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Sample records for clastic reservoirs west

  1. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  2. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  3. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  4. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  5. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  6. A Study on Organic Inclusions in Clastic Reservoir Rocks and Their Application to the Assessment of Oil and Gas Accumulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文淮; 张志坚; 等

    1996-01-01

    Terrigenous clastic reservoir rocks are widespread in China,and nearly all the industrial oil and gas accumulations in eastern China occur in the clastic rocks.The study shows that organic inclusions are mostly distributed in the secondary fissures and pores which were ormed in the process of oil-rock interaction,rather than in the cements or secondary enlargements. The organic inclusions are dominantly organic gas-rich or are composed of pure hydrocarbons.Homogenization temperatures range mainly from 120℃ to 130℃,which shows a relatively high maturity of organic matter.Vertical and horizontal temperature changes provide the grounds for the investigation of basin evolution and thermal fluid-kinetics-model.Fluorescence spectral characteristics o the organic inclusions indicate that oils and gases in the area studied probably have experienced two-stage or two-time migration.Micro-fluorescence rescearch is one of the effective approaches to oil/source correlation and oil migration-stage determination.The abundance and occurrence of organic inclusions is one of the indicators of oil and gas abundance and accumulation in rock layers.With the help of other informatio,organic inclusions can provide the basis for the prospective assessment of oil and gas in clastic reservoir rocks.

  7. SAGD development strategy for concurrent production of two vertically stacked clastic reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.; Nugent, D.; Meyer, K. [Osum Oil Sands Corp (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Taiga project was proposed by Osum oil sands corporation for the development of oil sand production in the Cold Lake area. The project is comprised of two reservoirs, one in the Lower Grand Rapids formation and the other in the Clearwater formation. Given the different characteristics of the two reservoirs, oil recovery would require individual drainage systems with their respective designs, operating strategies, and drilling operations. Having to build two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) systems would increase the risks and costs of the project. The current study proposes a model for SAGD operations that would produce from both formations simultaneously while addressing the different properties of the two reservoirs. A geo-mechanical model was used to predict the efficiency of the production process and estimate the temperature and pressure distribution in the reservoir during the drainage. Analysis shows that the model for simultaneous SAGD operations would reduce the drilling risks, improve the efficiency of the steam, increase the oil production, and reduce the costs of the project.

  8. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. PMID:23306160

  9. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. - Highlights: ► The positive DRAD values indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. ► Thorium normalization was applied to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities. ► The conventional well logs are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in wells. ► Determining hydrocarbon potentialities zones using spectrometric gamma-ray logs

  10. 3D multicomponent seismic characterization of a clastic reservoir in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Espejo, Antonio Jose

    The main goal of this research is to characterize the combined structural-stratigraphic trap of the Tenerife Field in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin (MMVB), Colombia. For the first time in Colombia the structural and quantitative interpretation of modern three-dimensional multicomponent (3D-3C) seismic imaging enables a geometric description, a kinematic interpretation of the structural styles, and the facies distribution of the reservoir. A seismic petrophysics work-flow to better achieve the seismic well-tie. Edited and check-shot calibrated P-wave sonic logs were obtained and coefficients of the Gardner and Castagna equations were calibrated to match the density and shear-wave velocity depth trends for the basin. Seismic modeling was performed to evaluate the PP and PS seismic response of the reservoir interval (Mugrosa Formation). The structural interpretation methodology involves a 3D fault-correlation and horizon picking for both PP- and PS-PSTM data volumes. Geometric attributes such as coherence and curvature were used to enhance the structural discontinuities. The main unconformity of the Middle Eocene (MEU) was interpreted, and an attribute-assisted interpretation of the reservoir was conducted in detail. While P-wave data provided most of the structural interpretation, converted-wave data provide a better understanding of the faults. Traditionally, compressive thrust-propagation folds and tectonic inversion have been considered as the main mechanisms controlling the deformation in the MMVB. However, the new interpretation shown in this work provides a different structural concept that involves two major structural styles: 1. Under the MEU the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene deformation, dominated by east-verging thrust and partially inverted Mesozoic normal faults, is preserved. Associated folds exhibit a north-south strike, and their structural development is controlled by a long-lived structural element that dominates the area (the Infantas

  11. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  12. Sedimentary and diagenetic processes at the origin of chlorites formation inside silico-clastic reservoirs; Processus sedimentaires et diagenetiques a l'origine de la formation des chlorites dans les reservoirs silicoclastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinseau, E.

    2002-06-01

    Diagenetic chlorite in deeply buried petroleum reservoirs give to the formations relatively good reservoir properties. The purpose of this study is, by a multidisciplinary approach, to better understand how chlorites form and to put into evidence the factors which influence their formation. Four case studies have been chosen: the silici-clastic Mulichinco (Valanginian) and Tordillo (Kimmeridgian) formations of the Neuquen basin, Argentina, the Springhill Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Austral basin, Argentina, and the Mashirah Bay formation (Precambrian) from the Huqf-Haushi area, Oman. Sedimentological analyses have been combined to petrographical observations (optical microscope, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, Cathodoluminescence), to chemical analyses, to chlorite polytypicism study, and by fluid inclusions micro-thermometry in silicifications. These studies have allowed to precise the diagenetic sequence for each of these formations and to approach the conditions for the formation of diagenetic chlorites for each case, and to conclude the following points: (1) ferro-magnesian chlorites require precursor material such as volcano-clasts. Their presence is associated with continental environments. Their destabilization into chlorite, via smectite, is favoured at the water/sediment interface during marine transgression. (2) ferriferous chlorites formation can happen from glauconitic minerals which contain a 7 angstroms phase like berthierite, and 10-12 angstroms phase as smectite phase, under anoxic conditions. (3) polytypicism variations traduce two different mechanisms for the chlorite formation: ferro-magnesian chlorites form by dissolution-recrystallization process and re-equilibrate with burial, whereas ferriferous chlorite form from berthierite. (author)

  13. 两北地区三叠系深部碎屑岩储层特征及控制因素%Reservoir characteristics and control factors of Triassic clastic rocks in Lianghei region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玺; 周江羽; 李晓峰; 张玉蛟

    2012-01-01

    运用钻井岩心、铸体薄片和扫描电镜等资料,对两北地区三叠系深部碎屑岩的储层特征及储层发育的控制因素进行了研究.结果表明,三叠系储层主要岩石类型为长石岩屑砂岩和岩屑砂岩,具有成分成熟度低和结构成熟度中等的岩石学特征,储集空间以粒间溶孔为主,其次为裂缝,属于中孔、中—低渗透储层.两北地区三叠系主要发育冲积扇—河流—湖泊—三角洲沉积体系,沉积主体为三角洲平原、三角洲前缘亚相及滨浅湖沉积,储集砂体主要为分流河道和河口坝沉积.成岩作用是深部碎屑岩储层后期改造的关键因素,压实作用使得储层原始孔隙遭受破坏;同时储层中方解石、长石、石英、岩屑及杂基在大气、水和有机酸的溶蚀作用下,产生大量的溶蚀孔隙,改善了储集性能,溶蚀作用是两北地区三叠系形成优质深部碎屑岩储层的关键因素.%Using the date of drilling cores, cast thin slice, scanning electron microscope and so on, the characteristics and control factors of the Triassic clastic reservoirs in Uangbei region are studied. The rock type is dominantly the feldspar sandstone and debris sandstone, with the petrological characteristics of low compositional maturity and medium textural maturity, and the reservoir spaces are mainly intergranular dissolution pores, secondly cracks, and it is medium porosity to low-medium permeability reservoir. The main sedimentary system in the study area is alluvial fan-rivers-lakes梔elta system, the main sedimentary bodies are delta plain, delta front, lakeside and shallow facies. Reservoir sand bodies are distributary channel and estuary dam. The key factor of reforming the deep-buried clastic rock reservoirs is diagenesis, and the primary porosity suffers a great reduction by compaction; Due to the atmospheric water and organic acid, the caleite, feldspar, rock fragment, quartz and miscellaneous matrix experience

  14. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

  15. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability

  16. Characterization of deep-marine clastic sediments from foreland basins: Outcrop-derived concepts for exploration, production and reservoir modelling. Doctoral thesis; Karakterizering van diep-mariene klastische sedimenten uit voorland bekkens: Aan ontsluitingen ontleende concepten voor exploratie, produktie en reservoir modellering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuppers, J.D.

    1995-02-20

    Deep-marine clastic sediments are the host for many prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs. The sandbodies that form these reservoirs show a wide variety in shape, spatial arrangement, and internal structure. The outcrops studied for this thesis pertain to the fill of circum-mediterranean foreland basins in Spain and Greece. The outcrops have allowed the description of the multiscale anatomy of sandbodies that cover a wide range of depositional settings. The descriptions are focused on those features that are most likely to influence the flow of fluids through analogous reservoirs of similar construction. Extensive use was made of photomosaics to outline the large-scale geometries and stacking modes of the sandbodies. The sediments studied form the basis for seven `reservoir models` that are both descriptive and conceptual.

  17. Facies sedimentology, mineralogy and genetic stratigraphy of the lower-Lias silici-clastic reservoirs of Cere-La-Ronde; Sedimentologie de facies, mineralogie et stratigraphie genetique des reservoirs silicoclastiques du Lias inferieur de Cere-La-Ronde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiller, M.

    1997-11-21

    Some sandstone reservoirs in the South West of the Parisian Basin (Sologne) are used for gas storage in the underground aquifer by GDF. The study aims to reconstruct the geometry of these reservoirs and to establish the factors controlling their deposition in the Sologne basin during Rhaetian and Hettangian times. This study combines palynological, sedimentological, mineralogical and sequential analyses. It is applied to channel deposits as well as to flood-plain and over-bank deposits which are rarely considered. The formations are deposited in a continental transgressive context associated to a decreasing subsidence. The different depositional environments varied from the alluvial fan to the coastal plain with different intermediate alluvial plains. They get organized in three depositional profiles which are emphasized by hydrodynamic discontinuities due to irreversible modifications in depositional conditions. The clayey associations change with each depositional profile according to detrital source modifications. They characterize discontinuities due to geodynamic events affecting the Sologne basin (depositional profile changes, pedogenesis). In this continental context, the genetic sequences record a cycle of variation of the river longitudinal profile slope. They determine the sediments geometry which results from the relative sea-level variations. Local tectonics creates an heterogenous subsidence and consequently controls the distribution of the sediments. During tectonic instability periods, the subsiding areas migrate while they do not during tectonic stability periods. The latter end with irreversible change in depositional profile. (author) 135 refs.

  18. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  19. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry

  20. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improve Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool,Eddy County,NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.B.

    1997-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a field demonstration in the U. S. Department of Energy Class IH Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  1. Tight Reservoir Properties Derived by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Mercury Porosimetry and Computed Microtomography Laboratory Techniques. Case Study of Palaeozoic Clastic Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakowska Paulina I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR investigations, mercury porosimetry measurements (MP and computed microtomography (micro-CT, applied to the tight Palaeozoic rocks from the depths lower than 3000 m, were presented to estimate their reservoir potential. NMR signal analysis and interpretation were performed. Based on NMR driven models, permeability and Free Fluid Index were calculated for data sets divided into homogeneous clusters. Computerized mercury porosimetry results visualization and processing provided useful information, as the automatically determined Swanson parameter is correlated with petrophysical properties of rocks. Micro-CT enriched the image of porous space in qualitative and quantitative ways. Homogeneity of pore space structure was discussed using micro-CT approach. Integration of the results in the frame of reservoir parameters from standard laboratory methods and the modern ones resulted in the improvement of methodology for determining the old, deep-seated, hard sedimentary rocks reservoir potential.

  2. Nutrient budget for Saguling Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Barry T; van Dok, Wendy; Djuangsih, Nani

    2002-04-01

    A preliminary nutrient budget for Saguling Reservoir is reported as a first attempt to quantify the behaviour of nutrients entering this reservoir. This work is part of a larger Indonesia-Australia collaborative research and training project, involving Padjadjaran University and Monash University, established to study nutrient dynamics in Saguling Reservoir. Saguling Reservoir, the first of a chain of three large reservoirs (Saguling, Cirata and Jatilahur), built on the Citarum River in central Java, was completed in 1985. It has already become highly polluted, particularly with domestic and industrial effluent (organic matter, nutrients, heavy metals) from the urban areas of Bandung (population 2 million). The reservoir experiences major water quality problems, including excessive growths of floating plants, toxic cyanobacterial blooms and regular fish-kills. The work reported in this paper shows that Saguling receives a very large nutrient load from the city of Bandung and because of this, is highly eutrophic. It is unlikely that the water quality of Saguling will improve until a substantial part of Bandung is sewered and adequate discharge controls are placed on the many industries in the region upstream of the reservoir. PMID:12092591

  3. Environmental Factors Affecting Mercury in Camp Far West Reservoir, California, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Stewart, A. Robin; Saiki, Michael K.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Topping, Brent R.; Rider, Kelly M.; Gallanthine, Steven K.; Kester, Cynthia A.; Rye, Robert O.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents water quality in Camp Far West Reservoir from October 2001 through August 2003. The reservoir, located at approximately 300 feet above sea level in the foothills of the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California, is a monomictic lake characterized by extreme drawdown in the late summer and fall. Thermal stratification in summer and fall is coupled with anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion. Water-quality sampling was done at approximately 3-month intervals on eight occasions at several stations in the reservoir, including a group of three stations along a flow path in the reservoir: an upstream station in the Bear River arm (principal tributary), a mid-reservoir station in the thalweg (prereservoir river channel), and a station in the deepest part of the reservoir, in the thalweg near Camp Far West Dam. Stations in other tributary arms of the reservoir included those in the Rock Creek arm of the reservoir, a relatively low-flow tributary, and the Dairy Farm arm, a small tributary that receives acidic, metal-rich drainage seasonally from the inactive Dairy Farm Mine, which produced copper, zinc, and gold from underground workings and a surface pit. Several water-quality constituents varied significantly by season at all sampling stations, including major cations and anions, total mercury (filtered and unfiltered samples), nitrogen (ammonia plus organic), and total phosphorus. A strong seasonal signal also was observed for the sulfurisotope composition of aqueous sulfate from filtered water. Although there were some spatial differences in water quality, the seasonal variations were more profound. Concentrations of total mercury (filtered and unfiltered water) were highest during fall and winter; these concentrations decreased at most stations during spring and summer. Anoxic conditions developed in deep parts of the reservoir during summer and fall in association with thermal stratification. The highest concentrations of methylmercury in unfiltered

  4. Small reservoirs in the West African savanna: Usage, monitoring and impact (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Liebe, J. R.; Annor, F.; Andreini, M.

    2013-12-01

    The West African savanna is dotted with thousands of small reservoirs. These reservoirs were primarily built for irrigation purposes, supplying supplementary irrigation in the rainy season and full irrigation in the dry season. Some reservoirs were specifically constructed for watering cattle. Most reservoirs, however, now fulfill a multitude of functions in addition to irrigation and cattle watering, such as fishing, bathing, household water, supply of construction materials, and recreation. In the framework of the Small Reservoirs Project (www.smallreservoirs.org), extensive research has been undertaken over the past ten years that addresses the functioning of these reservoirs and the development of new monitoring methods. This presentation will give a general overview of our findings with respect to history, usage, and hydrological impact of small reservoirs in West Africa. In general, no comprehensive databases are available to local and national governments that contain all reservoirs and their attributes. Remote sensing, therefore, offers an interesting alternative to produce inventories of small reservoirs in a cost effective way. The most straightforward application is the mapping of small reservoirs with the aid of optical satellite images. Open water tends to stand out clearly from its surroundings in such images, allowing for relatively accurate determination of the location and surface area of the reservoirs. An important early discovery was that within a given geomorphological region, there is a very good correlation between surface area and storage volume. Once this correlation is established through a small sub-sample of the reservoirs, all volumes can be calculated on the basis of surfaces as determined through remote sensing. In turn, this opens up the opportunity to monitor water storage over the year by means of satellite images. Optical images are usually not available during large parts of the year due to cloud cover. This holds especially true

  5. Interwell tracers--an effective reservoir evaluation tool: West Sumatra field results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conoco successfully has used four different radioactive tracers simultaneously to determine the direction of fluid movement in a sequence of Pennsylvanian-age sandstone benches within the northern half of the West Sumatra Unit. Radioactive tracer material introduced at the injection well and identified at the producing well provides the flow direction and rate of movement of injected fluids. This information will be used to maximize sweep efficiencies and optimize depletion plans in this multipay, discontinuous reservoir. 2 refs

  6. Geothermal Reservoir Characterization for Steam Field Management in Kamojang Geothermal Field-West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kamojang is the first geothermal field in Indonesia with a vapor dominated system reservoir. Kamojang has been exploited for over 20 years producing about 1100 tons/hour of steam which is equivalent to 140 Mwe electricity energy. This research is aimed to study the reservoir character after 20 years of exploitation and to investigate the effect of reinjection as a artificial recharge for steam input in the future and also the nature of secondary processes in the reservoir using isotope geochemistry tools. The research is conducted by natural isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H analysis of many sources of water (meteoric, cold spring, fumaroles and shallow groundwater in the surrounding of Kamojang field and also fluid reservoir to establish fluid reservoir origins and isotopic composition. Gas analysis and isotopes monitoring on the 25 production wells have been conducted every 2-3 years intervals for more than 10 years to investigate the effect of exploitation to the reservoir performance. Tritium radiotracer test with 370 GBq (10 Ci activity was conducted at the KMJ 15 reinjection well to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of reinjection water to its surrounding producing well (KMJ 11, 14, 17, 18, 26, 17 and 30. Data interpretation and evaluation to determine reinjection water mass recovery and cooling prediction modeling were conducted using ICEBOX program package (TRINV and TRCOOL. Interpretation and evaluation of data concluded that reservoir fluid of Kamojang geothermal field was originated from meteoric water which infiltrated through fault structures at elevation of 1350 m –1650 m above sea level. There is no evidence that the fluid was originated from magmatic water. Reservoir fluid moved both laterally and vertically (deep fluid with lateral fluid movement from west to the east. The isotope data analysis indicated there is water entry in west-northwest reservoir boundary. Water entry gradually moved from northwest to the

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Characterization For Steam Field Management In Kamojang Geothermal Field-West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamojang is the first geothermal field in Indonesia with a vapor dominated system reservoir. Kamojang has been exploited for over 20 years producing about 1100 tons/hour of steam which is equivalent to 140 Mwe electricity energy. This research is aimed to study the reservoir character after 20 years of exploitation and to investigate the effect of reinjection as a artificial recharge for steam input in the future and also the nature of secondary processes in the reservoir using isotope geochemistry tools. The research is conducted by natural isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H) analysis of many sources of water (meteoric, cold spring, fumaroles and shallow groundwater) in the surrounding of Kamojang field and also fluid reservoir to establish fluid reservoir origins and isotopic composition. Gas analysis and isotopes monitoring on the 25 production wells have been conducted every 2-3 years intervals for more than 10 years to investigate the effect of exploitation to the reservoir performance. Tritium radiotracer test with 370 GBq (10 Ci) activity was conducted at the KMJ 15 reinjection well to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of reinjection water to its surrounding producing well (KMJ 11, 14, 17, 18, 26, 17 and 30). Data interpretation and evaluation to determine reinjection water mass recovery and cooling prediction modeling were conducted using ICEBOX program package (TRINV and TRCOOL). Interpretation and evaluation of data concluded that reservoir fluid of Kamojang geothermal field was originated from meteoric water which infiltrated through fault structures at elevation of 1350 m -1650 m above sea level. There is no evidence that the fluid was originated from magmatic water. Reservoir fluid moved both laterally and vertically (deep fluid) with lateral fluid movement from west to the east. The isotope data analysis indicated there is water entry in west-northwest reservoir boundary. Water entry gradually moved from northwest to the southeast (through

  8. Rock-physics-based carbonate pore type characterization and reservoir permeability heterogeneity evaluation, Upper San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Qifeng; Sun, Yuefeng; Sullivan, Charlotte

    2011-05-01

    In addition to mineral composition and pore fluid, pore type variations play an important role in affecting the complexity of velocity-porosity relationship and permeability heterogeneity of carbonate reservoirs. Without consideration of pore type diversity, most rock physics models applicable to clastic rocks for explaining the rock acoustic properties and reservoir parameters relationship may not work well for carbonate reservoirs. A frame flexibility factor ( γ) defined in a new carbonate rock physics model can quantify the effect of pore structure changes on seismic wave velocity and permeability heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. Our study of an Upper San Andres carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, shows that for core samples of given porosity, the lower the frame flexibility factor ( γ), the higher the sonic wave velocity. For the studied reservoir, samples with frame flexibility factor ( γ) 3.85 indicate either dominant interparticle pore space in dolopackstone or microcrack pore space in dolowackstone or dolomudstone. Using the frame flexibility factor ( γ), different porosity-impedance and porosity-permeability trends can be classified with clear geologic interpretation such as pore type and rock texture variations to improve porosity and permeability prediction accuracy. New porosity-permeability relations with γ classification help delineate permeability heterogeneity in the Upper San Andres reservoir, and could be useful for other similar carbonate reservoir studies. In addition, results from analysis of amplitude variation with offset (AVO) and impedance modeling indicate that by combining rock physics model and pre-stack seismic inversion, simultaneous estimation of porosity and frame flexibility factor ( γ) is quite feasible because of the strong influence of carbonate pore types on AVO especially when offset is large.

  9. 3D Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher D. White

    2009-12-21

    Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs formed by ancient river deltas. This has implications for the spatial distribution of rock types and the variation of transport properties. A between mudstones and sandstones may form baffles that influence productivity and recovery efficiency. Diagenetic processes such as compaction, dissolution, and cementation can also alter flow properties. A better understanding of these properties and improved methods will allow improved reservoir development planning and increased recovery of oil and gas from deltaic reservoirs. Surface exposures of ancient deltaic rocks provide a high-resolution view of variability. Insights gleaned from these exposures can be used to model analogous reservoirs, for which data is sparser. The Frontier Formation in central Wyoming provides an opportunity for high-resolution models. The same rocks exposed in the Tisdale anticline are productive in nearby oil fields. Kilometers of exposure are accessible, and bedding-plane exposures allow use of high-resolution ground-penetrating radar. This study combined geologic interpretations, maps, vertical sections, core data, and ground-penetrating radar to construct geostatistical and flow models. Strata-conforming grids were use to reproduce the observed geometries. A new Bayesian method integrates outcrop, core, and radar amplitude and phase data. The proposed method propagates measurement uncertainty and yields an ensemble of plausible models for calcite concretions. These concretions affect flow significantly. Models which integrate more have different flow responses from simpler models, as demonstrated an exhaustive two-dimensional reference image and in three dimensions. This method is simple to implement within widely available geostatistics packages. Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs that are inferred to have been formed by ancient river deltas. This geologic setting has implications for the spatial distribution of

  10. Reservoir Characterization around Geothermal Field, West Java, Indonesia Derived from 4-D Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdhora Ry, Rexha; Nugraha, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of micro-seismic events induced by intensive geothermal exploitation in a particular geothermal field, located in West Java region, Indonesia was used to detect the fracture and permeability zone. Using local monitoring seismometer network, tomographic inversions were conducted for the three-dimensional Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for January - December 2007, January - December 2008, and January - December 2009. First, hypocenters location was relocated using joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method in purpose to estimate best location. Then, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted using delay time tomography for dataset of every year respectively. The travel times passing through the three-dimensional velocity model were calculated using ray tracing pseudo-bending method. Norm and gradient damping were added to constrain blocks without ray and to produce smooth solution model. The inversion algorithm was developed in Matlab environment. Our tomographic inversion results from 3-years of observations indicate the presence of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio at depths of about 1 - 3 km below sea level. These features were interpreted may be related to steam-saturated rock in the reservoir area of this geothermal field. The locations of the reservoir area were supported by the data of well- trajectory, where the zones of high Vp/Vs were observed around the injection wells and the zones of low Vp/Vs were observed around the production wells. The extensive low Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir is getting stronger during the 3-years study period. This is probably attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective tool for geothermal reservoir characterization and depletion monitoring and can potentially provide information in parts of the reservoir which have not been drilled.

  11. Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Methods, applications and developments of ground-penetrating radar for determination of reservoir geometries in near-surface settings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, G.A.; Soegaard, K.

    1998-05-25

    An integrated sedimentologic and GPR investigation has been carried out on a fluvial channel sandstone in the mid-Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone at Coyote Basin along the southwestern flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. This near-surface study, which covers a area of 40 {times} 16.5 meters to a depth of 15 meters, integrates detailed stratigraphic data from outcrop sections and facies maps with multi-frequency 3-D GPR surveys. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to develop new ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for imaging shallow subsurface sandstone bodies, and (2) to construct an empirical three-dimensional sandstone reservoir model suitable for hydrocarbon flow-simulation by imaging near-surface sandstone reservoir analogs with the use of GPR. The sedimentological data base consists of a geologic map of the survey area and a detailed facies map of the cliff face immediately adjacent to the survey area. Five vertical sections were measured along the cliff face adjacent to the survey area. In addition, four wells were cored within the survey area from which logs were recorded. In the sections and well logs primary sedimentary structures were documented along with textural information and permeability data. Gamma-ray profiles were also obtained for all sections and core logs. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic information serves as the basis from which much of the processing and interpretation of the GPR data was made. Three 3-D GPR data sets were collected over the survey area at frequencies of 50 MHZ, 100 MHZ, and 200 MHZ.

  12. Medium-deep clastic reservoirs in the slope area of Qikou sag,Huanghua depression, Bohai Bay Basin%黄骅坳陷歧口凹陷斜坡区中深层碎屑岩储集层特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲秀刚; 卢异; 柳飒; 周立宏; 王文革; 韩文中; 肖敦清; 刘海涛; 陈长伟; 张伟; 袁选俊

    2013-01-01

    To get a better understanding of the distribution pattern of favorable reservoir belts in the medium-deep clastic rocks in the Qikou sag of the Huanghua depression, and find out premium reservoir zone, the characteristics and controlling factors of the medium-deep reservoirs in the Qikou sag were analyzed. Comprehensive study into the structural setting, provenance, depositional system, and reservoir properties shows that the Paleogene in the Qikou sag has multi-sags and multi-slopes, with slopes accounting for over 70% of the total sag area. A number of large braided river (fan) delta front - gravity flow sand bodies matching with multi-slope zones lay a good material foundation for the formation of medium-deep effective reservoirs there. Generally buried at over 2500 m, the medium-deep clastic rocks are mainly lithic feldspathic sandstone, with secondary pores and cracks as major reservoir space. Being in the medium diagenesis evolution stage, the medium-deep clastic rocks in the Qikou sag span over a large depth. Nine major factors affecting reservoir properties have been identified by mathematical geology. Although the medium-deep clastic rock interval is poor in physical properties and complex in pore structure, high sedimentation rate, medium geothermal field, high fluid pressure, high feldspar content, relatively high dissolution rate and early oil and gas charge have given rise to three to four belts with abnormally high porosity in it, which are all favorable hydrocarbon reservoir zones.%为了查明渤海湾盆地黄骅坳陷歧口凹陷斜坡区中深层碎屑岩有利储集相带分布规律,寻找相对优质的储集层段,对歧口凹陷中深层开展储集层特征及控制因素分析.构造背景、物源、沉积体系、储集性能综合研究表明,歧口凹陷古近系具有多凹多坡的地质特点,各类斜坡区占全凹陷面积70%以上;来自盆内外物源的多个大型辫状河(扇)三角洲前缘-重力流砂带与多类斜

  13. New advances in petroleum geology and exploration techniques of clastic reservoirs in the four large-sized basins in central-western China%中国中西部四大盆地碎屑岩油气地质与勘探技术新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑和荣

    2012-01-01

    Since Late Paleozoic,the four large-sized petroliferous basins (I. E. Ordos, Sichuan, Junggar and Tar-im) in central-western China have experienced similar evolution processes during different geologic time, and have two kinds of petroleum exploration plays in clastic strata,I, e. self-source and self-reservoir type and marine-source continental-reservoir type. The clastic sequences deposited in compressionai environments have "dual system tract structure" , which determines the high quality of the exploration plays, Three types(inner-sourcing, out-sourcing and hybrid-sourcing)and six subtypes of petroleum accumulation systems can be identified in the clastic sequences. The differences in tectonic deformation among these four basins result in the differences in their petroleum accumulation system distributions. A technique series consisting of 3D 3C seismic acquisition, processing and interpretation has been developed for fractured reservoir prediction. Seismic acquisition and processing techniques for loess tableland are developed to identify tight reservoirs and subtle traps. Fracturing techniques are developed for stimulation of the fractured tight reservoirs in western Sichuan depression. Compensation fracturing techniques are developed for stimulation of the tight sands in southern Ordos Basin. The advances in petroleum geologic theories and exploration techniques have promoted the discovery of the large- to medium-sized oil and gas fields ( such as gas reservoirs in the 2nd member of Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation,the class-tic oil reservoirs in Tahe area,the Zhenjing oil field in southern Ordos Basin)%晚古生代以来,中西部四大盆地成盆演化具有“同序异时”特征,碎屑岩层系具有自生自储和海生陆储两大勘探领域.压性构造背景下碎屑岩沉积充填层序具有“二元”体系域结构,决定了碎屑岩层系具有良好的生储盖组合.碎屑岩层系可划分内源、外源和混源3大类6个亚类成藏

  14. Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Christer

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the water reservoirs in the world. There are nearly 50 000 large dams in the world, retaining more than 6500 km3 of water. Creation of reservoirs has inundated an area like the size of France or California and has forced 40–80 million people to resettle. The majority of these reservoirs have been built during the last 50 years, but new reservoirs are still constructed at a rate of nearly one new reservoir per day. Reservoirs are used for irrigation, hydroe...

  15. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes with 2 species each, and Anguilliformes with 1 species. Regarding their conservation status, 27 species were of least concern, 1 species was vulnerable, 6 species were near threatened, 1 species was data deficient, and 4 species were not evaluated (IUCN-Version 2014.1. Economical values have also been evaluated. Water parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, free CO2, salinity, total inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate were recorded and found suitable for fish production. Conductivity, transparency, and high chloride level are minor limiting factor that may needs rectification for improved fisheries management.

  16. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  17. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock-fabric flow layers

  18. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration in the US Department of Energy Class III Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  19. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  20. High-resolution crosswell imaging of a west Texas carbonate reservoir. Part 5: Core analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, R.C.; Harris, J.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wang, Z. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Langan, R.T. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Geophysics Dept.

    1995-05-01

    The authors conducted a core analysis program to provide supporting data to a series of crosswell field experiments being carried out in McElroy Field by Stanford University`s Seismic Tomography Project. The objective of these experiments is to demonstrate the use of crosswell seismic profiling for reservoir characterization and for monitoring CO{sub 2} flooding. For these west Texas carbonates, they estimate that CO{sub 2} saturation causes P-wave velocity to change by {minus}1.9% (pooled average, range = {minus}6.3 to +0.1%), S-wave velocity by +0.6% (range = 0 to 2.7%), and the P-to-S velocity ratio by {minus}2.4% (range = {minus}6.4 to {minus}0.3%). When one compares these results to the precisions they can expect from traveltime tomography (about {+-} 1% for P- and S-wave velocity and about {+-} 2% for the P-to-S velocity ratio), they conclude that time-lapse traveltime tomography is sensitive enough to resolve changes in the P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, and P-to-S velocity ratio that result from CO{sub 2} saturation. They concentrated here don the potential for CO{sub 2} saturation to affect seismic velocities. The potential for CO{sub 2} saturation to affect other seismic properties, not discussed here, may prove to be more significant (e.g., P-wave and S-wave impedance).

  1. Size distribution of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in DeGray and West Point reservoirs: a comparative study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, B.L.; Groeger, A.W.

    1985-09-01

    Particle size is an important determinant of food resources available to planktonic consumers and of the efficiency of energy transfer through planktonic foodwebs. Thus, the environmental factors controlling the size distributions of planktonic autotrophy (algal photosynthesis) and microheterotrophy (bacterial heterotrophic activity) are of considerable ecological interest. To examine hypotheses regarding their environmental control, we compared the size distributions of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy within and between oligotrophic DeGray Reservoir (Arkansas) and eutrophic West Point Reservoir (Alabama-Georgia). Naturally occurring assemblages of reservoir phytoplankton and bacterioplankton were radiolabeled with sodium /sup 14/C-bicarbonate and sodium /sup 3/H-acetate and were size fractionated by filtration through polycarbonate membrane filters. 92 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Seismic spectral decomposition and analysis based on Wigner–Ville distribution for sandstone reservoir characterization in West Sichuan depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflections from a hydrocarbon-saturated zone are generally expected to have a tendency to be low frequency. Previous work has shown the application of seismic spectral decomposition for low-frequency shadow detection. In this paper, we further analyse the characteristics of spectral amplitude in fractured sandstone reservoirs with different fluid saturations using the Wigner–Ville distribution (WVD)-based method. We give a description of the geometric structure of cross-terms due to the bilinear nature of WVD and eliminate cross-terms using smoothed pseudo-WVD (SPWVD) with time- and frequency-independent Gaussian kernels as smoothing windows. SPWVD is finally applied to seismic data from West Sichuan depression. We focus our study on the comparison of SPWVD spectral amplitudes resulting from different fluid contents. It shows that prolific gas reservoirs feature higher peak spectral amplitude at higher peak frequency, which attenuate faster than low-quality gas reservoirs and dry or wet reservoirs. This can be regarded as a spectral attenuation signature for future exploration in the study area

  3. Reservoir characterisation using process-response simulations: the Lower Cretaceous Rijn Field, West Netherlands Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, L.J.H.; Geel, C.R.; Klasen, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Petroleum geologists always need to deal with large gaps in data resolution and coverage during reservoir characterisation. Seismic data shows only large geological structures, whereas small-scale structures and reservoir properties can be observed only at well locations. In the area between wells,

  4. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives results of efforts to determine electrofacies from logs; measure permeability in outcrop to study very fine-scale trends; find the correlation between permeability measured by the minipermeameter and in core plugs, define porosity-permeability flow units; and run the BOAST III reservoir simulator using the flow units defined for the Gordon reservoir

  5. MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING PRESSURE IN RESERVOIR ROCK FOR AN OIL SAND RESERVOIR IN SOUTH WEST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomi R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fracture geometry depends on stresses and rock properties in hydraulic fracturing operation. Poisson’s ratio imports directly in the calculations related to formation stresses. The most important reason for limiting fracture height is the natural stresses contrast resulting from the differences with Poisson ratios. Without this difference, fracture would have largely uncontrolled height. The goal of this study is mathematical investigation of the effect of Poisson’s ratio on the formation stresses that is necessary to select value of breakdown pressure in hydraulic fracturing operation. In this article, a mathematical model has been coded using “MATLAB” software for prediction of stresses in the various layers. This designed program is able to present both digital and graphical output results for different values of Poisson’s ratio. At the end, stresses exerted on the different layers of the several real oil reservoirs have simulated and breakdown pressures have determined

  6. Measuring and predicting reservoir heterogeneity in complex deposystems. The fluvial-deltaic Big Injun Sandstone in West Virginia. Final report, September 20, 1991--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, M.E.; Patchen, D.G.; Heald, M.; Aminian, K.; Donaldson, A.; Shumaker, R.; Wilson, T.

    1994-05-01

    Non-uniform composition and permeability of a reservoir, commonly referred to as reservoir heterogeneity, is recognized as a major factor in the efficient recovery of oil during primary production and enhanced recovery operations. Heterogeneities are present at various scales and are caused by various factors, including folding and faulting, fractures, diagenesis and depositional environments. Thus, a reservoir consists of a complex flow system, or series of flow systems, dependent on lithology, sandstone genesis, and structural and thermal history. Ultimately, however, fundamental flow units are controlled by the distribution and type of depositional environments. Reservoir heterogeneity is difficult to measure and predict, especially in more complex reservoirs such as fluvial-deltaic sandstones. The Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC), a partnership of Appalachian basin state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, and West Virginia University, studied the Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstone in West Virginia. The Big Injun research was multidisciplinary and designed to measure and map heterogeneity in existing fields and undrilled areas. The main goal was to develop an understanding of the reservoir sufficient to predict, in a given reservoir, optimum drilling locations versus high-risk locations for infill, outpost, or deeper-pool tests.

  7. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production

  8. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Bilgesu, H.I.; Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Patchen, D.L.

    2002-05-21

    The purpose of this work was to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production.

  9. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  10. Interwell radioactive tracers - an effective reservoir evaluation tool: west Sumatra field results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hooge, J.A.; Sheely, C.Q.; Williams, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Conoco has successfully used 4 different radioactive tracers simultaneously to determine the direction of fluid movement in a sequence of Pennsylvanian age sandstone beaches within the northern one-half of the W. Sumatra Unit. Radioactive tracer material introduced at the injection well and identified at the producing well provides the flow direction and rate of movement of injected fluids. This information will be used to maximize sweep efficiencies and optimize depletion plans in this multi-pay, discontinuous reservoir.

  11. High-resolution crosswell imaging of a west Texas carbonate reservoir. Part 1: Project summary and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.M.; Nolen-Hoeksema, R.C.; Van Schaack, M.; Lazaratos, S.K.; Rector, J.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Langan, R.T. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Geophysics Dept.

