aspect ratio dependent etch modulated processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-multiplexed, anisotropic, inductively coupled plasma Si deep reactive ion etch process is characterized in terms of the Si macroload, cross-wafer spatial variation, local pattern density, and feature size. The process regime is established as neutral flux limited, in which material transport occurs in the molecular flow to transition flow regimes. For this process regime, a semiempirical, unified analytic model and a numeric model are developed using the Dushman and Clausing vacuum conductance correction factors, respectively, in the Coburn and Winters model of aspect ratio dependent etching. The experimental reaction probability for etching of Si by F was found to be 0.24 for Dushman's factor and 0.22 for Clausing's factor. Each model is validated to ±10% against experimental depth data for microdonut and trench test structures and match each other to within 10% for depths of up to 160 μm. The observed depth range is 64 μm at a depth of 160 μm.

  5. WARMING UP THE “CHILLING EFFECT”: A COMMENT ON THE MOTIVE CLAUSE DISCUSSIONS IN R V KHAWAJA (2010 AND R V KHAWAJA (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Savarese

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the attacks on September 11, 2001, biased surveillance and discriminatory law enforcement approaches gained momentum. In 2003, Reem Bahdi published “No Exit: Racial Profiling and Canada‟s War Against Terrorism.” She analyzed the influence that the declaration of a war against terrorism by Western nations, including Canada, was having on Arabs and Muslims. Other scholars critiqued aspects of Canada‟s anti-terrorism response, including the incorporation of a motive clause into the Criminal Code sections prohibiting terrorist offences. In R. v. Khawaja (2006, the Superior Court reviewed the constitutionality of the motive element in the definition of terrorism. It held that the motive clause facilitated the targeted law enforcement practices that Bahdi and others advocated against. This paper reports on a review of the appellate decisions, R. v. Khawaja (2010 and (2012, which held that the motive clause was consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The appellate decisions are critiqued for their failure to adequately promote human dignity and equality in keeping with the Charter‘s spirit. As a result, the paper concludes by arguing for a return to the insights of Bahdi and others who encourage a rethinking of Canadian social policy after 9/11 to ensure commitment to human rights doctrines, particularly in regard to the racial profiling that the motive clause seemed to animate. Dans la foulée des attaques du 11 septembre 2001, des chercheurs ont observé que les activités de surveillance biaisées et les mesures discriminatoires d‟application de la loi se sont intensifiées. En 2003, Reem Bahdi a publié “No Exit: Racial Profiling and Canada‟s War Against Terrorism.” [« Sans issue : Profilage racial et guerre du Canada contre le terrorisme »]. Elle y analysait les répercussions de la déclaration de guerre contre le terrorisme par les pays occidentaux, y compris le Canada, sur les Arabes et les

  6. Educació Intercultural i TIC: claus pedagògiques de la innovació i el canvi social en el segle XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leiva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquest article planteja la necessitat d'oferir claus pedagògics de la innovació i canvi social a les universitats i institucions de formació del segle XXI. Per tant, el que subratlla és la importància de promoure l'educació intercultural a través de les TIC (tecnologies de la informació i comunicació com a element d'innovació i projecció positiva de la diversitat cultural. Cooperació en xarxa des d'una perspectiva intercultural i la promoció d'habilitats Interculturals són elements fonamentals per a transformar una societat formació escenaris en permanent canvi social.

  7. Can rare SAT formulae be easily recognized? On the efficiency of message-passing algorithms for K-SAT at large clause-to-variable ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarelli, Fabrizio; Monasson, Rémi; Zamponi, Francesco

    2007-02-01

    For large clause-to-variable ratios, typical K-SAT instances drawn from the uniform distribution have no solution. We argue, based on statistical mechanics calculations using the replica and cavity methods, that rare satisfiable instances from the uniform distribution are very similar to typical instances drawn from the so-called planted distribution, where instances are chosen uniformly between the ones that admit a given solution. It then follows, from a recent article by Feige, Mossel and Vilenchik (2006 Complete convergence of message passing algorithms for some satisfiability problems Proc. Random 2006 pp 339-50), that these rare instances can be easily recognized (in O(log N) time and with probability close to 1) by a simple message-passing algorithm.

  8. Can rare SAT formulae be easily recognized? On the efficiency of message-passing algorithms for K-SAT at large clause-to-variable ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM-SMC, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Monasson, Remi [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Zamponi, Francesco [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-02-02

    For large clause-to-variable ratios, typical K-SAT instances drawn from the uniform distribution have no solution. We argue, based on statistical mechanics calculations using the replica and cavity methods, that rare satisfiable instances from the uniform distribution are very similar to typical instances drawn from the so-called planted distribution, where instances are chosen uniformly between the ones that admit a given solution. It then follows, from a recent article by Feige, Mossel and Vilenchik (2006 Complete convergence of message passing algorithms for some satisfiability problems Proc. Random 2006 pp 339-50), that these rare instances can be easily recognized (in O(log N) time and with probability close to 1) by a simple message-passing algorithm.

  9. Avaluació dels estats financers per determinar els factors claus que afecten a la missió d'Adobinve, S.L.

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Pérez, Maria Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Mitjançant l'anàlisi econòmic-financer de l'empresa, del sector on operar i finalment de les variables macroeconòmiques del seu entorn, es realitza l'avaluació d'una empresa per determinar els factors claus que afecten a la seva missió. L'empresa objecte d'estudi és Adobinve, S.L., una empresa del sector del curtit i la seva missió és ser la ribera d'Europa. Mediante el análisis económico-financiero de la empresa, del sector donde operar y finalmente de las variables macroeconómicas de su ...

  10. 谈谈对海运货物保险"仓至仓"条款的正确理解%Interpreting Warehouse to Warehouse Clause in Marine Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾立新

    2002-01-01

    "仓至仓"条款(Warehouse to Warehouse Clause)是现代海洋运输货物保险人规定其保险责任起讫的一个条款.因各国海上保险人的广泛采用,仓至仓条款已为大家所熟知.但是,人们对其内容的理解产生过很多的误解和争议.为了正确理解"仓至仓"条款,必须较好地了解保险责任在什么情况下开始和什么时候终止,并结合可保利益原则,理解"仓至仓"条款的适用.

  11. A Study on Chinese Relative Clauses Processing%汉语关系从句加工研究现状和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓霞; 成晓光

    2011-01-01

    关系从句具有复杂的句法结构和丰富的类型学特征,它在认识人类语言能力及认知机制方面较其他句法结构相比具有更特殊的地位.从语言类型学的角度来看,汉语是唯一结合了SVO语序和中心词居后双重特点的语言,它的关系从句结构在句子加工的研究领域中具有重的作用.本文厘清了目前学界比较重的句子加工理论以及国内外汉语关系从句加工的研究成果,探讨了汉语关系从句独特的类型学特征及研究意义,并对未来在此领域的研究方向提出了建议.

  12. Reformation of Sulfur Recovery for Claus Process with Low Temperature%低温克劳斯硫磺回收的改良工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾彬洋; 顾亚雄; 涂莹红

    2013-01-01

    @@%低温克劳斯工艺(CPS)的硫磺回收控制方式与CBA/MCRC工艺类似,其最大的特点是利用灼烧尾气的热量来加热过程气再生催化剂.在催化段的CPS(冷床吸附)循环对提高硫磺回收率起着至关重要的作用.本工艺有三级CPS反应器和三级CPS冷凝器.这3个反应器是通过8个切换阀,定期自动切换操作,以始终保持使其中一个反应器处于再生—预冷状态,另外两个反应器则处于吸附态,将硫磺吸附至催化剂上.整个工艺流程可以通过调整阀门的开关以适应不同的进料速度、组分和温度.

  13. The Strategies of English and Chinese Relative Clauses Processing%英汉关系从句加工策略的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳玲; 李荣宝

    2007-01-01

    本研究通过反应时系统实验来探讨英汉关系从句加工策略问题.两个因素影响关系从句的难度,即:中心词在主句中的位置及中心词在从句中的语法作用.实验结果表明,不同类型语言的不同结构导致不同的加工策略,但是工作记忆是影响母语汉语、英语关系从句的加工的重要原因.

  14. Superficial Analysis of Technology for Sulfur Reovery with Super Claus Process%超级克劳斯硫磺回收技术浅析及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2009-01-01

    超级克劳斯工艺是一项先进、成熟的硫磺回收技术,具有流程简单、操作灵活、安全可靠、运行费用低、应用规模不限、使用范围广、硫回收率高等优点,成为近20年来发展最快的硫磺回收工艺技术之一.在新建硫磺回收装置及原有老装置改造方面,超级克劳斯硫磺回收工艺都有广阔的应用前景.介绍了超级克劳斯及传统克劳斯、超优克劳斯硫磺回收工艺原理,叙述了超级克劳斯工艺的发展,并对该工艺在国内相关领域的应用前景进行展望.