    1995-05-01

    A carbon dioxide flood pilot is being conducted in a section of Chevron`s McElroy field in Crane County, west Texas. Prior to CO{sub 2} injection, two high-frequency crosswell seismic profiles were recorded to investigate the use of seismic profiling for high-resolution reservoir delineation and CO{sub 2} monitoring. These preinjection profiles provide the baseline for time-lapse monitoring. Profile {number_sign}1 was recorded between an injector well and an offset observation well at a nominal well-to-well distance of 184 ft (56 m). Profile {number_sign}2 was recorded between a producing well and the observation well at a nominal distance of 600 ft (183 m). The combination of traveltime tomography and stacked CDP reflection amplitudes demonstrates how high-frequency crosswell seismic data can be used to image both large and small scale heterogeneity between wells: transmission traveltime tomography is used to image the large scale velocity variations; CDP reflection imaging is then used to image smaller scale impedance heterogeneities. The results of this integrated study demonstrate (1) the use of crosswell seismic profiling to produce a high-resolution reservoir delineation and (2) the possibility for successful monitoring of CO{sub 2} in carbonate reservoirs. The crosswell data were acquired with a piezoelectric source and a multilevel hydrophone array. Both profiles, nearly 80,000 seismic traces, were recorded in approximately 80 hours using a new acquisition technique of shooting on-the-fly. This paper presents the overall project summary and interpretation of the results from the near-offset profile.

  12. Methane in the Northern West Siberian Basin. Generation, dynamics of the reservoirs and exchange with the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on compositional data and isotope geochemistry natural gas in northern West Siberia can be divided into three groups. These are: natural gas in Jurassic rocks, natural gas in Neocomian rocks and natural gas from the Aptian to Cenomanian Pokur Formation. Natural gas in Jurassic rocks was generated thermogenically from rocks of the Jurassic Tyumen Formation. Natural gas in Neocomian rocks is also of thermogenic origin, possibly being generated from the organic matter of Lower Cretaceous sediments. The largest accumulation of natural gas occurs in sandstone reservoirs in the Pokur Formation. This gas can be described as a mixture between thermogenic gas from deeper strata and isotopically light almost pure methane. 98.6% of this gas consists of methane with an unusual isotope signature of -51.2 permille. It is not possible to explain the existence of this methane with established concepts of gas generation. A new model was developed to examine the possibility of a thermogenic origin of the isotopically light methane in early mature rocks of the Pokur Formation. Based on pyrolysis experiments and reaction kinetic calculations the model enables the simulation of stable carbon isotope ratios of hydrocarbon components in natural gas. The temperature dependent kinetic isotope fractionation is defined by a difference in the activation energies of 12C-and 13C-methane generation. The application of the new method to two coaly sandstones of the Pokur Formation results in a good correspondence between modelled carbon isotope ratios of δ13C values of methane in the reservoirs. The mass of methane thermogenically generated within the Pokur Formation under the gas field structures, however, is not sufficient to explain the mass of accumulated methane. (orig./SR)

  13. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  14. Geophysical investigations of the methane reservoir and gas escape mechanisms on the west Svalbard margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, T. A.; Westbrook, G. K.; Sinha, M. C.; Weitemeyer, K. A.; Henstock, T.; Chabert, A.; Vardy, M. E.; Sarkar, S.; Goswami, B.; Marsset, B.; Ker, S.; Thomas, Y.; Best, A. I.; Rajan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, over 250 bubble plumes were discovered close to the landward limit of methane hydrate stability on the west Svalbard continental margin, and sampling of ocean water in the vicinity of some of these plumes showed anomalously high methane concentrations. Many of the plumes occur in the region over which the hydrate stability field has receded during the last three decades due to ocean warming and such thermal erosion of the hydrate stability field may provide a positive feedback effect in global climate change. The presence of hydrate beneath the seabed is evidenced by the presence of a widespread bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) on the lower continental slope and by direct sampling with cores. More limited plume activity was found in deeper water at pockmark features that reach several hundred metres in diameter. During cruises in 2011 and 2012, we conducted further geophysical surveys both in the region of hydrate stability field recession on the continental slope and over a large pockmark on the nearby Vestnesa Ridge sediment drift. We conducted high-resolution seismic reflection surveys using a 90 cu. in. GI gun source and a 60-m, 60-channel hydrophone streamer, and deep-towed seismic surveys using Ifremer's SYSIF vehicle and chirp sources with 220-1050 Hz and 580-2200 Hz sweeps. We recorded both the GI-gun and the lower-frequency Chirp sources on ocean bottom seismometers to determine the velocity structure with high vertical resolution at both sites. We obtained controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data from both sites using a deep-towed frequency domain electromagnetic source recorded at 14 seafloor receivers with orthogonal electrodes and a towed three-component electric field receiver. At the slope site, our CSEM profile extends into deep water where a BSR is present. High-resolution and Chirp seismic reflection data show evidence for the widespread presence of subsurface gas at the slope site, both within and beneath the region of hydrate

  15. Geothermal reservoir properties of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) sediments in the Saar Nahe Basin (South-West Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, A.; Bär, K.; Sass, I.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Rotliegend (Permocarboniferous) in the Northern Upper Rhine Graben and the Saar-Nahe-Basin (Germany) has been shown in large scale regional studies. To further assess the geothermal potential of the different lithostratigraphical units and facies types within this Variscan intramontane basin, knowledge of their thermophysical and hydraulic properties is indispensable. Where the Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous molasse basin, the top of the up to two kilometers thick Permocarboniferous deposits is located at a depth of one to three kilometers and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. Therefore, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150°C, making it suitable for geothermal power production. Lithologically the Permocarboniferous deposits consist of different formations and facies types including fine, middle and coarse grained sandstones, arcosic sandstones, siltstones, volcanics and carbonates. Within the framework of the study presented here, outcrop analogue studies west of the Graben in the Saar-Nahe-Basin, and east of the Graben in the Wetterau and the Wetterau-Fulda-Basin are conducted. Each lithostratigraphic formation and lithofacies type is sampled in various outcrops to generate a statistically sufficient amount of samples of the different sedimentary rocks in order to determine their petrophysical, sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The petrophysical parameters measured include the porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and uniaxial compressive strength. So far, the petrophysical properties of samples of more than 70 locations have been measured in our lab facilities, showing a clear correlation with the facies type. Excluding the coarse grained sandstones of the Donnersberg formation at the beginning of the Nahe-subgroup of the Upper Rotliegend, the geothermal reservoir properties are more suitable in the Glan-subgroup of the Lower

  16. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

    OpenAIRE

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus...

  17. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Zeno; Jennings, Jr., James W.

    2001-05-08

    The major goal of this project was to evaluate the impact of fracture porosity on performance of the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir. The approach was to use subcritical crack (SCC) index measurements and a crack-growth simulator to model potential fracture geometries in this reservoir. The SCC index on representative rock samples and proceedings with other pertinent rock measurements were measured. An approach for modeling coupled matrix and fracture flow using nonneighbor connections in a traditional finite-difference simulator was tested and found to be feasible.

  18. Copper avoidance and mortality of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in tests with copper-sulfate-treated water from West Branch Reservoir, Putnam County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Baudanza, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    Copper-avoidance tests and acute-toxicity (mortality) tests on hatchery-reared, young-of- the-year brown trout (salmo trutta) were conducted with water from West Branch Reservoir to assess the avoidance response to copper sulfate treatment, which is used occasionally by New York City Department of Environmental Protection to decrease phytoplankton populations in the reservoir. Avoidance-test results indicate that juvenile brown trout tend to avoid dissolved copper concentrations greater than about 55 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), which is the approximate avoidance-response threshold. The mean net avoidance response of brown trout to dissolved copper concentrations of 70 and 100 ?g/L, and possibly 80 ?g/L, was significantly different (at a = 0.1) from the mean net avoidance response of fish to control (untreated) water and to treated water at most other tested concentrations. Mortality-test results indicate that the 96-hr median lethal concentration (LC50) of dissolved copper was 61.5 ?g/L. All (100 percent) of the brown trout died at a dissolved copper concentration of 85 ?g/L, many died at concentrations of 62 ?g/L and 70 ?g/L, and none died in the control waters (7 ?g/L) or at concentrations of 10, 20, or 45 ?g/L. The estimated concentration of dissolved copper that caused fish mortality (threshold) was 53.5 ?g/L, virtually equivalent to the avoidance-response threshold. Additional factors that could affect the copper-avoidance and mortality response of individual brown trout and their populations in West Branch Reservoir include seasonal variations in certain water-quality parameters, copper-treatment regimes, natural fish distributions during treatment, and increased tolerance due to acclimation. These warrant additional study before the findings from this study can be used to predict the effects that copper sulfate treatments have on resident fish populations in New York City reservoirs.

  19. Main controlling factors of distribution and genetics of marine reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Marine reservoirs are mainly made up of clastics and carbonate reservoirs, which are distributed widely in central Tarim, Sichuan, Ordos basins from the Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic, mainly in Palaeozoic. Marine clastic reservoirs are developed in foreshore and nearshore, tidal flat and delta environment. The sedimentary facies are important controlling factors for reservoir quality. Compaction, pressolution and cementation are factors of decreasing porosity, and low palaeo-temperature gradient, early emplacement of oil and gas and dissolution are favorable for preservation of pore. Carbonate reservoirs are divided into reef and bank, karst, dolomite and fracture reservoirs. Dolomitization, dissolution, TSR and fracture are important factors of controlling carbonate reservoirs' quality.

  20. Clastic Injection Dikes of the Pasco Basin and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atlas provides a summary of the current understanding of clastic injection dikes in the Pasco Basin and Vicinity. The atlas is a compilation of photographs, maps, tables, illustrations, and text that provides a summary of the physical description, emplacement history and mechanisms, and hydrologic, characteristics of clastic injection dikes. The information that has been assembled is based on geologic, geophysical, and geohydrologic investigations conducted in the Pasco Basin and vicinity

  1. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia:focus on wetland management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus group discussion with local community to obtain indigenous knowledge was considered. Secondary data collection and relevant literature were surveyed. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Critical problems observed on the wetland and the surrounding watershed included vegetation cover removal, land degradation, wetland hardening, pressurized grazing, expansion of floating macrophytes on the reservoir, water seepage at the weir, water use management and water use conflicts, drainage structures maintenance and lack of institutional accountability. Open access and inadequate management has increased anthropogenic factors resulting amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services. Conclusions: The reservoir is under growing stress and nearing to disappearance unless and otherwise timely measures are taken to mitigate the prevailing encroachment towards the wetland. Sustainable management of hydrological, ecological, social, biodiversity and economical values based on knowledge and experience on environment, land use, extension services and research to restore and sustain the various values and functions, calls for different stakeholders to alleviate negatively impacting factors on the wetland. Further information generation on the wetland situation on the Geray wetland specifically on wetland valuation is highly demanded.

  2. Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonaradian Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico, Semi-Annual; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcrop studies include stratigraphic and petrophysical analysis. Analysis of the detailed sequence- and cycle-scale architecture of the Clear Fork reservoir-equivalent outcrops in Apache Canyon is nearly complete. This work reveals two high-frequency transgressive-regressive sequences (HFS) in the lower Clear Fork composite depositional sequence and three HFS in the basal middle Clear Fork composite depositional sequence. A 1,800-ft transect of 1-inch-diameter samples was collected from one cycle at the Apache Canyon outcrop. The transect was sampled with 5-ft spacing, but there were some gaps due to cover and cliff, resulting in 181 samples. Permeability, porosity, and grain density were measured, and the spatial statistics are being analyzed geostatistically

  3. Standardizing texture and facies codes for a process-based classification of clastic sediment and rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, K.M.; Harris, W.B.; Mallinson, D.J.; Culver, S.J.; Riggs, S.R.; Pierson, J.; Self-Trail J.M.; Lautier, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Proposed here is a universally applicable, texturally based classification of clastic sediment that is independent from composition, cementation, and geologic environment, is closely allied to process sedimentology, and applies to all compartments in the source-to-sink system. The classification is contingent on defining the term "clastic" so that it is independent from composition or origin and includes any particles or grains that are subject to erosion, transportation, and deposition. Modifications to Folk's (1980) texturally based classification that include applying new assumptions and defining a broader array of textural fields are proposed to accommodate this. The revised ternary diagrams include additional textural fields that better define poorly sorted and coarse-grained deposits, so that all end members (gravel, sand, and mud size fractions) are included in textural codes. Revised textural fields, or classes, are based on a strict adherence to volumetric estimates of percentages of gravel, sand, and mud size grain populations, which by definition must sum to 100%. The new classification ensures that descriptors are applied consistently to all end members in the ternary diagram (gravel, sand, and mud) according to several rules, and that none of the end members are ignored. These modifications provide bases for standardizing vertical displays of texture in graphic logs, lithofacies codes, and their derivatives- hydrofacies. Hydrofacies codes are nondirectional permeability indicators that predict aquifer or reservoir potential. Folk's (1980) ternary diagram for fine-grained clastic sediments (sand, silt, and clay size fractions) is also revised to preserve consistency with the revised diagram for gravel, sand, and mud. Standardizing texture ensures that the principles of process sedimentology are consistently applied to compositionally variable rock sequences, such as mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp settings, and the extreme ends of depositional

  4. Effect of Water Hyacinth Infestation on the Physicochemical Characteristics of AWBA Reservoir, Ibadan, South-West, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    U.N. Uka; K.S. Chukwuka

    2007-01-01

    Water hyacinth infested and open water areas in AWBA reservoir were sampled fortnightly between July and November 2005. The effect of water hyacinth infestation on the aquatic biota was assessed using physico-chemical parameters. The study showed that conductivity, total suspended solids, free carbon dioxide and turbidity were significantly higher (p<0.05) in water hyacinth infested area than in open water. Dissolved oxygen, pH and nitrate-nitrogen were significantly lower (p<0.05) in t...

  5. Geo-mechanical modeling and selection of suitable layer for hydraulic fracturing operation in an oil reservoir (south west of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Hoda; Nouri-Taleghani, Morteza; Shokrollahi, Amin; Tatar, Afshin

    2015-11-01

    According to the growth of demands to oil resources, increasing the rate of oil production seems necessary. However, oil production declines with time as a result of pressure drop in reservoir as well as sealing of microscopic cracks and pores in the reservoir rock. Hydraulic fracturing is one of the common methods with high performance, which is widely applied to oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, wells in three sections of east, center, and west sides of a field are compared regarding the suitable layer for hydraulic fracturing operation. Firstly, elastic modulus were obtained in both dynamic and static conditions, then uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), type of shear and tensile failures, the most accurate model of failure in wells, safe and stable mud window, the best zone and layers, and finally reference pressures are determined as nominates for hydraulic fracturing. Types of shear failure in minimum, and maximum range of model and in tensile model were determined to be "Shear failure wide breakout (SWBO)", "Shear narrow breakout (SNBO)", and "Tensile vertical failure (TVER)", respectively. The range of safe mud window (SMW) in the studied wells was almost in the same range as it was in every three spots of the field. This range was determined between 5200-8800psi and 5800-10100psi for Ilam and Sarvak zones, respectively. Initial fracture pressure ranges for selected layers were determined 11,759-14,722, 11,910-14,164, and 11,848-14,953psi for the eastern, central, and western wells. Thus, western wells have the best situation for Hydraulic fracturing operation. Finally, it was concluded that the operation is more economic in Sarvak zone and western wells.

  6. 山东东营车镇凹陷古近系流体异常高压及其对深层碎屑岩储集层的影响%Fluid abnormal overpressure and its influence on deep clastic reservoir of the Paleogene in Chezhen Sag of Dongying, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜本忠; 吴采西; 佘源琦

    2011-01-01

    受流体异常高压影响而发育的异常孔隙(砂)砾岩储集层成为深层油气储集层和油气勘探研究的热点之一.测井、钻井及试油结果揭示,车镇凹陷古近系沙河街组广泛存在流体异常高压,且与(砂)砾岩储集层含油性及产能具有密切关系.在试油地层压力实测数据标定下,利用测井资料等效深度法对古近系沙河街组分层系、分地区进行了地层压力计算.计算结果表明,古近系沙河街组三段下亚段(Esx3)地层压力异常程度最大,剩余地层压力达15-30 MPa.重点钻井中(砂)砾岩储集层孔隙度与对应层段剩余地层压力统计分析表明,地层压力在5 MPa以上时开始对孔隙度产生影响,每增加5 MPa孔隙度大约增大2%,据此推测Esx3由于异常高压的存在,(砂)砾岩储集层孔隙度可增加4%~10%.结合微观储集层特征和测井资料的孔隙度解释结果,分析导致该区深层储集层储集性能得以改善的原因包括:(1)异常高压有利于原生孔隙及早期次生孔隙的保存;(2)超压环境有利于酸性地层水进入储集层形成溶蚀孔隙;(3)流体异常高压有利于微裂缝的产生,增强孔隙间连通性和渗流能力.%Sandstone and conglomerate reservoir affected by fluid abnormal overpressure in deep layer is one of the focuses in petroleum exploration and reservoir study. Drilling and oil production test data show that abnormal pressure exists widely in the Paleogene Shahejie Formation, and has closely related with oil-bearing and oil productivity of the sandstone and conglomerate reservoir. In this study, formation pressure in different strata and different zones were calculated with equivalent depth method using logging data calibrated by oil production test data. Calculating results show that formation pressure in the lower Submember of Member 3 of Shahejie Formation (Esx3) is the largest, and its residual formation pressure equals 15-30 MPa. According to the statistics

  7. FISH DIVERSITY ALONG THE LONGITUDINAL GRADIENT IN A MAN–MADE LAKE OF WEST AFRICA, TAABO HYDROELECTRIC RESERVOIR, IVORY COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Aliko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage patterns in Taabo Reservoir, a hydroelectric lake of Ivory Coast, were studied and related to the longitudinal gradient (river–dam gradient composed of riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. Data were collected at 5 stations and each one was sampled during 5 surveys. Fish community structure was analysed using alpha and beta diversity indices. In total, 53 fish species were obtained in the whole ecosystem. Total species richness recorded at each ecological zone was 42, 43 and 45 species respectively in the riverine, transitional and lacustrine zones. Alpha diversity did not differed significantly along the longitudinal gradient but reached the highest value (33 species in the transitional zone and the lowest (18 species occurred in both the riverine and lacustrine zones. Temporal variability of Alpha diversity according to the hydrological regime of the lake differed with the zone. Beta diversity showed that fish assemblages similarity was higher between the transitional and the riverine zones (βw = 0.43 and lower between the riverine and the lacustrine zones (βw = 0.79.

  8. Optimal water resources management and system benefit for the Marcellus shale-gas reservoir in Pennsylvania and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Chen, Yizhong; Ren, Lixia

    2016-09-01

    A major concern associated with current shale-gas extraction is high consumption of water resources. However, decision-making problems regarding water consumption and shale-gas extraction have not yet been solved through systematic approaches. This study develops a new bilevel optimization problem based on goals at two different levels: minimization of water demands at the lower level and maximization of system benefit at the upper level. The model is used to solve a real-world case across Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Results show that surface water would be the largest contributor to gas production (with over 80.00% from 2015 to 2030) and groundwater occupies for the least proportion (with less than 2.00% from 2015 to 2030) in both districts over the planning span. Comparative analysis between the proposed model and conventional single-level models indicates that the bilevel model could provide coordinated schemes to comprehensively attain the goals from both water resources authorities and energy sectors. Sensitivity analysis shows that the change of water use of per unit gas production (WU) has significant effects upon system benefit, gas production and pollutants (i.e., barium, chloride and bromide) discharge, but not significantly changes water demands.

  9. 300-Myr-old magmatic CO2 in natural gas reservoirs of the west Texas Permian basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C J; Schoell, M; Coleman, D; Cain, B A

    2001-01-18

    Except in regions of recent crustal extension, the dominant origin of carbon dioxide in fluids in sedimentary basins has been assumed to be from crustal organic matter or mineral reactions. Here we show, by contrast, that Rayleigh fractionation caused by partial degassing of a magma body can explain the CO2/3He ratios and delta13C(CO2) values observed in CO2-rich natural gases in the west Texas Val Verde basin and also the mantle 3He/22Ne ratios observed in other basin systems. Regional changes in CO2/3He and CO2/CH4 ratios can be explained if the CO2 input pre-dates methane generation in the basin, which occurred about 280 Myr ago. Uplift to the north of the Val Verde basin between 310 and 280 Myr ago appears to be the only tectonic event with appropriate timing and location to be the source of the magmatic CO2. Our identification of magmatic CO2 in a foreland basin indicates that the origin of CO2 in other mid-continent basin systems should be re-evaluated. Also, the inferred closed-system preservation of natural gas in a trapping structure for approximately 300 Myr is far longer than the residence time predicted by diffusion models. PMID:11201738

  10. Research on reservoir bed heterogeneity, interlayers and seal layers and controlling factors of 2+3 sands of upper second member, Shahejie Formation, in the west of the Pucheng Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Jinliang; Xie Jun

    2008-01-01

    Terminal fans have formed the sedimentary system of the 2+3 sands of the upper second member,Shahejie formation in the west of the Pucheng Oilfield,Bohai Bay Basin,East China.Based on well logging data and physical properties of the reservoir beds,the 2+3 sands were divided into 16 sublayers.The heterogeneity of reservoir beds and distribution of interlayers and seal layers in the 2+3 sands were investigated.The intra-layer heterogeneity and inter-layer heterogeneity primarily belong to the severely heterogeneous classification.The spatial differentiation of sedimentary microfacies resulted in a change of reservoir bed heterogeneity,strong in the middle and southern parts,weak in the northern part.Spatial distribution of interlayers and seal layers is dominated by sedimentary microfacies,and they are thick in north-eastern and middle parts,thin in the south-western part.

  11. Challenges modeling clastic eruptions: applications to the Lusi mud eruption, East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    Clastic eruptions involve brecciation and transport of the hosting rocks by ascent fluids (gas and/or liquids), resulting in a mixture of rock clasts and fluids (i.e. mud breccia). This kind of eruptions is often associated with geological features such as mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents or more generically with piercement structures. Over the past decades, several numerical models, often based on those used in volcanology, have been employed to better understand the behavior of such clastics systems. However, modeling multiphase flow is challenging, and therefore most of the models are considering only one phase flow. Many chemical, mechanical and physical aspects remain still poorly understood. In particular, the rheology of the fluid is one of the most important aspects, but also the most difficult to characterize. Experimental flow curves can be obtained on the finest fraction, but coarser particles (> 1mm) are usually neglected. While these experimental measurements usually work well on magma, they are much more difficult to perform when clay minerals are involved. As an initial step, we use analytical and simplified numerical models (flow in a pipe) to better understand the flow dynamics within a main conduit connected to an overpressured reservoir. The 2D numerical model solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art in modeling clastic eruptions as well as the limitations and challenges of such numerical models. We also discuss the challenges associated to the specific case of Lusi. In particular the difficulty to characterize the mud properties and the technical challenges associated with the acquisition of new data and development of more sophisticated models

  12. Hydrocarbon potential of the Meso-Cenozoic Turkana Depression, northern Kenya. 1. Reservoirs: depositional environments, diagenetic characteristics, and source rock-reservoir relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiercelin, J.-J.; Bellon, H.; Rio, A.; Le Gall, B.; Vetel, W. [UMR CNRSUBO, Plouzane (France). Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer; Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Potdevin, J.-L. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille (France). UFR des Sciences de la Terre; Morley, C.K. [Universiti Brunei Darassalam (Brunei Darussalam). Jalan Tungku Link; Talbot, M.R. [University of Bergen (Norway). Geological Institute

    2004-01-01

    Major oil exploration efforts started in the 70s in the Meso-Cenozoic Anza Rift and Cenozoic Turkana Depression of northern Kenya. Thick piles of fluvio-lacustrine sandstones and shales infill these different rift basins. West of Lake Turkana, the Auwerwer/Lomerimong Formation is part of the Palaeogene-middle Miocene age, 7 km-thick fluvio-lacustrine infill of the Lokichar half-graben. East of Lake Turkana, the 220 m-thick Sera Iltomia Formation is of possible late Mesozoic-basal Palaeocene age, and comprises sandstones and mudstones with conglomeratic layers. The poorly dated Sera Iltomia Formation may represent either the early phase of Cenozoic East African rifting in northern Kenya or the Meso-Cenozoic Anza Rift. The sandstones of these two formations exhibit different sediment sources and consequent reservoir quality. The Sera litomia sandstones are immature and basement-derived. While the sources of clastic material from the Auwerwer/Lomerimong section originated from both volcanic and basement terrains. Palaeocurrent data for the Sera Iltomia and Auwerwer/Lomerimong basement-derived sandstones suggest a source to the south and south-cast of Lake Turkana. The volcanic-derived clastic rocks forming part of the Auwerwer/Lomerimong section suggest a sediment source to the south-southeast of the Lokichar Basin, linked to the lower Miocene Samburu Basalts Formation. Evidence for significant burial diagenesis is absent in both. In the Auwerwer/Lomerimong sandstones, calcite-analcite precipitation and calcite cementation significantly reduced the porosity from initial values of 40-45% to values which ranges up to 15%. In the Sera Iltomia sandstones, different early diagenetic events are recorded by calcite, quartz or kaolin cements. Quartz overgrowths and kaolin precipitation are local phenomena, and did not induce significant porosity reduction. In some cases, calcite cementation completely occluded the initial porosity, but in other cases it has helped preserve

  13. Mechanism of Secondary Pore Formation and Prediction of Favorable Reservoir of Paleogene in Jiyang Sag,Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaomin; Chen Huanqing; Zhong Dakang; Zhang Qin; Zhang Shanwen; Lü Xixue

    2008-01-01

    Jiyang (济阳) sag is an oil rich basin,consisting of Huimin (惠民),Dongying (东营),Zhanhua (沾化),and Chezhen (车镇) depressions.The elastic rock of Paleogene has undergone early and middle diagenetic stages and now the main clastic reservoir is in the middle diagenetic stage.Primary and secondary pores are developed in Paleogene sandstone,the latter is generated from the dissolution of feldspar and calcite cement in rocks owing to the organic acid from the maturated source rock,but the materials dissolved are different in different depressions.The reservoir secondary pores of Dongying depression are generated from the dissolution of calcite cement,the ones of Zhanhua and Huimin depressions from the dissolution of feldspar,the secondary pores of Chezhen depression from the dissolution of feldspar in upper section,and the dissolution of calcite cement in the lower section of Paleogene,respectively.The secondary pores are developed in two depths and the depth goes down from west to east,from south to north in Jiyang sag.The major controlling factors for secondary pore development are maturity and location of source rock.Lastly,the favorable reservoirs are evaluated according to reservoir buried depth,sedimentation,and diagenesis.The reservoir with high quality is located in the northern and central parts in Dongying depression; there are some good reservoirs in Gndao (孤岛),Gudong (孤东),and Gunan (孤南) areas in Zhanhua depression,and the favorable reservoirs are located in the north steep slope and the south gentle slope of Chezhen depression and central uplift,south gentle slope of Huimin depression.

  14. Thermodynamic conditions of framework grain dissolution of clastic rocks and its application in Kela 2 gas field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Xingyun; YU; Bingsong; CHEN; Junyuan; CHEN; Xiaolin

    2005-01-01

    Feldspar and clastic debris are the most important constituent framework grains of sedimentary clastic rocks and their chemical dissolution plays an essential role in the formation and evolution of the secondary pore in the reservoir rocks. On the basis of thermodynamic phase equilibrium, this study investigates the chemical equilibrium relationships between fluid and various plagioclase and K-feldspar in diagenesis of the sediments, particularly, the impact of temperature and fluid compositions (pH, activity of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and so on) on precipitation and dissolution equilibria of feldspars. Feldspar is extremely easily dissolved in the acid pore water with a low salinity when temperature decreases. The dissolution of anorthite end-member of plagioclase is related to the Ca content of the mineral and the fluid, higher Ca either in the mineral or in the fluid, easier dissolution of the feldspar. Moreover, the dissolution of albite end-member of plagioclase is related to Na of both the mineral and fluid, lower Na out of both the mineral and fluid, easier dissolution of the mineral. Similarly, lower-K fluid is more powerful to dissolve K-feldspar than the higher. The anorthite component of plagioclase is most easily dissolved in ground water-rock system, the albite is the secondary, and K-feldspar is the most stable. Selective dissolution of plagioclase occurs in diagenesis because of the plagioclase solid solution that is mainly composed of albite and anorthite end-members, Ca-rich part of which is preferentially dissolved by the pore water, in contrast to the Na-rich parts. Based on investigation of reservoir quality, secondary pore, dissolution structures of feldspar, clay minerals and ground water chemistry of the Kela 2 gas field of Kuqa Depression in the Tarim basin of Western China, we discovered that the secondary pore is very well developed in the highest quality section of the reservoir, and the plagioclase of which was obviously selectively dissolved, in

  15. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Don; Koerner, Roy; Moos, Dan; Nguyen, John; Phillips, Chris; Tagbor, Kwasi; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  16. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  17. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology

  18. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this quarterly report are to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period July - September 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology

  19. Appalachian Basin Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Boswell; Susan Pool; Skip Pratt; David Matchen

    1993-04-30

    A preliminary assessment of Appalachian basin natural gas reservoirs designated as 'tight sands' by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) suggests that greater than 90% of the 'tight sand' resource occurs within two groups of genetically-related units; (1) the Lower Silurian Medina interval, and (2) the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Acadian clastic wedge. These intervals were targeted for detailed study with the goal of producing geologic reservoir characterization data sets compatible with the Tight Gas Analysis System (TGAS: ICF Resources, Inc.) reservoir simulator. The first phase of the study, completed in September, 1991, addressed the Medina reservoirs. The second phase, concerned with the Acadian clastic wedge, was completed in October, 1992. This report is a combined and updated version of the reports submitted in association with those efforts. The Medina interval consists of numerous interfingering fluvial/deltaic sandstones that produce oil and natural gas along an arcuate belt that stretches from eastern Kentucky to western New York. Geophysical well logs from 433 wells were examined in order to determine the geologic characteristics of six separate reservoir-bearing intervals. The Acadian clastic wedge is a thick, highly-lenticular package of interfingering fluvial-deltaic sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Geologic analyses of more than 800 wells resulted in a geologic/engineering characterization of seven separate stratigraphic intervals. For both study areas, well log and other data were analyzed to determine regional reservoir distribution, reservoir thickness, lithology, porosity, water saturation, pressure and temperature. These data were mapped, evaluated, and compiled into various TGAS data sets that reflect estimates of original gas-in-place, remaining reserves, and 'tight' reserves. The maps and data produced represent the first basin-wide geologic characterization for either interval. This report

  20. Modeling the impact of a hydropower reservoir on the habitat of a megaherbivore in the Black Volta Basin in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, Desmond

    2010-05-01

    The Black Volta watershed is approximately 134 000 km2 in size at the gauge at Bamboi. It is part of the main 414 000 km2 Volta system. The Volta river was dammed at Akosombo in 1965 resulting in the largest man-made lake in the world, the Volta Lake. The Bui dam is a new 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the "hippo friendliness" of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has

  1. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassippes) Infestation on Zooplankton Populations in Awba Reservoir, Ibadan South-West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Chukwuka; U.N. Uka

    2007-01-01

    The effects of water hyacinth infestation on the distribution, abundance and species composition of zooplankton in Awba reservoir were investigated. Samples were collected in each of the sampling areas (water hyacinth infested and open water) by vertical zooplankton hauls using 64 um bolting silk net. The samples were immediately fixed in 4% formalin for preservation. The species composition of the zooplankton from the sampled areas consisted of 3 taxa, comprising of 6 species of Cladocera (M...

  2. Reclamation: Managing Water in the West, Steinaker Reservoir Normal Water Surface Elevation Increase Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Findlay, W. Russ

    2007-01-01

    This document is an environmental assessment (EA) of the proposal to raise the normal water surface elevation from 5517.8 feet above mean sea level (msl) to 5520.5 msl for Steinaker Reservoir in Uintah County, Utah. The Uintah Water Conservancy District (UWCD) has requested Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) authorization for this action. The Steinaker State Park, managed by the Utah Division of Parks and Recreation, maintains several campgrounds, an entrance station and other associated bui...

  3. How oil migrates in clastic sediments. Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordell, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Although giant oil fields are rare in stratigraphically controlled traps in provinces with complex depositional controls and only moderate subsidence, commercial accumulations in these environments are numerous. Two primarily stratigraphically controlled reservoirs are discussed in this article: isolated sand lenses and larger sand lentils lying parallel to regional dip. The late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian of the East Shelf of Midland basin, Texas has been selected as an example for detailed discussion.

  4. Temporal constraints on the tectonic evolution of Sierra De Famatina, northwestern Argentina, using the fission-track method to date tuffs interbedded in synorogenic clastic sedimentary strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabbutt, K.D. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Fission-track dates from seven volcaniclastic units allow time constraints to be placed on synorogenic clastic strata exposed along the flanks of Sierra de Famatina, northwest Argentina. Four formations are exposed along the western margin of Sierra de Famatina. The El Abra conglomerate is composed of clasts eroded from the basement exposed just to the west of Cadena de Paiman. The El Buey Formation contains sediments probably derived from the Precordillera fold and thrust belt to the west. Fission-track dates give a maximum age of 6 Ma for the deposition of both of these formations. The El Durazno Formation, deposited between 6 and 4 Ma, contains proximal volcaniclastic and other clastic rocks derived from the core of Sierra de Famatina. The Santa Florentina conglomerate was derived from the rising Sierra de Famatina and deposited in the past 4 m.y. Sierra de Famatima probably became a positive topographic feature approximately 6 Ma. Prior to that time this region was receiving fine-grained sediments from a distal fold and thrust belt and conglomerates from local basement uplifts. Minor extrusive events (Mogote Formation) coincide both spatially and temporally with deformation along the major reverse faults that control the uplift of Sierra de Famatina. Minimum mean uplift rates calculated for Sierra de Famatina are 0.8 {plus minus} 0.1 mm/yr over a 6.8 m.y. interval.

  5. The Volta Basin Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kasei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS, a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN. MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.

  6. Experimental investigation of creep behavior of clastic rock in Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fracture zones crossing the dam foundation of the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project in southwestern China. Clastic rock is the main media of the fracture zone and has poor physical and mechanical properties. In order to investigate the creep behavior of clastic rock, triaxial creep tests were conducted using a rock servo-controlling rheological testing machine. The results show that the creep behavior of clastic rock is significant at a high level of deviatoric stress, and less time-dependent deformation occurs at high confining pressure. Based on the creep test results, the relationship between axial strain and time under different confining pressures was investigated, and the relationship between axial strain rate and deviatoric stress was also discussed. The strain rate increases rapidly, and the rock sample fails eventually under high deviatoric stress. Moreover, the creep failure mechanism under different confining pressures was analyzed. The main failure mechanism of clastic rock is plastic shear, accompanied by a significant compression and ductile dilatancy. On the other hand, with the determined parameters, the Burgers creep model was used to fit the creep curves. The results indicate that the Burgers model can exactly describe the creep behavior of clastic rock in the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project.

  7. Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastic dikes are subvertical sedimentary features that cut through horizontally layered sediments, and they are common at the Hanford Site. Because of their cross-cutting relationship with the surrounding matrix, they have been proposed as potential fast paths from former contaminant discharge sites at the surface to the water table. However, little was known of the detailed hydrogeologic properties of the dikes and detailed modeling of flow and transport through the dikes had not been performed. We excavated a 2 m wide clastic dike at the Hanford Site and characterized it using an air minipermeameter, infrared imagery, and grain size analyses. Field injection experiments were also used to characterize the system. The resulting data were used to prepare a detailed numerical model of the clastic dike and surrounding matrix for a portion of the excavation. Unsaturated flow and transport through the system were modeled for several recharge rates. The highly heterogeneous nature of the system led to complex behavior, with the relative flux rates in the matrix and clastic dike being highly dependent on the recharge rates that were imposed on the system. The study suggests that the potential role of clastic dikes in vertical transport at the Hanford Site would depend on the leakage rate, and that areas of contaminant deposition formed at high flow rates might become isolated at low flow rates, and vice-versa. The results may also help explain the occurrence of complex breakthrough patterns of contaminants at the water table

  8. Low permeability Neogene lithofacies in Northern Croatia as potential unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvić, Tomislav; Sučić, Antonija; Cvetković, Marko; Resanović, Filip; Velić, Josipa

    2014-06-01

    We present two examples of describing low permeability Neogene clastic lithofacies to outline unconventional hydrocarbon lithofacies. Both examples were selected from the Drava Depression, the largest macrostructure of the Pannonian Basin System located in Croatia. The first example is the Beničanci Field, the largest Croatian hydrocarbon reservoir discovered in Badenian coarse-grained clastics that consists mostly of breccia. The definition of low permeability lithofacies is related to the margins of the existing reservoir, where the reservoir lithology changed into a transitional one, which is mainly depicted by the marlitic sandstones. However, calculation of the POS (probability of success of new hydrocarbons) shows critical geological categories where probabilities are lower than those in the viable reservoir with proven reserves. Potential new hydrocarbon volumes are located in the structural margins, along the oil-water contact, with a POS of 9.375%. These potential reserves in those areas can be classified as probable. A second example was the Cremušina Structure, where a hydrocarbon reservoir was not proven, but where the entire structure has been transferred onto regional migration pathways. The Lower Pontian lithology is described from well logs as fine-grained sandstones with large sections of silty or marly clastics. As a result, the average porosity is low for conventional reservoir classification (10.57%). However, it is still an interesting case for consideration as a potentially unconventional reservoir, such as the "tight" sandstones.

  9. Missing ophiolitic rocks along the Mae Yuam Fault as the Gondwana-Tethys divide in north-west Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Hisada, Ken-ichiro; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Ueno, Katsumi; Charusiri, Punya; Arai, Shoji

    2004-01-01

    Thailand comprises two continental blocks: Sibumasu and Indochina. The clastic rocks of the Triassic Mae Sariang Group are distributed in the Mae Hong Son-Mae Sariang area, north-west Thailand, which corresponds to the central part of Sibumasu. The clastic rocks yield abundant detrital chromian spinels, indicating a source of ultramafic/mafic rocks. The chemistry of the detrital chromian spinels suggests that they were derived from three different rock types: ocean-floor peridotite, chromitit...

  10. Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants in the Vadose Zone at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that clastic dikes could form a preferential flow path through the vadose zone to the water table at the Hanford Site. Clastic dikes are subvertical structures that form within sedimentary sequences after deposition, and cut across the original sedimentary layers. They are common throughout the Hanford Site, often occurring in organized polygonal networks. In the initial phase of the project, we analyzed the large-scale geometry of the clastic dikes and developed an algorithm for simulating their spatial distribution. This result will be useful in providing maps of the potential distribution of clastic dikes in areas where they are not exposed at the surface (e.g., where covered by windblown sand or by construction of facilities like tank farms at the surface). In addition to the study of the large scale distribution of the dikes, a major focus of the project was on field, laboratory, and modeling studies of the hydrogeologic al properties of the clastic dikes and the effect that they have on transport of water through the vadose zone. These studies were performed at two field locations at the Hanford Site. We performed an extensive series of field and laboratory measurements of a large number of samples from the clastic dikes, linked with infrared (IR) and visual imagery of the clastic dikes and surrounding matrix. We developed a series of correlations from the sample data that allowed us to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the dike and matrix at an extremely high resolution (approximately 1 mm). The resulting grids, each of which measured several meters on a side and included nearly 4 grid nodes, were used to study the distribution of moisture between the clastic dike and surrounding matrix, as well as the relative velocities that moisture would have through the clastic dike and matrix for a number of different recharge scenarios. Results show the development of complex flow networks that

  11. Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants in the Vadose Zonde at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that clastic dikes could form a preferential flow path through the vadose zone to the water table at the Hanford Site. Clastic dikes are subvertical structures that form within sedimentary sequences after deposition and cut across the original sedimentary layers. They are common throughout the Hanford Site, often occurring in organized polygonal networks. In the initial phase of the project, we analyzed the large-scale geometry of the clastic dikes and developed an algorithm for simulating their spatial distribution. This result will be useful in providing maps of the potential distribution of clastic dikes in areas where they are not exposed at the surface (e.g., where covered by windblown sand or construction of facilities like tank farms at the surface). In addition to the study of the large-scale distribution of the dikes, a major focus of the project was on field, laboratory, and modeling studies of the hydrogeological properties of the clastic dikes and the effect that they have on transport of water through the vadose zone. These studies were performed at two field locations at the Hanford Site. We performed an extensive series of field and laboratory measurements of a large number of samples from the clastic dikes, linked with infrared (IR) and visual imagery of the clastic dikes and surrounding matrix. We developed a series of correlations from the sample data that allowed us to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the dike and matrix at an extremely high resolution (approximately 1 mm). The resulting grids, each of which measured several meters on a side and included nearly four million grid nodes, were used to study the distribution of moisture between the clastic dike and surrounding matrix, as well as the relative velocities that moisture would have through the clastic dike and matrix for a number of different recharge scenarios. Results show the development of complex flow networks

  12. 70193-Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants in the Vadose Zonde at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J Murray; Anderson L. Ward; John L. Wilson

    2004-04-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that clastic dikes could form a preferential flow path through the vadose zone to the water table at the Hanford Site. Clastic dikes are subvertical structures that form within sedimentary sequences after deposition and cut across the original sedimentary layers. They are common throughout the Hanford Site, often occurring in organized polygonal networks. In the initial phase of the project, we analyzed the large-scale geometry of the clastic dikes and developed an algorithm for simulating their spatial distribution. This result will be useful in providing maps of the potential distribution of clastic dikes in areas where they are not exposed at the surface (e.g., where covered by windblown sand or construction of facilities like tank farms at the surface). In addition to the study of the large-scale distribution of the dikes, a major focus of the project was on field, laboratory, and modeling studies of the hydrogeological properties of the clastic dikes and the effect that they have on transport of water through the vadose zone. These studies were performed at two field locations at the Hanford Site. We performed an extensive series of field and laboratory measurements of a large number of samples from the clastic dikes, linked with infrared (IR) and visual imagery of the clastic dikes and surrounding matrix. We developed a series of correlations from the sample data that allowed us to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the dike and matrix at an extremely high resolution (approximately 1 mm). The resulting grids, each of which measured several meters on a side and included nearly four million grid nodes, were used to study the distribution of moisture between the clastic dike and surrounding matrix, as well as the relative velocities that moisture would have through the clastic dike and matrix for a number of different recharge scenarios. Results show the development of complex flow networks

  13. Reservoir characteristics and diagenetic evolution of the carbonatite of Carboniferous System in the west part of Sunan area%苏南西部石炭系碳酸盐岩成岩演化与储集特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴祉平

    2012-01-01

    In the west part of Sunan area, there was a well developed stratum of carbonatite of Carboniferous System, which was the deposition of the supralittoral and subtidal zones in the muhi - beach (island) Epicontinental Sea ( plat- form) ,and the formations were complete. On the basis of the sedimentary characteristic of the rock,the lithofacies were classified into 10 kinds. The diagenesis was utilized to analyze the evolution of pore. And based on the research of the res- ervoir characteristic, the potential reservoir of carbonatite was forecasted.%苏南西部地区石炭系广泛发育有一套多滩(岛)浅陆表海(台地)潮上带至潮下带沉积的碳酸盐岩,层位齐全。根据岩石的沉积特征,划分为十种岩相。结合岩石成岩作用探讨了孔隙演化,并在现今储集特征分析的基础上,进行了潜在储层预测。

  14. Reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reservoir's life begins with exploration leading to discovery followed by delineation of the reservoir, development of the field, production by primary, secondary and tertiary means, and finally to abandonment. Sound reservoir management is the key to maximizing economic operation of the reservoir throughout its entire life. Technological advances and rapidly increasing computer power are providing tools to better manage reservoirs and are increasing the gap between good and neutral reservoir management. The modern reservoir management process involves goal setting, planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating, and revising plans. Setting a reservoir management strategy requires knowledge of the reservoir, availability of technology, and knowledge of the business, political, and environmental climate. Formulating a comprehensive management plan involves depletion and development strategies, data acquisition and analyses, geological and numerical model studies, production and reserves forecasts, facilities requirements, economic optimization, and management approval. This paper provides management, engineers geologists, geophysicists, and field operations staff with a better understanding of the practical approach to reservoir management using a multidisciplinary, integrated team approach

  15. U-Pb detrital zircon age patterns of Cenozoic clastic sedimentary rocks in Trinidad and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiangyang; Mann, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of northern South America can be simplified as a diachronous, west-to-east change from north-facing passive margin, to active convergence and transcurrent plate margin. As the current eastern end of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary, the Trinidad area records the most recent tectonic regime transition. Documenting the provenance of Cenozoic clastic rocks in Trinidad provides insights into the spatial and temporal relationships between mountain range uplifting, sediment dispersal, and drainage system development along the eastern end of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Four Eocene to Pliocene age outcropping sandstone samples were collected from Trinidad and 545 detrital zircon grains were analyzed using the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method. A total of 404 analyses with less than 10% discordance were used for the final interpretation. Results show that the age distribution of the Eocene to the Early Oligocene samples is very restricted and dominated by Precambrian age grains with age peaks at ~ 1400 Ma, ~ 1800 Ma, and ~ 2000 Ma, typically derived from the Guyana Shield. In contrast, the Late Oligocene and younger samples show much broader and mixed age distribution that includes Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian peaks. This age shift was interpreted as arriving of the Great Caribbean Arc and oblique collision between the South America and Caribbean plates. Continuing collision uplifted the Andes belts to the west. The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, the Merida Andes, and the northern Venezuela coastal ranges then became the second primary sources. Offshore sedimentation switched from the passive margin with multiple small drainage systems to the active convergent and transcurrent plate margin with a single large river-dominated delivery system.

  16. The Role of Palaeogene Clastics in the Tectonic Interpretation of Northern Dalmatia (Southern Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tari, V.; Mrinjek, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Palaeogene coarse-grained clastics of Northern Dalmatia (Jelar breccia, Promina deposits and Flysch) are syntectonic deposits related to the structural evolution of the Dinaride Thrust Belt. The Jelar breccia is a proximal sedimentary unit deposited in response to early compression of the carbonate platform (Lutetian to Bartonian). Flysch deposits are considered as their distal equivalents. The Early Jelar breccia displays a blended clast composition related to the simultaneous erosion of...

  17. Characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and distribution rules of effective reservoirs in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujun Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Songliao Basin, volcanic oil and gas reservoirs are important exploration domains. Based on drilling, logging, and 3D seismic (1495 km2 data, 546 sets of measured physical properties and gas testing productivity of 66 wells in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin, eruptive cycles and sub-lithofacies were distinguished after lithologic correction of the 19,384 m volcanic well intervals, so that a quantitative analysis was conducted on the relation between the eruptive cycles, lithologies and lithofacies and the distribution of effective reservoirs. After the relationship was established between lithologies, lithofacies & cycles and reservoir physical properties & oil and gas bearing situations, an analysis was conducted on the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and the distribution rules of effective reservoirs. It is indicated that 10 eruptive cycles of 3 sections are totally developed in this area, and the effective reservoirs are mainly distributed at the top cycles of eruptive sequences, with those of the 1st and 3rd Members of Yingcheng Formation presenting the best reservoir properties. In this area, there are mainly 11 types of volcanic rocks, among which rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, rhyolitic tuffo lava and rhyolitic volcanic breccia are the dominant lithologies of effective reservoirs. In the target area are mainly developed 4 volcanic lithofacies (11 sub-lithofacies, among which upper sub-lithofacies of effusive facies and thermal clastic sub-lithofacies of explosion lithofacies are predominant in effective reservoirs. There is an obvious corresponding relationship between the physical properties of volcanic reservoirs and the development degree of effective reservoirs. The distribution of effective reservoirs is controlled by reservoir physical properties, and the formation of effective reservoirs is influenced more by porosity than by permeability. It is concluded that deep volcanic gas exploration presents a good

  18. Markov chains and entropy tests in genetic-based lithofacies analysis of deep-water clastic depositional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borka, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between structural elements and the so-called genetic lithofacies in a clastic deep-water depositional system. Process-sedimentology has recently been gaining importance in the characterization of these systems. This way the recognized facies attributes can be associated with the depositional processes establishing the genetic lithofacies. In this paper this approach was presented through a case study of a Tertiary deep-water sequence of the Pannonian-basin. Of course it was necessary to interpret the stratigraphy of the sequences in terms of "general" sedimentology, focusing on the structural elements. For this purpose, well-logs and standard deep-water models were applied. The cyclicity of sedimentary sequences can be easily revealed by using Markov chains. Though Markov chain analysis has broad application in mainly fluvial depositional environments, its utilization is uncommon in deep-water systems. In this context genetic lithofacies was determined and analysed by embedded Markov chains. The randomness in the presence of a lithofacies within a cycle was estimated by entropy tests (entropy after depositional, before depositional, for the whole system). Subsequently the relationships between lithofacies were revealed and a depositional model (i.e. modal cycle) was produced with 90% confidence level of stationarity. The non-randomness of the latter was tested by chi-square test. The consequences coming from the comparison of "general" sequences (composed of architectural elements), the genetic-based sequences (showing the distributions of the genetic lithofacies) and the lithofacies relationships were discussed in details. This way main depositional channel has the best, channelized lobes have good potential hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, with symmetric alternation of persistent fine-grained sandstone (Facies D) and muddy fine-grained sandstone with traction structures (Facies F)

  19. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  20. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  1. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  2. The high-resolution stratigraphic architecture and evolution of the Burdigalian carbonate-silici-clastic sedimentary systems on the Mut Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, Ph.

    1999-06-01

    The subject of this doctorate study are the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) carbonate systems in the Mut basin, in south central Turkey. This area is chosen because it presents extraordinary large (seismic) scale 3D outcrops showing depositional geometries. In addition, these carbonates are considered as good outcrop analogues for time equivalent carbonate buildups in the Far East, that are oil and gas bearing. The carbonates were deposited in a complex relict topography, following a tectonically active phase in the Oligocene. During the Burdigalian transgression shallow platform carbonates were deposited in a variety of settings, locally accompanied by some silici-clastic input. Observations on the strata geometries and the facies were combined into a high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework controlled by bio-stratigraphy. With the help of relative sea level curves constructed for the three studied sites, a basin-wide correlation scheme is proposed. This chronostratigraphic framework permits the recognition of condensation and omission surfaces in the basinal and platform settings, to identify basin-wide variations in sedimentation pattern, and to evaluate the relative influence of tectonism, eustatism and the environment. The exceptional quality of the outcrops with its variety of environments, and its location at the Tethys margin, make this a good candidate for a reference model for Burdigalian reef and platform architectures. Examples of a quantitative approach of the geometries of potential carbonate reservoir bodies are given in the annex. The data-files are incorporated in the carbonate reservoir body database CARABAS. (author)

  3. GPR Imaging of Clastic Dikes at the Hanford Site, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to help determine the spatial distribution and the subsurface geometry of clastic injection dikes at the Hanford site. This information will help to improve the understanding of the hydrological role of these ubiquitous clastic dikes at the Hanford Site. We collected 100 MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) 3D surface reflection data at two sites, the S-16 Pond and the Army Loop Road sites, and 2D reflection data along a 6.9 km linear transect near the Army Loop Road site. The dikes are distinguished in the GPR data by a strongly attenuated zone, disruptions in the continuity of reflections, and diffractions where reflections are disrupted. In general, the data quality is better at the Army Loop Road and Traverse sites than at the S-16 Pond site, probably due to the presence of cobbles at the S-16 Pond site. A high-moisture, fine-grained unit probably causes the strong reflections at the Army Loop Road site and the Traverse survey site. The signal penetration varies between 5 to 12 m below the land surface

  4. Increasing Heavy Oil in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies. Annual Report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs

  5. ANNUAL REPORT. INFLUENCE OF CLASTIC DIKES ON VERTICAL MIGRATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE AT HANFORD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research is testing the hypothesis that clastic dikes at the Hanford Site provide preferential pathways that enhance the vertical movement of moisture and contaminants through the vadose zone. Current flow and transport models of the vadose zone at the 200 Areas are based on...

  6. Development and application of a radiometric method of measurement (Heger probe) for characterizing clastic rock strata in exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric image of a stratigraphic exposure profile was to be logged. The method of measurement was tested on clastic sediments of the Tertiary (Saudi Arabia) and Bunter (Northern Germany). The well-tried scintillometer technique was supplemented by modern technological means supplied by a prospecting company (Gewerkschaft Brunhilde). The probe applied was specifically developped for stratigraphic purposes. (orig./HP)

  7. Remotely sensed small reservoir monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; Annor, Frank; Iannini, Lorenzo; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    A new 'growing' maximum likelihood classification algorithm for small reservoir delineation has been developed and is tested with Radarsat-2 data for reservoirs in the semi-arid Upper East Region, Ghana. The delineation algorithm is able to find the land-water boundary from SAR imagery for different weather and environmental conditions. As such, the algorithm allows for remote sensed operational monitoring of small reservoirs. Multipurpose small reservoirs (1-100 ha) are important for many livelihoods in rural semi-arid West Africa. In order to manage and plan these reservoirs and to assess their hydrological impact at a river basin scale, it is important to monitor their water storage fluctuation. Several studies on remotely sensed reservoir mapping have recently been published, but no single method yields good results for all weather and environmental conditions. Detection of small reservoirs from optical satellite imagery using supervised maximum likelihood classification is a well proved method. The application of this method for the monitoring of small reservoirs is however limited because of its dependence on cloud-free day-acquisitions. Delineation from SAR images is promising, but because of difficulties with wind induced Bragg-scattering and low contrast between the water surface and the dried-out surroundings at the end of the dry season, only quasi manual methods have been applied successfully. A smart combination of optical satellite based detection combined with a delineation method for SAR imagery is proposed. From the optical satellite based small reservoir detection the reservoir window is determined in which the 'growing' maximum likelihood classification on SAR images is performed. A water-class seed and land-class seed are implemented and grown dependent on the likelihood of a pixel to belong to one class. The likelihood is calculated based on the probability distributions of the growing land and water populations. Combinations of single

  8. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  9. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization

  10. Clastic Pipes: Proxies of High Water Tables and Strong Ground Motion, Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, David; Chan, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Multiple soft sediment deformation features from bed-scale to basin-scale are well preserved within the Jurassic Carmel Formation of Southern Utah. Field mapping reveals thousands of small-scale clastic injectite pipes (10 cm to 10 m diameter, up to 20 m tall) in extremely high densities (up to 500+ pipes per 0.075 square kilometers). The pipes weather out in positive relief from the surrounding host strata of massive sandstone (sabkha) and crossbedded sands with minor conglomerate and shale (fluvial) deposits. The host rock shows both brittle and ductile deformation. Reverse, normal, and antithetical faulting is common with increased frequency, including ring faults, surrounding the pipes. The pipes formed from liquefaction and subsequent fluidization induced by strong ground motion. Down-dropped, graben blocks and ring faults surrounding pipes indicate initial sediment volume increase during pipe emplacement followed by sediment volume decrease during dewatering. Complex crosscutting relationships indicate several injection events where some pipe events reached the surface as sand blows. Multiple ash layers provide excellent stratigraphic and temporal constraints for the pipe system with the host strata deposited between 166 and 164 Ma. Common volcanic fragments and rounded volcanic cobbles occur within sandstone and conglomerate beds, and pipes. Isolated volcanic clasts in massive sandstone indicate explosive volcanic events that could have been the exogenic trigger for earthquakes. The distribution of pipes are roughly parallel to the Middle Jurassic paleoshoreline located in marginal environments between the shallow epicontinental Sundance Sea and continental dryland. At the vertical stratigraphic facies change from dominantly fluvial sediments to dominantly massive sabkha sediments, there is a 1-2 m-thick floodplain mudstone that was a likely seal for underlying, overpressurized sediments. The combination of loose porous sediment at a critical depth of water

  11. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  12. The sedimentological significance of a clastic wedge in the western basin margin of the Triassic Tethys (Iberian Range, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Gil, Soledad

    1991-01-01

    [EN] The Middle Triassic in the NW of the Iberian Basin consists of both carbonate and terrigenous sediments. A new sedimentary model is proposed for the clastic wedge of the Cuesta del Castillo Saudstones and Siltstones (CCSS) Formation (García-Gil, 1990), and its relationship with the Upper Muschelkalk carbonate Formations. The model will take account of the following characteristics: 1. Low depositional gradient being integrated in a homoclinal carbonate ramp. 2. Co...

  13. Ichnology and sedimentology of deep-marine clastic systems, Middle Eocene, Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees.

    OpenAIRE

    Heard, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable research into the characterisation of the architectural elements of submarine fans, few studies have attempted the full integration of ichnology and sedimentology. In this thesis, a quantitative analysis of trace fossils from the Early-Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees, shows that trace fossils are powerful discriminators of deep-marine fan and related environments. Sixteen fan and related environments have been recognised in th...

  14. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  15. Low porosity/high permeability, deeply-buried reservoirs of the Cusiana Field, Llanos foothills, Eastern Colombia: Controls on reservoir quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulham, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Warren, E. [BP Exploration Research, Sunbury (United Kingdom); Naar, J. [BP Exploration, Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The Cusiana Field is a thrust-related anticline located on the eastern edge of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. It comprises three clastic reservoirs: lower Tertiary Mirador and Barco Formations and the Santonian-Campanian Guadalupe Formation. Sandstone porosity is generally low, averaging approximately 8% in the Mirador and Barco; and approximately 15% in the Guadalupe. Despite such low porosities, permeabilities are excellent and can exceed 1000mD. Detailed petrographic, sedimentological and biostratigraphic analyses have been used to identify the controls and distribution of porosity within the Cusiana Field. The majority of the reservoir sandstones in Cusiana are near pure quartz arenites cemented by blocky, euhedral quartz overgrowths. Other cement phases, including kaolinite, are minor. The low porosity values throughout the reservoirs can be simply explained by compactional loss and relatively hot cementation by quartz during deep burial (>20,000 ft) The exception to the pure quartz arenites are zones in the Guadalupe reservoir that contain significant quantities (up to 20%) of detrital phosphate. These phosphatic sandstones lack the blocky quartz cements, contain pore lining microcrystalline quartz cement, minor calcite and clays (kaolinite and chlorite). They also have the best porosities (up to 22%). There is a direct relationship between presence and quantity of phosphate in the Guadalupe reservoir and increased reservoir quality. The Cusiana reservoirs provide a good case study of porosity evolution in deeply buried, quartz-rich sandstones and the contrasts that can occur when a non-quartz component to the sandstones is introduced.

  16. Characteristics of Chang 21 Low Permeability Sandstone Reservoir in Shunning Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min; YU Liu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of Chang 21 low permeability sandstone reservoir of Shunning oil field are analyzed and evaluated based on the data of well logging and experiment. The result shows that 1) the Chang 21 low permeability reservoir belongs to the classification of middle-to-fine sized feldspar sandstone, with its components being low in maturity, deposited in distributary rivers in the front of the delta; 2) the reservoir is obviously dominated by a low or a very low permeability with a linear variation tendency different from that of the ultra-low permeability reservoir; 3) the spatial variation in lithology and physical properties of the reservoir are controlled by the sedimentary facies zones, and 4)the physical property of the reservoir is significantly influenced by clastic constituents and their structure, and the constituent of cement materials and their content. The result also shows that the diagenesis action of the reservoir is quite strong in which dissolution greatly modified the reservoir In addition, the inter-granular dissolved pores are the mainly developed ones and the micro-structure is dominated by the combination of middle-to-large sized pores with fine-to-coarse throats. Finally, the radius of the throats is in good exponential correlation with permeability and the seepage capacity comes from those large sized throats.

  17. Oakland, West

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  18. Caldera formation and varied eruption styles on North Pacific seamounts: the clastic lithofacies record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, Ryan A.; Clague, Dave A.; Paduan, Jennifer B.

    2014-08-01

    Detailed examination of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks collected from the Taney (30 Ma), President Jackson (4 Ma), Vance (3 Ma) and Alarcon (2 Ma) near-ridge seamount chains of the North Pacific reveals seven clastic lithofacies that record various modes of eruption, magma fragmentation, and particle dispersal. Lithofacies are distinguished by differences in lithology, bedding habit, compositional heterogeneity, and relationship to volcanic landforms. Breccia lithofacies were produced through mechanical fragmentation during caldera collapse (polymict) or effusive eruptions onto steep slopes (monomict). Rare globular lapilli mudstone lithofacies contain clasts with morphologies formed by magma-sediment mingling processes (peperite). Seamount summit pyroclastic deposits include proximal lapilli tuff with vesicular pyroclasts, and more distal limu o Pele tuff lithofacies. Much finer-grained hydrothermal mudstone/tuff lithofacies occurs around caldera rims and contains greenschist minerals, hydrothermal clays and basaltic ash that record subsurface phreatomagmatic fragmentation processes. Very fine-grained ash is transported to distal regions by oceanic currents and hydrothermal plumes, and is a component of the regional pelagic sediment budget. Pyroclastic lithofacies only occur on seamount summits suggesting formation during the latter stages of seamount evolution. As a seamount drifts away from an adjacent ridge axis and associated heat source, its magma supply is reduced allowing for magmatic gas buildup and mild explosive eruptions. During this stage, the diminished melt supply under the seamount is unable to fully compensate for extension along the ridge axis and vertical seamount growth. Lateral intrusion into spreading-related structures in this stage causes magma withdrawal and caldera formation. Formation of caldera ring faults also promotes seawater ingress into subseafloor hydrothermal cells, which interact with magma conduits causing phreatomagmatic

  19. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Cross-well bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  20. Status of Norris Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  2. Radiogenic isotope systematics of clastic sedimentary rocks - with emphasis on detrital zircon geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the radiogenic isotope systematics of clastic sedimentary rocks are applied to provenance studies. Provenance means place of origin and is basically focused on the location and nature of sediment source areas, the pathways by which the eroded material is transferred from the source to the basin of deposition, and the factors that influence the composition of sedimentary rocks (e.g. relief, climate, tectonic setting). ICP-MS has revolutionised analytical trace element geochemistry, and micro-sampling by laser ablation makes it possible to analyse the trace element and isotope compositions of detrital mineral grains. At the time when this study was initiated, a few pilot studies on detrital zircon geochronology had been carried out. The higher sample throughput and the lower investment cost of 1CPMS compared to SIMS instrumentation, were clear advantages. The analytical challenge was to improve the lower accuracy and precision of the technique. However, new correction methods had shown promising results when applied to the analyses of zircon standards. A careful comparison of the LA-ICPMS with the SIMS technique was needed before LA-ICPMS could confidently be used for provenance studies. A comparative study of' the two techniques was therefore carried out using the NORDSIM facility and the ICPMS laboratory at Memorial University of Newfoundland. The first paper of this thesis deals with the LA-ICPMS technique, and the accuracy and precision of the method when applied to detrital zircon dating. The subsequent papers present three case studies that use the technique, 1) as a tool for terrane analyses of orogenic belts; 2) for provenance studies of a molasse basin to constrain late orogenic exhumation history; and 3) to study the provenance of offshore sediments. 4 papers are included and have titles: 1) U-Pb dating of detrital zircons for sediment provenance studies -a comparison of laser ablation ICPMS and SIMS techniques. 2) U-Pb zircon and Sm

  3. Distribution and characteristics of volcanic reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yulong; WANG Pujun; CHEN Shuming

    2009-01-01

    About forty productive oil/gas fields hosted in volcanic reservoirs have been found since 1957 in fourteen basins of China. They can be simply subdivided into two groups, the east and the west. Reservoir volcanic rocks of the east group are predominantly composed of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rhyolite and Tertiary basalt, preferred being considered as rift type volcanics developed in the circum-Pacific tectonic regime. Those of the west are Permo-Carboniferous intermediate/basic volcanic rocks, being island-arc type ones developed in paleo-Asian Ocean tectonic regime.

  4. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Evidence of clastic evaporites in the canyons of the Levant basin (Israel): implications for the Messinian salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Stefano; Schreiber, B. Charlotte; Gvirtzman, Zohar; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The recognition of widespread and thick evaporite deposits below the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has boosted a long standing controversy concerning their depositional setting (shallow versus deep) and their correlation with the onshore sequences. Until a new scientific campaign might be launched to cross those deposits, the discussion is still open to speculation. Many Messinian evaporitic deposits have been interpreted as primary precipitates in very shallow-water or coastal environments, thus favouring the idea of a desiccated Mediterranean basin (Hsu et al., 1973). Recent studies have questioned this interpretation (Hardie and Lowenstein, 2004) and widespread, thick, clastic evaporite facies have been identified in the Mediterranean (Manzi et al., 2005). These clastic deposits are not compatible with a desiccation model as they were clearly emplaced by fully subaqueous, deep-water processes, ranging from submarine slides, to high- and low-density gravity flows. One of the most relevant areas for the understanding of the salinity crisis is the Levant basin where the Messinian evaporites partially fill some of the erosional features (canyons) considered to have formed as a consequence of significant drawdown related to the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea (up to - 850 m, Druckman et al., 1995). Our complete revisitation of the available cores from onshore Israel cutting through the sedimentary filling of the Messinian canyons (Afiq 1, Ashdod 2, Be'eri Sh1, Be'eri Sh4, Jaffa 1 and Talme-Yaffe 3) revealed exclusively clastic sulfate facies. This is the first direct evidence that the Lower Evaporite Unit offshore Israel may actually consist of deep-water resedimented evaporites that were originally deposited on the margin of the Levant Basin. References Druckman Y., Buchbinder B., Martinotti G.M., Tov R.S., Aharon P., 1995. The buried Afiq Canyon (eastern Mediterranean, Israel): a case study of a Tertiary submarine canyon exposed in Late Messinian times

  6. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  7. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drillings. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996 to June 12, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevans, Jerry W.; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill

    1999-04-27

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. Other technologies, such as inter-well injection tracers and magnetic flow conditioners, can also aid in the efficient evaluation and operation of both injection and producing wells. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate useful and cost effective methods of exploitation of the shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin located in West Texas.

  8. The application of solvent-additive SAGD processes in reservoirs with associated basal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.; Riva, D.; Edmunds, N.; Solanki, S. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Within the oil sands project developments areas of northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, most thermal projects have associated basal water of varying thickness. More associated basal water will be encountered as these projects continue to develop more resource. Basal water can be either in the form of primarily water sand with low oil saturation, a transition zone of lower oil saturation than the main reservoir, or a mixture of both. This paper outlined the results of a simulation and optimization study on the application of solvent-additive steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process to reservoirs with associated basal water. It is thought that ideal solvent application to SAGD in reservoirs will likely involve time variations in both rate and composition of the solvent, which is also the case for reservoirs with associated basal water, resulting in an optimization problem that has a significant number of dimensions, and is quite nonlinear. In order to address such problems, genetic algorithms can be effective. The paper discussed the optimization of a simple clastic reservoir with associated basal water. Specific topics that were addressed in the paper included SAGD with associated basal water; solvent addition; project optimization; and the reservoir model description including operating constraints and objective function. It was concluded that solvent retention is not excessive with basal water, and migration of solvent outside the steam chamber area is not significant if pressure is controlled. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Reservoir compartmentalization and management strategies: Lessons learned in the Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grube, J.P.; Crockett, J.E.; Huff, B.G. [and others

    1997-08-01

    A research project jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Illinois State Geological Survey focused on the Cypress and Aux Vases Formations (Mississippian), major clastic reservoirs in the Illinois Basin. Results from the research showed that understanding the nature and distribution of reservoir compartments, and using effective reservoir management strategies, can significantly improve recovery efficiencies from oil fields in this mature basin. Compartments can be most effectively drained where they are geologically well defined and reservoir management practices are coordinated through unified, compartment-wide, development programs. Our studies showed that the Cypress and Aux Vases reservoirs contain lateral and vertical permeability barriers forming compartments that range in size from isolated, interlaminated sandstone and shale beds to sandstone bodies tens of feet in thickness and more than a mile in length. Stacked or shingled, genetically similar sandstone bodies are commonly separated by thin impermeable intervals that can be difficult to distinguish on logs and can, therefore, cause correlation problems, even between wells drilled on spacing of less than ten acres. Lateral separation of sandstone bodies causes similar problems. Reservoir compartmentalization reduces primary and particularly secondary recovery by trapping pockets of by-passed or banked oil. Compartments can be detected by comparing recovery factors of genetically similar sandstone bodies within a field; using packers to separate commingled intervals and analyzing fluid recoveries and pressures; making detailed core-to-log calibrations that identify compartment boundaries; and analyzing pressure data from waterflood programs.

  10. Increasing waterflood reserves in the Wilmington oil field through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. Quarterly technical progress report, March 21, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.; Clarke, D. [Long Beach City Dept. of Oil Properties, CA (United States); Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J. [Tidelands Oil Production Co. (United States); Moos, D. [Stanford Univ. (United States); Tagbor, K. [MPI (United States)

    1995-07-26

    The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology. The identification of the sands with high remaining oil saturation will be accomplished by developing a deterministic 3-D geologic model and by using a state of the art reservoir management computer software. The wells identified by the geologic and reservoir engineering work as having the best potential will be logged with a pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool. The application of the logging tools will be optimized in the lab by developing a rock-log model. The wells that are shown to have the best oil production potential will be recompleted. The recompletions will be optimized by evaluating short radius and ultra-short radius lateral recompletions. Technical progress is reported for the following tasks: Reservoir characterization; reservoir engineering; 3-D geologic modeling; pulsed acoustic logging; and technology transfer.

  11. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  12. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  13. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. Throughout the project, however, we learned that this strategy was impractical because the different data and model are complementary instead of competitive. For the complex Coalinga field, we found that a thorough understanding of the reservoir evolution through geologic times provides the necessary framework which ultimately allows integration of the different data and techniques.

  14. Influence of nanomirelal phases on development processes of oil reservoirs in Volga-Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Victor; Sitdikova, Lyalya

    2010-05-01

    authors have worked out the concept of lithogeochemical equilibrium in the oil-reservoir system. According to this concept, the reservoir-fluid system contains inert and active mineral phases. Clastic grains in terrigenous reservoirs and carbonate accumulations in carbonate reservoirs represent the inert phases that do not react to reservoir stimulations. The active mineral phases are generally represented by finely dispersed, nano-sized minerals that form an unstable mineral assemblage, rapidly changing its form and orientation within pores and voids and crystallising in them in the course of the reservoir stimulation. The active nanomineral component is represented by clay minerals, finely dispersed carbonate material, finely dispersed sulphide minerals (pyrite), finely dispersed hydroxides, finely dispersed quartz and rare minerals. The dynamic analysis of nanomineral phases in pore channels of the oil reservoir allows the prediction of the reservoir reaction to a specific EOR method, the selection of reservoir stimulation methods and the optimisation of oil recovery. In accordance with the authors' instructions, the reservoir properties, areal distribution and spatial concentration of active nanomineral phases as well as their reaction to the physicochemical impact have been recorded in the course of the lithotechnological mapping in some oil fields of the Volga-Ural province. Such lithotechnological maps allow the selection of optimal reservoir stimulation methods with consideration for the lithological and mineralogical characteristics of the reservoir, including its particular regions, and for their reaction to the stimulation.

  15. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-03-31

    The West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma is one of few newly discovered oil fields in Oklahoma. Although profitable, the field exhibits several unusual characteristics. These include decreasing water-oil ratios, decreasing gas-oil ratios, decreasing bottomhole pressures during shut-ins in some wells, and transient behavior for water production in many wells. This report explains the unusual characteristics of West Carney Field based on detailed geological and engineering analyses. We propose a geological history that explains the presence of mobile water and oil in the reservoir. The combination of matrix and fractures in the reservoir explains the reservoir's flow behavior. We confirm our hypothesis by matching observed performance with a simulated model and develop procedures for correlating core data to log data so that the analysis can be extended to other, similar fields where the core coverage may be limited.

  16. Fault transmissibility in clastic-argillaceous sequences controlled by clay smear evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The mechanical entrainment of clays and shales in fault zones of sedimentary sequences can exert fundamental control on fault-permeability. To estimate the influence of entrained clay bands on fluid flow, semi-empirical fault-seal algorithms are being used for hydrocarbon exploration (e.g. Yielding et al., 1997) and CO2 storage assessment (e.g. Bretan et al., 2011). To estimate clay distribution in the fault zone, these algorithms do not consider material properties or deformation conditions at the time of faulting, but rather they rely on the simplified assumption that fault gouge composition at any point along the fault reflects the 'mean' clay fraction of the slipped interval. Whether individual clay bands are breached or are continuous is not evaluated, yet this could have a dramatic effect on fault transmissibility. In this study, the sealing capacity of clay smears evolving in sealed direct shear experiments of initially intact sandstone-clay-stone sequences was quantified to large displacements up to more than ten times the thickness of the clay layer. A new type of direct shear cell was specifically designed for these experiments (Giger et al., 2011). The sample blocks consisted of a pre-consolidated clay-rich 'seal' layer, which was embedded and synthetically cemented in 'reservoir' quartz sand. The mineralogy and mechanical properties of the clay layer and the reservoir sandstones were constrained in geomechanical tests. Discrete element modelling (DEM) was carried out in parallel to investigate a wider range of deformation conditions, and to explore the possibility to upscale the analogue test results. The fluid flow response across the fault zone could be monitored continuously during deformation. A tracer was also added to the clay layer, and the finite 3D smear structure could be resolved (using a medical CT scanner) and related to the flow response (Ciftci et al., 2011). Displacement at which seals

  17. Coal reservoir permeability and its controlled factors in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, J.; Shi, B.; Zhang, C. [China Administration Bureau of Coal Geology (China). Exploration Branch No. 1

    1999-04-01

    Based on most of the well-testing data in China since the 1990's, the permeability of the coal reservoir and the controlling factors in the major CBM-accumulating districts and zones were objectively evaluated. It was found that the coal reservoir's permeability in China is generally lower than that in America and there is a certain regional distribution rules. The permeability is lower in the eastern part of North China CBM-accumulating province than that in the west, and is lower in Northeast China's and South China's CBM-accumulating provinces than that in North China. Ground stress is the major factor which influences the coal reservoir's permeability. The distribution of the permeability with the burial depth of the coal reservoirs seems to be the function of the stress. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Sediment management for reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All natural lakes and reservoirs whether on rivers, tributaries or off channel storages are doomed to be sited up. Pakistan has two major reservoirs of Tarbela and Managla and shallow lake created by Chashma Barrage. Tarbela and Mangla Lakes are losing their capacities ever since first impounding, Tarbela since 1974 and Mangla since 1967. Tarbela Reservoir receives average annual flow of about 62 MAF and sediment deposits of 0.11 MAF whereas Mangla gets about 23 MAF of average annual flows and is losing its storage at the rate of average 34,000 MAF annually. The loss of storage is a great concern and studies for Tarbela were carried out by TAMS and Wallingford to sustain its capacity whereas no study has been done for Mangla as yet except as part of study for Raised Mangla, which is only desk work. Delta of Tarbala reservoir has advanced to about 6.59 miles (Pivot Point) from power intakes. In case of liquefaction of delta by tremor as low as 0.12g peak ground acceleration the power tunnels I, 2 and 3 will be blocked. Minimum Pool of reservoir is being raised so as to check the advance of delta. Mangla delta will follow the trend of Tarbela. Tarbela has vast amount of data as reservoir is surveyed every year, whereas Mangla Reservoir survey was done at five-year interval, which has now been proposed .to be reduced to three-year interval. In addition suspended sediment sampling of inflow streams is being done by Surface Water Hydrology Project of WAPDA as also some bed load sampling. The problem of Chasma Reservoir has also been highlighted, as it is being indiscriminately being filled up and drawdown several times a year without regard to its reaction to this treatment. The Sediment Management of these reservoirs is essential and the paper discusses pros and cons of various alternatives. (author)

  19. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  20. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  1. Integrated Geophysical Techniques for Exploring Deep Volcanic Rock Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXuejun; UDechun; ZhangChangjiang; RanXuefeng

    2003-01-01

    The Carboniferous and Pre-Carboniferous formations in Ludong, Zhungar basin, contain favorable oil/gas reservoirs. The Carboniferous formations, however, are complex in structure and exhibit lateral variations in lithology. Seismic reflections from Pre-Triassic formations are poor and the volcanic reservoirs are very difficult to identify. The analysis of physical properties concluded that the major targets in this region, i.e., the top of the Jurassic and Carboniferous formations, provide distinct density interfaces. The basic, intermediate and acid volcanic rocks were also different in density,resulting in distinguishable gravity anomalies. The differences in magnetism in this region existed not only between the volcanic rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks but also among volcanic rocks with different compositions. All formations and volcanic rocks of different lithologies presented high and low resistance interbeds, which are characterized by regional trends.The modeling study demonstrated that non-seismic integrated geophysical techniques should be feasible in this region, especiaUy the high-precision gravity/magnetic methods combined with long offset transient electromagnetic sounding.