  15. A study of attachment preference in ambiguous relative clause processing%关系从句挂靠偏向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛萌萌; 吴一安

    2007-01-01

    本文重点探讨两个问题:(1)中国英语学习者和母语为英语者在处理具有永久性歧义的英语关系从句(RC)(如:N1-介词-N2-RC)时的挂靠偏向;(2)汉语单语使用者和中国英语学习者在加工汉语中具有此类歧义的关系从句时的挂靠偏向,即RC-N1-的-N2.本文采用英汉"离线"句子接受程度测试和"在线"自控速句子阅读实验方法,通过三项实验来收集数据.研究表明,中国英语学习者和汉语单语使用者在加工汉语关系从句挂靠歧义句时偏向于就近挂靠;母语为英语组受试在加工英语关系从句歧义句时则无明显挂靠偏向;中国英语学习者在汉语句子接受程度测试中表现出和汉语单语组受试相同的就近挂靠偏向;在处理同样的英语句型时,其挂靠偏向则不同于英语为母语者.

  16. Experiences of Super Claus Process in the Coal Chemical Industry%煤化工超级克劳斯工艺生产经验总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洋; 张钢强

    2015-01-01

    超级克劳斯工艺在煤化工中应用较为广泛.文章探讨了硫回收装置在生产中常见问题,并且分析问题成因.总结了相关经验,保证了硫回收装置高效稳定的运行.

  17. On Processing of English Relative Clauses with Attachment Ambiguity%含挂靠歧义的英语关系从句认知处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘欣; 张文鹏

    2007-01-01

    句子加工是心理语言学研究的重要内容,主要关注歧义句的处理过程.本文从分析影响句子加工的几个主要因素入手,讨论以英语为母语者以及其母语与英语为同一语系的ESL学习者处理含挂靠歧义的英语关系从句的认知过程.在总结前人研究的贡献与局限的基础上,本文展望了以中国学生为对象开展相关研究的前景.

  18. Use of WSA Acid Manufacture and Recovery Process in Integrated Methanol-Ammonia Production Project%WSA制酸回收工艺在醇氨联产项目中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉国; 许慎永; 周梦远

    2014-01-01

    概述了WSA制酸回收工艺流程及其特点,同时与超级克劳斯( Super Claus )工艺进行了工艺对比。实际运行情况表明, WSA制酸回收工艺具有流程短、硫回收率高、综合能耗和运行成本低、操作弹性大等特点。%A summary is given of the process flow and special features of the WSA acid manufacture and recovery process , and a comparison is done with the Super Claus process .The actual operation shows that the WSA acid manufacture and recovery process has the characteristics of short flowsheet , high sulfur recovery , low comprehensive energy consumptions , low operating cost , and high operation flexibility .

  19. A Brief Analysis on sequence of clauses of Compound Sentences without Connective s in Russian%俄语无连接词复合句的分句间次序浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔韶辉

    2005-01-01

    各分句间不用连接词或关联词,而用语调;标点符号等手段连接起来的复合句叫无连接词复合句.无连接词复合句具有意义含蓄,结构紧凑,用词简练,形式活泼等特点,是一个争议颇多,难以掌握的句法结构,这里着重论述无连接词复合句的分句次序.%Compound sentences which do not connect with each other between their clauses by intonation, punctuation mark and so on, are compound sentences without connectives. These compound sentences, characterized by meaningful implication, close structure, concise vocabulary, active form, etc. are a controversial and difficult syntactical structure. This paper focuses on the sequence of clauses of compound sentences without connectives.

  20. CPS 硫磺回收工艺在塔中某处理厂的应用%The CPS Application of Sulfur Recovery Process in A Tazhong Area Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹强

    2014-01-01

    塔中某处理厂硫磺回收采用分流法低温克劳斯工艺,通过一级常规克劳斯和三级低温克劳斯反应完成单质硫的回收和尾气的处理,保证硫收率达到99.25%以上及尾气排放合格。文中对装置的工艺特点进行简单介绍,并对生产过程中遇到的问题与应对措施进行分析和说明,充分证明了CPS硫磺回收工艺非常适合该处理厂的实际情况。%Some plant in Tazhong area using diversion method at low temperature to recovery sulfur , with Claus process, through conventional Claus I and low temperature Claus Ⅲreaction finished processing the sulfur recovery and tail gas, ensure the sulfur recovery rate reached more than 99.25% and the exhaust emissions qualified.A brief introduction on the process features of this device , and the problems encountered in the production process and the countermeasures were analyzed and explained fully proved that the actual situation of CPS sulfur recovery process was very suiTable for the processing plant.

  1. Logical-semantic Relations in Conditional Clauses of Unconditional Compound Sentences of "Many Enumerates" Type%无条件句列举式条件分句内部的逻辑语义关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 赖玮

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses logical-semantic relations in conditional clauses of unconditional compound sentences of"many enumerates"type.%本文主要考察"不管"等连接的无条件句的多面列举式,结合句法特征,抓住关联词语,探讨条件分句内部的逻辑语义关系。

  2. 浅谈WTO绿色条款及我国的法律对策%WTO Green Clauses and the Legal Coping Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赫

    2012-01-01

    随着世界经济一体化进程的加速,国际贸易不断扩张,环境与贸易的冲突日益显现。近年来不断出现的由国际贸易引发的环境争议基本都具体引用了WTO框架下的绿色条款。研究这些绿色条款,为识别贸易保护手段,积极应对贸易绿色壁垒。为达到国际标准而努力创新,提升本国企业竞争力都有着重要的意义。我国应制定循环经济促进法实施细则,缓解资源短缺与经济发展的矛盾;完善环境标准的制定,提高环境准入门槛,防止污染转移;推进环境标志的国际互认,建立我国绿色贸易预警体系。从而消除绿色壁垒,维护我国的正当利益。%Along with the globalization of world economy, international trade expands consistently, arousing conflicts of interests between environment and trade. In recent years, emerging environmental disputes triggered by international trade all quoted green clauses under WTO framework. To study these green clauses is significant for recognizing trade protective measures, responding actively to the green trade barriers, innovating to meet the international standard, and promoting the competitiveness of domestic enterprises. China should formulate detailed implementation regulations to stimulate circular economy to alleviate the contradiction between resource shortage and economic development; complete environmental standard, elevating environmental entry threshold to prevent the transfer of pollution; propel the international mutual acknowledgement of environmental symbols, and set up a green trade warning system so as to eliminate green bar- tiers and protect the nation's interests.

  3. La posición del sujeto pronominal en las cláusulas no declarativas (The placement of pronominal subjects in non-declarative clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Serrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la colocación variable del sujeto en español permite observar la relevancia de los factores discursivo-cognitivos en la variación sintáctica y demostrar que todos los efectos comunicativos de una elección formal pueden relacionarse con dichos factores. El presente trabajo analiza los sujetos explícitos de primera y segunda persona en dos tipos de cláusulas no declarativas (interrogativas e imperativas, tomando como base dos corpus textualmente diversificados. Se descubre que la variación formal obedece a principios icónicos muy similares en ambos contextos gramaticales. La posposición del sujeto al verbo es la variante menos marcada, lo que establece una diferencia con la cláusula declarativa, que tiende al orden SVO. Por la misma razón, la anteposición del sujeto en aquellos contextos permite generar valores discursivo-pragmáticos especiales; estos se concretan, sobre todo, en una mayor asertividad o presuposición acerca del contenido del enunciado. Las proyecciones comunicativas de estos valores básicos se ilustran a través de la observación de diversos ejemplos. (The variable placement of Spanish subjects offers an illustration of the relevance of discursive-cognitive factors in explaining syntactic variation, as well as a demonstration of the fact that all communicative effects of formal choices can be related to such factors. In the present paper, first- and secondperson overt subjects are analyzed within two types of non-declarative clauses (interrogative and imperative ones and across two textually diversified corpora. Formal variation is discovered to follow very similar iconic principles in both grammatical contexts. The placing of the subject after the verb is the less-marked variant, which makes a difference with declarative clauses, where SVO is the preferred order. Due to this, subject preposition in the former contexts triggers the generation of special discursive-pragmatic values, particularly of

  4. Referential processing in the human brain: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, C; Kluender, R; Kutas, M

    2015-12-10

    A substantial body of ERP research investigating the processing of syntactic long-distance dependencies has shown that, across languages and construction types, the second element in such configurations typically elicits phasic left anterior negativity (LAN). We hypothesized that these effects are not specific to syntactic dependencies, but rather index a more general cognitive operation in which the second (dependent) element in sentence-level linguistic long-distance relationships triggers a process of association with the first element. We tested this hypothesis with straightforward referential dependencies, comparing pronouns with proper name antecedents to those without, and proper names with and without preceding co-referring pronouns. We predicted phasic LAN effects in response to the second referential element in both comparisons, but observed them only in response to pronouns with antecedents; no differences were observed between responses to proper names with and without preceding co-referring pronouns. We argue that LAN effects observed at the pronoun index the cognitive operations necessary for the association of a pronoun with its antecedent, on which it depends for its reference. Similar but non-identical responses were elicited by the main clause verb following the gap position in object relative clause constructions compared to coordinate clause controls in an orthogonal manipulation. LAN effects were thus elicited by the second dependent element in both construction types, suggesting that long-distance syntactic and referential dependencies pose similar processing challenges. These findings help to clarify the cognitive processes indexed by anterior negative responses to associated dependent elements in a variety of language contexts. PMID:26456801

  5. Analyses on SUE & Labour Clause of Marine Insurance and Its Application%海上保险中施救制度的内涵及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂香; 杨召南

    2001-01-01

    This article is trying to study the theory and application of sue & labour clause,mainly discussing the duty of the assured and the duty of the insurer and presenting the viewpoint that the duty of the assured is prime and the duty of the insurer is secondary so that we can master and apply it correctly.%通过对施救制度中被保险人的施救义务、保险人的补偿义务和施救条款的应用等方面的论述,探讨了海上保险中施救制度的理论和应用,并提出在施救制度中被保险人的施救义务是第一位的,保险人的补偿义务则是第二位的,期望同业能准确理解和把握施救制度内涵,予以正确的应用.