  2. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  3. Climate change and reservoir water management in the west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the uncertainties associated with climate change, the Bureau of Reclamation, which operates about 350 water storage facilities and 50 hydroelectric dams in the 17 western states, is using extrapolations from experience in drought response to formulate policies and programs to deal with climate change threats. The Bureau of Reclamation has instituted a broad effort to review and expand its existing programs, which include: water bank programs; water transfers, exchanges and reallocations; automation; advance decision support/expert systems; streamflow and demand forecasting improvements; AgriMet programs; improved monitoring of water supply and distribution; reduction of conveyance losses; use of wetlands for water storage, ground water recharge and wildlife enhancement; and many others. These programs are discussed and examples are provided of actions being taken. Reclamation has implemented a program for researching responses to climate change, the Global Climate Change Response Program. The goals of the program are to gather and develop information and technology necessary for understanding the nature, scope, and extent of potential global climate changes on water resources; determine scenarios of potential climate change and develop tools necessary for assessing the impact of the scenarios; develop responses and operational coping strategies for managing and developing water resources under climate change scenarios; establish contingency plans and prepare management for dealing with climate change; and coordinate activities with the Department of the Interior and other agencies. 3 figs

  4. Unusual occurrence of some sedimentary structures and their significance in Jurassic transgressive clastic successions of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, N.; Bheemalingeswara, K.

    2009-04-01

    Mesozoic sedimentary successions produced by marine transgression and regression of sea in northeastern part of Africa are well preserved in Mekelle basin of Ethiopia. Here, a typical second order sequence is well developed and preserved overlying the Precambrian basement rocks or patchy Palaeozoic sedimentary successions. Initiation of Mesozoic sedimentation in Mekelle basin has started with deposition of Adigrat Sandstone Formation (ASF). It is a retrogradational succession of siliciclastics in coastline/beach environment due to transgression of sea from southeast. ASF is followed by Antallo Limestone Formation (ALF)- an aggradational succession of carbonates in tidal flat environment; Agula Shale/Mudstone Formation (AMF); and Upper/Ambaradom Sandstone Formation (USF)- a progradational succession formed during regression in ascending order (Dubey et al., 2007). AMF is deposited in a lagoonal evaporatic environment whereas USF in a fluvial coastal margin. ASF is an aggregate of cyclically stacked two lithologies ASF1 and ASF2 produced by sea-level rise and fall of a lower order mini-cycle. ASF1 is a thick, multistoried, pink to red, friable, medium to fine grained, cross-bedded sandstone deposited in a high energy environment. ASF2 is a thin, hard and maroon colored iron-rich mudstone (ironstones) deposited in a low energy environment. ASF1 has resulted during regressive phase of the mini-cycle when rate of sedimentation was extremely high due to abundant coarser clastic supply from land to the coastal area. On the other hand, ASF2 has resulted during transgressive phase of the mini-cycle which restricted the supply of the coarser clastic to the coastal area and deposited the muddy ferruginous sediments in low energy offshore part of the basin where sedimentation rate was very low. Apart from these two major lithologies, there are also few other minor lithologies like fine-grained white sandstone, carbonate (as bands), claystone and mudstone present in ASF. ASF is

  5. Characteristics and exploration prospects of Middle Permian reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, encouraging progress has been made in the Middle Permian natural gas exploration in the Sichuan Basin – numerous wells have obtained high-yield industrial gas flows in the dolomite porous reservoir sections in the Middle Permian Maokou Formation and the Qixia Formation, making the Middle Permian one of the most realistic replacement strata at present. In order to clarify the further exploration prospect of the basin, the Middle Permian depositional settings and prospective reservoir types were analyzed. The results show that: (1 the depositional environment was predominately open, shallow water; the paleogeomorphology was high in the west and low in the east, with bioclastic flat reservoirs more extensive in the middle-west part than the east part; crustal extension made Middle Permian deposits have good conditions for thermal water deposition and hydrothermal alteration; and (2 the prospect reservoirs for exploration were shoal facies dolomite porous reservoir of the Qixia Formation, thermal water dolomite porous reservoir and karst reservoir of the Maokou Formation, thus, dolomite porous reservoir was the most perspective target in the Middle Permian. It is concluded that Middle Permian limestone source rocks have large hydrocarbon generation intensity in the northern part of Western and Central Sichuan Basin and have the material basis for the formation of large-medium gas fields; the thick dolomite reservoir of the Qixia Formation in the Western Sichuan Basin is the most prospective reservoir in the Middle Permian; three types of reservoirs are distributed in the Central Sichuan Basin, and they are superimposed vertically with large exploration potential; Jiange–Nanchong–Fengdu region is located in the thermal sub-basin zone, where the thermal water dolomite reservoir of the Maokou formation is pervasive and superimposed on the karst reservoir of the Maokou Formation, showing good natural gas exploration prospects.

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  7. Relationship between fluvial clastic sediment and source rock abundance in Rapti river basin of central Nepal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many tributaries from carbonate sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Lesser Himalayan and clastic sedimentary rocks of the Sub-Himalayan Ranges carry gravelly sediments to the Rapti River. River bar sediments were analyzed for composition and texture to evaluate downstream changes in properties, and to establish relationship between proportion of clasts and the abundance of rock types in the source areas. Percent quartzite clast or granite clast increases whereas that of carbonate, schist or slate decreases along downstream. The largest grain size decreases downstream, whereas fatness index and sphericity tend to increase. Despite of little diminish in relative abundance of rock types in source areas along the river, the relative proportion of corresponding clast type shows rapid reduction (e.g. slate or phyllite or carbonate clasts) or rapid enhancement (e.g. granite clast). The relationships of quartzite clast and schist clasts with their corresponding source rocks are statistically significant suggesting that these clasts can provide clue to source rock abundance. About 85 to 94% of the gravel clasts represent rock types of the Lesser Himalayan Range suggesting that this range has been contributing enormous amount of sediments.

  8. Nd Isotopes and Geochemistry of Phanerozoic Clastic Sedimentary Rocks from the Yangtze Block and Their Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article presents Sm-Nd and geochemical data on fine-grained sediments of the northern margin from the Yangtze block, China, to understand the variations of Nd isotopic compositions and crustal evolution history in this area. The results are as follows: (1) Nd isotopic compositions for clastic sedimentary rocks of the Middle-Late Proterozoic have relatively positive Nd(t) values (+ 2.72 to + 0.69), with Nd model ages from 1.38 Ga to 1.55 Ga, corresponding to the contemporaneous volcanic rocks from the Xixiang (西乡) Group. This indicates that the arc-related materials from Middle-Late Proterozoic dominate the provenances of the Middle-Late Proterozoic periods. (2) The gradual decrease in εNd(t) during the Cambrian-Carboniferous periods is likely to reflect the progressively increasing proportion of erosion materials from the Foping (佛坪) and Qinling (秦岭) complexes, corresponding to a gradually decreasing trend in the La/Th ratios. (3) A prominent increase in the εNd(t) value of the Late Permian strata probably reflects the significant incorporation of the mantle-derived materials. The trace element data are compared with data of the Emeishan (峨嵋山)flood basalts. These data indicate that the volcanic dust has been added to the Late Permian strata during the Late Permian, represented by periods of extremely high Emeishan flood basalt activity in the south-eastern margin of the Yangtze block.

  9. Clastic sedimentary features of beachrocks and their palaeo-environmental significance:comparison of past and modern coastal regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David PSOMIADIS; Konstantinos ALBANAKIS; Nikoleta ZISI; Matthieu GHILARDI; Elissavet DOTSIKA

    2014-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary features of beachrocks and unconsolidated deposits of parent beaches were investigated along the northern Aegean coastline (Greece) to assess their suitability in palaeo-environmental reconstruction. Twelve paired datasets were collected in the Thermaikos, Toroneos, Siggitikos and Ierissos gulfs of the Chalkidiki Peninsula, the adjoining Kavala Gulf and Thassos Island, comprising beachrock cores and companion beach subsurface sediments. Particle size analyses based on univariate and bivariate statistics suggest that, during the time period of beachrock formation, depositional conditions differed distinctly from those of the modern parent beaches. The results imply difference of maturity level of beach evolution from the time of cementation (coarser materials-early stage of beach formation) to modern situation (finer materials-reworked and ‘mature’ beach sediments). Furthermore, the findings indicate increasing coastal protection due to beachrock exposure in the modern swash zone. In conclusion, it is suggested that textural analysis of beachrocks in comparison with unconsolidated sediments of the parent beach might provide information regarding differences of coastal depositional regimes and future research could focus on specific-layer analysis and comparison.

  10. Assessment of Deep Seated Geothermal Reservoirs in Selected European Sedimentary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungemach, Pierre; Antics, Miklos

    2014-05-01

    Europe at large enjoys a variety of sedimentary environments. They most often host dependable geothermal reservoirs thus favouring the farming of hot fluids, within the low to medium enthalpy range, among which geothermal district heating (GDH) and combined heat and power (CHP) undertakings hold a dominant share. Three selected reservoir settings, addressing carbonate and clastic deposits, the Central part of the Paris Basin, the Southern Germany Molasse Basin in the Münich area and the Netherland Basin respectively will be presented and the exploratory, modeling and development strategies discussed accordingly. Whereas 2D (reprocessed) and 3D seismics have become a standard in matching the distinctive (reef facies, an echelon faulting, carbonate platform layering) features of a deep buried karst and a key to drilling success in the Molasse Basin, thus emphasizing a leading exploratory rationale, the Netherland and Paris Basin instead benefit from a mature data base inherited from extensive hydrocarbon exploration campaigns, with concerns focused on reservoir modeling and sustainable management issues. As a result the lessons learned from the foregoing have enabled to build up a nucleus of expertise in the whole chain from resource identification to reservoir assessment and market penetration. The seismic risk, indeed a sensitive though somewhat emotional issue, which is requiring special attention and due microseismic monitoring from the geothermal community will also be commented.

  11. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  12. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  13. Optimising reservoir operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le

    Anvendelse af optimeringsteknik til drift af reservoirer er blevet et væsentligt element i vandressource-planlægning og -forvaltning. Traditionelt har reservoirer været styret af heuristiske procedurer for udtag af vand, suppleret i en vis udstrækning af subjektive beslutninger. Udnyttelse af...... reservoirer involverer en lang række interessenter med meget forskellige formål (f.eks. kunstig vanding, vandkraft, vandforsyning mv.), og optimeringsteknik kan langt bedre lede frem til afbalancerede løsninger af de ofte modstridende interesser. Afhandlingen foreslår en række tiltag, hvormed traditionelle...... har betydning for driften af reservoiret. MIKE 11 modelsystemet er udvalgt til simulering af flodsystemet inklusiv reservoiret, mens en evolutionsbaseret algoritme i softwaresystemet AUTOCAL er benyttet som optimeringsværktøj. Herved er det blevet muligt at beregne gruppen af ikke-dominerede løsninger...

  14. Reservoir annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical information with regard to performance and reservoir parameters of provincial oil and gas pools was consolidated into a convenient reference manual. The information was subdivided into nine sections, each dealing with a specific type of reservoir data. Maps showing oil and gas pools, production areas and well spacing were presented. Reservoir data and reserves for all oil and gas pools broken down by unit and non-unit areas was also provided. Natural gas production in 1994 was 7.905 billion cubic metres, setting a new record and exceeding the previous record set in 1993 by about 10.5%. Initial reserves of gas were increased by 9.962 billion cubic metres in 1994, resulting in a net increase of 2.051 billion cubic metres and a remaining established reserves year-end value of 86.748 billion cubic meters. There were 892 new gas well completions in 1994. tabs., figs

  15. Simulation of ground-water flow in southeastern Coastal Plain clastic aquifers in Georgia and adjacent parts of Alabama and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Robert E.; Mayer, Gregory C.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water-flow systems within the clastic sediments of the southeastern Coastal Plain have been described and quantified through the application of digital ground-water-flow models. Results indicate that the rates and distribution of flow are highly variable, and that regional flowpaths in two aquifers traverse several States. A hydrologic budget was developed which quantitatively describes ground-water flow during predevelopment and 1980 pumping conditions.

  16. Mesoproterozoic Neoproterozoic transition: Geochemistry, provenance and tectonic setting of clastic sedimentary rocks on the SE margin of the Yangtze Block, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deru, Xu; Xuexiang, Gu; Pengchun, Li; Guanghao, Chen; Bin, Xia; Bachlinski, Robert; Zhuanli, He; Gonggu, Fu

    2007-03-01

    The SE margin of the Yangtze Block, South China is composed of the Mesoproterozoic Lengjiaxi Group and the Neoproterozoic Banxi Group, with Sinian- and post-Sinian-cover. A geochemical study was undertaken on the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic clastic sediments in order to delineate the characteristics of the sediment source and to constrain the tectonic development and crustal evolution of South China. Our results show that the Mesoproterozoic clastic sediments have a dominant component derived from a metavolcanic-plutonic terrane, with a large of mafic component. There is a minor contribution of mafic rocks and older upper crustal rocks to the provenance. Strong chemical weathering in the source area occurred before transport and deposition. The provenance for the Neoproterozoic clastic sediments was most likely old upper continental crust composed of tonalite-granodiorite-dominated, tonalite-granodiorite-granite source rocks, which had undergone strong weathering and/or recycling. A minor component of older K-rich granitic plutonic rocks and younger volcanogenic bimodal rocks is also indicated. Based on the regional geology, the geochemical data and the inferred provenance, the Mesoproterozoic Group is interpreted as a successive sedimentary sequence, deposited in an extensional/rifting back-arc basin, adjacent to a >1.80 Ga continental margin arc-terrane. The progressive extension/rifting of the back-arc basin was followed by increasing subsidence and regional uplift during continental marginal arc-continent (the Cathaysian Block) collision at ˜1.0 Ga caused the deposition of the Neoproterozoic Group into back-arc to retro-arc foreland basin. Therefore, the depositional setting of the Proterozoic clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks within the back-arc basin reflected basin development from an active continental margin (back-arc basin), with extension or rifting of the back-arc basin, to a passive continental margin.

  17. Spatial and seasonal distribution of macroinvertebrates in high altitude reservoir (Beyler Reservoir, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Özlem

    2013-09-01

    A highland reservoir in the West Black Sea region of Turkey which belongs to the Mediterranean climatic zone was examined. Both littoral and profundal zones were sampled from October 2009 to September 2010, to determine taxonomic composition, biodiversity and abundance of benthic invertebrates as well as the seasonal variation of these measures. A total of 35 taxa were identified, of which 12 belong to Chironomidae and 10 to Oligochaeta groups. The highest diversity and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates were found at the littoral stations. Macroinvertebrates showed significant positive correlations with water temperature and NO2 and NO3 concentrations, and negative correlation with dissolved oxygen.

  18. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  19. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  20. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    chalk intervals are to some extent cemented and cannot compact mechanically at realistic effective stresses and only deform elastically. All chalk intervals though, may react by fracturing to changes in shear stress. So where natural fractures are not prevalent, fractures may be generated hydraulically....... Fractures play a significant role in the production of hydrocarbons from chalk reservoirs....

  1. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  2. Clastic metasediments of the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group, New South Wales, Australia: Geochemistry, provenance, and metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Whole-rock analyses of samples of pelite, psammite, and psammopelite from the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group (Willyama Supergroup) in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales, Australia, reveal distinctive geochemical signatures. Major-element data show high Al2O3 and K2O, low MgO and Na2O, and relatively high Fe2O3T MgO ratios, compared to average Early Proterozoic clastic metasediments. High field strength elements (HFSE) are especially abundant, including Nb (most 15-27 ppm), Ta (most 1.0-2.2 ppm), Th (17-36 ppm), Hf (4-15 ppm), and Zr (most 170-400 ppm); Y (33-74 ppm) is also high. Concentrations of ferromagnesian elements are generally low (Sc = Broken Hill Group by the erosion mainly of felsic igneous (or meta-igneous) rocks. High concentrations of HFSE, Y, and REEs in the metasediments suggest a provenance dominanted by anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites, including those with A-type chemistry. Likely sources of the metasediments were the rhyolitic to rhyodacitic protoliths of local quartz + feldspar ?? biotite ?? garnet gneisses (e.g., Potosi-type gneiss) that occur within the lower part of the Willyama Supergroup, or chemically similar basement rocks in the region; alternative sources may have included Early Proterozoic anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites in the Mount Isa and(or) Pine Creek Blocks of northern Australia, or in the Gawler craton of South Australia. Metallogenic considerations suggest that the metasediments of the Broken Hill Block formed enriched source rocks during the generation of pegmatite-hosted deposits and concentrations of La, Ce, Nb, Ta, Th, and Sn in the region. Li, Be, B, W, and U in pegmatite minerals of the district may have been acquired during granulite-facies metamorphism of the local metasediments. ?? 1994.

  3. Magnetic fabric (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) constraints on emplacement mechanism of clastic dikes: an example from the Cretaceous Dadaepo Basin in SE Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, M.; Cho, H.; Sohn, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    Emplacement mechanisms of clastic dikes, which are discordant and tabular bodies comprised of weakly to strongly lithified clastic detritus, have been a matter of considerable interest over the last 20 years. Clastic dikes are generally classified into neptunian and injected dikes. Using the magnetic fabrics (AMS), we attempt to classify the clastic dikes in the late Cretaceous Dadaepo Basin, SE Korea, and interpret their emplacement mechanisms. The neptunian dikes exhibit a typical oblate sedimentary fabric which makes a sharp contrast with the injected dikes. The fabrics of the injected dikes are greatly influenced by current conditions (flow directions, rheological properties, and rates) and transportation types (imbrication or rolling) of filling materials. Based on the AMS fabrics, they are classified into four types. (1) Type-VP is formed by grain imbrication in low- to moderate-energy vertical flow of a Newtonian fluid and characterized by a bilateral symmetry of fabrics across the dike. (2) Type-VT results from grain rolling in vertical high-energy flow and is characterized by subvertical k2 and subhorizontal k1 axes on the dike plane. (3) Type-HP is formed by grain imbrication in horizontal low- to moderate-energy flow, resulting in subvertical k3 and subhorizontal k1 and k2 axes. (4) Type-HT is formed by grain rolling in horizontal high-energy flow, resulting in streaked k2-k3 on the dike plane and horizontally clustered k1 axes. The AMS fabrics of each type can be a significant indicator for flow direction. The observed AMS fabric of low-energy current immediately above the source layer indicates that fluidized clastic materials in the lower part of injected dike can flow laterally by lateral propagation of new or pre-existing fractures due to a dominant horizontal pressure gradient. Based on abundant AMS fabrics of high-energy current, coexistence of paleoseismic structures, and tectonic setting of the basin, earthquake-induced liquefaction is the most

  4. Geothermal reservoirs - A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Sayantan; Kumar, Mohan MS

    2012-01-01

    A brief discussion and review of the geothermal reservoir systems, geothermal energy and modeling and simulation of the geothermal reservoirs has been presented here. Different types of geothermal reservoirs and their governing equations have been discussed first. The conceptual and numerical modeling along with the representation of flow though fractured media, some issues related to non isothermal flow through fractured media, the efficiency of the geothermal reservoir, structure of the num...

  5. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  6. Pore Type Classification on Carbonate Reservoir in Offshore Sarawak using Rock Physics Model and Rock Digital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been recognized that carbonate reservoirs are one of the biggest sources of hydrocarbon. Clearly, the evaluation of these reservoirs is important and critical. For rigorous reservoir characterization and performance prediction from geophysical measurements, the exact interpretation of geophysical response of different carbonate pore types is crucial. Yet, the characterization of carbonate reservoir rocks is difficult due to their complex pore systems. The significant diagenesis process and complex depositional environment makes pore systems in carbonates far more complicated than in clastics. Therefore, it is difficult to establish rock physics model for carbonate rock type. In this paper, we evaluate the possible rock physics model of 20 core plugs of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia, Sarawak. The published laboratory data of this area were used as an input to create the carbonate rock physics models. The elastic properties were analyzed to examine the validity of an existing analytical carbonate rock physics model. We integrate the Xu-Payne Differential Effective Medium (DEM) Model and the elastic modulus which was simulated from a digital carbonate rock image using Finite Element Modeling. The results of this integration matched well for the separation of carbonate pore types and sonic P-wave velocity obtained from laboratory measurement. Thus, the results of this study show that the integration of rock digital image and theoretical rock physics might improve the elastic properties prediction and useful for more advance geophysical techniques (e.g. Seismic Inversion) of carbonate reservoir in Sarawak

  7. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage. PMID:22932387

  8. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still th...... facing immediate endangerment, althoug the minority dialects (including East Greenlandic and Polar Eskimo) face increasing pressure from the standard Central West Greenlandic dialect....

  9. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    Reservoir properties of chalk depend on the primary sediment composition as well as on subsequent diagenesis and tectonic events. Chalks of the North Sea almost exclusively have mudstone or wackestone texture. Microfossils may have retained their porosity where degree of diagenesis is low, or be......, and the best reservoir properties are typically found in mudstone intervals. Chalk mudstones vary a lot though. The best mudstones are purely calcitic, well sorted and may have been redeposited by traction currents. Other mudstones are rich in very fine grained silica, which takes up pore space and...... thus reduces porosity at the same time as it increases specific surface and thus cause permeability to be low. In the Central North Sea the silica is quartzitic. Silica rich chalk intervals are typically found in the Ekofisk and Hod formations. In addition to silica, Upper Cretaceous and Palæogene...

  10. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Geochemical element mobility during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary basins. The purpose of this study is to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study some natural analogues of deep geological nuclear waste storage. Five research topics were studied: 3D modelling of the distribution of normative minerals and trace elements on a basin-wide scale; U-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics; average chemical age estimation; thermodynamic modelling of the major mineralogical assemblages; U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides. Some elements have remained immobile (Zr) since their initial sedimentary deposition, or were transferred from one phase to another (Al, Th). Other elements have been transported during fluid flow events that occurred: (1) on a basin wide scale during diagenesis (REE, Y, Sr, Fe), (2) at the unconformity and in the vicinity of the fault zones that represent preferential fluid flow pathways between the basement and the sandstone cover (U, Ni, As, B, Mg, K, Fe, Sr, REE), (3) during the late fault reactivation events associated with the basin uplift (U, Pb, Ni, S, Sr, REE). The successive tectonic events related to the geodynamical context that lead to the formation of these high-grade U concentrations (1460 Ma, 1335 Ma and 1275 Ma in the McArthur River deposit), did not however systematically occur in the whole basin (1275 Ma only at Shea Creek). The exceptionally high grade and tonnages of some deposits seem to be related to a larger number of U

  12. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  13. Environmental assessment of cooling reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts, both adverse and beneficial, of cooling reservoirs are compared to cooling towers as an alternative closed cycle cooling system. Generally, the impacts associated with the construction of a cooling reservoir system are greater than for a comparable cooling tower system. Operational impacts are generally greater for cooling towers due to their visual impact, plus icing, fogging, and noise problems. The principle advantages of cooling reservoirs are their lower operating and maintenance costs, greater reliability, greater cooling efficiency, reduced water consumption in areas where cooling water storage is required, and their multiple use potential. A review of pertinent literature on cooling reservoir ecosystems, has revealed that entrainment, thermal, and chemical effects generally result in reduced populations of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos in the vicinity of the power plant discharge. Adverse far field effects are generally less significant and are sometimes stimulatory. The overall effects of a power plant on the fish populations of cooling reservoirs appear to be minor. Based on the thermal characteristics of a model 6400 acre cooling reservoir with four 1150 MWe reactors, the ecological characteristics of the reservoir were predicted. The multiple use possibilities of cooling reservoirs provide their most significant beneficial aspect when compared to cooling towers. In addition, the cage culture of food fishes in cooling reservoirs provides an economical and practical method of commercially utilizing the waste heat discharged by power plants. For many areas of the country, cooling reservoirs appear to provide an environmentally and socially desirable alternative to cooling towers

  14. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  15. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  16. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf San Andres Reservoir. Quarterly Report for the period: 1 April - 30 June 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO2) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents

  17. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  18. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Giordano, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; petrologists have used the eruptive products to probe conditions of magma storage (and thus processes that drive magma evolution), while volcanologists have used them to study the conditions under which large volumes of magma are transported to, and emplaced on, the Earth's surface. Traditionally, both groups have worked on the assumption that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. Here we explore the implications of complex magma reservoir configurations for eruption dynamics and caldera formation. We first examine mafic systems, where stacked-sill models have long been invoked but which rarely produce explosive eruptions. An exception is the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, where seismic and petrologic data show that multiple sills at different depths fed a multi-phase (explosive and effusive) eruption. Extension of this concept to larger mafic caldera-forming systems suggests a mechanism to explain many of their unusual features, including their protracted explosivity, spatially variable compositions and pronounced intra-eruptive pauses. We then review studies of more common intermediate and silicic caldera-forming systems to examine inferred conditions of magma storage, time scales of melt accumulation, eruption triggers, eruption dynamics and caldera collapse. By compiling data from large and small, and crystal-rich and crystal-poor, events, we compare eruptions that are well explained by simple evacuation of a zoned

  19. [Human reservoirs of Pneumocystis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissmann, Gustavo; Morilla, Ruben; Friaza, Vicente; Calderón, Enrique; Varela, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii, the fungal agent that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), is known to exclusively infect humans. Molecular studies have enabled detection of this fungus in individuals who have been colonized by P. jirovecii. Such colonization, found in several populations, seems to act as a human reservoir for the fungus. Various studies have reported mutations associated with sulfa resistance in P. jirovecii strains isolated from colonized patients, who can transmit the mutant genotype to PCP-susceptible individuals. The growing interest in P. jirovecii colonization may prompt the design of new prevention and management strategies for PCP. PMID:19403207

  20. Petrophysical evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Cretaceous Kharita clastics, North Qarun oil field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teama, Mostafa A.; Nabawy, Bassem S.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the available well log data of six wells chosen in the North Qarun oil field in the Western Desert of Egypt, the petrophysical evaluation for the Lower Cretaceous Kharita Formation was accomplished. The lithology of Kharita Formation was analyzed using the neutron porosity-density and the neutron porosity-gamma ray crossplots as well as the litho-saturation plot. The petrophysical parameters, include shale volume, effective porosity, water saturation and hydrocarbon pore volume, were determined and traced laterally in the studied field through the iso-parametric maps. The lithology crossplots of the studied wells show that the sandstone is the main lithology of the Kharita Formation intercalated with some calcareous shale. The cutoff values of shale volume, porosity and water saturation for the productive hydrocarbon pay zones are defined to be 40%, 10% and 50%, respectively, which were determined, based on the applied crossplots approach and their limits. The iso-parametric contour maps for the average reservoir parameters; such as net-pay thickness, average porosity, shale volume, water saturation and the hydrocarbon pore volume were illustrated. From the present study, it is found that the Kharita Formation in the North Qarun oil field has promising reservoir characteristics, particularly in the northwestern part of the study area, which is considered as a prospective area for oil accumulation.

  1. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  2. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  3. Tracer testing for reservoir description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigham, W.E.; Abbaszadeh-Dehghani, M.

    1987-05-01

    When a reservoir is studied in detail for an EOR project, well-to-well tracers should be used as a tool to help understand the reservoir in a quantitative way. Tracers complement the more traditional reservoir evaluation tools. This paper discusses the concepts underlying tracer testing, the analysis methods used to produce quantitative results, and the meaning of these results in terms of conceptual picture of the reservoir. Some of the limitations of these analysis methods are discussed, along with ongoing research on tracer flow.

  4. Tracer testing for reservoir description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a reservoir is studied in detail for an EOR project, well-to-well tracers should be used as a tool to help understand the reservoir in a quantitative way. Tracers complement the more traditional reservoir evaluation tools. This paper discusses the concepts underlying tracer testing, the analysis methods used to produce quantitative results, and the meaning of these results in terms of conceptual picture of the reservoir. Some of the limitations of these analysis methods are discussed, along with ongoing research on tracer flow

  5. Reservoir geochemistry; Geoquimica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joelma Pimentel; Rangel, Mario Duncan; Morais, Erica Tavares de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], Emails: joelma.lopes@petrobras.com.br, mduncan@petrobras.com.br, ericat@petrobras.com.br; Aguiar, Helen G.M. de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: helenaguiar.GORCEIX@petrobras.com.br

    2008-03-15

    Reservoir Geochemistry has many important practical applications during petroleum exploration, appraisal and development of oil fields. The most important uses are related to providing or disproving connectivity between reservoirs of a particular well or horizon. During exploration, reservoir geochemistry can indicate the direction of oil filling, suggesting the most appropriate places for drilling new wells. During production, studies of variations in composition with time and determination of proportions of commingled production from multiple zones, may also be carried out. The chemical constituents of petroleum in natural reservoirs frequently show measurable compositional variations, laterally and vertically. Due to the physical and chemical nature of petroleum changes with increasing maturity (or contribution of a second source during the filling process), lateral and vertical compositional variations exist in petroleum columns as reservoir filling is complete. Compositional variation can also be introduced by biodegradation or water washing. Once the reservoir is filled, density driven mixing and molecular diffusion tend to eliminate inherited compositional variations in an attempt to establish mechanical and chemical equilibrium in the petroleum column (England, 1990). Based on organic geochemical analysis it is possible to define these compositional variations among reservoirs, and use these data for developing of petroleum fields and for reservoir appraisal. Reservoir geochemistry offers rapid and low cost evaluation tools to aid in understanding development and production problems. Moreover, the applied methodology is relatively simple and gives reliable results, and can be performed routinely in any good geochemical laboratory at a relatively low cost. (author)

  6. Clastic dikes of the Hatrurim basin (western flank of the Dead Sea) as natural analogues of alkaline concretes: Mineralogy, solution chemistry, and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, E. V.; Gaskova, O. L.; Kozmenko, O. A.; Kokh, S. N.; Vapnik, E. A.; Novikova, S. A.; Nigmatulina, E. N.

    2014-11-01

    This study shows that the mineral assemblages from clastic dikes in areas adjacent to the Dead Sea graben may be considered as natural analogues of alkaline concretes. The main infilling material of the clastic dikes is composed of well-sorted and well-rounded quartz sand. The cement of these hard rocks contains hydroxylapophyllite, tacharanite, calcium silicate hydrates, opal, calcite, and zeolite-like phases, which is indicative of a similarity of the natural cementation processes and industrial alkaline concrete production from quartz sands and industrial alkaline cements. The quartz grains exhibit a variety of reaction textures reflecting the interaction with alkaline solutions (opal and calcium hydrosilicate overgrowths; full replacement with apophyllite or thomsonite + apophyllite). The physicochemical analysis and reconstruction of the chemical composition of peralkaline Ca, Na, and K solutions that formed these assemblages reveal that the solutions evolved toward a more stable composition of zeolite-like phases, which are more resistant to long-term chemical weathering and atmospheric corrosion. The 40Ar/39Ar age of 6.2 ± 0.7 Ma obtained for apophyllite provides conclusive evidence for the high corrosion resistance of the assemblages consisting of apophyllite and zeolite-like phases.

  7. Census Snapshot: West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in West Virginia. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in West Virginia. In many ways, the almost 3,500 same-sex couples living in West Virginia are similar to married ...

  8. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir

  9. Impact of Mineralogy and Diagenesis on Reservoir Quality of the Lower Cretaceous Upper Mannville Formation (Alberta, Canada) Impact de la minéralogie et de la diagenèse sur la qualité des réservoirs de la Formation Mannville Supérieur, Crétacé Inférieur (Alberta, Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps R.; Kohler E; Gasparrini M.; Durand O.; Euzen T.; Nader F.

    2012-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Upper Mannville Formation in West- Central Alberta has been intensively penetrated by wells targeting deeper reservoirs during the last decades. Production and well log data in this area suggest that significant volumes of gas are still present in both conventional and tight reservoirs of this formation. The Upper Mannville reservoirs in West-Central Alberta consist of fluvial sandstones filling incised valleys. The valley infills are made up of arkosic sandstones with a...

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  12. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  13. Physical and Chemical Effects of Two-Phase Brine/Supercritical-CO2 Fluid Flow on Clastic Rocks: Real-Time Monitoring and NMR Imaging of Flow-Through Core Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C. A.; Vogt, S.; Maneval, J. E.; Brox, T.; Skidmore, M. L.; Codd, S. L.; Seymour, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Sandstone core samples were challenged with a supercritical CO2-saturated brine mixture in a laboratory flow-through core reactor system over a range of temperatures and brine strengths. Cores of quartz arenite from the Berea formation were selected to represent ideal ‘clean’ sandstone These laboratory experiments potentially provide an analog for the acidification of pore fluids near the brine/CO2 interface during CO2 flooding of depleted clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs for carbon sequestration. Flow in the reactor was perpendicular to bedding. Initial experiments were run at 50°C and 100°C with brine concentrations of 1g/L and 10g/L (TDS) to test effects of different temperatures and brine compositions. Real-time monitoring of fluid pH and conductivity provided a measure of reaction rates. Introduction of supercritical CO2 into the brine-saturated cores initiated a reduction in pH accompanied by an increase in conductivity. NMR images of fresh cores were compared with images of challenged cores using a protocol for pixel-by-pixel comparison to determine the effects on bulk pore volume and geometry. Two types of imaging experiments were conducted: multi-slice spin echo and 3-D spin echo images. Multi-slice experiments had a slice thickness of 1.5 mm and an in-plane resolution of 0.27 mm x 0.27 mm, and 3-D experiments had a resolution of 0.47 mm x 0.55 mm x 0.55mm. Imaging results reflected the observed changes in the physical and chemical structure post-challenge. Two-dimensional relaxation correlation experiments were also conducted to probe the pore sizes, connectivity and fluid saturation of the rock cores before and after challenging. Chemical analyses and microscopic examination of the challenged cores will provide a better understanding of alteration in the cores and the changes in the volume, geometry and connectivity of pore space.

  14. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  15. Reservoir engineering and hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries are included which show advances in the following areas: fractured porous media, flow in single fractures or networks of fractures, hydrothermal flow, hydromechanical effects, hydrochemical processes, unsaturated-saturated systems, and multiphase multicomponent flows. The main thrust of these efforts is to understand the movement of mass and energy through rocks. This has involved treating fracture rock masses in which the flow phenomena within both the fractures and the matrix must be investigated. Studies also address the complex coupling between aspects of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository in a fractured rock medium. In all these projects, both numerical modeling and simulation, as well as field studies, were employed. In the theoretical area, a basic understanding of multiphase flow, nonisothermal unsaturated behavior, and new numerical methods have been developed. The field work has involved reservoir testing, data analysis, and case histories at a number of geothermal projects

  16. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  17. Reservoir Systems in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, W.; Tung, C.; Tai, C.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change may cause more climate variability and further results in more frequent extreme hydrological events which may greatly influence reservoir¡¦s abilities to provide service, such as water supply and flood mitigation, and even danger reservoir¡¦s safety. Some local studies have identified that climate change may cause more flood in wet period and less flow in dry period in Taiwan. To mitigate climate change impacts, more reservoir space, i.e. less storage, may be required to store higher flood in wet periods, while more reservoir storage may be required to supply water for dry periods. The goals to strengthen adaptive capacity of water supply and flood mitigation are conflict under climate change. This study will focus on evaluating the impacts of climate change on reservoir systems. The evaluation procedure includes hydrological models, a reservoir water balance model, and a water supply system dynamics model. The hydrological models are used to simulate reservoir inflows under different climate conditions. Future climate scenarios are derived from several GCMs. Then, the reservoir water balance model is developed to calculate reservoir¡¦s storage and outflows according to the simulated inflows and operational rules. The ability of flood mitigation is also evaluated. At last, those outflows are further input to the system dynamics model to assess whether the goal of water supply can still be met. To mitigate climate change impacts, the implementing adaptation strategies will be suggested with the principles of risk management. Besides, uncertainties of this study will also be analyzed. The Feitsui reservoir system in northern Taiwan is chosen as a case study.

  18. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  19. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  20. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  1. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2003-05-31

    This report summarizes the first-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). First-year results include: (1) meeting specific milestones (determination of thrust movement vectors, fracture analysis, and communicating results at professional meetings and through publication). All milestones were met. Movement vectors for Valley and Ridge thrusts were confirmed to be west-directed and derived from pushing by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, and fan about the Tennessee salient. Fracture systems developed during Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic to Holocene compressional and extensional tectonic events, and are more intense near faults. Presentations of first-year results were made at the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association meeting (invited) in June, 2003, at a workshop in August 2003 on geophysical logs in Ordovician rocks, and at the Eastern Section AAPG meeting in September 2003. Papers on thrust tectonics and a major prospect discovered during the first year are in press in an AAPG Memoir and published in the July 28, 2003, issue of the Oil and Gas Journal. (2) collaboration with industry and USGS partners. Several Middle Ordovician black shale samples were sent to USGS for organic carbon analysis. Mississippian and Middle Ordovician rock samples were collected by John Repetski (USGS) and

  2. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  3. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project: reservoir selection task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Project has prepared a two-year program to develop and field test methods of stimulating geothermal wells. The program provides for six field experiments which progress in difficulty from low temperature reservoirs using current technology to high temperature reservoirs using advanced types of stimulation treatments. The process used to select the six field experiment locations and stimulation treatments is described. Tentatively, the following reservoirs are proposed: Raft River, East Mesa, Baca and Westmorland (two experiments), and Brawley and The Geysers or Roosevelt Hot Springs (two experiments). The program will be reviewed after each field treatment to select a specific well candidate for the next experiment and to determine whether alteration of the sequence will be beneficial to the overall success of the project and the geothermal industry.

  4. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the west-central Buffalo National River region in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the region lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the map area spans the Springfield Plateau, a topographic surface generally held up by Mississippian cherty limestone and the higher Boston Mountains to the south, held up by Pennsylvanian rocks. The Buffalo River flows eastward through the map area, enhancing bedrock erosion of an approximately 1,600-ft- (490-m-) thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. Quaternary surficial units are present as alluvial deposits along major streams, including a series of terrace deposits from the Buffalo River, as well as colluvium and landslide deposits mantling bedrock on hillslopes.

  5. Early Vendian stage of folding in the Patom folded zone: Syn-folded clastic dikes in the Dalnetaiginsky Group, Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakov, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work describes clastic dikes which intruded along cleavage planes into Lower Vendian clay shales of the Barakun Formation (the eastern part of the Patom folded zone). Dikes are composed of sandstones, which are common in other parts of the Barakun Formation, or more often by thin intercalations of finely oolitic limestones in surrounding shales. It is evident that dikes were formed as a result of elision processes synchronous to the folding, the major system of cleavage planes, and dehydration of clayey rocks of the Dalnetaiginsky Group at the end of Early Vendian. This stage of folding can be considered as one of the first phases of the Baikal folding by N.S. Shatsky.

  6. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir)

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Legowo; Iwan. K. Hadihardaja; Azmeri

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of ...

  7. High resolution variability in the Quaternary Indian monsoon inferred from records of clastic input and paleo-production recovered during IODP Expedition 355

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Annette; Lyle, Mitchell; Kulhanek, Denise; Ando, Sergio; Clift, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The sediment cores obtained from the Indus fan at Site U1457 during Expedition 355 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) contain a ca. 100m spliced section covering the past ca. 1Ma. We aim to make use of this unique long, mostly continuous climate archive to unravel the millennial scale atmospheric and oceanic processes linked to changes in the Indian monsoon climate over the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Our aim is to fill this gap using fast, cost-efficient methods (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy [FTIRS] and X-ray Fluorescence [XRF] scanning) which allow us to study this sequence at a millennial scale resolution (2-3cm sampling interval). An important methodological aspect of this study is developing FTIRS as a method for the simultaneous estimation of the sediment total inorganic carbon and organic carbon content by using the specific fingerprint absorption spectra of minerals (e.g. calcite) and organic sediment components. The resulting paleo-production proxies give indications of oceanic circulation patterns and serve as a direct comparison to the XRF scanning data. Initial results show that variability in paleo-production is accompanied by changes in the quantity and composition of clastic input to the site. Phases of increased deposition of terrigenous material are enriched in K, Al, Fe and Si. Both changes in the weathering and erosion focus areas affect the mineralogy and elemental composition of the clastic input as grain size and mineralogical changes are reflected in the ratios of lighter to heavier elements. Furthermore, trace element compositions (Zn, Cu, Mn) give indications of diagenetic processes and contribute to the understanding of the depositional environment. The resulting datasets will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the interplay of the local atmospheric and oceanic circulation processes over glacial-interglacial cycles; an essential prerequisite for regional predictions of global climate

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  9. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  10. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  11. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  12. 2011 Groundhog Reservoir Bathymetric Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey performed a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global...

  13. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  14. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater reservoir effects can be large and highly variable. I will present my investigations into the short-term variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in two Northern German rivers. The samples analysed in this study were collected between 2007 and 2012. Reservoir ages of water sample...... potentially very different radiocarbon ages. Finally, I will discuss the influence of bomb carbon on radiocarbon dating of modern freshwater samples....... plants. Their carbon should represent an average value of the entire growth season. However, there are large reservoir age variations in aquatic plants and animals as well. These can best be explained by the multitude of carbon sources which can be utilized by aquatic organisms, and which have...

  15. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  16. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  17. Reservoir Interactions and Disease Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Reluga, T.; Meza, R; Walton, D. B.; Galvani, A P

    2007-01-01

    Animal populations act as reservoirs for emerging diseases. In order for transmission to be self-sustaining, a pathogen must have a basic reproduction number R0 > 1. Following a founding transmission event from an animal reservoir to humans, a pathogen has not yet adapted to its new environment and is likely to have an R0 < 1. However, subsequent evolution may rescue the pathogen from extinction in its new host. Recent applications of branching process theory investigate how the emergence of ...

  18. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  19. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  20. Ordovician Structural- Depositional Model and Prediction forProfitable Crack Reservoir of Carbonate Rock in Tazhong Area, Tarim Basin%塔里木盆地塔中地区奥陶系构造-沉积模式与碳酸盐岩裂缝储层预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国齐; 贾承造; 宋惠珍; 施央申; 卢华复; 李亚红

    2000-01-01

    platform clinoform, platform margin, semi - restrained platform (include platform flat,lagoon) and Carbonate morphologic units are found. The northeast boundary of Tazhong area is sharp margin con-trolled by the early movement of normal fault of Tazhong number one fault. The sedimentation of south Manjiaerdepression in north Tazhong is controlled by Kuluketage- Manjiaer aulacogen, the sediments are clastic rocks withslope and deep water basin facies. Middle - upper Ordovician deposition of Tanguzibasi area in south Tazhong iscontrolled by the syncline of intracratonic depression, the sediments consist of clastic and carbonate rocks withdeeper open platform facies. Lower Ordovician in Tazhong area is platform facies controlled by the intracratonic de-pression, and the structure - sedimentation is no apparent difference between the major part of uplift and adjacentareas. (3) The first favorable fracture zones of Ordovician carbonate reservoirs being predicted in the major part ofTazhong uplift include the following areas: Tz161 - Tz44 area, Tz24 - Tz26 - Tz27 area, Tz45 area, Tz3 area,Tz52 area, Tz403 area, Tz2 area, Tz22 area, the east part of Tz35 area, the west part of number one fault and soon. Correlation the results predicted with the observations of core fractures and well logging evaluating, the fitnessis about over sixty- six percent. So it is proposed that three dimension finite element simulation method is very ef-ficient in predicting carbonate fracture zone.

  1. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  2. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  3. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  4. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-04-30

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  6. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

  7. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  8. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  9. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudkevich, M.Y. [Tyumenskij Industrial`nyj Inst., Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The west Siberian basin results form a Paleozoic rifting in its north-northeastern segment (the Yamal-Taz depression) and from a Triassic rifting in its central-western segment (in the Ob Arch). Its Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover has a maximum thickness of 8 km in the Yamal-Taz depression and 4 km in the Ob-Arch. Deep basins (with a water depth of 600 m) were not compensated by clay and siliceous sedimentation during the post-rift evolution of the area. Local extension still occurred during the Callovian, Tithonian, early Albian, Turonian and Eocene. The main axes of the Mesozoic and Paleogene deep-water basins were located in the west along the Urals and Paikhoy Ranges. Shortening affected the deep-water zones, whereas sedimentation increased in shelf regions, with the accumulation of marine pro-gradational lobes. Later on, shallow marine sedimentation and continental formations filled up the basin, reflecting the late stage compressional history of the west Siberian platform. The Neocomian stages of extension and compression were the most important for oil generation. The Malm and Neocomian horizons constitute five regional oil-and gas-bearing complexes. In each complex, the argilites are the source rocks, whereas pro-gradational lobes are the conducts for an eastward-directed hydrocarbon migration but also comprise good reservoirs. The shallow-water undaform zones are the main zones of hydrocarbon accumulation in the structural traps. Various lithologies occur, whereas the successive geochemical catagenesis zones affect progressively deeper horizons. Biogenic gas and immature oil occur at a depth of 0.6-1.7 km, whereas oil, gas and condensate occur at a depth of 1.7-4.0 km. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili

    2006-01-01

    @@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.

  11. Evaluating Berea Sandstone reservoirs in eastern Ashland County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrand, L.B.; Coogan, A.H.

    1986-08-01

    The Berea Sandstone is a principal oil and gas reservoir in eastern Ashland County. It is stratigraphically situated above the red and gray Bedford shales and below the black Sunbury shale member of the Cuyahoga Formation, all of which are Late Devonian or Early Mississippian in age. In the study area, the Berea Sandstone is found at depths between 400 and 800 ft. It outcrops in an arcuate band to the north and west of the county. Geophysical logs indicate the reservoir capacity of the Berea is between 8 and 22%, with an average porosity of 15%. Generally, the Berea is a loosely cemented, gray to buff quartzose sandstone with few accessory minerals. The cement may be calcite, silica, or minor ferruginous materials. The reservoir geometry in eastern Ashland County is peculiar because these sands thin and thicken within relatively short distances. The long-standing explanation for this phenomenon is that these sands were deposited in incised river channels that had downcut through the Bedford shales as a result of isolated uplift in north-central Ohio. Recent subsurface mapping in this area shows that the continuity of these channels may be challenged. Also, well-ticket data indicate that red shale occurs above the Berea sands. This occurrence and the soft-sediment deformation between the Bedford Shale and Berea Sandstone indicate that these units were deposited contemporaneously rather than as two separate events.

  12. Berea Sandstone reservoirs in Ashland and Medina Counties, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillebrand, L.B.; Coogan, A.H.

    1984-12-01

    The Berea Sandstone is one of the better known rock formations in Ohio. It occurs at shallow depths throughout a broad belt in central Ohio and crops out to the north and west of these counties. In Ashland and Medina Counties, the Berea may be divided into two separately identifiable units. The upper unit, called the blanket Berea in outcrop, is approximately equivalent to the cap Berea in the subsurface. The second unit, which lies below the cap Berea varies considerably in its thickness. The traditional, long-standing, and generally accepted view is that the Berea Sandstone was deposited in Ashland and Medina Counties in southward-flowing river channels. More recent drilling in these counties has demonstrated that these sand channels are not continuous, but are isolated sandstone bodies in which petroleum has accumulated. The reservoir capacity of the Berea is between 8 and 22% with an average porosity of 15%. The sandstone consists of loosely cemented, medium to fine-grained quartz with only rare shale breaks below the cap Berea. In Ashland and Medina Counties, Berea wells generally produce oil. Initial production in this area ranges between 1 or 2 bbl and to 40 BOPD after treatment. Reservoirs in the Berea Sandstone generally are productive where the sandstones are thick. They are also productive where the sandstone is thinner, but high on structure. Although a high structural position is preferred, the critical consideration is the thickness of the sandstone body and the reservoir geometry.

  13. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  14. Cloud computing and Reservoir project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The support for complex services delivery is becoming a key point in current internet technology. Current trends in internet applications are characterized by on demand delivery of ever growing amounts of content. The future internet of services will have to deliver content intensive applications to users with quality of service and security guarantees. This paper describes the Reservoir project and the challenge of a reliable and effective delivery of services as utilities in a commercial scenario. It starts by analyzing the needs of a future infrastructure provider and introducing the key concept of a service oriented architecture that combines virtualisation-aware grid with grid-aware virtualisation, while being driven by business service management. This article will then focus on the benefits and the innovations derived from the Reservoir approach. Eventually, a high level view of Reservoir general architecture is illustrated.

  15. Miniature Reservoir Cathode: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard K.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2002-01-01

    We report on recent work to produce a small low power, low cost reservoir cathode capable of long life (more than 100,000 hours) at high loading (> 5 A/sq cm). Our objective is a highly manufacturable, commercial device costing less than $30. Small highly loaded cathodes are needed, especially for millimeter wave tubes, where focusing becomes difficult when area convergence ratios are too high. We currently have 3 models ranging from .060-inch diameter to. 125-inch diameter. Reservoir type barium dispenser cathodes have a demonstrated capability for simultaneous high emission density and long life. Seven reservoir cathodes continue to operate on the cathode life test facility at NSWC, Crane, Indiana at 2 and 4 amps/sq cm. They have accumulated nearly 100,000 hours with practically no change in emission levels or knee temperature.

  16. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lul Raka; Monica Guardo

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  17. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  18. The Carpenteria reservoir redevelopment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M.; Krogh, K.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coombs, S. [Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc., Carpinteria, CA (United States); Paul, R.G. [Dept. of the Interior (United States); Voskanian, M.M. [California State Lands Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ershaghi, I. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop a simulation-based reservoir management system that could be used to guide the redevelopment of the Carpenteria Offshore Field, which is located just seven miles from Santa Barbara. The system supports geostatistical and geological modeling and reservoir forecasting. Moreover, it is also a shared resource between the field operator, Pacific Operators Offshore, and the mineral owners, the U.S. Department of the Interior and the State of California.

  19. Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; McCallister, J.V.; Mazza, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Belden & Blake and the US DOE will cofund a horizontal well to be drilled in the Clinton Sandstone as part of the DOE`s multi well program titled ``Horizontal Drilling in Shallow Geologic Complex Reservoirs.`` This well will be located in Mahoning County, Ohio in an area which has demonstrated above average Clinton gas production. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first horizontal well drilled to the Clinton Sand formation in Ohio. Since many of the remaining Clinton Sand drilling sites are of poorer reservoir quality, they may not be developed unless technology such as horizontal drilling can be successfully demonstrated.

  20. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  1. HERPESTES AUROPUNCTATUS AS A NEW RESERVOIR HOST OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. Mowlavi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A new reservoir host of Trichinella was identified as: Herpestes auropunctatus, (Mangoose in province of Khuzestan, south west of Iran. Wild swine, brown bear jackal and wild cat have been reported as natural host for Trichinella so far. The larvae obtained from the mongoose was infective for rat and white mouse, but the latter was more sensitive comparatively (This study was carried out in the Ahwaz Health Research Station.

  2. Sedimentological evolution of the Givetian-Eifelian (F3) sand bar of the West Alrar field, Illizi Basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouchi, R. [National Institute for Hydrocarbons and Chemistry, Boumerdes (Algeria); Malla, M.S.; Kechou, F. [Sonatrach, Algiers (Algeria). Exploration Div.

    1998-12-31

    Commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons depend on several factors, among which sedimentological conditions are of prime importance. Such sedimentatological factors are of particular importance in controlling both entrapment and reservoir quality in the western part of the Alrar field, within the F3 sandstone reservoir of Givetian-Eifelian age. Recent well results have shown facies and reservoir quality distribution to be more complex and generally more favourable than previously predicted. A series of tidally influenced litoral bars are now believed to have existed in the Alrar area at the time of deposition of the reservoir, these being elongated in a NW-SE direction in the West Alrar area, with an interbar area in the vicinity of well DZ-1. The highest reservoir quality is largely confined to this bar facies and understanding its distribution is therefore vital to locating development wells. (author)

  3. Risk Maps of Lassa Fever in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet; David John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the peri...

  4. Thickness of calcium carbonate coats on stones of the Heishanxia terraces of the Yellow River and dating of coarse clastic sedimentary geomorphic surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The calcium carbonate coats on stones developed in soil on the geomorphic surfaces of coarse clastic sediments in arid-semiarid regions contain evident information of age. The thickness of coats can be used not only as a good age indicator for the geomorphic surfaces but also coats themselves can be directly used as dating materials in the ESR method. Through measuring the thickness of carbonate coats on stones in soils on the alluvial terraces in the mouth of the Heishanxia gorge of the Yellow River and ESR dating of layers separated from the carbonate coats, the average of accumulation rates of the thickness of carbonate coats on stones since 1.57 Ma was calculated to be 0.10 mm/ka in the studied area, and a regression equation between carbonate coat thickness and age was also generated. From these research results, ages of T2-T11 terraces of the Yellow River in the studied area were systematically determined, and their values are in turn 18 ka, 94 ka, 139 ka, 215 ka, 305 ka, 410 ka, 495 ka, 742 ka, 1072 ka and 1570 ka. The reliability of all these age data is confirmed by the obtained 14C, OSL ages (T2, T3 and T4) and ESR ages of neighbor terraces, and they are completely consistent with the geological epochs estimated by geological and geomorphologic comparison and analysis.

  5. Sedimentology of granite boulder conglomerates and associated clastics in the onshore section of the late Mesozoic Pletmos Basin (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; America, Travis

    2016-07-01

    Along the southern margin of South Africa, intermountain rift successions, which comprise unusually large, rounded granite boulders and other coarse clastics, reveal an important geological history about the mid-Mesozoic extensional tectonics that lead to the break-up of Gondwana. These strata, mapped as part of the Mid to Upper Jurassic Enon Formation, allow the assessment of the nature, intensity and mode of sediment transport in onshore section of the Pletmos Basin, which is one of the late Mesozoic basins in southern Africa. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, palaeocurrent measurements and semi-quantitative palaeohydraulic calculations, the results suggest that the abundant coarse sediment was deposited by debris-flows and stream-flow floods on a proximal alluvial fan with high gradient alluvial channels. The floods were intense with mean flow velocity of ∼6 m3/s and peak discharge of ∼450 m3/s. While the role of climate in the sedimentation dynamics remains unknown, syn-sedimentary rift tectonics were likely significant and caused, north of the major boundary fault, the unroofing and denudation of the uplifted mountainous source areas, including the Late Ediacaran-Cambrian Maalgaten Granite Suite and the Siluro-Ordovician Table Mountain Group (Cape Supergroup).

  6. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 (~3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  7. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  8. Movement of Sediment Associated With Lowered Reservoir Levels in the Rio La Venta Arm of the Presa Netzahualcoyotl, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S.; de La Fuente, J.; Lisle, T. E.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B.; Olson, B.; Quinones, R.

    2003-12-01

    A joint sedimentation study is currently underway at the Netzahualcoyotl reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, involving the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) of the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales and the USDA Forest Service. The reservoir is adjacent to the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by CONANP. Ongoing research is intended to provide watershed and reservoir managers with strategies to protect the resources of Rio La Venta canyon. The Rio La Venta arm of the reservoir is incised into karst terrain, with near-vertical limestone walls up to 300 meters high. The canyon is fed by two rivers, Rio La Selva and Rio Negro, and is surrounded by pristine tropical forest. The majority of the clastic sediment (predominantly sand and fine gravel) entering the reservoir originates in the headwaters of the two rivers which are underlain by weathered and dissected granitic terrain. Rapid sedimentation of the partially inundated canyon poses a threat to the aquatic ecosystem, as well as to recreational resources. Longitudinal and transverse profiles were surveyed in the inundated canyon in March of 2002 and repeated in April of 2003 when the reservoir level was 15 meters lower. The 2002 longitudinal profile shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. In 2003, the two slopes remained the same, but the bed lowered about 5 meters and the inflection point moved downstream about 2.3 km. We calculated that reservoir lowering in 2003 allowed the transport of 2.5 million cubic meters of sand further out into the reservoir. This volume is more than the average annual rate of filling up to the 2002 level since 1984 when sedimentation was not as advanced (De la Fuente et al., 2002), which was calculated disregarding loss of sediment to the main reservoir. Field observations at late dry season low flows in 2003 revealed active transport of sand and pebbles and formation

  9. Improving Geologic and Engineering Models of Midcontinent Fracture and Karst-Modified Reservoirs Using New 3-D Seismic Attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton

    2009-03-31

    Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications

  10. Nechako Reservoir mathematical modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of 540 MW of hydroelectric generating capacity to the Nechako Reservoir involves the increased diversion of water from the headwaters of the Nechako River in the Fraser River drainage to the Kemano River on the Pacific coast. Approval of the project requires a two level release structure at Kenney Dam at the head of the Nechako Canyon to manage downstream flows and water temperatures to conserve and protect chinook and sockeye populations. Two- and three-dimensional mathematical models were used to evaluate the hydrothermal characteristics of the Nechako Reservoir and to assess the capability of the proposed structure to provide releases necessary to meet downstream objectives. Results of the modelling show that deep water intake temperatures are sensitive to reservoir surface elevation and the deep water intake elevation. Modelling results for maximum release of 200 m3/s show that the deep water intake invert should be located at an elevation of 795 m to ensure water temperature criteria are met. The three dimensional modelling showed that little, if any additional bottom water mixing beyond that indicated by the two dimensional results for a nearby lake is likely to occur as a result of the Kenamo completion project. Extreme condition analysis shows that there exists sufficient volumes of cold water in the Nechako reservoir to ensure that the 10 degree C water release criteria can be met for the required period. 4 refs., 1 fig

  11. Mathematical modelling of reservoir ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Martin; Hejzlar, Josef; Kafková, Dagmar; Balejová, Marcela; Thébault, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2001), s. 109-124. ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/98/0281; GA AV ČR IAA3042903 Keywords : mathematical model ling * ecosystems * reservoir Rimov Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  12. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  13. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  14. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  15. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  16. Integrated reservoir management -- a team approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated reservoir management has received significant attention in recent years. The need to enhance recovery from the vast amount of remaining oil- and gas-in-place requires better reservoir management practices. The purpose of this article is to outline critical technical areas, document benefits received from a team approach to reservoir management, and identify the major attributes of a successful reservoir management organization and program

  17. Generation of entanglement density within a reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarou, C.; Garraway, B. M.; Piilo, J.; Maniscalco, S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We study a single two-level atom interacting with a reservoir of modes defined by its reservoir structure function. Within this framework we are able to define a density of entanglement involving a continuum of reservoir modes. The density of entanglement is derived for a system with a single excitation by taking a limit of the global entanglement. Utilizing the density of entanglement we quantify the entanglement between the atom and the modes, and also between the reservoir mode...

  18. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Baten, E.; Vandewalle, T.; van Renterghem, K.

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely ra...

  19. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  20. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity

  1. A 9-C,2-D land seismic experiment for lithology estimation of a Perman clastic reservoir%用陆上九分量二维地震资料预测二叠系碎屑储层岩性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔大军; 宋治霞; 秦广胜

    2001-01-01

    在过去的15年中,人们已多次成功地将多分量地震勘探技术应用于油气勘探中。其中大部分都是在海洋环境下进行的,因为海洋环境下的静校正和面波干扰问题没有陆上那么严重。尽管如此,人们对陆上多分量地震勘探方法的研究仍在进行中,并且已经取得了许多振奋人心的结果。

  2. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia

  3. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  4. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  5. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  6. Evaluation of storm event inputs on levels of gross primary production and respiration in a drinking water reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samal, Nihar; Stæhr, Peter A.; Pierson, Donald C.;

    Weather related episodic events are typically unpredictable and the episodic inputs of dissolved and particulate material during storm events can have important effects on lake and reservoir ecosystem function and also impact reservoir drinking water quality.   We evaluate the impacts of storm...... events using vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and chlorophyll automatically collected at 6 hour intervals in West basin of Ashokan Reservoir, which is a part of the New York City drinking water supply. Using data from before, during and after storm events, we examine how...... the balance between GPP and R is influenced by storm related increases in turbidity and dissolved organic matter, which would in turn influence light attenuation and bacterial production. Storm driven inputs to the reservoir periodically resulted in large input of suspended sediments raising water turbidity...

  7. Hydropower plant Ermenek. Reservoir impounding; Wasserkraftanlage Ermenek. Einstau des Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linortner, Johannes [Poeyry Energy Turkey, Ankara (Turkey); Zenz, Gerald [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria); Kohler, Roman [Poeyry Energy Austria, Salzburg (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    A Turkish-Austrian Consortium is constructing the hydro power plant Ermenek in Turkey. Client of this project is the Turkish State Hydraulic Works, DSI. The project consists of a double curved arch dam, a large grout curtain, a pressure tunnel, a power house and appurtenant structures. The arch dam is ideally located in a narrow gorge, with a natural width at the base of 20 m and at the crest of 110 m, with an entire dam height of 218 m and a concrete volume of 290 000 m{sup 3}. The concreting works for the dam started on 6{sup th} September 2007 and were finished by 20{sup th} October 2009. As the reservoir has an overall volume of about 4 600 million m{sup 3} the impounding started during the construction. Within a very short time the reservoir level has increased up to 70 m above foundation. The entire dam safety concept is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Naturally fractured reservoirs: Optimized E and P strategies using a reaction-transport-mechanical simulator in an integrated approach. Annual report, 1996--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.; Jenkins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Ortoleva, P.; Ozkan, G.; Shebl, M.; Sibo, W.; Tuncay, K. [Laboratory for Computational Geodynamics (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Company (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The methodology and results of this project are being tested using the Andector-Goldsmith Field in the Permian Basin, West Texas. The study area includes the Central Basin Platform and the Midland Basin. The Andector-Goldsmith Field lies at the juncture of these two zones in the greater West Texas Permian Basin. Although the modeling is being conducted in this area, the results have widespread applicability to other fractured carbonate and other reservoirs throughout the world.

  9. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural analysis that is carried out to evaluate the reservoir properties of Qishn sandstone as well as the entrapment style of the hydrocarbons at Sharyoof field, Sayun-Masila Basin that is located at the east central of Yemen. The reservoir rocks are dominated by clean porous and permeable sandstones zones usually intercalated with some clay stone interbeds. As identified from well logs, Qishn sandstone is classified into subunits (S1A, S1B, S1C and S2) with different reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon potentiality. A number of qualitative and quantitative well logging analyses are used to characterize the different subunits of the Qishn reservoir and identify its hydrocarbon potentiality. Dia-porosity, M-N, Pickett, Buckles plots, petrophysical analogs and lateral distribution maps are used in the analysis. Shale volume, lithology, porosity, and fluid saturation are among the most important deduced parameters. The analysis revealed that S1A and S1C are the main hydrocarbon-bearing units. More specifically, S1A unit is the best, as it attains the most prolific hydrocarbon saturations (oil saturation "SH″ up to 65) and reservoir characteristics. An average petrophysical ranges of 4-21%, 16-23%, 11-19%, 0-65%, are detected for S1A unit, regarding shale volume, total and effective porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, respectively. Meanwhile, S1B unit exhibits less reservoir characteristics (Vsh>30%, ϕEffdata had clarified that the structure of study area is represented by a big middle horst bounded by a group of step-like normal faults at the extreme boundaries (faulted anticlinal-structure). In conclusion, the entrapment of the encountered hydrocarbon at Sharyoof oil field, seems to be due to the combined effect of the stratigraphic position of the Qishn reservoir clastics with their overlying thick-sealing sediments and the structural setting as represented by faulted anticlinal

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-01-31

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through September 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Fourth Quarter 2001 performing routine well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood and Tar V pilot steamflood projects. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 through November 2001 to increase production and injection. In December, water injection well FW-88 was plug and abandoned and replaced by new well FW-295 into the ''D'' sands to accommodate the Port of Long Beach at their expense. Well workovers are planned for 2002 as described in the

  11. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical

  12. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-11-01

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through June 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Third Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 to September 2001 to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil

  13. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    field, seems to be due to the combined effect of the stratigraphic position of the Qishn reservoir clastics with their overlying thick-sealing sediments and the structural setting as represented by faulted anticlinal-structure associated with the bounding step-like normal faults.

  14. Neogene cratonic erosion fluxes and landform evolution processes from regional regolith mapping (Burkina Faso, West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Chardon, Dominique; Metelka, Václav; Beauvais, Anicet; Bamba, Ousmane

    2015-07-01

    The regionally correlated and dated regolith-paleolandform sequence of Sub-Saharan West Africa offers a unique opportunity to constrain continental-scale regolith dynamics as the key part of the sediment routing system. In this study, a regolith mapping protocol is developed and applied at the scale of Southwestern Burkina Faso. Mapping combines field survey and remote sensing data to reconstruct the topography of the last pediplain that formed over West Africa in the Early and Mid-Miocene (24-11 Ma). The nature and preservation pattern of the pediplain are controlled by the spatial variation of bedrock lithology and are partitioned among large drainage basins. Quantification of pediplain dissection and drainage growth allows definition of a cratonic background denudation rate of 2 m/My and a minimum characteristic timescale of 20 Ma for shield resurfacing. These results may be used to simulate minimum export fluxes of drainage basins of constrained size over geological timescales. Background cratonic denudation results in a clastic export flux of ~ 4 t/km2/year, which is limited by low denudation efficiency of slope processes and correlatively high regolith storage capacity of tropical shields. These salient characteristics of shields' surface dynamics would tend to smooth the riverine export fluxes of shields through geological time.

  15. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  16. Statfjord field: Development strategy and reservoir management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the reservoir performance and management of the Statfjord Field after eight years of production. The reason behind the reservoir development strategies and field experiences are presented. The original development plans have been refined based on field performance through an extensive monitoring program and use of reservoir simulation. The acquired data has improved the geological model and the knowledge of fluid movements in all three reservoirs. This has resulted in a large and complex reservoir simulation model with more than 20,000 grid blocks

  17. Overview of the Wayang Windu geothermal field, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogie, Ian [Sinclair, Knight Merz Ltd., PO Box 9806, Newmarket, Auckland (New Zealand); Kusumah, Yudi Indra; Wisnandary, Merry C. [Magma Nusantara Ltd., Wisma Mulia 50th Floor, Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto no. 42, Jakarta 12710 (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    The Wayang Windu geothermal field, West Java, Indonesia, is interpreted to be transitional between vapour-dominated and liquid-dominated conditions with four coalesced fluid upwelling centres that generally become younger and more liquid-dominated towards the south. Two of these centres are associated with the large Gunung Malabar andesite stratovolcano and the other two with the smaller aligned Gunung Wayang and Gunung Windu andesitic volcanoes to the south. The overall potential resource area is of the order of 40 km{sup 2}. Deep wells encounter a deep liquid reservoir whose top, which ranges from 0 to 400 m above sea level (m asl) becomes progressively deeper toward the south. As pressure versus elevation conditions are the same throughout the deep liquid reservoir it is likely to be contiguous. This liquid-dominated reservoir is overlain by three separate vapour-dominated reservoirs. The northernmost is the largest as it is coalesced over two separate fluid upwelling centres. Its low gas content, size, prolonged productivity and isobaric for elevation nature, preclude it from being a parasitic steam zone. Mineralogical relationships demonstrate that this vapour zone was originally liquid-dominated with a deep water level as high as 1700 m asl. Subsequent boil off may reflect low recharge rates due to hydrological isolation at depth. To the south, the vapour-dominated reservoirs decrease in thickness and are characterized by progressively higher pressures, temperatures and gas contents. These changes suggest that the southernmost vapour-dominated zone is the youngest and that these zones become increasing older to the north. (author)

  18. Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in Pueblo Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado, for 1985 through 1987 and 1999 through 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Bales, Jerad D.; Mau, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Pueblo Reservoir is west of Pueblo, Colorado, and is an important water resource for southeastern Colorado. The reservoir provides irrigation, municipal, and industrial water to various entities throughout the region. In anticipation of increased population growth, the cities of Colorado Springs, Fountain, Security, and Pueblo West have proposed building a pipeline that would be capable of conveying 78 million gallons of raw water per day (240 acre-feet) from Pueblo Reservoir. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities and the Bureau of Reclamation, developed, calibrated, and verified a hydrodynamic and water-quality model of Pueblo Reservoir to describe the hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in Pueblo Reservoir that can be used to assess environmental effects in the reservoir. Hydrodynamics and water-quality characteristics in Pueblo Reservoir were simulated using a laterally averaged, two-dimensional model that was calibrated using data collected from October 1985 through September 1987. The Pueblo Reservoir model was calibrated based on vertical profiles of water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentration, and water-quality constituent concentrations collected in the epilimnion and hypolimnion at four sites in the reservoir. The calibrated model was verified with data from October 1999 through September 2002, which included a relatively wet year (water year 2000), an average year (water year 2001), and a dry year (water year 2002). Simulated water temperatures compared well to measured water temperatures in Pueblo Reservoir from October 1985 through September 1987. Spatially, simulated water temperatures compared better to measured water temperatures in the downstream part of the reservoir than in the upstream part of the reservoir. Differences between simulated and measured water temperatures also varied through time. Simulated water temperatures were slightly less than measured water temperatures from March to

  19. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  20. Spatio-temporal autocorrelation of Neogene-Quaternary volcanic and clastic sedimentary rocks in SW Montana and SE Idaho: Relationship to Cenozoic tectonic and thermally induced extensional events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.; Dai, D.

    2013-12-01

    Two systems of full and half grabens have been forming since the mid-Tertiary through tectonic and thermally induced extensional events in SW Montana and neighboring SE Idaho. The earlier mid-Tertiary Basin and Range (BR) tectonic event formed the NW- and NE-striking mountains around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and SW Montana, respectively. Since the mid-Tertiary, partially synchronous with the BR event, diachronous bulging and subsidence due to the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) has produced the second system of variably-oriented grabens through faulting across the older BR fault blocks. The track of the migration of the YHS is defined by the presence of six prominent volcanic calderas along the SRP which become younger toward the present location of the YHS. Graben basins bounded by both the BR faults and thermally induced cross-faults (CF) systems are now filled with Tertiary-Quaternary clastic sedimentary and volcanic-volcaniclastic rocks. Neogene mafic and felsic lava which erupted along the SRP and clastic sedimentary units (Sixmile Creek Fm., Ts) deposited in both types of graben basins were classified based on their lithology and age, and mapped in ArcGIS 10 as polygon using a combination of MBMG and USGS databases and geological maps at scales of 1:250.000, 1:100,000, and 1:48,000. The spatio-temporal distributions of the lava polygons were then analyzed applying the Global and Local Moran`s I methods to detect any possible spatial or temporal autocorrelation relative to the track of the YHS. The results reveal the spatial autocorrelation of the lithology and age of the Neogene lavas, and suggest a spatio-temporal sequence of eruption of extrusive rocks between Miocene and late Pleistocene along the SRP. The sequence of eruptions, which progressively becomes younger toward the Yellowstone National Park, may track the migration of the YSH. The sub-parallelism of the trend of the SRP with the long axis of the

  1. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    With an increasing demand for oil and diculties in nding new major oil elds, research on methods to improve oil recovery from existing elds is more necessary now than ever. The subject of this thesis is to construct ecient numerical methods for simulation and optimization of oil recovery with...... emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...... size control in order to minimize the computational cost per simulation. We implement a numerical method for nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) along with smart-well technology to maximize the net present value (NPV) of an oil reservoir. The optimization is based on quasi-Newton sequential...

  2. Reservoir compartmentalization assessment by using FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A. [Dept. Geoquimica, Petrologia i Prospeccio Geologica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 - Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rebufa, C.; Kister, J. [Universite d' Aix - Marseille III, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de St. Jerome, CNRS UMR 6171, Laboratoire de Geochimie Organique Analytique et Environnement (GOAE), Case 561, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2007-09-15

    Reservoir geochemistry has traditionally used the gas chromatographic fingerprinting method and star diagrams to provide evidence of petroleum reservoir compartmentalization. Recently alternative techniques such as Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy have been postulated to aid the evaluation of reservoir compartmentalization, and to characterize the geochemical evolution of oils from individual reservoirs. FTIR spectroscopy was applied successfully in the Tarragona Basin, Offshore N.E. Spain, validating the method to identify oils from different reservoirs. Moreover the method was successfully applied to provide evidence of compositional differences in oils from a faulted reservoir (El Furrial field, Venezuela), in which GC fingerprints failed to differentiate the oils. FTIR spectroscopy therefore, proves to be a complementary tool for reservoir compartmentalization studies. (author)

  3. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  4. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL: THE KEY TO REVEAL THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE MACIGNO AND MONTE MODINO SANDSTONE, TWO WIDESPREAD CLASTIC WEDGES OF THE NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA CATANZARITI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the '60s geologists discussed if the Tuscan Nappe includes the Macigno, the Mt. Modino Sandstone and the olistostromes interposed between these two clastic wedges or instead the foredeep deposits of the Tuscan Nappe is the Macigno and, therefore, the Mt. Modino Sandstone sedimented in a distinct basin and belongs to a different tectonic unit. One of the main difficulties to unravel the Macigno-Mt. Modino Sandstone relationships is the absence of continuous biostratigraphic records, helpful to date these formations and the underlying units. To fill this gap, a quantitative biostratigraphical analysis of calcareous nannofossils was performed on a large number of smear slides. The results confirm the stratigraphic continuity between the Tuscan Shale and the Macigno, and prove the stratigraphic continuity between the Fiumalbo Shale, the Marmoreto Marl and the Mt. Modino Sandstone (Mt. Modino Unit auctt., supporting the tectonic superposition of the Mt. Modino Unit onto the Tuscan Nappe. In fact, the upper portion of the Tuscan Nappe ranges from the Late Eocene (MNP19/20 to the lower Miocene (MNN1c and the Tuscan Shale-Macigno boundary lies within the upper Rupelian-Chattian (MNP24-MNP25a, whilst the sampled part of the Mt. Modino Unit spans in age the middle Eocene-lower Miocene (MNP15-MNN1c, and the Fiumalbo Shale-Marmoreto Marl and Marmoreto Marl-Mt. Modino Sandstone boundaries lie within the Rupelian (MNP23 and the uppermost Chattian (MNP25b-MNN1a. 

  5. Stocks Reservoir report June 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    This report comprises a mean weekly summary of the raw data of the fish population of the Stocks Reservoir major tributaries in conjunction with completed maps, diagrams, tables and figures. These cover the Stocks tributary stream survey, the Fishery and fish plate impingement. This paper does not constitute a final report which the author intends to submit as a Ph.D. thesis. However, it does present much of the data and analysis completed in its final draft, which may be of immediate...