  6. 谈英语关系分句的翻译技巧%Discussion on the translation skills of English relative clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓天英

    2009-01-01

    英语关系分句(定语从句attributive clause)在英语语篇中无处不在,其翻译既是重点又是难点.不论是分译法,还是合译法,不论是前置法,还是后置法都应抓住关系分句深层结构上的问题,弄清楚某个具体关系分句在某个具体上下文中的确切含义、传达的信息、具有的功能、所起的作用.真正体现从语义到文体,在译语中能用最切近而又最自然的对等语来再现原文的信息,进而达到译文的最佳效果.

  7. Alkalis scrubbing vs sulphuric acid production with Claus tail gases%克劳斯尾气碱洗涤与生产硫酸的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. RAMESHNI; 金苏闽(译)

    2012-01-01

    为使克劳斯硫回收装置的硫回收率达到100%,讨论并比较了碱洗涤与生产硫酸这2种尾气处理技术。这2种技术都可用于满足最苛刻的排放要求,生产硫酸的成本略低。但除了成本之外,还应考虑炼油厂的总体布置、原油类型及硫和氮含量、产品酸的市场需求、所需公用工程的供应等因素。%In order to reach the sulphur recovery of 100% from Claus plants, two technology options for the tail gas treating, caustic scrubbing and sulphuric acid production, are discussed and compared. Both of them can be applied to achieve the most stringent requirements and the cost of sulphuric acid production is slightly lower. Be- sides the cost, the factors of overall refinery configuration, crude type and sulphur and nitrogen contents, market demand for selling acid, availability of required utilities, and so on, should also be considered.

  8. A study on the reactivity of Ce-based Claus catalysts and the mechanism of its catalysis for removal of H{sub 2}S contained in coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No-Kuk Park; Dong Cheul Han; Tae Jin Lee; Si Ok Ryu [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Republic of Korea). School of Display and Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    Claus reaction was applied for the selective removal of H{sub 2}S contained in the gasified coal gas, and the characteristics of Claus reaction over the Ce-based catalysts were investigated to propose the reaction mechanism. The Ce-based catalysts showed a high activity on Claus reaction. Specially, Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2O{sub 2}} catalyst had a higher activity than CeO. On the basis of our experimental results, it was proposed that the selective oxidation of H{sub 2}S was carried out by the lattice oxygen in the Ce-based catalysts and that the reduction of SO{sub 2} was performed by the lattice oxygen vacancy in the reduced catalyst. Since the mobility of the lattice oxygen in Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2O{sub 2}} composite catalyst was better than the one in CeO{sub 2}, Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2O{sub 2}} provided more lattice oxygen for the selective oxidation of H{sub 2}S. It was presumed that the reaction mechanism to convert H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} into elemental sulphur over our prepared catalysts was different from the mechanism over the solid-acid catalysts. Since the moisture was contained in the major components, CO and H, of the gasified fuel gas, the effects of CO and H{sub 2}O on the catalytic reaction were investigated over a Ce-based catalyst. The conversion of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} was decreased in Claus reaction over the Ce-based catalysts as the concentration of either H{sub 2}O or CO in the gasified coal gas was increased. Under the circumstances of the coexistence of both moisture and CO, however, the conversion was increased as the concentration of CO was increased. The reactivity of Claus reaction was varied in terms of the concentration ratio of CO to H{sub 2}O. The maximum conversion of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} was achieved in the condition of that the concentration of CO contained in the reacting gas was higher than the one of H{sub 2}O. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e reserva do possível na jurisprudência do STF Resource limitation, cost of rights and the 'under reserve of the possibilities' clause in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wei Liang Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os temas da escassez de recursos, custos dos direitos e cláusula de reserva do possível na jurisprudência do Supremo Tribunal Federal brasileiro. Por meio do estudo dessas decisões, procuro, primeiramente, descobrir em que tipo de matéria esses temas são comumente debatidos nos julgamentos do Supremo Tribunal Federal. Em um segundo momento, procuro entender a forma como o tribunal trata esses temas em sua jurisprudência e os critérios utilizados em suas análises. Por fim, busco examinar se a análise jurídica dos ministros leva em consideração preocupações relativas às conseqüências econômicas e distributivas das decisões. A pesquisa de acórdãos foi feita com base nestes três temas: direito à saúde, direito à educação e intervenção federal por não pagamento de precatórios. Em uma primeira fase, analiso o tratamento dado aos custos dos direitos, à reserva do possível e à escassez de recursos dentro de cada um desses temas. E, em um segundo momento, cruzo os resultados obtidos em cada tema para mostrar as diferenças de tratamento.This article presents an analysis the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation and the "under reserve of the possibilities" clause are featured in the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court case-law. By analyzing Brazilian Supreme Court's decisions, my aim is to verify, firstly, in which subjects these themes appear more frequently. Secondly, I intend to assess how this court deals with the referred themes in its case law and what are the criteria applied. finally, I attempt to examine if the judges decision making process takes into consideration economic and distributive consequences. The survey on court decisions was based on three categories of legal discussions: right to health, right to education, and federal intervention for the non-payment of judicial debts. Initially, I examine the treatment received by the concepts of costs of rights, resource limitation

  10. The social clause in the OMC: for a permanent interrelation between OMC and OIT and the respect to the basic rights of the workers A cláusula social na OMC: por uma inter-relação efetiva entre OMC e OIT e o respeito aos direitos fundamentais dos trabalhadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Azevedo de Queiroz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of social clause in the scope of the OMC, as form to eliminate lower conditions of work in the developing countries, is subject that comes exhaustingly being argued inside of the international relations of the commerce. The developed countries accuse the social developing countries with “dumping” and advocate for restrictions in the international trade to the countries that do not consecrate a minimum standard of requirements for the working class. The developing countries accuse the developed countries of waking use of this speech as form to protect their domestic markets. The arguments of both are reasonable, therefore, it is necessary to find an term intermediate, that interrelates OIT and OMC in the direction of protecting the involved workers in the process of production for the international market, at the same time, that it hinders the developed countries of tanking advantage of the social clause to impose protectionistic barriers, harming the developing countries.A inclusão de cláusula social no âmbito da OMC, como forma de eliminar condições de trabalho degradantes nos países em desenvolvimento, é tema que vem sendo exaustivamente discutido dentro das relações internacionais do comércio. Os países desenvolvidos acusam os países em desenvolvimento de “dumping social” e propugnam por restrições no comércio internacional aos países que não consagram um padrão mínimo de exigências para a classe trabalhadora. Os países em desenvolvimento acusam os países desenvolvidos de se utilizarem desse discurso apenas como forma de proteger seus mercados internos. Os argumentos de ambos são plausíveis, por isso, é necessário encontrar um termo médio, que inter-relacione OIT e OMC no sentido de se proteger os trabalhadores envolvidos no processo de produção para o mercado internacional, ao mesmo tempo, que impeça os países desenvolvidos de se aproveitarem da cláusula social para imporem barreiras

  11. THEORETICAL MODEL OF PROCESS OF FORMATION OF SKILLS OF SELF-CONTROL IN TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Emeljanov Vladislav Sergeevich

    2012-01-01

    In clause the theoretical model of process of formation of skills of self-control in training is considered. Defined the place and importance of self-control as a component of any independent activity. The aim of the research is development of scientifically proved techniques of formation at pupils of ways of self-control in learning physics. The model is developed on the basis of individual-oriented and activity approaches to training, analysis of the structure and content of the training ac...

  12. Breaking and entering’ of contracts as a matter of bargaining power and exclusivity clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, S.; Weitzel, G.U.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect of liquidated damage rules in exclusive contracts that are negotiated in a sequential bargaining process between one seller and two buyers with endogenous outside options. We show that assumptions on the distribution of bargaining power influence the size of the payment of damages and determine which contractual party benefits from including liquidated damage rules. Furthermore, we show that the effect of the payment of damages on the efficiency of the consummated deals ...