  6. Mathematical Optimization in Reservoir Management

    OpenAIRE

    Najafiazar, Bahador

    2014-01-01

    Getting the most out of a hydrocarbon reservoir is not a trivial task. It takes plentyof interwoven decisions to make. There are many forms of tools that support engineersto make correct decisions. The simplest ones would only display measurementsin a suitable way, and appoint the rest of the decision making processto human knowledge and experience. Complex decision support tools may implementmodel-based estimation and optimization. This work targets methods foroptimization-based decision sup...

  7. Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie, Alain; MOREAUX Michel; Tidball, Mabel

    2011-01-01

    PDF file identical to the paper submitted (available online at the conference site) with authors and affiliations added. International audience We propose in this paper a model of optimal Carbon Capture and Storage in which the reservoir of sequestered carbon is leaky, and pollution eventually is released into the atmosphere. We formulate the social planner problem as an optimal control program and we describe the optimal consumption paths as a function of the initial conditions, the ph...

  8. Reservoir characterization using wavelet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Vega, Nestor

    Automated detection of geological boundaries and determination of cyclic events controlling deposition can facilitate stratigraphic analysis and reservoir characterization. This study applies the wavelet transformation, a recent advance in signal analysis techniques, to interpret cyclicity, determine its controlling factors, and detect zone boundaries. We tested the cyclostratigraphic assessments using well log and core data from a well in a fluvio-eolian sequence in the Ormskirk Sandstone, Irish Sea. The boundary detection technique was tested using log data from 10 wells in the Apiay field, Colombia. We processed the wavelet coefficients for each zone of the Ormskirk Formation and determined the wavelengths of the strongest cyclicities. Comparing these periodicities with Milankovitch cycles, we found a strong correspondence of the two. This suggests that climate exercised an important control on depositional cyclicity, as had been concluded in previous studies of the Ormskirk Sandstone. The wavelet coefficients from the log data in the Apiay field were combined to form features. These vectors were used in conjunction with pattern recognition techniques to perform detection in 7 boundaries. For the upper two units, the boundary was detected within 10 feet of their actual depth, in 90% of the wells. The mean detection performance in the Apiay field is 50%. We compared our method with other traditional techniques which do not focus on selecting optimal features for boundary identification. Those methods resulted in detection performances of 40% for the uppermost boundary, which lag behind the 90% performance of our method. Automated determination of geologic boundaries will expedite studies, and knowledge of the controlling deposition factors will enhance stratigraphic and reservoir characterization models. We expect that automated boundary detection and cyclicity analysis will prove to be valuable and time-saving methods for establishing correlations and their

  9. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  10. West Bank and Gaza : Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza is focusing on strengthening its education system: provision of schooling is relatively equitable and increased decentralization is planned. West Bank & Gaza (WB&G) spent 1.3 percent on public education as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This year, the Palestinian Authority (PA) published a report entitled Homestretch to Freedom, which outlines the obj...

  11. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah

  12. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  13. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  14. West-Side Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  15. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  16. Determination of the Cascade Reservoir Operation for Optimal Firm-Energy Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia today face a new paradigm in water management where aim to apply integrated water resources management has become unavoidable task in purpose of achieving greater level of effectiveness and efficiency. On of most interesting case study is the case of Citarum river, one of the most potential river for water supply in West Java, Indonesia. Alongside the river, Saguling, Cirata and Djuanda Reservoirs had been constructed in series/cascade. Saguling and Cirata reservoirs are particularly operated for hydroelectric power and Djuanda is multipurpose reservoir mainly operated for irrigation and contribute domestic water supply for Jakarta (capital city of Indonesia. Basically all reservoirs are relying on same resources, therefore this condition has considered addressing management and operational problem. Therefore, an approach toward new management and operation system are urgently required in order to achieve the effective and efficient output and to avoid conflicts of water used. This study aims to obtain energy production from Citarum Cascade Reservoir System using Genetic Algorithms optimization with the objective function to maximize firm-energy. Firm-energy is the minimum energy requirements must be available in a certain time period. Then, the result obtained by using the energy produced by GA is compared to the conventional searching technique of Non-Linier Programming (NLP. The GA derived operating curves reveal the higher energy and firm-energy than NLP model

  17. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, George [Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Sub Centre, Kottayam South P.O, Kottayam-686 039, Kerala (India); James, E.J. [Water Institute and Dean (Research), Karunya University, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987) in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow) which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010). The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62% when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  18. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Abe, E. J. James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987 in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010. The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62 % when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  19. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2002-11-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through June 2002, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V post-steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the Third Quarter 2002, the project team essentially completed implementing the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project developed in March 2002 and is proceeding with additional related work. The project team has completed developing laboratory research procedures to analyze the sand consolidation well completion technique and will initiate work in the fourth quarter. The Tar V pilot steamflood project terminated hot water injection and converted to post-steamflood cold water injection on April 19, 2002. Proposals have been approved to repair two sand consolidated horizontal wells that sanded up, Tar II-A well UP-955 and Tar V well J-205, with gravel-packed inner liner jobs to be performed next quarter. Other well work to be performed next quarter is to convert well L-337 to a Tar V water injector and to recomplete vertical well A-194 as a Tar V interior steamflood pattern producer. Plans have been approved to drill and

  1. Fracture density estimation from core and conventional well logs data using artificial neural networks: The Cambro-Ordovician reservoir of Mesdar oil field, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazoun, Réda Samy

    2013-07-01

    Fracture density estimation is an indisputable challenge in fractured reservoir characterization. Traditional techniques of fracture characterization from core data are costly, time consuming, and difficult to use for any extrapolation to non-cored wells. The aim of this paper is to construct a model able to predict fracture density from conventional well logs calibrated to core data by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). This technique was tested in the Cambro-Ordovician clastic reservoir from Mesdar oil field (Saharan platform, Algeria). For this purpose, 170 cores (2120.14 m) from 17 unoriented wells have been studied in detail. Seven training algorithms and eight neuronal network architectures were tested. The best architecture is a four layered [6-16-3-1] network model with: a six-neuron input layer (Gamma ray, Sonic interval transit time, Caliper, Neutron porosity, Bulk density logs and core depth), two hidden layers; the first hidden layer has 16 neurons, the second one has three neurons. And a one-neuron output layer (fracture density). The results based on 8094 data points from 13 wells show the excellent prediction ability of the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) training algorithm (R-squared = 0.812).The cross plot of measured and predicted values of fracture density shows a very high coefficient of determination of 0.848. Our studies have demonstrated a good agreement between our neural network model prediction and core fracture measurements. The results are promising and can be easily extended in other similar neighboring naturally fractured reservoirs.

  2. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field

  3. Fracture properties from tight reservoir outcrop analogues with application to geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Sonja L.; Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Bauer, Johanna F.; Meier, Silke; Reinecker, John

    2015-04-01

    areas of palaeo¬geothermal fields in the Bristol Channel (1), all mineral veins, most of which are extension fractures, are of calcite. They are clearly associated with the faults and indicate that geothermal water was transported along the then-active faults into the host rocks with evidence of injection as hydrofractures. Layers with contrasting mechanical properties (in particular, stiffnesses), however, acted as stress barriers and lead to fracture arrest. Along some faults, veins propagated through the barriers along faults to shallower levels. In the Northwest German Basin (2) there are pronounced differences between normal-fault zones in carbonate and clastic rocks. Only in carbonate rocks clear damage zones occur, characterized by increased fracture frequencies and high amounts of fractures with large apertures. On the Upper Rhine Graben shoulders (3) damage zones in Triassic Muschelkalk limestones are well developed; fault cores are narrow and comprise breccia, clay smear, host rock lenses and mineralization. A large fault zone in Triassic Bunter sandstone shows a clearly developed fault core with fault gouge, slip zones, deformation bands and host rock lenses, a transition zone with mostly disturbed layering and highest fracture frequency, and a damage zone. The latter damage zone is compared to the damage zone of a large Bunter sandstone fault zone currently explored for geothermal energy production. The numerical models focus on stress field development, fracture propagation and associated permeability changes. These studies contribute to the understanding of the hydromechanical behaviour of fault zones and related fluid transport in fractured reservoirs complementing predictions based on geophysical measurements. Eventually we aim at classifying and quantifying fracture system properties in fault zones to improve exploration and exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. Acknowledgements The authors appreciate the support of 'Niedersächsisches Ministerium f

  4. The evolution of clastic sedimentology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Oldroyd

    2006-01-01

    @@ This valuable book was first published in Japanese in 2002, under the title Sedimentology: a way to the new discipline of earth sciences. Given the problems that nearly all non-Japanese people have in reading Japanese, its translation into English in an expanded form, accomplished with the help of Professor Kenyon-Smith, is exceedingly welcome, given that it is the first book to provide a history of sedimentology.

  5. Experimental Infection of North American Birds with the New York 1999 Strain of West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Komar, Nicholas; Langevin, Stanley; Hinten, Steven; Nemeth, Nicole; Edwards, Eric; Hettler, Danielle; Davis, Brent; Bowen, Richard; Bunning, Michel

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to West Nile virus (WNV) by infectious mosquito bite. We monitored viremia titers, clinical outcome, WNV shedding (cloacal and oral), seroconversion, virus persistence in organs, and susceptibility to oral and contact transmission. Passeriform and charadriiform birds were more reservoir competent (a derivation of viremia data) than other species tested. The five most competent species were passerines: Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)...

  6. In-situ stress evaluation in the McElroy field, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avasthi, J.M. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co. (US)); Nolen-Hoeksema, R.C. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); El Rabaa, A.W.M. (Mobil R and D Corp. (US))

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses an in-situ-stress evaluation program conducted in the McElroy field in preparation for waterflood realignment. Microfracturing and borehole logging results indicated that the maximum horizontal stress orientation was north-northwest, west-northwest, and north-northwest in the upper, middle, and lower payzone intervals, respectively. Microfracturing proved to be the most reliable and cost-effective technique for in-situ stress evaluation in this heterogeneous reservoir.

  7. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Karl; Barboutis, Christos; Ehrenborg, Christian; Fransson, Thord; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Lundkvist, Åke; Nyström, Fredrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Salaneck, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. In order to investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northwards from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV-RNA.Methods: On the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythira a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected....

  8. Rift Valley fever in West Africa : the role of space in endemicity

    OpenAIRE

    Favier, C.; Chalvet Monfray, K.; Sabatier, P.; LANCELOT, R.; Fontenille, Didier; DuBois, M A

    2006-01-01

    Rift Valley fever is an endemic vector-borne disease in West Africa, which mainly affects domestic ruminants and occasionally humans. The aetiological mechanisms of its endemicity remain under debate. We used a simple spatially explicit model to assess the possibility of endemicity without wild animals providing a permanent virus reservoir. Our model takes into account the vertical transmission in some mosquito species, the rainfall-driven emergence of their eggs and local and distant contact...

  9. Kalium- en nitraatproblemen in het captatiegebied van het drinkwaterproductiecentrum de Blankaart, West-Vlaanderen

    OpenAIRE

    Baert, R; Loontiens, R.; Devos, F.

    1997-01-01

    The Environment Inspection Section, West Flanders Local Service has jurisdiction over the Blankaart water production centre, which is completely fed by surface water from the IJzer river, the Blankaart pond and the Koevaardeken (Belgium). The quantity of drinking-water daily distributed in the water supply system ranges from 7.200 to 67.000 m3. Increasing pollution and seasonal differences in quality and quantity render a reservoir (3.000.000 m3 capacity) absolutely necessary. The rising pota...

  10. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  11. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    “Unconventional reservoirs” for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage—that is, geologic reservoirs in which changes to the rock trap CO2 and therefore contribute to CO2 storage—including coal, shale, basalt, and ultramafic rocks, were the focus of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) workshop held March 28 and 29, 2012, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The goals of the workshop were to determine whether a detailed assessment of CO2 storage capacity in unconventional reservoirs is warranted, and if so, to build a set of recommendations that could be used to develop a methodology to assess this storage capacity. Such an assessment would address only the technically available resource, independent of economic or policy factors. At the end of the workshop, participants agreed that sufficient knowledge exists to allow an assessment of the potential CO2 storage resource in coals, organic-rich shales, and basalts. More work remains to be done before the storage resource in ultramafic rocks can be meaningfully assessed.

  12. Reservoir evaluation using discriminant analysis. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yangjian, O.; Jianru, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability to evaluate sandstone reservoirs has been greatly improved since the use of electonic computer in processing well log data. But it is still difficult to analyse reservoirs with high water saturation, or reservoirs with high residual oil saturation and aquifers containing oil etc. Based on the studies of the reservoirs and aquifers in respect to their oil saturation, porosity, lithology factor and other independent parameters relative to water invasion and water distribution etc., an optimum discrimination is proposed for the accurate evalation of reservoirs and aquifers using discriminant analysis as a tool. The final recognition is achieved on the electronic computer. This new technique and processing program has been widely tested and verified in the Shengli oil field and other fields in east China, with precision up to 90 percent or more. Now the technique has been extensively applied to the evaluation of Tertiary reservoirs with success.

  13. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  14. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  15. Rock property estimates using multiple seismic attributes and neural networks; Pegasus Field, West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuelke, J.S.; Quirein, J.A.; Sarg, J.F.

    1998-12-31

    This case study shows the benefit of using multiple seismic trace attributes and the pattern recognition capabilities of neural networks to predict reservoir architecture and porosity distribution in the Pegasus Field, West Texas. The study used the power of neural networks to integrate geologic, borehole and seismic data. Illustrated are the improvements between the new neural network approach and the more traditional method of seismic trace inversion for porosity estimation. Comprehensive statistical methods and interpretational/subjective measures are used in the prediction of porosity from seismic attributes. A 3-D volume of seismic derived porosity estimates for the Devonian reservoir provide a very detailed estimate of porosity, both spatially and vertically, for the field. The additional reservoir porosity detail provided, between the well control, allows for optimal placement of horizontal wells and improved field development. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Improving teleportation fidelity in structured reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu-Xia; Xi, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Seeking flexible methods to control quantum teleportation in open systems is an important task of quantum communication. In this paper, we study how the super-Ohmic, Ohmic and sub-Ohmic reservoirs affect teleportation of a general one-qubit state. The results revealed that the structures of the reservoirs play a decisive role on quality of teleportation. Particularly, the fidelity of teleportation may be improved by the strong backaction of the non-Markovian memory effects of the reservoir. T...

  17. Review of Geomechanical Application in Reservoir Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Bataee; Sonny Irawan

    2014-01-01

    This study has reviewed the geomechanical considerations and applications in reservoir modeling. Geomechanical studies are applied in the reservoir to establish some features as field subsidence/inflation and stability. The reservoir stress alters with the change in the pressure and temperature either by production or EOR injection/thermal methods. The field subsidence/inflation can damage surface facilities. The change in field new stress state could lead ...

  18. Entanglement trapping in a nonstationary structured reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarou, C.; Luoma, K; Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Garraway, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    We study a single two-level atom interacting with a reservoir of modes defined by a reservoir structure function with a frequency gap. Using the pseudomodes technique, we derive the main features of a trapping state formed in the weak coupling regime. Utilizing different entanglement measures we show that strong correlations and entanglement between the atom and the modes are in existence when this state is formed. Furthermore, an unexpected feature for the reservoir is revealed. In the long ...

  19. Resolution of carbonate reservoirs at depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous Smackover algal mounds associated with granite knobs produce oil throughout southwestern Alabama. This paper reports on a detailed gravity survey over Vocation Field demonstrates lateral density contrasts between reservoir and non-reservoir rocks that can be measured even when the reservoir depth exceeds 14,000 feet (4270 m). A similar gravity survey combined with standard seismic and subsurface interpretation methods could have drastically increased the success rate and lowered development costs

  20. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves different disciplines, of which the main three are: reservoir management, rock physics, and seismics. The main challenge is expressed as "How to optimally benefit from time-lapse seismic". The chall...

  1. Compilation of Mineral Resource Data for Mississippi Valley-Type and Clastic-Dominated Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Leach, David L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains a global compilation of the mineral resource data for sediment-hosted lead-zinc (SH Pb-Zn) deposits. Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits are historically the most significant sources of lead and zinc, and are mined throughout the world. The most important SH Pb-Zn deposits are hosted in clastic-dominated sedimentary rock sequences (CD Pb-Zn) that are traditionally called sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, and those in carbonate-dominated sequences that are known as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits. In this report, we do not include sandstone-Pb, sandstone-hosted Pb, or Pb-Zn vein districts such as those in Freiberg, Germany, or Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, because these deposits probably represent different deposit types (Leach and others, 2005). We do not include fracture-controlled deposits in which fluorite is dominant and barite typically abundant (for example, Central Kentucky; Hansonburg, N. Mex.) or the stratabound fluorite-rich, but also lead- and zinc-bearing deposits, such as those in southern Illinois, which are considered a genetic variant of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits (Leach and Sangster, 1993). This report updates the Pb, Zn, copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) grade and tonnage data in Leach and others (2005), which itself was based on efforts in the Canadian Geological Survey World Minerals Geoscience Database Project (contributions of D.F. Sangster to Sinclair and others, 1999). New geological or geochronological data, classifications of the tectonic environment in which the deposits formed, and key references to the geology of the deposits are presented in our report. Data for 121 CD deposits, 113 MVT deposits, and 6 unclassified deposits that were previously classified as either SEDEX or MVT in the Leach and others (2005) compilation, are given in appendix table A1. In some cases, mineral resource data were available only for total district resources, but not for individual mines within the district. For these

  2. Sorted clastic stripes, lobes and associated gullies in high-latitude craters on Mars: Landforms indicative of very recent, polycyclic ground-ice thaw and liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Grindrod, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Self-organised patterns of stone stripes, polygons, circles and clastic solifluction lobes form by the sorting of clasts from fine-grained sediments in freeze-thaw cycles. We present new High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of Mars which demonstrate that the slopes of high-latitude craters, including Heimdal crater - just 25 km east of the Phoenix Landing Site - are patterned by all of these landforms. The order of magnitude improvement in imaging data resolution afforded by HiRISE over previous datasets allows not only the reliable identification of these periglacial landforms but also shows that high-latitude fluviatile gullies both pre- and post-date periglacial patterned ground in several high-latitude settings on Mars. Because thaw is inherent to the sorting processes that create these periglacial landforms, and from the association of this landform assemblage with fluviatile gullies, we infer the action of liquid water in a fluvio-periglacial context. We conclude that these observations are evidence of the protracted, widespread action of thaw liquids on and within the martian regolith. Moreover, the size frequency statistics of superposed impact craters demonstrate that this freeze-thaw environment is, at least in Heimdal crater, less than a few million years old. Although the current martian climate does not favour prolonged thaw of water ice, observations of possible liquid droplets on the strut of the Phoenix Lander may imply significant freezing point depression of liquids sourced in the regolith, probably driven by the presence of perchlorates in the soil. Because perchlorates have eutectic temperatures below 240 K and can remain liquid at temperatures far below the freezing point of water we speculate that freeze-thaw involving perchlorate brines provides an alternative "low-temperature" hypothesis to the freeze-thaw of more pure water ice and might drive significant geomorphological work in some areas of Mars. Considering the

  3. Advance reservoir evaluation by using NMR logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on brief explanation of the measurement principle for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging, this paper illustrates the importance of NMR logging in reservoir evaluation through typical case examples. These case examples include: Reservoir characterization and productivity evaluation by using NMR logging, determination of reservoir porosity in complex lithology, identification of oil, water and gas zones under complex reservoir conditions where resistivity log data give poor indication, guiding the implementation of completion and drilling programs, etc. Excellent application results indicate that NMR logging has its special features and advantages in comparison with conventional logging techniques. It is a very practical and very promising logging technology

  4. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Reservoir management and thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoelectric power stations on regulated rivers may cause violations in stream temperature standards if the dilution water from the upstream reservoir is not adequate. However, it is possible that such violations would occur over a short period or that there exists an acceptable temperature violation range. A minmax model is developed for determining the minimum value of the maximum violation of the temperature standard, the reservoir storage, and release levels for reservoir-river systems. The model is applied to the Shellmouth Reservoir in Manitoba, Canada

  6. Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions From China's Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Hydroelectricity has typically been regarded as a green energy source, but reservoirs created for its generation emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) just as natural lakes and rivers do. The role of reservoirs in GHG emissions has been overlooked. Substantial amounts of methane (CH4) are emitted from reservoir surfaces every year, which account for about 20% of the total CH4 emission from inland waters. GHG emissions (transferred into carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents) from some tropical reservoirs even exceed CO2 emissions from thermal power plants if the same amount of electricity is generated.

  7. A feasibility study on the expected seismic AVA signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deep geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello-Travale field (southern Tuscany) are found in intensively fractured portions of intrusive/metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the geothermal exploration has been in search of possible fracture signatures that could be retrieved from the analysis of geophysical data. In the present work we assess the feasibility of finding seismic markers in the pre-stack domain which may pinpoint fractured levels. Thanks to the availability of data from boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of this geothermal field, we derived the expected amplitude versus angle (AVA) responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. The information we have available limit us to build 1D elastic and isotropic models only and thus anisotropy effects related to the presence of fractures cannot be properly modelled. We analysed the velocities and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. The AVA response of the fractured intervals is modelled downscaling the log data to seismic scale and comparing the analytical AVA response (computed with the Aki and Richards approximation) and the AVA extracted from a synthetic common mid point (calculated making use of a reflectivity algorithm). The results show that the amplitude of the reflections from the fractured level is characterized by negative values at vertical incidence and by decreasing absolute amplitudes with the increase of the source to receiver offset. This contrasts with many observations from hydrocarbon exploration in clastic reservoirs where gas-sand reflections often exhibit negative amplitudes at short offsets but increasing absolute amplitudes for increasing source to receiver offsets. Thereby, some common AVA attributes considered in silicoclastic lithologies would lead to erroneous fracture localization. For this reason we propose a

  8. Oligo-Miocene reservoir sequence characterization and structuring in the Sisseb El Alem-Kalaa Kebira regions (Northeastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houatmia, Faten; Khomsi, Sami; Bédir, Mourad

    2015-11-01

    The Sisseb El Alem-Enfidha basin is located in the northeastern Tunisia, It is borded by Nadhour - Saouaf syncline to the north, Kairouan plain to the south, the Mediterranean Sea to the east and Tunisian Atlassic "dorsale" to the west. Oligocene and Miocene deltaic deposits present the main potential deep aquifers in this basin with high porosity (25%-30%). The interpretation of twenty seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of twelve oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of Oligo-Miocene sandstones reservoirs and their distribution in raised structures and subsurface depressions. Miocene seismostratigraphy analysis from Ain Ghrab Formation (Langhian) to the Segui Formation (Quaternary) showed five third-order seismic sequence deposits and nine extended lenticular sandy bodies reservoirs limited by toplap and downlap surfaces unconformities, Oligocene deposits presented also five third- order seismic sequences with five extended lenticular sandy bodies reservoirs. The Depth and the thickness maps of these sequence reservoir packages exhibited the structuring of this basin in sub-basins characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thichness variations. Petroleum wells wire line logging correlation with clay volume calculation showed an heterogeneous multilayer reservoirs of Oligocene and Miocene formed by the arrangement of fourteen sandstone bodies being able to be good reservoirs, separated by impermeable clay packages and affected by faults. Reservoirs levels correspond mainly to the lower system tract (LST) of sequences. Intensive fracturing by deep seated faults bounding the different sub-basins play a great role for water surface recharge and inter-layer circulations between affected reservoirs. The total pore volume of the Oligo-Miocene reservoir sandy bodies in the study area, is estimated to about 4 × 1012 m3 and equivalent to 4

  9. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  10. GeoPowering the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  11. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  12. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  13. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005).

  14. Exploration on ecological regulation of the reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qihua

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir regulation process in the Yangtze River basin is mainly divided into two types of flood regulation and initiating benefit regulation. The present reservoir management system and operation mode are mainly for dealing with or coordinating of flood control and benefit initiation as well as benefit distribution among various beneficial functions. From the view point of river ecosystem protection, the current regulation mode has two kinds of problems: firstly, most of the reservoir regulation plans do not consider ecosystem protection at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas; secondly, integrated regulation or management of water resources is ignored. It is very necessary to improve reservoir regulation mode, bearing problems faced by regulation of the Three Gorges reservoir and issues related to cascade development and regulation in Tuojiang and Minjiang River basins in mind. In accordance with the concept of scientific development, and the philosophy of "ensuring a healthy Yangtze River and promoting the har-mony between human and water", taking flood control, benefit initiation and eco-system as a whole, this paper put for-ward the basic consideration to improve reservoir regulation as follows : on the basis of requirements of ecosystem protec-tion at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas, we should bring the functions of res-ervoir such as flood control and benefit initiation into full play, control the negative influence to the ecosystem at down-stream of dams and the environment in reservoir areas in an endurable scope, and restore the ecosystem and the environ-ment step by step. This paper put forward the relevant regulation process aiming at the idiographic problems such as pro-tection of ecosystem at downstream of dams and environment in reservoir areas, protection of aquatic wildlife species and fish species, regulation of sediment and protection of wetland.

  15. Species' life-history traits explain interspecific variation in reservoir competence: a possible mechanism underlying the dilution effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Y X Huang

    Full Text Available Hosts species for multi-host pathogens show considerable variation in the species' reservoir competence, which is usually used to measure species' potential to maintain and transmit these pathogens. Although accumulating research has proposed a trade-off between life-history strategies and immune defences, only a few studies extended this to host species' reservoir competence. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we studied the relationships between some species' life-history traits and reservoir competence in three emerging infectious vector-borne disease systems, namely Lyme disease, West Nile Encephalitis (WNE and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE. The results showed that interspecific variation in reservoir competence could be partly explained by the species' life histories. Species with larger body mass (for hosts of Lyme disease and WNE or smaller clutch size (for hosts of EEE had a lower reservoir competence [corrected]. Given that both larger body mass and smaller clutch size were linked to higher extinction risk of local populations, our study suggests that with decreasing biodiversity, species with a higher reservoir competence are more likely to remain in the community, and thereby increase the risk of transmitting these pathogens, which might be a possible mechanism underlying the dilution effect.

  16. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  17. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  18. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations

  19. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  20. Optimal early refill rules for Danjiangkou Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Water levels in reservoirs are generally not allowed to exceed the flood-limited water level during the flood season, which means that huge amounts of water spill in order to provide adequate storage for flood prevention and that it is difficult to fill the reservoir fully at the end of year. Early reservoir refill is an effective method for addressing the contradiction between the needs of flood control and of comprehensive utilization. This study selected the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the water source for the middle route of the South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP in China, as a case study, and analyzed the necessity and operational feasibility of early reservoir refill. An early reservoir refill model is proposed based on the maximum average storage ratio, optimized by the progressive optimality algorithm, and the optimal scheduling schemes were obtained. Results show that the best time of refill operation for the Danjiangkou Reservoir is September 15, and the upper limit water level during September is 166 m. The proposed early refill scheme, in stages, can increase the annual average storage ratio from 77.51% to 81.99%, and decrease spilled water from 2.439 × 109 m3 to 1.692 × 109 m3, in comparison to the original design scheme. The suggested early reservoir refill scheme can be easily operated with significant comprehensive benefits, which may provide a good reference for scheduling decision-making.

  1. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Optimal early refill rules for Danjiangkou Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun WANG; Sheng-lian GUO; Guang YANG; Xing-jun HONG; Ting HU

    2014-01-01

    Water levels in reservoirs are generally not allowed to exceed the flood-limited water level during the flood season, which means that huge amounts of water spill in order to provide adequate storage for flood prevention and that it is difficult to fill the reservoir fully at the end of year. Early reservoir refill is an effective method for addressing the contradiction between the needs of flood control and of comprehensive utilization. This study selected the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is the water source for the middle route of the South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) in China, as a case study, and analyzed the necessity and operational feasibility of early reservoir refill. An early reservoir refill model is proposed based on the maximum average storage ratio, optimized by the progressive optimality algorithm, and the optimal scheduling schemes were obtained. Results show that the best time of refill operation for the Danjiangkou Reservoir is September 15, and the upper limit water level during September is 166 m. The proposed early refill scheme, in stages, can increase the annual average storage ratio from 77.51% to 81.99%, and decrease spilled water from 2.439×109 m3 to 1.692×109 m3, in comparison to the original design scheme. The suggested early reservoir refill scheme can be easily operated with significant comprehensive benefits, which may provide a good reference for scheduling decision-making.

  3. Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haixia

    2002-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.

  4. Reservoir optimization for the synthetic brugge field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing availability of data and tools for history matching and optimisation brings the long-term goal of closed loop reservoir management closer. However, still many issues are not solved. An example is the interaction between the history match of the reservoir model and the optimisation. How im

  5. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves d

  6. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  7. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  8. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  9. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs. PMID:24943886

  10. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  11. Geology of the Roswell artesian basin, New Mexico, and its relation to the Hondo Reservoir and Effect on artesian aquifer storage of flood water in Hondo Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Robert T.; Theis, Charles V.

    1949-01-01

    In the Roswell Basin in southeastern New Mexico artesian water is produced from cavernous zones in the carbonate rocks of the San Andres formation and the lower part of the Chalk Bluff formation, both of Permian age. The Hondo Reservoir, 9 miles west-southwest of Roswell, was completed by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1907, to store waters of the Rio Hondo for irrigation. The project was not successful, as the impounded water escaped rapidly through holes in the gypsum and limestone of the San Andres formation constituting its floor. Of 27,000 acre~feet that entered the reservoir between 1908 and 1913, only 1,100 acre-feet was drawn Ollt for use, the remainder escaping through the floor of the reservoir. Since 1939, plans have been drawn up by the State Engineer and by Federal agencies to utilize the reservoir to protect Roswell from floods. It has also been suggested that water from the Pecos River might be diverted into underground storage through the reservoir. Sinkholes in the Roswell Basin are largely clustered in areas where gypsum occurs in the bedrock. Collapse of strata is due to solution of underlying rock commonly containing gypsum. Domes occur in gypsiferous strata near Salt Creek. The Bottomless Lakes, sinkhole lakes in the escarpment on the east side of the Pecos, are believed to have developed in north-south hinge-line fractures opened when the westernmost beds in the escarpment collapsed. Collapse was due to solution and removal of gypsiferous rock by artesian water which now fills the lakes.

  12. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    porous media. The main conclusion of most previous studies was that it is the rock wettability alteration towards more water wetting condition that helps improving the oil recovery. In the first step of this project, we focused on verifying this conclusion. Coreflooding experiments were carried out using...... imbibition rather than forced flooding. The objective of the third step of this project was to investigate the potential of high salinity waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous imbibition using core plugs with and...... without aging. The total oil recovery, recovery rate and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injected fluids under different temperatures and wettability conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the oil recovery mechanism under high salinity seawater flooding at...

  13. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU del

  14. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the VW1 and the CCS1 wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. Intention was for two million tons per annum (MTPA) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the preceding, the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010" in this topical report) was re-run using a new injection scenario; 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. It was not sufficiently large enough to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 miles x 30 miles (48.3km x48.3km), while preserving all property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case of Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a. The Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the verification well VW2 which was drilled in 2012. The new porosity and permeability modeling was

  15. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted at......The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases...... eliminating reservoirs. Insect borne Blue tongue, Black tongue, West Nile Virus, Usutu, avian malaria, Dirofilarial worms and Tick Borne Encephalitis are spreading and pose an increasing threat to people and animals in Northern Europe. Climate driven mathematical models may provide quantitative estimates of...

  16. Optimization or Simulation? Comparison of approaches to reservoir operation on the Senegal River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Luciano; Bader, Jean-Claude; Pouget, Jean-Christophe; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Design of reservoir operation rules follows, traditionally, two approaches: optimization and simulation. In simulation, the analyst hypothesizes operation rules, and selects them by what-if analysis based on effects of model simulations on different objectives indicators. In optimization, the analyst selects operational objective indicators, finding operation rules as an output. Optimization rules guarantee optimality, but they often require further model simplification, and can be hard to communicate. Selecting the most proper approach depends on the system under analysis, and the analyst expertise and objectives. We present advantage and disadvantages of both approaches, and we test them for the Manantali reservoir operation rule design, on the Senegal River, West Africa. We compare their performance in attaining the system objectives. Objective indicators are defined a-priori, in order to quantify the system performance. Results from this application are not universally generalizable to the entire class, but they allow us to draw conclusions on this system, and to give further information on their application.

  17. Selenium distribution and mode of occurrence in the Kanawha Formation, southern West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesper, Dorothy J.; Rhoads, Christina J. [West Virginia University, Department of Geology and Geography, PO Box 6300, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Roy, Mimi [West Virginia University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, PO Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Selenium concentrations were measured in five rock cores from a mine in Boone County, West Virginia to determine their relationship to sulfur, rock type and stratigraphic location. The samples spanned the Winifrede and Coalburg coal beds of the Middle Pennsylvania upper Kanawha Formation and included coals and clastic lithologies. The coals generally contained the highest concentrations of Se and the sandstones the lowest. No correlation was observed between total Se and sulfur concentrations for either the entire data set or for individual lithologies. Better correlations were identified for log concentrations between total Se and total organic carbon. Principal component analysis identified a strong sulfur-acid component, interpreted to be due to sulfide mineral presence, which correlates well with S but not with Se. Coal sample chemistry is more likely to load onto this component while clastic rock chemistry is more likely to load onto the second, non-sulfur component. Se concentrations load onto both components indicating they are not controlled by a single overriding chemistry. Selective extractions indicate that Se is distributed between both sulfide and organically-bound fractions, as defined by the test. Overall, the lack of correlation between Se and S, the distribution of Se among extracted fractions, and the loading of Se onto both sulfur and non-sulfur components support that the Se in these rock layers is distributed in more than one chemically-bound form. Non-coal rock units with the highest concentrations of Se were found adjacent to coal beds, suggesting that redistribution of Se may have occurred post-deposition. The acidic domed swamps that formed these coals were low in sulfur and a reasonable chemical setting to accumulate Se if it were introduced. The preservation of Se in the domed swamp peat coupled with post-depositional redistribution may partly explain the data presented. (author)

  18. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    2010-05-01

    Conventional reservoir simulation and modeling is a bottom-up approach. It starts with building a geological model of the reservoir that is populated with the best available petrophysical and geophysical information at the time of development. Engineering fluid flow principles are added and solved numerically so as to arrive at a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir model is calibrated using the production history of multiple wells and the history matched model is used to strategize field development in order to improve recovery. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling approaches the reservoir simulation and modeling from an opposite angle by attempting to build a realization of the reservoir starting with the measured well production behavior (history). The production history is augmented by core, log, well test and seismic data in order to increase the accuracy of the Top-Down modeling technique. Although not intended as a substitute for the conventional reservoir simulation of large, complex fields, this novel approach to reservoir modeling can be used as an alternative (at a fraction of the cost) to conventional reservoir simulation and modeling in cases where performing conventional modeling is cost (and man-power) prohibitive. In cases where a conventional model of a reservoir already exists, Top-Down modeling should be considered as a compliment to, rather than a competition for the conventional technique, to provide an independent look at the data coming from the reservoir/wells for optimum development strategy and recovery enhancement. Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling starts with well-known reservoir engineering techniques such as Decline Curve Analysis, Type Curve Matching, History Matching using single well numerical reservoir simulation, Volumetric Reserve Estimation and calculation of Recovery Factors for all the wells (individually) in the field. Using statistical techniques multiple Production Indicators (3, 6, and 9 months cum

  19. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    , this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade......To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... by looking at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly...

  20. Recent advances in naturally fractured reservoir modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of oil reserves are contained in naturally fractured reservoirs. Most of these hydrocarbon volumes have been left behind because of the poor knowledge and/or description methodology of those reservoirs. This lack of knowledge has lead to the nonexistence of good quantitative models for this complicated type of reservoirs. The complexity of naturally fractured reservoirs causes the need for integration of all existing information at all scales (drilling, well logging, seismic, well testing, etc.) to provide a reservoir description for such reservoirs. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in naturally fractured reservoir modeling, which were developed to characterize the dual porosity system and to improve hydrocarbon recovery. Two techniques, material balance and numerical simulation, are shown to be supportive of one another. The material balance technique is a good tool for history matching of production performance and defining the system, which is then used as input in the numerical model. However, material balance has significant disadvantages when it comes to prediction, which is the domain of numerical simulation modeling. We present the application of a recently introduced material balance equation based on a dual-system approach. In numerical simulation, the mathematical model to predict fluid flow in anisotropic media is enhanced by using permeability tensors. We also discuss a technique to construct permeability tensors from seismic, well log and well test analysis

  1. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  2. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  3. STUDI KOLEKSI REFERENSI RESERVOIR PENYAKIT DI DAERAH ENZOOTIK PES DI JAWA BARAT DAN JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyanto -

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHReservoir Reference Study Collection Disease, particularly rats have been conducted in several areas such as the enzootic plague area in the district of Nongkojajar, Pasuruan, East Java and Ciwidey district, Bandung regency, West Java. These were organized in May-October 2007. The method used for the collection and reference reservoir of disease is rodentia survey methods. Result of the reference collection reservoir of disease is the house rat Rattus tanezumi Nongkojajar found either in the of Pasuruan, East Java (3 rats and the District of Ciwidey (4 rats. Polynesian rat R. exulans, three rats were only found in the District Nongkojajar, whereas three rats R. tiomanicus, three rats were found in Ciwidey. In addition another types of mice were also found 1 Insectivora mice Suncus murinus in the District Ciwidey. Type of rats captured in habitat homes in the District Ciwidey Bandung regency, West Java and Pasuruan, East Java is the same type, namely house rat Rattus tanezumi. Types of mice caught in the habitat garden in the District Ciwidey Bandung regency, West Java (tiomanicus R. tree rats were different from mice found in Pasuruan, East Java (Polynesian rat R. exulans. Local environment in plague enzootic area in Pasuruan, East Java is mountainous and forest conservation area Bromo-Tengger, while District Ciwidey, Bandung is the highland tourism areas / mountainous and agricultural areas.INDONESIAKoleksi referensi reservoir penyakit khususnya tikus telah dilakukan di beberapa daerah enzootik pes seperti di Kecamatan Nongkojajar, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Jawa Timur dan Kecamatan Ciwidey, Kabupaten Bandung, Jawa Barat. Kegiatan tersebut dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Oktober 2007. Metode yang digunakan untuk koleksi dan referensi reservoir penyakit adalah metode survei rodensia. Hasil koleksi referensi reservoir penyakit adalah tikus rumah Rattus tanezumi ditemukan baik di Kecamatan Nongkojajar, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Jawa Timur (3 ekor maupun

  4. Reservoir stimulation techniques to minimize skin factor of Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jianchun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm carbonatite gas reservoirs in the Leshan-Longnüsi Paleouplift in the Sichuan Basin feature strong heterogeneity, well-developed fractures and caverns, and a high content of H2S, so these reservoirs are prone to reservoir damages caused by the invasion of drilling fluid or the improper well completion, so to minimize the reservoir skin factor is key to achieving high yield of oil and gas in this study area. Therefore, based on the geological characteristics of the Longwangmiao reservoirs, the binomial productivity equation was applied to demonstrate the possibility and scientificity of minimizing the skin factor. According to the current status of reservoir stimulation, the overall skin factors of reservoir damage caused by drilling fluid invasion, improper drilling and completion modes etc were analyzed, which shows there is still potential for skin factor reduction. Analysis of reservoir damage factors indicates that the main skin factor of Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs consists of that caused by drilling fluid and by improper completion modes. Along with the minimization of skin factor caused by drilling and improper completion, a fracture-network acidizing process to achieve “non-radial & network-fracture” plug-removal by making good use of natural fractures was proposed according to the characteristics of Longwangmiao Fm carbonatite reservoirs.

  5. [Ecotoxicological value of sediments state from reservoir R-11 of Techa River reservoir cascade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priakhin, E A; Bogdanov, G O; Traipitsyna, G A; Deriabina, L V; Stukalov, P M; Aleksandrova, O A; Akleev, A V

    2010-01-01

    Researches of sediments state from reservoir R-11 of tandem Techa river reservoir cascade were made. Shershni (Shershni's reservoir, Chelyabinsk region) was used as reference reservoir. Radiochemical analysis of sediments and water from those reservoirs were made (radioactivity in sediments of R-11 ranged from 240 to 360 kBq/kg of dry weight for 90Sr and from 10 to 161 kBq/kg of dry weight for 137Cs). Hydrobiological researches were included (1) detection of quantitative progress and species composition of Oligochaeta fauna in reservoirs and (2) bioassay of sediments in laboratory conditions with using test-organisms Tubifex culture. Calculation of absorbed dose for Oligochaeta from reservoir R-11 was performed on basis of radiochemical analysis data. Our results indicated that quantitative progress of Oligochaeta in reservoir R-11 was less then progress in Shershni's reservoir. R-11 sediments bioassay did not show any toxic effect by tubificidae in laboratory experiments. Significant dependence for quantitative progress Oligochaeta in reservoir R-11, survival rate and breeding power from absorbed dose rate weren't found. However in subacute research breeding power for animals with higher radiation (absorbed) dose was reduced. PMID:20464971

  6. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery methods have become significant in the industry\\'s drive to increase recovery rates from oil and gas reservoirs. For heavy oil reservoirs, the immobility of the oil at reservoir temperatures, caused by its high viscosity, limits the recovery rates and strains the economic viability of these fields. While thermal recovery methods, such as steam injection or THAI, have extensively been applied in the field, their success has so far been limited due to prohibitive heat losses and the difficulty in controlling the combustion process. Electromagnetic (EM) heating via high-frequency EM radiation has attracted attention due to its wide applicability in different environments, its efficiency, and the improved controllability of the heating process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase recovery rates. Limited research has been undertaken so far to capture the nonlinear reservoir dynamics and significantly varying flow rates for thermally heated heavy oil reservoir that may notably change production rates and render conventional history matching frameworks more challenging. We present a new history matching framework for EM heated heavy oil reservoirs incorporating cross-well seismic imaging. Interfacing an EM heating solver to a reservoir simulator via Andrade’s equation, we couple the system to an ensemble Kalman filter based history matching framework incorporating a cross-well seismic survey module. With increasing power levels and heating applied to the heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir dynamics change considerably and may lead to widely differing production forecasts and increased uncertainty. We have shown that the incorporation of seismic observations into the EnKF framework can significantly enhance reservoir simulations, decrease forecasting

  7. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  8. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pérez-Ramírez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3 facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas.

  9. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  11. Simulation of Radon Transport in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, Lewis; Kruger, Paul

    1983-12-15

    Numerical simulation of radon transport is a useful adjunct in the study of radon as an in situ tracer of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic numerical model has been developed to assist in the interpretation of field experiments. The model simulates transient response of radon concentration in wellhead geofluid as a function of prevailing reservoir conditions. The radon simulation model has been used to simulate radon concentration response during production drawdown and two flowrate transient tests in vapor-dominated systems. Comparison of model simulation with experimental data from field tests provides insight in the analysis of reservoir phenomena such as propagation of boiling fronts, and estimates of reservoir properties of porosity and permeability thickness.

  12. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  13. Reservoir analysis by well log data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering; Gokcal, B.; Ersoy, G. [Tulsa Univ., OK (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-04-15

    The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the reservoir sections by well log data. Well logs are used to examine the porosity, water saturation and true resistivity properties of the reservoir. Throughout the project, the data is processed using geostatistical tests that are frequency, histograms, auto-correlation, cross-correlations, linear and multiple regression analysis to find the relations between the variables. Statistical analyses are performed using SPSS software. From the output of the software, the data of the reservoir section would be improved resulting in a higher efficiency in the usage of the data. (Author)

  14. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  15. Mechanistic models of unconventional reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Pouyan Lialekol

    Rock physics models are mathematical relations between porosity, composition and elastic properties of a rock. Unlike in conventional silisiclastic rocks where seismic-to-rock properties are predicted successfully by rock physics models, their application in unconventional reservoirs such as shale, hydrate and carbonates is not fully understood. In light of the vast untapped potential of unconventional resources, their exploration will be easier if a suitable rock physics models become available for quantitative interpretation of seismic data. In this thesis generic, rock physics models that were developed for conventional siliciclastic systems have been used to infer rock properties such as porosity, composition, fluid saturation and pore pressure in shale, gas hydrates and carbonates. Results indicate that elastic properties of these rocks including shale and gas hydrates which can be viewed as grain assemblages can be best predicted by Hashin Shtrikman bounds. For rocks with non-spherical pores and a rather unified matrix such as carbonates where grain-to-grain contacts are not very clear, the Kuster and Toksoz model provide a good description of their dry elastic properties.

  16. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  17. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume III (of 4): Characterization and simulation of representative resources. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    Significant innovations have been made in seismic processing and reservoir simulation. In addition, significant advances have been made in deviated and horizontal drilling technologies. Effective application of these technologies along with improved integrated resource management methods offer opportunities to significantly increase Gulf of Mexico production, delay platform abandonments, and preserve access to a substantial remaining oil target for both exploratory drilling and advanced recovery processes. In an effort to illustrate the impact that these new technologies and sources of information can have upon the estimates of recoverable oil in the Gulf of Mexico, additional and detailed data was collected for two previously studied reservoirs: a South March Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil, whose exact location has been blind-coded at their request, and an additional third representative reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, the KEKF-1 reservoir in West Delta Block 84 Field. The new data includes reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data was used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation also provided additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressures, and water compatibility. Geologic investigations were also conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. These results were also used, in part, to assist in the recharacterization of these reservoirs.

  18. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  19. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  20. Destratification of an impounding reservoir using compressed air??case of Mudi reservoir, Blantyre, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipofya, V. H.; Matapa, E. J.

    This paper reviews the operational and cost effectiveness of a compressed air destratification system that was installed in the Mudi reservoir for destratifying the reservoir. Mudi reservoir is a raw water source for the Blantyre Water Board. It has a capacity of 1,400,000 cubic metres. The reservoir is 15.3 m deep at top water level. In the absence of any artificial circulation of air, the reservoir stratifies into two layers. There is a warm epilimnion in the top 3 m of the reservoir, with temperatures ranging from 23 to 26 °C. There is prolific algal growth in this layer. The bottom layer has much lower temperatures, and is oxygen deficient. Under such anaerobic conditions, ammonia, sulphides, iron and manganese are released from the sediments of the reservoir. As a result of nutrient inflow from the catchments, coupled with tropical ambient temperatures, the reservoir is most times infested with blue-green algae. This results into water treatment problems in respect of taste and odour and iron and manganese soluble salts. To abate such problems, air is artificially circulated in the reservoir, near the intake tower, through a perforated pipe that is connected to an electrically driven compressor. This causes artificial circulation of water in the hypolimnion region of the reservoir. As a result of this circulation, a hostile environment that inhibits the propagation of algae is created. Dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles are practically uniform from top to bottom of reservoir. Concentrations of iron and manganese soluble salts are much reduced at any of the draw-off points available for the water treatment process. The paper concludes by highlighting the significant cost savings in water treatment that are accrued from the use of compressed air destratification in impounding water storage reservoirs for the control of algae and other chemical pollutants.

  1. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  2. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic an...

  3. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  4. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  5. Predicting gas in place in abnormal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelly, O.V. II; Farshad, F.F.

    1981-06-01

    Application of the conventional gas material balance equation to abnormally pressured volumetric reservoirs results in erroneous estimates of ultimate recovery. In view of the increasing number and importance of this type of reservoir, the program presented results in more realistic predictions. In abnormally pressured reservoirs, the formation is not supporting as great a portion of the overburden stress. Thus, when pressure is depleted, the sand grains and connate water of the formation expand. These factors tend to reduce the available hydrocarbon pore space acting as a drive mechanism. Thus, production is due to a combination of factors that cause subsequent changes in effective compressibility of the formation rather than just gas compressibility. Hammelindl proposed a correction factor equivalent to the ratio of effective compressibility to gas compressibility. This is applied to the results obtained for normally pressured reservoirs.

  6. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... order of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also...... implications for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany. The surprisingly old ages of the earliest pottery most probably are caused by a freshwater reservoir effect. In a sediment core from the Limfjord, northern Denmark, the impact of the...

  7. Monitoring Taiwan's Feitsui reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    Describes the instrumentation program at the Feitsui dam and reservoir, about 30 km from Taipei City in northern Taiwan. Outlines the dam site geology, and the instrumentation designed to monitor ground conditions and dam stability during the construction process.

  8. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF AMERICAN FALLS RESERVOIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water quality model was developed to support a TMDL for phosphorus related to phytoplankton growth in the reservoir. This report documents the conceptual model, available data, model evaluation, and simulation results.

  9. Reservoir enhancements and production technology sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusseault, M.B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences, Porous Media Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Criteria used to select production technologies for reservoirs with high levels of sand production were discussed. The paper examined a range of thermal recovery methods including cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). VAPEX, hybrid steam, and in situ combustion processes were reviewed. The review indicated that reservoir processes that involve high levels of sand production, high pressures, and high temperatures can cause changes in porosity and breach or shear barriers and shale beds within reservoirs. The changes can be beneficial to technologies designed to reduce flow path lengths in gravity drainage processes. Reservoir scale changes associated with cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) and steam injection technologies were also discussed. It was concluded that careful sequencing of technologies can have a significant impact on recovery rates. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  10. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  11. Measurement-feedback formalism meets information reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto; Matsumoto, Takumi; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    There have been two distinct formalisms of thermodynamics of information: one is the measurement-feedback formalism, which concerns bipartite systems with measurement and feedback processes, and the other is the information reservoir formalism, which considers bit sequences as a thermodynamic fuel. In this paper, we derive a second-law-like inequality by applying the measurement-feedback formalism to information reservoirs, which provides a stronger bound of extractable work than any other known inequality in the same setup. In addition, we demonstrate that the Mandal-Jarzynski model, which is a prominent model of the information reservoir formalism, is equivalent to a model obtained by the contraction of a bipartite system with autonomous measurement and feedback. Our results provide a unified view on the measurement-feedback and the information-reservoir formalisms.

  12. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  13. Flow of a stream through a reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a reservoir is fed from a single source, which may not always be pure, the extent to which the inflowing stream mixes with the water in the reservoir is important for the quality of the water supplied by the reservoir. This question was investigated at the Lingese Reservoir, containing between one and two million cubic metres of water, in the Bergisches Land (North Rhine-Westphalia). The investigation was carried out at four different seasons so that the varying effects of the stream-water temperatures could be studied in relation to the temperature of the reservoir water. The stream was radioactively labelled at the point of inflow into the reservoir, and its flow through the reservoir was measured in length and depth from boats, by means of 1-m-long Geiger counters. In two cases the radioactivity of the outflowing water was also measured at fixed points. A considerable variety of intermixing phenomena were observed; these were mainly of limnological interest. The results of four experiments corresponding to the four different seasons are described in detail. They were as follows: (1) The mid-October experiment where the stream, with a temperature of 8.0 deg. C, was a good 5 deg. C colder than the water of the reservoir, whose temperature was almost uniform, ranging from 13.2 deg. C at the bed to 13.6 deg. C at the surface. (2) The spring experiment (second half of March), when the stream temperature was only 0.3 deg. C below that of the reservoir surface (7.8 deg. C), while the temperature of the bed was 5.8 deg. C. (3) The winter experiment (early December) where at first the temperature of the stream was approximately the same as that of the surface so that, once again, the stream at first flowed 1/2 - 1 m below the surface. During the almost wind-free night a sudden fall in temperature occurred, and the air temperature dropped from 0 deg. C to -12 deg. C. (4) The summer experiment (end of July to mid-August) when the stream was nearly 1 deg. C colder than

  14. Integration of reservoir simulation and geomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan

    Fluid production from tight and shale gas formations has increased significantly, and this unconventional portfolio of low-permeability reservoirs accounts for more than half of the gas produced in the United States. Stimulation and hydraulic fracturing are critical in making these systems productive, and hence it is important to understand the mechanics of the reservoir. When modeling fractured reservoirs using discrete-fracture network representation, the geomechanical effects are expected to have a significant impact on important reservoir characteristics. It has become more accepted that fracture growth, particularly in naturally fractured reservoirs with extremely low permeability, cannot be reliably represented by conventional planar representations. Characterizing the evolution of multiple, nonplanar, interconnected and possibly nonvertical hydraulic fractures requires hydraulic and mechanical characterization of the matrix, as well as existing latent or healed fracture networks. To solve these challenging problems, a reservoir simulator (Advanced Reactive Transport Simulator (ARTS)) capable of performing unconventional reservoir simulation is developed in this research work. A geomechanical model has been incorporated into the simulation framework with various coupling schemes and this model is used to understand the geomechanical effects in unconventional oil and gas recovery. This development allows ARTS to accept geomechanical information from external geomechanical simulators (soft coupling) or the solution of the geomechanical coupled problem (hard coupling). An iterative solution method of the flow and geomechanical equations has been used in implementing the hard coupling scheme. The hard coupling schemes were verified using one-dimensional and two-dimensional analytical solutions. The new reservoir simulator is applied to learn the influence of geomechanical impact on unconventional oil and gas production in a number of practical recovery scenarios

  15. Status of the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power exhaust has been identified as a challenge for ITER and a potential showstopper on the roadmap towards fusion energy. Reliable power exhaust requires a thorough integration of physics and technology. The WEST project main objective is the minimization of risks for ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC) construction and operation. The WEST project also fills the gap on long pulse tokamak operation in the European fusion program. It offers a readily available integrated tokamak environment for ITER but also at a later stage for DEMO divertor testing. The assessment of ITER PFC performance and lifetime as well as innovative PFC under relevant power fluxes and particle fluence is the central thrust of the WEST program. Other issues including operation at high radiated fraction in compact divertor geometry, demonstration of detachment control over long pulse, exhaust physics at large aspect ratio and operation in double null are key topics which will be also tackled in the perspective of the fusion reactor. The WEST project consists in the transformation of the French Tore Supra facility into a diverted tokamak with ITER-like divertor PFC. The limited Tore Supra circular cross section plasma is turned into D-shape diverted plasma by the addition of two poloidal field coils inside the upper and lower region of the vacuum vessel. The carbon environment is changed into a tungsten environment with a set of new actively cooled plasma facing components. 9 MW of ICRH and 7 MW of LHCD will provide relevant heat and particle load conditions on the divertor PFC over duration up to 1000s. A new infrared thermography system, together with embedded temperature sensors and calorimetry of the cooling circuits will ensure PFC protection and accurate power balance. A new visible spectroscopy system will monitor all potential tungsten sources. The WEST assembly phase has started in October 2014. The manufacturing of the divertor coils casing, conductors and supporting

  16. West Nile Virus Cases, 2006-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains positive cases of West Nile virus found in humans by county of residence, 2006-present. Humans usually become infected with West Nile virus by...

  17. Technical report on hierarchical reservoir computing architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Wyffels, Francis; Waegeman, Tim; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Jaeger, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    One approach for building architectures (of which an overview was given in D.6.1) in AMARSi is to use reservoir computing. Here, untrained (or unsupervised trained) recurrent neural networks are used for motion control by learning simple readouts on the dynamic representation generated by the dynamic RNN system. Although single reservoirs are able to generate rich and tunable control patterns (as demonstrated in D.4.1), to allow composition of motion or high-level control, these modules need ...

  18. Dynamics of fish spatial distribution in reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Říha, Milan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation thesis focuses on several aspects of fish ecology in reservoirs and the methodology of their sampling. It is divided to three parts. The first part focuses on the dynamics of fish distribution throughout the seasons and between day and night. The second part deals with the efficiency and the selectivity of the beach seine net, trawl and purse seine net. The third part describes the long-term development of fish populations in the Římov Reservoir.

  19. Tourism improvement on Eguzon Reservoir (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Qsair, Zoubida; Touchart, Laurent; Bartout, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Eguzon reservoir, built in the 1920s as the greatest dam in France, submerged a portion of the Creuse Valley and shocked population and famous artists who painted here the natural landscape. Later, the reservoir was accepted and became a pole for tourism, well equipped in the 1980s. At the present, tourism facilities have aged and the site needs new ideas for developing the country. That is why 200 quantitative questionnaires with tourists and 25 semi-structured interviews with officials and ...

  20. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  1. MODELLING OF RESERVOIR NETWORK FOR FLOOD CONTROL USING NONLINEAR RESERVOIR ROUTING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULRAHMAN M. K. A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Network of reservoirs has become a standard hydraulic construct for multipurpose use. In this work, we present a formulation based on nonlinear reservoir method and coupled tank approach to model the reservoir network for flood control. The network of reservoirs consists of both detention and retention pond which give rise to nonlinear system of ODE for the m reservoirs in the network. The inflow consists of rainfall runoff in each sub catchment and discharges from the adjacent reservoirs. On the other hands, the outflow consists of infiltration and discharges. The nonlinear system obtained is linearized about the normal operating height of each reservoir in the network. The discharge term on the last equation is dropped in order to allow all the runoff captured into it. The establishment of relationship between the area of catchment andarea of reservoir give room for the estimation of the forcing function in terms time of concentration rather than in terms of area of the reservoir which is difficult to obtain in an existing network. Two sets of solutions are presented, one at the convergent point and the other the best solution in respect of the lowest point in thereservoirs.

  2. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is less than 10%. Long-term silting measurements of three small reservoirs were used to evaluate the method described by Rahmanian and Banihashemi for predicting sediment distributions in small reservoirs. Rahmanian and Banihashemi stated that their model of distribution of sediment deposition in water reservoir works well for a long duration operation. In the presented study, the silting rate was used in order to determine the long duration operation. Silting rate is a quotient of volume of the sediment deposited in the reservoir and its original volume. It was stated that when the silting rate had reached 50%, the sediment deposition in the reservoir may be described by an empirical reservoir depth shape function (RDSF.

  3. West Pearl Queen CO2 sequestration pilot test and modeling project 2006-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Symons, Neill Phillip; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Byrer, Charles (National Energy Laboratory, Morgantown, WV); Elbring, Gregory Jay; McNemar, Andrea (National Energy Laboratory, Morgantown, WV); Aldridge, David Franklin; Lorenz, John Clay

    2008-08-01

    The West Pearl Queen is a depleted oil reservoir that has produced approximately 250,000 bbl of oil since 1984. Production had slowed prior to CO{sub 2} injection, but no previous secondary or tertiary recovery methods had been applied. The initial project involved reservoir characterization and field response to injection of CO{sub 2}; the field experiment consisted of injection, soak, and venting. For fifty days (December 20, 2002, to February 11, 2003) 2090 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into the Shattuck Sandstone Member of the Queen Formation at the West Pearl Queen site. This technical report highlights the test results of the numerous research participants and technical areas from 2006-2008. This work included determination of lateral extents of the permeability units using outcrop observations, core results, and well logs. Pre- and post-injection 3D seismic data were acquired. To aid in interpreting seismic data, we performed numerical simulations of the effects of CO{sub 2} replacement of brine where the reservoir model was based upon correlation lengths established by the permeability studies. These numerical simulations are not intended to replicate field data, but to provide insight of the effects of CO{sub 2}.

  4. Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Neelakantan; K. Sasireka

    2013-01-01

    Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

  5. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  6. Hierarchy modeling of subsurface palaeochannel reservoir architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The studies on fluvial reservoir architecture are mainly aimed at outcrop and modern deposition,but rarely at the subsurface reservoir,so there are few effective methods to predict the distribution of subsurface reservoir architectures. In this paper,taking the meandering river reservoir of Guantao formation Gudao Oilfield,Jiyang depression,Baohai Gulf Basin,East China as an example,the archi-tectural modeling method of complex meandering belt reservoir is proposed,that is hierarchy con-straint,pattern fitting and multi-dimensional interaction. Architectures of meandering river reservoir can be divided into three hierarchies: meandering channel sandbody,point bar and lateral accretion body. Different hierarchies of the quantitative architecture pattern are fitted to subsurface well data (including dynamic monitoring data) in different hierarchies through one-dimensional hole,2D profiles and plane and 3D space,which are verified by each other. And then 3D model in different hierarchies is established. At the same time,the quantificational relationship between width of active river and the scale of point bar is set up,and the scale of lateral accretion sand body and shale beddings is con-firmed with horizontal well data. The study not only has significant meaning on the development of geology,but also can improve the oilfield exploitation greatly.

  7. The pollution of the 'iron gate' reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Iron Gate I (the Djerdap) Water Power and Navigational System, one of the largest in Europe (completed in 1972 by joint efforts of Yugoslavia and Romania). In this paper the attention is devoted to review of the sediment monitoring program and impacts of reservoir sedimentation, as well as to the investigations of water and sediment quality. Special consideration is paid to the issue of sediment pollution research needs. Namely, the hot spot of the 'Iron Gate' sedimentation represents a scarcely known pollution of sediment deposits. The present pollution probably is considerable, since the 'Iron Gate' reservoir drains about 577000 km2, with over 80 million inhabitants, and developed municipal and industrial infrastructure. Therefore, in the thirty-year reservoir life various types of sediment-bound pollutants entered and deposited within it. Especially severe incidents happened during 1999 (as a result of NATO bombing campaign) and 2000 (two accidental pollutions in the Tisza river catchment). The study of the 'Iron Gate' reservoir pollution should be prepared in order to enlighten the present state of reservoir sedimentation and pollution. The main objectives of the study are to enhance the government and public awareness of the present environmental state of the 'Iron Gate' reservoir and to serve as a baseline for all future actions. (author)

  8. Water in chalk reservoirs: 'friend or foe?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the petroleum fields in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are sandstone reservoirs; the oil and gas are trapped in different species of sandstone. But the Ekofisk Field is a chalk reservoir, which really challenges the operator companies. When oil is produced from chalk reservoirs, water usually gets in and the reservoir subsides. The subsidence may be expensive for the oil companies or be used to advantage by increasing the recovery rate. Since 60 per cent of the world's petroleum reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs, it is important to understand what happens as oil and gas are pumped out. Comprehensive studies at the Department of Petroleum Technology and Applied Geophysics at Stavanger University College in Norway show that the mechanical properties of chalk are considerably altered when the pores in the rock become saturated with oil/gas or water under different stress conditions. The processes are extremely complex. The article also maintains that the effects of injecting carbon dioxide from gas power plants into petroleum reservoirs should be carefully studied before this is done extensively

  9. A finite element simulation system in reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Xiaozhong

    1996-03-01

    Reservoir engineering is performed to predict the future performance of a reservoir based on its current state and past performance and to explore other methods for increasing the recovery of hydrocarbons from a reservoir. Reservoir simulations are routinely used for these purposes. A reservoir simulator is a sophisticated computer program which solves a system of partial differential equations describing multiphase fluid flow (oil, water, and gas) in a porous reservoir rock. This document describes the use of a reservoir simulator version of BOAST which was developed by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research in July, 1991.

  10. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury

  11. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  12. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Maquart, Marianne; Boyer, Sébastien; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Ravaomanana, Julie; Tantely, Luciano Michaël; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology ...

  13. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  14. Online interactive U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.B.; Bernard, J.M.; Schwarz, G.E.; Stewart, D.W.; Ray, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (prior to 1994, the Soil Conservation Service) created the Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Database (RESSED) and Web site, the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir bathymetric and dry basin surveys in the United States. RESSED data can be useful for a number of purposes, including calculating changes in reservoir storage characteristics, quantifying rates of sediment delivery to reservoirs, and estimating erosion rates in a reservoir's watershed.

  15. The impact of foundation conditions on the design and construction of the Snake Lake Reservoir dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unique aspects of the design and construction of two small dams for the Snake Lake Reservoir Project and some of the lessons learned in the process are described. The outstanding feature of this project was that although relatively close together and in the same post-glacial channel, the foundations of the two dams were quite different. The West Dam had permeable silt, sand and gravel with deep bedrock, while the East Dam had impermeable high plastic clay and shallow bedrock as foundation. The challenge to the design was to develop a cross section that would work for both foundation conditions. The final design turned out to be an impermeable fill with toe berms accommodating the variability in the foundations. Instrumentation was used to determine when the second construction stage should commence. At the end of the construction, the reservoir was partially filled relying on the instrumentation to suggest when that would be safe enough to proceed without impacting the overall embankment stability. In the event, the West Dam foundation soils proved to be several orders of magnitude higher than estimated from grain size analyses, requiring installation of a relief valve after construction was completed. Apart from that, dam construction proceeded smoothly and the instrumentation performed as expected.12 refs., 7 figs

  16. MITIGATION OF SEDIMENTATION HAZARDS DOWNSTREAM FROM RESERVOIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen WOHL; Sara RATHBURN

    2003-01-01

    Many reservoirs currently in operation trap most or all of the sediment entering the reservoir,creating sediment-depleted conditions downstream. This may cause channel adjustment in the form of bank erosion, bed erosion, substrate coarsening, and channel planform change. Channel adjustment may also result from episodic sediment releases during reservoir operation, or from sediment evacuation following dam removal. Channel adjustment to increased sediment influx depends on the magnitude, frequency, duration and grain-size distribution of the sediment releases, and on the downstream channel characteristics. Channel adjustment may occur as a change in substrate sizedistribution, filling of pools, general bed aggradation, lateral instability, change in channel planform,and/or floodplain aggradation. The increased sediment availability may alter aquatic and riparian habitat, reduce water quality, distribute adsorbed contaminants along the river corridor, and provide germination sites for exotic vegetation. Mitigation of these sedimentation hazards requires: (1)mapping grain-size distribution within the reservoir and estimating the grain-size distributions of sediment that will be mobilized through time; (2) mapping shear stress and sediment transport capacity as a function of discharge on the basis of channel units for the length of the river likely to be affected; (3) mapping potential depositional zones, and aquatic habitat and "acceptable losses," along the downstream channel, and comparing these volumes to the total sediment volume stored in the reservoir as a means of estimating total transport capacity required to mobilize reservoir sediment delivered to the channel; (4) designing discharge and sediment release regime (magnitude, frequency,duration) to minimize adverse downstream impacts; and (5) developing plans to remove, treat, contain,or track contaminants, and to restrict establishment of exotic vegetation. The North Fork Poudre River in Colorado is used to

  17. Global prediction of continuous hydrocarbon accumulations in self-sourced reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    occurred. In contrast, deposition of this resource type on rifted passive margins was likely the result of reactivation of long-lived cratonic features or salt tectonic regimes that created semi-confined basins. Commonly, loading by thick sections of clastic material, following thermal relaxation after plate collision or rift phases, advances kerogen maturation. With few exceptions, North American self-sourced reservoirs appear to be associated with calcitic seas and predominantly greenhouse or transitional ("warm" to "cool") global climatic conditions. Significant changes to the global carbon budget may also be a contributing factor in the stratigraphic distribution of continuous resource plays, requiring additional evaluation.

  18. Time Lapse Gravity and Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the West Hastings Field, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. F.; Richards, T.; Klopping, F.; MacQueen, J.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Time lapse or 4D gravity and seismic reflection surveys are being conducted at the West Hastings Field near Houston, Texas to monitor the progress of CO2 injection. This Department of Energy supported CO2 sequestration experiment is conducted in conjunction with a Denbury Onshore, LLC tertiary recovery project. The reservoir is at a depth of 1.8 km in the Oligocene Frio sands and has been produced since the 1930s. Goals are an accounting and mapping of the injected CO2 and to determine if migration occurs along intra-reservoir faults. An integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys will be made together with well logs and engineering data. Gravity monitoring of water versus gas replacement has been very successful, but liquid phase CO2 monitoring is problematic due to the smaller density contrast with respect to oil and water. This reservoir has a small volume to depth ratio and hence only a small gravity difference signal is expected on the surface. New borehole gravity technology introduced by Micro-g-Lacoste can make gravity measurements at near reservoir depths with a much higher signal to noise ratio. This method has been successfully evaluated on a simulation of the Hastings project. Field operations have been conducted for repeated surface and borehole gravity surveys beginning in 2013. The surface survey of 95 stations covers an area of 3 by 5 km and 22 borehole gravity logs are run in the interval above the Frio formation. 4D seismic reflection surveys are being made at 6 month intervals on the surface and in 3 VSP wells. CO2 injection into the targeted portion of the reservoir only began in early 2015 and monitoring will continue into 2017. To date only the baseline reservoir conditions have been assessed. The overall success of the gravity monitoring will not be determined until 2017.

  19. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  20. Ecotoxicological investigation in cooling water reservoirs of NPP and Dnepr cascade water reservoirs by using biotest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation data obtained during 1988-1992 have shown that NPP waste waters effected test-organisms: they induced changes in growth intensity and morphology of Spirodela polyrrhiza and high mortality of spawn and larvae of Salmo gairdneri as well as somatic mutations and mortality in Tradescantia SLC system. It indicates that toxic matters discharge to cooling reservoirs with NPP waste waters. Similar levels of toxicity and genotoxicity were found in Ignalina and Leningrad NPP waste waters, as well as in cooling reservoirs waters. The water of Dnepr cascade reservoirs was more eutrophic, toxic and genotoxic than the water of NPP cooling reservoirs. Water genotoxicity in the Dnepr cascade water reservoirs was equal to that of NPP waste waters. The Kiev reservoir water showed the highest genotoxicity.Bottom sediments of some biotopes of Kiev and Kachovsk water reservoirs were found to be the most genotoxic. The genotoxicity of these bottom sediments was equal to the Ignalina NPP EDS waste water treatment plant sludge, which commonly is utilized as hazardous waste. The use of test-organism system allows to estimate more precisely ecotoxicological situation in water reservoirs - to establish their eutrophic level, to identify radioactive and chemical water and bottom sediments pollution and to reveal synergetic effects of pollutant complex effect. 8 refs., 6 tabs

  1. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  2. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  3. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  4. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-02-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

  5. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  6. Evaluation of Major Dike-Impounded Ground-Water Reservoirs, Island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.; Mink, John Francis

    1985-01-01

    it is an important supply because of the great need for augmenting water supplies there. Total leakage from storage in the Waianae Range has not been estimated because underflow is difficult to determine. Much of the surface leakage, about 4 Mgal/d in the upper parts of Waianae, Makaha, and Lualualei Valleys, has been diverted by tunnels. Hence, supplies available, other than surface leakage, cannot be estimated from the discharge end of the hydrologic cycle. Infiltration in the Waianae Range to dike-intruded reservoirs in the upper part of the valleys on the west (leeward) side has been estimated at about 20 Mgal/d, and on the east (windward) side, at about 10 Mgal/d. The available supply has been estimated at about 15 Mgal/d from the infiltration on the leeward side, of which about 4 Mgal/d is now being developed. No estimate has been made for the available supply on the windward side. Dike-intruded reservoirs at shallow depths west (lee side) of the crest are in upper Makaha, Waianae, and Lualualei Valleys. They are at moderate depths in upper Haleanu and in lower Kaukonahua Gulches on the east (windward) side. Flow hydraulics in dike tunnels is also discussed.

  7. Conjoined twins in West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Mabogunje, O A; Lawrie, J H

    1980-01-01

    12 cases of conjoined twins from West Africa were reported between 1936 and 1978. Eight sets were liveborn and were surgically separated either in local hospitals or abroad. Four were stillborn. Two new cases of stillborn conjoined twins were recently delivered at this hospital. The most common type and the ones most likely to be born alive were the omphalopagi. Surgical separation was successful in 5 cases but the twins separated at Zaria died about a month later. Emergency operations were p...

  8. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  9. A simulation of reservoir induced seismicity at the Tarbela reservoir, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbela dam on the indus river is a unique case for the Himalayan region as a whole in that high quality pre and post-impoundment seismicity data are available. A recently published analysis of 20 km radial zone centered on the reservoir are suppressed when the reservoir levels are high and they reappear again during periods of low water stand in the reservoir. In this rectangular lake. We find that upper crustal faults deduced from published composite fault plane solutions for pre-impoundment earthquakes in the same radial zone could also be the seats of the earthquakes observed during periods of low water level in the reservoir. The importance of this case history for the possibility of reservoir induced seismicity at future sites of high dams in the Himalaya cannot be over emphasized. (author)

  10. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  11. Seismic characterization of a reservoir; Caracterisation sismique d`un reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaffard, V.

    1996-10-24

    The reservoir studied is formed by a magmatic sill and by metamorphosed and fractured beds of limestones and marls. The aim of this study is to better describe the reservoir by using various sources of information: lithological and petrophysical wire line well parameters and seismic attribute information derived from the seismic dataset. Geological analogies were first studied to understand the geological mechanism that created this distinct reservoir geometry. The most important points are the intrusion mechanism and the deformation that the surrounding beds undergo. In the seismic data, we improved the horizons picking supplied by the affiliate (top sill, top upper metamorphosed zone, base sill, base lower metamorphosed zone) and calculated the seismic attributes between these horizons. The attributes calculated of the attributes maps at the reservoir level is useful to understand the intrusion mechanism: the intrusions are composed by distinct flows organised in a radial manner around feeding chimneys. These maps also allow us to better define the reservoir limits within the field. The correlations between reservoir thicknesses and seismic attributes were then studied: the reservoir thicknesses (sill and metamorphosed beds) only show good correlations with the attributes isochrons and isochrons / frequencies. These relationships were described by linear regressions with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.6 to 0.7. No correlation was observed with the amplitudes. The identified relationships were then used to map the reservoir thickness by geostatistical methods. The tuning effect was also studied. Tuning is the interference between successive top and base reflections within a thin bed (thickness less than a quarter of a wavelength). This affects the attribute responses at the reservoir level and may explain the disappointing correlations between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters. The study of the tuning effect on the volcanic sill indicates that

  12. Getting the Most of the Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalva, Victor E.

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses a rigorous, multidisciplinary approach to maximize asset value through improved reservoir understanding and a synergistic combination of teamwork between operators and service companies and best-in-class technology. It outlines a route for implementation and gives two examples of where this is working in practice today. It has always been the dream of oil and gas companies to maximize asset value by optimizing production and recovery. At Schlumberger, the road to reach this goal is called IRO, Integrated Reservoir Optimization. IRO is a next-generation, closed-loop process that will help operators maximize asset value by optimizing the economic performance of oil and gas fields. IRO consists of four interrelated elements: (1) reservoir characterization, (2) development planning, (3) field implementation, and (4) reservoir monitoring and control. It is very important that during each step scientists and engineers from a variety of disciplines are brought together to define reservoir performance and potential. This is a long-term process; much of the technology is available although there are still gaps. The two examples are (1) Lasmo, Dacion, an alliance between Lasmo and Schlumberger for a major project in eastern Venezuela, and (2) Amoco N.W.Hutton field in the North Sea

  13. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  14. Microseismic monitoring: a tool for reservoir characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Characterization of fluid-transport properties of rocks is one of the most important, yet one of most challenging goals of reservoir geophysics. There are some fundamental difficulties related to using active seismic methods for estimating fluid mobility. However, it would be very attractive to have a possibility of exploring hydraulic properties of rocks using seismic methods because of their large penetration range and their high resolution. Microseismic monitoring of borehole fluid injections is exactly the tool to provide us with such a possibility. Stimulation of rocks by fluid injections belong to a standard development practice of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. Production of shale gas and of heavy oil, CO2 sequestrations, enhanced recovery of oil and of geothermal energy are branches that require broad applications of this technology. The fact that fluid injection causes seismicity has been well-established for several decades. Observations and data analyzes show that seismicity is triggered by different processes ranging from linear pore pressure diffusion to non-linear fluid impact onto rocks leading to their hydraulic fracturing and strong changes of their structure and permeability. Understanding and monitoring of fluid-induced seismicity is necessary for hydraulic characterization of reservoirs, for assessments of reservoir stimulation and for controlling related seismic hazard. This presentation provides an overview of several theoretical, numerical, laboratory and field studies of fluid-induced microseismicity, and it gives an introduction into the principles of seismicity-based reservoir characterization.