  13. 关系从句加工优势及局部句法复杂性解释——以汉语主宾语位置的关系从句加工为例%Preference in Relative Clause Processing as Explained by Local Syntactic Complexity:Evidences from the Processing of Chinese Relative Clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 江火

    2010-01-01

    前人关系从句的加工研究往往忽略了中心语句法位置对优势效应的影响.本文采用事件相关电位技术(ERP)考察了汉语中宾语位置上的主,宾语关系从句加工过程,发现与主语位置的汉语关系从句不同的是,宾语位置上的关系从句在加工中表现出主语关系从句的加工优势.针对汉语不同位置上的关系从句加工优势效应的不同,本文结合前人的研究成果,指出普遍共性论和类型学差异论均不能很好地解释关系从句的加工优势,而局部句法复杂性解释才是具有普遍意义的解释.

  14. Processing VP-ellipsis and VP-anaphora with structurally parallel and nonparallel antecedents: An eyetracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, L.; Matsuo, A.; Duffield, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an eye-tracking study investigating the processing of English VP-ellipsis (John took the rubbish out. Fred did [] too) (VPE) and VP-anaphora (John took the rubbish out. Fred did it too) (VPA) constructions, with syntactically parallel versus nonparallel antecedent clauses (e.g., The rubbish was taken out by John. Fred did [] too/Fred did it too). The results show first that VPE involves greater processing costs than VPA overall. Second, although the structural nonp...

  15. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information ...

  16. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific inf...

  17. Subject-verb agreement in children and adults: serial or hierarchical processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Isabelle; Chanquoy, Lucile; Fayol, Michel; Louis-Sidney, Maryse

    2005-05-01

    Two processes, serial and hierarchical, are generally opposed to account for grammatical encoding in language production. In a developmental perspective, the question addressed here is whether the subject-verb agreement during writing is computed serially, once the words are linearly ordered in the sentence, or hierarchically, as soon as the number features are determined in a hierarchical frame. Adults and children from 3rd to 5th grades were requested to listen to sentences with built-in prepositional phrases or relative clauses and to transcribe them as quickly as possible. A serial hypothesis assumes that subject-verb agreement errors should be equally frequent with both preambles because each has the same length separating the subject head noun and the main verb. Conversely, according to a hierarchical view, errors should be more frequent with a prepositional phrase because the syntactic distance between the subject and the verb is greater than with a relative clause. The results revealed a main effect of the preamble manipulated in 5th graders and adults, but not in 3rd graders. These data were in favor of a hierarchical processing in older writers and a serial one in younger children. However, in 3rd grade, we assumed that the potential serial account was a result of the resource constraint on writing more than of a real serial processing of the agreement. PMID:16050444

  18. Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Religion: The Ban on Federal Funding as a Violation of the Establishment Clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Pittman

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans die each day from diseases affecting the heart, liver, kidneys, brain and a whole host of other bodily organs. Scientific researchers are constantly trying to develop new treatments for such medical conditions. Presently, the research community is working hard to develop medical treatments using stem cells from human embryos. That process involves extracting stem cells from either excess embryos that are no longer needed for in vitro fertilization or from embryos that are created through therapeutic cloning. At the blastocyst stage, about five days after the beginning of an embryo, researchers extract stem cells from the embryo and place them in a petri dish where the cells divide to produce a line of millions of stem cells. These stem cells are undifferentiated, meaning that they are still capable of transforming themselves into many different types of cells that exist in the human body. The hope is that physicians and other medical personnel will one day be able to inject these stem cells into a patient’s diseased heart, kidney, brain, liver, spinal cord or other organ, and the stem cells willtransform themselves into the same type of cells that comprise the host organ. The expectation is that the stem cells will repair the patient’s heart or other organs by curing diseases and otherwise improving the patient’s medical condition and life expectancy.

  19. An Interpersonal-function Approach to Projection Clause Nexus in Analects and its English Versions%《论语》及其英译本中投射语言的人际功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红辉; 曾蕾

    2012-01-01

    《论语》英译的各种翻译策略已受到越来越多研究者的关注,但《论语》中投射语言翻译研究还未能引起足够的重视。因此,本文运用系统功能语言学的人际功能分析方法,从语气、语气成分、人称等角度探讨与比较了《论语》原文及其四个英译本中投射语言人际意义的实现方式。我们发现,不同译者对投射语言的相关翻译策略不尽相同,这在不同程度上反映了译者由于翻译目的的不同及对原文投射语言人际意义的理解差异.产生了对原文相关投射语言人际意义的认知程度的差异,从而采用了不同的翻译策略。%The paper, based on the theory of interpersonal function in Systemic Functional Grammar, explores the projection clause nexus in A nalects and its English versions. By applying the theory of interpersonal function in the analysis of projection clause nexus, we find that the different realization of Mood, mood elements and personal system in different English versions can present different interpersonal meaning. The research concludes that analyzing interpersonal meaning of the projection nexus plays important roles in the translation research of projection clause nexus.

  20. The Acquisition of English Relative Clause by Uyghur College Students%维吾尔族大学生英语限定性关系从句习得研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚丽; 彭金定

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the transfer in the acquisition of relative clause in a second (L2) and third language (L3), focusing specially on the acquisition of English relative clause by native speakers of Uyghur who are L2 learners of Chinese. The results confirmed that the strongest effect comes from L2 Chinese, both positive and negative, and L2 Chinese seems to inhibit L3 English learning in cases when English and Chinese relative clause differ in branching directions and word order. L1 Uyghur was also positively and negatively transferred into L2 Chinese as the word order of the relative clause in the two languages differ. This conclusion may facilitate the English teaching of those Uyghur college students.%文章选取新疆医科大学非英语专业80名维吾尔族民考民大学生,从语言类型学的角度,对其在英语关系从句学习过程中是否能正确地设定中心语位置和关系从句语序以及语言迁移问题进行了考察。结果表明:维吾尔族学生在习得英语关系从句中心语前置参数方面会受到来自母语和二语的负迁移,从而较难习得。与此相比较,维吾尔族学生在习得汉语中心语置后的参数方面会受到来自母语的正迁移从而容易习得。学习者英语语言水平也是影响其关系小句习得的重要因素,高水平英语学习者可以克服语言负迁移进而重设中心语参数。

  1. El "Còdex Miscel‧lani" de l'Arxiu de les Set Claus (Andorra la Vella, Arxiu Històric Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanach i Suñol, Joan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A codicological description and study of ms. 1 of the Archive of the Seven Keys of the National Historical Archive of Andorra, called the Miscellaneous Codex. As its name implies, it is a collection of very heterogeneous material, including historical documents relating to Andorra, along with medical-scientific, doctrinal and literary texts. An analysis of the texts which make up the volume and of the various annotations it contains, clearly indicates that the volume could not have been put together after the end of the 15th or the beginning of the 16th century.

    Descripció codicològica i estudi del ms. 1 de l´Arxiu de les Set Claus de l'Arxiu Històric Nacional d'Andorra, anomenat Còdex Miscel‧lani. Es tracta d'un volum factici de contingut molt heterogeni, que inclou documentació relativa a Andorra, textos medicocientífícs, doctrinals i literaris. L'anàlisi dels textos que el componen i de les intervencions que s’hi poden observar posa de manifest que la constitució del volum no degué ser posterior al pas del segle XV al XVI. [es] Descripción codicológica y estudio del ms. 1 del Archivo de las Siete Llaves, del Archivo Histórico Nacional de Andorra, conocido como Código Misceláneo. Se trata de un volúmen facticio de contenido muy heterogéneo, que incluye documentación relativa a Andorra, textos médicocientíficos, doctrinales y literarios. El análisis de los textos que lo componen y de las intervenciones que se han podido observar ponen de manifiesto que la elaboración de este volúmen no debe ser posterior a la transición de los siglos XV a XVI.

  2. Was it a mistake to abandon the revision clause? Assessment of entrepreneurial flexibility in the German coal mining industry on the basis of real options; War die Aufgabe der Revisionsklausel ein Fehler? Beurteilung unternehmerischer Flexibilitaet im deutschen Steinkohlebergbau auf Basis von Realoptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendiek, Ansgar

    2012-07-15

    The author analyzes the decision to abandon the revision clause, i.e. to abandon entrepreneurial flexibility on the basis of the option price theory and the use of derivatives in coal trading. The focus is on subventionless continuation of coal mining. It is found that the abandoning of the revision clause will involve a loss of value of the real option of about 819 million Euros. Politicians and the coal industry are advised to revise the subventionless continuation of coal mining by the end of 2015.

  3. Contrastive Studies of Clauses in Chinese and Foreign Languages from the Perspective of “Filling the Positions”%“填位”视角下的汉外小句比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪涛

    2015-01-01

    以小句比较为基础,从“位”、“填”、“心理基础”和“比较实践”等方面对“填位”的进一步思考和解读揭示了“填位”的设想是符合人类共有的心理基础的。这种将结构和功能、意义和形式结合起来的研究思路为汉外小句比较研究提供了更大的可能性和可行性。%Based on the contrastive studies of clauses , further consideration and interpretation of the theory of “Filling the Positions”from the “filling” , “positions” , “psychological basis” and “contrastive practice” reveals that the theory is in accordance with humans’ psychological basis and its approach of combining structure and function as well as meaning and form provides greater possibility and feasibility for contrastive studies of clauses in Chinese and foreign languages .

  4. The arbitration clause of the American International Petroleum Negotiators - AIPN; A clausula compromissoria do modelo AIPN 2002 (American International Petroleum Negotiators) para 'joint operating agreement' a luz da legislacao brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroli, Carla [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    After the Brazilian Petroleum Act (Lei n. 9.478/97) was enacted and the monopoly over the conduct of E and P activities in Brazil was made flexible, in addition to PETROBRAS, other national and foreign companies could participate in such activities. This participation of different players is increasing, specially by the formation o joint ventures constituted in order to the parties to jointly explore and produce hydrocarbons. Under these new circumstances and considering that it is important to develop efficient contractual rules to discipline the E and P operations, the 2002 AIPN Model Form for Joint Operating Agreement has been often used in Brazil. However, the effectiveness of the arbitration clause provided therein must be analyzed under the applicable law to the contract. Besides, since the operations are to be conducted in Brazil, sometimes the Brazilian Law will apply or decisions rendered by an arbitral tribunal may have to be executed in Brazil. Therefore, this paper intends to analyze how the arbitration clause provided by the 2002 AIPN Model Form may be adapted to fit the Brazilian Law. (author)

  5. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  6. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scie...

  7. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape events Ms8, Rf3 and Ms8 x Rf3 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised...

  8. General Clause in German Civil Law: Definition of Connotation and Historical Process ——Illustration by example of clause "Treu und Glauben"%德国民法中的一般条款:内涵界定和历史脉络——以诚实信用条款为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任超

    2016-01-01

    一般条款是在德国的立法创制、司法裁判和学理研究中所经常使用的概念,其自身所具有的抽象性和不确定性导致其内涵模糊,整体样貌无法被准确地把握.从体系的和历史的视角出发,以诚实信用这一典型的一般条款为例,通过理论阐述和发展脉络的梳理,以求对于一般条款获得更加清晰的认识.

  9. Primary Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  10. Review and suggestions on reducing SO2 emission concentration of Claus tail gas treatment unit%对降低尾气处理装置SO2排放的认识与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赓良; 李劲

    2014-01-01

    For the technical plan of reducing SO 2 concentration from 960 mg/m3 to below 500 mg/m3 in Claus unit tail gas ,it was pointed out that decreasing lean solution temperature and H2S concentration in selective absorber of SCOT unit ,the total sulfur recovery rate can be effec-tively increased to more than 99 .9% .If formulated solvents are used in addition ,the efficiency of selective absorption and total sulfur recovery rate could be further improved .Currently industrial data showed that Cansolv method belongs to oxidation-absorption technology of tail gas treatment and the total sulfur recovery is lower than that of standard-type SCOT units .Therefore ,the a-doption of Cansolv technology for treating the tail gas of Claus unit should be carefully reviewed .%针对将硫磺回收装置排放尾气中SO2质量浓度从960 mg/m3降至500 mg/m3以下的技术方案,提出通过降低贫液进入SCO T工艺选吸塔的温度及贫液中 H2 S浓度,可有效地将总硫回收率提高至99.9%以上;若再辅以配方型溶剂的应用,则有望进一步改善选吸效果与总硫回收率。但现有工业数据表明,目前,属于氧化-吸收型的Cansolv总硫回收率低于常规SCO T 工艺。因此,对采用Cansolv工艺处理Claus硫磺回收装置尾气的方案宜采取慎重态度。

  11. 风险社会视域下产品经营者行政责任条款之拾缺补遗--以《产品质量法》第五十五条款为研究对象%Complementing the Production Operators’administrative Responsibilities Clauses in the Risk Society--Researching the Fifty-iffth Clause of Product Quality Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石珍; 戴乔

    2014-01-01

    风险社会管制中效率原则根本不可能要求所有经营者对产品质量做最终的确认,而只能要求经营者在购进产品之时能够确保货源的正当且有据可溯、货质有相关合格检验单据。即虽然经营者与生产者均宽泛性地负有产品安全保障的义务,但出于市场效率以及手段能力大小的考量,经营者与生产者在安全注意义务的程度上并非毫无轩轾,经营者与生产者所应承担的行政责任也应有所差异。一方面,若经营者销售《产品质量法》第四十九条至第五十三条规定禁止销售的产品,且该经营者应当知道却未知道此产品属于禁止销售的产品,同时还有充分证据证明该经营者确实不知道该产品为禁止销售的产品并如实说明其进货来源的,此时,可将该经营者的主观过错定位于过失过错,从而可以从轻或者减轻处罚。另一方面,若经营者销售了《产品质量法》第四十九条至第五十三条规定禁止销售的产品,且该经营者已经尽到了合理的安全注意义务,该经营者难以预见产品为禁止销售的产品,则应以无过错为由免除对经营者的行政处罚责任。%Because of the principle of efifciency in the risk society, it is impossible to ask all the operators conifrming the product qualities. However, the operators would be asked ensuring the legitimate sources of goods which can be looked for the roots and certiifcating the compliance certiifcation which can prove the product qualities. Though the operators have broad obligations to ensure the products’ safety, the extent of the obligations to ensure the products’ safety and the administrative responsibilities would be different between operators and producers based on the market efifciency and abilities. On the one han d, the operators sell the products which are abandoned by the forty-ninth and the the iffty-third clauses of product quality law

  12. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts El artículo en las relativas oblicuas [prep. + (art. definido + que] en textos americanos del siglo XVIII = The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.El uso del artículo en estructuras como la casa en (la que vivo presenta hoy en día, entre otras variaciones, una frecuencia de uso menor en Hispanoamérica que en España. Aunque sabemos que este uso, documentado desde el siglo XIII, comienza realmente a extenderse justo en el XVIII, poco conocemos de su evolución en la época en fuentes americanas. En este trabajo, basándonos exclusivamente en textos americanos del XVIII, perseguimos investigar cómo evoluciona este fenómeno en documentación de esta procedencia. También intentaremos explorar qué factores están aparentemente en relación con este cambio e investigar si, en diferentes preposiciones, diverge el ritmo de difusión de su uso. Con vistas a obtener una idea general sobre la extensión del artículo en la época, rastrearemos las apariciones de dichas relativas —con y sin artículo— en los textos americanos recogidos en el CORDE. Para evaluar los factores que pueden incidir en él estudiaremos en detalle determinados textos de ambas mitades del siglo.

  13. Elektrokemiske Processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals.......Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals....

  14. Anaerobic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Ju, Mei-Ting; Li, Wei-Zun; Liu, Le; Wang, Yan-Nan; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. Pretreatment Organic waste Multiple-stage co-digestion Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:27620085

  15. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  16. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  17. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  18. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Data Processing laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory research fields are: the semantics, the tests and the semantic analysis of the codes, the formal calculus, the software applications, the algorithms, the neuron networks and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The investigations concerning the polynomial rings are performed by means of the standard basis approach. Among the research topics, the Pascal codes, the parallel processing, the combinatorial, statistical and asymptotic properties of the fundamental data processing tools, the signal processing and the pattern recognition. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also included

  19. Kreative processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoch, Odilo

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the way of understanding processes and the development of visionary goals - linked to the daily business in archtiectural practise.......Explaining the way of understanding processes and the development of visionary goals - linked to the daily business in archtiectural practise....

  20. Peat Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  1. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  2. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through intervie...

  3. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  4. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  5. 试用系统功能模式分析论证叙述句和叙述体语篇——读《老人与海》后的感想%On Narrative Clauses and Narrative Texts within Systemic Functional Framework --After Reading The Old Man and the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟清

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the relationship between the narrative clauses and narrative texts, and the characteristics of narrative texts The relationship between the narrative clauses and narrative texts is studied within a multi-leveled approach. The research work about the characteristics of narrative texts and narrative clauses is not only carried out within a multi-leveled approach but also from the perspective of Halliday's three metafunctions.%本文主要研究叙述句与叙述体语篇体裁之间的关系,并试图通过对叙述句特点的研究来探讨叙述体语篇体裁的特点.叙述句与叙述体语篇体裁之间的关系是多层次的,对其特点的研究也是多层次的,从韩礼德的三大元功能理论入手进行探讨,是最佳途径.

  6. Was abandonment of the review clause a mistake? Evaluation of management flexibility in the German coal mining industry on the basis of real options; War die Aufgabe der Revisionsklausel ein Fehler? Beurteilung unternehmerischer Flexibilitaet im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau auf Basis von Realoptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendiek, Ansgar [Hochtief Concessions AG, Essen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The author analyses the decision to abandon the co called ''review clause'' (which was the right to revisit the decision to close German hard coal mines in 2012), and thus management flexibility on the basis of the option price theory and use of hedging instruments (derivatives) in coal trading. Only the case of coal production without any subsidies will be taken into account. The original intention of the review clause to subsidise coal production for further years will be left aside. Abandonment of the review clause destroyed a value of the real option of approx. 819 Mio. EUR. It should be agreed with the politicians that the decision concerning potential extension of coal production without subsidies should be made at the end of 2015. At this point in time the coal price for 2019 to 2021 can be locked in by forward contracts. A prerequisite for coal mining without subsidies would be an increase in the coal price of 3.1% p.a., which is only slightly above the inflation rate and seems to be realistic against the background of rising oil prices and increased scarcity of natural resources. (orig.)

  7. Grants Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  8. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  9. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  10. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  11. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    microbial and chemical processes and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied for the design, operation, and the maintenance of wastewater collection systems. The authors add chemical and microbial dimensions to the design and management of sewer networks with an overall aim of improved sustainability......Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...

  12. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    Processing proteases are proteases which proteolytically activate proteins and peptides into their biologically active form. Processing proteases play an important role in biotechnology as tools in protein fusion technology. Fusion strategies where helper proteins or peptide tags are fused...... to the protein of interest are an elaborate method to optimize expression or purification systems. It is however critical that fusion proteins can be removed and processing proteases can facilitate this in a highly specific manner. The commonly used proteases all have substrate specificities to the N...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  13. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  14. 科威特大学城总承包工程付款条件及流程%Payment Clause and Process of General Contracting Project of Kuwait University Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲鸿

    2015-01-01

    业主支付的工程款是工程承包企业主要的现金来源,是企业得以持续发展的重要资金保障。工程款及时足额回收是资金时间效益的体现,关系到工程项目能否顺利实施。%The project payments paid by the owners are the major sources of cash of project contracting enterprises, and it's the guarantee for the sustainable development of the enterprise. The fully and timely recovery of the project payments is the embodiment of time efficiency, which is related to whether the project can be successfully implemented.

  15. Availability of organic sulfides from recovery of SDS desulfurising agent in Claus process%SDS剂脱硫再生酸性气对Claus硫回收装置的适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜利; 王淑兰; 萧新彝

    2004-01-01

    对硫回收装置包括原料气在内的过程气中存在的有机硫化物(COS、CS2、RSH等)的来源、数量及对硫回收可能造成的影响进行具体分析,认为SDS剂脱除的有机硫对硫回收装置没有不利影响.

  16. LS-951催化剂Claus反应尾气加氢转化动力学研究%KINETIC STUDY OF LS-951 HYDROGENATION CATALYST FOR TREATING TAIL GAS FROM CLAUS PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孔远; 余长春; 代小平

    2006-01-01

    LS-951催化剂是一种性能良好的硫磺尾气加氢转化催化剂,已在国内多套工业装置上应用.本文采用四极质谱对SO2加氢、COS水解和CS2水解反应尾气中各种气体组分在线检测,检测数据经过对应气体组分的工作曲线计算后得到反应尾气中各组分浓度,并采用Levenberg-Marquardt非线性最小二乘法进行数据拟合计算,分别建立了LS-951催化剂上SO2加氢、COS水解、CS2水解反应的动力学方程.

  17. The Temperature Control of Combustion Furnace in Claus Process%克劳斯法制硫工艺中燃烧反应炉的温度调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚建华; 朱利凯

    2003-01-01

    因燃烧反应炉中火焰温度问题,分流法或直流法不能直接用来加工含H2S 30%~55%(y)的酸气,其变通的方法是:预热酸气和/或空气提高直流法中的炉温使火焰稳定;以大于总量1/3的酸气分流入炉,以降低分流法中的炉温使炉壁不致超温.这两类方法进入催化反应器的过程气流中的H2S/SO2都为2,且经催化转化后过程的总硫转化率也是相当的.

  18. 克劳斯工艺回收硫磺中催化剂积碳情况的定量表征%Quantitative characterization of the coke deposition in the sulphur recovery of Claus process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌介; 朱荣海; 涂陈媛; 吴明鸥; 谭雪琴

    2015-01-01

    应用SEM+EDS和TG/DSC分析技术,对天然气净化厂使用半年后的硫磺回收催化剂积碳情况进行了定量表征.表征结果表明,催化剂积碳主要分布在其外表面,导致催化剂呈现黑色的主要原因是催化剂主体中含有金属硫化物.鉴于催化剂表层所附着的碳类物质性质比较稳定,因此减缓催化剂积碳的建议措施是减少上游克劳斯燃烧炉产生的碳和适当增加催化剂上层瓷球层厚度.

  19. LS-951T新型Claus尾气加氢催化剂的工业应用%Commercial Application of New-type LS-951T Hydrogenation Catalyst for Tail Gas from Claus Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱华; 张孔远; 燕京

    2007-01-01

    介绍了LS-951T Claus尾气加氢催化剂的特点、物化性质、工业应用情况等.工业应用结果表明,LS-951T催化剂具有良好的低温加氢活性,与国内其他同类催化剂相比,反应器入口温度可降至237~262 ℃.加氢后尾气中非H2S的含硫化合物仅为55.2mg/m3,优于国内外同类加氢催化剂.

  20. The Animacy Effect of the Head Nouns in Chinese Relative Clause Processing%汉语主、宾关系从句加工难度及其核心名词生命性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文广; 陈宝国

    2016-01-01

    采用眼动追踪实验技术,考查了核心名词生命性取向对汉语主、宾关系从句加工难度调节效应.结果显示:(1)核心名词生命性格局对汉语主、宾关系从句的加工难度有着显著调节作用,具体表现为:当主、从句中的核心名词为“生命性-非生命性”格局时,在主句核心名词、核心动词位置,宾语关系从句加工较为容易;当主、从句中的核心名词为“非生命性-生命性”格局时,在上述位置,两种关系从句加工难度差异不显著;(2)汉语主、宾关系从句加工中核心名词生命性效应主要发生在语义信息提取、论元关系建构阶段,体现出汉语语言的特异性.上述结果支持了题元切适性理论.

  1. 克劳斯法硫磺生产过程中酸度的影响因素及对策%Impacts factors of acidity in CLAUS process for sulfur production and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建荣; 陈博; 张欣; 郝东来; 冯辉

    2016-01-01

    针对克劳斯法硫磺装置运行后期硫磺产品酸度值持续升高的问题,分析了影响硫磺产品酸度的主要因素,如造粒加工量变化、液硫脱气设施使用效果、废热锅炉出口温度等.总结出了降低废热锅炉出口温度以控制硫磺酸度的措施,包括酸性水中加注破乳剂减少酸性水带烃、废热锅炉出口至一级硫冷器管线保温全部拆除、废热锅炉自产蒸汽降压、调节伴热线降低液硫温度以及生产包装过程中采取措施控制硫磺产品酸度值等,取得了显著效果.

  2. Task effects on BOLD signal correlates of implicit syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David

    2010-07-01

    BOLD signal was measured in sixteen participants who made timed font change detection judgments in visually presented sentences that varied in syntactic structure and the order of animate and inanimate nouns. Behavioral data indicated that sentences were processed to the level of syntactic structure. BOLD signal increased in visual association areas bilaterally and left supramarginal gyrus in the contrast of sentences with object- and subject-extracted relative clauses without font changes in which the animacy order of the nouns biased against the syntactically determined meaning of the sentence. This result differs from the findings in a non-word detection task (Caplan et al, 2008a), in which the same contrast led to increased BOLD signal in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The difference in areas of activation indicates that the sentences were processed differently in the two tasks. These differences were further explored in an eye tracking study using the materials in the two tasks. Issues pertaining to how parsing and interpretive operations are affected by a task that is being performed, and how this might affect BOLD signal correlates of syntactic contrasts, are discussed. PMID:20671983

  3. Conversion of calcium sulphide to calcium carbonate during the process of recovery of elemental sulphur from gypsum waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Maree, J P; Liebenberg, L; Doucet, F J

    2014-11-01

    The production of elemental sulphur and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from gypsum waste can be achieved by thermally reducing the waste into calcium sulphide (CaS), which is then subjected to a direct aqueous carbonation step for the generation of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and CaCO3. H2S can subsequently be converted to elemental sulphur via the commercially available chemical catalytic Claus process. This study investigated the carbonation of CaS by examining both the solution chemistry of the process and the properties of the formed carbonated product. CaS was successfully converted into CaCO3; however, the reaction yielded low-grade carbonate products (i.e. 99 mass% as CaCO3) or precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC).

  4. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  5. 对《保险法》(09年修订)自杀条款和重复保险条款的思考%Analysis on Suicide and Double Insurance Clauses of Insurance Law ( 2009 revision)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兵

    2012-01-01

    2009年,《中华人民共和国保险法》进行了第二次修订,文章分别对比分析了自杀条款和重复保险条款修订前后的差异,认为修订后的自杀条款与重复保险条款仍然存在着缺陷和不足,会引发保险争议和道德风险,以对保险法相关条款进一步修订完善提供启示。%The Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China was amended the second time in 2009, this article analyses the differences before and after amendments of suicide and double insurance clauses, and points out the shortcomings and deficiencies after amendments, which can cause insurance dispute and moral risk, so as to provides the relevant reference for further improvement of insurance law.

  6. Functional Equivalence:Translation Skills of Reduced Relative Clauses in English for Science and Technology%功能对等:科技英语压缩关系从句的翻译技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹军

    2012-01-01

    Nominal phrases and their modifications in English for Science and Technology (EST) constitute a unique grammar branch. Statistically, reduced relative clauses (RRCs) take up a high rate of occurrence in terms of frequency and complexity. This paper first introduces the stylistic features of EST, in terms of vocabulary, grammar and discourse, followed by an example - based analysis and illustration of comprehension and translation skills of RRCs under the guidance of Functional Equivalence.%科技英语名词性短语及其修饰成分构成了一个独特的语法分支,统计显示其中的压缩从句的使用频率和复杂度非常高。本文首先介绍了科技英语的文体特点,包括词汇特点、句法特点和篇章衔接特点,然后配以大量的例句,从功能等值理论的视角探讨科技英语中压缩从句的理解和翻译。

  7. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  8. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform......The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...

  9. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  10. Causticizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engdal, H.

    1987-03-10

    This invention seeks to provide a method in which the soda lye obtained as a result of cellulose cooking process and unslaked lime are used for producing white liquor which can be re-used in the cooking process. In this method, the heat released by the slaking of lime with soda lye is recovered by a high pressure slaking process wherein the heat is transferred, either to the steam separating from the lye, which steam is then led to the desired application, or to some other medium to be heated. The invention is characterized in that the soda lye to be causticized is divided into two parts, one of which is used for the slaking of lime by adding to it all the unslaked lime needed for the causticizing process, and that, following slaking, the two volumes are brought together for the actual causticizing reaction involving the total amount of lye needed. This invention provides the advantage that the amount of lye needed is smaller, and so the temperature can be increased.

  11. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  12. Boolean process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵应骅; 李忠诚; 赵著行

    1997-01-01

    Boolean algebra successfully describes the logical behavior of a digital circuit, and has been widely used in electronic circuit design and test With the development of high speed VLSIs it is a drawback for Boolean algebra to be unable to describe circuit timing behavior. Therefore a Boolean process is defined as a family of Boolean van ables relevant to the time parameter t. A real-valued sample of a Boolean process is a waveform. Waveform functions can be manipulated formally by using mathematical tools. The distance, difference and limit of a waveform polynomial are defined, and a sufficient and necessary condition of the limit existence is presented. Based on this, the concept of sensitization is redefined precisely to demonstrate the potential and wide application possibility The new definition is very different from the traditional one, and has an impact on determining the sensitizable paths with maximum or minimum length, and false paths, and then designing and testing high performance circuits

  13. Restoration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  14. Processing coordinate structures in Chinese: evidence from eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qingrong

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of an eye-tracking experiment that investigated the processing of coordinate structures in Chinese sentence comprehension. The study tracked the eye movements of native Chinese readers as they read sentences consisting of two independent clauses connected by the word huo zhe. The data strongly confirmed readers' preference for an initial noun phrase (NP-coordination parsing in Chinese coordination structure. When huo zhe was absent from the beginning of a sentence, we identified a cost associated with abandoning the NP-coordination analysis, which was evident with regard to the second NP when the coordination was unambiguous. Otherwise, this cost was evident with regard to the verb, the syntactically disambiguating region, when the coordination was ambiguous. However, the presence of a sentence-initial huo zhe reduced reading times and regressions in the huo zhe NP and the verb regions. We believe that the word huo zhe at the beginning of a sentence helps the reader predict that the sentence contains a parallel structure. Before the corresponding phrases appear, the readers can use the word huo zhe and the language structure thereafter to predicatively construct the syntactic structure. Such predictive capability can eliminate the reader's preference for NP-coordination analysis. Implications for top-down parsing theory and models of initial syntactic analysis and reanalysis are discussed.

  15. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  16. Towards a profile of the interpersonal organization of the portuguese clause Para um perfil da organização interpessoal da oração em Português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Gouveia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at contributing to the description of Portuguese from the point of view of Systemic Functional Grammar, particularly in relation to the description of the clause as an exchange. While assuming that the interpersonal organization of the Portuguese clause involves phenomena that are similar across different languages, such as Mood systems, for instance, the paper wants nevertheless to show that there are systemic options (and their structural realizations that are specific to Portuguese, particularly if compared to the same options in English, a language whose descriptions have so often and too strongly been imposed on Portuguese. Starting with a general description of some aspects of the Portuguese language, the paper then proceeds to a description of Mood types and the system of choices associated with them. By raising some questions and doubts concerning the description of the elements that in Portuguese carry the negotiation forward, the paper ends up proposing a description that sees Portuguese as a Finite-less language, that is, a language that does not have Finite, a function that proved to be appropriate for the description of the English language but fails to be so when considered from the point of view of Portuguese.Este texto visa contribuir para a descrição do português do ponto de vista da Gramática Sistémico-Funcional, particularmente no que diz respeito à descrição da oração como troca. Embora assuma que a organização interpessoal da oração em português envolve fenómenos que são semelhantes em várias línguas distintas, como os sistemas de Modo oracional, por exemplo, o texto pretende ainda assim demonstrar que há opções de sistema (e suas realizações estruturais que são específicas do português, sobretudo quando comparadas com as mesmas opções em inglês, uma língua cujas descrições têm amiúde e fortemente sido impostas ao português. O texto começa com uma descrição geral de

  17. LA ENSEÑANZA DEL SUBJUNTIVO EN EE.UU: EL SUBJUNTIVO EN CLÁUSULAS NOMINALES TEACHING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN THE UNITED STATES: THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jörg Busch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es proporcionar una descripción sistemática, coherente, práctica y didáctica del subjuntivo en cláusulas nominales para libros de texto o manuales de español intermedio y avanzado para anglohablantes. El hilo conductor de todos los usos es la definición del significado o del valor del subjuntivo dentro del sistema de la lengua española como [+ alternativa]. La clasificación se basa en una revisión crítica de la literatura sobre el valor del modo subjuntivo y sobre la metodología de la enseñanza de este fenómeno de la gramática española. También se incluyen recomendaciones prácticas para la enseñanza del subjuntivo a hablantes no nativos.The purpose of this article is to give a systematic, coherent, practical and didactic description of the subjunctive in noun clauses for use in intermediate and advanced Spanish textbooks for English speakers. All uses of the subjunctive can be reduced to a basic value, which can be seen as [+alternative]. This classification is based upon a critical discussion of the literature regarding the value of the subjunctive mood as well as the teaching methodology of this aspect of the Spanish grammar. We have also included practical recommendations for the teaching of the subjunctive to non-native speakers.

  18. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  19. Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  20. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  1. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a process for making a large number of weld beads as separate contours, spaced out from each other, by means of an automatic welding head. Under this invention, after striking the arc in the prescribed manner and positioning the torch on the first contour to be welded and having made the first weld bead, the torch current is reduced to bring about a part fade out of the arc. The torch is then moved to the starting position on a second contour to be welded where a static timed pre-fusion is effected by resumption of the welding current to carry out the second weld bead by following the second welding contour in the same manner and so forth. The invention particularly applies to the welding of tube ends to a tube plate

  2. 我國侵害營業秘密與競業禁止違約判決之量化研究 Quantitative Analysis of the ROC Court Decisions on Trade Secret Infringements and Violation of Non-Compete Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    洪榮宗 Oliver Hung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 營業秘密法生效迄今十年,其對於營業秘密的保護是否已周延?實有待觀察。又離職後競業禁止約款之相關實務運作現況為何?亦為探討營業秘密保護議題時,無法切割之問題。 本文利用司法院之系統查詢我國地方法院自1999 年8 月1 日起至2006年6 月30 日止,侵害營業秘密或違反競業禁止約款之民事判決,並以量化分析方式探討司法實務之態度。 本文之量化分析顯示:營業秘密與競業禁止訴訟之勝率均偏低;主張違反競業禁止明顯比主張侵害營業秘密來得容易;兩類訴訟之平均審理時間恐無法因應其急迫性需求;未約定違反競業禁止約款之違約賠償罰則的敗訴機率極高;競業禁止約款之五原則在法院實務上並未被遵守等。本文希望透過上開發現與確認,能期待找出改善之道。 The ROC Trade Secret Act has come into force for 10 years. However, whether it has sufficiently protected the trade secrets remains unanswered. In addition, the current operation and practice of “Non-Compete Clauses after Employment Relationship” are also important issues while discussing the trade secrets issues. Through the database of the ROC Judicial Yuan, we reviewed all the cases in the ROC district courts in connection with infringements on trade secrets and breach of non-compete clauses from August 1, 1999 to June 30, 2006 and conducted quantitative analysis of the courts’ opinions in this regard. The results of our quantitative analysis show that: 1. most of the decisions related to trade secret infringements and breach of non-compete clauses are in favor of defendants; 2. it is easier to claim violation of the non-compete clauses than infringements on trade secrets; 3. the trial period is too long to protect the plaintiffs given that the time is of essence; 4. it is quite probable that plaintiffs will lose the lawsuits if no penalty clause for

  3. 煤化工项目硫回收工艺技术分析%Analysis of Sulfur Recovery Processes in Coal-chemical Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明成; 蒋保林

    2011-01-01

    介绍了煤化工装置硫回收的特点,评述煤化工装置三类常用的硫回收工艺,并对这三类工艺进行对比。结果表明,目前中国煤化工领域硫回收装置主要采用的是克劳斯的延伸工艺。%In the paper,the sulfur recovery characteristics of coal-chemical plant were introduced.Three kings of commonly used sulfur recovery processes were reviewed and compared also.The result showed that the extension of claus process was widely used in coal-chemical industry.

  4. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  5. 著作權法「防盜拷措施」條款例外規定要點之檢討 The Review of Regulations Concerning the Exceptions of Anti-piracy Measures Clauses in Taiwan Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 「科技保護措施」是著作權人在數位網路環境下,以技術保護其權利的重要手段,國際著作權法制對於這些「科技保護措施」,再以法律保護,使其不被任意破解或規避。然而,這些規定對於廣大的公眾利益究竟有何負面影響,非無疑義。我國著作權法在2004 年9 月1 日增訂「防盜拷措施」條款後,主管機關終於在2006 年3 月23 日發布「防盜拷措施」排除適用範圍之認定要點,即「著作權法第80 條之2 第3 項各款內容認定要點」,本文針對此一要點的訂定背景與內容作簡要介紹與分析,期望引起各界的關注,也可以為本要點下一次的檢討修正作準備。 Technological Protection Measures (TPMs is an important method for copyright owners to employ technology to protect his right under digital internet environment. International copyright treaty establishes legal regime to prevent those TPMs from crack or circumvention. However, what negative side effects those regulations may cause to the public interest needs to be evaluated. Taiwan amended its Copyright Law and introduced so-call Anti-piracy Measures clauses on Sep. 1, 2004. In addition, the Competent Authority released the regulations concerning the details of exceptions and limitations set forth in Paragraph 3 of Article 80ter on Mar. 23, 2006. This Article summarizes the background and analysis the details of the regulations. The purpose of this Article is to raise the public concern to this issue. It may also make a preparation to amend the Regulation.

  6. Tail Gas Treatment Process for Sulfur Recovery%硫回收尾气处理工艺分析与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞华

    2012-01-01

    The development and philosophy of the tail gas treatment process for sulfur recovery was briefed, and some commonly used domestic tail gas treatment processes were introduced, namely, SOCT process, super Claus process, RAR process, SSR process and the ammonia process. The three schemes of the ammonia process were introduced in detail, and comparisons and benefit analysis were made on the last two schemes. The technical data concerning some domestic tail gas treatment processes were analyzed, and the comparison between various processes showed that the ammonia process had the advantages of less investment, less operation cost and less land demand, in case there is an existing boiler flue gas ammonia desulphurization device.%简述了硫回收尾气处理工艺的发展概况和技术进展,介绍了国内应用较多的几种尾气处理工艺:SCOT工艺、超级Claus工艺、RAR工艺、SSR工艺和氨法工艺;并对氨法工艺的3种方案进行了详细对比分析;通过对比可知,在有锅炉烟气氨法脱硫装置作依托的前提下,氨法工艺的方案三具有投资省、操作费用低、占地面积小的优势.

  7. Review of arbitration clauses in contracts of concession of the 10th. bidding round of the ANP - Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustives; Analise das clausulas de arbitragem nos contratos de concessao da 10a. rodada de licitacoes da Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seixas, Luiz Felipe Monteiro [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2010-01-15

    The use of arbitration as an instrument of conflict resolution has been consolidated in business practices, in particular due to its efficiency and dynamism to the current situation facing the national legal system. In this sense, distinguished the use of arbitration in the oil and natural gas industry, with peculiarities that is already being studied by several researchers in the field of law. This research will analyze the arbitration clauses that comprise the Model Concession Agreement for the 10th Round of ANP, bringing, a brief explanation on the prevision of the use of arbitration in Petroleum Law (Law no. 9.478/97), and as such has influenced the making of the prevision arbitration clauses of concession contracts.Thus, the research, contributed to the study of arbitration in a generic way, and in particular in the oil activity. Finally, some considerations about the rules of arbitration of International Chamber of Commerce shall be plotted in order to reflect the same on the arbitration procedures adopted in the industry of petroleum and natural gas.

  8. Filling predictable and unpredictable gaps, with and without similarity-based interference: Evidence for LIFG effects of dependency processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLeiken

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG in response to object relative clauses (ORs compared to subject relative clauses (SRs. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken & Pylkkänen (2014 showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE, which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including Right Node Raising (RNR structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific.

  9. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiken, Kimberly; McElree, Brian; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to verb phrase ellipsis (VPE), which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including right node raising structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific. PMID:26635655

  10. Expression of cause, evidence, justify and motivation rhetorical relations by causal hypotactic clauses in Brazilian Portuguese=Expressão das relações retóricas de causa, evidência, justificativa e motivação por meio de orações hipotáticas adverbiais causais no português brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the expression of cause, evidence, justify and motivation rhetorical relations by means of causal hypotactic clauses in formal oral discourse (university lectures and interviews with academic researchers in Brazilian Portuguese. The investigation is based on Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST, a theory of text organization which describes the implicit relations that arise from the combination of parts of texts. The identification of these relations was based on a parameter from Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG: layers of representational and interpersonal levels. From interpersonal level, layers move and discourse act were used. From representational level, layers propositional content and states of affairs were employed. Non-volitional cause relations are established by clauses conveying states of affairs, volitional cause relation is established by clauses conveying propositional contents. Justify relation and evidence relation are established by clauses conveying discourse acts (in evidence relation an instance of what was stated in the nucleus portion is provided in the satellite portion. Finally, motivation relation is established by clauses conveying a motivation subsidiary discourse act.O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a expressão das relações retóricas de causa, evidência, justificativa e motivação por meio de orações hipotáticas adverbiais causais em elocuções formais (aulas e entrevistas no português brasileiro. A investigação se baseia na Teoria da Estrutura Retórica do Texto (RST, uma teoria da organização textual que descreve as relações implícitas que surgem da combinação de partes do texto. A identificação dessas relações se baseou em parâmetros da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF: camadas dos níveis representacional e interpessoal. Do nível interpessoal, utilizaram-se as camadas movimento e ato discursivo. Do nível representacional utilizaram-se as camadas

  11. Sentential context modulates the involvement of the motor cortex in action language processing: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuil, Karen D I; Smits, Marion; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously during action verb learning. Thus the concept and motor activation become strongly linked. According to this view, the language-induced activation of the neural substrates for action is automatic. By contrast, a weak view of embodied cognition proposes that activation of these motor regions is modulated by context. In recent studies it was found that action verbs in literal sentences activate the motor system, while mixed results were observed for action verbs in non-literal sentences. Thus, whether the recruitment of motor regions is automatic or context dependent remains a question. We investigated functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to non-literal and literal sentences including arm and leg related actions. The sentence structure was such that the action verb was the last word in the subordinate clause. Thus, the constraining context was presented well before the verb. Region of interest analyses showed that action verbs in literal context engage the motor regions to a greater extent than non-literal action verbs. There was no evidence for a semantic somatotopic organization of the motor cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that during comprehension, the degree to which motor regions are recruited is context dependent, supporting the weak view of embodied cognition.

  12. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    of enforceable business contracts, SCCs are considered to overcome the heavily criticized softness of other CSR regulation and, therefore, to be more successful in fostering ethical behaviour of suppliers who are legally independent but often in economic and business terms dependent on the sourcing companies......Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...

  13. 48 CFR 27.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dedicated to that Department's naval nuclear propulsion or weapons related programs. (2) If an agency... an agency's “exceptional circumstances” authority, the contracting officer must comply with 37...

  14. 48 CFR 2152.070 - Applicable clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-3Gratuities 52.203-5Covenant against Contingent Fees 52.203-6Restrictions on Subcontractor Sales to the...-63Preference for U.S.-Flag Air Carriers 52.249-2Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed Price)...

  15. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  16. 48 CFR 228.370 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor is a permittee or licensee or has a right to use, including Government airfields. (iv) Revise...-7006, Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance, in solicitations and contracts for services or construction to be performed in Spain, unless the contractor is a Spanish concern....

  17. 48 CFR 811.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requests for proposals for technical medical and other technical equipment and devices issued by a field... mechanical equipment (other than technical medical and other technical equipment and devices) issued by a field station....

  18. 48 CFR 1823.1005 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution...

  19. 48 CFR 1652.000 - Applicable clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-5Covenant Against Contingent Fees. 52.203-7Anti-Kickback Procedures. 52.203-12Limitation on Payments to... Items and Commercial Components. 52.246-25Limitation of Liability—Services. 52.247-63Preference for...

  20. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{sup SM} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not