  15. Improved efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhanced prospects for CO2 flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report, April 17, 1991--May 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    From 1986 to 1996, oil recovery in the US by gas injection increased almost threefold, to 300,000 bbl/day. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection projects make up three-quarters of the 191,139 bbl/day production increase. This document reports experimental and modeling research in three areas that is increasing the number of reservoirs in which CO{sub 2} can profitably enhance oil recovery: (1) foams for selective mobility reduction (SMR) in heterogeneous reservoirs, (2) reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} floods, and (3) low interfacial tension (97) processes and the possibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in naturally fractured reservoirs. CO{sub 2} injection under miscible conditions can effectively displace oil, but due to differences in density and viscosity the mobility of CO{sub 2} is higher than either oil or water. High CO{sub 2} mobility causes injection gas to finger through a reservoir, causing such problems as early gas breakthrough, high gas production rates, excessive injection gas recycling, and bypassing of much of the reservoir oil. These adverse effects are exacerbated by increased reservoir heterogeneity, reaching an extreme in naturally fractured reservoirs. Thus, many highly heterogeneous reservoirs have not been considered for CO{sub 2} injection or have had disappointing recoveries. One example is the heterogeneous Spraberry trend in west Texas, where only 10% of its ten billion barrels of original oil in place (OOIP) are recoverable by conventional methods. CO{sub 2} mobility can be reduced by injecting water (brine) alternated with CO{sub 2} (WAG) and then further reduced by adding foaming agents-surfactants. In Task 1, we studied a unique foam property, selective mobility reduction (SMR), that effectively reduces the effects of reservoir heterogeneity. Selective mobility reduction creates a more uniform displacement by decreasing CO{sub 2} mobility in higher permeability zones more than in lower permeability zones.

  16. A model study of the coupled water quality and hydrodynamics in YuQiao Reservoir of Haihe River Basin, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Liu, J.; Peng, W.; Wang, Y.

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, eutrophication has become one of the most serious of global water pollution problems, especially in reservoirs, which is menacing the security of domestic water supplies. As the unique drinking water source of Tianjin within the Haihe River basin of Hebei Province, China, YuQiao Reservoir has been polluted and its eutrophic state is serious. To make clear the physical and chemical relationship between transport and transformation of the polluted water, a model package was developed to compute the hydrodynamic field and mass transport processes including total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for YuQiao Reservoir. The hydrodynamic model was driven by observed winds and daily measured flow data to simulate the seasonal water cycle of the reservoir. The mass transport and transformation processes of TN and TP was based on the unsteady diffusion equations, driven by observed meteorological forcings and external loadings, with the fluxes through the bottom of the reservoir, plant (algal) photosynthesis, and respiration as internal sources and sinks. The solution of these equations uses the finite volume method and alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme. The model was calibrated and verified by using the data observed from YuQiao Reservoir in two different years. The results showed that in YuQiao Reservoir, the wind-driven current is an important style of lake current, while the water quality is decreasing from east to west because of the external polluted loadings. There was good agreement between the simulated and measured values. Advection is the main process driving the water quality impacts from the inflow river, and diffusion and biochemical processes dominate in center of the reservoir. So it is necessary to build a pre-pond to reduce the external loadings into the reservoir.

  17. Research on isotope techniques for exploitation of geothermal reservoirs in Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional grabens of Western Anatolia of Turkey were formed by neotectonic activities since Miocene. East-west aligned Buyuk Menderes and Afyon Grabens were formed as a result of the doming uplift and mainly north-south tensional forces. The main high enthalpy geothermal fields of Western Anatolia investigated (and their reservoir temperatures) are Denizli-Kizildere (242 deg. C), Aydin-Germencik (232 deg. C). low enthalpy areas are found in Afyon (66-107 deg. C) and Soke (20-42 deg. C) regions. The Kizildere field is situated in the eastern part of the Buyuk Menderes Graben. The power plant with 20 MWe capacity was installed in 1984 by TEAS. Also, a factory started to produce CO2 in 1986 with a capacity of 120.000 ton/year. Besides 20 exploration and production wells, a reinjection well (R1), at a depth of 2261 m. was drilled in 1998 by MTA. The highest reservoir temperature determined for this area is 242 deg. C. The chemical analyses show the water type to be NaHCO3. Germencik geothermal field is located 100 km to the west of Kizildere. The temperatures of the first and second reservoirs are between 203-217 deg. C. The water types are NaCl in well waters but NaCl-NaHCO3 for springs. The geothermal waters are of meteoric origin without significant magmatic inputs. Kizildere and Germencik waters are partially equilibrated and deep reservoir temperatures estimated using different geothermometers are between 240-260 deg. C. Geothermal fluids from deep reservoirs in Kizildere and Germencik fields are slightly acidic with pH values of 5.5-5.9 and 4.9-5.5, respectively. There are clear δ18O shifts from Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line (MMWL) in Kizildere and Germencik fields that are more significant for higher temperature fields. In Soke region low temperature, small isotope shift, shallow circulation and mixing with shallow cold water and seawater are suggested. In Afyon region medium temperature (66-107 deg. C), slight isotope shift, deep and shallow circulation

  18. Operational trade-offs in reservoir control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.

    1993-11-01

    Reservoir operation decisions require constant reevaluation in the face of conflicting objectives, varying hydrologic conditions, and frequent operational policy changes. Optimality is a relative concept very much dependent on the circumstances under which a decision is made. More than anything else, reservoir management authorities need the means to assess the impacts of various operational options. It is their responsibility to define what is desirable after a thorough evaluation of the existing circumstances. This article presents a model designed to generate operational trade-offs common among reservoir systems. The model avoids an all-encompassing problem formulation and distinguishes three operational modes (levels) corresponding to normal, drought, and flood operations. Each level addresses only relevant system elements and uses a static and a dynamic control module to optimize turbine performance within each planning period and temporally. The model is used for planning the operation of the Savannah River System.

  19. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jinchi

    2001-01-01

    Reliable quantitative estimation of bed aggradation or degradation is important for river-training and water management projects. With the development of water resources, sediment problems associated with a dam are becoming more severe. This paper describes some special problems in mathematical model for calculation of degradation and aggradation in a reservoir. The main efforts of this study are on the treatment of some physical processes of fine sediment transport (<0.05 mm). Problems in a reservoir are obviously different from a natural stream, such as the turbid current flow, orifice sediment flushing;and the initiation and consolidation of cohesive sediment deposition. The case of Liujiaxia Reservoir,which is located in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, is employed to verify the model. The results show that the model is applicable in the evaluation of an engineering planing with plenty of fine sediment movement.

  20. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand...... variability that can also be expected for the past. Water DIC from different seasons, and from the same season in different years, has been dated because it is the carbon source in photosynthesis and thus at the basis of the rivers’ food webs. The radiocarbon ages of underwater plants and different parts...... years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites...

  1. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  2. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  3. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  4. An approach to optimize economics in a west Texas CO2 flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EOR projects, notably CO2 floods, are the next generation of recovery methods in the more mature west Texas waterfloods. Installing and operating a CO2 flood can be extremely expensive. In this paper, the authors discuss methods used to make several active CO2 floods more profitable by reducing operating costs and deferring investments. The authors' goal in studying several active west Texas CO2 floods is to determine the optimum near-term cash flow, overall project economics (rate of return, present worth, etc.), and oil recoveries. The authors developed various CO2 flood designs with a reservoir simulator by altering specific operating parameters, including the half-cycle slug size, gas/water ratio (GWR), injection schemes, and total CO2 slug sizes. The authors also assessed the impact of various economic conditions --- oil prices, CO2 prices, gas processing fees, and operating costs --- on the optimization process

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  6. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of sediments in water reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Hoven, Lisa Emilie

    2010-01-01

    Many places in the world the rivers transport a lot of sediments. When these sediments enter slow flowing areas like a water reservoir, the sediments are deposited. This leads to a reduction in the volume of the reservoir. The object of this project is to do three-dimensional numerical modelling of sediments in a water reservoir in using the SSIIM model. The chosen reservoir is the Angostura reservoir in Costa Rica. This reservoir has significant sediment problems and is flushed two times per...

  7. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  8. Simulation error models for improved reservoir prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful reservoir prediction requires an accurate estimation of parameters to be used in the reservoir model. This research focuses on developing models for simulation error within the petroleum industry, enabling accurate parameter estimation. The standard approach in the oil industry to parameter estimation in a Bayesian framework includes inappropriate assumptions about the error data. This leads to the parameter estimations being biased and overconfident. An error model is designed to significantly reduce the bias effect and to estimate an accurate range of spread. A 2D viscous fingering example problem will be used to demonstrate both construction of the error model, and the benefits gained in doing so

  9. Aspects of tensor permeability in reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.F.

    2002-04-01

    A number of simulation grids relevant to reservoir engineering practice are studied. The impact of neglecting correct local flux and pressure continuity at the grid cell interfaces is assessed. It is shown that the correct local interface conditions with increased discretisation support lead to improved solutions on non-orthogonal grids with the generation of a full permeability tensor. A full tensor permeability arises even when the permeability is non-isotropic on orthogonal grids. The approach described efficiently includes the permeability tensor contributions from the geometric grid structure, but also implies the importance of modelling the full permeability tensor pressure equation in the reservoir simulation up-scaling process. (orig.)

  10. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der;

    Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs in...... Quaternary glaciated areas and their nature and sediment composition is critical to drive a sustainable production strategy and assess their vulnerability. Seismic resolution however, often limits the understanding of channel valleys morphology, 3D geometry and internal reservoir distribution, thus...... tunnel valley genesis, sedimentary process and internal architecture. This learning can be used ultimately to improve our predictive capability when exploring and developing natural resources from these geological systems....

  11. [Ecosystem service valuation of Ertan Reservoir watershed in mitigating reservoir sand sedimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Gao, Ji-xi; Sudebilige; Ennaanay, Driss; Mendoza, Guillermo F; Luo, Zun-lan; Li, Dai-qing; Tian, Mei-rong

    2009-09-01

    By using software ArcGIS 9.2, an evaluation model was established to simulate the ecosystem service of Ertan Reservoir watershed in mitigating the sand sedimentation in the reservoir. In the meantime, sediment delivery ratio and universal soil loss equation were used to simulate the spatial patterns of the annual sediment yield and sediment retention in the watershed as well as the value during the service life period. In 2000, the total quantity of soil retention in the watershed was 12. 1 x 10(8) t x a(-1). The region with higher soil retention was near the main and branch streams of Yalong River, and that with higher sediment delivery ratio was near the streams and the Ertan Reservoir. The region with higher sediment yield and sediment retention was around the reservoir. The actual sediment yield in the study area was 629.3 x 10(4) t x a(-1), occupying 12.7% of the actual soil erosion volume. Farmland was the most important source of sediment yield, with its sediment yield occupying 62.9% of the total. The contribution of forestland to the mitigation of reservoir sand sedimentation was higher than that of the other lands on a per unit area basis. For the reservoir's designed operating life (100 a), the total value of the watershed in the service of mitigating Ertan Reservoir sand sedimentation was 2.75 billion yuan. PMID:20030147

  12. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Dominik; Frolking, Steve; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2013-09-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply and demand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can be significantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment of reservoir storage loss in conjunction with vulnerability to storage loss has not been done. We estimated the loss in reservoir capacity for a global data set of large reservoirs from 1901 to 2010, using modeled sediment flux data. We use spatially explicit population data sets as a proxy for storage demand and calculate storage capacity for all river basins globally. Simulations suggest that the net reservoir capacity is declining as a result of sedimentation (˜5% compared to the installed capacity). Combined with increasing need for storage, these losses challenge the sustainable management of reservoir operation and water resources management in many regions. River basins that are most vulnerable include those with a strong seasonal flow pattern and high population growth rates such as the major river basins in India and China. Decreasing storage capacity globally suggests that the role of reservoir water storage in offsetting sea-level rise is likely weakening and may be changing sign.

  13. Limnological succession in reservoirs : a paleolimnological comparison of two methods of reservoir formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in algal and invertebrate communities resulting from the formation and operation of two water reservoirs in Saskatchewan were studied. Lake Diefenbaker was created in 1967 by flooding a river valley, whereas Buffalo Pound Lake was formed in 1952 by impounding the outflow of a shallow lake. Both lakes were studied using a multiple-indicator paleolimnological approach. Algal community composition is similar between the two reservoirs and biomass is distributed evenly among green algae, diatoms, chrysophyte, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes and cyanobacteria. Crustacean zooplankton are also similar between the two reservoirs. Sediment core was retrieved from both reservoirs and analyzed. It was shown that differences in reservoir formation and hydrological regime resulted in distinct patterns of aquatic community change even though the local geology, vegetation, soils, land use and climate were similar. Comparison of paleoecological records from both lakes have made it possible to compare the mechanisms that regulate community ontogeny and production following formation of reservoirs by novo flooding and lake inundation. It was determined that reservoir ontogeny does not inevitably lead to eutrophication. Fossil records have shown that oligotrophication can result from increased lake level stability, reduced erosion and complex ecological interactions among phytoplankton, grazers, and macrophyte populations. 49 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  15. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  16. Reservoir-forming age and its exploration significance to stratigraphic reservoirs in southern Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Despite many studies concerning the forming age, evolution characteristics and the age of petroleum charging in the Fuxin upheaval of southern Songliao Basin, no consensus has been reached so far. This paper presents the first K-Ar dating of autogenetic illite from stratigraphic petroleum reservoirs in the Fuyu oil layer of the Fuxin upheaval belt. Isotopic test and age calculation were carried out based on the separation and purification of illite mineral, X-diffraction analysis and the detection of scanning electron microscopy. The evolution characteristics of structure, sedimentation, reservoir-forming about the Fuxin upheaval belt were interpreted in terms of the synthetical analysis of "six-type geological history" evolution in southern Songliao Basin. The geologic background of petroleum evolution and reservoir formation are similar in the entire central depression region of southern Songliao Basin. The Changling sag and the Fuxin upheaval belt brought about obvious upheaval-sag separation after the hydrocarbon-generation peak of K2qn1 and the main reservoir-forming period of the Fuyu oil layer, namely reservoir-forming happened before the Fuxin upheaval belt extensively raised. The reservoirs have three characteristics: the hydrocarbon source rock above the reservoir, the oil source in the locality, and the vertical migration. The geological cognition is corrected, that is, oil source came from the Changling sag and migrated from the side direction. The bulk process of petroleum charging in the stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fuxin upheaval belt of southern Songliao Basin is determined according to the isotopic age of autogenetic illite in combination with the method of fluid inclusions. The cognition is helpful to exactly evaluate the resource potential and exploration direction in the Fuxin upheaval belt, Changling sag and their peripheral areas. The present results indicate that the combination of the two methods (the K-Ar dating of

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  18. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  19. Comments on Ode to the West Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 张冬妮

    2013-01-01

      Ode to the West Wind, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley, is considered as a masterpiece in the English literature, even in the whole culture. There is no denying that Ode to the West Wind is not simply to sing of the west wind, while there are many thoughts that Shel ey wants to express. This paper has comments on it from three aspects — the revolution, the new ideas and the writer himself.

  20. Mercury exposure through fish consumption in riparian populations at reservoir Guri, using nuclear techniques, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reservoir Guri located at the south of Venezuela in Bolivar State arose from damming the Caroni river and its main tributary, the Paraguay river. It was built between the years 1963 and 1986. The reservoir, whose primary use is the electric power generation followed by others beneficial uses such as water supply and recreation, was opened to commercial fishing recently. The riparian population is about 8,030 inhabitants: 7,389 toward the left side (west) and 641 toward the right side (cast) and it is distributed in populated centers, villages and in dispersed areas. The young population is the most conspicuous: 46 % and 52% on the right and left sides, respectively, with predominance of the masculine sex (86%). The reservoir Guri, the same as some reservoirs from other countries has shown what has been called 'dam effect', a term used to designate the occurrence of bioaccumulation process in reservoirs due to the high mercury levels found mainly in piscivorous fish species which are the most preferred by fish consumers. In a sample of 42 specimens of the carnivorous trophic level, the average value of total mercury was 1. 90 ppm, with a maximum value of 6.04 ppm. For the detritivorous trophic level, in a sample of 17 specimens, the average value of total mercury was 0.27 ppm, with a maximum value of 0.69 ppm, while for the omnivorous trophic level, in a sample of 6 specimens, the average value of total mercury was 0.55 ppm, with a maximum value of 0.99 ppm. The source of mercury in fishes from reservoir Guri has not been determined; however, in some sectors of the flooded area activities were carried out of exploitation of aluvional gold using metallic mercury for gold recovery and burning the amalgam at open ceiling. The objective of this research project is to determine the relationship among the ingestion of fish coming from reservoir Guri, the levels of organic mercury in hair and the appearance of signs and symptoms of neurotoxicity in a sample

  1. Radioecological problems of NPP reservoirs-coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecological problems of NPP reservoir-coolers are considered in connection with thermal effluents and partly radiactive wastes. It is shown that one of real means to reduce undesirable ecological consequences of surplus heat release into the medium is the usage of NPP heated waters in energy-biological and agro-industrial complexes. In case of NPP operation the normalized environmental disposal of a number of radionuclides is specified. In this connection the necessity is pointed out to establish a list of the most dangerous radionuclides to be discharged into water medium by various NPP types, to study their behaviour in main water reservoir components; to determine coefficients of radionuclides accumulation in organisms related to human food chain. Actual is the problem of biological effects which can arise in hydrocenoses of reservoir-coolers as a result of long-term or chronic action of NPP radioactive waste disposal. A wide program of ecological investigations is laid down related to the problem of using NPP water thermal effluents and radioecology of reservoirs-coolers, the realization of the program being initiated in the vicinity of the Beloyarsk NPP

  2. NMPC for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve this...

  3. Tight gas reservoirs: A visual depiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Future gas supplies in the US will depend on an increasing contribution from unconventional sources such as overpressured and tight gas reservoirs. Exploitation of these resources and their conversion to economically producible gas reserves represents a major challenge. Meeting this challenge will require not only the continuing development and application of new technologies, but also a detailed understanding of the complex nature of the reservoirs themselves. This report seeks to promote understanding of these reservoirs by providing examples. Examples of gas productive overpressured tight reservoirs in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming are presented. These examples show log data (raw and interpreted), well completion and stimulation information, and production decline curves. A sampling of wells from the Lewis and Mesaverde formations are included. Both poor and good wells have been chosen to illustrate the range of productivity that is observed. The second section of this document displays decline curves and completion details for 30 of the best wells in the Greater Green River Basin. These are included to illustrate the potential that is present when wells are fortuitously located with respect to local stratigraphy and natural fracturing, and are successfully hydraulically fractured.

  4. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The h

  5. Rapidly Exploring Subtle Oil and Gas Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Shiyu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by Shandong Petroleum Engineering Society,the second Symposium on Subtle Oil and Gas Reservoir Exploration was held in Qingdao City, Shandong Province during October 21~25, 1996. Shengli Petroleum Administration Bureau and Shell Oil Development Corporation(China) have given support to the symposium.

  6. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  7. 4D gravity - fluids monitoring in reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Doha : IPTC, 2009, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-1-55563-272-4. [International Petroleum Technology Conference /4./. Doha (QA), 07.12.2009-09.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : fluids monitoring * hydrocarbon fields * Arabian-type reservoir Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  8. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  9. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  10. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  11. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  12. Do cyanobacterial picoplankton exist in eutrophic reservoirs?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárková, Jaroslava

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2002), s. 497-500. ISSN 0368-0770 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6017004; GA AV ČR IAA6017803; GA AV ČR KSK2005601 Keywords : reservoir * colonial picocynobacteria Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  13. Exponential rate of convergence in current reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    De Masi, Anna; Presutti, Errico; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Vares, Maria Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a family of interacting particle systems on $[-N,N]$ that arises as a natural model for current reservoirs and Fick’s law. We study the exponential rate of convergence to the stationary measure, which we prove to be of the order $N^{-2}$.

  14. Permeability profiles -- key to reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, D.; Kasap, E.; Tang, X.; Cheng, A.

    1998-06-01

    Three-dimensional seismic data being collected routinely today offer those responsible for reservoir management a detailed picture of the configuration of the subsurface. Often, the porosity of reservoir rocks can also be deduced. However, knowing porosity exists, i.e., that there is pore space and vugs for the storage of hydrocarbons, is important but valueless if hydrocarbons cannot be made to flow into wells. Permeability is the quantity that measures flow capability. Having a permeability profile is the key to reservoir management. Accurate values can be obtained from cores taken during drilling; however, cutting cores is expensive and cores taken to the surface may be damaged or not representative of the reservoir rock of interest. Rotary coring can provide limited permeability data but, generally, insufficient data are available to develop a permeability profile. Here, the authors are concerned with measuring permeability with instruments placed in a well or used for logging a well. They shall discuss permeability-measuring methods available from Western Atlas Logging Services (WALS). Together, they make it possible to obtain continuous permeability in any well without coring or extensive well testing.

  15. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the GD 2 locality of the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave deposits, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R; Adams, Justin W; Kuykendall, Kevin L; Shaw, John

    2006-12-01

    Speleological, paleomagnetic, mineral magnetic, and biochronological analyses have been undertaken at the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave, North West Province, South Africa. Two fossiliferous but stratigraphically separate sequences, GD2 and GD1/3, which were once part of a large cavern system, have been identified. Although some comparative paleomagnetic samples were taken from the GD 1, 3, and 4 localities that are currently under investigation, the research presented here focuses on the fossil-rich, in situ deposits at locality GD 2, excavated by E.S. Vrba in 1979. The GD 2 deposits are dominated by normal-polarity calcified clastic deposits that are sandwiched between clastic-free flowstone speleothems. The lower flowstone has a sharp contact with the red siltstone deposits and is of reversed polarity. The capping flowstone shows a change from normal to reversed polarity, thereby preserving a polarity reversal. While the paleomagnetic work indicates that the GD 2 fossil material was deposited during a normal-polarity period, the shortness of the sequence made matching of the magnetostratigraphy to the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) impossible without the aid of biochronology. While lacking multiple time-sensitive taxa, the recovery of specimens attributable to Stage III Metridiochoerus andrewsi is consistent with a deposition date between 1.9 and 1.5 Ma. A comparison of the magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS therefore suggests that the fauna-bearing siltstone of GD 2 date to the Olduvai normal-polarity event, which occurred between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, and that the reversal from normal to reversed polarity identified in the capping flowstone dates to 1.78 Ma. The main faunal layers therefore date to slightly older than 1.78 Ma. Deposits from the GD 1 locality are dominated by reversed directions of magnetization, which show that this deposit is not of the same age as the faunal layers from the GD 2 locality. PMID:16949648

  16. Quantitative Prediction of Structural Fractures in Low Permeability Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Lianbo; Tian Chonglu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Low -permeability fractured reservoirs will become increasingly prominent along with the enhanced exploration extent and the emerging moderate-high water content in most of the moderate-high permeability reservoirs of the oil fields in eastern China.

  17. 2007 Hydrologic and Sedimentation Survey of Altus Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — Reclamation surveyed Altus Reservoir in November 2006, June 2007, and February 2008 to develop updated reservoir topography and compute the present...

  18. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights...... from Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa.
...

  19. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO(sub 2) Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO(sub 2) flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO(sub 2) gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. The four areas have been completed and reported in the previous annual reports. This report provides the results of the final year of the project including two SPE papers (SPE 71605 and SPE 71635) presented in the 2001 SPE Annual Meeting in New Orleans, two simulation works, analysis of logging observation wells (LOW) and progress of CO(sub 2) injection

  20. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Tracy; Schechter, David S.

    2000-04-11

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO{sub 2}.

  1. Sedimentation and basin-fill history of the Neogene clastic succession exposed in the southeastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh: a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royhan Gani, M.; Mustafa Alam, M.

    2003-02-01

    The Tertiary basin-fill history of the Bengal Basin suffers from oversimplification. The interpretation of the sedimentary history of the basin should be consistent with the evolution of its three geo-tectonic provinces, namely, western, northeastern and eastern. Each province has its own basin generation and sediment-fill history related mainly to the Indo-Burmese and subordinately to the Indo-Tibetan plate convergence. This paper is mainly concerned with facies and facies sequence analysis of the Neogene clastic succession within the subduction-related active margin setting (oblique convergence) in the southeastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin. Detailed fieldwork was carried out in the Sitapahar anticline of the Rangamati area and the Mirinja anticline of the Lama area. The study shows that the exposed Neogene succession represents an overall basinward progradation from deep marine through shallow marine to continental-fluvial environments. Based on regionally correlatable erosion surfaces the entire succession (3000+ m thick) has been grouped into three composite sequences C, B and A, from oldest to youngest. Composite sequence C begins with deep-water base-of-slope clastics overlain by thick slope mud that passes upward into shallow marine and nearshore clastics. Composite sequence B characteristically depicts tide-dominated open-marine to coastal depositional systems with evidence of cyclic marine regression and transgression. Repetitive occurrence of incised channel, tidal inlet, tidal ridge/shoal, tidal flat and other tidal deposits is separated by shelfal mudstone. Most of the sandbodies contain a full spectrum of tide-generated structures (e.g. herringbone cross-bedding, bundle structure, mud couplet, bipolar cross-lamination with reactivation surfaces, 'tidal' bedding). Storm activities appear to have played a subordinate role in the mid and inner shelf region. Rizocorallium, Rosselia, Planolites and Zoophycos are the dominant ichnofacies within the

  2. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  3. Upscaling in vertically fractured oil reservoirs using homogenization

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, H.; Bruining, H.

    2009-01-01

    Flow modeling in fractured reservoirs is largely confined to the so-called sugar cube model. Here, however, we consider vertically fractured reservoirs, i.e., the situation that the reservoir geometry can be approximated by fractures enclosed columns running from the base rock to the cap rock (aggregated columns). This article deals with the application of the homogenization method to derive an upscaled equation for fractured reservoirs with aggregated columns. It turns out that vertical flow...

  4. Conflicts between the reservoir water demand and climate changed inflow

    OpenAIRE

    Halmova, Dana

    2004-01-01

    Climate changes expected in future would influence the inflow into a multipurpose reservoir. Will be a reservoir able to supply a real demand for water during those climate conditions? This ability was calculated by rainfall-runoff balance model WBMOD that works with a monthly time step. The input data series of precipitation and air temperature and the observed reservoir outflows were used to express the expected changes of the total runoff and the required reservoir capacity. Input data wer...

  5. Suitable Conditions of Reservoir Simulation for Searching Rule Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Anongrit Kangrang; Chavalit Chaleeraktrakoon

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a suitable length of inflow record using in the simulation model. The second objective is to find an effect of initial reservoir capacity of reservoir simulation for searching the optimal rule curves. The reservoir simulation model was connected with genetic algorithms to search the optimal rule curves quickly. The model has been applied to determine the optimal rule curves of the Bhumibol and Sirikit Reservoirs (the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailan...

  6. Reservoir management under consideration of stratification and hydraulic phenomena.

    OpenAIRE

    Nandalal, K.D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Reservoirs are the most important components in a water resources system. They are used to store water to extend its temporal availability. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water change when impounded in reservoirs. This implies the possibility of using reservoirs for the control of the quality of water besides merely satisfying the quantity requirement. This study presents several techniques formulated to manage a reservoir when both quantity and quality of water are ...

  7. Use of Ensemble Kalman Filter for Bounded Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Darwis, S; A. Y. Gunawan; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Sunusi, Nurtiti; Mutaqin, K.; Fitriyati, Nina

    2010-01-01

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) has been used for history matching of the reservoir models. The methodology can be used to estimate the correlation between reservoir properties (permeability, porosity) and reservoir response (pressure, flow rate). Recent studies show that the methodology is promising, however the methodology is novel to reservoir simulation, and further research of the filter is needed for practicing community. The main scope of this paper is to explore the applicability of...

  8. First assessment of the ecological status of Karaoun reservoir, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many reservoirs have been constructed throughout the world during the 20th century, with many also suffering from eutrophication. The resulting increased phytoplankton biomass in reservoirs impairs their use. Except for Lake Kinneret, the environmental status of lakes and reservoirs in the Middle East is poorly documented. Karaoun reservoir, also known as Qaroun, Qaraoun or Qarun, is the largest water body in Lebanon, having been constructed for irrigation and hydropower production. This present study reviews Karaoun reservoir, including its characteristics, uses, water quality and phytoplankton succession, to assess the environmental status of the reservoir on the basis of the few existing previous publications about the reservoir. Since 2004, which is 39 years after its construction, the reservoir is considered to be hypereutrophic, with low phytoplankton biodiversity and regular blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The nutrient and trace metal concentrations would not prevent use of the reservoir for a drinking water supply for Beirut, as is currently being planned, although not all the micropollutants in the lake were documented. Karaoun reservoir is compared to other monitored lakes and reservoirs around the Mediterranean Sea. They share annual toxic cyanobacteria blooms of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and of Microcystis aeruginosa. The phytoplankton composition and succession of Karaoun reservoir is more similar to El Gergal reservoir (Spain) than nearby natural lakes such as Lake Kinneret (Israel) and Lake Trichonis (Greece). Phytoplankton diversity in Karaoun reservoir was the lowest, due to higher nutrient concentrations and a larger decrease in water level in the dry season. Karaoun reservoir represents an interesting example of the potential response of the phytoplankton community in other lakes and reservoirs during the drought periods expected to occur as a result of global climate change. (author)

  9. Diagenesis and porosity evolution of tight sand reservoirs in Carboniferous Benxi Formation, Southeast Ordos Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Yu, Xinghe; Shan, Xin; Su, Dongxu; Wang, Jiao; Li, Yalong; Shi, Xin; Xu, Liqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Ordos Basin, situated in west-central China, is one of the oldest and most important fossil-fuel energy base, which contains large reserves of coal, oil and natural gas. The Upper Palaeozoic strata are widely distributed with rich gas-bearing and large natural gas resources, whose potential is tremendous. Recent years have witnessed a great tight gas exploration improvement of the Upper Paleozoic in Southeastern Ordos basin. The Carboniferous Benxi Formation, mainly buried more than 2,500m, is the key target strata for hydrocarbon exploration, which was deposited in a barrier island and tidal flat environment. The sandy bars and flats are the favorable sedimentary microfacies. With an integrated approach of thin-section petrophysics, constant velocity mercury injection test, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry, diagenesis and porosity evolution of tight sand reservoirs of Benxi Formation were analyzed in detail. The result shows that the main lithology of sandstone in this area is dominated by moderately to well sorted quartz sandstone. The average porosity and permeability is 4.72% and 1.22mD. The reservoirs of Benxi Formation holds a variety of pore types and the pore throats, with obvious heterogeneity and poor connection. Based on the capillary pressure curve morphological characteristics and parameters, combined with thin section and phycical property data, the reservoir pore structure of Benxi Formation can be divided into 4 types, including mid pore mid throat type(I), mid pore fine throat type(II), small pore fine throat type(III) and micro pro micro throat type(Ⅳ). The reservoirs primarily fall in B-subsate of middle diagenesis and late diagenesis, which mainly undergo compaction, cmentation, dissolution and fracturing process. Employing the empirical formula of different sorting for unconsolideated sandstone porosity, the initial sandstone porosity is 38.32% on average. Quantitative evaluation of the increase and decrease of

  10. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  11. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2002-10-08

    During this reporting period, research was continued on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. This report proposed a model to relate the seismic response to production data to determine crack spacing and aperture, provided details of tests of proposed models to obtain fracture properties from conventional well logs with actual field data, and verification of the naturally fractured reservoir simulator developed in this project.

  12. 柯坪露头区早志留世三角洲及碎屑海岸沉积%A study of Early Silurian deltas and clastic coastal sediments from outcrops in Keping area, Tarim basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢凤存; 李祯; 李思田

    2011-01-01

    The outcrops of Keping area in Tarim basin.where the lower Silurian depositional sequence is continuous and perfectly exposed, constitute a preferable study area for marine clastic deposition. However, depositional system types of the lower Silurian sediments deserve further discussion. Based on detailed outcrop observation and laboratory tests, the authors analyzed the lower Silurian depositional system types and their characteristics in Keping area. As a result, deltas and clastic coast systems composed of tidal flat and offshore were detected, and river-dominated deltas and tide-influenced deltas were recognized from the Lower Silurian strata in Keping area. Large scale river-dominated delta systems are developed in Kepingtage Formation, whereas tide - influenced delta systems and tidal flat systems are developed in Tataertage Formation. On such a basis, the depositional characteristics and differences of various depositional systems are studied and compared with each other.%塔里木盆地阿克苏市柯坪露头区下志留统地层出露连续、完整,是较好的海相碎屑岩沉积露头研究区,其沉积体系类型有待进一步探讨.笔者通过多次精细的露头沉积学观察及室内研究,对柯坪露头区下志留统海相碎屑岩沉积体系类型及其特征进行了分析研究.识别出三角洲及碎屑海岸沉积(潮坪),并在该区提出了河流作用为主的三角洲和潮汐影响三角洲两种三角洲类型.柯坪塔格组主要为河流作用为主的三角洲沉积,而塔塔埃尔塔格组则主要发育潮汐影响三角洲及潮坪沉积.探讨和对比了各类型沉积体系的沉积特征及其之间的差异性.

  13. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The event... areas: A race area, where all persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels participating in...

  14. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed approval of the revised regulation, 45 CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards, submitted by West Virginia...

  15. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  16. Influence of reservoir parameters and steam rate on SAGD process in a reservoir with gas cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillas, J.L.M.; Dutra, T.V.Jr. [Rio Grande do Norte Federal Univ., Natal (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Mata, W. [Rio Grande do Norte Federal Univ., Natal (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The process of steam injection in heavy oil reservoirs involves heating the reservoir to reduce oil viscosity and increase oil-phase mobility. Steam assisted gravity drainage is one of the most promising thermal recovery methods that has been used in countries such as Canada, the United States and Venezuela, but not in Brazil. This study verified if the process could be applied in Brazilian reservoirs. In particular, a reservoir with northeast Brazilian characteristics was studied in a homogeneous model with a gas cap. The STARS software from CMG was used for all cases. The steam requirement was optimized based on an economical study in which a simplified calculation for net present value (NPV) was obtained. The calculation depended on factors such as cumulative oil, steam injected volume, steam/oil cost ratio, net production cost and, oil price and internal return rate. This function made it possible to perform a steam optimization for different systems with maximal NPV. It was determined that optimal steam rate depends on reservoir characteristics. The thickness of the gas cap was found to have little influence on oil recovery. It was concluded that the optimal steam injection rate can be determined for maximal NPV depending on the physical characteristics of the reservoir. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Fractured unconventional reservoirs in the Crystalline Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Since the late 1960-es, the crystalline basement of Tatarstan has been in the focus of intense geological and geophysical surveys. Since 1975, within the framework of the Subsoil Survey Program of Tatarstan, two extra deep wells have been drilled in the Republic, including: 20000-Minnibaevskaya well (bottomhole depth - 5,099 m, meters drilled in the basement - 3,215 m) and 20009-Novoelkhovskaya well (bottomhole depth - 5,881 m, meters drilled in the basement - 4,077 m), as well as 24 wells penetrating the basement at depth from 100 to 2,432 m. Reservoir properties of the crystalline basement rocks can be evaluated based on the resulting volumes of produced liquid, which vary from 0.027 to 125 m3/day. The highest flow rate was registered for well № 20000 Minnibaevskaya. Therefore, there are high-capacity reservoir zones in the crystalline basement of the eastern margin of the Russian Platform. The statement saying that natural reservoirs with significant sizes and fluid storage capacities occur everywhere within the Precambrian crystalline massive on the territory of Tatarstan can be justified by the following provisions: - deconsolidation and fracturing zones of the crystalline basement are registered by a full set of geological and geophysical methods applied in the process of geophysical well surveys and in the process of surface geophysical studies; - there is a certain regular pattern of crystalline basement zone distribution by area and by profile. Wide-spaced drilling into the crystalline basement helped to identify numerous zones of deconsolidation and fracturing with different fluid storage capacity and different extent of fluid saturation. Thickness of the crystalline basement reservoir zones varies from several meters to dozens of meters. Such zones were identified close to the crystalline basement top, As well as at depths more than 5 km. Well log survey was the key method used for reservoir differentiation in the crystalline basement. In total, 16

  18. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    The Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 14, 1977, with 104 attendees from six nations. In keeping with the recommendations expressed by the participants at the Second Workshop, the format of the Workshop was retained, with three days of technical sessions devoted to reservoir physics, well and reservoir testing, field development, and mathematical modeling of geothermal reservoirs. The program presented 33 technical papers, summaries of which are included in these Proceedings. Although the format of the Workshop has remained constant, it is clear from a perusal of the Table of Contents that considerable advances have occurred in all phases of geothermal reservoir engineering over the past three years. Greater understanding of reservoir physics and mathematical representations of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated reservoirs are evident; new techniques for their analysis are being developed, and significant field data from a number of newer reservoirs are analyzed. The objectives of these workshops have been to bring together researchers active in the various physical and mathematical disciplines comprising the field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give the participants a forum for review of progress and exchange of new ideas in this rapidly developing field, and to summarize the effective state of the art of geothermal reservoir engineering in a form readily useful to the many government and private agencies involved in the development of geothermal energy. To these objectives, the Third Workshop and these Proceedings have been successfully directed. Several important events in this field have occurred since the Second Workshop in December 1976. The first among these was the incorporation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) into the newly formed Department of Energy (DOE) which continues as the leading Federal agency in geothermal reservoir engineering research. The Third

  19. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  20. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical