WorldWideScience

Sample records for clastic reservoirs west

  1. Clastic reservoir porosity mapping using seismic data and geostatistics: Callovian unit, West Lulu field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejbaek, O.V.

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this report was to demonstrate possible uses of seismic impedances as soft data for reservoir characterization. To illustrate the impact of the results and attempt to calculate oil in place was also carried out. It must, however, be emphasized that these results only apply to the Callovian portion of the Middle Jurassic West Lulu reservoir, and thus do not provide estimates of the entire Middle Jurassic West Lulu accumulation. It is important to realise that stochastic simulations does not provide exact predictions in areas outside the control of hard data. It is, however, offering possibilities to exploit every known or surmised property about the desired (target) data population. These properties include f.ex., mean, spread, spatial continuity (measured by variograms), horixontal and vertical trends, correlation to supporting soft data (e.g. seismic impedances) etc. Neither are predictions exact even through the term `narrowed solution space` is applied. This term merely implies that the error in prediction at any point may be less than the full range of the parameter. The quality of the predictions mainly depend on meticulous handling of data, avoiding errors like bad stratigraphic alignment of the data, obtaining good variograms, avoiding errors in the construction of the target populations and including every pertinent attribute about the data. The result is thus also depending on a full geological understanding of the problem (and moral of the modeller). The most important quality is the ability to provide a great number of equi-probable realisation that equally well satisfies any known or surmised property about the target data population. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of inversion derived seismic impedances for geostatistical reservoir characterisation in a complex clastic reservoir exemplified with the West Lulu reservoir of the Harald Field. The well database is rather modest, so substantial support has been gained from the

  2. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  3. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  4. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  6. Classification and Denomination of Flow Units for Clastic Reservoirs of Continental Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xue-jun; TANG Yue-gang; HAO Jian-ming; ZHANG Kai; ZHENG Jia-peng

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of other researchers' achievements and the authors' understanding of flow units, a proposal on classification and denomination of flow units for clastic reservoirs of continental deposit is put forward according to the practical need of oilfield development and relevant theories. The specific implications of development and geology are given to each type of flow units, which has provided a scientific basis for oil development.

  7. Elastic and Electrical Properties Evaluation of Low Resistivity Pays in Malay Basin Clastics Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Ghosh, Deva P.; Hermana, Maman

    2016-07-01

    The elastic and electrical properties of low resistivity pays clastics reservoirs in Malay Basin are strongly dependent on the complex nature of the clay content, either dispersed or laminated/layered. Estimating the hydrocarbon pore volume from conventional electrical log, i.e. resistivity log, is quite a challenge. The low elastic impedance contrast also found as one of the challenge thus create a problem to map the distribution of the low resistivity reservoirs. In this paper, we evaluate the electrical properties and elastic rock properties to discriminate the pay from the adjacent cap rock or shale. Forward modeling of well log responses including electrical properties are applied to analyze the nature of the possible pays on laminated reservoir rocks. In the implementation of rock properties analysis, several conventional elastic properties are comparatively analyzed for the sensitivity and feasibility analysis on each elastic parameters. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each elastic parameters in detail. In addition, cross-plots of elastic and electrical properties attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional elastic parameter crossplots attributes. The possible relationship on electrical and elastic properties are discussed for further studies.

  8. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  9. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  10. 3D multicomponent seismic characterization of a clastic reservoir in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Espejo, Antonio Jose

    The main goal of this research is to characterize the combined structural-stratigraphic trap of the Tenerife Field in the Middle Magdalena Valley Basin (MMVB), Colombia. For the first time in Colombia the structural and quantitative interpretation of modern three-dimensional multicomponent (3D-3C) seismic imaging enables a geometric description, a kinematic interpretation of the structural styles, and the facies distribution of the reservoir. A seismic petrophysics work-flow to better achieve the seismic well-tie. Edited and check-shot calibrated P-wave sonic logs were obtained and coefficients of the Gardner and Castagna equations were calibrated to match the density and shear-wave velocity depth trends for the basin. Seismic modeling was performed to evaluate the PP and PS seismic response of the reservoir interval (Mugrosa Formation). The structural interpretation methodology involves a 3D fault-correlation and horizon picking for both PP- and PS-PSTM data volumes. Geometric attributes such as coherence and curvature were used to enhance the structural discontinuities. The main unconformity of the Middle Eocene (MEU) was interpreted, and an attribute-assisted interpretation of the reservoir was conducted in detail. While P-wave data provided most of the structural interpretation, converted-wave data provide a better understanding of the faults. Traditionally, compressive thrust-propagation folds and tectonic inversion have been considered as the main mechanisms controlling the deformation in the MMVB. However, the new interpretation shown in this work provides a different structural concept that involves two major structural styles: 1. Under the MEU the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene deformation, dominated by east-verging thrust and partially inverted Mesozoic normal faults, is preserved. Associated folds exhibit a north-south strike, and their structural development is controlled by a long-lived structural element that dominates the area (the Infantas

  11. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An

  12. Structural style and reservoir development in the west Netherlands oil province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racero-Baena, A. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Drake, S. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Schiedam (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    The area of the Rijswijk concession largely coincides with the onshore extent of the west Netherlands basin. To date, oil has been produced from a total of 15 fields within the Rijswijk concession, which have a total STOIIP of about 210 x 10[sup 6]m[sup 3] (1.3 x 10[sup 9] bbl). Reservoirs generally comprise continental and shallow marine clastics of the Upper Jurassic of Lower Cretaceous deposited in synrift and postrift settings. The west netherlands basin was created during a phase of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rifting, characterized by divergent oblique-slip faulting. This resulted in a northwest-southeast-trending block-faulted depression between the London-Brabant Massif to the south, and the Zandvoort Ridge to the north. In the subsequent postrift stage, shallow marine clastics and marls were deposited in a wide basin, with only mild synsedimentary faulting. At the end of the Cretaceous, regional uplift and convergent oblique-slip faulting resulted in basin inversion and the reverse reactivation of preexisting normal faults. Due to the transpressional nature of the basin inversion, narrow asymmetric anticlines were formed, often bounded by upward diverging reverse faults, in the hanging-wall blocks of the former normal faults. These type of structures constitute the general trap geometry of the Cretaceous oil fields in this basin. The acquisition of three-dimensional seismic data has resulted in significantly enhanced structural definition and has lead to the development of new structural and depositional models, which improve the prediction of reservoir distribution and risk assessment.

  13. Geologic Characteristics of Gas Reservoirs in West Sichuan Foreland Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Keming

    2008-01-01

    The foreland basin in West Sichuan is a tectonic unit that has undergone multi-periods tectonic movements of Indosinian-Yanshanian-Himalayan. Since late Triassic, it has been in a passive subsidence environment controlled by basin margin mountain systems and by the compression with abundant sediment sources. With the complex geologic setting, the main geologic characteristics of natural gas reservoir are listed as following:(1)Source rocks are coal-bearing mud and shale series with high to over maturity, and long and progressive hydrocarbon generation-displacement period. The key accumulation period is middle-late Yanshanian epoch.(2)There are three gas-bearing systems vertically, each of which has different reservoir mechanism, main-controlled factors and distribution law, so the exploration thoughts and techniques are also different.(3)Undergoing multi-period generation-migration-accumulation, oil and gas have encountered multi-period modification or destruction, and gas accumulation overpass multiple tectonic periods. So the trap type is complicated and dominated by combination traps. Because the main accumulation period of natural gas is early and the reservoir encountered the modification of strong Himalayan movement, there is great difference in the fullness degree of gas reservoirs and complicated gas-water relation. (4) Reservoir is tight to very tight, but reservoirs of relatively high quality developed under the super tight setting. (5) The key techniques for oil and gas exploration in west Sichuan foreland basin are the prediction of relatively favorable reservoirs, fractures and gas bearing; and the key techniques for oil and gas development are how to improve the penetration rate, reservoir protection and modification.

  14. Sedimentary and diagenetic processes at the origin of chlorites formation inside silico-clastic reservoirs; Processus sedimentaires et diagenetiques a l'origine de la formation des chlorites dans les reservoirs silicoclastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinseau, E.

    2002-06-01

    Diagenetic chlorite in deeply buried petroleum reservoirs give to the formations relatively good reservoir properties. The purpose of this study is, by a multidisciplinary approach, to better understand how chlorites form and to put into evidence the factors which influence their formation. Four case studies have been chosen: the silici-clastic Mulichinco (Valanginian) and Tordillo (Kimmeridgian) formations of the Neuquen basin, Argentina, the Springhill Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Austral basin, Argentina, and the Mashirah Bay formation (Precambrian) from the Huqf-Haushi area, Oman. Sedimentological analyses have been combined to petrographical observations (optical microscope, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, Cathodoluminescence), to chemical analyses, to chlorite polytypicism study, and by fluid inclusions micro-thermometry in silicifications. These studies have allowed to precise the diagenetic sequence for each of these formations and to approach the conditions for the formation of diagenetic chlorites for each case, and to conclude the following points: (1) ferro-magnesian chlorites require precursor material such as volcano-clasts. Their presence is associated with continental environments. Their destabilization into chlorite, via smectite, is favoured at the water/sediment interface during marine transgression. (2) ferriferous chlorites formation can happen from glauconitic minerals which contain a 7 angstroms phase like berthierite, and 10-12 angstroms phase as smectite phase, under anoxic conditions. (3) polytypicism variations traduce two different mechanisms for the chlorite formation: ferro-magnesian chlorites form by dissolution-recrystallization process and re-equilibrate with burial, whereas ferriferous chlorite form from berthierite. (author)

  15. Reservoir characterisation of western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderholm, Martin; Gregers, Dam

    1998-08-01

    The primary objective of the project was to provide the framework for initial quantitative reservoir models from those parts of the Nuussuaq Basin (West Greenland) which, based on present stratigraphic and structural data, seem to have the best exploration potential. Both existing and newly acquired data from geophysical, sedimentological, petrographical, petrophysical, geochemical and diagenesis studies have been used to characterise potential sandstone reservoirs on western Nuussuaq. It is anticipated that the results of the study will contribute to the planning of future exploration and GEUS activities in the region. The main part of the project has focused on data and material from wells drilled by groenArctic Inc. as part of their exploration commitments. These wells are mainly located in a volcanic terrain characterised by abundant oil seeps and where little or nothing was known about the subsurface geology prior to drilling. The volcanic terrain separates major sedimentary outcrop areas of Nuussuaq showing very different depositional environments. Sedimentological, geochemical and palynostratigraphical analyses of the sediments penetrated in the wells have therefore been essential in basin analysis. Main emphasis has been laid on the evaluation of diagenetic alterations with respect to reservoir properties of the GANT-1 core and on palynostratigraphical, lithological and petrophysical analyses of the GRO-3 well which encountered the so far thickest Cretaceous-Tertiary described section in the basin. This final report on the EFP-96 project `Reservoir modelling of western Nuussuaq` summarises the collection of all studies related to reservoir modelling of the Nuussuaq Basin. The combined results from the geophysical surveys, the organic geochemical and diagenesis studies and from the evaluation of GRO-3 have profound implications for future petroleum exploration activities in the Nuussuaq Basin. The geophysical data indicate that large, rotated fault blocks

  16. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Ivo M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Results Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0 suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Conclusion Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined.

  17. Facies sedimentology, mineralogy and genetic stratigraphy of the lower-Lias silici-clastic reservoirs of Cere-La-Ronde; Sedimentologie de facies, mineralogie et stratigraphie genetique des reservoirs silicoclastiques du Lias inferieur de Cere-La-Ronde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiller, M.

    1997-11-21

    Some sandstone reservoirs in the South West of the Parisian Basin (Sologne) are used for gas storage in the underground aquifer by GDF. The study aims to reconstruct the geometry of these reservoirs and to establish the factors controlling their deposition in the Sologne basin during Rhaetian and Hettangian times. This study combines palynological, sedimentological, mineralogical and sequential analyses. It is applied to channel deposits as well as to flood-plain and over-bank deposits which are rarely considered. The formations are deposited in a continental transgressive context associated to a decreasing subsidence. The different depositional environments varied from the alluvial fan to the coastal plain with different intermediate alluvial plains. They get organized in three depositional profiles which are emphasized by hydrodynamic discontinuities due to irreversible modifications in depositional conditions. The clayey associations change with each depositional profile according to detrital source modifications. They characterize discontinuities due to geodynamic events affecting the Sologne basin (depositional profile changes, pedogenesis). In this continental context, the genetic sequences record a cycle of variation of the river longitudinal profile slope. They determine the sediments geometry which results from the relative sea-level variations. Local tectonics creates an heterogenous subsidence and consequently controls the distribution of the sediments. During tectonic instability periods, the subsiding areas migrate while they do not during tectonic stability periods. The latter end with irreversible change in depositional profile. (author) 135 refs.

  18. Diagenesis of clastic rock of Palaeozoic and its influence on reservoir in Tazhong area, Tarim basin%塔中地区古生界碎屑岩成岩作用及其对储层的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燕军; 于炳松; 钟大康

    2013-01-01

      通过取心井常规薄片、铸体薄片、扫描电镜、X 衍射等资料的分析,研究了塔里木盆地塔中地区古生界碎屑岩成岩作用及其对储层发育的影响。研究结果显示,研究区碎屑岩储层处于中成岩 A 期,且经历的主要成岩作用有压实与压溶作用、胶结作用、溶蚀作用、交代作用和重结晶作用等。另外,这些成岩作用对储集层孔隙发育及储层性质具有明显的影响:压实与压溶作用、交代、胶结作用、石英长石的次生加大以及重结晶作用使储层孔隙体积减小、物性变差,如压实与压溶作用使本区储层孔隙度损失14.1%~25.3%,交代、胶结作用使孔隙度损失13.9%;溶蚀作用是增加储集空间、改善储层物性最重要的成岩作用,如石英、长石及岩屑颗粒的溶蚀作用使储层产生次生孔隙,导致本区储层孔隙度平均增加6%~8%。%  Based on the full analysis of the data such as conventional section, cast section, X-ray diffraction and SEM, the Paleaozoic clastic diagenesis and its influence on clastic reservoir development in Tazhong area have been studied. The results of the study indicate that the clastic reservoir is in the stage A of middle diagenesis and the major diagenesis includes compaction, cementation(siliceous cementation, carbonate cementation and hydro-syalite cementation), dissolution(feldspar, minor debris and carbonate cement), alternation and fracture along with the sedimentary and diagenesis history. These diagenism has markedly influenced the pore development and physical properties of the reservoir. The mechanical compaction, the subsequent volcanism of quartz and feldspar has destructive influence on the physical properties of the reservoir. Compaction and pressure solution have in-duced the decrease in porosity(14.1%~25.3% ), the cement has filled up and blocked the pore throat of sandstone in various ways; Secondary overgrowth of quartz could

  19. 岩石结构对碎屑岩储层弹性参数影响的数值研究%Numerical study of the effect of rock texture on the clastic reservoir rocks’ elastic parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章海宁; 姜黎明; 张金功; 孙建孟; 屈乐; 樊云峰

    2014-01-01

    3-D digital cores were constructed using the process-based method with the grain size distribution of the rock. The effects of grain size ratio, grain size and grain sorting on the elastic properties of the clastic reservoir rocks were studied using the finite element method based on the digital cores. The results showed that the grain size and grain sorting have notable effect on rock physics properties and pore structure, which will cause the variations in elastic moduli and velocities. The relation between the grain size ratio and the elastic properties of the clastic reservoir rocks is non-linear. The bulk modulus increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then decreases to tend to a constant with increasing volume fraction of large grains. The effect of volume fraction of large grains on the elastic moduli strengthens as the grain size ratio increases. The effect of the grain size on the elastic properties of water-saturated rock is weaker than that of dry rock. Moreover, the bulk moduli is more sensitive to fluid changes when the grain size is very small. The worse the sorting is, the greater the elastic moduli and velocities of clastic reservoir rocks will be.%结合岩石颗粒粒径分布,通过过程模拟法构建3维数字岩心,利用有限元方法研究了岩石颗粒尺寸比、颗粒大小以及颗粒分选性对岩石弹性特性的影响。结果表明岩石颗粒的大小、分选性均会对岩石的物性以及孔隙结构产生影响,引起岩石弹性模量和纵横波速度的变化。颗粒尺寸比对岩石弹性的影响是非线性的,随着大颗粒含量的增大,岩石体积模量先增大至最大值,然后再减小至趋于不变,随着颗粒尺寸比的变大,大颗粒含量对岩石弹性模量的影响增强。粒径对饱和水岩石弹性的影响弱于对干岩石的,并且粒径越小,岩石体积模量对孔隙流体的变化越敏感。随颗粒分选性变差,岩石体积模量和剪切模量及纵横波速度变大。

  20. Quantitative analysis for diagenetic evolution of clastic reservoirs in the second member of Funing Formation in Jinhu Sag%金湖凹陷阜二段碎屑岩储层成岩演化定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雯泉; 刘喜欢; 徐焕友

    2013-01-01

    Multiple data including original porosity,current porosity,amounts of cement,replacement,interstitial mate-rial,and corrosion,and the stage and temperature of diagenesis,etc.were calculated by means of reservoir physical proper-ties in combination with analysis of microscopic flack images and fluid inclusions.And facial porosities were converted into porosities by the statistical analytical method.According to the diagenesis and diagenetic stage,we made a quantitative study on the diagenetic evolution of the clastic reservoir in the second member of Funing Formation in Jinhu Sag.Results show that the diagenetic process of the reservoir was complex and had strong cementation.An average 25 .2 percent of po-rosity loss was caused by the cementations of the early and late stages,an approximate 15 percent of the porosity loss was caused by compaction,and a 15.2 percent of porosity was increased by dissolution.The diagenetic stage of the reservoir in-tegrally entered the stage A of middle diagenesis phase,and partly went into the stage B of middle diagenesis phase.After entering the stage A,the reservoir evolution was divided into two directions:one branch of the reservoir was mainly devel-oped under the cementation and became poor reservoir;another branch of the reservoir was developed under the dissolu-tion,the compaction,and the late stage cementation,however,it still became favorable low-permeability reservoir.%通过微观薄片图像分析、流体包裹体分析与储层物性实验相结合的手段,获取原始孔隙度、现今孔隙度、胶结物量、交代物量、填隙物量、溶蚀量、成岩期次、成岩温度等多种数据,并运用数据统计分析将面孔率转化为孔隙度,结合成岩作用与成岩阶段分析,定量研究了金湖凹陷阜二段碎屑岩储层的成岩演化过程。研究认为金湖凹陷阜二段碎屑岩储层成岩过程较为复杂,胶结作用强烈,早晚两期胶结共造成了平均25.2%的孔隙

  1. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kongyou; Paton, Douglas; Zha, Ming

    2013-03-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin. Based on data of outcrop, core, and samples, the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering, leaching, and onlap. At the same time, the structural body may be divided into three layers, including upper layer, mid layer, and lower layer. The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system, and also accumulates the hydrocarbon. The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock, the strength of which increases with depth. The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps. A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors. The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line, the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line, and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock. So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  2. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kongyou WU; Douglas PATON; Ming ZHA

    2013-01-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin.Based on data of outcrop,core,and samples,the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering,leaching,and onlap.At the same time,the structural body may be divided into three layers,including upper layer,mid layer,and lower layer.The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system,and also accumulates the hydrocarbon.The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock,the strength of which increases with depth.The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps.A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors.The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line,the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line,and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock.So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  3. Numerical Analysis on the Effect of Fractures on Elastic Properties of Tight Clastic Reservoirs%裂缝对致密碎屑岩储层弹性影响的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹帅; 丁文龙; 李昂; 赵金利; 单钰铭

    2016-01-01

    有效预测裂缝发育区是寻找致密气甜点区的关键,但目前海陆过渡相致密碎屑岩储层裂缝预测的效果较差。利用DEM理论模型获得岩石孔隙纵横比α及干岩石体积模量,探讨裂缝对致密碎屑岩地层岩石弹性的影响及不同尺度裂缝间的关联性。利用模型确定的α可以较好地识别出裂纹发育段,随着孔隙纵横比由1.0转变为0.01,地层岩石体积模量和剪切模量也逐渐降低,表明裂纹相比孔隙而言更容易引起岩石弹性发生改变。地层岩石由干岩石到饱和地层流体过程中,裂缝不发育地层的体积模量增加幅度为3.1%;对于裂缝发育地层段,孔隙度小于4.7%时其体积模量的增加幅度平均为7.0%,孔隙度大于4.7%时其体积模量增加幅度平均为23.0%,拐点处所对应岩石孔隙度可作为岩石内部裂纹发育程度的评价指标。对于裂缝不发育段地层,干岩石体积模量与剪切模量的比值和孔隙度具有较好的正相关性;对于裂缝发育段地层,干岩石体积模量与剪切模量的比值和孔隙度具有较好的负相关性。研究结果表明,利用岩石弹性性质可以定量表征碎屑岩地层裂缝的发育特征。%The effective prediction of fracture development areas is the key to pinpointing sweet spots in tight gas reservoirs ,but currently ,the fractures in tight clastic reservoirs of transitional facies are poor‐ly predicted .In this paper ,the pore aspect ratio and dry rock bulk modulus w ere calculated by using the DEM theory model .Later ,the effect of fractures on elastic properties of tight clastic formations was ana‐lyzed and a correlation between fractures of different scales was proposed .Results indicated that crack de‐velopment sections could be well identified by virtue of the pore aspect ratio αwhich was determined by the DEM theory model .By decreasing the pore aspect ratio from 1 .0 to 0 .01

  4. Formation Conditions and Exploration-favoring Areas of Subtle Reservoirs in West Taibei Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanMingsheng; WangJinsong; LiBin

    2004-01-01

    At the initial stage of subtle reservoir exploration in the shallow to medium formations of the Taibei Sag, Tuha Basin, so far, three kinds of subtle reservoirs (stratigraphic, lithologic and structural-lithologic reservoirs) have been found. Since both the amount and reserve of the discovered subtle reservoirs are small, a great exploration potential remains in the Taibei Sag. The shallow to medium formations in the west of the Taibei Sag were divided into three second-order sequences and ten third-order sequences, of which the rising cyclothems of SQ(J2q) and SQ8 (J2s2) datum level are major exploration targets for the subtle reservoirs (lithologic). The depositional systems of Qiquanhu and Subashi braided river delta were developed there, where the sedimentary sand body is dominated by the regional slopes and slope break belts. There are four main modes the formation of lithologic traps: deltaic front onlap on the slope belt, deltaic front toplap on the slope break belt, lately tilted frontal sand body and sublacustrine fan--slope fan on the slope break belt, of which the first three modes are the major styles of the formation of subtle reservoirs. Major targets for subtle reservoir exploration in the near future include Putaogou Member on the north slope of Huoyanshan, the east slope of Pubei, the nose-like palaeohigh regions of Huobei, Subashi and Lianmuqin, around the Shengbei secondary sag.

  5. 3D Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher D. White

    2009-12-21

    Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs formed by ancient river deltas. This has implications for the spatial distribution of rock types and the variation of transport properties. A between mudstones and sandstones may form baffles that influence productivity and recovery efficiency. Diagenetic processes such as compaction, dissolution, and cementation can also alter flow properties. A better understanding of these properties and improved methods will allow improved reservoir development planning and increased recovery of oil and gas from deltaic reservoirs. Surface exposures of ancient deltaic rocks provide a high-resolution view of variability. Insights gleaned from these exposures can be used to model analogous reservoirs, for which data is sparser. The Frontier Formation in central Wyoming provides an opportunity for high-resolution models. The same rocks exposed in the Tisdale anticline are productive in nearby oil fields. Kilometers of exposure are accessible, and bedding-plane exposures allow use of high-resolution ground-penetrating radar. This study combined geologic interpretations, maps, vertical sections, core data, and ground-penetrating radar to construct geostatistical and flow models. Strata-conforming grids were use to reproduce the observed geometries. A new Bayesian method integrates outcrop, core, and radar amplitude and phase data. The proposed method propagates measurement uncertainty and yields an ensemble of plausible models for calcite concretions. These concretions affect flow significantly. Models which integrate more have different flow responses from simpler models, as demonstrated an exhaustive two-dimensional reference image and in three dimensions. This method is simple to implement within widely available geostatistics packages. Significant volumes of oil and gas occur in reservoirs that are inferred to have been formed by ancient river deltas. This geologic setting has implications for the spatial distribution of

  6. Environmental Factors Affecting Mercury in Camp Far West Reservoir, California, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Stewart, A. Robin; Saiki, Michael K.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Topping, Brent R.; Rider, Kelly M.; Gallanthine, Steven K.; Kester, Cynthia A.; Rye, Robert O.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents water quality in Camp Far West Reservoir from October 2001 through August 2003. The reservoir, located at approximately 300 feet above sea level in the foothills of the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California, is a monomictic lake characterized by extreme drawdown in the late summer and fall. Thermal stratification in summer and fall is coupled with anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion. Water-quality sampling was done at approximately 3-month intervals on eight occasions at several stations in the reservoir, including a group of three stations along a flow path in the reservoir: an upstream station in the Bear River arm (principal tributary), a mid-reservoir station in the thalweg (prereservoir river channel), and a station in the deepest part of the reservoir, in the thalweg near Camp Far West Dam. Stations in other tributary arms of the reservoir included those in the Rock Creek arm of the reservoir, a relatively low-flow tributary, and the Dairy Farm arm, a small tributary that receives acidic, metal-rich drainage seasonally from the inactive Dairy Farm Mine, which produced copper, zinc, and gold from underground workings and a surface pit. Several water-quality constituents varied significantly by season at all sampling stations, including major cations and anions, total mercury (filtered and unfiltered samples), nitrogen (ammonia plus organic), and total phosphorus. A strong seasonal signal also was observed for the sulfurisotope composition of aqueous sulfate from filtered water. Although there were some spatial differences in water quality, the seasonal variations were more profound. Concentrations of total mercury (filtered and unfiltered water) were highest during fall and winter; these concentrations decreased at most stations during spring and summer. Anoxic conditions developed in deep parts of the reservoir during summer and fall in association with thermal stratification. The highest concentrations of methylmercury in unfiltered

  7. Small reservoirs in the West African savanna: Usage, monitoring and impact (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Giesen, N.; Liebe, J. R.; Annor, F.; Andreini, M.

    2013-12-01

    The West African savanna is dotted with thousands of small reservoirs. These reservoirs were primarily built for irrigation purposes, supplying supplementary irrigation in the rainy season and full irrigation in the dry season. Some reservoirs were specifically constructed for watering cattle. Most reservoirs, however, now fulfill a multitude of functions in addition to irrigation and cattle watering, such as fishing, bathing, household water, supply of construction materials, and recreation. In the framework of the Small Reservoirs Project (www.smallreservoirs.org), extensive research has been undertaken over the past ten years that addresses the functioning of these reservoirs and the development of new monitoring methods. This presentation will give a general overview of our findings with respect to history, usage, and hydrological impact of small reservoirs in West Africa. In general, no comprehensive databases are available to local and national governments that contain all reservoirs and their attributes. Remote sensing, therefore, offers an interesting alternative to produce inventories of small reservoirs in a cost effective way. The most straightforward application is the mapping of small reservoirs with the aid of optical satellite images. Open water tends to stand out clearly from its surroundings in such images, allowing for relatively accurate determination of the location and surface area of the reservoirs. An important early discovery was that within a given geomorphological region, there is a very good correlation between surface area and storage volume. Once this correlation is established through a small sub-sample of the reservoirs, all volumes can be calculated on the basis of surfaces as determined through remote sensing. In turn, this opens up the opportunity to monitor water storage over the year by means of satellite images. Optical images are usually not available during large parts of the year due to cloud cover. This holds especially true

  8. Geothermal Reservoir Characterization for Steam Field Management in Kamojang Geothermal Field-West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kamojang is the first geothermal field in Indonesia with a vapor dominated system reservoir. Kamojang has been exploited for over 20 years producing about 1100 tons/hour of steam which is equivalent to 140 Mwe electricity energy. This research is aimed to study the reservoir character after 20 years of exploitation and to investigate the effect of reinjection as a artificial recharge for steam input in the future and also the nature of secondary processes in the reservoir using isotope geochemistry tools. The research is conducted by natural isotopes (18O, 2H and 3H analysis of many sources of water (meteoric, cold spring, fumaroles and shallow groundwater in the surrounding of Kamojang field and also fluid reservoir to establish fluid reservoir origins and isotopic composition. Gas analysis and isotopes monitoring on the 25 production wells have been conducted every 2-3 years intervals for more than 10 years to investigate the effect of exploitation to the reservoir performance. Tritium radiotracer test with 370 GBq (10 Ci activity was conducted at the KMJ 15 reinjection well to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the flow of reinjection water to its surrounding producing well (KMJ 11, 14, 17, 18, 26, 17 and 30. Data interpretation and evaluation to determine reinjection water mass recovery and cooling prediction modeling were conducted using ICEBOX program package (TRINV and TRCOOL. Interpretation and evaluation of data concluded that reservoir fluid of Kamojang geothermal field was originated from meteoric water which infiltrated through fault structures at elevation of 1350 m –1650 m above sea level. There is no evidence that the fluid was originated from magmatic water. Reservoir fluid moved both laterally and vertically (deep fluid with lateral fluid movement from west to the east. The isotope data analysis indicated there is water entry in west-northwest reservoir boundary. Water entry gradually moved from northwest to the

  9. Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Methods, applications and developments of ground-penetrating radar for determination of reservoir geometries in near-surface settings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, G.A.; Soegaard, K.

    1998-05-25

    An integrated sedimentologic and GPR investigation has been carried out on a fluvial channel sandstone in the mid-Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone at Coyote Basin along the southwestern flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. This near-surface study, which covers a area of 40 {times} 16.5 meters to a depth of 15 meters, integrates detailed stratigraphic data from outcrop sections and facies maps with multi-frequency 3-D GPR surveys. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to develop new ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for imaging shallow subsurface sandstone bodies, and (2) to construct an empirical three-dimensional sandstone reservoir model suitable for hydrocarbon flow-simulation by imaging near-surface sandstone reservoir analogs with the use of GPR. The sedimentological data base consists of a geologic map of the survey area and a detailed facies map of the cliff face immediately adjacent to the survey area. Five vertical sections were measured along the cliff face adjacent to the survey area. In addition, four wells were cored within the survey area from which logs were recorded. In the sections and well logs primary sedimentary structures were documented along with textural information and permeability data. Gamma-ray profiles were also obtained for all sections and core logs. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic information serves as the basis from which much of the processing and interpretation of the GPR data was made. Three 3-D GPR data sets were collected over the survey area at frequencies of 50 MHZ, 100 MHZ, and 200 MHZ.

  10. Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarab field is an analog for the deep marine slope channels in Nile Delta of Egypt. It is one of the Pliocene reservoirs in West delta deep marine concession. Channel-1 and channel-2 are considered as main channels of Scarab field. FMI log is used for facies classification and description of the channel subsequences. Core data analysis is integrated with FMI to confirm the lithologic response and used as well for describing the reservoir with high resolution. A detailed description of four wells penetrated through both channels lead to define channel sequences. Some of these sequences are widely extended within the field under study exhibiting a good correlation between the wells. Other sequences were of local distribution. Lithologic sequences are characterized mainly by fining upward in Vshale logs. The repetition of these sequences reflects the stacking pattern and high heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoir. It also refers to the sea level fluctuation which has a direct influence to the facies change. In terms of integration of the previously described sequences with a high resolution seismic data a depositional model has been established. The model defines different stages of the channel using Scarab-2 well as an ideal analog.

  11. Spatiotemporal associations of reservoir nutrient characteristics and the invasive, harmful alga Prymnesium parvum in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a harmful alga that has caused ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems worldwide. In inland systems of North America, toxic blooms have nearly eliminated fish populations in some systems. Modifying nutrient profiles through alterations to land or water use may be a viable alternative for golden alga control in reservoirs. The main objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the nutrient dynamics that influence golden alga bloom formation and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs. We examined eight sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Texas: three impacted reservoirs that have experienced repeated golden alga blooms; two reference reservoirs where golden alga is present but nontoxic; and three confluence sites downstream of the impacted and reference sites. Total, inorganic, and organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their ratios were quantified monthly along with golden alga abundance and ichthyotoxicity between December 2010 and July 2011. Blooms persisted for several months at the impacted sites, which were characterized by high organic nitrogen and low inorganic nitrogen. At impacted sites, abundance was positively associated with inorganic phosphorus and bloom termination coincided with increases in inorganic nitrogen and decreases in inorganic phosphorus in late spring. Management of both inorganic and organic forms of nutrients may create conditions in reservoirs unfavorable to golden alga.

  12. Precambrian clastic sedimentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Condie, K. C.; Tirsgaard, H.; Mueller, W. U.; Altermann, W.; Miall, A. D.; Aspler, L. B.; Catuneanu, O.; Chiarenzelli, J. R.

    1998-09-01

    The unique and evolving nature of the Precambrian geological environment in many ways was responsible for significant differences between Precambrian clastic sedimentary deposits and their Phanerozoic-modern equivalents. Some form of plate tectonics, with rapid microplate collisions and concomitant volcanic activity, is inferred to have led to the formation of greenstone belts. Explosive volcanism promoted common gravity-flow deposits within terrestrial greenstone settings, with braided alluvial, wave/storm-related and tidal coastline sediments also being preserved. Late Archaean accretion of greenstone terranes led to emergence of proto-cratons, where cratonic and rift sedimentary assemblages developed, and these became widespread in the Proterozoic as cratonic plates stabilised. Carbonate deposition was restricted by the paucity of stable Archaean terranes. An Early Precambrian atmosphere characterised by greenhouse gases, including CO 2, in conjunction with a faster rotation of the Earth and reduced albedo, provide a solution to the faint young Sun paradox. As emergent continental crust developed, volcanic additions of CO 2 became balanced by withdrawal due to weathering and a developing Palaeoproterozoic microbial biomass. The reduction in CO 2, and the photosynthetic production of O 2, led to aerobic conditions probably being achieved by about 2 Ga. Oceanic growth was allied to atmospheric development, with approximately 90% of current ocean volume being reached by about 4 Ga. Warm Archaean and warm, moist Palaeoproterozoic palaeoclimates appear to have become more arid after about 2.3 Ga. The 2.4-2.3 Ga Huronian glaciation event was probably related to continental growth, supercontinent assembly and weathering-related CO 2 reduction. Despite many analogous features among both Precambrian and younger sedimentary deposits, there appear to be major differences as well. Two pertinent examples are rare unequivocal aeolian deposits prior to about 1.8 Ga and an

  13. Reservoir Characterization around Geothermal Field, West Java, Indonesia Derived from 4-D Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdhora Ry, Rexha; Nugraha, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observation of micro-seismic events induced by intensive geothermal exploitation in a particular geothermal field, located in West Java region, Indonesia was used to detect the fracture and permeability zone. Using local monitoring seismometer network, tomographic inversions were conducted for the three-dimensional Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs structure of the reservoir for January - December 2007, January - December 2008, and January - December 2009. First, hypocenters location was relocated using joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method in purpose to estimate best location. Then, seismic tomographic inversions were conducted using delay time tomography for dataset of every year respectively. The travel times passing through the three-dimensional velocity model were calculated using ray tracing pseudo-bending method. Norm and gradient damping were added to constrain blocks without ray and to produce smooth solution model. The inversion algorithm was developed in Matlab environment. Our tomographic inversion results from 3-years of observations indicate the presence of low Vp, low Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio at depths of about 1 - 3 km below sea level. These features were interpreted may be related to steam-saturated rock in the reservoir area of this geothermal field. The locations of the reservoir area were supported by the data of well- trajectory, where the zones of high Vp/Vs were observed around the injection wells and the zones of low Vp/Vs were observed around the production wells. The extensive low Vp/Vs anomaly that occupies the reservoir is getting stronger during the 3-years study period. This is probably attributed to depletion of pore liquid water in the reservoir and replacement with steam. Continuous monitoring of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective tool for geothermal reservoir characterization and depletion monitoring and can potentially provide information in parts of the reservoir which have not been drilled.

  14. 深部细粒碎屑岩储层成岩作用研究--以苏北盆地张家垛油田阜三段为例%Diagenesis of the deep-seated fine-grained clastic reservoirs:An example from the 3rd member of the Funing Formation in the Zhangjiaduo Oil Field,Subei Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玫梅; 丁晓琪; 张哨楠; 陈倩倩

    2015-01-01

    毗邻烃源岩的细粒储层,由于其岩石结构、组分及沉积环境的特殊性,成岩作用表现出一定差异。本文以张家垛油田阜三段细粒碎屑岩储层为例,通过铸体薄片、X射线衍射、扫描电镜等相关分析,研究其成岩作用的特殊性。研究结果表明:(1)细粒储层的成分成熟度和结构成熟度较高,常被泥岩包裹,在压实作用中若存在欠压实,粒间孔可以被很好地保留下来;(2)细粒储层形成时水动力较弱,杂基含量高导致微孔较多;(3)大量的粘土矿物使孔隙比表面增加,抑制了后期硅质和碳酸盐胶结物的析出;(4)比表面的增加减缓了孔隙流体的对流速率和扩散速率,不利于次生孔隙的形成,粒度越细,次生孔隙越不发育。细粒碎屑岩储层有别于常规储层,对其特殊的成岩作用进行研究具有重要的理论价值和实际意义。%Currently much attention is given to the fine-grained clastic reservoirs with the exploration and development of dense oil and shale gas. The diagenesis of the deep-seated fine-grained clastic reservoirs from the 3rd member of the Funing Formation in the Zhangjiaduo Oil Field is dealt with in this paper on the basis of cast section examination,X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM. The results of research are outlined as follows. (1)The intergranular pores can be well preserved when the disequilibrium compaction took place,and the fine-grained clastic reservoirs with relatively higher compositional maturity and textural maturity are commonly sealed by mudstones;(2 )Abundant micropores are caused by higher contents of matrix due to weakly hydrodynamic conditions during the deposition of the fine-grained clastic reservoirs;(3 )The occurrence of abundant clay minerals leads to the increase of specific surface of the pores and the decrease of the precipitation of siliceous and carbonate cements;(4)The increase of specific surface of

  15. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Albian Clastic and Updip Albian Clastic Assessment Units, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.

    2016-03-11

    U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessments (NOGA) of Albian aged clastic reservoirs in the U.S. Gulf Coast region indicate a relatively low prospectivity for undiscovered hydrocarbon resources due to high levels of past production and exploration. Evaluation of two assessment units (AUs), (1) the Albian Clastic AU 50490125, and (2) the Updip Albian Clastic AU 50490126, were based on a geologic model incorporating consideration of source rock, thermal maturity, migration, events timing, depositional environments, reservoir rock characteristics, and production analyses built on well and field-level production histories. The Albian Clastic AU is a mature conventional hydrocarbon prospect with undiscovered accumulations probably restricted to small faulted and salt-associated structural traps that could be revealed using high resolution subsurface imaging and from targeting structures at increased drilling depths that were unproductive at shallower intervals. Mean undiscovered accumulation volumes from the probabilistic assessment are 37 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 152 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL). Limited exploration of the Updip Albian Clastic AU reflects a paucity of hydrocarbon discoveries updip of the periphery fault zones in the northern Gulf Coastal region. Restricted migration across fault zones is a major factor behind the small discovered fields and estimation of undiscovered resources in the AU. Mean undiscovered accumulation volumes from the probabilistic assessment are 1 MMBO and 5 BCFG for the Updip Albian Clastic AU.

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish in cage aquaculture at Cirata Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Indah Rachmatiah Siti; Rahmawati, Suphia; Sutarto, Ratri Indri Hapsari; Jaya, Pinilih Marendra

    2008-10-01

    Freshwater fish demand in West Java is supported by cage aquaculture in reservoirs. Cirata Reservoir is one of three cascading hydropower reservoirs built along the Citarum River that receives domestic and industrial wastes. Water pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, increases the health risk of humans who consume the fish. The study was aimed to evaluate the concentration of copper and lead in fish, specifically on Cyprinus carpio, that are widely cultivated in the Cirata Reservoir. Two sizes of fish were collected from five sampling points around floating-cage area. The liver of the fish was found to contain the highest copper level, followed by gills, skin, and muscle. In contrast, lead was also high in the liver, followed by skin, gills, and the muscle, but the copper concentration found in the tissues studied was much higher (31.111 +/- 17.911 mg/kg dry wt) than the lead content (0.290 +/- 0.346 mg/kg dry wt). The concentration of metals in smaller fish was always higher than than that in bigger fish. The metals content was also compared to those in fish exposed in a semistatic laboratory-scale study using Oreochromis niloticus. After 28 days exposure with 0.01 mg Cu/L, fish accumulated 21.53 mg Cu/kg dry wt, whereas for Pb exposure of 0.016 mg/L, fish accumulated up to 7 mg/kg dry wt. However, estimates of Cu and Pb intake from C. carpio consumption were still below the average daily intake (ADI) limit. This study suggested that monitoring of water quality and heavy metals in cultured fish is important in protecting human health.

  17. Simulating transport and deposition of clastic sediments in an elongate basin using the SIMSAFADIM-CLASTIC program: The Camarasa artificial lake case study (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratacós, O.; Bitzer, K.; Casamor, J. L.; Cabrera, L.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Roca, E.

    2009-12-01

    Predicting facies distribution and the stratigraphic architecture of sedimentary basins by process-oriented numerical models is nowadays an essential tool in geologic studies. They constitute a new approach to predict the geologic heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of the diverse facies generated in a depositional system jointly with the distribution of the physical, chemical, and petrophysical characteristics of the sedimentary deposits in a quantitative way. SIMSAFADIM-CLASTIC is a 3D process-based, forward numerical model for the simulation of clastic sediment transport and sedimentation in aquatic systems. It simulates the physical process of clastic transport using the advective, diffusive, and dispersive terms of the transport equation and clastic sediment deposition as a result of a variety of processes. The capabilities of SIMSAFADIM-CLASTIC have been confirmed through the application of the program to a large deep elongated artificial lake, the Camarasa reservoir in the Noguera Pallaresa River, NE of Spain. Simulation results yield sedimentation rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 cm·yr - 1 close to the dam, and from 1.73 to 1.63 cm·yr - 1 in the upper reservoir section. The sample experiment results match well with the observed transport pattern linked to the flow system in Camarasa's reservoir near-bottom water layer, which transports more than 50% of the sediment that is supplied to the reservoir. Opening and closure of turbine gates and the basin geometry are the main controlling factors on the fluid flow and depositional pattern in the reservoir, with a more diversified pattern obtained when an open boundary is defined. However, the resulting model also shows some limitations of the program as it does consider a stratified water column that is consistently observed in the reservoir. Refined modeling exercises of the type described in this paper are of potential application to predict and quantify sedimentation patterns allowing the

  18. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes with 2 species each, and Anguilliformes with 1 species. Regarding their conservation status, 27 species were of least concern, 1 species was vulnerable, 6 species were near threatened, 1 species was data deficient, and 4 species were not evaluated (IUCN-Version 2014.1. Economical values have also been evaluated. Water parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, free CO2, salinity, total inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate were recorded and found suitable for fish production. Conductivity, transparency, and high chloride level are minor limiting factor that may needs rectification for improved fisheries management.

  19. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1996 (fifth quarter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program--based on advanced reservoir management methods--can significantly improve oil recovery. The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques while comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program, can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the US oil and gas industry. Results so far are described on geology, engineering, 3-D seismic, reservoir characterization and simulation, and technology transfer.

  20. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration in the US Department of Energy Class III Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  1. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  2. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  3. 全谱饱和度测井在塔河碎屑岩储层评价中的应用%The Applications of Pulsed Neutron Spectrum Saturation Log to Clastic Rock Reservoir Evaluation in Tahe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤聪; 马立新; 许克亮; 邹宁

    2013-01-01

    介绍全谱饱和度测井仪(PSSL)技术原理,对比不同脉冲中子测井仪器的优缺点,评价PSSL饱和度测井仪碳氧比组合中子寿命测井模式在塔河油田低孔隙度低渗透率储层中应用效果及PSSL俘获模式在凝析气藏储层中应用,通过PND俘获模式与PSSL俘获模式测井资料对比,评价仪器性能,分析时间推移测井应用.全谱饱和度测井能定量评价储层并可将储层进行精细划分;对于同一套地层,利用纵横向渗透率级差可以进行层内剩余油解释和评价.与传统脉冲中子测井对比,PSSL仪器使用范围宽,测井成本低,录取资料信息多,能有效反映储层剩余油饱和度的变化情况,为寻找潜力油层、识别水淹层提供了科学依据.%We discuss the technology principle of the PSSL(Pulsed Neutron Spectrum Saturation Log) logging tool.With comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different pulse neutron logging tool,we evaluate the application effect of Carbon-Oxygen Ratio combined capture modes of PSSL logging in low porosity reservoirs and capture mode of PSSL in condensate gas reservoir in Tahe oilfield.Through the logging data contrast and analysis of PND capture mode and PSSL capture mode,we evaluate the tool performance and analyze time lapse logging application.PSSL logging mode can quantitatively evaluate reservoirs and finely divide reservoirs; can interpret and evaluate residual oil by longitudinal and vertical permeability range in the same layer.Compared with traditional pulsed neutron logging,PSSL tool has wider applications,provides rich information and lower logging cost; it can reflect changes in the remaining oil saturation in reservoirs.It provides the basis for finding potential oil layers and identification of water out layers.

  4. Characteristics and genetic mechanism of deep-buried clastic eureservoir in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Systematic researches to the clastic reservoirs in various types and various geological ages basins in China indicate that the present burial depth of deep buried clastic eureservoir ranges from 3000 to 6000 m,and its geological ages from Paleozoic,Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It mainly deposited in delta (including braid delta,fan delta,normal delta),river,also shore,shallow lake,gravity flow channel and turbidity fan facies. The quartzose sandstone is the main reservoir rock of deep-buried clastic eureservoir in the shore facies in Paleozoic,but the arenite and arkose sandstones are the main reservoir rock types in delta,river,shallow lake and gravity flow facies in Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The porosity of most of deep-buried clastic eureservoir is more than 10% and permeability more than 10×10?3 μm2. The forma-tion of the deep-buried eureservoir was related to the paleotectonics,paleotemperature,sedimentary environment,the deep dissolution caused by organic acid or carbonic acid,burial style,the abnormal high pore fluid pressure,early hydrocarbon charging,gyprock sealing,hot convective fluid flow and the mode of sand-mud interbedded,etc. The paleotectonics controls the burial style of sandstones,and the paleotemperature controls the diagenesis process. The sedimentary environment is the precondi-tion and foundation,the dissolution is the direct reason to generate the deep buried clastic eureservoir. The abnormal high pore fluid pressure,gyprock sealing,the mode of sand-mud interbedded,early hy-drocarbon charging and the structure fractures were the assistant factors of generating the deep buried clastic eureservoir.

  5. A reconstruction method of porosity for clastic reservoirs during the crucial period of hydrocarbon accumulation%关键成藏期碎屑岩储层古孔隙度恢复方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渠冬芳; 姜振学; 刘惠民; 高永进

    2012-01-01

    油气的成藏过程是地质历史时期的事件,恢复储层在地质历史时期,尤其是在关键成藏期的孔隙度可以帮助定量恢复成藏期的地质条件,更好地认识油气成藏的过程.笔者以将今论古的地质思想为指导,创建了关键成藏期储层孔隙度的恢复方法.以东营凹陷沙河街组四段上亚段(简称沙四上亚段)储层为例,在对其成岩作用类型和成岩阶段划分的基础上,分别对处于不同成岩阶段的一定深度下的储层孔隙度影响因素进行分析,提出了孔隙度综合影响因子的新概念;建立了在孔隙度综合影响因子约束下的孔隙度演化曲线;最后利用此孔隙度演化曲线,对东曾凹陷草11-王59剖面上的沙四上亚段储层在几个关键成藏期的古孔隙度进行了恢复.结果表明,用该方法进行的古孔隙度恢复取得了较好的效果.%A hydrocarbon accumulation process is an event of geological history. In order to better understand this event, the reconstruction of reservoir porosity during geological history, especially in a crucial period of hydrocarbon accumulation, can help in quantitatively reconstructing geological conditions of hydrocarbon accumulation. Based on a geological thought of "uniformitarianism", the present paper established a new method to reconstruct reservoir porosity of the crucial hydrocarbon accumulation. Taking the 4th member of the Shahejie Formation as an example and based on its classification of diagenetic types and stages, we proposed a new concept of combined porosity influencing factor(F for short) by investigating factors that influence the porosity of sandstones with a certain depth at different diagenetic stages, established an evolutionary curve of porosity that is restricted by combined porosity influencing factors, and finally reconstructed the paleo-porosity in crucial hydrocarbon accumulation periods for the 4th member of the Shahejie Formation in the Cao 11-Wang 59 section

  6. Measuring and predicting reservoir heterogeneity in complex deposystems: The fluvial-deltaic Big Injun sandstone in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Hohn, M.E.; Aminian, K.; Donaldson, A.; Shumaker, R.; Wilson, T.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop techniques to measure and predict heterogeneities in oil reservoirs that are the products of complex deposystems. The unit chosen for study is the Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstone, a prolific oil producer (nearly 60 fields) in West Virginia. This research effort has been designed and is being implemented as an integrated effort involving stratigraphy, structural geology, petrology, seismic study, petroleum engineering, modeling and geostatistics. Sandstone bodies are being mapped within their regional depositional systems, and then sandstone bodies are being classified in a scheme of relative heterogeneity to determine heterogeneity across depositional systems. Facies changes are being mapped within given reservoirs, and the environments of deposition responsible for each facies are being interpreted to predict the inherent relative heterogeneity of each facies. Structural variations will be correlated both with production, where the availability of production data will permit, and with variations in geologic and engineering parameters that affect production. A reliable seismic model of the Big Injun reservoirs in Granny Creek field is being developed to help interpret physical heterogeneity in that field. Pore types are being described and related to permeability, fluid flow and diagenesis, and petrographic data are being integrated with facies and depositional environments to develop a technique to use diagenesis as a predictive tool in future reservoir development. Another objective in the Big Injun study is to determine the effect of heterogeneity on fluid flow and efficient hydrocarbon recovery in order to improve reservoir management. Graphical methods will be applied to Big Injun production data and new geostatistical methods will be developed to detect regional trends in heterogeneity.

  7. Measuring and predicting reservoir heterogeneity in complex deposystems. The fluvial-deltaic Big Injun Sandstone in West Virginia. Final report, September 20, 1991--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, M.E.; Patchen, D.G.; Heald, M.; Aminian, K.; Donaldson, A.; Shumaker, R.; Wilson, T.

    1994-05-01

    Non-uniform composition and permeability of a reservoir, commonly referred to as reservoir heterogeneity, is recognized as a major factor in the efficient recovery of oil during primary production and enhanced recovery operations. Heterogeneities are present at various scales and are caused by various factors, including folding and faulting, fractures, diagenesis and depositional environments. Thus, a reservoir consists of a complex flow system, or series of flow systems, dependent on lithology, sandstone genesis, and structural and thermal history. Ultimately, however, fundamental flow units are controlled by the distribution and type of depositional environments. Reservoir heterogeneity is difficult to measure and predict, especially in more complex reservoirs such as fluvial-deltaic sandstones. The Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC), a partnership of Appalachian basin state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, and West Virginia University, studied the Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstone in West Virginia. The Big Injun research was multidisciplinary and designed to measure and map heterogeneity in existing fields and undrilled areas. The main goal was to develop an understanding of the reservoir sufficient to predict, in a given reservoir, optimum drilling locations versus high-risk locations for infill, outpost, or deeper-pool tests.

  8. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Bilgesu, H.I.; Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Patchen, D.L.

    2002-05-21

    The purpose of this work was to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production.

  9. Diagenesis and reservoir properties of Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary sandstones: the GANT-1 well, western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierkegaard, Thomas

    1998-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to describe the diagenetic alterations occurring in the Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene sedimentary succession of the GANT-1 well, and to determine the diagenetic and detrital factors which control present porosity and permeability. The GANT-1 well is located on north-western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland. The West Greenland margin is a continental margin subdivided into linked basins where Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary and probably older sediments have been deposited. In the Nuussuaq area these sediments are overlain by a succession of Early Tertiary basaltic volcanic rocks which reaches a combined thickness of around 2-2.5 km. Although the reservoir properties of the sandstone intervals in the GANT-1 and GANE-1 wells are generally relatively poor, it is suggested that moderate to good properties may be found in certain intervals within the Maastrichtian-Paleocene succession. However, the reason for the locally enhanced reservoir properties in GANT-1 was not clarified by this study due to the lack of regional petrographical data. (EG) EFP-96. 41 refs., 3 maps

  10. Evolution of hydrocarbon migration style in a fractured reservoir deduced from fluid inclusion data, Clair Field, west of Shetland, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Martin; Parnell, John; Mark, Darren [Department of Geology and Petroleum Geology, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Carr, Andrew [Advanced Geochemical Systems Ltd., Towles Fields, Burton on the Wolds, Leicestershire LE12 5TD (United Kingdom); British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Przyjalgowski, Milosz [Department of Physics, National University of Ireland-Galway, Galway (Ireland); Feely, Martin [Department of Geology, National University of Ireland-Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2008-02-15

    A petrographic and fluid inclusion microthermometric study was performed on sandstones from the Devonian-Carboniferous reservoir rocks of the Clair Field, west of Shetland. Fluid inclusion petrographic and microthermometric observations were collected from quartz, K-feldspar and calcite cements and veins. Vein and cement minerals host both aqueous and hydrocarbon two-phase (liquid and vapor-filled) fluid inclusions indicating that cementation occurred during oil charging. The location of hydrocarbon fluid inclusions in the paragenetic sequence of the reservoir rocks indicates that hydrocarbon migration during early-stage diagenesis occurred via intergranular pores as well as fractures, whereas towards the later stages of diagenesis, as porosities were occluded, hydrocarbon migration was predominantly fracture controlled. The microthermometric characteristics of primary and secondary aqueous fluid inclusions in association with hydrocarbon fluid inclusions indicates that cementation and veining during oil charging occurred at temperatures up to 180 C. Salinity values are variable (0-10.9 wt% NaCl eq.) indicating that fluid mixing occurred during veining and cementation. Basin modeling and vitrinite reflectance data indicate that temperatures of up to 180 C could not have been attained through burial alone. The high temperatures attained during late-stage diagenesis are interpreted to be caused by high temperature, short-lived fluids circulating within the Devonian-Carboniferous reservoir rocks in association with late Cretaceous and Paleocene magmatism. These high temperature fluid flow events were not recorded in the vitrinite reflectance data because of their short duration. (author)

  11. CSAMT在碎屑岩地区地热勘查中的应用%Application of CSAMT to Geothermal Exploration in the Clastic Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚通晓; 关艺晓; 闵望; 刘晓瑜; 梅荣

    2015-01-01

    Clastic rocks may be formed as the favorable geothermal heat cap, because they have such characteristics as lower conductivity and storage of water, and soft texture. However, the lower electronic resistivity of clastic rocks is easy to form the lower resistivity shielding layer under a large thickness. In this case, it is dififcult to prospect the favorable geothermal reservoir underlain in the massive clastic rocks, and it is necessary to ifnd structural ifssure water in clastic rocks. However, structural signs are not so obvious because of small resistivity difference between the structure of the storage water and surrounding rocks. So it needs utilizing the high-tech to ifnd geothermal resources in the clastic rock area. The investigation area is located in Maoshan town, on the west of Maoshan Mountains, belongs to the eastern margin of the Jurong-Basin. According to the borehole data, it estimates that there are more than 1800-meter thick layer of Cretaceous clastic rocks deposited in the investigation area with the poor hydrogeological conditions. We used the CSAMT to survey generally in wide range, and to check accurately in small range. In addition, we adopted the magnetic ifeld interpolation correction techniques, and guaranteed ifrstly the noise-signal ratio in the selection of transmit-receive distance. By these methods, we have found out the water-bearing fault structure, and overcome the exploring problems in the clastic rocks with low resistivity. The drilling results also show that the CSAMT is economic and effective in the geothermal exploration of clastic rocks .%碎屑岩因质软,导水、储水条件不良,通常作为地热有利保温盖层,而碎屑岩电阻率普遍低,厚度大的情况下形成低阻屏蔽层,勘探下伏有利储层难度极大,寻找碎屑岩中构造裂隙水是最佳的选择。但碎屑岩中的储水构造与围岩电阻率差异小,构造迹象微弱,因此在碎屑岩地区找地热技术含量较高

  12. Associations between water physicochemistry and Prymnesium parvum presence, abundance, and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) have caused substantial ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems throughout the world. In North America, toxic blooms have impacted freshwater systems including large reservoirs. Management of water chemistry is one proposed option for golden alga control in these systems. The main objective of this study was to assess physicochemical characteristics of water that influence golden alga presence, abundance, and toxicity in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCR) in Texas. The UCR contains reservoirs that have experienced repeated blooms and other reservoirs where golden alga is present but has not been toxic. We quantified golden alga abundance (hemocytometer counts), ichthyotoxicity (bioassay), and water chemistry (surface grab samples) at three impacted reservoirs on the Colorado River; two reference reservoirs on the Concho River; and three sites at the confluence of these rivers. Sampling occurred monthly from January 2010 to July 2011. Impacted sites were characterized by higher specific conductance, calcium and magnesium hardness, and fluoride than reference and confluence sites. At impacted sites, golden alga abundance and toxicity were positively associated with salinity-related variables and blooms peaked at ~10°C and generally did not occur above 20°C. Overall, these findings suggest management of land and water use to reduce hardness or salinity could produce unfavorable conditions for golden alga.

  13. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  14. Three-dimensional modelling of stacked turbidite channels in West Africa: impact on dynamic reservoir simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labourdette, Richard; Poncet, Jerome; Seguin, Julien; Temple, Francois [Total, Geoscience Technologies, Pau, 64 (France); Hegre, JoAnn; Irving, Alan [Total E and P UK plc, Geoscience Research Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The examination of production history from hydrocarbon fields composed of turbidite deposits indicates that fluid flow behaviour is often more complex than expected. The cause is commonly linked to the presence of fine-scale sedimentary heterogeneities, which complicate the reservoir. This is especially true in the case of turbiditic submarine channel complexes with final channel-filling stages composed of lateral migration deposits. These fine-scale heterogeneities are usually below seismic resolution and are rarely represented in initial reservoir models designed for such fields. Thus, it is difficult to match the production history or identify methods to improve production and reduce associated risks. The various depositional patterns recognized in channel migration and aggradation packages from the Oligocene Malembo Formation of the Congo Basin, offshore Angola, exhibit different dynamic responses when modelled in a reservoir simulator. These dynamic differences are related to the different preservation rates of bank collapse sediments within isolated channel bodies, hereafter referred to as 'elementary channels'. According to these preservation differences, the vertical stacking pattern of channels results in better connectivity than the true lateral migration. This effect has been incorporated into a full-field simulation model by applying petrophysical upscaling methods. The recognition and modelling of detailed sedimentological heterogeneities, and their distribution along full-field models produces a better history match when the inherent uncertainties have been taken into account. Incorporating all available data and concepts to define reservoir architecture is essential in understanding the impact that fine-scale heterogeneities have on reservoir management. As the lateral extent and areal distribution of heterogeneities is still unknown, our modelling workflow incorporates uncertainty in the form of multiple realizations to identify and

  15. Using Ground-Penetrating Radar to Estimate Sediment Accumulation in a Reservoir: Ball Mountain Dam, West River, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprak, A.; Arcone, S. A.; Dade, W. B.; Finnegan, D. C.; Magilligan, F. J.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous dams exist throughout the Upper Connecticut River watershed, having profound effects on regional sediment budgets for the past 50+ years. We use ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to investigate sediment deposition by the West River into an impoundment reservoir located in southern Vermont, with the aim of determining the watershed-scale sediment budget and examining regional denudation rates. The reservoir has a storage capacity of ~104,000,000 cubic meters and was created in 1961 as a consequence of the construction of Ball Mountain Dam in Jamaica, Vermont. A total of 33 GPR reflection profiles were obtained with a 200-MHz radar antenna towed in a raft behind a boat, with 19 additional 100 MHz profiles obtained along exposed shorelines at minimal water level. Preliminary analyses indicate vertical sediment deposition varies greatly based on location; some areas of the impoundment show almost no overlying sediment, while others have received 5 meters of deposition or more. Minimal sediment accumulation is apparent on both the flat bed located along the centerline of the impoundment and on steeply-inclined submerged bedrock faces. Maximum deposition appears to be occurring along shallow-dipping subaqueous slopes near the edges of the reservoir. On-going work includes continued interpretation of GPR records, ground-truthing of those records through sediment coring, and calculation of sediment accumulation rates. In addition to defining the watershed-scale sediment budget over a decadal time scale, results may help guide policy-making regarding the upkeep and potential removal of dams in the region.

  16. Fracture system influence on the reservoirs rock formation of Ordovician-Devonian carbonates in West Siberia tectonic depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveshnikov, A. E.; Nesterova, A. C.; Dolgaya, T. F.

    2016-09-01

    During the Paleozoic period from the beginning of the Cambrian to the end of the Carboniferous in the boundaries of the West Siberia tectonic depression there occurred the sea, where the carbonate platforms were formed by the limestones accumulation. All the area at the end of the Carboniferous period was turned to land. Resulting from Gertsynskaya folding in the times of Permian - Triassic the formed deposits were folded and denudated to a considerable extent. Besides, the reservoir rocks of the crust of weathering including redeposited one, were formed as a result of hypergenesis, during the continental stand of the area in the near-surface zone. A new geological prospecting unit has been suggested which underlies these crusts of weathering and formed during fracture tectonic processes with hydrothermal-metasomatic limestones reworking and the processes of hydrothermal leaching and dolomitization. So, in the carbonate platforms the system of fissure zones related to tectonic disturbance was formed. This has a dendrite profile where the series of tangential, more thinned fractures deviate from the stem and finish in pores and caverns. The carbonate platforms formation in the West Siberia tectonic depression has been analyzed, their dynamics and gradual increasing from the minimal in Ordovician and Silurian to maximal at the end of the Late Devonian has been shown.

  17. Fisheries and Limnological Studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Phase V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Usually blue-green algal communities are dominated by Oscillatoria angustissima in West Point Lake. However, this year a different alga , Spirulina ...different alga , Spirulina laxa, dominated samples at several stations during the summer (Table 7). Chlorophyll 60. Chlorophyll values measured on a volume... algae divisions; Chrysophyta, Chlorophyta and cyanophyta. The increase in photoplankton density should have a positive effect on the fishery since many of

  18. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  19. Spatial distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the West Korea Bay Basin in the northern part of the Yellow Sea, estimated by 3-D gravity forward modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungchan; Ryu, In-Chang; Götze, H.-J.; Chae, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Although an amount of hydrocarbon has been discovered in the West Korea Bay Basin (WKBB), located in the North Korean offshore area, geophysical investigations associated with these hydrocarbon reservoirs are not permitted because of the current geopolitical situation. Interpretation of satellite-derived potential field data can be alternatively used to image the 3-D density distribution in the sedimentary basin associated with hydrocarbon deposits. We interpreted the TRIDENT satellite-derived gravity field data to provide detailed insights into the spatial distribution of sedimentary density structures in the WKBB. We used 3-D forward density modelling for the interpretation that incorporated constraints from existing geological and geophysical information. The gravity data interpretation and the 3-D forward modelling showed that there are two modelled areas in the central subbasin that are characterized by very low density structures, with a maximum density of about 2000 kg m-3, indicating some type of hydrocarbon reservoir. One of the anticipated hydrocarbon reservoirs is located in the southern part of the central subbasin with a volume of about 250 km3 at a depth of about 3000 m in the Cretaceous/Jurassic layer. The other hydrocarbon reservoir should exist in the northern part of the central subbasin, with an average volume of about 300 km3 at a depth of about 2500 m.

  20. Main controlling factors of distribution and genetics of marine reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Marine reservoirs are mainly made up of clastics and carbonate reservoirs, which are distributed widely in central Tarim, Sichuan, Ordos basins from the Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic, mainly in Palaeozoic. Marine clastic reservoirs are developed in foreshore and nearshore, tidal flat and delta environment. The sedimentary facies are important controlling factors for reservoir quality. Compaction, pressolution and cementation are factors of decreasing porosity, and low palaeo-temperature gradient, early emplacement of oil and gas and dissolution are favorable for preservation of pore. Carbonate reservoirs are divided into reef and bank, karst, dolomite and fracture reservoirs. Dolomitization, dissolution, TSR and fracture are important factors of controlling carbonate reservoirs' quality.

  1. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  2. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus group discussion with local community to obtain indigenous knowledge was considered. Secondary data collection and relevant literature were surveyed. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Critical problems observed on the wetland and the surrounding watershed included vegetation cover removal, land degradation, wetland hardening, pressurized grazing, expansion of floating macrophytes on the reservoir, water seepage at the weir, water use management and water use conflicts, drainage structures maintenance and lack of institutional accountability. Open access and inadequate management has increased anthropogenic factors resulting amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services. Conclusions: The reservoir is under growing stress and nearing to disappearance unless and otherwise timely measures are taken to mitigate the prevailing encroachment towards the wetland. Sustainable management of hydrological, ecological, social, biodiversity and economical values based on knowledge and experience on environment, land use, extension services and research to restore and sustain the various values and functions, calls for different stakeholders to alleviate negatively impacting factors on the wetland. Further information generation on the wetland situation on the Geray wetland specifically on wetland valuation is highly demanded.

  3. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia:focus on wetland management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus group discussion with local community to obtain indigenous knowledge was considered. Secondary data collection and relevant literature were surveyed. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Critical problems observed on the wetland and the surrounding watershed included vegetation cover removal, land degradation, wetland hardening, pressurized grazing, expansion of floating macrophytes on the reservoir, water seepage at the weir, water use management and water use conflicts, drainage structures maintenance and lack of institutional accountability. Open access and inadequate management has increased anthropogenic factors resulting amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services. Conclusions: The reservoir is under growing stress and nearing to disappearance unless and otherwise timely measures are taken to mitigate the prevailing encroachment towards the wetland. Sustainable management of hydrological, ecological, social, biodiversity and economical values based on knowledge and experience on environment, land use, extension services and research to restore and sustain the various values and functions, calls for different stakeholders to alleviate negatively impacting factors on the wetland. Further information generation on the wetland situation on the Geray wetland specifically on wetland valuation is highly demanded.

  4. Extended geothermal potential of clastic aquifers by hydraulic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.G.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Wees, J.D.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the implications of hydraulic stimulation in a Dutch context for low permeability clastic aquifers at a depth of 2000 to 4000 m, whose transmissivity has been mapped in the framework of the Dutch subsurface information system on geothermal energy in the Netherlands. For the simulation a

  5. Clastic pipe characteristics and distributions throughout the Colorado Plateau: Implications for paleoenvironment and paleoseismic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, D. F.; Chan, M. A.; Sprinkel, D. A.

    2016-10-01

    Clastic pipes occur throughout much of the Phanerozoic strata of the Colorado Plateau and provide a unique opportunity to test the validly of various deformation and triggering mechanism hypotheses in the context of their tectono-stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental settings. Pipes dominantly occur in Jurassic strata and preferentially in eolian (especially interdune), sabkha, and fluvial deposits because these sediments contained interbedded fine-grained and water-saturated, high-porosity, coarse-grained facies. The greatest geographic concentrations of pipes occur in three trends: (1) a northeast trend from the Lake Powell to Moab areas of southern and southeastern Utah, (2) an east-west trend in northern Arizona within and north of the Grand Canyon, and (3) a west-northwest-east-southeast trend along Interstate 40 west of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Many pipes formed due to liquefaction and fluidization and were potentially triggered by seismic activity originating from basement-cored uplifts within the Colorado Plateau, although other trigger mechanisms cannot be completely eliminated. Some breccia pipes within northern Arizona that are rooted in karst are the exception to this interpretation. Pipes possess unique depositional and triggering requirements and thus provide an excellent opportunity to understand the interplay of sedimentology and tectonics within continental systems.

  6. The impact of mantle source CO2 on clay minerals of clastic reservoirs in the east part of Shijiutuo symon fault, Bozhong depression%渤中坳陷石臼陀凸起东段幔源CO2充注对储集层粘土矿物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清斌; 臧春艳; 朱文森; 赵国祥; 袁志刚; 冯冲

    2012-01-01

    探讨了渤中坳陷石臼陀凸起东段CO2来源及CO2充注对储层粘土矿物的影响.研究表明,CO2中δ13C组成较重,R/Ra值较大,CO2为幔源成因;控盆的深大断裂是CO2的主要运移通道;CO2热流体晚期充注对砂岩储集层粘土矿物产生了明显的影响:CO2热流体侵位后形成的热波动效应加快了储集层中伊蒙混层粘土的演化,含CO2储集层中伊蒙混层中蒙脱石含量要比同深度的泥岩低15% ~30%;CO2热流体晚期侵入加剧了长石的溶蚀作用,长石溶蚀促进了自生高岭石的大量形成;CO2热流体侵位后形成的偏酸性环境抑制伊利石生长,促进了其他粘土矿物向高岭石转化;含CO2储集层以少见的高自生高岭石、低伊利石为特征,这对储层物性改善起到了决定性的影响.%The origin of CO2 and the alteration of CO2 into clay minerals in eastern Shijiutuo symon fault of Bozhong depression were studied in this paper. The elevated δ13C and R/Ra values show the mantle-derivation of CO2. The basm-controlling deep fault was the main migration pathway of CO2 fluid. CO2 fluid injection had obvious impact on clay minerals. CO2 late injection caused obvious thermal fluctuation and brought out the result that the montmorillonite of the illite/montmorillonite mixing layer was 15% ~30% lower than that of mudstone at the nearby depth. Because of late accumulation of C&i, acidic environment of reservoir bed lasted for a long time, which promoted dissolution of feldspar and formation of kaolinite. Acidic environment inhibited illite in favor of the transform of other clay minerals into kaolinite. The CO2-bearing reservoir bed was characterized by high authigenic kaolinites and low illite, which played a decisive role in reservoir quality improvement.

  7. FISH DIVERSITY ALONG THE LONGITUDINAL GRADIENT IN A MAN–MADE LAKE OF WEST AFRICA, TAABO HYDROELECTRIC RESERVOIR, IVORY COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Aliko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage patterns in Taabo Reservoir, a hydroelectric lake of Ivory Coast, were studied and related to the longitudinal gradient (river–dam gradient composed of riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. Data were collected at 5 stations and each one was sampled during 5 surveys. Fish community structure was analysed using alpha and beta diversity indices. In total, 53 fish species were obtained in the whole ecosystem. Total species richness recorded at each ecological zone was 42, 43 and 45 species respectively in the riverine, transitional and lacustrine zones. Alpha diversity did not differed significantly along the longitudinal gradient but reached the highest value (33 species in the transitional zone and the lowest (18 species occurred in both the riverine and lacustrine zones. Temporal variability of Alpha diversity according to the hydrological regime of the lake differed with the zone. Beta diversity showed that fish assemblages similarity was higher between the transitional and the riverine zones (βw = 0.43 and lower between the riverine and the lacustrine zones (βw = 0.79.

  8. Optimal water resources management and system benefit for the Marcellus shale-gas reservoir in Pennsylvania and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Chen, Yizhong; Ren, Lixia

    2016-09-01

    A major concern associated with current shale-gas extraction is high consumption of water resources. However, decision-making problems regarding water consumption and shale-gas extraction have not yet been solved through systematic approaches. This study develops a new bilevel optimization problem based on goals at two different levels: minimization of water demands at the lower level and maximization of system benefit at the upper level. The model is used to solve a real-world case across Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Results show that surface water would be the largest contributor to gas production (with over 80.00% from 2015 to 2030) and groundwater occupies for the least proportion (with less than 2.00% from 2015 to 2030) in both districts over the planning span. Comparative analysis between the proposed model and conventional single-level models indicates that the bilevel model could provide coordinated schemes to comprehensively attain the goals from both water resources authorities and energy sectors. Sensitivity analysis shows that the change of water use of per unit gas production (WU) has significant effects upon system benefit, gas production and pollutants (i.e., barium, chloride and bromide) discharge, but not significantly changes water demands.

  9. Challenges modeling clastic eruptions: applications to the Lusi mud eruption, East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    Clastic eruptions involve brecciation and transport of the hosting rocks by ascent fluids (gas and/or liquids), resulting in a mixture of rock clasts and fluids (i.e. mud breccia). This kind of eruptions is often associated with geological features such as mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents or more generically with piercement structures. Over the past decades, several numerical models, often based on those used in volcanology, have been employed to better understand the behavior of such clastics systems. However, modeling multiphase flow is challenging, and therefore most of the models are considering only one phase flow. Many chemical, mechanical and physical aspects remain still poorly understood. In particular, the rheology of the fluid is one of the most important aspects, but also the most difficult to characterize. Experimental flow curves can be obtained on the finest fraction, but coarser particles (> 1mm) are usually neglected. While these experimental measurements usually work well on magma, they are much more difficult to perform when clay minerals are involved. As an initial step, we use analytical and simplified numerical models (flow in a pipe) to better understand the flow dynamics within a main conduit connected to an overpressured reservoir. The 2D numerical model solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art in modeling clastic eruptions as well as the limitations and challenges of such numerical models. We also discuss the challenges associated to the specific case of Lusi. In particular the difficulty to characterize the mud properties and the technical challenges associated with the acquisition of new data and development of more sophisticated models

  10. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in different tissues of nine fish species from the Međuvršje reservoir (West Morava River Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đikanović Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Element concentrations in selected fish species from different trophic levels were analyzed. The following fish species were analyzed: common nase (Chondrostoma nasus, roach (Rutilus rutilus, freshwater bream (Abramis brama, barbel (Barbus barbus, Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio,chub (Squalius cephalus, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, wels catfish (Silurus glanisand northern pike (Esox lucius. Fish were collected from the Međuvršje Reservoir (West Morava River Basin, western Serbia during 2012, and samples of liver, muscle and gills were analyzed for As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The liver and gills had the highest measured element concentrations, with Cu, Zn, Fe and Sr being the most prominent. The bioaccumulation of metals was species-specific, with the accumulation exhibiting the following trends: Prussian carp > northern pike > freshwater bream > European perch > chub > common nase > barbell > roach > wels catfish; Li>Pb>Zn>Cu>Fe>Ba>Mn>Sr>Cr>As>Mo>Ni>B, in all examined species; for Co, Cd and Hg, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was 0. Results of this study point to the tissue-specific differences in element concentrations, and to distinct differences between fish species regarding the accumulation patterns: common nase, with the highest accumulation observed in the liver, and Prussian carp, with the highest accumulation observed in the gills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173045 i br. 37009

  11. Research on reservoir bed heterogeneity, interlayers and seal layers and controlling factors of 2+3 sands of upper second member, Shahejie Formation, in the west of the Pucheng Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Jinliang; Xie Jun

    2008-01-01

    Terminal fans have formed the sedimentary system of the 2+3 sands of the upper second member,Shahejie formation in the west of the Pucheng Oilfield,Bohai Bay Basin,East China.Based on well logging data and physical properties of the reservoir beds,the 2+3 sands were divided into 16 sublayers.The heterogeneity of reservoir beds and distribution of interlayers and seal layers in the 2+3 sands were investigated.The intra-layer heterogeneity and inter-layer heterogeneity primarily belong to the severely heterogeneous classification.The spatial differentiation of sedimentary microfacies resulted in a change of reservoir bed heterogeneity,strong in the middle and southern parts,weak in the northern part.Spatial distribution of interlayers and seal layers is dominated by sedimentary microfacies,and they are thick in north-eastern and middle parts,thin in the south-western part.

  12. Water-power resources in upper Carson River basin, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and west forks, Carson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumphrey, Harold L.

    1955-01-01

    West Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River basin. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the West Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the West Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the West Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the West Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13

  13. Genetic mechanism and prediction of Paleozoic clastic eureservoirs in platform of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the pore cast and cathodolumines-cence thin sections, diagenesis process, source rock matura-tion history, structural evolution and reservoir quality characteristics, the points of view that the porosities of Pa-leozoic clastic eureservoirs in the platform of the Tarim Ba-sin are mainly secondary, and the dissolution plays an unignorable role in the formation of eureservoirs, are put forward. In this paper, a series of criteria for the recognition of the secondary porosities, the occurrence extent and classi-fication of secondary porosity are introduced, and three kinds of dissolution mechanism--the aluminosilicate dis-solution, the silicon dioxide dissolution and the carbonate dissolution--to generate the secondary porosity are come up with. The formation, distribution, preservation and dis-appearance of eureservoirs are controlled by the paleo- structural framework and evolution, and hydrocarbon filling and discharging. Paleostructural framework manipulate the migration path and direction of the acid fluid so as to deter-mine the position and extent of the dissolution. Paleostruc-ture highs and continuous paleouplifts are in favor of devel-oping the secondary porosity. The hydrocarbon filling made the secondary porosities preserved and the hydrocarbon discharging let the secondary porosities filled by later calcite or quartz overgrowth cements. Paleostructure highs and continuous paleouplifts during the maturation period of Cambrian, Ordovician and Carboniferous source rocks (corresponding to S, P and K) are main areas for eureservoirs developing.

  14. Paleomagnetism of clastic dikes along the Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, S. A.; Elmore, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous clastic dikes occur within the Proterozoic basement along nearly 75km of the Front Range of Colorado. These dikes are composed predominately of well-rounded, non-metamorphosed quartz and are red in color due to the abundance of authigenic hematite. The Cambrian Sawatch sandstone is assumed by most studies to be the source of dike sediments due to its similar composition. Despite over a century of study, the origins, age, and emplacement mechanisms of these dikes remain enigmatic. A preliminary paleomagnetic study of the clastic dikes using standard demagnetization techniques indicates the presence of a complex multicomponent magnetization with at least three components. An easterly and moderately steep component residing in hematite was resolved from several dikes and corresponds to an early Cambrian pole position when compared to the apparent polar wander path of North America. An east-southeasterly and shallow magnetization, also residing in hematite, yields a pole of early Paleozoic age. The third component is northwesterly and steep down and is Mesozoic or Cenozoic in age. These results are similar to a previous paleomagnetic study (Kost, MS thesis, Univ. Colorado) in 1984 of different dikes which found poorly defined early and late Paleozoic, as well as Mesozoic-Cenozoic components. Many researchers suggest emplacement occurred during faulting that was associated with either the Ancestral Rockies uplift of the late Paleozoic or the Laramide orogeny of the late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic. The presence of magnetizations of Cambrian age, with subsequent younger remagnetizations, indicates that the emplacement of many of the dikes preceded both of these tectonic events.

  15. 储层预测技术在厄瓜多尔西海岸地区的应用%The application of reservoir prediction technique in West Coast area of Ecuador

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡文; 邓国振; 韩福民; 姜军伟; 张锋军; 王献杰

    2013-01-01

    储层预测技术已成为岩性油气藏勘探中的一项常规技术.厄瓜多尔西海岸地区蕴含着丰富的石油和天然气资源,但整个地区勘探程度相对较低,使用宽带约束地震反演技术进行储层预测是非常必要的.选择瓜亚基尔工区,使用地震纯波数据进行储层预测研究.首先进行测井曲线标准化处理,利用阻抗-伽玛交汇图分析确定储层岩石地球物理特征,然后针对目的层进行稀疏脉冲反演和储层厚度的计算,最后对反演结果和储层平面分布特征进行分析,确定有利勘探目标.预测的砂岩厚度和已钻井实测的砂岩厚度之间的误差很小,吻合较好,从而证明了该技术的有效性.%Reservoir prediction technique has become a conventional technology in lithologic exploration of oil and gas reservoir.Commonly used methods of reservoir prediction mainly include seismic multi-attribute analysis and seismic inversion.Seismic attributes analysis is a qualitative method to predict reservoir,while seismic inversion is a quantitative prediction of reservoir.The latter is used in this paper for the study.The West Coast of Ecuador is located in western Ecuador on the Pacific Coast,at least there are three distinct strike-slip transform forearc basins along the West Coast of Ecuador based on facies,stratigraphy,structural styles and tectonic evolution in western Ecuador,from south to north they are respectively:Progreso Basin,Manabí Basin and Borbón Basin,which are forearc basins along the coastline formed under the action of the plate.The history of oil and gas exploration of the West Coast of Ecuador was nearly a hundred years and a number of oil and gas fields were found since oil and gas exploration in the early stage of last century.There are abundant oil and gas resources in this area,but the exploration of the entire region was relatively low,and it' s very necessary to use broadband constrained seismic inversion technology for

  16. Petrophysical Properties of Clastic Reservoirs Using NMR Relaxometry and Mercury Injection Data: Bahariya Formation, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Abdel Moktader A.; El Sayed, Nahla A.

    2016-10-01

    The Bahariya Formation is a sedimentary sequence, which was deposited under fluvial to shallow marine conditions at the beginning of the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) transgression in the Western Desert of Egypt. Thirty sandstone core samples, obtained from the Bahariya Formation, are conducted to NMR measurements and the relaxation time T2 = 100 μs and 600 μs were estimated. Application of a model related core-porosity and transverse relaxation time (T2) measured from NMR spectrum; the cementation exponent of Wyllie's type is outlined with high accuracy. Consequently, the water saturation and hydrocarbon saturation will be significantly enhanced. The irreducible water saturation (Swirr) calculated from the mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements is related to the normalized area under < 4 μs of transverse relaxation time (T2) and a regression model is calculated with a reliable coefficient of correlation permitting calculation of (Swirr) with high accuracy. Lithologic laminations presented in some intervals of the Bahariya Formation have great consequences on both the Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) measurements and nuclear magnetic Relaxometry (T2) as well. Thin sections and SEM-micrographs were made for some selected core samples in order to recognize petrography and mineralogy of the Bahariya sandstones. Glauconitic, mica, zircon, rutile and pyrite minerals are predominant in the laminated sandstones intervals.

  17. Thermodynamic conditions of framework grain dissolution of clastic rocks and its application in Kela 2 gas field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI; Xingyun; YU; Bingsong; CHEN; Junyuan; CHEN; Xiaolin

    2005-01-01

    Feldspar and clastic debris are the most important constituent framework grains of sedimentary clastic rocks and their chemical dissolution plays an essential role in the formation and evolution of the secondary pore in the reservoir rocks. On the basis of thermodynamic phase equilibrium, this study investigates the chemical equilibrium relationships between fluid and various plagioclase and K-feldspar in diagenesis of the sediments, particularly, the impact of temperature and fluid compositions (pH, activity of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and so on) on precipitation and dissolution equilibria of feldspars. Feldspar is extremely easily dissolved in the acid pore water with a low salinity when temperature decreases. The dissolution of anorthite end-member of plagioclase is related to the Ca content of the mineral and the fluid, higher Ca either in the mineral or in the fluid, easier dissolution of the feldspar. Moreover, the dissolution of albite end-member of plagioclase is related to Na of both the mineral and fluid, lower Na out of both the mineral and fluid, easier dissolution of the mineral. Similarly, lower-K fluid is more powerful to dissolve K-feldspar than the higher. The anorthite component of plagioclase is most easily dissolved in ground water-rock system, the albite is the secondary, and K-feldspar is the most stable. Selective dissolution of plagioclase occurs in diagenesis because of the plagioclase solid solution that is mainly composed of albite and anorthite end-members, Ca-rich part of which is preferentially dissolved by the pore water, in contrast to the Na-rich parts. Based on investigation of reservoir quality, secondary pore, dissolution structures of feldspar, clay minerals and ground water chemistry of the Kela 2 gas field of Kuqa Depression in the Tarim basin of Western China, we discovered that the secondary pore is very well developed in the highest quality section of the reservoir, and the plagioclase of which was obviously selectively dissolved, in

  18. Finding a way to optimize drilling depths in clastic aquifers for geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, M.; van Wees, J. D. A. M.; Pluymaekers, M. P. D.; Kramers, L.

    2012-04-01

    Clastic aquifers generally are marked by decreasing porosity and associated permeability with depth. Uncertainties in porosity of a few percentages can result in an order of magnitude change in permeability. Further, temperature increases with depth and is marked by an uncertainty of about 10-20%. Monte Carlo performance calculations, adopting variable temperature and porosity distributions, along with other natural uncertainties and engineering options for drilling, show that performance in doublet power and levelized costs of energy (LCOE in EUR/GJ) is most sensitive to changes in the temperature gradient and the porosity. As the temperature increases with depth while the porosity decreases with depth, these relationships show a trade-off in performance, such that a theoretical optimal depth can be found for a specific temperature gradient and porosity-depth curve, and associated porosity-permeability relationship. The optimal drilling depth is at the depth level where the LCOE are minimal. In mature oil and gas basin areas, such as the Netherlands, it is possible to obtain relationships of porosity and underlying permeability as a function of depth. Therefore, the applicability for establishing and using an optimal depth has been tested for a clastic aquifer in the Rotliegend stratigraphic group in the Netherlands. This aquifer has high geothermal potential and is subject to many exploration activities. Temperature gradient and porosity-depth trends (and underlying uncertainties) for this aquifer have been adopted from the national geothermal information system ThermoGIS (www.thermogis.nl). For the performance calculation of doublet power and LCOE an in-house techno-economical performance assessment (TEPA) tool called DoubletCalc has been used. The results show that optimal depth corresponds to a pronounced and sharp minimum in LCOE. Its depth depends strongly on the actual porosity-depth relationship and ranges between 1.5 and 3 km. Remarkably, variations in

  19. Mechanism of Secondary Pore Formation and Prediction of Favorable Reservoir of Paleogene in Jiyang Sag,Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaomin; Chen Huanqing; Zhong Dakang; Zhang Qin; Zhang Shanwen; Lü Xixue

    2008-01-01

    Jiyang (济阳) sag is an oil rich basin,consisting of Huimin (惠民),Dongying (东营),Zhanhua (沾化),and Chezhen (车镇) depressions.The elastic rock of Paleogene has undergone early and middle diagenetic stages and now the main clastic reservoir is in the middle diagenetic stage.Primary and secondary pores are developed in Paleogene sandstone,the latter is generated from the dissolution of feldspar and calcite cement in rocks owing to the organic acid from the maturated source rock,but the materials dissolved are different in different depressions.The reservoir secondary pores of Dongying depression are generated from the dissolution of calcite cement,the ones of Zhanhua and Huimin depressions from the dissolution of feldspar,the secondary pores of Chezhen depression from the dissolution of feldspar in upper section,and the dissolution of calcite cement in the lower section of Paleogene,respectively.The secondary pores are developed in two depths and the depth goes down from west to east,from south to north in Jiyang sag.The major controlling factors for secondary pore development are maturity and location of source rock.Lastly,the favorable reservoirs are evaluated according to reservoir buried depth,sedimentation,and diagenesis.The reservoir with high quality is located in the northern and central parts in Dongying depression; there are some good reservoirs in Gndao (孤岛),Gudong (孤东),and Gunan (孤南) areas in Zhanhua depression,and the favorable reservoirs are located in the north steep slope and the south gentle slope of Chezhen depression and central uplift,south gentle slope of Huimin depression.

  20. Progressive chemical modification of clastic sediments with burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, C. D.

    1987-03-01

    The porosity of clastic sediments at deposition varies very approximately between about 45% (sands) and 85% (muds). With burial, consolidation takes place as pore water is progressively eliminated. It would be misleading, however, to attribute alterations in sediment bulk properties to physical processes alone. Very significant mineralogical changes occur and these start soon after burial, especially in mudrocks. Striking heterogeneities such as thin, laterally continuous cemented horizons or discrete concretions are commonly introduced. These shallow burial processes are predominently the result of microbial activity. Thermodynamically unstable mixtures of organic matter and various oxidants [dissolved oxygen, sulphate, nitrate, particulate Fe(III) and Mn(IV)] provide both substrate and energy source for a variety of different microbial ecosystems. Mineralogical consequences include both leaching and the precipitation of carbonate, sulphide, phosphate and silica cements. The type and extent of mineral modification depends strongly on depositional environment variables such as rate of sedimentation and water composition. At greater depths, large scale modification of detrital clay minerals (particularly the smectite-I/S-illite transformation) takes place. Recent work of various kinds, however, has demonstrated that these changes may not be solid state transformations: clay mineral dissolution, transport and precipitation occur much more widely than was formerly supposed. In sandstones, authigenic precipitation of clay minerals from pore solution is much more obviouis. Systematic patterns of precipitation, alteration and replacement have been documented in many sedimentary basins. Porosity and permeability are reduced by cementation and, sometimes, enhanced by mineral dissolution. Whereas the general nature of these chemical reactions is fairly well understood, it is not yet possible to predict with certainty the scale or distribution of mineralogical consequences

  1. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  2. Appalachian Basin Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Boswell; Susan Pool; Skip Pratt; David Matchen

    1993-04-30

    A preliminary assessment of Appalachian basin natural gas reservoirs designated as 'tight sands' by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) suggests that greater than 90% of the 'tight sand' resource occurs within two groups of genetically-related units; (1) the Lower Silurian Medina interval, and (2) the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Acadian clastic wedge. These intervals were targeted for detailed study with the goal of producing geologic reservoir characterization data sets compatible with the Tight Gas Analysis System (TGAS: ICF Resources, Inc.) reservoir simulator. The first phase of the study, completed in September, 1991, addressed the Medina reservoirs. The second phase, concerned with the Acadian clastic wedge, was completed in October, 1992. This report is a combined and updated version of the reports submitted in association with those efforts. The Medina interval consists of numerous interfingering fluvial/deltaic sandstones that produce oil and natural gas along an arcuate belt that stretches from eastern Kentucky to western New York. Geophysical well logs from 433 wells were examined in order to determine the geologic characteristics of six separate reservoir-bearing intervals. The Acadian clastic wedge is a thick, highly-lenticular package of interfingering fluvial-deltaic sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Geologic analyses of more than 800 wells resulted in a geologic/engineering characterization of seven separate stratigraphic intervals. For both study areas, well log and other data were analyzed to determine regional reservoir distribution, reservoir thickness, lithology, porosity, water saturation, pressure and temperature. These data were mapped, evaluated, and compiled into various TGAS data sets that reflect estimates of original gas-in-place, remaining reserves, and 'tight' reserves. The maps and data produced represent the first basin-wide geologic characterization for either interval. This report

  3. Modeling the impact of a hydropower reservoir on the habitat of a megaherbivore in the Black Volta Basin in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, Desmond

    2010-05-01

    The Black Volta watershed is approximately 134 000 km2 in size at the gauge at Bamboi. It is part of the main 414 000 km2 Volta system. The Volta river was dammed at Akosombo in 1965 resulting in the largest man-made lake in the world, the Volta Lake. The Bui dam is a new 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the "hippo friendliness" of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has

  4. An analysis of the types and distribution characteristics of natural gas reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhangyou; Yue Dali; Wu Shenghe; Zhang Xiaoyu; Chen Ce; Ni Yuqiang

    2009-01-01

    The natural gas reservoir beds of different areas in China can be divided into three kinds,clastic natural gas reservoir bed, carbonate natural gas reservoir bed and special natural gas reservoir bed. They have different combination patterns controlled by deposition, diagenesis and tectonism. Our analysis indicates that the natural gas reservoirs are mainly distributed in the Precambrian, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary-Quaternary. Craton basin, foreland basin and intracontinental rift basin which contain most of natural gas in China have special geological features and favorable accumulation conditions, and will be important exploration areas in the future.

  5. Experimental investigation of creep behavior of clastic rock in Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fracture zones crossing the dam foundation of the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project in southwestern China. Clastic rock is the main media of the fracture zone and has poor physical and mechanical properties. In order to investigate the creep behavior of clastic rock, triaxial creep tests were conducted using a rock servo-controlling rheological testing machine. The results show that the creep behavior of clastic rock is significant at a high level of deviatoric stress, and less time-dependent deformation occurs at high confining pressure. Based on the creep test results, the relationship between axial strain and time under different confining pressures was investigated, and the relationship between axial strain rate and deviatoric stress was also discussed. The strain rate increases rapidly, and the rock sample fails eventually under high deviatoric stress. Moreover, the creep failure mechanism under different confining pressures was analyzed. The main failure mechanism of clastic rock is plastic shear, accompanied by a significant compression and ductile dilatancy. On the other hand, with the determined parameters, the Burgers creep model was used to fit the creep curves. The results indicate that the Burgers model can exactly describe the creep behavior of clastic rock in the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Project.

  6. Characteristics of carbonate reservoirs of Cambrian Loushanguan Formation to the west of Xuefeng Mountain%雪峰山西侧地区寒武系娄山关组碳酸盐岩储层特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭兵; 刘安; 曾雄伟; 王传尚; 白云山

    2012-01-01

    The carbonate reservoirs of the Cambrian Loushanguan Formation to the west of Xuefeng Mountain were studied. Two types of reservoirs were identified including oolitic beach and dolomite. Intercrystalline pore, dissolution pore and fracture worked as reservoir room and were usually well connected. The oolitic dolosparites and intraclast dolomites of Loushanguan Formation in Hefeng of Hubei province and Sangzhi and Zhangjiajie of Hunan province were studied. The maximum pore radius of oolitic dolosparite was over 200 μm with the average of 9. 61 μm. The pore radius of intraclast dolomite ranged from 100 μm to 200μm, accounting for 33% .The maximum throat was 81. 43μm and the average was 21. 28μm. The maximum porosity was 10. 3% and the average was 3.4%. The maximum permeability was 18.6×10-3μm2 and the average was 1.4×10 μm2 . Both porosity and permeability were good and were judged as reservoir of type Ⅱ. The reservoirs of the Cambrian Loushanguan Formation distributed mainly in the tidal flat facies areas to the west of the Cili-Baojing Fault, and had good potential for exploration.%通过对雪峰山西侧地区寒武系娄山关组碳酸盐岩储集岩的调查与研究,认为该区储集岩类型主要为鲕粒滩型与白云岩型2类;储集空间类型为晶间孔隙、溶蚀孔隙和裂缝,孔隙连通性较好.在湖北鹤峰、湖南桑植以及张家界一带,娄山关组亮晶鲕粒白云岩最大孔隙半径大于200μm,平均孔隙半径为9.61 μm;亮晶内碎屑白云岩孔隙半径在100~ 200 μm之间,其百分含量达到33%.喉道宽度最大值为81.43 μm,平均值为21.28 μm.其孔隙度最大值为10.3%,平均值为3.4%,渗透率最大值为18.6×10-3 μm2,平均值为1.4×10-3 μm2,孔渗特征相对较好,可以作为Ⅱ型储集层.寒武系娄山关组储集层段主要分布于慈利—保靖断裂以西的潮坪相区,具有一定的油气勘探前景.

  7. 70193-Influence of Clastic Dikes on Vertical Migration of Contaminants in the Vadose Zonde at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J Murray; Anderson L. Ward; John L. Wilson

    2004-04-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that clastic dikes could form a preferential flow path through the vadose zone to the water table at the Hanford Site. Clastic dikes are subvertical structures that form within sedimentary sequences after deposition and cut across the original sedimentary layers. They are common throughout the Hanford Site, often occurring in organized polygonal networks. In the initial phase of the project, we analyzed the large-scale geometry of the clastic dikes and developed an algorithm for simulating their spatial distribution. This result will be useful in providing maps of the potential distribution of clastic dikes in areas where they are not exposed at the surface (e.g., where covered by windblown sand or construction of facilities like tank farms at the surface). In addition to the study of the large-scale distribution of the dikes, a major focus of the project was on field, laboratory, and modeling studies of the hydrogeological properties of the clastic dikes and the effect that they have on transport of water through the vadose zone. These studies were performed at two field locations at the Hanford Site. We performed an extensive series of field and laboratory measurements of a large number of samples from the clastic dikes, linked with infrared (IR) and visual imagery of the clastic dikes and surrounding matrix. We developed a series of correlations from the sample data that allowed us to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the dike and matrix at an extremely high resolution (approximately 1 mm). The resulting grids, each of which measured several meters on a side and included nearly four million grid nodes, were used to study the distribution of moisture between the clastic dike and surrounding matrix, as well as the relative velocities that moisture would have through the clastic dike and matrix for a number of different recharge scenarios. Results show the development of complex flow networks

  8. 鄂尔多斯盆地西缘奥陶纪生物礁及其储集性能%Ordovician organic reefs and their reservoir property on the west margin of Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊烈; 陈洪德; 赵俊兴; 苏中堂; 张成弓; 王玉萍; 郝哲敏

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sedimentary and petroleum geology theory and through the observation of outcrops, cores, and slices and testing analysis, the authors study the Ordovician organic reefs on the west margin of Ordos Basin. The authors reach out a conclusion that the Ordovician organic reefs on the west margin of Ordos Basin are the coral reefs of the Lower Ordovician Zhuozishan Formation located in Wuhai Zhuozishan in the north, the stromatoporoids-sponge reefs of the Lower Ordovician Kelimoli Formation of Well Qitan 1 in the middle and the coral reefs of the Upper Ordovician Beiguoshan Formation in Shijiezigou in the south. The reefs in the north develop earlier than that in the south. The north reefs have grown 2 — 3 phases and that in the south 4 phases. The aquatic environment of the reefs in the north is relatively shallow and the reefs in the south has a deep aquatic environment. The coexistence of different shoals and the reefs develops the reef-bank reservoirs. The reservoir spaces are mainly the organic lattice poles and dissolved poles dissolved by fabrics selectively. The physical conditions show the reservoir property is poor. But, the reefs located on the platform margin are beneficial to developing the reef-bank reservoirs, so the platform margin can be the exploration target.%应用沉积学和石油地质学理论,通过野外剖面观测、岩心观察、室内薄片和测试分析,对鄂尔多斯盆地西缘奥陶纪生物礁进行了详细研究,认为有北部的乌海桌子山地区下奥陶统桌子山组珊瑚生物礁,中部的棋探1井下奥陶统克里摩里组层孔虫—海绵生物礁和南部的石节子沟上臭陶统背锅山组珊瑚生物礁.北部生物礁发育的时代早,南部晚;北段礁体生长发育2~3期,南段发育可达4期;北段及南段生物礁生长的水体环境相对较浅,中部相对较深.生物礁与各种滩共生,发育礁滩型储层,生物格架孔和组构选择性溶蚀的溶孔是其主要储集

  9. U-Pb detrital zircon age patterns of Cenozoic clastic sedimentary rocks in Trinidad and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiangyang; Mann, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of northern South America can be simplified as a diachronous, west-to-east change from north-facing passive margin, to active convergence and transcurrent plate margin. As the current eastern end of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary, the Trinidad area records the most recent tectonic regime transition. Documenting the provenance of Cenozoic clastic rocks in Trinidad provides insights into the spatial and temporal relationships between mountain range uplifting, sediment dispersal, and drainage system development along the eastern end of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Four Eocene to Pliocene age outcropping sandstone samples were collected from Trinidad and 545 detrital zircon grains were analyzed using the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS method. A total of 404 analyses with less than 10% discordance were used for the final interpretation. Results show that the age distribution of the Eocene to the Early Oligocene samples is very restricted and dominated by Precambrian age grains with age peaks at ~ 1400 Ma, ~ 1800 Ma, and ~ 2000 Ma, typically derived from the Guyana Shield. In contrast, the Late Oligocene and younger samples show much broader and mixed age distribution that includes Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian peaks. This age shift was interpreted as arriving of the Great Caribbean Arc and oblique collision between the South America and Caribbean plates. Continuing collision uplifted the Andes belts to the west. The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, the Merida Andes, and the northern Venezuela coastal ranges then became the second primary sources. Offshore sedimentation switched from the passive margin with multiple small drainage systems to the active convergent and transcurrent plate margin with a single large river-dominated delivery system.

  10. Reefs of the Jurassic-Cretaceous west Atlantic margin : an overview of settings, types, facies trends, depositional styles and terminations (with reservoir implications)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliuk, L.S. [GeoTours Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In the past 40 years, approximately 20 exploratory wells have been drilled in the Jurassic-Cretaceous Abenaki Formation near-margin carbonate sequences off the Atlantic coast. These include the pioneer wells drilled in the 1970s offshore Nova Scotia, a mid-1980s group including 3 Baltimore Canyon wells in the United States, and those following EnCana's Deep Panuke 1998 gas discovery offshore Nova Scotia. A comparison of these wells has revealed 2 margin settings over deep basement highs versus prograded carbonates, 3 reef-reef mound/slope types, and an overall vertical facies trend that reveals an upward progression from microbial-rich slope beds to shallower forereef to reef and reef-flat beds initially rich in coralline sponges, followed by more microsolenid corals and bioeroded stormreworked coral-rich and oncolitic debris beds up to oolitic shoals. The top of carbonate bank sequences may be replaced gradually by shallow-water siliciclastics near deltaic depocentres or abruptly by deeper-water sponge-reef-derived beds. Smaller-scale similar flooding and shoaling patterns exist within this overall style that allow sequence or parasequence subdivision in Nova Scotia following an initial oolitic flooding event immediately above the Misaine shale. The association of deltas and reef termination suggests drowning by nutrient poisoning. The mid-Mesozoic biotas appear more robust by living in close proximity to siliciclastics. Being at the carbonate shelf margin and in a non-argillaceous shallow water reef-associated facies would appear to be necessary requirements for gas-bearing reservoir development in the Abenaki, but they are not sufficient. Originally porous oolitic grainstones are tight in areas where they are deeply buried in the Panuke area. Siliciclastic burial influenced the limestone cementation, resulting in potential stratigraphic trapping where offset by subsurface dolomitization and leaching fed by fractures or faults in coarser reef

  11. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  12. Characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and distribution rules of effective reservoirs in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujun Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Songliao Basin, volcanic oil and gas reservoirs are important exploration domains. Based on drilling, logging, and 3D seismic (1495 km2 data, 546 sets of measured physical properties and gas testing productivity of 66 wells in the Changling fault depression, Songliao Basin, eruptive cycles and sub-lithofacies were distinguished after lithologic correction of the 19,384 m volcanic well intervals, so that a quantitative analysis was conducted on the relation between the eruptive cycles, lithologies and lithofacies and the distribution of effective reservoirs. After the relationship was established between lithologies, lithofacies & cycles and reservoir physical properties & oil and gas bearing situations, an analysis was conducted on the characteristics of volcanic reservoirs and the distribution rules of effective reservoirs. It is indicated that 10 eruptive cycles of 3 sections are totally developed in this area, and the effective reservoirs are mainly distributed at the top cycles of eruptive sequences, with those of the 1st and 3rd Members of Yingcheng Formation presenting the best reservoir properties. In this area, there are mainly 11 types of volcanic rocks, among which rhyolite, rhyolitic tuff, rhyolitic tuffo lava and rhyolitic volcanic breccia are the dominant lithologies of effective reservoirs. In the target area are mainly developed 4 volcanic lithofacies (11 sub-lithofacies, among which upper sub-lithofacies of effusive facies and thermal clastic sub-lithofacies of explosion lithofacies are predominant in effective reservoirs. There is an obvious corresponding relationship between the physical properties of volcanic reservoirs and the development degree of effective reservoirs. The distribution of effective reservoirs is controlled by reservoir physical properties, and the formation of effective reservoirs is influenced more by porosity than by permeability. It is concluded that deep volcanic gas exploration presents a good

  13. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  14. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  15. The high-resolution stratigraphic architecture and evolution of the Burdigalian carbonate-silici-clastic sedimentary systems on the Mut Basin, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassant, Ph.

    1999-06-01

    The subject of this doctorate study are the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) carbonate systems in the Mut basin, in south central Turkey. This area is chosen because it presents extraordinary large (seismic) scale 3D outcrops showing depositional geometries. In addition, these carbonates are considered as good outcrop analogues for time equivalent carbonate buildups in the Far East, that are oil and gas bearing. The carbonates were deposited in a complex relict topography, following a tectonically active phase in the Oligocene. During the Burdigalian transgression shallow platform carbonates were deposited in a variety of settings, locally accompanied by some silici-clastic input. Observations on the strata geometries and the facies were combined into a high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework controlled by bio-stratigraphy. With the help of relative sea level curves constructed for the three studied sites, a basin-wide correlation scheme is proposed. This chronostratigraphic framework permits the recognition of condensation and omission surfaces in the basinal and platform settings, to identify basin-wide variations in sedimentation pattern, and to evaluate the relative influence of tectonism, eustatism and the environment. The exceptional quality of the outcrops with its variety of environments, and its location at the Tethys margin, make this a good candidate for a reference model for Burdigalian reef and platform architectures. Examples of a quantitative approach of the geometries of potential carbonate reservoir bodies are given in the annex. The data-files are incorporated in the carbonate reservoir body database CARABAS. (author)

  16. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  17. Sedimentology of clastic rocks from the Fra Mauro region of the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A thin-section examination of sixteen clastic rock samples returned by the Apollo 14 mission from the Fra Mauro region of the moon suggests the presence of at least two distinctly different lithologies. Five of the samples (group I) are characterized by an abundant glassy matrix and glass particles and lesser amounts of plagioclase and pyroxene grains, and lithic clasts. The other eleven samples (group II) are relatively fine grained, very poorly sorted, and consist largely of pyroxene, plagioclase, and lithic clasts set in an abundant mineralic matrix. Group I and II lithologies were probably both deposited from impact generated base surges. The differences between them stem not as much from the basic sedimentary processes as from the differences in the magnitude of the events generating the base surges and the resultant difference in available detrital materials.

  18. Characteristics and Genesis of Fine-Clastic Rock-Type Au Deposits in the Liaodong Rift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gold deposits occurring in the Liaodong rift are located in interlayered carbonate rocks and fine-clastic rocks, belonging to the middle and upper parts of the lower Proterozoic. Compared with the Carlin-type Au deposits abroad and gold deposits in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi, Qinling and western Sichuan Province, they are similar in many respects. This paper discusses the geological features of ore-bearing formations and ore-filling structures and metallogenetic characteristics. Through the discussion on the sources of ores, heat and water, it points out that the Au deposits belong to vadose reworked hydrothermal deposits. This conforms to the principle of "mineralization in the neighbouring areas" i.e., the deposits are formed in nearby ore-bearing layers, and the latest hydrothermal event was the main factor in forming the Au deposits.

  19. Insights on frictional processes in sheared clastic marine sediments using ultrasonic nondestructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, M. W.; Tobin, H. J.; Marone, C.; Ikari, M.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate changes in the elastic properties of deforming core materials recovered from the Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism along the IODP NanTroSEIZE transect. We shear clastic marine sediments while simultaneously making ultrasonic velocity measurements across the deforming layers. Examining the resulting changes in elastic moduli at the laboratory scale allows us to identify characteristic “fingerprints” of deformation style during direct-shear experiments, which may then be compared with measurements conducted at the field scale to infer how deformation is localized within the accretionary prism. Identifying relationships between hold time and attenuation may also shed light on fault healing mechanisms taking place immediately following a rupture. Together the effects of sliding rate and hold time on elastic moduli provide us with new ways of constraining the mechanical behavior of large plat-boundary settings throughout the seismic cycle. We tested intact core material, remolded layers, and disaggregated granular powders derived from a range of depths from IODP sites C0007 and C0004 penetrating the frontal thrust and a large out-of-sequence thrust in the outer prism, respectively. Samples were deformed in a double-direct shear configuration, varying first the strain rate and then subjecting the gouge layer to a series of slides and holds of increasing duration. Elastic wave propagation depends on micromechanical interactions and gouge layer strength, so as the shear zone evolves changes in elastic wavespeed provide a means to interrogate strain materials non-destructively, providing insight into frictional processes and mechanics as that deformation is taking place. Our results suggest that there are characteristic changes in P and S-wave velocity and attenuation for marine clastic to hemipelagic sediments as a function of sliding rate and hold time. Ultimately, examining variation in elastic moduli during a simulated seismic cycle may provide insight

  20. K?Ar dating and geological significance of clastic sediments of the Paleocene Sepultura Formation, Baja California, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez Duarte, Miguel Agustín.; López Martínez, Margarita

    2002-12-01

    At its type locality, the Paleocene Sepultura Formation consists of two members: a lower glauconitic-rich clastic section and an upper calcareous section. Three samples of authigenic glauconite pellets from two localities with good clastic sediment exposures were dated using K-Ar. At the type locality of Mesa La Sepultura, pellets from the middle of the clastic section yield a date of 60±1 Ma (weighted average of four experiments), and pellets from the top of the clastic unit give a date of 60±1 Ma (weighted average of two experiments). Pellets from the base of the section at La Mesa, 60 km distant, give a date of 59±1 Ma (one experiment). Dates obtained are in good agreement with those reported by biostratigraphy and confirm a Late Danian age. Our results differ from those reported elsewhere, in which low potassium content glauconites yield younger K-Ar ages than expected. An explanation for our observed agreement in ages could be related to the tectonic setting of forearc basins, where the low geothermal gradient prevents argon loss and reliable dates can be obtained.

  1. Sedimentology and Chronology of Paleogene Coarse Clastic Rocks in East-Central Tibet and Their Relationship to Early Tectonic Uplift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jiangyu; WANG Jianghai; K. H. BRIAN; A. YIN; M. S. MATTHEW

    2007-01-01

    A systematic sedimentological and chronological study of typical Paleogene basins in eastcentral Tibet suggests that the depositional characteristics of extensively developed huge-bedded,purplish-red coarse clastic rocks formed in a tectonic setting of regional thrusting and strike-slipping represent a typical dry and hot subaerial alluvial fan environment formed in a proximal and rapidaccumulating sediment body in debris flows and a fan-surface braided river. Combining results from basin-fill sequences, sequences of coarse clastic rocks, fauna and sporo-pollen associations and thermochronological data, it is concluded that the coarse clastic rocks formed in the period of 54.2-belt), middle (Batang-Lijiang fault belt), and disintegration of large basins in the southern (LanpingSimao fold belt) segments of Tibet. The widespread massive-bedded coarse clastic rocks, fold thrusting and strike-slip, thrust shortening, and igneous activities in the Paleogene basins of eastcentral Tibet indicate that an early diachronous tectonic uplift might have occurred in the Tibetan Plateau from Middle Eocene to Oligocene, related to the initial stage of collision of the Indian and Asian plates.

  2. An elastic solution for a new notched residual stess specimen subjected to an anti-clastic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Lyckegaard, Anders

    A new test specimen has been proposed to explore the mechanical properties of thermoset resin exposed to residual stresses induced by curing and thermal expansion. The test principle is based on anti-clastic bending of a plate with a hole. An elastic solution to the bending problem is derived in ...

  3. A generalized Nadai failure criterion for both crystalline and clastic rocks based on true triaxial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimson, Bezalel; Chang, Chandong; Ma, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    The UW true triaxial testing system enables the application of independent compressive loads to cuboidal specimens (19×19×38 mm) along three principal directions. We used the apparatus to conduct extensive series of experiments in three crystalline rocks (Westerly granite, KTB amphibolite, and SAFOD granodiorite) and three clastic rocks of different porosities [TCDP siltstone (7%), Coconino sandstone (17%), and Bentheim sandstone (24%)]. For each rock, several magnitudes of σ3 were employed, between 0 MPa and 100-160 MPa, and for every σ3, σ2 was varied from test to test between σ2 = σ3 and σ2=(0.4 to 1.0) σ1.Testing consisted of keeping σ2and σ3constant, and raising σ1to failure (σ1,peak). The results, plotted as σ1,peakvs. σ2for each σ3 used, highlight the undeniable effect of σ2on the compressive failure of rocks. For each level of σ3, the lowest σ2 tested (σ2 = σ3) yielded the data point used for conventional-triaxial failure criterion. However, for the same σ3 and depending on σ2 magnitude, the maximum stress bringing about failure (σ1,peak) may be considerably higher, by as much as 50% in crystalline rocks, or 15% in clastic rocks, over that in a conventional triaxial test. An important consequence is that use of a Mohr-type criterion leads to overly conservative predictions of failure. The true triaxial test results demonstrate that a criterion in terms of all (three principal stresses is necessary to characterize failure. Thus, we propose a 'Generalized Nadai Criterion' (GNC) based on Nadai (1950), i.e. expressed in terms of the two stress invariants at failure (f), τoct,f = βσoct,f, where τoct,f = 1/3[(σ1,peak -σ2)2+(σ2 -σ3)2+(σ3 -σ1,peak)2]0.5 and σoct,f = (σ1,peak + σ2 + σ3)/3, and β is a function that varies from rock to rock. Moreover, the criterion depends also on the relative magnitude of σ2, represented by a parameter b [= (σ2 - σ3)/(σ1,peak - σ3)]. For each octahedral shear stress at failure (

  4. Emplacement of the Jurassic Mirdita ophiolites (southern Albania): evidence from associated clastic and carbonate sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Ionescu, Corina; Hoeck, Volker; Koller, Friedrich; Onuzi, Kujtim; Bucur, Ioan I.; Ghega, Dashamir

    2012-09-01

    Sedimentology can shed light on the emplacement of oceanic lithosphere (i.e. ophiolites) onto continental crust and post-emplacement settings. An example chosen here is the well-exposed Jurassic Mirdita ophiolite in southern Albania. Successions studied in five different ophiolitic massifs (Voskopoja, Luniku, Shpati, Rehove and Morava) document variable depositional processes and palaeoenvironments in the light of evidence from comparable settings elsewhere (e.g. N Albania; N Greece). Ophiolitic extrusive rocks (pillow basalts and lava breccias) locally retain an intact cover of oceanic radiolarian chert (in the Shpati massif). Elsewhere, ophiolite-derived clastics typically overlie basaltic extrusives or ultramafic rocks directly. The oldest dated sediments are calpionellid- and ammonite-bearing pelagic carbonates of latest (?) Jurassic-Berrasian age. Similar calpionellid limestones elsewhere (N Albania; N Greece) post-date the regional ophiolite emplacement. At one locality in S Albania (Voskopoja), calpionellid limestones are gradationally underlain by thick ophiolite-derived breccias (containing both ultramafic and mafic clasts) that were derived by mass wasting of subaqueous fault scarps during or soon after the latest stages of ophiolite emplacement. An intercalation of serpentinite-rich debris flows at this locality is indicative of mobilisation of hydrated oceanic ultramafic rocks. Some of the ophiolite-derived conglomerates (e.g. Shpati massif) include well-rounded serpentinite and basalt clasts suggestive of a high-energy, shallow-water origin. The Berriasian pelagic limestones (at Voskopoja) experienced reworking and slumping probably related to shallowing and a switch to neritic deposition. Mixed ophiolite-derived clastic and neritic carbonate sediments accumulated later, during the Early Cretaceous (mainly Barremian-Aptian) in variable deltaic, lagoonal and shallow-marine settings. These sediments were influenced by local tectonics or eustatic sea

  5. Production-induced changes in reservoir geomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyedo, Sunday O.

    sensitivity of the reservoir and overburden shale of Forties Field, I observe that while pore pressure variations have not been significant in most parts of the field, a relatively higher decrease in pore pressure in a region of the reservoir has affected the geomechanical properties of both reservoir and overlying rock strata . I found that strain development in the field accounts, in part, for increased reservoir sand production and a negative velocity change in the overburden, which provides an indication of dilation. I use changes in the AVO intercept and gradient calibrated with laboratory measurements to decouple the time-lapse (4D) difference into saturation and pressure changes. Furthermore, I propose a new modification to time-lapse AVO inversion workflows to account for the effect of porosity change in measurements of time-lapse difference. This is particularly crucial in highly-compacting chalk and poorly consolidated clastic reservoirs. Rock-physics-driven inversion of 3D pre-stack seismic data plays a prominent role in the characterization of both reservoir and overburden rocks. Understanding the rock physics of the overburden rock is required for efficient production of the reservoir and to safeguard wellbore, down-hole assembly and supporting surface facilities. Taking Forties Field as a case study, I observe that while instability and subsequent failure of the overburden in the field can be linked to the rapid decrease of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at inclinations close to 45 degrees to the bedding plan, some zones in the overburden are characterized by extreme weakness regardless of the well angle through the rock. I use the correlation between unconfined compressive strength and elastic moduli (Young's and Bulk moduli), coupled with the results of simultaneous inversion to derive 3D elastic moduli, calibrated to laboratory measurements, to characterize the zones of extreme weakness. Time-lapse gravimetry continues to find increasing

  6. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  7. Sedimentology of clastic rocks returned from the moon by Apollo 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A petrographic study of eleven samples of clastic rock returned from the moon by Apollo 15 suggests that two lithologies are present. The distinction between the two lithologies is based on the glass content of the rock matrices and the morphology of the detrital particles. Group I rocks have abundant, glass-rich, porous matrices and glass particles with morphologies comparable to those of glass particles in the lunar soil. The group I rocks were probably formed by welding or sintering of surficial soil deposits by impact-generated base surges of limited extent. Group II rocks have an essentially mineralic matrix and have an abundance of rounded mineral grains. Sample 15455 is the only Apollo 15 sample assigned to this group. In its general textural features, sample 15455 is comparable with the group II rocks from the Fra Mauro Formation at the Apollo 14 site. Textural features such as shock modification and rounding of mineral grains suggest that this sample is the product of a large-scale impact-generated base surge which possibly resulted from the Imbrian event.

  8. Origin of bentonites and clastic sediments of the Paleocene Basilika Formation, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, Felix; Spiegel, Cornelia; Estrada, Solveig; Davis, Donald; Reinhardt, Lutz; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Allroggen, Niklas; Dohrmann, Reiner; Piepjohn, Karsten; Lisker, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The Paleocene was a time of transition for the Arctic, with magmatic activity of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province giving way to magmatism of the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province in connection to plate tectonic changes in the Arctic and North Atlantic. In this study we investigate the Paleocene magmatic record and sediment pathways of the Basilika Formation exposed in the Central Tertiary Basin of Svalbard. By means of geochemistry, Sm-Nd isotopic signatures and zircon U-Pb geochronology we investigate the characteristics of several bentonite layers contained in the Basilika Formation, as well as the provenance of the intercalated clastic sediments. Our data show that the volcanic ash layers of the Basilika Formation, which were diagenetically altered to bentonites, originate from alkaline continental-rift magmatism such as the last, explosive stages of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province in North Greenland and the Canadian Arctic. The volcanic ash layers were deposited on Svalbard in a flat shelf environment with dominant sediment supply from the east. Dating of detrital zircons suggests that the detritus was derived from Siberian sources, primarily from the Verkhoyansk Fold-and-Thrust Belt, which would require transport over ~3000 km across the Arctic.

  9. Improved seismic inversion for mapping pre-chalk reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerch Pedersen, J.

    1999-08-01

    The project has demonstrated the use of an integrated reservoir characterisation technique on data from the West Lulu Middle Jurassic reservoir. It has been demonstrated how impedance derived from seismic data through seismic inversion can improve the reservoir characterisation. In this case with a modest well database so the introduction of the seismic impedance narrows the possible solutions with respect to reservoir architecture. The seismic inversion method has furthermore been improved with the implementation of time variable wavelet, an important new feature for cases where the target is below the deepest well or when large time window is inverted. (au)

  10. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  11. Provenance of the Walash-Naopurdan back-arc-arc clastic sequences in the Iraqi Zagros Suture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sarmad A.; Sleabi, Rajaa S.; Talabani, Mohammad J. A.; Jones, Brian G.

    2017-01-01

    Marine clastic rocks occurring in the Walash and Naopurdan Groups in the Hasanbag and Qalander areas, Kurdistan region, Iraqi Zagros Suture Zone, are lithic arenites with high proportions of volcanic rock fragments. Geochemical classification of the Eocene Walash and Oligocene Naopurdan clastic rocks indicates that they were mainly derived from associated sub-alkaline basalt and andesitic basalt in back-arc and island arc tectonic settings. Major and trace element geochemical data reveal that the Naopurdan samples are chemically less mature than the Walash samples and both were subjected to moderate weathering. The seaway in the southern Neotethys Ocean was shallow during both Eocene and Oligocene permitting mixing of sediment from the volcanic arcs with sediment derived from the Arabian continental margin. The Walash and Naopurdan clastic rocks enhance an earlier tectonic model of the Zagros Suture Zone with their deposition occurring during the Eocene Walash calc-alkaline back-arc magmatism and Early Oligocene Naopurdan island arc magmatism in the final stages of intra-oceanic subduction before the Miocene closure and obduction of the Neotethys basin.

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  13. Characteristics of Chang 21 Low Permeability Sandstone Reservoir in Shunning Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min; YU Liu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of Chang 21 low permeability sandstone reservoir of Shunning oil field are analyzed and evaluated based on the data of well logging and experiment. The result shows that 1) the Chang 21 low permeability reservoir belongs to the classification of middle-to-fine sized feldspar sandstone, with its components being low in maturity, deposited in distributary rivers in the front of the delta; 2) the reservoir is obviously dominated by a low or a very low permeability with a linear variation tendency different from that of the ultra-low permeability reservoir; 3) the spatial variation in lithology and physical properties of the reservoir are controlled by the sedimentary facies zones, and 4)the physical property of the reservoir is significantly influenced by clastic constituents and their structure, and the constituent of cement materials and their content. The result also shows that the diagenesis action of the reservoir is quite strong in which dissolution greatly modified the reservoir In addition, the inter-granular dissolved pores are the mainly developed ones and the micro-structure is dominated by the combination of middle-to-large sized pores with fine-to-coarse throats. Finally, the radius of the throats is in good exponential correlation with permeability and the seepage capacity comes from those large sized throats.

  14. Identifying the annual signal in laminated clastic sediments from a Late Pleistocene lake succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Samuel; Starnberger, Reinhard; Spötl, Christoph; Brauer, Achim; Dulski, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A thick (>250m) succession of laminated lacustrine sediments at the Baumkirchen site in the Inn Valley (Austria) indicates the presence of a lake or series of lake phases existing during Marine Isotope Stage 3. The laminations are highly complex, entirely clastic, and vary considerably in thickness and internal structure. Despite high sedimentation rates of 5-6 cm per year indicated by radiocarbon and pollen data, there is no systematic macroscopic annual pattern in the laminations which could be used to develop a high-resolution (varve) chronology. Microscopic investigations of thin sections revealed sub-mm to cm-scale silt layers punctuated by very thin (0.25-2 mm) clay-rich layers spaced semi-regularly between 2 and 8 cm where present. The spacing and small grain size of these thin layers suggests a possible annual process responsible for their formation: rain-out of the fine suspended sediment from the water column during winter, when fluvial discharge into the lake was negligible and its surface was frozen. These potentially annual layers are not reliably identifiable macroscopically, however, analysis of X-ray fluorescence core scan data revealed the layers to be enriched in several heavy metals: most strongly in Zn but also in Pb, Cu and Ni. Possible carrier minerals of these heavy metals are currently being investigated. The radiocarbon chronology (in the short upper section where it is available) and heavy metal peak counting agree within error suggesting the heavy metal enriched clay-rich layers are mostly annual. Available X-ray fluorescence data for 150 m of the section suggest no significant long-term changes in annual layer spacing (i.e. sedimentation rate) from the 5-6 cm average indicated by the radiocarbon data, although there is a high degree of small-scale variation. Preliminary optically stimulated luminescence dates point to the presence of several hiatuses in this succession suggesting a fragmented record containing several lake periods of

  15. 川西前陆盆地中段须家河组二段储层储集空间特征及演化%Reservoir Spaces of the Second Section of Xujiahe Formation and Evolution in Middle Part of West Sichuan Foreland Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳; 彭军; 张纪智; 罗文军; 刘焕

    2012-01-01

    川西前陆盆地中段上三叠统须家河组二段(须二段)储层普遍为超致密储层。通过显微镜下观察、阴极发光分析、扫描电镜分析等发现,储集空间以各类次生孔隙为主,微裂缝和少量残余原生孔隙次之。储集空间的发育受控于复杂而强烈的成岩变化,早期绿泥石的形成、多期次的溶蚀作用、与不整合相关的差异压实作用对储集空间发育起建设性控制作用。根据储层成岩矿物形成的时间及对孔隙度破坏以及次生孔隙形成的定量统计表明,目前该区砂岩已达到中成岩B期,储集空间主要经历了早成岩阶段压实作用对原生孔隙的破坏,中成岩阶段A期油气大量进入储层时酸性水溶蚀形成次生孔隙,以及其后成岩阶段中碳酸盐胶结和硅质胶结对次生孔隙的破坏3个阶段。%The second section of upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation reservoir in the middle part of west Sichuan foreland basin is generally super-tight.By means of the microscope,cathodoluminescence,scanning electron microscopy,the reservoir spaces mainly consist in the secondary porosity,micro-cracks and little residual primary porosity.The development of reservoir space is controlled by the complex and strong diagenetic processes,in which formation of early chlorite,multiphasic dissolution,and unconformity-related differential compaction play a constructive control role in the development of reservoir spaces.According to diagenetic mineral formation time and quantitative statistic on original pore loss and secondary porosity,the sandstone of this area has been in the middle diagenetic stage B.The reservoir space experienced three stages: destruction of primary porosity caused by compaction in the early diagenetic stage,secondary porosity created by acidic water dissolution in the middle diagenetic stage A while the oil and gas poured into the reservoirs,and destruction of secondary porosity caused by the cementation of

  16. Reservoir evaluation and exploration potential analysis of North Gabon subbasin of Gabon coast basin in West Africa%西非加蓬海岸盆地北加蓬次盆油气藏评价及勘探潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭念发

    2014-01-01

    Gabon coast basin is one of the West Africa group basins. Since Cretaceous, Gabon basin undergoes lift period, transi⁃tion period and passive continental margin period. Oil reservoirs in North Gabon sub-basin mainly locate in post salt layers, which are controlled by regional tectonic framework, and regional structural belt is identical with oil and gas concentration zone. Azile mudstone of Upper Cretaceous which reaches generate-oil and gas peak in Miocene Period of Tertiary is the main source rock in this area. Anguille of Upper Cretaceous and member Clairette of Pointe sandstone are the main reservoirs in this district, of which the type of oil and gas reservoirs is upper source rocks and lower reservoir rocks, and the oil and gas migration is in a short dis⁃tance. There is pressure close box in oil reservoir. Because Anguille sandstone is limited by surrounding mudstones, abnormal pres⁃sure system appears in Anguille oil reservoirs whose pressure coefficient reaches 1.3~1.66. According to Anguille sandstone distri⁃bution, the developed effective source rocks and turbidite fan areas in this district with the favorable accumulation conditions are the key areas of future exploration.%加蓬海岸盆地为西非盆地群组成部分,自白垩纪以来,盆地经历了裂谷期、过渡期和被动大陆边缘沉积时期。北加蓬次盆油气成藏以盐上层系为主,油气藏分布受区域构造演化影响,油气聚集带与区域构造带走向一致。上白垩统Azile组泥岩为主要源岩,该套烃源岩在中新世达到生烃高峰。上白垩统Anguille组和Pointe Clairette组砂岩为主要储层,盆地成藏模式为下生上储型,油气以近距离侧向运移为主。盆地存在压力封存箱现象。Anguille组大套泥岩形成了异常压力系统,地层压力系数在1.3~1.66。根据盆地浊积砂体分布特征,认为北加蓬次盆西南部地区上白垩统有效烃源岩和浊积扇均发育的地区油气

  17. Mississippian clastic-to-carbonate transition in the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska: Depositional cycles of the Endicott and Lisburne Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepain, D.L.; Crowden, R.K.; Watts, K.F. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Ellesmerian sequence in northeastern Alaska consists of a thick succession of Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate and terrigenous clastic rocks. At the base of the Ellesmerian sequence, clastic rocks of the Endicott Group are the lower part of a major transgressive sequence that passes gradationally upward into carbonates of the Lisburne Group. In the Endicott Group, the basal Kekiktuk Conglomerate was deposited in fluvial and marginal marine environments. A broad suite of tidally influenced, shallow-marine environments are recorded in the overlying Kayak Shale. The transition into carbonate platform rocks of the Lisburne Group is recorded in a series of depositional cycles developed within the upper half of the Kayak Shale. In the lower beds of the transition, the depositional cycles are multiple upward-thickening and upward-coarsening successions composed of (1) organic-rich siltstone containing flaser-bedded and lenticular-bedded fine-grained sandstone, (2) fine-grained, ripple-laminated quartzarenite, and (3) an intensely bioturbated horizon of medium- to coarse-grained quartzarenite that contains scattered brachiopods, bryozoa, and crinoids. Each cycle is terminated by a sharp transgressive surface that consists of a thin shale drape. Near the top of the Kayak Shale, the coarse-grained horizons become increasingly replaced by wackestone, grainstone, and coralline boundstone. Despite the lithologic change, the vertical upward-thickening and upward-coarsening cycles continue in the basal limestone of the Lisburne Group. Repeated upward-shallowing episodes, followed by coastal onlap, are likely mechanisms for this cyclicity and suggests a genetic relation between both the clastic and carbonate depositional cycles.

  18. Energy R and D. Geothermal energy and underground reservoirs; R et D energie. Geothermie et reservoirs souterrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Geothermal energy appears as a viable economic alternative among the different renewable energy sources. The French bureau of geological and mining researches (BRGM) is involved in several research and development programs in the domain of geothermal energy and underground reservoirs. This document presents the content of 5 programs: the deep hot dry rock system of Soultz-sous-Forets (construction and testing of the scientific pilot, modeling of the reservoir structure), the development of low and high enthalpy geothermal energy in the French West Indies, the comparison of the geothermal development success of Bouillante (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) with the check of the geothermal development of Nyssiros (Greece) and Pantelleria (Italy), the development of the high enthalpy geothermal potentialities of Reunion Island, and the underground storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in geologic formations (deep aquifers, geothermal reservoirs, abandoned mines or oil reservoirs). (J.S.)

  19. Paleomagnetic Results On Clastic Turbidite Systems In Compressional Settings: Example From The Eocene Hecho Group (southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oms, O.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Remacha, E.

    The Hecho group clastic turbidites were deposited in the southpyrenean foreland basin during the Paleocene and Eocene. These turbidites have provided well-known strati- graphic and facies models, and can be considered as one of the most studied ancient turbidite models of the world. This is because of the quality and preservation of the sedimentary record (basin-wide lateral continuity of rock-bodies, physical correlation linking deep-sea with platform strata, clear interaction with tectonic structures etc.) However, the Hecho group has not been a target for paleomagnetic studies despite the overwhelming sedimentological knowledge (in fact, sediments from such sedimento- logical and tectonic settings have been largely overlooked in the magnetostratigraphic literature). Here we present the results from a 2200 m-thick section mostly located in the Aragón valley north of the Jaca village (Huesca province). Planktic forams and calcareous nannoplankton data place the section in the middle Eocene. The lower and middle part of the section is representative of the pure flysch stage of the basin evo- lution (in the appenninic sense) and is build up by deep clastic depositional systems including carbonate megabreccias. The upper part of the section involves the transi- tion to a molasse stage by the occurrence of channelized turbidites (known as Rapitán system) that further up evolve to prodelta and platform deposits (Larrés slope marls and Sabiñánigo sandstone formations, respectively). The paleomagnetic investigation is based on the study of about 280 samples from 80 sampling sites, including mea- surements of remanence, anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and rock magnetic experiments. Our data shows that magnetization is carried out mainly by iron sulphides that define a section dominated by reversed polarities although normal polarity zones are found. Considering the biostratigraphic constraints we make a cor- relation to the standard polarity scale

  20. Markov chains and entropy tests in genetic-based lithofacies analysis of deep-water clastic depositional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borka Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between structural elements and the so-called genetic lithofacies in a clastic deep-water depositional system. Process-sedimentology has recently been gaining importance in the characterization of these systems. This way the recognized facies attributes can be associated with the depositional processes establishing the genetic lithofacies. In this paper this approach was presented through a case study of a Tertiary deep-water sequence of the Pannonian-basin.

  1. Distribution and characteristics of volcanic reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yulong; WANG Pujun; CHEN Shuming

    2009-01-01

    About forty productive oil/gas fields hosted in volcanic reservoirs have been found since 1957 in fourteen basins of China. They can be simply subdivided into two groups, the east and the west. Reservoir volcanic rocks of the east group are predominantly composed of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rhyolite and Tertiary basalt, preferred being considered as rift type volcanics developed in the circum-Pacific tectonic regime. Those of the west are Permo-Carboniferous intermediate/basic volcanic rocks, being island-arc type ones developed in paleo-Asian Ocean tectonic regime.

  2. Improved reservoir exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, P.R. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with reservoir exploitation and it highlights some ideas on how to improve exploitive skills to optimise the recovery of a field. The author looks closer at what needs to be done to optimise the reservoir data and the exploitation tools, and what are the needs of the reservoir production management. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Climate signals in Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.; Cantalejo, B.; Scotchman, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, occupies a crucial position between the non-marine, marginal-marine and shallow-marine environments that acted as the sediment-supply and staging areas for sediment transfer processes into the deep-marine environments of the Ainsa Basin, and the more distal Jaca and Pamplona basins. Studies of source-to-sink systems make the Eocene stratigraphy of the Pyrenees and adjoining areas one of the best natural laboratories worldwide for understanding a complete sedimentary system. The hydrocarbon industry requires good predictive models for the distribution of reservoir and non-reservoir deposits. Using a wide range of proxy physical and geochemical data, we show with a high degree of confidence that Milankovitch forcing at a range of astronomical scales controlled deposition of the thin-bedded, fine-grained sandy turbidites and hemipelagites throughout the basin (~ 70% of the stratigraphy). The driver on sandy channelised submarine-fan deposition (the principal sandbodies) cannot be simply related to Milankovitch frequencies and is likely to be due to a combination of climatic, tectonic and/or autocyclic processes.

  4. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Historical potentiometric surface of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Peter W.; Ardis, Ann F.; Wynn, Kirby H.

    1993-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is a sequence of near-surface, hydraulically connected, Cretaceous carbonate and quartzose clastic rocks that underlie about 42,000 mi2 of west-central Texas (fig. 1). The aquifer system is currently (1991) being studied as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program, which is intended to describe the regional hydrogeology of important aquifer systems nationwide.

  7. Interaction of marine and fluvial clastic sedimentation, central Italy, Tyrrhenian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, S.; Full, W.E.; Tortora, P.

    1989-03-01

    An integrated approach was used to study the interaction of fluvial, beach, and marine processes on sedimentation at the west-central coast of Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea. The study area, 120 km northwest of Rome, is bounded on the north by Mt. Argentario, on the east by Pleistocene volcanics, on the south by the St. Augustine River, and on the west by the 50-mn bathymetric isopleth. The primary tools used included field work, textural analysis, high-resolution marine seismic, SEM, and Fourier shape analysis. Field work revealed incised streams, potentially relict beach ridges and lagoons, and relatively steep nearshore marine slopes in the northern portions of the study area. The result of the shape analysis performed on 56 samples was the definition of four end members. Each end member reflects a sedimentation process. Three end members were directly associated with fluvial sedimentation, and the fourth reflected marine processes. The seismic data along with the SEM analysis strongly supported the interpretation of four processes that dominate the recent sedimentation history. The sand interpreted to be associated with marine processes was found to represent the smoothest end member. SEM analysis suggests that the smoothing is not due to abrasion but to plastering associated with biologic processes (digestion.) and/or with silica precipitation associated with clay alteration at the freshwater/saltwater interface.

  8. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  9. Lithofacies Architecturing and Hydrocarbon Reservoir Potential of Lumshiwal Formation: Surghar Range, Trans-Indus Ranges, North Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Western environs of the Indo-Pak Plate are comprised of thick Mesozoic sedimentary sequence and extensively extended toward Trans-Indus Salt ranges of North Pakistan. This sequence consists of detrital clastic sediments in the lower level and shallow to deep marine sediments in the upper level. In the Trans-Indus Salt ranges the Lumshiwal Formation represents the transitional level of the lower Cretaceous sequence. In Surghar Range the lower part of formation is composed of cyclic alteration of clayey, silty, very fine grained greenish gray, glauconitic sandstone to rusty brownish gray sandstone. The middle part of formation is comprised of thick bedded to massive, cliff forming, sugary texture, whitish to light yellowish gray occasionally rusty brownish gray medium to coarse grained, moderate to well cemented sandstone. The upper part is comprised of feldspathic, ferruginous, weathering yellowish brown, rusty brown to light gray with locally calcareous sandstone beds. The sandstone is reddish to brownish gray, coarse to granules texture, moderately cemented thick bedded to massive. Total thickness of the formation is 220m at Baroch Nala section 230m in Karandi section at a dip of 60°. Along trend lithological variations and diversified primary sedimentary structures which classifies fifteen different sub-lithofacie in Lumshiwal. Middle and upper parts of the formation show massive to thick, current bedded deposits. Lithofacies analysis revealed that the Lumshiwal Formation was deposited in shallow marine for the lower cyclic part to transitionally prodeltaic to deltaic for the middle to upper part respectively. High silica contents in the upper part compare to the middle and lower part of the formation. On the basis of high silica and low alumina with other low fractions of rock fragments, the sandstone is categorized into quartzarenite, sub-litharenite and sub-arkose. Cross beds in the middle and upper parts of formation indicate west to east

  10. Relation between facies, diagenesis, and reservoir quality of Rotliegende reservoirs in north Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, F.; Gast, R.; Kraft, T. (BEB Erdgas Erdol GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    In north Germany, the majority of Rotliegende gas fields is confined to an approximately 50 km-wide east-west-orientated belt, which is situated on the gently north-dipping flank of the southern Permian basin. Approximately 400 billion m[sup 3] of natural gas has been found in Rotliegende reservoir sandstones with average porosities of depths ranging from 3500 to 5000 m. Rotliegende deposition was controlled by the Autunian paleo-relief, and arid climate and cyclic transgressions of the desert lake. In general, wadis and large dunefields occur in the hinterland, sebkhas with small isolate dunes and shorelines define the coastal area, and a desert lake occurs to the north. The sandstones deposited in large dunefields contain only minor amounts of illite, anhydrite, and calcite and form good reservoirs. In contrast, the small dunes formed in the sebkha areas were affected by fluctuations of the desert lake groundwaters, causing the infiltration of detrital clay and precipitation of gypsum and calcite. These cements were transformed to illite, anhydrite, and calcite-II during later diagenesis, leading to a significant reduction of the reservoir quality. The best reservoirs occur in the shoreline sandstones because porosity and permeability were preserved by early magnesium-chlorite diagenesis. Since facies controls diagenesis and consequently reservoir quality, mapping of facies also indicates the distribution of reservoir and nonreservoir rocks. This information is used to identify play area and to interpret and calibrate three-dimensional seismic data.

  11. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drillings. Annual technical progress report, June 13, 1996 to June 12, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevans, Jerry W.; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill

    1999-04-27

    Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, does not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. Other technologies, such as inter-well injection tracers and magnetic flow conditioners, can also aid in the efficient evaluation and operation of both injection and producing wells. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate useful and cost effective methods of exploitation of the shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin located in West Texas.

  12. Reservoir compartmentalization and management strategies: Lessons learned in the Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grube, J.P.; Crockett, J.E.; Huff, B.G. [and others

    1997-08-01

    A research project jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Illinois State Geological Survey focused on the Cypress and Aux Vases Formations (Mississippian), major clastic reservoirs in the Illinois Basin. Results from the research showed that understanding the nature and distribution of reservoir compartments, and using effective reservoir management strategies, can significantly improve recovery efficiencies from oil fields in this mature basin. Compartments can be most effectively drained where they are geologically well defined and reservoir management practices are coordinated through unified, compartment-wide, development programs. Our studies showed that the Cypress and Aux Vases reservoirs contain lateral and vertical permeability barriers forming compartments that range in size from isolated, interlaminated sandstone and shale beds to sandstone bodies tens of feet in thickness and more than a mile in length. Stacked or shingled, genetically similar sandstone bodies are commonly separated by thin impermeable intervals that can be difficult to distinguish on logs and can, therefore, cause correlation problems, even between wells drilled on spacing of less than ten acres. Lateral separation of sandstone bodies causes similar problems. Reservoir compartmentalization reduces primary and particularly secondary recovery by trapping pockets of by-passed or banked oil. Compartments can be detected by comparing recovery factors of genetically similar sandstone bodies within a field; using packers to separate commingled intervals and analyzing fluid recoveries and pressures; making detailed core-to-log calibrations that identify compartment boundaries; and analyzing pressure data from waterflood programs.

  13. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  14. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  15. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. Throughout the project, however, we learned that this strategy was impractical because the different data and model are complementary instead of competitive. For the complex Coalinga field, we found that a thorough understanding of the reservoir evolution through geologic times provides the necessary framework which ultimately allows integration of the different data and techniques.

  16. SEISMIC DETERMINATION OF RESERVOIR HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATION TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias G. Imhof; James W. Castle

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data can be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study focused on West Coalinga Field in California. The project initially attempted to build reservoir models based on different geologic and geophysical data independently using different tools, then to compare the results, and ultimately to integrate them all. We learned, however, that this strategy was impractical. The different data and tools need to be integrated from the beginning because they are all interrelated. This report describes a new approach to geostatistical modeling and presents an integration of geology and geophysics to explain the formation of the complex Coalinga reservoir.

  17. Influence of nanomirelal phases on development processes of oil reservoirs in Volga-Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Victor; Sitdikova, Lyalya

    2010-05-01

    authors have worked out the concept of lithogeochemical equilibrium in the oil-reservoir system. According to this concept, the reservoir-fluid system contains inert and active mineral phases. Clastic grains in terrigenous reservoirs and carbonate accumulations in carbonate reservoirs represent the inert phases that do not react to reservoir stimulations. The active mineral phases are generally represented by finely dispersed, nano-sized minerals that form an unstable mineral assemblage, rapidly changing its form and orientation within pores and voids and crystallising in them in the course of the reservoir stimulation. The active nanomineral component is represented by clay minerals, finely dispersed carbonate material, finely dispersed sulphide minerals (pyrite), finely dispersed hydroxides, finely dispersed quartz and rare minerals. The dynamic analysis of nanomineral phases in pore channels of the oil reservoir allows the prediction of the reservoir reaction to a specific EOR method, the selection of reservoir stimulation methods and the optimisation of oil recovery. In accordance with the authors' instructions, the reservoir properties, areal distribution and spatial concentration of active nanomineral phases as well as their reaction to the physicochemical impact have been recorded in the course of the lithotechnological mapping in some oil fields of the Volga-Ural province. Such lithotechnological maps allow the selection of optimal reservoir stimulation methods with consideration for the lithological and mineralogical characteristics of the reservoir, including its particular regions, and for their reaction to the stimulation.

  18. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-03-31

    The West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma is one of few newly discovered oil fields in Oklahoma. Although profitable, the field exhibits several unusual characteristics. These include decreasing water-oil ratios, decreasing gas-oil ratios, decreasing bottomhole pressures during shut-ins in some wells, and transient behavior for water production in many wells. This report explains the unusual characteristics of West Carney Field based on detailed geological and engineering analyses. We propose a geological history that explains the presence of mobile water and oil in the reservoir. The combination of matrix and fractures in the reservoir explains the reservoir's flow behavior. We confirm our hypothesis by matching observed performance with a simulated model and develop procedures for correlating core data to log data so that the analysis can be extended to other, similar fields where the core coverage may be limited.

  19. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady s

  1. Modeling vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, R.; McEdwards, D.; Neri, G.; Ruffilli, C.; Schroeder, R.; Weres, O.; Witherspoon, P.

    1977-09-12

    The unresolved questions with regard to vapor-dominated reservoir production and longevity are reviewed. The simulation of reservoir behavior and the LBL computer program are discussed. The geology of Serrazzano geothermal field and its reservoir simulation are described. (MHR)

  2. Optical dating of fluvio-deltaic clastic lake-fill sediments - A feasibility study in the Holocene Rhine delta (western Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Bos, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    We test the applicability of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on clastic lake sediments to investigate whether this dating method can be applied to study the timing and rate of deposition in Holocene fluvio-deltaic lakes. Our study concerns the filling of a lake by the Angstel-V

  3. Environmental flows in the context of small reservoirs in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Kirshen, P.; Vogel, R.; Walker, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modification of rivers by dams reduces the magnitude and frequency of floods, and impacts the entire flow regime. In many cases, these modifications have adversely affected the ecological and hydrological integrity of the watershed as well as impacting food security and livelihood choices of the local community. There is now an increasing consensus that modification to river flows needs to be balanced with maintenance of essential water-dependent ecological services. Many small multi-purpose reservoirs have been built in West Africa, where rainfall is highly variable, and droughts and flash floods are frequent. These small reservoirs are an important source of water for domestic use, livestock watering, small-scale irrigation and other beneficial uses in rural communities. The small reservoirs are hydrologically linked by their associated stream network. The reservoirs alter the hydrology of the streams and the groundwater resources within the region. When an individual reservoir is considered, alteration to the entire watershed is usually not significant. However, when considered as a system, together the small reservoirs store a significant quantity of water and influence downstream flows. The small reservoirs have rarely been considered as a system, thus little consideration has been given to their collective impact on the natural environment and livelihoods of the local population in the long term. Furthermore, the impact is difficult to quantify given the diffuse nature of the small reservoirs. Therefore, a comprehensive environmental flow assessment is needed to investigate the effect of the small reservoirs as a system on the watershed, and appropriate water policy should be formulated to implement the finding from the assessment. Our project is specifically aimed at addressing this topic. We will present a case study conducted in the Upper East Region of Ghana and will discuss the findings on the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic implications of

  4. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  5. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2001-06-16

    The Class 2 Project at West Welch was designed to demonstrate the use of advanced technologies to enhance the economics of improved oil recovery (IOR) projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate (SSC) reservoirs, resulting in recovery of additional oil that would otherwise be left in the reservoir at project abandonment. Accurate reservoir description is critical to the effective evaluation and efficient design of IOR projects in the heterogeneous SSC reservoirs. Therefore, the majority of Budget Period 1 was devoted to reservoir characterization. Technologies being demonstrated include: (1) Advanced petrophysics; (2) Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic; (3) Crosswell bore tomography; (4) Advanced reservoir simulation; (5) Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stimulation treatments; (6) Hydraulic fracturing design and monitoring; and (7) Mobility control agents.

  6. Fingerprinting Persistent Turbidity in Sheep Creek Reservoir, Owhyee, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, R. N.; Hooper, R. L.; Kerner, D.; Nicols, S.

    2007-12-01

    Sheep Creek Reservoir near Owyhee, NV is historically a quality rainbow trout fishery. Persistent high-turbidity has been an issue since a major storm event in 2005 resulted in surface water runoff into the Reservoir. The high turbidity is adversely impacting the quality of the fishery. Initial turbidity measurements in 2005 were upwards of 80NTU and these numbers have only decreased to 30NTU over the past two summers. Field parameters indicate the turbidity is associated with high total suspended solids (TSS) and not algae. Five water samples collected from around the reservoir during June, 2007 indicated uniform TSS values in the range of 5 to 12mg/L and oriented powder x-ray diffraction(XRD) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) analyses of suspended sediment shows very uniform suspended particulate mineralogy including smectite, mixed layer illite/smectite (I/S), discrete illite, lesser amounts of kaolin, sub-micron quartz and feldspar. Diatoms represent a ubiquitous but minor component of the suspended solids. Six soil samples collected from possible source areas around the reservoir were analyzed using both XRD and TEM to see if a source area for the suspended solids could be unambiguously identified. Soils on the east side of the reservoir contain smectite and mixed layer I/S but very little of the other clays. The less than 2 micron size fraction from soils collected from a playa on the topographic bench immediately to the west of the reservoir show a mineralogic finger-print essentially identical to the current suspended sediment. The suspended sediment probably originates on the bench to the west of the reservoir and cascades into the reservoir over the topographic break during extreme storm events. The topographic relief, short travel distance and lack of a suitable vegetated buffer zone to the west are all consistent with a primary persistent suspended sediment source from the west. Identification of the sediment source allows for design of a cost

  7. Integrated Geophysical Techniques for Exploring Deep Volcanic Rock Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXuejun; UDechun; ZhangChangjiang; RanXuefeng

    2003-01-01

    The Carboniferous and Pre-Carboniferous formations in Ludong, Zhungar basin, contain favorable oil/gas reservoirs. The Carboniferous formations, however, are complex in structure and exhibit lateral variations in lithology. Seismic reflections from Pre-Triassic formations are poor and the volcanic reservoirs are very difficult to identify. The analysis of physical properties concluded that the major targets in this region, i.e., the top of the Jurassic and Carboniferous formations, provide distinct density interfaces. The basic, intermediate and acid volcanic rocks were also different in density,resulting in distinguishable gravity anomalies. The differences in magnetism in this region existed not only between the volcanic rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks but also among volcanic rocks with different compositions. All formations and volcanic rocks of different lithologies presented high and low resistance interbeds, which are characterized by regional trends.The modeling study demonstrated that non-seismic integrated geophysical techniques should be feasible in this region, especiaUy the high-precision gravity/magnetic methods combined with long offset transient electromagnetic sounding.

  8. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  9. Multiple-Element Matching Reservoir Formation and Quantitative Prediction of Favorable Areas in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huaijie; PANG Xiongqi; WANG Zhaoming; YU Qiuhua; HUO Zhipeng; MENG Qingyang

    2010-01-01

    Superimposed basins in West China have experienced multi-stage tectonic events and multicycle hydrocarbon reservoir formation,and complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been discovered widely in basins of this kind.Most of the complex hydrocarbon reservoirs are characterized by relocation,scale re-construction,component variation and phase state transformation,and their distributions are very difficult to predict.Research shows that regional caprock(C),high-quality sedimentary facies(Deposits,D),paleohighs(Mountain,M)and source rock(S)are four geologic elements contributing to complex hydrocarbon reservoir formation and distribution of western superimposed basins.Longitudinal sequential combinations of the four elements control the strata of hydrocarbon reservoir formation,and planar superimpositions and combinations control the range of hydrocarbon reservoir and their simultaneous joint effects in geohistory determine the time of hydrocarbon reservoir formation.Multiple-element matching reservoir formation presents a basic mode of reservoir formation in superimposed basins,and we recommend it is expressed as T-CDMS.Based on the multiple-element matching reservoir formation mode,a comprehensive reservoir formation index(Tcdms)is developed in this paper to characterize reservoir formation conditions,and a method is presented to predict reservoir formation range and probability of occurrence in superimposed basins.Through application of new theory,methods and technology,the favorable reservoir formation range and probability of occurrence in the Ordovician target zone in Tarim Basin in four different reservoir formation periods are predicted.Results show that central Tarim,Yinmaili and Lunnan are the three most favorable regions where Ordovician oil and gas fields may have formed.The coincidence of prediction results with currently discovered hydrocarbon reservoirs reaches 97%.This reflects the effectiveness and reliability of the new theory,methods and technology.

  10. Clastic sedimentary features of beachrocks and their palaeo-environmental significance:comparison of past and modern coastal regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David PSOMIADIS; Konstantinos ALBANAKIS; Nikoleta ZISI; Matthieu GHILARDI; Elissavet DOTSIKA

    2014-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary features of beachrocks and unconsolidated deposits of parent beaches were investigated along the northern Aegean coastline (Greece) to assess their suitability in palaeo-environmental reconstruction. Twelve paired datasets were collected in the Thermaikos, Toroneos, Siggitikos and Ierissos gulfs of the Chalkidiki Peninsula, the adjoining Kavala Gulf and Thassos Island, comprising beachrock cores and companion beach subsurface sediments. Particle size analyses based on univariate and bivariate statistics suggest that, during the time period of beachrock formation, depositional conditions differed distinctly from those of the modern parent beaches. The results imply difference of maturity level of beach evolution from the time of cementation (coarser materials-early stage of beach formation) to modern situation (finer materials-reworked and ‘mature’ beach sediments). Furthermore, the findings indicate increasing coastal protection due to beachrock exposure in the modern swash zone. In conclusion, it is suggested that textural analysis of beachrocks in comparison with unconsolidated sediments of the parent beach might provide information regarding differences of coastal depositional regimes and future research could focus on specific-layer analysis and comparison.

  11. 川西新场气田上三叠统须二、须四段相对优质储层成因差异性分析%Contributing Factor Divergence Analysis of Relative High Quality Reservoir of Upper Triassic in the 2nd and 4th Member of Xujiahe Formation of Xinchang Gas Field in West Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘四兵; 沈忠民; 吕正祥; 宋荣彩; 王鹏

    2015-01-01

    Major relative high quality reservoirs are locally developed in the context of the entire super densified Xujiahe Formation in Xinchang in west Sichuan.They have a great burial depth, complicate diagenesis,and high density.The relative high quality reservoir is in the 2nd member of Xujiahe Formation with a big burial depth,which developed more primary pores than secondary pores;while the 4th member of Xujiahe Formation with small burial depth developed more secondary pores than primary pores.The main reason of this appearance is the divergent mechanisms of the primary pore conservation and secondary pore development of the 2nd and 4th member of Xujiahe Formation.The existence of the relatively developed encapsulating chlorite and the harsh particulates led to the well conservation of the primary pores in the 2nd member of Xujiahe Formation;while the single thick sand and the undeveloped mudstone layer cause the poor influx of organic acid fluid,so that the feldspar corrosion is limited.As for the 4th member of Xujiahe Formation,the plasticity of the rocks is relatively high;this,in turn,resulted in the disappearance of the primary pores under the diagenetic compaction, while the secondary pores are relatively popular with minor authigenic kaolinite sedimentated,multiple thin single sand and mudstone developed,and sufficient feldspar corroded by organic acid fluid.%川西新场地区须家河组储层埋藏深度大、成岩作用复杂、致密化程度高,但在整体超致密背景下,局部仍发育较多的相对优质储层。相对优质储层在埋深较大的须二段,往往发育较多的原生孔隙,和相对次要的次生孔隙;而埋深较小的须四段储层,次生孔隙占绝对优势,原生孔隙发育较少。造成这一现象的主要原因是须二、须四段原生孔隙保存和次生孔隙发育机制上的差异。须二段储层中较多刚性颗粒的存在和较为发育的包膜绿泥石是原生孔隙得到较好保存

  12. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of C02 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Sprayberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    1998-04-30

    The objective is to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding of the naturally fractured Straberry Trend Area in west Texas. Research is being conducted in the extensive characterization of the reservoirs, the experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, the analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and the experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  14. Assessment of Deep Seated Geothermal Reservoirs in Selected European Sedimentary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungemach, Pierre; Antics, Miklos

    2014-05-01

    Europe at large enjoys a variety of sedimentary environments. They most often host dependable geothermal reservoirs thus favouring the farming of hot fluids, within the low to medium enthalpy range, among which geothermal district heating (GDH) and combined heat and power (CHP) undertakings hold a dominant share. Three selected reservoir settings, addressing carbonate and clastic deposits, the Central part of the Paris Basin, the Southern Germany Molasse Basin in the Münich area and the Netherland Basin respectively will be presented and the exploratory, modeling and development strategies discussed accordingly. Whereas 2D (reprocessed) and 3D seismics have become a standard in matching the distinctive (reef facies, an echelon faulting, carbonate platform layering) features of a deep buried karst and a key to drilling success in the Molasse Basin, thus emphasizing a leading exploratory rationale, the Netherland and Paris Basin instead benefit from a mature data base inherited from extensive hydrocarbon exploration campaigns, with concerns focused on reservoir modeling and sustainable management issues. As a result the lessons learned from the foregoing have enabled to build up a nucleus of expertise in the whole chain from resource identification to reservoir assessment and market penetration. The seismic risk, indeed a sensitive though somewhat emotional issue, which is requiring special attention and due microseismic monitoring from the geothermal community will also be commented.

  15. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum

  16. Provenance and geological significance of red mud and other clastic sediments of the Mugnano cave (Montagnola Senese, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacoviello Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mugnano cave is characterized by a thick clastic sedimentary fill showing a great variability of sedimentary facies, ranging from clay to coarse-grained sand deposits. This paper deals with combined sedimentological and mineralogical (XRD and SEM studies of these sediments and bedrock insoluble residues in order to understand the origin and geological significance of cave deposits, with particular attention to red mud sediments, often considered as the residue of host rock dissolution. Three different sedimentary facies were recognized: i YS, yellow sand with occasionally shell fragments, testifying the arrival of sediments from the surrounding landscape; ii RS, red laminated mud; iii GS, grey and red-grey mud and sand, dolomite-rich sediments. Furthermore, the results obtained in the present study allowed the identification of two fingerprint minerals: i quartz, present only as traces in the limestone host-rock, and ii dolomite, certainly related to the incomplete bedrock dissolution. Results obtained by this multidisciplinary approach testify that no one of the investigated sediments is representative of a completely autochthonous sedimentation (i.e. accumulation of insoluble residue of limestone in a cave environment. In fact, all the three sedimentary facies show a bulk composition rich in quartz, a mineral indicating an external origin for these sediments. Also the grey sediments, despite of their high content of bedrock- related dolomite, are quite rich in quartz and they testify the mixing of autochthonous and allocthonous sediments. The clay fraction of cave sediments shows strong compositional similarities with bedrock insoluble residue and consequently its analysis cannot be considered as a clear proxy for distinguishing between different parent materials. Therefore, the origin of these cave deposits is dominantly related to external sediments inputs, with terra rossa surface soils as the most probable parent material for red mud

  17. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  18. West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... West Nile encephalitis or meningitis may lead to brain damage and death. 1 in 10 people with brain inflammation do ... Complications from severe West Nile virus infection include: Brain damage Permanent muscle weakness (sometimes similar to polio ) Death

  19. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  20. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  1. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  2. Influence of Oil Reservoir on Earthquake (IORE Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Masoumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oil reservoirs on intensity of earthquake has been discussed in this paper. The data for this research have been obtained from IRIS Earthquake Browser which has given earthquake data for South West of Iran, where there are high pressure oil fields. In this article, attempt has been made to show seismicity of oil fields that has been changing with time. Some simple simulation experiments were also performed to get a relation between mechanical vibration through some compact soil in a box and absorption of these vibrations by a water bag which was placed underneath the soil, inside the box. The results were used to explain absorption of an earthquake impact by an oil reservoir and oil reservoirs work as dampers.

  3. Geologic map of the White Hall quadrangle, Frederick County, Virginia, and Berkeley County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Parker, Ronald A.; Weary, David J.; Repetski, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The White Hall 7.5-minute quadrangle is located within the Valley and Ridge province of northern Virginia and the eastern panhandle of West Virginia. The quadrangle is one of several being mapped to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County, Va., as well as other areas in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia. All exposed bedrock outcrops are clastic and carbonate strata of Paleozoic age ranging from Middle Cambrian to Late Devonian. Surficial materials include unconsolidated alluvium, colluvium, and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, and local paleo-terrace deposits possibly of Tertiary age. The quadrangle lies across the northeast plunge of the Great North Mountain anticlinorium and includes several other regional folds. The North Mountain fault zone cuts through the eastern part of the quadrangle; it is a series of thrust faults generally oriented northeast-southwest that separate the Silurian and Devonian clastic rocks from the Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks and shales. Karst development in the quadrangle occurs in all of the carbonate rocks. Springs occur mainly near or on faults. Sinkholes occur within all of the carbonate rock units, especially where the rocks have undergone locally intensified deformation through folding, faulting, or some combination.

  4. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  5. Periglacial complexes in Utopia Planitia: rimless, tiered depressions, (clastically) sorted and unsorted polygonised terrain and an ice-rich mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Richard; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman; Dohm, James; Clifford, Stephen M.; Williams, Jean-pierre

    2016-10-01

    We report the spatial and possible genetic-relationship at the mid-latitudes of Utopia Planitia (45-500N 115-1200E), Mars, of: (a) metre to decametre deep, rimless, tiered depressions; terrain that exhibits (b) (clastically) sorted and (c) unsorted (small-sized) polygons; and, (d) a very youthful, ice-rich mantle. We show that these individual landscape features are separated stratigraphically, this being presented to the Mars community for the first time, and suggest that the stratigraphical separation of these features could be the result of boundary conditions and formation processes that have varied much more widely than has been thought hitherto. In cold-climate and non-glacial regions such as the Yamal Peninsula of eastern Russia and the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands of northern Canada, landscape assemblages comprised of similar features are referenced as "ice complexes" and are indicative of periglacialism on two fronts: first, the presence of "ice-rich" permafrost or permafrost comprised of "excess ice", i.e. "permafrost" whose pore space is exceeded by the "water ice" within that body of sediment; and, second, antecedently or currently active freeze-thaw cycling, minimally, to the full depth of the "ice-complex" depressions. In the Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, where the atmospheric aridity and cold-temperatures approach those of Mars, ice-vapour diffusion and adsorption cycles are cited as the means by which the near-surface, permafrost, i.e. ≤1m deep, has become ice-cemented. However, the metre to decametre depths of the "ice-complex" depressions on Earth and the morphologically-similar ones on Mars lie beyond the vertical reach of the Antarctic diffusion and adsorption cycles, both empirically and theoretically. By deduction, this points to the freeze-thaw cycling of water to depth, fostered either by exogenic or endogenic means, perhaps playing a more important role in the formation of the possible Martian "ice complexes" than might be expected were

  6. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  7. Evaluation of potential reservoir units in a basin axial turbidite system in Gertrud Graben; Vurdering af potentielle reservoirenheder i et bassinaksialt viftesystem i Gertrud Graven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, E.; Gregersen, U.; Rasmussen, R.; Ineson, J.; Dybkjaer, K.; Johannessen, P.; Andersen, P.

    1998-10-01

    This report contains a number of papers and reports, prepared within the Danish Energy Research Program-96 project: `Evaluation of the potential reservoir units in the basinal fan system in Gertrud Graben`. The articles and reports describe the geologic basis for the potential Upper Jurassic sandstone sediments in the Gertrud Graben, the Danish Central Graben. The subjects cover structural conditions, possible source areas for coarse clastic sediments, age of the sediments, various geophysical methods for lithological correlations, and diagenesis in sandstone of the Late Volgian - Early Ryazanian. (EG)

  8. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  9. A conceptual review of regional-scale controls on the composition of clastic sediment and the co-evolution of continental blocks and their sedimentary cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R; Lowe, D R

    1995-01-02

    Both sediment recycling and first-cycle input influence the composition of clastic material in sedimentary systems. This paper examines conceptually the roles played by these processes in governing the composition of clastic sediment on a regional scale by outlining the expected effects on sediment composition of protracted sediment recycling and of continuous first-cycle input on a maturing continental block. Generally speaking, long-term recycling tends to enrich sediments in the most chemically and mechanically stable components: quartz in the sand and silt size fractions, and illite among the clay minerals. Sandstones trend towards pure quartz arenites, and mudrocks become more potassic and aluminous. The average grain size of clastic sediment decreases by a combination of progressive attrition of sand grains and ongoing breakdown of primary silicate minerals to finer-grained clay minerals and oxides. Sandstones derived by continuous first-cycle input from an evolving continental crustal source also become increasingly rich in quartz, but in addition become more feldspathic as the proportion of granitic material in the upper continental crust increases during crustal stabilization. Associated mudrocks also become richer in potassium and aluminum, but will have higher K2O/Al2O3 ratios than recycled muds. The average grain size of the sediment may increase with time as the proportion of sand-prone granitic source rocks increases at the expense of more mud-prone volcanic sources. In general, except in instances where chemical weathering is extreme, first-cycle sediments lack the compositional maturity of recycled detritus, and are characterized by the presence of a variety of primary silicate minerals. Sedimentary systems are not usually completely dominated by either recycling or first-cycle detritus. Generally, however, sedimentary systems associated with the earliest phases of formation and accretion of continental crust are characterized by first-cycle input

  10. Petrophysical evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Cretaceous Kharita clastics, North Qarun oil field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teama, Mostafa A.; Nabawy, Bassem S.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the available well log data of six wells chosen in the North Qarun oil field in the Western Desert of Egypt, the petrophysical evaluation for the Lower Cretaceous Kharita Formation was accomplished. The lithology of Kharita Formation was analyzed using the neutron porosity-density and the neutron porosity-gamma ray crossplots as well as the litho-saturation plot. The petrophysical parameters, include shale volume, effective porosity, water saturation and hydrocarbon pore volume, were determined and traced laterally in the studied field through the iso-parametric maps. The lithology crossplots of the studied wells show that the sandstone is the main lithology of the Kharita Formation intercalated with some calcareous shale. The cutoff values of shale volume, porosity and water saturation for the productive hydrocarbon pay zones are defined to be 40%, 10% and 50%, respectively, which were determined, based on the applied crossplots approach and their limits. The iso-parametric contour maps for the average reservoir parameters; such as net-pay thickness, average porosity, shale volume, water saturation and the hydrocarbon pore volume were illustrated. From the present study, it is found that the Kharita Formation in the North Qarun oil field has promising reservoir characteristics, particularly in the northwestern part of the study area, which is considered as a prospective area for oil accumulation.

  11. Pressure-velocity relations in reservoir rocks: Modified MacBeth's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Dario

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the saturation and pressure effects on elastic properties is a key factor in reservoir monitoring. The relation between saturation changes and velocity variations is well known in rock physics and at seismic frequency it can be satisfactorily described by Gassmann's equations. The pressure effect still requires deeper investigations in order to be included in rock physics models for 4D studies. Theoretical models of velocity-pressure relations often do not match lab measurements, or contain empirical constants or theoretical parameters that are difficult to calibrate or do not have a precise physical meaning. In this work, I present a new model to describe the pressure sensitivity of elastic moduli for clastic rocks. The proposed model is an extension of MacBeth's relations. These equations are then integrated within a complete rock physics model to describe the relation between rock properties (porosity and clay content), dynamic attributes (saturation and pressure) and elastic properties. The proposed model is calibrated with laboratory measurements of dry samples over a wide range of pressure variations and then applied to well data to simulate different production scenarios. The complete rock physics model can then be used in time-lapse inversion to predict the distribution of dynamic property changes in the reservoir within an inversion workflow for reservoir monitoring.

  12. A RESEARCH ON THE CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS OF LOW PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS AND ITS APPLICATION%低渗透储层特征参数研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨百全; 黄华梁; 李玉华; 黄启奎

    2001-01-01

    Through studying the characteristic parameters of lowpermeability reservoirs,the permeability—a key characteristic parameter of low permeability reservoirs was found and some valuable characteristic parameters,as porosity,displacement pressure,pore throat medium-radius,minimum non-mercury saturation percentage,related to permeability most closely were chosen. The numerical model of permeability corresponding to major characteristic parameters is investigated;by use of grey association analysis method,the associability and associated sequence are calculated through a self-making program;the numerical models of the carbonate reservoir bed of Carboniferous gas reservoir in Wubaiti gas field,the carbonate reservoir bed at the low permeability area of Lei-1' gas reservoir in Moxi gas field,the clastic reservoir bed at the low permeability area of Xu-4 gas reservoir in Bajiaochang gas field and the clastic reservoir bed at the low permeability area of Xu-2 gas reservoir in Pingluoba gas field are set up and a quanlified description and comprehensive evaluation of these reservoir beds are carried out in the paper.%通过对低渗透储层特征参数的研究,抓住了低渗透储层关键特征参数——渗透率。选择与渗透率关系最密切的、有价值的特征参数,如孔隙度、排驱压力、孔喉中值半径、最小非汞饱和度百分数。研究了渗透率与其相对应的主要特征参数的数值模型,采用灰色关联分析方法,自编程序计算了关联度和关联序,建立了四川盆地五百梯石炭系气藏碳酸盐岩储层、磨溪雷一1亚段气藏低渗区碳酸盐岩储层、八角场须四段气藏低渗区碎屑岩储层和平落坝须二段气藏低渗区碎屑岩储层的数值模式,并对储层进行了定量化描述及综合评价。

  13. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  14. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  15. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, March 3, 1993--June 3, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 Sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. This reservoir has been unitized and is designated as the WH Cam C RI SU. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic.

  16. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  17. Heterogeneity of sandy conglomerate reservoir and its influence on remaining oil distribution: A case study from Badaowan Formation in the mid-west of block Ⅱ in Karamay Oilfield%砂砾岩储层非均质性及其对剩余油分布的影响——以克拉玛依油田二中西区八道湾组为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何辉; 宋新民; 蒋有伟; 彭仕宓; 李彦兰; 孙景民

    2012-01-01

    At present,the voidage-injection imbalance,interlayer interference and in-layer interference leaded by the reservoir heterogeneity are extremely highlighted during the production tail of sandy conglomerate reservoir in the mid-fan of alluvial fan.Taking the Jurassic Badaowan Formation in mid-west of the block II in Karamay Oilfield as an example,this paper studied the reservoir heterogeneity of alluvial fan sandy conglomerate reservoir.Based on outcrop observation,core description,electrofacies analysis,the single sand body description technique was used to divide the reservoir into 4 types of microfacies-lithofacies single sand body.Combining with the macroscopic and microscopic heterogeneity in different single sand body,the remaining oil were divided into 3 enriched types: Ⅰ-type braided channel gritstone facies,which has mesopore and small throat texture;Ⅱ-type braided channel fine sandstone facies,which has small pore and small throat texture;Ⅲ-type braided channel sandy conglomerate facies,which has small pore and fine throat texture.It is concluded that the type Ⅲ has the best water flooding effect and should be the main object of stabilizing oil production and controlling water cut,and the type I and Ⅱ,where the properties are relatively worse and the heterogeneity is stronger,should be the next potential target.Using this method of"recognizing the reservoir hetero-geneity and resolving it" as the breakthrough point to analyze the single sand body and the heterogeneity,which can provide better reference for forecasting the distribution of remaining oil in the sandy conglomerate reservoir.%冲积扇扇中砂砾岩油藏开发后期储层强非均质性引起的注采不平衡、层间干扰矛盾及层内差异等问题极为凸显。以克拉玛依油田二中西区八道湾组冲积扇扇中砂砾岩油藏为例,开展了储层非均质性精细表征研究。运用野外露头观察、岩心描述、测井相分析等,以单砂体刻画

  18. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Egg

    2002-09-30

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  20. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  1. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  2. All-optical reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  3. Reservoir geochemistry; Geoquimica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joelma Pimentel; Rangel, Mario Duncan; Morais, Erica Tavares de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], Emails: joelma.lopes@petrobras.com.br, mduncan@petrobras.com.br, ericat@petrobras.com.br; Aguiar, Helen G.M. de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: helenaguiar.GORCEIX@petrobras.com.br

    2008-03-15

    Reservoir Geochemistry has many important practical applications during petroleum exploration, appraisal and development of oil fields. The most important uses are related to providing or disproving connectivity between reservoirs of a particular well or horizon. During exploration, reservoir geochemistry can indicate the direction of oil filling, suggesting the most appropriate places for drilling new wells. During production, studies of variations in composition with time and determination of proportions of commingled production from multiple zones, may also be carried out. The chemical constituents of petroleum in natural reservoirs frequently show measurable compositional variations, laterally and vertically. Due to the physical and chemical nature of petroleum changes with increasing maturity (or contribution of a second source during the filling process), lateral and vertical compositional variations exist in petroleum columns as reservoir filling is complete. Compositional variation can also be introduced by biodegradation or water washing. Once the reservoir is filled, density driven mixing and molecular diffusion tend to eliminate inherited compositional variations in an attempt to establish mechanical and chemical equilibrium in the petroleum column (England, 1990). Based on organic geochemical analysis it is possible to define these compositional variations among reservoirs, and use these data for developing of petroleum fields and for reservoir appraisal. Reservoir geochemistry offers rapid and low cost evaluation tools to aid in understanding development and production problems. Moreover, the applied methodology is relatively simple and gives reliable results, and can be performed routinely in any good geochemical laboratory at a relatively low cost. (author)

  4. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  5. Water Quality Management Studies. West Point Lake, Chattahoochee River, Alabama-Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Nonfilterable residue in West Point Reservoir has ecologically impor- tant effects on the aquatic communities in the reservoir as well as economi - cally...Per"id-l ium P.hrenherg------ *Total n~ uber of taKa observed 14 37 25 2n 16 13 Total number of cells per wilt liter 151,700 5,540 172,250 146,420

  6. 滑坡碎屑堆积体形成泥石流的实验%Experimental Study on the Clastic Deposition Forming Debris Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓星; 余斌; 朱渊

    2014-01-01

    地震或强降雨诱发滑坡,滑坡体碰撞解体形成碎屑物质堆积在沟道内,在后期降雨作用下形成泥石流,这是泥石流形成的一种方式,可称为滑坡碎屑堆积体泥石流。笔者分析了影响碎屑堆积体泥石流起动的特征参数,通过实验研究了碎屑堆积体泥石流形成的过程,分析了堆积体表面坡度、黏粒质量分数、中值粒径(d 50)以及不均匀系数(Cu)对泥石流形成的影响。结果表明:碎屑堆积体表面坡度对形成泥石流所需单宽流量无明显影响;黏粒质量分数在不大于5%时仅影响碎屑堆积体侵蚀,对碎屑堆积体揭底所需单宽流量无明显影响;影响碎屑堆积体形成泥石流所需单宽流量的因素主要为中值粒径和不均匀系数随堆积体中值粒径、不均匀系数的增大而增大。通过实验数据拟合得出了中值粒径和不均匀系数与泥石流形成和揭底所需单宽流量的公式;由于公式中只考虑了影响碎屑堆积体形成泥石流的两个主要因素(d 50和 Cu),因此对比水文计算结果偏小,但整体趋势基本一致。在实际应用到这类泥石流沟时,可通过修正进行预测。%Earthquake or strong rainfall can induce landslides.The landslide collapses to form clastic flow accumulation in the channels,forms debris flow under the action of the later rainfall.This is a type of debris flow which is called the landslide clastic accumulation of debris flow.The authors analyse characteristic parameters of the influence on starting of clastic accumulation of debris flow,research the information process of the landslide clastic accumulation of debris flow on the basis of experiments,and then analyse the influence of clastic accumulation surface slope,soil clay content,median grain size and non-uniformity coefficient on the formation of debris flow.The results show that the surface slope of clastic deposition have no significant effect on forming

  7. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  8. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic

  9. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater reservoir effects can be large and highly variable. I will present my investigations into the short-term variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in two Northern German rivers. The samples analysed in this study were collected between 2007 and 2012. Reservoir ages of water samples......, aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...... plants. Their carbon should represent an average value of the entire growth season. However, there are large reservoir age variations in aquatic plants and animals as well. These can best be explained by the multitude of carbon sources which can be utilized by aquatic organisms, and which have...

  10. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  11. Groundwater lowering and stream incision rates in the Central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Springer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface channel incision rates are of broad geomorphological interest because they set the boundary conditions for landscape change by affecting changes in local relief and hillslope angles. We report groundwater table lowering rates associated with subsurface Buckeye Creek and the surface channel of Spring Creek in southeastern West Virginia, USA. The mountainous watersheds have drainage areas of 14 km2 and 171 km2, respectively. The lowering rates are derived from U/Th-dating of stalagmites and the paleomagnetostratigraphy of clastic sediments in Buckeye Creek Cave. The oldest stalagmites have a minimum age of 0.54 Ma and we use a minimum age of 0.778 Ma for clastic cave sediments deposited during a period of reversed magnetic polarity. The water table at Buckeye Creek has lowered at a rate of ≤40 m Ma-1. Based on the relative elevations of Buckeye and Spring creeks, the water table at Spring Creek has lowered at a rate of ≤47 m Ma-1. These values are consistent with previously published rates obtained from caves in the region, although those rates were reported as surface channel incision rates, based on the assumption local groundwaters drained to the surface channel of interest. However, the rates we report are almost certainly not simple bedrock incision rates because of autogenic processes within the cave and surrounding, well-developed fluviokarst. Caveats aside, incision rates of ≤47 m Ma-1 now appear typical of landscapes of the Appalachian Mountains and Plateau.

  12. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  13. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  14. Distribution and transportation of nitrogen in Miyun reservoir waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiujuan; XIAO Changlai; YANG Tianxing; WANG Jing; LIU Xiaoduan

    2005-01-01

    The Miyun reservoir is an important water supply for Beijing city. The distribution laws of nitrogen in the Miyun reservoir waters and the transportation factors have been systematically analyzed in space and time by using water monitoring data sampled in the high-water and low-flow periods in 2001 and 2002. The nitrogen in east and west reservoir waters is distributed differently in space. It shows the change characteristics in high-water and low-flow periods and is affected by the source of nitrogen, runoff conditions, hydrodynamic conditions, precipitation and the control of bed mud, of which the source of nitrogen controls the change of concentration of nitrogen, the peripheral runoff controls the distribution law of nitrogen, bed mud controls the vertical distribution of nitrogen, and the contents of nitrogen and its change in the surrounding environment directly cause the change of concentration of total nitrogen in the waters. The improvement and protection of the waters in the Miyun reservoir basically rests with the amelioration of the peripheral environment.

  15. Bats as 'special' reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Cara E; Dobson, Andrew P

    2015-03-01

    The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic highlights a recurring trend in the zoonotic emergence of virulent pathogens likely to come from bat reservoirs that has caused epidemiologists to ask 'Are bats special reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens?' We collate evidence from the past decade to delineate mitochondrial mechanisms of bat physiology that have evolved to mitigate oxidative stress incurred during metabolically costly activities such as flight. We further describe how such mechanisms might have generated pleiotropic effects responsible for tumor mitigation and pathogen control in bat hosts. These synergisms may enable 'special' tolerance of intracellular pathogens in bat hosts; paradoxically, this may leave them more susceptible to immunopathological morbidity when attempting to clear extracellular infections such as 'white-nose syndrome' (WNS).

  16. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  17. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  18. The post-Laramide clastic deposits of the Sierra de Guanajuato: Compositional implications on the tectono-sedimentary and paleographic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miranda-Avilés

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the study on sedimentation, sedimentary environments, tectono-sedimentary and paleogeographic evolution of post-Laramide clastic deposits and pre-volcanism of the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Sierra de Guanajuato, central Mexico. The Eocene Duarte Conglomerate and Guanajuato Conglomerate were deposited in the middle and distal parts of alluvial fans. The studied rocks are composed of limestone clasts, granite, andesite, metasediments, diorite, and pyroxenite, indicating the erosion of uplifted blocks of the basal complex of the Sierra de Guanajuato (Arperos basin. The petrographic and compositional analysis of limestone shows a textural variation from basin limestones and shallow platform limestones. The shallow platform limestone contain bivalves, brachiopods, gastropods, echinoderms and benthic foraminifera from the Berriasian-Valanginian. The shallow-water limestone corresponds to the boundary of the Arperos basin whose original outcrops currently not outcrop in the Sierra de Guanajuato.

  19. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  20. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  1. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  2. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  3. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity

  4. West German producers step up enhanced recovery techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-15

    With the lure of more than $12 for every barrel of oil they find, West German oil companies are leaving few rocks unturned in a scramble for additional crude reserves. Most are convinced that in onshore West Germany, at least, the biggest new finds may well be in reservoirs discovered some years back. Reservoir engineers and economists are convinced that the recent large increases in crude prices will make it economical to recover far more oil from wells than ever before. Using only the advanced recovery techniques now available, West German reserves, it is estimated, could more than double. Total original oil in place discovered in West Germany is put at more than 300 million tons, with at least 200 million tons of highly viscous crude located in the Ems area in the northwest corner of the country. Cumulative production to date totals just over 65 million tons; proven recoverable reserves total 81 million tons. This leaves some part to unfavorable economics. However, there are some 45 million breakthrough tons considered by experts to be potentially recoverable subject only to refinement of known recovery technology.

  5. High resolution variability in the Quaternary Indian monsoon inferred from records of clastic input and paleo-production recovered during IODP Expedition 355

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Annette; Lyle, Mitchell; Kulhanek, Denise; Ando, Sergio; Clift, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The sediment cores obtained from the Indus fan at Site U1457 during Expedition 355 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) contain a ca. 100m spliced section covering the past ca. 1Ma. We aim to make use of this unique long, mostly continuous climate archive to unravel the millennial scale atmospheric and oceanic processes linked to changes in the Indian monsoon climate over the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Our aim is to fill this gap using fast, cost-efficient methods (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy [FTIRS] and X-ray Fluorescence [XRF] scanning) which allow us to study this sequence at a millennial scale resolution (2-3cm sampling interval). An important methodological aspect of this study is developing FTIRS as a method for the simultaneous estimation of the sediment total inorganic carbon and organic carbon content by using the specific fingerprint absorption spectra of minerals (e.g. calcite) and organic sediment components. The resulting paleo-production proxies give indications of oceanic circulation patterns and serve as a direct comparison to the XRF scanning data. Initial results show that variability in paleo-production is accompanied by changes in the quantity and composition of clastic input to the site. Phases of increased deposition of terrigenous material are enriched in K, Al, Fe and Si. Both changes in the weathering and erosion focus areas affect the mineralogy and elemental composition of the clastic input as grain size and mineralogical changes are reflected in the ratios of lighter to heavier elements. Furthermore, trace element compositions (Zn, Cu, Mn) give indications of diagenetic processes and contribute to the understanding of the depositional environment. The resulting datasets will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the interplay of the local atmospheric and oceanic circulation processes over glacial-interglacial cycles; an essential prerequisite for regional predictions of global climate

  6. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  7. Oil sand reservoir heterogeneity and prediction of hydrocarbon migration channels——a case study on west slope of Songliao Basin%油砂储层非均质性的研究及对油气运移通道的预测——以松辽盆地西部斜坡为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗洪浩; 单玄龙; 管宏图; 孙哲

    2012-01-01

    Taking oil sand reservoir in Upper Cretaceous of the western slope in Songliao Basin as an example , we found that the sand bodies of delta front are developed and the heterogeneity of oil sand reservoirs are serious in the study area. By comparison with conventional oil-gas reservoir, the in-layer heterogeneity is stronger than plane and interlayer heterogeneity even the controlling factors of oil sands reservoir heterogeneity are different. The prediction of hydrocarbon migration channels is based on the parameters of reservoir heterogeneity. The study results demonstrate that the lower part of underwater distributing channels and the coarse grain of mouth bars are the main migration channels on the background of simple slope structure without fault. The sand bodies of distal bars and sheet sands do not have the connectivity or hydrocarbon migration conditions because of mudstone barriers, in-terbeds, poor physics property and thin sandstone.%以松辽盆地西部斜坡上白垩统油砂矿藏为例的研究表明,研究区主要发育三角洲前缘储集砂体,油砂储层存在严重的非均质性.与常规油气储层相比,层内非均质性要比平面和层间非均质性强,并且其控制因素也存在差异.在此基础上,以储层非均质性参数对油气运移通道进行预测,认为在断层不发育的构造简单斜坡油气运移的主要通道为水下分流河道下部和河口坝中的粗粒砂体,而远砂坝和席状砂砂体由于泥岩隔层、夹层、物性差和砂体层薄的原因不具备砂体连通或油气运移的条件.

  8. Target reservoirs for CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding. Task two: summary of available reservoir and geological data. Vol. II: Rocky Mountain states geological and reservoir data. Part 4: Paradox, Uinta, eastern Utah overthrust, Big Horn, Wind River, Powder River, Red Desert, and Great Divide basins; CACHE-Ismay through WERTZ-Madison fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, L.B.; Marlow, R.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work performed by Gruy Federal, Inc., as the second of six tasks under contract with the US Department of Energy. The stated objective of this study is to build a solid engineering foundation to serve as the basis for field mini- and pilot tests in both high and low oil saturation carbonate reservoirs for the purpose of extending the technology base in carbon dioxide miscible flooding. The six tasks in this study are: (1) summary of available CO/sub 2/ field test data; (2) summary of existing reservoir and geological data; (3) selection of target reservoirs; (4) selection of specific reservoirs for CO/sub 2/ injection tests; (5) selection of specific sites for test wells in carbonate reservoirs; and (6) drilling and coring activities. The report for Task Two consists of a summary of existing reservoir and geological data on carbonate reservoirs located in west Texas, southeast New Mexico, and the Rocky Mountain states. It is contained in two volumes, each with several parts. The present volume, in four parts, is a summary of reservoir data for fields in the Rocky Mountain states. Volume One contains data for Permian basin fields in west Texas and southeast New Mexico. While a serious effort was made to obtain all publicly available data for the fields considered, sufficiently reliable data on important reservoir parameters were not always available for every field. The data in Volume II show 143 carbonate reservoirs in the study area may be suitable for CO/sub 2/ miscible flooding. Using a general estimate of enhanced oils recovery by CO/sub 2/ flooding of 10% of original oil in place, some 619 million barrels of oil could be recovered by widespread application of CO/sub 2/ flooding in the study area. Mississippian and Ordovician reservoirs appear to be the most promising targets for the process.

  9. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  10. THE SURDUC RESERVOIR (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.

  11. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2003-05-31

    This report summarizes the first-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). First-year results include: (1) meeting specific milestones (determination of thrust movement vectors, fracture analysis, and communicating results at professional meetings and through publication). All milestones were met. Movement vectors for Valley and Ridge thrusts were confirmed to be west-directed and derived from pushing by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, and fan about the Tennessee salient. Fracture systems developed during Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic to Holocene compressional and extensional tectonic events, and are more intense near faults. Presentations of first-year results were made at the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association meeting (invited) in June, 2003, at a workshop in August 2003 on geophysical logs in Ordovician rocks, and at the Eastern Section AAPG meeting in September 2003. Papers on thrust tectonics and a major prospect discovered during the first year are in press in an AAPG Memoir and published in the July 28, 2003, issue of the Oil and Gas Journal. (2) collaboration with industry and USGS partners. Several Middle Ordovician black shale samples were sent to USGS for organic carbon analysis. Mississippian and Middle Ordovician rock samples were collected by John Repetski (USGS) and

  12. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  13. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  14. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  15. 2011 Groundhog Reservoir Bathymetric Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey performed a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global...

  16. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  17. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  18. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  19. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  20. Identification and evaluation of CCS sweet spots in the West Netherlands Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Toorenenburg, K.A.; Donselaar, M.E.; Vandewijer, V.P.; Pluymaekers, M.P.; Van de Weerd, A.A.; Groenenberg, R.M.; Flores Colmenares, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is expected to become a serious CO2-emission reduction technology in the Netherlands, for example in the mature West Netherlands Basin (WNB). This study aims to identify and evaluate potential CO2-storage reservoirs based on geological boundary conditions. Thes

  1. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  2. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  3. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2004-10-01

    West Carney field--one of the newest fields discovered in Oklahoma--exhibits many unique production characteristics. These characteristics include: (1) decreasing water-oil ratio; (2) decreasing gas-oil ratio followed by an increase; (3) poor prediction capability of the reserves based on the log data; and (4) low geological connectivity but high hydrodynamic connectivity. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the principal mechanisms affecting the production, and propose methods by which we can extend the phenomenon to other fields with similar characteristics. In our experimental investigation section, we present the data on surfactant injection in near well bore region. We demonstrate that by injecting the surfactant, the relative permeability of water could be decreased, and that of gas could be increased. This should result in improved gas recovery from the reservoir. Our geological analysis of the reservoir develops the detailed stratigraphic description of the reservoir. Two new stratigraphic units, previously unrecognized, are identified. Additional lithofacies are recognized in new core descriptions. Our engineering analysis has determined that well density is an important parameter in optimally producing Hunton reservoirs. It appears that 160 acre is an optimal spacing. The reservoir pressure appears to decline over time; however, recovery per well is only weakly influenced by the pressure. This indicates that additional opportunity to drill wells exists in relatively depleted fields. A simple material balance technique is developed to validate the recovery of gas, oil and water. This technique can be used to further extrapolate recoveries from other fields with similar field characteristics.

  4. Assessment of managed aquifer recharge at Sand Hollow Reservoir, Washington County, Utah, updated to conditions through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2016-09-08

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily for managed aquifer recharge by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. From 2002 through 2014, diversions of about 216,000 acre-feet from the Virgin River to Sand Hollow Reservoir have allowed the reservoir to remain nearly full since 2006. Groundwater levels in monitoring wells near the reservoir rose through 2006 and have fluctuated more recently because of variations in reservoir stage and nearby pumping from production wells. Between 2004 and 2014, about 29,000 acre-feet of groundwater was withdrawn by these wells for municipal supply. In addition, about 31,000 acre-feet of shallow seepage was captured by French drains adjacent to the North and West Dams and used for municipal supply, irrigation, or returned to the reservoir. From 2002 through 2014, about 127,000 acre-feet of water seeped beneath the reservoir to recharge the underlying Navajo Sandstone aquifer.Water quality continued to be monitored at various wells in Sand Hollow during 2013–14 to evaluate the timing and location of reservoir recharge as it moved through the aquifer. Changing geochemical conditions at monitoring wells WD 4 and WD 12 indicate rising groundwater levels and mobilization of vadose-zone salts, which could be a precursor to the arrival of reservoir recharge.

  5. Assessment of managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir, Washington County, Utah, updated to conditions in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Marston, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily for managed aquifer recharge by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. From 2002 through 2009, total surface-water diversions of about 154,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have allowed it to remain nearly full since 2006. Groundwater levels in monitoring wells near the reservoir rose through 2006 and have fluctuated more recently because of variations in reservoir water-level altitude and nearby pumping from production wells. Between 2004 and 2009, a total of about 13,000 acre-feet of groundwater has been withdrawn by these wells for municipal supply. In addition, a total of about 14,000 acre-feet of shallow seepage was captured by French drains adjacent to the North and West Dams and used for municipal supply, irrigation, or returned to the reservoir. From 2002 through 2009, about 86,000 acre-feet of water seeped beneath the reservoir to recharge the underlying Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Water-quality sampling was conducted at various monitoring wells in Sand Hollow to evaluate the timing and location of reservoir recharge moving through the aquifer. Tracers of reservoir recharge include major and minor dissolved inorganic ions, tritium, dissolved organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and noble gases. By 2010, this recharge arrived at monitoring wells within about 1,000 feet of the reservoir.

  6. Gas accumulations in Oligocene-Miocene reservoirs in the Alpine Foreland Basin (Austria): evidence for gas mixing and gas degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlak, L.; Gross, D.; Sachsenhofer, R. F.; Bechtel, A.; Linzer, H.-G.

    2016-11-01

    Two petroleum systems are present in the eastern (Austrian) sector of the Alpine Foreland Basin. Whereas oil and thermogenic gas in Mesozoic and Eocene reservoir rocks have been generated beneath the Alps in Lower Oligocene source rocks, relative dry gas in Oligocene-Miocene clastic rocks deposited in the deep marine basin-axial channel system (Puchkirchen Channel) is interpreted as microbial in origin. Detailed investigations of the molecular and isotope composition of 87 gas samples from 86 wells, representing all producing fields with Oligocene and Miocene reservoir rocks, suggest that the presence of pure microbial gas is rare and limited mainly to the northern basin flank (e.g., KK field). All other fields contain varying amounts of thermogenic gas, which has been generated from a source rock with oil-window maturity. A relation with the underlying thermogenic petroleum system is obvious. Upward migration occurred along discrete fault zones (e.g., H field) or through low-permeability caprocks. Local erosion of Lower Oligocene sediments, the principal seal for the thermogenic petroleum system, as well as a high percentage of permeable rocks within the Puchkirchen Channel favored upward migration and mixing of thermogenic and microbial gas. All gas samples in Oligocene-Miocene reservoirs are biodegraded. Biodegradation and the formation of secondary microbial gas resulted in gas drying. Therefore, the gas samples analyzed in this study are relative dry, despite significant contributions of thermogenic hydrocarbons. Biodegradation probably continues at present time. The degree of biodegradation, however, decreases with depth.

  7. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  8. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

    2003-02-07

    This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

  9. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Annual report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  10. Vestiges of an Ordovician west-vergent thin-skinned Ocloyic thrust belt in the Argentine Precordillera, southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William A.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2007-08-01

    Collision of the down-going, Laurentia-derived Argentine Precordillera terrane with the Gondwanan margin drove the Ordovician Ocloyic orogeny, including subduction volcanism, metamorphism, and top-to-west shearing east of the Precordillera. In the Precordillera, above passive-margin carbonates (Lower Ordovician San Juan Limestone and older carbonates), a Middle to Upper Ordovician westward-prograding synorogenic clastic wedge of black shale (Gualcamayo Shale) and coarser clastic sediment (Las Vacas Conglomerate and Trapiche Formation) fills a peripheral foreland basin. New research has identified vestiges of a west-directed thin-skinned Ocloyic foreland thrust belt that has been fragmented by east-directed Andean thrusting. The El Corral thrust sheet, with hanging-wall detachment in the San Juan Limestone, extends over a west-directed footwall frontal ramp and extensive flat to low-angle footwall cutoff in the Gualcamayo and Las Vacas formations. Las Vacas conglomerates in the footwall include olistoliths (10-m scale) exclusively of San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale; the beds in some olistoliths are folded. The advancing El Corral thrust sheet successively supplied and overrode the stratigraphically restricted olistoliths. In the El Corral footwall, tight west-vergent folds and faults within an anticlinorium in the San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale suggest a deeper (unexposed) thrust fault, the Los Celestitos fault. West of the anticlinorium, easterly dip (restored to remove Andean deformation) beneath an angular unconformity between Las Vacas and Trapiche beds is consistent geometrically with the trailing limb of a west-vergent fault-propagation anticline in the hanging wall of the subsurface Los Celestitos fault. The same angular unconformity truncates the El Corral fault and hanging-wall strata. In the Trapiche Formation, contrasting sedimentary facies from sandy turbidites westward to limestone-clast megabeds and olistoliths suggest another frontal

  11. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  12. Influence of climate on deep-water clastic sedimentation: application of a modern model, Peru-Chile Trough, to an ancient system, Ouachita Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, an abrupt and massive influx of siliciclastic sediments into an area of deposition has been attributed to tectonic uplift without consideration of the influence of climate or climatic change on rates of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. With few exceptions, fluvial sediment transport is minimal in both extremely arid climates and in perhumid (everwet) climates. Maximum sediment transport occurs in climates characterized by strongly seasonal rainfall, where the effect of vegetation on erosion is minimal. The Peru–Chile trench and Andes Mountain system (P–CT/AMS) of the eastern Pacific Ocean clearly illustrates the effects of climate on rates of weathering, erosion, transport, and deep-sea sedimentation. Terrigenous sediment is virtually absent in the arid belt north of lat. 30° S in the P–CT, but in the belt of seasonal rainfall south of lat. 30° S terrigenous sediment is abundant. Spatial variations in the amount and seasonality of annual precipitation are now generally accepted as the cause for this difference. The spatial variation in sediment supply to the P–CT appears to be an excellent modern analogue for the temporal variation in sediment supply to certain ancient systems, such as the Ouachita Trough in the southern United States. By comparison, during the Ordovician through the early Mississippian, sediment was deposited at very slow rates as the Ouachita Trough moved northward through the southern hemisphere dry belt (lat. 10° S to lat. 30° S). The deposystem approached the tropical humid zone during the Mississippian, coincident with increased coarse clastic sedimentation. By the Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan), the provenance area and the deposystem moved well into the tropical humid zone, and as much as 8,500 m of mineralogically mature (but texturally immature) quartz sand was introduced and deposited. This increase in clastic sediment deposition traditionally has been attributed solely to tectonic activity

  13. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, September 3, 1993--December 3, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassihi, M.R.; Gillham, T.H.

    1993-11-30

    The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoirs for the project are the Camerina C- 1,2,3 Sands located on the west flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project win demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  14. West Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eldon L.; Dziagwa, Constance E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses efforts over the past 25 years to formalize the role of West Virginia's community colleges in the context of the state's rural character and low college graduation rates. Describes a reorganization following a 1987 study by the Carnegie Foundation and state legislation designed to fine tune the colleges' mission. (10 citations) (AJL)

  15. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  16. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  17. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  18. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  19. Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili

    2006-01-01

    @@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.

  20. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  1. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 (~3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  2. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 ( 3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  3. CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON PRIMARY MIGRATION AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN CLASTIC ROCKS%碎屑岩中油气初次运移输导体系分类及特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康德江

    2009-01-01

    Studies of hydrocarbon primary migration and transport system play an important role in secondary migration, even influencing final reservoir scale. According to researches of transport system during secondary migration, from microcosmic angle, based on generation and combination of different transport channels, the primary transport system in clastic rocks has been divided into 3 types: normal, secondary and terminative. The normal transport system is composed of pore throat and kerogen network. Hydrocarbon (most miscible phase and little immiscible phase) is expelled from source rock by capillary driving force formed from hydrocarbon bulging. The secondary transport system is formed by a large quantity of secondary microcracks. High excess pressure in source rocks is the main force for immiscible hydrocarbon expelling. In the secondary transport system, hydrocarbon expelling quantity is the largest and efficiency is the highest. The terminative system is composed of intergranular cracks and residual microcracks. The low excess pressure acts as the main force. The efficiency is low and the translocation is very weak, even down to vanish. Along with changes of burial history of source rocks in basins, the normal and the secondary transport system can transform reciprocally to certain extent, whereas the terminative system means the end of perpetual close of the primary transport canals and the complete finish of transport period.%油气初次输导体系对于油气二次运移有着直接影响,甚至关系到最终油气藏规模.参照、类比烃类二次运移输导体系,从微观角度分析入手,基于不同油气微观输导通道的产生和组合形式,将碎屑岩中油气初次运移输导体系分为3类,即:正常型、次生型和终结型.正常型输导体系由烃源岩颗粒孔隙喉道和干酪根网络组成,以生烃膨胀而增大的毛细管力为主要动力,油气多以混溶相排出,少量为非混溶相;次生型输导体系由大量

  4. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...

  5. SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.

  6. Coalbed Methane-bearing Characteristics and Reservoir Physical Properties of Principal Target Areas in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shuheng; SUN Shenglin; HAO Duohu; TANG Dazhen

    2004-01-01

    The coalbed methane (CBM) resources in North China amounts up to 60% of total resources in China.North China is the most important CBM accumulation area in China, The coal beds of the Upper Paleozoic Taiyuan and Shanxi formations have a stable distribution. The coal reservoir of target areas such as Jincheng, Yanquan-Shouyang,Hancheng, Liulin, etc. have good CBM-bearing characteristics, high permeability and appropriate reservoir pressure, and these areas are the preferred target areas of CBM developing in China. The coal reservoirs of Wupu, Sanjiaobei, Lu'an,Xinmi, Anyang-Hebi, Jiaozuo, Xinggong and Huainan also have as good CBM-bearing characteristics, but the physical properties of coal reservoirs vary observably. So, further work should be taken to search for districts with high pressure,high permeability and good CBM-bearing characteristics. Crustal stresses have severe influence on the permeability of coal reservoirs in North China. From west to east, the crustal stress gradient increases, while the coal reservoirs permeability decreases.

  7. West Candor Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  8. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  9. HERPESTES AUROPUNCTATUS AS A NEW RESERVOIR HOST OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. Mowlavi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A new reservoir host of Trichinella was identified as: Herpestes auropunctatus, (Mangoose in province of Khuzestan, south west of Iran. Wild swine, brown bear jackal and wild cat have been reported as natural host for Trichinella so far. The larvae obtained from the mongoose was infective for rat and white mouse, but the latter was more sensitive comparatively (This study was carried out in the Ahwaz Health Research Station.

  10. Shale engineering application: the MAL-145 project in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilellis, George D.; Li, Charles; Bust, Vivian K. [Gaffney, Cline and Associates (United States); Moos, Daniel; Cade, Randal [Baker Hughes Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional fossil fuels and the rising energy demand, oil shale and shale gas are becoming an important component of the oil and gas markets in North America. The aim of this paper is to present a novel methodology for predicting production in shale and tight formations. This method, known as the shale engineering approach and modeling, provides reservoir simulations based on modeling the propagation of the simulated rock volume. This technique was applied to an Upper Devonian shale formation in West Virginia, United States, and was compared to available data such as production logs and downhole microseismic data. Results showed a good match between the shale engineering approach data and early well performance. This paper presented a new reservoir simulation methodology which is successful in forecasting production and which can also be used for field development design and optimization.

  11. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  12. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  13. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  14. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    was no tabula rasa politically. He had worked with EEC Commissioners Sicco Mansholt and Henri Simonet, had represented the Young Socialists in the...OF GERMANY Civil-Military Facilitator Role Proposed for Territorial Army (Hans-Lothar Stegmann; TRUPPENPRAXIS, Mar 87) 80 FRANCE GIAT Problems...supportable. The attitude that Mikhail Gorbachev represents the same type of evil helps them to formulate a specific West German role in the Western world

  15. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-26

    WEST EUROPE REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL EUROPEAN AFFAIRS Tindemans on Problems of Belgian EC Presidency ( Leo Tindemans Interview; LA LIBRE BELGIQUE...Interview with Minister of Foreign Relations Leo Tindemans; date and place not given] [Text] [Question] The implementation of the "Single Act," reform of...Izeboud was reelected in the party executive of 55 members, as were former members of the chamber Ina Brouwer , Marius Ernsting and Evelien Eshuis

  16. Improving Geologic and Engineering Models of Midcontinent Fracture and Karst-Modified Reservoirs Using New 3-D Seismic Attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton

    2009-03-31

    Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications

  17. Assessment of managed aquifer recharge at Sand Hollow Reservoir, Washington County, Utah, updated to conditions in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily for managed aquifer recharge by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. From 2002 through 2011, surface-water diversions of about 199,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have allowed the reservoir to remain nearly full since 2006. Groundwater levels in monitoring wells near the reservoir rose through 2006 and have fluctuated more recently because of variations in reservoir altitude and nearby pumping from production wells. Between 2004 and 2011, a total of about 19,000 acre-feet of groundwater was withdrawn by these wells for municipal supply. In addition, a total of about 21,000 acre-feet of shallow seepage was captured by French drains adjacent to the North and West Dams and used for municipal supply, irrigation, or returned to the reservoir. From 2002 through 2011, about 106,000 acre-feet of water seeped beneath the reservoir to recharge the underlying Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Water quality was sampled at various monitoring wells in Sand Hollow to evaluate the timing and location of reservoir recharge as it moved through the aquifer. Tracers of reservoir recharge include major and minor dissolved inorganic ions, tritium, dissolved organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and noble gases. By 2012, this recharge arrived at four monitoring wells located within about 1,000 feet of the reservoir. Changing geochemical conditions at five other monitoring wells could indicate other processes, such as changing groundwater levels and mobilization of vadose-zone salts, rather than arrival of reservoir recharge.

  18. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  19. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  20. Movement of Sediment Associated With Lowered Reservoir Levels in the Rio La Venta Arm of the Presa Netzahualcoyotl, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S.; de La Fuente, J.; Lisle, T. E.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B.; Olson, B.; Quinones, R.

    2003-12-01

    A joint sedimentation study is currently underway at the Netzahualcoyotl reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, involving the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) of the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales and the USDA Forest Service. The reservoir is adjacent to the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by CONANP. Ongoing research is intended to provide watershed and reservoir managers with strategies to protect the resources of Rio La Venta canyon. The Rio La Venta arm of the reservoir is incised into karst terrain, with near-vertical limestone walls up to 300 meters high. The canyon is fed by two rivers, Rio La Selva and Rio Negro, and is surrounded by pristine tropical forest. The majority of the clastic sediment (predominantly sand and fine gravel) entering the reservoir originates in the headwaters of the two rivers which are underlain by weathered and dissected granitic terrain. Rapid sedimentation of the partially inundated canyon poses a threat to the aquatic ecosystem, as well as to recreational resources. Longitudinal and transverse profiles were surveyed in the inundated canyon in March of 2002 and repeated in April of 2003 when the reservoir level was 15 meters lower. The 2002 longitudinal profile shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. In 2003, the two slopes remained the same, but the bed lowered about 5 meters and the inflection point moved downstream about 2.3 km. We calculated that reservoir lowering in 2003 allowed the transport of 2.5 million cubic meters of sand further out into the reservoir. This volume is more than the average annual rate of filling up to the 2002 level since 1984 when sedimentation was not as advanced (De la Fuente et al., 2002), which was calculated disregarding loss of sediment to the main reservoir. Field observations at late dry season low flows in 2003 revealed active transport of sand and pebbles and formation

  1. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  2. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  3. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  4. Deflation rates of different clastic sediments in the arid regions of China%中国干旱区不同成因碎屑沉积物的吹蚀速率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋阳; 刘连友; 李晓燕

    2006-01-01

    By wind tunnel experiment, we studied the deflation rates of 8 different clastic sediments in the arid regions of China, discussed the sources of aeolian sand and their influence on the development of sand dunes and formation of sand deserts from the view of dynamics of wind erosion. The average deflation rates of 8 typical clastic sediments in the arid regions of China can be arranged in the order of lacustrine sand > alluvial sand > weathered sandstone and shale > pluvial sediments > fluvioglacial sand > weathered granite > slope deposit > glacial sediments. The deflation rates exhibited strong positive correlations with the erodible particle (0.063-2mm) content and sorting features. In contrast, the deflation rates had obvious negative correlations with the contents of silt clay (<0.063 mm) and gravel (>2 mm). According to the deflation rates, the 8 typical clastic sediments can be divided into four categories: (1) lacustrine and alluvial sand, which are readily prone to wind erosion, assumed to be the main source of aeolian sand; (2) weathered sandstone and shale, pluvial sediments and fluvioglacial sand with considerable deflation rates, might be the secondary source of aeolian sand; (3) weathered granite and slope deposit having the lower deflation rates, could supply a little aeolian sand; and (4) glacial sediments with a strong anti-erodibility, could hardly offer any aeolian sand. In addition to the strong wind conditions, the exposure of extensive lacustrine sand induced by the desiccation of inland lake basin, as well as the pre-sorting of clastic sediments by flowing water should be the key factors influencing the development of sand deserts in China. The possible reason the sand deserts in China being mostly distributed around the inland lake basins and along riverbanks could be better understood through sand source analysis.

  5. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Scott Hickman; James J. Justice

    2002-01-09

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the fifth and sixth annual reporting periods (8/3/98-8/2/00) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the cross well seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted, the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction was conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and ten wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  6. APPLICATION OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TO IMPROVE RECOVERY AND ECONOMICS IN A LOWER QUALITY SHALLOW SHELF SAN ANDRES RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Beebe

    2003-05-05

    The OXY-operated Class 2 Project at West Welch is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood design based on the reservoir characterization. Although Budget Period 1 for the Project officially ended 12/31/96, reservoir characterization and simulation work continued during the Budget Period 2. During the seventh annual reporting period (8/3/00-8/2/01) covered by this report, work continued on interpretation of the interwell seismic data to create porosity and permeability profiles which were distributed into the reservoir geostatistically. The initial interwell seismic CO{sub 2} monitor survey was conducted and the acquired data processed and interpretation started. Only limited well work and facility construction were conducted in the project area. The CO{sub 2} injection initiated in October 1997 was continued, although the operator had to modify the operating plan in response to low injection rates, well performance and changes in CO{sub 2} supply. CO{sub 2} injection was focused in a smaller area to increase the reservoir processing rate. By the end of the reporting period three producers had shown sustained oil rate increases and six wells had experienced gas (CO{sub 2}) breakthrough.

  7. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  8. High Energy Gas Fracturing in Deep Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiangde; Zhao Wanxiang; Wang Faxuan

    1994-01-01

    @@ Introduction The HEGF technology has many merits such as low cost, simple work conditions, treating the thin reservoir without layer dividing tools, no contamination to the reservoirs and connections with more natural fractures. So it is suitable to treat thin reservoirs,water and acid senstive reservoirs and the reserviors with natural fissures and also suitable to evaluate the production test of new wells, blocking removing treatment, increasing injection treatment and the treatment for the hydrofracturing well with some productivity.

  9. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  10. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity

  11. Post-Neogene Structural Evolution:An Important Geological Stage in the Formation of Gas Reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tingbin

    2004-01-01

    Tectonic movements since the Neogene have been the major developmental and evolutional stages of the latest global crustal deformation and orogenic movements. China is located in a triangular area bounded by the Indian landmass, the West Siberian landmass and the Pacific Plate, characterized by relatively active tectonic movements since the Neogene, and in this region, natural gas would have been very easy to dissipate, or difficult to preserve. Therefore, the characteristics of post-Neogene tectonic movements offer important geological factors in researching the formation and preservation of gas reservoirs in China. Summarizing the reservoiring history of gas fields in China, although there are some differences between various basins, they are all affected by the tectonic movements since the Neogene. These movements have certainly caused destruction to the reservoiring and distribution of natural gas in China, which has resulted in a certain dissipation of natural gas in some basins. As a whole, however, they have mainly promoted the reservoiring and accumulation of natural gas: (1) a series of China-type foreland basins have been formed between basins and ridges in western China, which provide favorable conditions for the formation of large and medium gas fields, as well as controlling the finalization of gas reservoirs in the basins; (2) rows and belts of anticlines have been formed in the Sichuan Basin in central China, which have been the major stages of the formation and finalization of gas reservoirs in that basin; the integral and quick rising and lifting, and a further west-dipping in the Ordos Basin have resulted in a further accumulation of natural gas in gas fields from Jingbian to Uxin; (3) in eastem China, the Bohai movement in the late Pliocene has provided favorable geological conditions for lately-formed gas reservoirs in the Bohai Sea area mainly composed of the Bozhong depression; and it also resulted in secondary hydrocarbon generation and

  12. Risk Maps of Lassa Fever in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet; David John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the peri...

  13. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  14. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The ad

  15. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  16. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  17. Naturally fractured reservoirs: Optimized E and P strategies using a reaction-transport-mechanical simulator in an integrated approach. Annual report, 1996--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.; Jenkins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Ortoleva, P.; Ozkan, G.; Shebl, M.; Sibo, W.; Tuncay, K. [Laboratory for Computational Geodynamics (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Company (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The methodology and results of this project are being tested using the Andector-Goldsmith Field in the Permian Basin, West Texas. The study area includes the Central Basin Platform and the Midland Basin. The Andector-Goldsmith Field lies at the juncture of these two zones in the greater West Texas Permian Basin. Although the modeling is being conducted in this area, the results have widespread applicability to other fractured carbonate and other reservoirs throughout the world.

  18. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    field, seems to be due to the combined effect of the stratigraphic position of the Qishn reservoir clastics with their overlying thick-sealing sediments and the structural setting as represented by faulted anticlinal-structure associated with the bounding step-like normal faults.

  19. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  20. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  1. JPRS Report, West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in French 24 Jun 87 p 2 [Article by Ch. B.] [Text] A crisis? In the PSC? You’re dreaming . Or else you are seeking to destroy stability in the...partners. The ups and downs of recent weeks have done him harm, and it said that he dreams of distancing himself somewhat. If only Willy De Clercq were...a lucid and objective account of his subject matter. It is still quite common for more or less well-informed West Europeans to use the term

  2. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented on the effectiveness of applying nonlinear multigrid methods for efficient reservoir simulation of subsurface flow in porous media. A conventional strategy modeled after global linearization by means of Newton’s method is compared with an alternative strategy...... modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  3. The evolution of clastic sedimentology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Oldroyd

    2006-01-01

    @@ This valuable book was first published in Japanese in 2002, under the title Sedimentology: a way to the new discipline of earth sciences. Given the problems that nearly all non-Japanese people have in reading Japanese, its translation into English in an expanded form, accomplished with the help of Professor Kenyon-Smith, is exceedingly welcome, given that it is the first book to provide a history of sedimentology.

  4. Coalbed methane reservoir boundaries and sealing mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xianbo; LIN Xiaoying; LIU Shaobo; SONG Yan

    2005-01-01

    It is important to investigate the coalbed methane reservoir boundaries for the classification, exploration, and development of the coalbed methane reservoir.Based on the investigation of the typical coalbed methane reservoirs in the world, the boundaries can be divided into four types: hydrodynamic boundary, air altered boundary,permeability boundary, and fault boundary. Hydrodynamic and air altered boundaries are ubiquitous boundaries for every coalbed methane reservoir. The four types of the fault sealing mechanism in the petroleum geological investigation (diagen- esis, clay smear, juxtaposition and cataclasis) are applied to the fault boundary of the coalbed methane reservoir. The sealing mechanism of the open fault boundary is the same with that of the hydrodynamic sealing boundary.The sealing mechanism of the permeability boundary is firstly classified into capillary pressure sealing and hydrocarbon concentration sealing. There are different controlling boundaries in coalbed methane reservoirs that are in different geological backgrounds. Therefore, the coalbed methane reservoir is diversiform.

  5. Reservoir compartmentalization assessment by using FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A. [Dept. Geoquimica, Petrologia i Prospeccio Geologica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 - Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rebufa, C.; Kister, J. [Universite d' Aix - Marseille III, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de St. Jerome, CNRS UMR 6171, Laboratoire de Geochimie Organique Analytique et Environnement (GOAE), Case 561, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2007-09-15

    Reservoir geochemistry has traditionally used the gas chromatographic fingerprinting method and star diagrams to provide evidence of petroleum reservoir compartmentalization. Recently alternative techniques such as Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy have been postulated to aid the evaluation of reservoir compartmentalization, and to characterize the geochemical evolution of oils from individual reservoirs. FTIR spectroscopy was applied successfully in the Tarragona Basin, Offshore N.E. Spain, validating the method to identify oils from different reservoirs. Moreover the method was successfully applied to provide evidence of compositional differences in oils from a faulted reservoir (El Furrial field, Venezuela), in which GC fingerprints failed to differentiate the oils. FTIR spectroscopy therefore, proves to be a complementary tool for reservoir compartmentalization studies. (author)

  6. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  7. Mechanisms of abnormal overpressure generation in Kuqa foreland thrust belt and their impacts on oil and gas reservoir formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on overview for mechanism of abnormal overpressure generation in sedimentary basins, an insight discussion is made by the authors for the distribution, features and generation mechanisms of abnormal overpressure in the Kuqa foreland thrust belt. The abnormal overpressure in the Kelasu structure zone west to the Kuqa foreland thrust belt was primarily distributed in Eogene to lower Cretaceous formations; structural compression and structural emplacement as well as the containment of Eogene gyps-salt formation constituted the main mechanisms for the generation of abnormal overpressure. The abnormal overpressure zone in the eastern Yiqikelike structure zone was distributed primarily in lower Jurassic Ahe Group, resulting from hydrocarbon generation as well as structural stress other than from under-compaction. Various distributions and generating mechanisms have different impacts upon the formation of oil and gas reservoirs. K-E reservoir in the Kelasu zone is an allochthonous abnormal overpressure system. One of the conditions for reservoir accumulation is the migration of hydrocarbon (T-J hydrocarbon source rock) along the fault up to K-E reservoir and accumulated into reservoir. And this migration process was controlled by the abnormal overpressure system in K-E reservoir. The confined abnormal overpressure system in the Yiqikelike structure zone constituted the main cause for the poor developing of dissolved porosity in T-J reservoir, resulting in poor physical property of reservoir. The poor physical property of T-J reservoir of Yinan 2 structure was the main cause for the absence of oil accumulation, but the presence of natural gas reservoir in the structure.

  8. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah

  9. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Abe, E. J. James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987 in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010. The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62 % when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  10. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, George [Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Sub Centre, Kottayam South P.O, Kottayam-686 039, Kerala (India); James, E.J. [Water Institute and Dean (Research), Karunya University, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987) in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow) which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010). The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62% when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  11. Determination of the Cascade Reservoir Operation for Optimal Firm-Energy Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia today face a new paradigm in water management where aim to apply integrated water resources management has become unavoidable task in purpose of achieving greater level of effectiveness and efficiency. On of most interesting case study is the case of Citarum river, one of the most potential river for water supply in West Java, Indonesia. Alongside the river, Saguling, Cirata and Djuanda Reservoirs had been constructed in series/cascade. Saguling and Cirata reservoirs are particularly operated for hydroelectric power and Djuanda is multipurpose reservoir mainly operated for irrigation and contribute domestic water supply for Jakarta (capital city of Indonesia. Basically all reservoirs are relying on same resources, therefore this condition has considered addressing management and operational problem. Therefore, an approach toward new management and operation system are urgently required in order to achieve the effective and efficient output and to avoid conflicts of water used. This study aims to obtain energy production from Citarum Cascade Reservoir System using Genetic Algorithms optimization with the objective function to maximize firm-energy. Firm-energy is the minimum energy requirements must be available in a certain time period. Then, the result obtained by using the energy produced by GA is compared to the conventional searching technique of Non-Linier Programming (NLP. The GA derived operating curves reveal the higher energy and firm-energy than NLP model

  12. Tectonic controls on the quality and distribution of Syn- to Post-Rift reservoir sands in the Southern Red Sea, offshore Western Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.M.L. [Petroleum Geologists Group Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    Previous geophysical and drilling results in the southern Red Sea, and the presence of numerous oil seeps, indicate that the syn- to post-rift section is prospective for oil and gas. The relatively high geothermal gradient offshore western Yemen makes intra-salt and post-salt reservoir sands the only viable exploration targets. The quality and distribution of the reservoir sands remains one of the main unknown risk factors, An improved understanding of the controls on deposition of these sands is achieved by use of LandSat data, which provide evidence of a regional tectonic framework involving NE/SW-trending oceanic transform faults which are expressed onshore as strike-slip features, in some cases representing reactivated Precambrian lineaments. These faults are thought to have played two fundamental roles in the Neogene to Recent evolution of the southern Red Sea - firstly by directing clastic input from the rising Yemen Highlands into offshore depocentres, and secondly by influencing the location of salt diapirs sourced by Upper Miocene evaporates. By considering these factors, together with the pattern of heat flow from the developing oceanic rift of the southern Red Sea, it is possible to delineate areas of offshore western Yemen where reservoir characteristics are likely to be most favourable.

  13. Fracture properties from tight reservoir outcrop analogues with application to geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Sonja L.; Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Bauer, Johanna F.; Meier, Silke; Reinecker, John

    2015-04-01

    areas of palaeo¬geothermal fields in the Bristol Channel (1), all mineral veins, most of which are extension fractures, are of calcite. They are clearly associated with the faults and indicate that geothermal water was transported along the then-active faults into the host rocks with evidence of injection as hydrofractures. Layers with contrasting mechanical properties (in particular, stiffnesses), however, acted as stress barriers and lead to fracture arrest. Along some faults, veins propagated through the barriers along faults to shallower levels. In the Northwest German Basin (2) there are pronounced differences between normal-fault zones in carbonate and clastic rocks. Only in carbonate rocks clear damage zones occur, characterized by increased fracture frequencies and high amounts of fractures with large apertures. On the Upper Rhine Graben shoulders (3) damage zones in Triassic Muschelkalk limestones are well developed; fault cores are narrow and comprise breccia, clay smear, host rock lenses and mineralization. A large fault zone in Triassic Bunter sandstone shows a clearly developed fault core with fault gouge, slip zones, deformation bands and host rock lenses, a transition zone with mostly disturbed layering and highest fracture frequency, and a damage zone. The latter damage zone is compared to the damage zone of a large Bunter sandstone fault zone currently explored for geothermal energy production. The numerical models focus on stress field development, fracture propagation and associated permeability changes. These studies contribute to the understanding of the hydromechanical behaviour of fault zones and related fluid transport in fractured reservoirs complementing predictions based on geophysical measurements. Eventually we aim at classifying and quantifying fracture system properties in fault zones to improve exploration and exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. Acknowledgements The authors appreciate the support of 'Niedersächsisches Ministerium f

  14. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  15. Seismic Imaging of Reservoir Structure at The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, R.; Yoo, S.; Jarpe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional Vp/Vs-ratio structure is presented for The Geysers geothermal field using seismic travel-time data. The data were recorded by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) using a 34-station seismic network. The results are based on 32,000 events recorded in 2011 and represent the highest resolution seismic imaging campaign at The Geysers to date. The results indicate low Vp/Vs-ratios in the central section of The Geysers within and below the current reservoir. The extent of the Vp/Vs anomaly deceases with increasing depth. Spatial correlation with micro-seismicity, used as a proxy for subsurface water flow, indicates the following. Swarms of seismicity correlate well with areas of high and intermediate Vp/Vs estimates, while regions of low Vp/Vs estimates appear almost aseismic. This result supports past observations that high and low Vp/Vs-ratios are related to water and gas saturated zones, respectively. In addition, the correlation of seismicity to intermediate Vp/Vs-ratios is supportive of the fact that the process of water flashing to steam requires four times more energy than the initial heating of the injected water to the flashing point. Because this energy is dawn from the reservoir rock, the associated cooling of the rock generates more contraction and thus seismic events than water being heated towards the flashing point. The consequences are the presence of some events in regions saturated with water, most events in regions of water flashing to steam (low steam saturation) and the absence of seismicity in regions of high steam concentrations where the water has already been converted to steam. Furthermore, it is observed that Vp/Vs is inversely correlated to Vs but uncorrelated to Vp, leading support to laboratory measurements on rock samples from The Geysers that observe an increase in shear modulus while the core samples are dried out. As a consequence, traditional poroelastic theory is no applicable at The Geysers geothermal

  16. Compilation of Mineral Resource Data for Mississippi Valley-Type and Clastic-Dominated Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Leach, David L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains a global compilation of the mineral resource data for sediment-hosted lead-zinc (SH Pb-Zn) deposits. Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits are historically the most significant sources of lead and zinc, and are mined throughout the world. The most important SH Pb-Zn deposits are hosted in clastic-dominated sedimentary rock sequences (CD Pb-Zn) that are traditionally called sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, and those in carbonate-dominated sequences that are known as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Pb-Zn deposits. In this report, we do not include sandstone-Pb, sandstone-hosted Pb, or Pb-Zn vein districts such as those in Freiberg, Germany, or Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, because these deposits probably represent different deposit types (Leach and others, 2005). We do not include fracture-controlled deposits in which fluorite is dominant and barite typically abundant (for example, Central Kentucky; Hansonburg, N. Mex.) or the stratabound fluorite-rich, but also lead- and zinc-bearing deposits, such as those in southern Illinois, which are considered a genetic variant of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits (Leach and Sangster, 1993). This report updates the Pb, Zn, copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) grade and tonnage data in Leach and others (2005), which itself was based on efforts in the Canadian Geological Survey World Minerals Geoscience Database Project (contributions of D.F. Sangster to Sinclair and others, 1999). New geological or geochronological data, classifications of the tectonic environment in which the deposits formed, and key references to the geology of the deposits are presented in our report. Data for 121 CD deposits, 113 MVT deposits, and 6 unclassified deposits that were previously classified as either SEDEX or MVT in the Leach and others (2005) compilation, are given in appendix table A1. In some cases, mineral resource data were available only for total district resources, but not for individual mines within the district. For these

  17. Trinidad Reservoir Salvage Archaeology, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-30

    section by the prominent Canadian Escarpment; on the west the commonly stated boundary is the eastern front of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the...drained by rivers that, with the exception -. of the Dry Cimarron, originate in or near the Sangre de Cristo Mountainsi all flow to the Mississippi River...River (a waterway which time has treated with several j designations: Picketwire, Purgatory, El Rio de Las Animas Perdidas en Purgatorio, comonly

  18. Carbon dioxide storage in unconventional reservoirs workshop: summary of recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Blondes, Madalyn S.

    2015-01-01

    “Unconventional reservoirs” for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage—that is, geologic reservoirs in which changes to the rock trap CO2 and therefore contribute to CO2 storage—including coal, shale, basalt, and ultramafic rocks, were the focus of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) workshop held March 28 and 29, 2012, at the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. The goals of the workshop were to determine whether a detailed assessment of CO2 storage capacity in unconventional reservoirs is warranted, and if so, to build a set of recommendations that could be used to develop a methodology to assess this storage capacity. Such an assessment would address only the technically available resource, independent of economic or policy factors. At the end of the workshop, participants agreed that sufficient knowledge exists to allow an assessment of the potential CO2 storage resource in coals, organic-rich shales, and basalts. More work remains to be done before the storage resource in ultramafic rocks can be meaningfully assessed.

  19. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  20. CHANGE OF THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF UMAGUSINSKOE RESERVOIR AFTER BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkundina F.B.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and hydrochemical indicators Yumaguzinskoye reservoir (South Urals were studied. Chemical composition was sufficiently uniform and characterized by hydrocarbonate magnesium-calcium composition. Phytoplankton sampling and processing carried out by standard methods. Development of Yumaguzinskoye reservoir is characterized by the moderate eutrophication. At present, the situation has improved and consistents with our forecast of 0,95 % of the runoff. It was identified 80 species and intraspecific taxa of algae and cyanobacteria at the highest species diversity of diatoms and green algae in 2012, 2014 and 2015. The dominant species were Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, Kirchniriella obesa (W. West Schimidle, Synechocystis salina Sauv., Peridinum cinctum (O. Mull. Ehr., Merismopedia minima G.Beck, Scenedesmus quandricanda (Turp. Breb in size; Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, Chlamydomonas vulgaris Ehr., Peridinum cinctum (O. Mull. Ehr., Euglena viridis Stein. in biomass. It has been a trend of increasing the number and biomass in 2006-2007 years and a decrease in these indicators in 2012-2015. Downstream water salinity gradually decreases. There is some dilution near the dam. The current state of the phytoplankton indicates the formation of oligotrophic conditions favorable for the formation of a satisfactory quality of water intakes located in the middle reaches of the Belaya river.

  1. DISTRIBUTION PREDICTION AND EVALUATION OF NATURAL FRACTURES IN 2nd XU MEMBER GAS RESERVOIRS, XINCHANG ARE-A, WEST SICHUAN BASIN%川西新场地区须二气藏天然裂缝分布综合预测及评价(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕海龙; 周文; 谢润成; 邓虎成

    2012-01-01

    Natural fractures with complex formation periods are important factors to affect the development capacity in the 2nd Xu Member in Xinchang area, west Sichuan basin. Based on the identification and statistic of natural fractures in field, cores and thin section, the characteristics of the nature fractures are concluded and summarized. According with different geological factors such as bed thickness, structural deformation, faults, lithology, physical properties et al. , it is analyzed that those control of the natural fractures and figure out the main controlling factors of the natural fractures. Under the premise of the natural fracture characteristics and the main controlling factors, by comparing the results of single factor fractures predicting and the results of single well interpreting and considering the main controlling factors of the 2nd Xu member in Xinchang area, a comprehensive evaluation factor of distribution predication of natural fractures is established. It is evaluated that the fractures distribution prediction results by the production performance data and the consistent rate of evaluation results is more than 80% and the results meet the requirements of the development and application of precision.%川西新场须二气藏天然裂缝发育,成因期次复杂,是影响开发产能的一个重要因素.这里通过对野外、岩心、薄片中天然裂缝的调查、鉴定及统计等工作,对天然裂缝的发育特征进行了归纳和总结;从岩层厚度、构造变形、断层、岩性、物性等不同地质因素,分析了其对天然裂缝发育的控制作用,并了解了天然裂缝发育的主要控制因素.在天然裂缝特征、主控因素认识的前提下,通过对比分析单一因素裂缝预测结果与单井裂缝解释结果的吻合率,确定了各因素的影响权值,并综合考虑主控因素建立了适合新场须二气藏天然裂缝分布预测的综合评价因子.通过生产动态资料对裂缝分布预

  2. 川西新场地区须二气藏天然裂缝分布综合预测及评价(下)%DISTRIBUTION PREDICTION AND EVALUATION OF NATURAL FRACTURES IN 2nd XUMEMBER GAS RESERVOIRS, XINCHANG AREA, WEST SICHUAN BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕海龙; 周文; 谢润成; 邓虎成

    2013-01-01

    川西新场须二气藏天然裂缝发育,成因期次复杂,是影响开发产能的一个重要因素.通过对野外岩心、薄片中天然裂缝的调查、鉴定及统计等工作,对天然裂缝的发育特征进行了归纳和总结;从岩层厚度、构造变形、断层、岩性、物性等不同地质因素,分析了其对天然裂缝发育的控制作用,并了解了天然裂缝发育的主要控制因素.在天然裂缝特征、主控因素认识的前提下,通过对比分析单一因素裂缝预测结果与单井裂缝解释结果的吻合率确定了各因素的影响权值,并综合考虑主控因素建立了适合新场须二气藏天然裂缝分布预测综合评价因子.通过生产动态资料对裂缝分布预测结果进行了评价,吻合率达到80%以上,预测结果满足了开发应用的精度要求.%Natural fractures with complex formation periods are important factors to affect the development capacity in The 2nd Xu member in Xinchang area, west Sichuan basin. Based on the survey, i-dentification and statistic of natural fractures in field, cores and thin section, the characteristics of the nature fractures are concluded and summarized. According with different geological factors such as bed thickness, structural deformation, faults, lithology, physical properties et al. to a-nalysis those control of the natural fractures and figure out the main controlling factors of the natural fractures. Under the premise of the natural fracture characteristics and the main controlling factors, by comparing the results of single factor fractures predicting and the results of single well interpreting and considering the main controlling factors of the 2nd Xu member in Xinchang area, a comprehensive evaluation factor of distribution predication of natural fractures is established. E-valuate the fractures distribution prediction results by the production performance data that the consistent rate of them is more than 80% and the results are to

  3. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  4. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  5. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  6. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Isabela; Sanches,Barbara; Kaufmann,Philip Robert; Hughes,Robert M.; Santos,Gilmar Bastos; Molozzi,Joseline; Callisto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmental condition of Nova Ponte Reservoir, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil; and (2) determine how the aquatic biota respond to disturbances. A total of 40 sites in the littoral zone of the reservoir were sampled to characterize ph...

  7. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  8. The Chemical Compositions of Thermal Waters at Ciarinem and Cilayu, Pameungpeuk, West Java - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Herdianita

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal waters at Ciarinem and Cilayu, Pameungpeuk, West Java, Indonesia have different characteristics: Ciarinem water is a steam heated sulfate type and occurs as hot springs, whereas Cilayu water discharges as hot pools and is a chloride water type. Their chemical compositions indicate that the thermal waters are outflows of a volcanic–magmatic associated geothermal system. The solute geothermometers calculate that the subsurface reservoir temperatures range from 150o to 200ºC.

  9. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Slimholes for geothermal reservoir evaluation - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickox, C.E.

    1996-08-01

    The topics covered in this session include: slimhole testing and data acquisition, theoretical and numerical models for slimholes, and an overview of the analysis of slimhole data acquired by the Japanese. The fundamental issues discussed are concerned with assessing the efficacy of slimhole testing for the evaluation of geothermal reservoirs. the term reservoir evaluation is here taken to mean the assessment of the potential of the geothermal reservoir for the profitable production of electrical power. As an introduction to the subsequent presentations and discussions, a brief summary of the more important aspects of the use of slimholes in reservoir evaluation is given.

  11. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating...... of freshwater-based samples requires knowing the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect and its degree of variability. Measurements on modern riverine materials may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they show the order of magnitude and variability...

  12. Critical elements in sediment-hosted deposits (clastic-dominated Zn-Pb-Ag, Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb, sedimentary rock-hosted Stratiform Cu, and carbonate-hosted Polymetallic Deposits): A review: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erin; Hitzman, Murray W.; Leach, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Some sediment-hosted base metal deposits, specifically the clastic-dominated (CD) Zn-Pb deposits, carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, sedimentary-rock hosted stratiform copper deposits, and carbonate-hosted polymetallic (“Kipushi type”) deposits, are or have been important sources of critical elements including Co, Ga, Ge, and Re. The generally poor data concerning trace element concentrations in these types of sediment-hosted ores suggest that there may be economically important concentrations of critical elements yet to be recognized.

  13. A feasibility study on the expected seismic AVA signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleardi, Mattia; Mazzotti, Alfredo

    2014-12-01

    The deep geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello-Travale field (southern Tuscany) are found in intensively fractured portions of intrusive/metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the geothermal exploration has been in search of possible fracture signatures that could be retrieved from the analysis of geophysical data. In the present work we assess the feasibility of finding seismic markers in the pre-stack domain which may pinpoint fractured levels. Thanks to the availability of data from boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of this geothermal field, we derived the expected amplitude versus angle (AVA) responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. The information we have available limit us to build 1D elastic and isotropic models only and thus anisotropy effects related to the presence of fractures cannot be properly modelled. We analysed the velocities and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. The AVA response of the fractured intervals is modelled downscaling the log data to seismic scale and comparing the analytical AVA response (computed with the Aki and Richards approximation) and the AVA extracted from a synthetic common mid point (calculated making use of a reflectivity algorithm). The results show that the amplitude of the reflections from the fractured level is characterized by negative values at vertical incidence and by decreasing absolute amplitudes with the increase of the source to receiver offset. This contrasts with many observations from hydrocarbon exploration in clastic reservoirs where gas-sand reflections often exhibit negative amplitudes at short offsets but increasing absolute amplitudes for increasing source to receiver offsets. Thereby, some common AVA attributes considered in silicoclastic lithologies would lead to erroneous fracture localization. For this reason we propose a

  14. Rock property estimates using multiple seismic attributes and neural networks; Pegasus Field, West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuelke, J.S.; Quirein, J.A.; Sarg, J.F.

    1998-12-31

    This case study shows the benefit of using multiple seismic trace attributes and the pattern recognition capabilities of neural networks to predict reservoir architecture and porosity distribution in the Pegasus Field, West Texas. The study used the power of neural networks to integrate geologic, borehole and seismic data. Illustrated are the improvements between the new neural network approach and the more traditional method of seismic trace inversion for porosity estimation. Comprehensive statistical methods and interpretational/subjective measures are used in the prediction of porosity from seismic attributes. A 3-D volume of seismic derived porosity estimates for the Devonian reservoir provide a very detailed estimate of porosity, both spatially and vertically, for the field. The additional reservoir porosity detail provided, between the well control, allows for optimal placement of horizontal wells and improved field development. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  16. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  17. Exploration on ecological regulation of the reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qihua

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir regulation process in the Yangtze River basin is mainly divided into two types of flood regulation and initiating benefit regulation. The present reservoir management system and operation mode are mainly for dealing with or coordinating of flood control and benefit initiation as well as benefit distribution among various beneficial functions. From the view point of river ecosystem protection, the current regulation mode has two kinds of problems: firstly, most of the reservoir regulation plans do not consider ecosystem protection at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas; secondly, integrated regulation or management of water resources is ignored. It is very necessary to improve reservoir regulation mode, bearing problems faced by regulation of the Three Gorges reservoir and issues related to cascade development and regulation in Tuojiang and Minjiang River basins in mind. In accordance with the concept of scientific development, and the philosophy of "ensuring a healthy Yangtze River and promoting the har-mony between human and water", taking flood control, benefit initiation and eco-system as a whole, this paper put for-ward the basic consideration to improve reservoir regulation as follows : on the basis of requirements of ecosystem protec-tion at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas, we should bring the functions of res-ervoir such as flood control and benefit initiation into full play, control the negative influence to the ecosystem at down-stream of dams and the environment in reservoir areas in an endurable scope, and restore the ecosystem and the environ-ment step by step. This paper put forward the relevant regulation process aiming at the idiographic problems such as pro-tection of ecosystem at downstream of dams and environment in reservoir areas, protection of aquatic wildlife species and fish species, regulation of sediment and protection of wetland.

  18. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  19. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  20. Reservoir optimization for the synthetic brugge field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing availability of data and tools for history matching and optimisation brings the long-term goal of closed loop reservoir management closer. However, still many issues are not solved. An example is the interaction between the history match of the reservoir model and the optimisation. How im

  1. Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haixia

    2002-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.

  2. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.E.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonate reservoirs contain an increasingly important percentage of the world’s hydrocarbon reserves. This volume presents key recent advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis. As well as a comprehensive overview of the trends in carbonate over the years, the volume focuses on four key areas:

  3. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  4. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  5. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  6. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  7. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  8. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves d

  9. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  11. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first Chinese-hosted cultural dialogue between the East and the West was held in Nishan, Shandong Province The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on September 26 at Nishan Mountain, 25 km southeast

  12. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E; Drake, John M

    2015-06-02

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States.

  13. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...... of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications...

  14. Bottomwater drive in tarmat reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaabi, A.A.; Menouar, H.; Al-Marhoun, M.A.; Al-Hashim, H.S.

    1988-05-01

    This paper addresses the class of tarmat reservoirs subject to bottomwater drive. Different shapes of tar layers are simulated physically and numerically to study the behavior of WOR and oil recovery. Four different cases were studied: a square barrier beneath the well, a disk beneath the well, a hollow square or disk beneath the well, and a half plane. The results showed that breakthrough time occurs earlier in the case of hollow tarmat barriers, while it is delayed considerably in the case of tarmat barriers shaped in the form of a disk beneath the well. Paradoxically, in this last case, the WOR increases more rapidly and becomes higher toward the end of the depletion than in any other case. Among all the cases studied, the no-barrier case gives the highest recovery, while the hollow-tarmat-barrier case leads to the lowest recovery.

  15. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...... the uid ow. We discretize the the two-phase ow model spatially using the nite volume method (FVM), and we use the two point ux approximation (TPFA) and the single-point upstream (SPU) scheme for computing the uxes. We propose a new formulation of the differential equation system that arise...... as a consequence of the spatial discretization of the two-phase ow model. Upon discretization in time, the proposed equation system ensures the mass conserving property of the two-phase ow model. For the solution of the spatially discretized two-phase ow model, we develop mass conserving explicit singly diagonally...

  16. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU del

  17. Dynamic dam-reservoir interaction analysis including effect of reservoir boundary absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Gao; DU; JianGuo; HU; ZhiQiang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the scaled boundary finite-element method,the governing equations for the analysis of dam-reservoir interaction including the reservoir boundary absorption are developed.Coupling with the equation of dam-unbounded foundation interaction,it can effectively carry out the earthquake response analysis of dam-reservoir-foundation system.The proposed approach has the advantages that the effect of compressibility of reservoir water as well as the energy absorption of reservoir boundary on the earthquake response of arch dams and gravity dams can be efficiently evaluated and higher accuracy can be achieved.In comparison with the methods available in the literature,the computational cost can be reduced to a great extent.It facilitates the application of earthquake response analysis of dam-reservoir-foundation system including reservoir boundary absorption to the engineering practice.

  18. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  19. Landscape evolution of West Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Constituting the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the present-day Western Kunlun is a spectacular mountain range, extending from the Pamir Plateau in the west to the Altyn Tagh fault and the Eastern Kunlun Range in the east. Dramatic climate variations have a significant control on the fluvial dissection, glacial erosion and wind transport. The West Kunlun Mountains is one of the key regions for understanding the uplift history of the Plateau and the climate change of Central Asia. The activities of tectonic and erosion make the topography of West Kunlun Mountains complex and varied. However, due to its remote location, there is still limited knowledge about the geomorphologic and geological features in West Kunlun Mountains .This paper tries to figure out the geomorphologic and geological features of this region qualitatively through studying the data of Shuttle Reader Topography Mission (SRTM) and topographic maps by digital elevation models (DEMs) and constructing profiles, aiming to make clear what functions the tectonics and climate exert on the topography of the West Kunlun Mountains. The West Kunlun Mountains, the northwestern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, have strong tectonic activities. From south to north,West Kunlun Mountains developed three major faults: Kangxiwar fracture, North West Kunlun fault and Iron Creek fault. At about 25 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to uplift, and from about 5 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to grow rapidly. By using topographic analyzing software to make more than 10 vertical profiles across the main faults from south to north, it is obvious that there is a height difference between the upper and lower plate fracture, and the elevation of terrain profiles generally decreases from south to north. There is ~4,500m elevation difference between the main ridge of the West Kunlun Mountains out of Kangxiwar (5500-6000m) and the northern foot of the Tarim Basin (1200-1300m). The same progressively decreasing

  20. Geologic description of middle Devonian Chert Reservoir, Block 31 field, Crane County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebanks, W.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Block 31 field is a large anticlinal structure that produces from six pay zones. The first miscible gas-injection enhanced oil recovery project has been operated by ARCO since 1952 in the middle Devonian reservoir, which is the main producing interval in the field. The middle Devonian unit was deposited as a siliceous, calcareous ooze in a basin-slope environment in the ancient Tobosa basin. Sedimentation buried earlier fault blocks, as the slope deposits aggraded and prograded mainly from the west and south. Subsequent diagenesis converted the ooze into calcareous chert. Reservoir quality of the chert depends on degree of compaction and quartz cementation. Gray, dense, glassy chert at the base of the sequence is nonporous except for small, incipient fractures in the brittle matrix. Creamy white, evenly laminated, microporous, calcareous chert, which alternates with and overlies the dense chert in the lower half of the middle Devonian interval, has porosity of 10-30% and permeability as great as 10 md. The upper half of the reservoir interval consists mainly of light-gray and white, partially porous, heterogeneous, calcareous chert. This rock type has porosity of 5-20%, but permeability is usually less than 3 md. Patchy silica cement, discontinuous low-permeability laminae, and thin beds of dense limestone reduce its effectiveness as a reservoir.

  1. Three-dimensional seismic imaging of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feighner, M.; Gritto, R.; Daley, T.M.; Keers, H.; Majer, E.L.

    1999-11-01

    A 3-D surface seismic survey was conducted to explore the structure of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada), to determine if modern seismic techniques could be successfully applied in geothermal environments. Furthermore, it was intended to map the structural features which may control geothermal production in the reservoir. The seismic survey covered an area of 3.03 square miles and was designed with 12 north-south receiver lines and 25 east-west source lines. The receiver group interval was 100 feet and the receiver line spacing was 800 feet. The source interval was 100 feet while the source line spacing was 400 feet. The sources were comprised of 4 vibrator trucks arranged in a box array. Seismic processing involved, among other steps, the picking of over 700,000 of the possible one million traces to determine first arrival travel times, normal moveout correction, 3-D stack, deconvolution, time migration, and depth conversion. The final data set represents a 3-D cube of the subsurface structure in the reservoir. Additionally, the travel times were used to perform tomographic inversions for velocity estimates to support the findings of the surface seismic imaging. The results suggest the presence of at least one dominant fault responsible for the migration of fluids in the reservoir. Furthermore, it is suggested that this feature might be part of a fault system that includes a graben structure.

  2. A study on the seismic AVO signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleardi, M.; Mazzotti, A.

    2012-04-01

    Amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) analysis of reflected waves has become an important tool for hydrocarbon prospecting. However, while the AVO responses of reservoirs in clastic lithologies (oil or gas bearing sands) are well known, the AVO behaviour of reservoirs hosted in the interconnected fractures of massive rocks are almost unknown due to the rarity of this type of reservoirs and the consequent lack of seismic and well log data. Thanks to the availability of the data of boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of the Larderello-Travale geothermal field, we have derived the expected AVO responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. Therefore we wish to determine what are the expected AVO responses of geothermal reservoirs inside fractured igneous rocks and we seek to find one or more AVO attributes that may help identifying fracture locations. To this end, we have analysed the velocity (P-wave and S-wave) and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. However, comparing well log data with surface seismic data the known issues of the different scales and thus different resolutions arise. Therefore, making use of the Backus theory of the equivalent layer, we have downscaled the well logs, acquired at a decimetric scale, to a decametric scale typical of the wavelengths of seismic waves, producing a blocky model of the original logs. Subsequently, we have followed two different approaches to estimate the expected responses. First, on the basis of the P and S velocities and densities of the fractured level and of the encasing rock, we have computed the analytical AVO response of each fractured zone. To this end we have made use of the linear Shuey equation that well describes the AVO response up to incident angles of 30 degrees. This would be the theoretical, noise free, response that perfectly

  3. The identification of multi-cave combinations in carbonate reservoirs based on sparsity constraint inverse spectral decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Di, Bangrang; Wei, Jianxin; Yuan, Sanyi; Si, Wenpeng

    2016-12-01

    Sparsity constraint inverse spectral decomposition (SCISD) is a time-frequency analysis method based on the convolution model, in which minimizing the l1 norm of the time-frequency spectrum of the seismic signal is adopted as a sparsity constraint term. The SCISD method has higher time-frequency resolution and more concentrated time-frequency distribution than the conventional spectral decomposition methods, such as short-time Fourier transformation (STFT), continuous-wavelet transform (CWT) and S-transform. Due to these good features, the SCISD method has gradually been used in low-frequency anomaly detection, horizon identification and random noise reduction for sandstone and shale reservoirs. However, it has not yet been used in carbonate reservoir prediction. The carbonate fractured-vuggy reservoir is the major hydrocarbon reservoir in the Halahatang area of the Tarim Basin, north-west China. If reasonable predictions for the type of multi-cave combinations are not made, it may lead to an incorrect explanation for seismic responses of the multi-cave combinations. Furthermore, it will result in large errors in reserves estimation of the carbonate reservoir. In this paper, the energy and phase spectra of the SCISD are applied to identify the multi-cave combinations in carbonate reservoirs. The examples of physical model data and real seismic data illustrate that the SCISD method can detect the combination types and the number of caves of multi-cave combinations and can provide a favourable basis for the subsequent reservoir prediction and quantitative estimation of the cave-type carbonate reservoir volume.

  4. Controls on the Lower Cretaceous Punt Sandstone Member, a massive deep-water clastic deposystem, Inner Moray Firth, UK North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argent, J.D.; Stewart, S.A. [Amerada Hess Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Underhill, J.R. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2000-08-01

    Interpretation of high-quality seismic data, constrained by exploration wells, provides insights into controls on the stratigraphic architecture and deep-water sedimentary processes that governed deposition of the Lower Cretaceous Punt Sandstone Member in the Inner Moray Firth Basin. We suggest a model of deposition in which sediment provenance from the north and west progressively filled depositional accommodation in proximal depocentres before spilling into more distal areas via linear, confined and incised channel complexes. As well as giving important clues into post-rift depositional processes in the basin, and a well-imaged ancient analogue for the deposition of massive deep-water sands, the seismic and stratigraphic data may also provide important insights into factors governing the poorly imaged Lower Cretaceous sands in neighbouring basins of the North Sea. (Author)

  5. The Tanggu geothermal reservoir (Tianjin, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsson, Gudni [Virkir-Orkint Consulting Group and National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Zhilin Dong [Tanggu Geothermal Office, Tianjin (China)

    1998-06-01

    The Tanggu geothermal system is an extensive, highly permeable, horizontal sandstone reservoir, situated within the North China Sedimentary Basin. Twenty-three successful production wells, yielding water with an average temperature of about 70degC, have been drilled into this reservoir since 1987, distributed over an area of some 330 km{sup 2}. The hot water is mostly used for space heating. In 1995 the annual production exceeded 5 million tons. Hot water extraction has caused the water level to drop to a depth of 80 m in the production wells, and it continues to decline at a rate of 3-4 m per year. This has raised the question as to whether the reservoir may be overexploited. The main objective of a reservoir evaluation carried out in 1996 was to estimate the long-term production potential of the Tanggu reservoir. Two simple models were developed for this purpose. The potential is determined by specifying a maximum allowable pump setting depth of 150 m . On this basis the potential of the Tanggu reservoir is estimated to be about 10 million tons per year, for the next ten years. A comprehensive reservoir management program must be implemented in Tanggu. The first priority of such a program should be to improve the energy efficiency of space heating in the district, which should result in about 50% reduction in hot water consumption. Another management option is reinjection, which would counteract the water level draw-down. (Author)

  6. Stochastic Reservoir Characterization Constrained by Seismic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Alfhild Lien

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict future production of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir, it is important to have a good description of the reservoir in terms of geometry and physical parameters. This description is used as input to large numerical models for the fluid flow in the reservoir. With increased quality of seismic data, it is becoming possible to extend their use from the study of large geologic structures such as seismic horizons to characterization of the properties of the reservoir between the horizons. Uncertainties because of the low resolution of seismic data can be successfully handled by means of stochastic modeling, and spatial statistics can provide tools for interpolation and simulation of reservoir properties not completely resolved by seismic data. This thesis deals with stochastic reservoir modeling conditioned to seismic data and well data. Part I presents a new model for stochastic reservoir characterization conditioned to seismic traces. Part II deals with stochastic simulation of high resolution impedance conditioned to measured impedance. Part III develops a new stochastic model for calcite cemented objects in a sandstone background; it is a superposition of a marked point model for the calcites and a continuous model for the background.

  7. Reservoir stimulation techniques to minimize skin factor of Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jianchun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm carbonatite gas reservoirs in the Leshan-Longnüsi Paleouplift in the Sichuan Basin feature strong heterogeneity, well-developed fractures and caverns, and a high content of H2S, so these reservoirs are prone to reservoir damages caused by the invasion of drilling fluid or the improper well completion, so to minimize the reservoir skin factor is key to achieving high yield of oil and gas in this study area. Therefore, based on the geological characteristics of the Longwangmiao reservoirs, the binomial productivity equation was applied to demonstrate the possibility and scientificity of minimizing the skin factor. According to the current status of reservoir stimulation, the overall skin factors of reservoir damage caused by drilling fluid invasion, improper drilling and completion modes etc were analyzed, which shows there is still potential for skin factor reduction. Analysis of reservoir damage factors indicates that the main skin factor of Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs consists of that caused by drilling fluid and by improper completion modes. Along with the minimization of skin factor caused by drilling and improper completion, a fracture-network acidizing process to achieve “non-radial & network-fracture” plug-removal by making good use of natural fractures was proposed according to the characteristics of Longwangmiao Fm carbonatite reservoirs.

  8. STUDI KOLEKSI REFERENSI RESERVOIR PENYAKIT DI DAERAH ENZOOTIK PES DI JAWA BARAT DAN JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyanto -

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHReservoir Reference Study Collection Disease, particularly rats have been conducted in several areas such as the enzootic plague area in the district of Nongkojajar, Pasuruan, East Java and Ciwidey district, Bandung regency, West Java. These were organized in May-October 2007. The method used for the collection and reference reservoir of disease is rodentia survey methods. Result of the reference collection reservoir of disease is the house rat Rattus tanezumi Nongkojajar found either in the of Pasuruan, East Java (3 rats and the District of Ciwidey (4 rats. Polynesian rat R. exulans, three rats were only found in the District Nongkojajar, whereas three rats R. tiomanicus, three rats were found in Ciwidey. In addition another types of mice were also found 1 Insectivora mice Suncus murinus in the District Ciwidey. Type of rats captured in habitat homes in the District Ciwidey Bandung regency, West Java and Pasuruan, East Java is the same type, namely house rat Rattus tanezumi. Types of mice caught in the habitat garden in the District Ciwidey Bandung regency, West Java (tiomanicus R. tree rats were different from mice found in Pasuruan, East Java (Polynesian rat R. exulans. Local environment in plague enzootic area in Pasuruan, East Java is mountainous and forest conservation area Bromo-Tengger, while District Ciwidey, Bandung is the highland tourism areas / mountainous and agricultural areas.INDONESIAKoleksi referensi reservoir penyakit khususnya tikus telah dilakukan di beberapa daerah enzootik pes seperti di Kecamatan Nongkojajar, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Jawa Timur dan Kecamatan Ciwidey, Kabupaten Bandung, Jawa Barat. Kegiatan tersebut dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Oktober 2007. Metode yang digunakan untuk koleksi dan referensi reservoir penyakit adalah metode survei rodensia. Hasil koleksi referensi reservoir penyakit adalah tikus rumah Rattus tanezumi ditemukan baik di Kecamatan Nongkojajar, Kabupaten Pasuruan, Jawa Timur (3 ekor maupun

  9. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery methods have become significant in the industry\\'s drive to increase recovery rates from oil and gas reservoirs. For heavy oil reservoirs, the immobility of the oil at reservoir temperatures, caused by its high viscosity, limits the recovery rates and strains the economic viability of these fields. While thermal recovery methods, such as steam injection or THAI, have extensively been applied in the field, their success has so far been limited due to prohibitive heat losses and the difficulty in controlling the combustion process. Electromagnetic (EM) heating via high-frequency EM radiation has attracted attention due to its wide applicability in different environments, its efficiency, and the improved controllability of the heating process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase recovery rates. Limited research has been undertaken so far to capture the nonlinear reservoir dynamics and significantly varying flow rates for thermally heated heavy oil reservoir that may notably change production rates and render conventional history matching frameworks more challenging. We present a new history matching framework for EM heated heavy oil reservoirs incorporating cross-well seismic imaging. Interfacing an EM heating solver to a reservoir simulator via Andrade’s equation, we couple the system to an ensemble Kalman filter based history matching framework incorporating a cross-well seismic survey module. With increasing power levels and heating applied to the heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir dynamics change considerably and may lead to widely differing production forecasts and increased uncertainty. We have shown that the incorporation of seismic observations into the EnKF framework can significantly enhance reservoir simulations, decrease forecasting

  10. Ecological operation for Three Gorges reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian GUO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation rule of Three Gorges reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply and recreation and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied to maintain healthy river ecosystem. The study considered the ecological operation targets, including maintaining river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Based on the flow data from 1900 to 2006 of Yichang gauge as the control station of the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. The paper proposed a reservoir ecological operation model of comprehensively considering flood control, power generation, navigation and ecological environment. Three typical periods including wet, normal and dry year were selected and particle swarm optimization was applied to analyze the model. The results show that there are different influences of ecological operation rules on economic benefit of hydropower station and reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for requirement of spawning of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Finally, ecological operation measures of Three Gorges reservoir were proposed. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand can be met. The results provide the reference for making the reasonable operation schemes for Three Gorges reservoir.

  11. TRANSFER RESERVOIR AS A RAINWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Malmur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive rainfalls and snow melting often cause floods in protected areas and overflow the existing sewage systems. Such cases are particularly burdensome for the inhabitants and cause considerable physical losses. One of the possible constructional solutions to ensure the effective outflow of stormwater are transfer reservoirs located between the draining system and a receiver set discussed in this paper. If gravity outflow of sewage is impossible, the initial part of sewage volume is accumulated in the transfer reservoir and then it is transferred into the water receiver set. However, gravity discharge of sewage to the water receiver set occurs through transfer chambers in the transfer reservoir.

  12. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand...... years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites...

  13. West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.H.

    1997-09-10

    The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  14. Play Analysis and Digital Portfolio of Major Oil Reservoirs in the Permian Basin: Application and Transfer of Advanced Geological and Engineering Technologies for Incremental Production Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-01-13

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest onshore petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Approximately 1,300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000. Of these significant-sized reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. There are 32 geologic plays that have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs, and each of the 1,300 major reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. The final reservoir shapefile for each play contains the geographic location of each reservoir. Associated reservoir information within the linked data tables includes RRC reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are smaller than 1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production of >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl [5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres Platform Carbonate play (2.15 Bbbl [3.42 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]). Detailed studies of three reservoirs

  15. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  16. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  17. Fisheries and Limnological Studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    thoracic legs. Chief food items are algae, protozoa, organic detritus and bacteria (Pennak 1978). These types of food items comprised the periphytic...impact on colonization of the plate samples. Much of this impact would have been on the growth of algae, protozoa and bacteria on the plates. In...22. N. zonistius Bandtf~n sniner 23. Semotilt.s atromaculatus Creek chuib 24. PepasprelsFathead minnow Gatos tomiidae 25. Carpioc-s cyprinus Q,1 Liba

  18. Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pérez-Ramírez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3 facilities. This review summarizes the main achievements of WNV experimental research carried out in wild birds, highlighting advantages and limitations of this model. Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. Studies of laboratory infections in the natural host will help to understand variations in susceptibility and reservoir competence among bird species, as well as in the epidemiological patterns found in different affected areas.

  19. Integrated seismic studies at the Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Majer, Ernest L.

    2002-05-23

    A 3-D surface seismic reflection survey, covering an area of over 3 square miles, was conducted at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada) to explore the structural features that may control geothermal production in the area. In addition to the surface sources and receivers, a high-temperature three-component seismometer was deployed in a borehole at a depth of 3900 ft within the basement below the reservoir, which recorded the waves generated by all surface sources. A total of 1959 first-arrival travel times were determined out of 2134 possible traces. Two-dimensional ray tracing was performed to simulate wave propagation from the surface sources to the receiver at depth. Travel time differences between observed and calculated times were mapped to topographic changes in the elevation of the interface between the carbonate basement and the sedimentary and volcanic unit above. Results indicate the presence of two dominant geologic features. The first confirms the regional trend of the geologic units in the Basin and Range province with a north-south strike and dip to the west, as expected for normal faulting encountered in an extensional regime. The second is a local disturbance of this regional pattern in form of an elevation of the interface between the carbonate basement and the overlying sedimentary sequence, striking east-west. The geometry of the structure is corroborated by results from a seismic-reflection survey, and by results of tomographic studies conducted as part of the seismic survey. Seismic waves, generated from far-offset shots during the 3-D surface survey, exhibit a sudden decrease in amplitudes while propagating across the boundaries of the elevation high. This apparent boundary correlates spatially with the location of the Rye Patch fault as interpreted from the 3-D seismic reflection data. Finite-difference modeling of elastic wave propagation is performed to estimate the structural parameters of the fault. Questions to be answered are

  20. Characteristics of the Triassic Source Rocks of the Aitutu Formation in the (West Timor Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.192The Triassic rocks of the (West Timor Basin have been identified that was mainly deposited in the  marine environment. The fine grained clastics and carbonate  rocks of this Triassic marine  facies are considered to be the most promising source rocks potential in this basin. In this paper we present geochemical and petrographic data from outcrop samples of the Triassic carbonate Aitutu Formation, due to emphasized the organic maturation, kerogen type of the organic matter and the origin of the organic matter.  A representative of selected sample were subjected to the Rock-Eval Pyrolisis, vitrinite reflectance and thermal alteration index, bitumen extraction, were analyzed on the GC-MS. The samples were collected from marine deposit of the Triassic Sequence. The TOC values of the analyzed sample range between rich and rich organic richness (0.51% - 9.16%, wt.%, TOC, which consists mainly of type II and III kerogen and the organic matter consider to be predominantly oil/gas prone and gas prone potential. The thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TAI, and vitrinite reflectance shows an immature to early peak mature stage of the organic matter. The GC-MS analyses of the biomarkers indicate mainly the organic matter derived from mixed source rocks facies containing alga debris and higher plant terrestrial origin.

  1. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is l...

  2. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  3. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  4. Overdamped stochastic thermodynamics with multiple reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Yûto; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-12-01

    After establishing stochastic thermodynamics for underdamped Langevin systems in contact with multiple reservoirs, we derive its overdamped limit using timescale separation techniques. The overdamped theory is different from the naive theory that one obtains when starting from overdamped Langevin or Fokker-Planck dynamics and only coincides with it in the presence of a single reservoir. The reason is that the coarse-grained fast momentum dynamics reaches a nonequilibrium state, which conducts heat in the presence of multiple reservoirs. The underdamped and overdamped theory are both shown to satisfy fundamental fluctuation theorems. Their predictions for the heat statistics are derived analytically for a Brownian particle on a ring in contact with two reservoirs and subjected to a nonconservative force and are shown to coincide in the long-time limit.

  5. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  6. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; William Raatz; Cari Breton; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans; Mark H. Holtz

    2003-04-01

    A play portfolio is being constructed for the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeast New Mexico, the largest petroleum-producing basin in the US. Approximately 1300 reservoirs in the Permian Basin have been identified as having cumulative production greater than 1 MMbbl of oil through 2000. Of these major reservoirs, approximately 1,000 are in Texas and 300 in New Mexico. On a preliminary basis, 32 geologic plays have been defined for Permian Basin oil reservoirs and assignment of each of the 1300 major reservoirs to a play has begun. The reservoirs are being mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Detailed studies of three reservoirs are in progress: Kelly-Snyder (SACROC unit) in the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play, Fullerton in the Leonardian Restricted Platform Carbonate play, and Barnhart (Ellenburger) in the Ellenburger Selectively Dolomitized Ramp Carbonate play. For each of these detailed reservoir studies, technologies for further, economically viable exploitation are being investigated.

  7. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  8. Proterozoic Tectonic History of Borborema Province, NE Brazil: Implications For Assembly of West Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schmus, W. R.; Brito Neves, B. B.

    The Borborema Province of NE Brazil comprises the west-central part of a wide Pan- African - Brasiliano continental collision belt that formed during ca. 600 Ma assembly of West Gondwana. Our studies over the past decade, in collaboration with many other workers, demonstrate a complex Proterozoic history that created or modified crustal domains at 2.1, 1.7, 1.0, 0.8, and 0.6 Ga. Although NE Brazil contains a few small Archean domains included within early Paleoproterozoic orogens, the first major event was formation of extensive continental crust about 2.35 to 2.1 Ga, before and during the so-called Transamazonian orogeny. We believe that this occurred in conjunction with formation of a larger Paleoproterozoic continent about 2.05 Ga that included present-day West African, Amazonian, Congo, and São Francisco cratons. Incipient extension within this continent occurred in Brazil about 1.8 to 1.7 Ga, resulting in intracratonic sedimentation and bimodal volcanism, but equivalent rocks are less well known in Africa. A successful breakup occurred before or about 1.1 Ga, resulting in separation of parts of this continent into two major stable masses containing (a) the Amazon-West African craton, and (b) the São Francisco-Congo (SF/C) craton. The break-up also created many smaller fragments between these two large masses, particularly in the east (present-day NE Brazil and Saharan Africa) and including the Ceará-Rio Grande do Norte (CE/RN) craton in NE Brazil. About 1.0 Ga a magmatic arc more than 700 km long (Cariris Velhos orogen) developed in NE Brazil, possibly as a result of convergence between the CE/RN and SF/C cratons; eastward extension of the 1.0 Ga Cariris Velhos orogen into West Africa is presently unknown. About 850 to 700 Ma several extensional basins developed in NE Brazil, with intraplate bimodal volcanism and clastic sedimentation; coeval basins may have formed in west-central Africa. From 700 to 600 Ma plate convergence among the CE/RN craton, SF

  9. Massachusetts reservoir simulation tool—User’s manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey developed the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool to examine the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflows in Massachusetts by simulating the daily water balance of reservoirs. The simulation tool was developed to assist environmental managers to better manage water withdrawals in reservoirs and to preserve downstream aquatic habitats.

  10. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.

  11. Reservoir Thermal Recover Simulation on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoyan; Ma, Yuanle

    The rapid development of parallel computers has provided a hardware background for massive refine reservoir simulation. However, the lack of parallel reservoir simulation software has blocked the application of parallel computers on reservoir simulation. Although a variety of parallel methods have been studied and applied to black oil, compositional, and chemical model numerical simulations, there has been limited parallel software available for reservoir simulation. Especially, the parallelization study of reservoir thermal recovery simulation has not been fully carried out, because of the complexity of its models and algorithms. The authors make use of the message passing interface (MPI) standard communication library, the domain decomposition method, the block Jacobi iteration algorithm, and the dynamic memory allocation technique to parallelize their serial thermal recovery simulation software NUMSIP, which is being used in petroleum industry in China. The parallel software PNUMSIP was tested on both IBM SP2 and Dawn 1000A distributed-memory parallel computers. The experiment results show that the parallelization of I/O has great effects on the efficiency of parallel software PNUMSIP; the data communication bandwidth is also an important factor, which has an influence on software efficiency. Keywords: domain decomposition method, block Jacobi iteration algorithm, reservoir thermal recovery simulation, distributed-memory parallel computer

  12. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  13. A COUPLED MODEL OF HYDRODYNAMICS AND WATER QUALITY FOR YUQIAO RESERVOIR IN HAIHE RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bo; PENG Wen-qi; HE Guo-jian; LIU Jing-ling; WANG Yu-chun

    2008-01-01

    In order to simulate the characteristics of hydrodynamic field and mass transport processes in the Yuqiao Reservoir (YQR), a 2-D coupled model of hydrodynamics and water quality was developed, and the water-quality related state variables in this model included CODMn, TN and TP. The hydrodynamic model was driven by employing observed winds and daily measured flow data to simulate the seasonal water cycle of the reservoir. The simulation of the mass transport and transformation processes of CODMn, TN and TP was based on the unsteady diffusion equations, driven by observed meteorological forcing and external Ioadings, with the fluxes form the bottom of reservoir and the plant photosynthesis and respiration as internal sources and sinks. A finite volume method and Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme were used to solve these equations. The model was calibrated and verified by using the data observed from YQR in two different years. The results showed that in YQR, the wind-driven current was an important style of lake current, while the concentration of water quality item was decreasing from east to west because of the external pollutant loadings. There was a good agreement between the simulated and measured values, with the minimal calculation error percent of 0.1% and 2.6% and the mean error percent of 44.0% and 51.2% for TN and TP separately. The simulation also showed that, in YQR, the convection was the main process in estuaries of inflow river, and diffusion and biochemical processes dominate in center of reservoir. So it was necessary to build a pre-pond to reduce the external Ioadings into the reservoir.

  14. Sedimentary features, reservoir characteristics and seismic signature of an Aptian incised valley and its lateral equivalent, in the north Ben Nevis field of the Jeanne d`Arc Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, P.J.; Hodder, J.; Harding, S.; Zanussi, L. [Husky Oil, Calgary, AB (Canada); Plint, G. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1988 three cores from an oil well in the Avalon Formation reservoir zone of the north Ben Nevis field were studied. The field is located within the Jeanne d`Arc Basin on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The cores indicated a shallowing-upward clastic sequence of prograding marine shoreface sandstones which end in back barrier lagoon deposits. Recent studies and current ongoing surveys using seismic logs and reservoir characterizations confirmed the original interpretation. An attempt was made to correlate two wells, the M-61 and the P-93. Correlations between the two wells indicate a gross similarity in depositional facies, but core and log analysis indicate major differences, particularly in the upper third of the Avalon Formation where the oil and gas is trapped. Two shallowing-upward shoreface successions are preserved in both wells, but local depositional variations are evident. M-61 showed much better reservoir characteristics than the same unit in P-93. New 3-D seismic data is expected to provide a better resolution of the geology. 1 fig.

  15. Seismic amplitude variation with offset: Its effects on weighted stacking, and its uses in characterization of sandstone and carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, Gislain Bolouvi

    An algorithm for weighted stacking, which is not particularly expensive in terms of computer time or memory and can be easily incorporated into routine processing is proposed. A comprehensive comparison of the proposed weighted stacking algorithm and the conventional stacking algorithm is conducted through testing on synthetics and a real data set from New Mexico, USA. This weighted stacking algorithm achieves the primary goal of signal-to-noise ratio improvement while at the same time providing better resolution, wider bandwidth, and a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the conventional stack. A novel hydrocarbon indicator [the water-filled porosity (S wv)], which is estimated from the ratio of P-velocity to S-velocity (Vp/Vs), is proposed and applied to characterize clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Sea. The separation between pore fluids and lithologies is enhanced by mapping from V p/Vs to Swv using an empirical crossplot-derived relationship. The Swv-V p/Vs plane still does not produce unique interpretations in many situations. However, the critical distinction, which is between hydrocarbon-bearing sands and all other geologic/reservoir configurations, is defined. Porosity is the dominant factor controlling reservoir signature for carbonate rocks. Acoustic impedance and seismic amplitudes are porosity and lithology indicators. Angle-dependent reflectivity effects are introduced for determination of fluid charactersitics by simultaneous elastic impedance inversion of three non-overlapping migrated common-angle stacked sections for P- and S-impedance (Ip and Is). Deviations of points from a water-filled baseline in the Ip-I s plane define a gas potential section that is used for direct identification of gas zones in the dolomitized limestone reservoirs of the Turner Valley Formation in southern Alberta, Canada. There is consistency with the known gas production at a well and agreement with gas index sections obtained through the use of Lame parameter

  16. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  17. West Pearl Queen CO2 sequestration pilot test and modeling project 2006-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Symons, Neill Phillip; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Byrer, Charles (National Energy Laboratory, Morgantown, WV); Elbring, Gregory Jay; McNemar, Andrea (National Energy Laboratory, Morgantown, WV); Aldridge, David Franklin; Lorenz, John Clay

    2008-08-01

    The West Pearl Queen is a depleted oil reservoir that has produced approximately 250,000 bbl of oil since 1984. Production had slowed prior to CO{sub 2} injection, but no previous secondary or tertiary recovery methods had been applied. The initial project involved reservoir characterization and field response to injection of CO{sub 2}; the field experiment consisted of injection, soak, and venting. For fifty days (December 20, 2002, to February 11, 2003) 2090 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into the Shattuck Sandstone Member of the Queen Formation at the West Pearl Queen site. This technical report highlights the test results of the numerous research participants and technical areas from 2006-2008. This work included determination of lateral extents of the permeability units using outcrop observations, core results, and well logs. Pre- and post-injection 3D seismic data were acquired. To aid in interpreting seismic data, we performed numerical simulations of the effects of CO{sub 2} replacement of brine where the reservoir model was based upon correlation lengths established by the permeability studies. These numerical simulations are not intended to replicate field data, but to provide insight of the effects of CO{sub 2}.

  18. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  19. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  20. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular medi

  1. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  2. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  3. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  4. MITIGATION OF SEDIMENTATION HAZARDS DOWNSTREAM FROM RESERVOIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen WOHL; Sara RATHBURN

    2003-01-01

    Many reservoirs currently in operation trap most or all of the sediment entering the reservoir,creating sediment-depleted conditions downstream. This may cause channel adjustment in the form of bank erosion, bed erosion, substrate coarsening, and channel planform change. Channel adjustment may also result from episodic sediment releases during reservoir operation, or from sediment evacuation following dam removal. Channel adjustment to increased sediment influx depends on the magnitude, frequency, duration and grain-size distribution of the sediment releases, and on the downstream channel characteristics. Channel adjustment may occur as a change in substrate sizedistribution, filling of pools, general bed aggradation, lateral instability, change in channel planform,and/or floodplain aggradation. The increased sediment availability may alter aquatic and riparian habitat, reduce water quality, distribute adsorbed contaminants along the river corridor, and provide germination sites for exotic vegetation. Mitigation of these sedimentation hazards requires: (1)mapping grain-size distribution within the reservoir and estimating the grain-size distributions of sediment that will be mobilized through time; (2) mapping shear stress and sediment transport capacity as a function of discharge on the basis of channel units for the length of the river likely to be affected; (3) mapping potential depositional zones, and aquatic habitat and "acceptable losses," along the downstream channel, and comparing these volumes to the total sediment volume stored in the reservoir as a means of estimating total transport capacity required to mobilize reservoir sediment delivered to the channel; (4) designing discharge and sediment release regime (magnitude, frequency,duration) to minimize adverse downstream impacts; and (5) developing plans to remove, treat, contain,or track contaminants, and to restrict establishment of exotic vegetation. The North Fork Poudre River in Colorado is used to

  5. Age constraints of the Wassa and Benso mesothermal gold deposits, Ashanti Belt, Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Avila, Luis A.; Bourassa, Yan; Miller, John; Perrouty, Stéphane; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Campbell McCuaig, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Ashanti Belt in Ghana hosts numerous multi-million ounce gold deposits and is one of the most richly gold endowed Paleoproterozoic belts of the West African Craton. This work shows that the Wassa mineralized intrusion is part of the Sefwi Group. This unit at Wassa is strongly magnetic and show a distinctly high response in regional magnetic data sets compared to other units of equivalent age within the belt. The unit is inferred to be a lateral extension of an exposed fragment of what defines the substrate to the Tarkwa Basin sediments. The Wassa deposit, located in the eastern limb of the belt, is hosted within mafic to intermediate volcanic flows that are interbedded with minor horizons of volcaniclastics, clastic sediments. The clastic sediments include wackes and magnetite rich sedimentary layers, presumably derived from banded iron formations. The previously described sequence is intruded by syn-volcanic mafic intrusives and felsic porphyries rocks that are all part of the Birimian stratigraphy. Two new key SHRIMP II U-Pb ages were determined as part of this study: a new age of 2191 ± 6 Ma was determined on magmatic zircon grains of the Wassa porphyry host rock, which now represents the oldest known felsic intrusion hosting gold mineralization in the Ashanti Belt region. The Benso gold deposit system, which is located in the eastern limb of the Ashanti Belt approximately 38 km southwest of Wassa is hosted within a series of volcanic units intruded by mafic to intermediate units. A SHRIMP II U-Pb age of 2157 ± 5 Ma was determined from magmatic zircons obtained from a granodiorite of the G-Zone of the Benso deposit. This granodiorite is the main host rock for gold mineralization and thus the age provides an upper constraint for mineral emplacement. The newly determined ages provide an upper constraint for the gold mineralization within this region of the Ashanti Belt. They also support recent structural studies that have interpreted that the Wassa

  6. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  7. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  8. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  9. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  10. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  11. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.;

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  12. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  13. Global prediction of continuous hydrocarbon accumulations in self-sourced reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    occurred. In contrast, deposition of this resource type on rifted passive margins was likely the result of reactivation of long-lived cratonic features or salt tectonic regimes that created semi-confined basins. Commonly, loading by thick sections of clastic material, following thermal relaxation after plate collision or rift phases, advances kerogen maturation. With few exceptions, North American self-sourced reservoirs appear to be associated with calcitic seas and predominantly greenhouse or transitional ("warm" to "cool") global climatic conditions. Significant changes to the global carbon budget may also be a contributing factor in the stratigraphic distribution of continuous resource plays, requiring additional evaluation.

  14. 根据油藏流体饱和度形成条件建立碎屑岩油层含油饱和度解释模型%Oil saturation interpretation model of clastic reservoir from the formation conditions of reservoir fluid saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤敏; 孙广博; 于俊文; 曹宏涛

    2004-01-01

    电法测井受井身环境制约,对岩性成因的低电阻率油层含油饱和度评价常使用的Waxman-Smits以及双水模型的众多参数无法量化,而难以推广.影响含油饱和度的因素分别是油藏高度、岩石物性、孔隙结构和流体性质.从油藏流体饱和度形成条件入手,构造孔隙结构系数(孔隙度、渗透率及胶结系数的函数),分析大港油田现有岩电资料及毛管压力分析资料,应用含油高度、油水密度差以及岩石物性等资料,建立了纯油层原始含油饱和度的统一解释图版.实践证明,该解释模型不仅适用于准确求取低电阻率岩性油藏的含油饱和度,也适用于研究非低电阻率碎屑岩油层含油饱和度.图5表1参4

  15. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  16. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  17. Connectivity of channelized reservoirs: a modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, David K. [ChevronTexaco, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Hovadik, Joseph [ChevronTexaco, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Connectivity represents one of the fundamental properties of a reservoir that directly affects recovery. If a portion of the reservoir is not connected to a well, it cannot be drained. Geobody or sandbody connectivity is defined as the percentage of the reservoir that is connected, and reservoir connectivity is defined as the percentage of the reservoir that is connected to wells. Previous studies have mostly considered mathematical, physical and engineering aspects of connectivity. In the current study, the stratigraphy of connectivity is characterized using simple, 3D geostatistical models. Based on these modelling studies, stratigraphic connectivity is good, usually greater than 90%, if the net: gross ratio, or sand fraction, is greater than about 30%. At net: gross values less than 30%, there is a rapid diminishment of connectivity as a function of net: gross. This behaviour between net: gross and connectivity defines a characteristic 'S-curve', in which the connectivity is high for net: gross values above 30%, then diminishes rapidly and approaches 0. Well configuration factors that can influence reservoir connectivity are well density, well orientation (vertical or horizontal; horizontal parallel to channels or perpendicular) and length of completion zones. Reservoir connectivity as a function of net: gross can be improved by several factors: presence of overbank sandy facies, deposition of channels in a channel belt, deposition of channels with high width/thickness ratios, and deposition of channels during variable floodplain aggradation rates. Connectivity can be reduced substantially in two-dimensional reservoirs, in map view or in cross-section, by volume support effects and by stratigraphic heterogeneities. It is well known that in two dimensions, the cascade zone for the 'S-curve' of net: gross plotted against connectivity occurs at about 60% net: gross. Generalizing this knowledge, any time that a reservoir can be regarded as &apos

  18. Characterization of a Miocene carbonate reservoir analog in Southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeginste, V.; Camoin, G.; Eisenhauer, A.; Pézard, P.; Lapointe, P.

    2009-04-01

    Carbonate reservoirs contain more than half the world's oil reserves, including highly productive reservoirs in Cretaceous and Cenozoic carbonates from the Middle East and Southeastern Asia. They are usually characterized by the complexity both of their internal architecture and of the distribution of their diagenetic fabrics which hampers crosshole correlations at various scales, and predictions regarding flow paths and volumes of fluids. Reservoir analogs can have the advantage of easier accessibility and sampling and less severe diagenetic alteration. Their study often provides information complementary to the knowledge of hydrocarbon reservoirs and it leads to a better understanding of carbonate systems, important to make better predictions on other potential reservoirs. Significant advances can be made from joint research in natural laboratories integrating outcrops and shallow boreholes, with extensive control on geophysical, geological and petrophysical parameters. The southern part of the island of Mallorca appears as a natural laboratory where a direct comparison between outcrop and shallow subsurface datasets is the objective of the current study. This region is characterized both by spectacular outcrops, especially in the Cabo Blanco area, which were previously studied [e.g. 1], and by shallow holes, 100 m deep on average, that have been drilled especially at Can Roses, Ses Pastores and Ses Sitjoles, from west to east. This geographical extension of the study area provides the opportunity to better explore and understand the Miocene carbonate complex which comprises the Llucmajor platform. This study incorporates a wide range of analytical techniques to characterize the reservoir aspects, such as conventional microscopy of thin sections, XRD analysis, isotopic carbon and oxygen analysis, isotopic strontium dating analysis, petrophysical measurements, high-resolution borehole images and CT scan data. These techniques are used to unravel the sedimentology

  19. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an element that occurs naturally, but evidence suggests that human activities have resulted in increased amounts being released to the atmosphere and land surface. When Hg is converted to methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems, MeHg accumulates and increases in the food web so that some fish contain levels which pose a health risk to humans and wildlife that consume these fish. Reservoirs unlike natural lakes, are a part of river systems that are managed for flood control. Data compiled and interpreted for six flood-control reservoirs in Indiana showed a relation between Hg transport, MeHg formation in water, and MeHg in fish that was influenced by physical, chemical, and biological differences among the reservoirs. Existing information precludes a uniform comparison of Hg and MeHg in all reservoirs in the State, but factors and conditions were identified that can indicate where and when Hg and MeHg levels in reservoirs could be highest.

  20. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  1. Time Lapse Gravity and Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the West Hastings Field, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. F.; Richards, T.; Klopping, F.; MacQueen, J.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Time lapse or 4D gravity and seismic reflection surveys are being conducted at the West Hastings Field near Houston, Texas to monitor the progress of CO2 injection. This Department of Energy supported CO2 sequestration experiment is conducted in conjunction with a Denbury Onshore, LLC tertiary recovery project. The reservoir is at a depth of 1.8 km in the Oligocene Frio sands and has been produced since the 1930s. Goals are an accounting and mapping of the injected CO2 and to determine if migration occurs along intra-reservoir faults. An integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys will be made together with well logs and engineering data. Gravity monitoring of water versus gas replacement has been very successful, but liquid phase CO2 monitoring is problematic due to the smaller density contrast with respect to oil and water. This reservoir has a small volume to depth ratio and hence only a small gravity difference signal is expected on the surface. New borehole gravity technology introduced by Micro-g-Lacoste can make gravity measurements at near reservoir depths with a much higher signal to noise ratio. This method has been successfully evaluated on a simulation of the Hastings project. Field operations have been conducted for repeated surface and borehole gravity surveys beginning in 2013. The surface survey of 95 stations covers an area of 3 by 5 km and 22 borehole gravity logs are run in the interval above the Frio formation. 4D seismic reflection surveys are being made at 6 month intervals on the surface and in 3 VSP wells. CO2 injection into the targeted portion of the reservoir only began in early 2015 and monitoring will continue into 2017. To date only the baseline reservoir conditions have been assessed. The overall success of the gravity monitoring will not be determined until 2017.

  2. Improved efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhanced prospects for CO2 flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report, April 17, 1991--May 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    From 1986 to 1996, oil recovery in the US by gas injection increased almost threefold, to 300,000 bbl/day. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection projects make up three-quarters of the 191,139 bbl/day production increase. This document reports experimental and modeling research in three areas that is increasing the number of reservoirs in which CO{sub 2} can profitably enhance oil recovery: (1) foams for selective mobility reduction (SMR) in heterogeneous reservoirs, (2) reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} floods, and (3) low interfacial tension (97) processes and the possibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in naturally fractured reservoirs. CO{sub 2} injection under miscible conditions can effectively displace oil, but due to differences in density and viscosity the mobility of CO{sub 2} is higher than either oil or water. High CO{sub 2} mobility causes injection gas to finger through a reservoir, causing such problems as early gas breakthrough, high gas production rates, excessive injection gas recycling, and bypassing of much of the reservoir oil. These adverse effects are exacerbated by increased reservoir heterogeneity, reaching an extreme in naturally fractured reservoirs. Thus, many highly heterogeneous reservoirs have not been considered for CO{sub 2} injection or have had disappointing recoveries. One example is the heterogeneous Spraberry trend in west Texas, where only 10% of its ten billion barrels of original oil in place (OOIP) are recoverable by conventional methods. CO{sub 2} mobility can be reduced by injecting water (brine) alternated with CO{sub 2} (WAG) and then further reduced by adding foaming agents-surfactants. In Task 1, we studied a unique foam property, selective mobility reduction (SMR), that effectively reduces the effects of reservoir heterogeneity. Selective mobility reduction creates a more uniform displacement by decreasing CO{sub 2} mobility in higher permeability zones more than in lower permeability zones.

  3. Sequence and sedimentary features of the Changxing Fm organic reefs and their control on reservoir development in the Yuanba Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yuanba area, Sichuan Basin, the gas reservoirs in the Upper Permian Changxing Fm are now at the development stage. With the smooth progress of development, it is urgent to characterize the reservoir architectures accurately and summarize the controlling factors for reservoir development. In this paper, research was mainly performed on the Changxing Fm organic reefs in terms of their sequence stratigraphy, sedimentary facies, and reservoir characteristics and architectures based on core observation and thin section analysis, combined with physical property data and logging curves analysis results. It is shown that the Changing Fm can be divided into two third-order sequences and six fourth-order sequences, their electric logs are characterized by abrupt change above and below the high-frequency sequence boundary and are consistent with the sedimentary cycles controlled by high-frequency sequences. Besides, the Changxing Fm organic reefs mainly represents zonal distribution outside SQ2 platform margin, and they are vertically composed of two obvious two reef sedimentary cycles and laterally developed in asymmetric patterns (early in the east and late in the west. Finally, in general, organic reef (bank. reservoirs are mainly composed of low-porosity and moderate–low-permeability dissolved dolomite reservoirs, and they are mostly distributed at reef caps in the upper–middle parts of the two fourth-order sequences, with the characteristics of multiple beds, thin single beds, different types of reservoirs with different thickness interbedded with each other, strong heterogeneity and double-layer reservoir architectures. It is concluded that the distribution of organic reef microfacies in this area is controlled by high-frequency sequence, which is the key controlling factor for reservoir development and spatial distribution.

  4. Optimized recovery through cooperative geology and reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, F.F. Jr.; Willcox, P.J.; Ballard, J.R.; Nation, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Reservoir engineers have always used geological descriptions in their performance calculations. At first, the only information that could be utilized consisted of gross factors such as structure, thickness, fault and boundary locations, and the like, and average values for permeability, porosity, and fluid saturations. The advent of easy-to-use, relatively inexpensive mathematical models provided a new and powerful tool to the reservoir engineer for predicting performance. However, this tool required for its optimum use a more detailed reservoir description than geologists were accustomed to providing. Today's reservoir engineer utilizes the most detailed geological information along with a reservoir performance simulator to synthesize a detailed reservoir description capable of matching actual field performance data. Use of such a reservoir description permits the design of operating programs to obtain optimized recovery from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Two examples of the use of this combined geology-reservoir engineering technique are taken from the international arena of operations.

  5. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-02-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

  6. Reservoir-induced Earthquakes for the Sanjiangkou Reservoir in Chongqing%重庆三江口水库诱发地震分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建超; 张丽芬; 汪旭涛; 蔡永建

    2015-01-01

    Based on field investigations and previous research results,this study analyzes the tec-tonic background,seismic activity,and hydrogeology condition of the Sanjiangkou reservoir area. The Yushan fault is the main fault located in the southeast margin of the Sanjiangkou reservoir area.The other major fault is termed the Mawu fault,which is exposed in the west margin of the Sanjiangkou reservoir area.The active age of the Yushan fault is mid-Pleistocene and the Mawu fault is pre-Quaternary.The level of historic and current seismicity is low in the reservoir area. Employing structural analogy and probabilistic statistic methods,the probability of the induced earthquake in the Sanjiangkou reservoir area is discussed.These results are used to compare the Sanjiangkou reservoir with other reservoirs that have experienced earthquakes.The structural analogy method analysis showed that the possibility of tectonic-type reservoir-induced earth-quakes is small following impoundment.However,there is the possibility of a karst subsidence-type reservoir-induced earthquake.This event could occur because of the existence of a large amount of thick layers of limestone in the reservoir area that could foster karst development.The loading and infiltration effects of water may easily cause rock collapse and crack propagation in the karst cave.This would induce a karst subsidence-type reservoir-induced earthquake.Consider-ing the conditions of the Sanjiangkou reservoir area eight induced earthquake factors were selected to conduct the probabilistic prediction of the earthquake magnitude.These factors were reservoir water depth,lithology,regional state of stress,fault activity,degree of karst development,fault permeable depth,communication with the reservoir water,and seismic activity background.Based on the geological conditions and induced earthquake environment of the Sanjiangkou reservoir area,the reservoir area was divided into three segments:the head (Xintanzi

  7. Experimental research on reservoir sensitivity to stress and impacts on productivity in Kela 2 Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Longde; SONG; Wenjie; JIANG; Tongwen

    2004-01-01

    Kela 2 Gas Field, with high formation pressure (74.35MPa), high pressure coefficient (2.022) and difficulty of potential test and evaluation, is the largest integrated proved dry gas reservoir in China so far and the principal source for West-East Gas Development Project. In order to correctly evaluate the elastic-plastic deformation of rocks caused by the pressure decline during production, some researches, as the experiment on reservoir sensitivity to stress of gas filed with abnormal high pressure, are made. By testing the rock mechanic properties, porosities and permeabilities at different temperature and pressure of 342 core samples from 5 wells in this area, the variations of petro-physical properties at changing pressure are analyzed, and the applicable inspection relationship is concluded. The average productivity curve with the reservoir sensitivity to stress is plotted on the basis of the research, integrated with the field-wide productivity equation. The knowledge lays a foundation for the gas well productivity evaluation in the field and the gas field development plan, and provides effective techniques and measures for basic research on the development of similar gas fields.

  8. Fecundity of two dominant fish species in Ado reservoir, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Oso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the fecundity and sex ratio of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus as the dominant species in Ado Reservoir, in Ekiti State, South West Nigeria between November 2011 and March 2012. The major fishing methods employed for collecting the fish specimens were cast netting and set netting. Biometric data such as total length, standard length and body weight measurements were recorded in the laboratory. Out of 40 C. gariepinus analyzed, 18 were males while 22 were females showing male to female sex ratio of 5:6. O. niloticus showed male to female sex ratio of 3:2 from 36 males and 24 females analyzed. Both C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed high significant correlation between fecundity and gonad weight for C. gariepinus and for O. niloticus. Fecundity of O. niloticus ranged from 600eggs to 800eggs with a mean of 700eggs while C. gariepinus ranged from 4,000eggs to 7,200eggs with a mean of 5,588eggs. Most species of O. niloticus were not carrying eggs at the time of study. The study concluded that fecundity in the two species examined was low. This calls for an investigation into some prevailing conditions in the reservoir vis-à-vis availability and quality of food, the physical and chemical constituents of the water as well as the activities of fishermen operating in reservoir area.

  9. Study of Reservoir Heterogencities and Structural Features Affecting Production in the Shallow Oil Zone, Eastern Elk Hills Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janice Gillespie

    2004-11-01

    Late Neogene (Plio-Pleistocene) shallow marine strata of the western Bakersfield Arch and Elk Hills produce hydrocarbons from several different reservoirs. This project focuses on the shallow marine deposits of the Gusher and Calitroleum reservoirs in the Lower Shallow Oil Zone (LSOZ). In the eastern part of the study area on the Bakersfield Arch at North and South Coles Levee field and in two wells in easternmost Elk Hills, the LSOZ reservoirs produce dry (predominantly methane) gas. In structurally higher locations in western Elk Hills, the LSOZ produces oil and associated gas. Gas analyses show that gas from the eastern LSOZ is bacterial and formed in place in the reservoirs, whereas gas associated with oil in the western part of the study area is thermogenic and migrated into the sands from deeper in the basin. Regional mapping shows that the gas-bearing LSOZ sands in the Coles Levee and easternmost Elk Hills area are sourced from the Sierra Nevada to the east whereas the oil-bearing sands in western Elk Hills appear to be sourced from the west. The eastern Elk Hills area occupied the basin depocenter, farthest from either source area. As a result, it collected mainly low-permeability offshore shale deposits. This sand-poor depocenter provides an effective barrier to the updip migration of gases from east to west. The role of small, listric normal faults as migration barriers is more ambiguous. Because our gas analyses show that the gas in the eastern LSOZ reservoirs is bacterial, it likely formed in-place near the reservoirs and did not have to migrate far. Therefore, the gas could have been generated after faulting and accumulated within the fault blocks as localized pools. However, bacterial gas is present in both the eastern AND western parts of Elk Hills in the Dry Gas Zone (DGZ) near the top of the stratigraphic section even though the measured fault displacement is greatest in this zone. Bacterial gas is not present in the west in the deeper LSOZ which

  10. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  11. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  12. Second workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Ramey, H.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-12-03

    The Arab oil embargo of 1973 focused national attention on energy problems. A national focus on development of energy sources alternative to consumption of hydrocarbons led to the initiation of research studies of reservoir engineering of geothermal systems, funded by the National Science Foundation. At that time it appeared that only two significant reservoir engineering studies of geothermal reservoirs had been completed. Many meetings concerning development of geothermal resources were held from 1973 through the date of the first Stanford Geothermal Reservoir Engineering workshop December 15-17, 1975. These meetings were similar in that many reports dealt with the objectives of planned research projects rather than with results. The first reservoir engineering workshop held under the Stanford Geothermal Program was singular in that for the first time most participants were reporting on progress inactive research programs rather than on work planned. This was true for both laboratory experimental studies and for field experiments in producing geothermal systems. The Proceedings of the December 1975 workshop (SGP-TR-12) is a remarkable document in that results of both field operations and laboratory studies were freely presented and exchanged by all participants. With this in mind the second reservoir engineering workshop was planned for December 1976. The objectives were again two-fold. First, the workshop was designed as a forum to bring together researchers active in various physical and mathematical branches of the developing field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give participants a current and updated view of progress being made in the field. The second purpose was to prepare this Proceedings of Summaries documenting the state of the art as of December 1976. The proceedings will be distributed to all interested members of the geothermal community involved in the development and utilization of the geothermal resources in the world. Many notable

  13. Transmissibility scale-up in reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Gupta, A. [Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1999-11-01

    A study was conducted to develop efficient methods for scaling of petrophysical properties from high resolution geological models to the resolution of reservoir simulation. Data from the Gypsy Field located in northeastern Oklahoma near Lake Keystone was used to evaluate the proposed method. The petrophysical property which was scaled in this study was the transmissibility between two grid blocks. A linear flow scale-up of the transmissibility between two grid blocks was conducted. It was determined that the scale-up of the productivity index is both important and necessary for determining the radial flow around the wellbore. Special consideration was needed for the pinch-out grid blocks in the system. Fine-scale and coarse-scale reservoir models were used to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed method. Performance predictions were compared with various reservoir flow case studies. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  14. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jinchi

    2001-01-01

    Reliable quantitative estimation of bed aggradation or degradation is important for river-training and water management projects. With the development of water resources, sediment problems associated with a dam are becoming more severe. This paper describes some special problems in mathematical model for calculation of degradation and aggradation in a reservoir. The main efforts of this study are on the treatment of some physical processes of fine sediment transport (<0.05 mm). Problems in a reservoir are obviously different from a natural stream, such as the turbid current flow, orifice sediment flushing;and the initiation and consolidation of cohesive sediment deposition. The case of Liujiaxia Reservoir,which is located in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, is employed to verify the model. The results show that the model is applicable in the evaluation of an engineering planing with plenty of fine sediment movement.

  15. Shell starts CO/sub 2/ injection project in west texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, R.E.

    1972-09-01

    A full-scale carbon dioxide (COD2U) injection secondary recovery project using 4 injection wells in an inverted 9-spot pattern has been started by Shell Oil Co., operator of the North Cross unit of the Crossett field, 50 miles south of Odessa, Tex. Unit co-owners are Texaco Inc. and Atlantic Richfield Co. COD2U was selected for this 1,120-acre field, currently producing 1,600 bopd from 18 wells, because up to 20 MMcfd will be available from the nearby Canyon Reef Carrier pipeline that transports gas to the large SACROC project is Scurry County. Also, the COD2U has better overall injectivity, miscibility, and displacement properties in this low permeability, high porosity reservoir, than other available injection fluids. The North Cross unit reservoir is an eastward dipping strat-trap with 55-ft average net pay. Four COD2U injection wells above the gas/oil contact help maintain reservoir pressure for GOR control. A cross section from west to east shows how the Devonian oil pay is limited by oil/water and gas/oil contacts. Porosity formed by leaching in siliceous carbonate rocks gives the reservoir low permeablity, but relatively homogeneous composition for miscible displacement.

  16. PLAY ANALYSIS AND DIGITAL PORTFOLIO OF MAJOR OIL RESERVOIRS IN THE PERMIAN BASIN: APPLICATION AND TRANSFER OF ADVANCED GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREMENTAL PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley P. Dutton; Eugene M. Kim; Ronald F. Broadhead; Caroline L. Breton; William D. Raatz; Stephen C. Ruppel; Charles Kerans

    2004-05-01

    The Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico has produced >30 Bbbl (4.77 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}) of oil through 2000, most of it from 1,339 reservoirs having individual cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}). These significant-sized reservoirs are the focus of this report. Thirty-two Permian Basin oil plays were defined, and each of the 1,339 significant-sized reservoirs was assigned to a play. The reservoirs were mapped and compiled in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by play. Associated reservoir information within linked data tables includes Railroad Commission of Texas reservoir number and district (Texas only), official field and reservoir name, year reservoir was discovered, depth to top of the reservoir, production in 2000, and cumulative production through 2000. Some tables also list subplays. Play boundaries were drawn for each play; the boundaries include areas where fields in that play occur but are <1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) of cumulative production. This report contains a summary description of each play, including key reservoir characteristics and successful reservoir-management practices that have been used in the play. The CD accompanying the report contains a pdf version of the report, the GIS project, pdf maps of all plays, and digital data files. Oil production from the reservoirs in the Permian Basin having cumulative production >1 MMbbl (1.59 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3}) was 301.4 MMbbl (4.79 x 10{sup 7} m{sup 3}) in 2000. Cumulative Permian Basin production through 2000 from these significant-sized reservoirs was 28.9 Bbbl (4.59 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}). The top four plays in cumulative production are the Northwest Shelf San Andres Platform Carbonate play (3.97 Bbbl [6.31 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), the Leonard Restricted Platform Carbonate play (3.30 Bbbl 5.25 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}), the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian Horseshoe Atoll Carbonate play (2.70 Bbbl [4.29 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}]), and the San Andres

  17. On the simulation of heterogeneous petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daripa, P.; Glimm, J.; Lindquist, B.; Maesumi, M.; McBryan, O.

    1987-04-01

    The authors and coworkers have proposed the front tracking method as useful in applications to petroleum reservoir simulation. A variety of tests of a numerical analysis nature were performed for the method, verifying convergence under mesh refinement and absence of mesh orientation effects. The ability to handle complex interface bifurcation, fingering instabilities and polymer injection (as an example of tertiary oil recovery) indicates a level of robustness in this method. The main purpose of this paper is to report on two features which will allow further series of tests by enabling a more realistic description of reservoir heterogeneities. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  18. NMPC for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve this pro......In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve...

  19. RESERVOIR CAPACITY DEPLETION ON ACCOUNT OF SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE

    2001-01-01

    Capacity depletion is an important information required for planning of multipurpose reservoirs. It is a complex phenomenon involving diverse fields like surface hydrology, sediment transport, varied flow hydraulics and soil consolidation. Proper assessment of capacity reduction is helpful in ascertaining the life of the reservoir and the project benefits for cost/benefit analysis. In this study dimensionally consistent equations for deposition volume and the trap efficiency have been obtained. Methods of obtaining the parameters involved these equations have also been indicated. It was found that there is good agreement with the field data. It is hoped that the equations are useful to design engineer.

  20. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  1. Reservoir characteristics and genesis of high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on detailed studies, this paper proposes that in the Tarim Basin, hydrocarbon reservoirs widespread either in vertical sequences or in plane and high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs are developed all over the basin. However, obvious difference and heterogeneity exist among different kinds of reservoirs. The lithologic characteristics, reservoir space types and reservoir properties in various strata have been probed. The result indicates that although the Paleozoic carbonates have been deeply buried for a long period, high-quality reservoirs with the porosity of up to 5%-8% (12% as the maximum) and the permeability of 10×10?3-100×10?3 ?m2 (1000×10?3 ?m2 as the maximum) can be found in certain areas. These include the area with the development of reefs and carbonate beaches, the weathered-crust buried-hill belts that have undergone the long-term exposure, weathering and leaching, the area with the development of dolomitization, and those areas that have experienced the resolution of carbonic acid and organic acid generated by the maturity of the organic matter. Finally, the genesis of the high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in deep-buried conditions (with the depth more than 3500 m) have been investigated thoroughly.

  2. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  3. Reservoir-forming age and its exploration significance to stratigraphic reservoirs in southern Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Despite many studies concerning the forming age, evolution characteristics and the age of petroleum charging in the Fuxin upheaval of southern Songliao Basin, no consensus has been reached so far. This paper presents the first K-Ar dating of autogenetic illite from stratigraphic petroleum reservoirs in the Fuyu oil layer of the Fuxin upheaval belt. Isotopic test and age calculation were carried out based on the separation and purification of illite mineral, X-diffraction analysis and the detection of scanning electron microscopy. The evolution characteristics of structure, sedimentation, reservoir-forming about the Fuxin upheaval belt were interpreted in terms of the synthetical analysis of "six-type geological history" evolution in southern Songliao Basin. The geologic background of petroleum evolution and reservoir formation are similar in the entire central depression region of southern Songliao Basin. The Changling sag and the Fuxin upheaval belt brought about obvious upheaval-sag separation after the hydrocarbon-generation peak of K2qn1 and the main reservoir-forming period of the Fuyu oil layer, namely reservoir-forming happened before the Fuxin upheaval belt extensively raised. The reservoirs have three characteristics: the hydrocarbon source rock above the reservoir, the oil source in the locality, and the vertical migration. The geological cognition is corrected, that is, oil source came from the Changling sag and migrated from the side direction. The bulk process of petroleum charging in the stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fuxin upheaval belt of southern Songliao Basin is determined according to the isotopic age of autogenetic illite in combination with the method of fluid inclusions. The cognition is helpful to exactly evaluate the resource potential and exploration direction in the Fuxin upheaval belt, Changling sag and their peripheral areas. The present results indicate that the combination of the two methods (the K-Ar dating of

  4. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  5. West Nile virus reemergence in Romania: a serologic survey in host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludu Oslobanu, Elena Luanda; Mihu-Pintilie, Alin; Anită, Dragos; Anita, Adriana; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Savuta, Gheorghe

    2014-05-01

    The presence of West Nile virus (WNV) in humans has been known in Romania since the 1950s; the 1996 epidemics emphasized the reemergence potential of WNV in Romania. Serological surveys made on susceptible species, known as good sentinels or reservoir hosts, e.g., horses, wild and domestic birds were undertaken from 2006-2011. Our results corroborated incidence data in human patients and other recent seroprevalence studies in animals, and should partially clarify the emergence of WNV in the eastern rural territories of Romania. It also highlighted risk zones for endemic WNV infection in Romania.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  7. Evaluation of Planning for Fish and Wildlife at Corps of Engineers Reservoirs, Allegheny Reservoir Project, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    I *~ -* .t4 000 Uin.~, P~n 0* .5 0 05 ~ @ftft’~% MO 0.u I- a * - j *SSES -~ M -- - * 𔃺 0 .1 I A S 4% * Ag U .2 - ~SMU cnn ftS44% -o -. 𔃺ft 4%0𔃺 M0M...Longnead darter , A Pearl dace, A Blackside darter, A Slenderkeed dartw. A Catostomidae Malley*, A, R Qutll ck, A, R White sucker, A, 4 Cettid...reservoirs and incorporating data such as morpho- metry, water chemistry, and reservoir age , the Alle- gheny Reservoir should now have an annual sport fishing

  8. Intensive Observation of Reservoirinduced Seismicity and Preliminary Analysis on the Causes of Earthquakes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Wentao; Xu Changpeng; Yuan Jingli; Li Hai'ou; Xu Xiwei; Zhang Xindong; Zhang Lanfeng

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the National Key Technology R&D Program of the 11th "Five-year Plan", a densified seismic network consisting of 26 seismic stations was established at the Three Gorges Reservoir area in the section of Hubei Province in March 2009 (21 short-period seismographs, 5 broadband digital seismographs). From March to December, 2009, a total of 2,995 ML -0. 8 - 2. 9 earthquakes were detected during the trial impounding of the Three Gorges Reservoir ( water level rose from 145 m to 172.8m). Using the double difference earthquake location algorithm, 2,837 earthquakes were precisely re-located. The results show that the pattern of small local earthquake swarms in the Three Gorges Reservoir area took on a linear distribution or mass-like cluster distribution, the mass-like clusters of events were generally within a distance of 5 km from waterfront, and the linear distribution of the earthquakes could be extended to a distance of 16 km away from the waterfront. In the Hubei section of the Three Gorges Reservoir, earthquakes were mainly concentrated in the northern end of the Xiannvshan and Jiuwanxi faults near the Xiangxihe River, and along the banks of the Yangtze River at the west of Xietan township and the Shenlongxi area on the northern bank in the Badong region, with focal depths less than 10km, and 4km in average. Earthquake frequency in the reservoir region had a positive correlation with reservoir water level fluctuations, indicating that the seismicity belongs to reservoir induced earthquakes. Along the Shenlong River in the reservoir area, earthquakes showed three linear distributions in the northern Badong county, and distributed according to Karst distribution. There are underground rivers in the carbonate strata. When the reservoir was impounded, water permeated into the underground rivers, thus inducing earthquakes. Earthquakes in the areas on the crossriver segment of Xiannvshan fault, the Jiuwanxi fault and at

  9. Seismic Mapping of the Subsurface Structure at the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, R.; Daley, T.M.; Majer, E.L.

    2000-10-01

    In 1998 a 3-D surface seismic survey was conducted to explore the structure of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada) to determine if modern seismic techniques could be successfully applied in geothermal environments. Furthermore, it was intended to map the structural features which may control geothermal production in the reservoir. The results suggested the presence of at least one dominant fault responsible for the migration of fluids in the reservoir. In addition to the surface receivers, a 3-component seismometer was deployed in a borehole at a depth of 3900 ft within the basement below the reservoir, which recorded the waves generated by all surface sources. The subject of this report is use this data set to determine the subsurface structure as a function of azimuth. A total or 2005 first arrival travel times were determined out of 2134 possible traces. 2-D ray tracing was performed to simulate wave propagation from the surface sources to the receiver at depth. The ray tracing was based on a 2-D laterally homogeneous velocity model derived from a velocity profile calculated from a VSP recorded in the same well. It was assumed that differences in travel time between the observed and modeled data are caused by structural deviations from a homogeneously layered model as determined by the VSP profile, and thus were mapped into topographic changes at depth. The results suggest an east-west-trending structure (possibly a horst) with boundaries that match the location of faults found in the analysis of the 3-D seismic surface data.

  10. Seismicity study in Pournari reservoir area (W. Greece) 1981-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, K.; Drakatos, G.; Kouskouna, V.; Makropoulos, K.; Kranis, H.

    2016-04-01

    The spatial-temporal evolution of seismicity is examined, during the initial impoundment of Pournari reservoir located on Arachthos River (Western Greece), as well as for the next 30 years. The results show that, despite the relatively moderate-to-high seismicity from west to east, there is no remarkable earthquake in the vicinity before the first reservoir impoundment. Immediately after the impoundment (January 1981), and during the first 4 months, a considerable number of low-magnitude seismic events were recorded in the broader area of the dam. Moreover, two independent major events occurred on March 10, 1981 ( M L = 5.6) and April 10, 1981 ( M L = 4.7) with focal depths 13 and 10 km, respectively. The detailed analysis of the two corresponding aftershock sequences shows that they present different behaviors (e.g., larger b-value and lower magnitude of the main aftershock) than that of other aftershock sequences in Greece. This seismicity is probably due to triggering, via the water loading mechanism and the undrained response due to a flysch appearance on the reservoir basement. The activation of the thrust fault may be attributed to the bulging of evaporites that characterize the disordered structure of W. Greece, via possible water intake. The detailed processing of the recorded seismicity during the period 1982-2010, in comparison with the variations of Pournari Dam water level, shows an increase of shallow seismicity ( h ≤ 5 km) in the vicinity of the reservoir up to a 10-km distance—in contrast to the initial period, characterized by a number of deeper events due to the background response change from undrained to drained status.

  11. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  12. Geothermal Reservoirs: Products of Cooling Plutons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis L. Norton

    2002-09-24

    The goals of this project were to develop an in depth understanding of how geothermal reservoirs form and elucidate those features that could potentially be useful in exploration and development of additional energy reserves. Collaboration with Jeff Hulen, EGI helped closely coordinate theoretical concepts and computational experiments with geologic reality in fulfillment of the tasks for this project. Initial reconnaissance computations with Tom Brikowski, University of Texas were critical in realizing the final products of this project. The products of this work contribute basic understanding of the dynamical conditions attendant to the formation of reservoirs in general and the Geysers reservoir in particular. The most exciting of the discoveries were a combination of mineralogical, computational, and geothermometric data sets that revealed a chaotic-like behavior of the processes is critical in the formation of reservoirs near cooling plutions. This discovery provides a fundamental basis for improving resource assessment and exploration methods for geothermal energy associated with very young magmas. Some of the main results are documented in scientific publications, and DOE progress reports. An additional publication is in preparation on the overall significance of fracture propagation and microseismic activity around young magmas.

  13. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  14. The glaciogenic reservoir analogue studies project (GRASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moscariello, A.; Moreau, Julien; Vegt, P. van der

    Tunnel galleys are common features in Palaeozoic glacigenic succession in North Afrcica and Middle East and they are amongst the most challenging target for hydrocarbon exploration and developing drilling in these regions. Similarly, these buried valleys form important groundwater reservoirs in Q...

  15. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  16. Geodetic imaging: Reservoir monitoring using satellite interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, D.W.; Wicks, C.; Karasaki, K.; Marques, O.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid fluxes within subsurface reservoirs give rise to surface displacements, particularly over periods of a year or more. Observations of such deformation provide a powerful tool for mapping fluid migration within the Earth, providing new insights into reservoir dynamics. In this paper we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) range changes to infer subsurface fluid volume strain at the Coso geothermal field. Furthermore, we conduct a complete model assessment, using an iterative approach to compute model parameter resolution and covariance matrices. The method is a generalization of a Lanczos-based technique which allows us to include fairly general regularization, such as roughness penalties. We find that we can resolve quite detailed lateral variations in volume strain both within the reservoir depth range (0.4-2.5 km) and below the geothermal production zone (2.5-5.0 km). The fractional volume change in all three layers of the model exceeds the estimated model parameter uncertainly by a factor of two or more. In the reservoir depth interval (0.4-2.5 km), the predominant volume change is associated with northerly and westerly oriented faults and their intersections. However, below the geothermal production zone proper [the depth range 2.5-5.0 km], there is the suggestion that both north- and northeast-trending faults may act as conduits for fluid flow.

  17. Modeling Transport of Flushed Reservoir Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinski, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    Drawdown flushing of a reservoir is often part of a reservoir sediment management program. Flushing can deliver higher than normal sediment loads to the river channel located downstream of a reservoir. The flushed sediment may contain a higher proportion of finer sediment than what was delivered to a channel prior to the presence of the reservoir. The extent of long-term impacts caused by the flushed sediment on the channel morphology and habitat will in part depend on the residence time of the sediment within the channel. In this study we used MIKE 21C to model the fate of flushed sediment through a river channel where the bed material consists of an armoring layer of gravels overlying finer sediment. MIKE 21C is a two-dimensional curvilinear morphological model for rivers developed by DHI. Curvilinear means that the model grid may curve to better follow the channel and flow direction, for example in a meandering channel. Multiple bed material layers are included in the model to represent the armoring and underlying layers existing in the bed separately from the overlying flushed sediment. These layers may also mix. The nature of the interactions between these two layers helps regulate transport and deposition of the flushed sediment, thus are critical to assessing the fate of the flushed sediment and associated potential impacts.

  18. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Studies of Reservoir Hosts for Marburg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanepoel, Robert; Smit, Sheilagh B; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-01-01

    To determine reservoir hosts for Marburg virus (MARV), we examined the fauna of a mine in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The mine was associated with a protracted outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever during 1998-2000. We found MARV nucleic acid in 12 bats, comprising 3.0%-3.6% of 2...

  20. Borehole radar modeling for reservoir monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of down-hole sensors and remotely controlled valves in wells provide enormous benefits to reservoir management and oil production. We suggest borehole radar measurements as a promising technique capable of monitoring the arrival of undesired fluids in the proximity of production wells. The h

  1. 2007 Hydrologic and Sedimentation Survey of Altus Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — Reclamation surveyed Altus Reservoir in November 2006, June 2007, and February 2008 to develop updated reservoir topography and compute the present storage-elevation...

  2. Quantitative Prediction of Structural Fractures in Low Permeability Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Lianbo; Tian Chonglu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Low -permeability fractured reservoirs will become increasingly prominent along with the enhanced exploration extent and the emerging moderate-high water content in most of the moderate-high permeability reservoirs of the oil fields in eastern China.

  3. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Tracy; Schechter, David S.

    2000-04-11

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO{sub 2}.

  4. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  5. Reservoir-induced seismicity associated with the Itoiz Reservoir, Spain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gómez, Inmaculada; Talwani, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    Reservoir-induced seismicity was observed in 2004 after the impoundment of the Itoiz Reservoir in the central-western Pyrenees, Spain. Subsequent annual filling cycles were accompanied by large epicentral growth in the northern part of the Jaca-Pamplona basin. Based on the evaluation of the available geohydrologic data, we suggest that the seismicity is associated with the diffusion of increased pore pressures along the carbonate megabreccia systems of the Early to Middle Eocene age Hecho Group. Assuming 1-D pore-pressure diffusion from the Itoiz Reservoir, we estimate that excess pore pressures of ~100-500 kPa are adequate to induce M >= 3.0 earthquakes in this geological terrane. The results of this study have potential applicability in regions where reservoirs are built over karst terranes.

  6. The atmospheric pollution in the area of the Goczałkowice Reservoir changes based on wet and dry deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław LEŚNIOK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Goczałkowice Reservoir was formed as a result of the accumulation of waters from the Vistula River caused by the construction of the earth dam of 2980 m in length between the town of Goczałkowice-Zdrój and Zabrzeg. It is located in Subcaprathia, near the Silesian Beskids mountain range (Outer Western Carpathians. Discussed reservoir was investigated in several environmental aspects. One of those researched elements was wet and dry pollution deposition in Integrated System Supporting Management and Protection of Water Reservoir (ZiZOZap.The research on wet and dry pollution deposition was carried out at two measurement points situated on the opposite sides of the Goczałkowice Reservoir. From the east side it was a station in Goczałkowice and from the west side a station in Frelichów (fig. 1.  The location of points allowed to assess influence of air masses from different directions and define sources of the pollutants.

  7. Authorized and Operating Purposes of Corps of Engineers Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Puerto Rico CERRILLOS DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-9O PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-92 South Carolina HARTWELL DAM AND LAKE Savannah E...LAKE Missouri Kansas City E-12 POMONA LAKE Kansas Kansas City E-12 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 PRADO DAM (SANTA ANA...PROJECT Florida Jacksonville E-92 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 RODMAN LOCK AND DAM (CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL Florida

  8. Diagenesis and porosity evolution of tight sand reservoirs in Carboniferous Benxi Formation, Southeast Ordos Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Yu, Xinghe; Shan, Xin; Su, Dongxu; Wang, Jiao; Li, Yalong; Shi, Xin; Xu, Liqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Ordos Basin, situated in west-central China, is one of the oldest and most important fossil-fuel energy base, which contains large reserves of coal, oil and natural gas. The Upper Palaeozoic strata are widely distributed with rich gas-bearing and large natural gas resources, whose potential is tremendous. Recent years have witnessed a great tight gas exploration improvement of the Upper Paleozoic in Southeastern Ordos basin. The Carboniferous Benxi Formation, mainly buried more than 2,500m, is the key target strata for hydrocarbon exploration, which was deposited in a barrier island and tidal flat environment. The sandy bars and flats are the favorable sedimentary microfacies. With an integrated approach of thin-section petrophysics, constant velocity mercury injection test, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry, diagenesis and porosity evolution of tight sand reservoirs of Benxi Formation were analyzed in detail. The result shows that the main lithology of sandstone in this area is dominated by moderately to well sorted quartz sandstone. The average porosity and permeability is 4.72% and 1.22mD. The reservoirs of Benxi Formation holds a variety of pore types and the pore throats, with obvious heterogeneity and poor connection. Based on the capillary pressure curve morphological characteristics and parameters, combined with thin section and phycical property data, the reservoir pore structure of Benxi Formation can be divided into 4 types, including mid pore mid throat type(I), mid pore fine throat type(II), small pore fine throat type(III) and micro pro micro throat type(Ⅳ). The reservoirs primarily fall in B-subsate of middle diagenesis and late diagenesis, which mainly undergo compaction, cmentation, dissolution and fracturing process. Employing the empirical formula of different sorting for unconsolideated sandstone porosity, the initial sandstone porosity is 38.32% on average. Quantitative evaluation of the increase and decrease of

  9. Application of a Delumping Procedure to Compositional Reservoir Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Christensen, Jes Reimer; Knudsen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Characterization and lumping are always performed when dealing with reservoir fluids. The number of pseudocomponents in a compositional reservoir simulation is normally between three and eight. In order to optimize the reservoir performance, it is necessary to know a detailed composition of the p...

  10. Ordovician Basement Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiangbin; LI Tiejun; ZHANG Tao

    2004-01-01

    Ordovician marine carbonate basement traps are widely developed in the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes in the Tarim Basin. Reservoirs are mainly altered pore-cavity-fissure reservoirs. Oil sources are marine carbonate rocks of the Lower Paleozoic. Thus, the paleo-highs and paleo-slopes have good reservoiring conditions and they are the main areas to explore giant and large-scale oil reservoirs. The main factors for their reservoiring are: (1) Effective combination of fenestral pore-cavity-fracture reservoirs, resulting from multi-stage, multi-cyclic karstification (paleo-hypergene and deep buried) and fracturing, with effective overlying seals, especially mudstone and gypsum mudstone in the Carboniferous Bachu Formation, is essential to hydrocarbon reservoiring and high and stable production; (2) Long-term inherited large rises and multi-stage fracture systems confine the development range of karst reservoirs and control hydrocarbon migration, accumulation and reservoiring; (3) Long-term multi-source hydrocarbon supply, early reservoiring alteration and late charging adjustment are important reservoiring mechanisms and determine the resource structure and oil and gas properties. Favorable areas for exploration of Ordovician carbonate basement hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Tarim Basin are the Akekule rise, Katahe uplift, Hetianhe paleo-high and Yakela faulted rise.

  11. ‘A reservoir within a reservoir’ – An unusual complication associated with a defunctioned inflatable penile prosthesis reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abboudi

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: It is our belief that a defunctionalized reservoir serves no purpose; rather it can only cause trouble in the future. Consequently, at our institution we do not leave defunctionalized reservoirs in situ.

  12. West Nile virus and "poliomyelitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James J

    2004-07-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently been associated with a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis. Most cases of WNV-associated weakness have clinical, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic characteristics indistinguishable from those of poliomyelitis caused by infection with poliovirus. There is debate about the nomenclature of this manifestation of WNV infection. An historical perspective of the term "poliomyelitis" suggests that the term "WNV poliomyelitis" seems appropriate, but members of the neurologic and infectious disease communities should engage in discussion regarding the terminology of this syndrome.

  13. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  14. Third workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P. (eds.)

    1977-12-15

    The Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 14, 1977, with 104 attendees from six nations. In keeping with the recommendations expressed by the participants at the Second Workshop, the format of the Workshop was retained, with three days of technical sessions devoted to reservoir physics, well and reservoir testing, field development, and mathematical modeling of geothermal reservoirs. The program presented 33 technical papers, summaries of which are included in these Proceedings. Although the format of the Workshop has remained constant, it is clear from a perusal of the Table of Contents that considerable advances have occurred in all phases of geothermal reservoir engineering over the past three years. Greater understanding of reservoir physics and mathematical representations of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated reservoirs are evident; new techniques for their analysis are being developed, and significant field data from a number of newer reservoirs are analyzed. The objectives of these workshops have been to bring together researchers active in the various physical and mathematical disciplines comprising the field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give the participants a forum for review of progress and exchange of new ideas in this rapidly developing field, and to summarize the effective state of the art of geothermal reservoir engineering in a form readily useful to the many government and private agencies involved in the development of geothermal energy. To these objectives, the Third Workshop and these Proceedings have been successfully directed. Several important events in this field have occurred since the Second Workshop in December 1976. The first among these was the incorporation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) into the newly formed Department of Energy (DOE) which continues as the leading Federal agency in geothermal reservoir engineering research. The Third

  15. Modeling Reservoir-River Networks in Support of Optimizing Seasonal-Scale Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, D. L.; Lowry, T. S.; Bier, A.; Barco, J.; Sun, A.

    2011-12-01

    HydroSCOPE (Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization of Power and the Environment) is a seasonal time-scale tool for scenario analysis and optimization of reservoir-river networks. Developed in MATLAB, HydroSCOPE is an object-oriented model that simulates basin-scale dynamics with an objective of optimizing reservoir operations to maximize revenue from power generation, reliability in the water supply, environmental performance, and flood control. HydroSCOPE is part of a larger toolset that is being developed through a Department of Energy multi-laboratory project. This project's goal is to provide conventional hydropower decision makers with better information to execute their day-ahead and seasonal operations and planning activities by integrating water balance and operational dynamics across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. This presentation details the modeling approach and functionality of HydroSCOPE. HydroSCOPE consists of a river-reservoir network model and an optimization routine. The river-reservoir network model simulates the heat and water balance of river-reservoir networks for time-scales up to one year. The optimization routine software, DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications - dakota.sandia.gov), is seamlessly linked to the network model and is used to optimize daily volumetric releases from the reservoirs to best meet a set of user-defined constraints, such as maximizing revenue while minimizing environmental violations. The network model uses 1-D approximations for both the reservoirs and river reaches and is able to account for surface and sediment heat exchange as well as ice dynamics for both models. The reservoir model also accounts for inflow, density, and withdrawal zone mixing, and diffusive heat exchange. Routing for the river reaches is accomplished using a modified Muskingum-Cunge approach that automatically calculates the internal timestep and sub-reach lengths to match the conditions of

  16. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  17. Fate of Organic Carbon Deposited in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, T. G.; Rhoton, F. E.; Bennett, S. J.; Hudnall, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    Sedimentation of soil organic carbon (SOC) eroded from uplands and deposited in reservoirs could be an important mechanism for carbon sequestration provided that it is conserved during transport and burial and that uplands are not experiencing net loss. There are uncertainties in both these assumptions and gaining a better understanding of these processes is a key objective of ongoing carbon-cycle investigations. The U.S. Geological Survey, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and Louisiana State University Agricultural Center are collaborating on an investigation of soils and sediments in the Yalobusha River Basin in Mississippi. Sediment cores were collected from upland soils and from Grenada Lake, a flood control reservoir, in the basin. Suspended sediments have been collected from the Yalobusha River and one of its tributaries upstream of the lake. We are measuring carbon mineralization potential in conjunction with carbon and nitrogen concentrations, 13C, mineralogy, and texture on sediments and upland soils to determine whether eroding SOC is conserved or oxidized during transport and burial. Differences in mineralization potential and other chemical and physical properties are used to infer net changes in the original eroding SOC. Autochthonous production of SOC within reservoirs could replace labile SOC oxidized during transport and burial thereby masking losses due to oxidation. Autochthonous sources can be evaluated by chemical and physical characterization of the sediments. Stable carbon isotope (13C) geochemistry provides a tool for distinguishing the two primary sources of organic carbon incorporated in lake sediments because allochthonous SOC from the surrounding watershed is, in general, less depleted in stable 13C than autochthonous SOC produced in the lake by aquatic organisms such as macrophytes and phytoplankton. The integration of the 13C signature recorded in the organic fraction of the lake sediments with total organic carbon, C/N ratio

  18. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  19. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Monroe County for the Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act...

  20. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  1. The Application of 3-D Visible Technology to Reservoir Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Long; LIU Tao

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of 3 -D visible technology to reservoir management. Making use of this method for expanding - spread data point in reservoir management, can discard the false and retain the true during data recording. As a result, The quality of data recording is ensured. In reservoir description, the reservoir characteristics, such as space distribution,physical change and fluid distribution may be identified by restoring palaeostructures, building - up 3-D facics tract model and 3-D fracture system model. Seismic interpretation, geologic modeling and numerical simulation are well integrated so that they can be promote reservoir performance management to develop into the intensive management pattern.

  2. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  3. An integrated study of a Campeche Bay fractured carbonate reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, D.W.; Hernandez, J.G.; Vasques, G.A.V.; Aquino, E.V.; Barton, C.; Laude, L.; Lockhart, A.M.E.; Peebles, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a case study in the reservoir description of a fractured carbonate by a multi-disciplinary team. It illustrates how the synergistic interaction of team members during data analysis and model building resulted in: (1) the identification of previously unrecognized links between several reservoir characteristics; (2) produced a superior reservoir model; and (3) increased the likelihood of successful development. In summary, identification, characterization, and delineation of fractured intervals within the deepwater carbonate succession resulted in a preliminary 3-D model of both the static and dynamic properties for the Cretaceous reservoir of the Yum Field which, through reservoir simulation, will provide a predictive tool for development planning.

  4. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer

    2008-09-15

    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  5. The Classification and Model of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xianbo; LIN Xiaoying; SONG Yah; ZHAO Mengjun

    2004-01-01

    Coalbed methane has been explored in many basins worldwide for 30 years, and has been developed commercially in some of the basins. Many researchers have described the characteristics of coalbed methane geology and technology systematically. According to these investigations, a coalbed methane reservoir can be defined: "a coal seam that contains some coalbed methane and is isolated from other fluid units is called a coalbed methane reservoir".On the basis of anatomizafion, analysis, and comparison of the typical coalbed methane reservoirs, coalbed methane reservoirs can be divided into two classes: the hydrodynamic sealing coalbed methane reservoirs and the self-sealing coalbed methane reservoirs. The former can be further divided into two sub-classes: the hydrodynamic capping coalbed methane reservoirs, which can be divided into five types and the hydrodynamic driving coalbed methane reservoirs,which can be divided into three types. The latter can be divided into three types. Currently, hydrodynamic sealing reservoirs are the main target for coalbed methane exploration and development; self-sealing reservoirs are unsuitable for coalbed methane exploration and development, but they are closely related with coal mine gas hazards. Finally, a model for hydrodynamic sealing coalbed methane reservoirs is established.

  6. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  7. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okwen, Roland [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Frailey, Scott [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [University of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Moulton, Sandy [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to

  8. Overspill avalanching in a dense reservoir network

    CERN Document Server

    Mamede, G L; Schneider, C M; de Araújo, J C; Herrmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability of communities, agriculture, and industry is strongly dependent on an effective storage and supply of water resources. In some regions the economic growth has led to a level of water demand which can only be accomplished through efficient reservoir networks. Such infrastructures are not always planned at larger scale but rather made by farmers according to their local needs of irrigation during droughts. Based on extensive data from the upper Jaguaribe basin, one of the world's largest system of reservoirs, located in the Brazilian semiarid northeast, we reveal that surprisingly it self-organizes into a scale-free network exhibiting also a power-law in the distribution of the lakes and avalanches of discharges. With a new self-organized-criticality-type model we manage to explain the novel critical exponents. Implementing a flow model we are able to reproduce the measured overspill evolution providing a tool for catastrophe mitigation and future planning.

  9. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (SEPI-ESQIE-UPALM-IPN), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Laboratorio de Analisis Met., Edif. ' Z' y Edif. 6 planta baja., Mexico City c.p. 07300 (Mexico)], E-mail: adalop123@mailbanamex.com; Romero, A.; Chavez, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (SEPI-ESQIE-UPALM-IPN), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Laboratorio de Analisis Met., Edif. ' Z' y Edif. 6 planta baja., Mexico City c.p. 07300 (Mexico); Carrillo, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (CICATA-IPN, Altamira Tamaulipas) (Mexico); Lopez, S. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo - Molecular Engineering Researcher (Mexico)

    2008-11-15

    The study and computational representation of porous media properties are very important for many industries where problems of fluid flow, percolation phenomena and liquid movement and stagnation are involved, for example, in building constructions, ore processing, chemical industries, mining, corrosion sciences, etc. Nevertheless, these kinds of processes present a noneasy behavior to be predicted and mathematical models must include statistical analysis, fractal and/or stochastic procedures to do it. This work shows the characterization of sandstone berea core samples which can be found as a porous media (PM) in natural oil reservoirs, rock formations, etc. and the development of a mathematical algorithm for simulating the anisotropic characteristics of a PM based on a stochastic distribution of some of their most important properties like porosity, permeability, pressure and saturation. Finally a stochastic process is used again to simulated the topography of an oil reservoir.

  10. Integration of production data into reservoir models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.S.; Reynolds, A.C.; Abacioglu, Y. [Tulsa Univ., Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Tulsa, OK (United States); Bi, Z. [Duke Univ., Mathematics Dept., Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The problem of mapping reservoir properties, such as porosity and permeability, and of assessing the uncertainty in the mapping has been largely approached probabilistically, i.e. uncertainty is estimated based on the properties of an ensemble of random realizations of the reservoir properties all of which satisfy constraints provided by data and prior geological knowledge. When the constraints include observations of production characteristics, the problem of generating a representative ensemble of realizations can be quite difficult partly because the connection between a measurement of water-cut or GOR at a well and the permeability at some other location is by no means obvious. In this paper, the progress towards incorporation of production data and remaining challenges are reviewed. (Author)

  11. Analysis of production decline in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zais, Elliot J.; Bodvarsson, Gunnar

    1980-09-01

    The major objectives of the Decline Curve project were to: (1) test the decline analysis methods used in the petroleum industry on geothermal production data; (2) examine and/or develop new analysis methods; and (3) develop a standard operating procedure for analyzing geothermal production data. Various analysis methods have long been available but they have not been tested on geothermal data because of the lack of publicly available data. The recent release to publication of substantial data sets from Wairakei, New Zealand, Cerro Prieto, Mexico and The Geysers, USA has made this study possible. Geothermal reservoirs are quite different from petroleum reservoirs in many ways so the analysis methods must be tested using geothermal data.

  12. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  13. Optimized recovery through cooperative geology and reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, F.F. Jr.; Willcox, P.J.; Ballard, J.R.; Nation, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Two examples of the use of this combined geology-reservoir engineering technique are taken from the international arena of operations. The first involves a gas reservoir in the U.K.-North Sea waters and the second an oil reservoir in the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The improved reservoir description obtained for each of these reservoirs is permitting a better assessment of future performance as influenced by various operating alternatives. Waterflooding is relatively tolerant of reservoir nonuniformities. However, the need for additional reserves leads to increased utilization of improved recovery techniques, beyond waterflooding, for secondary as well as tertiary application. The development of better reservoir descriptions will provide guidance on the need for special sweep improvement techniques and ultimately lead to both maximum oil production and reduced risk in application of improved recovery processes.

  14. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs which contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range and are susceptible to recovery by in situ combustion and steam drive. The reservoirs for steam recovery are less than 2500 feet deep to comply with state-of-the-art technology. In cases where one reservoir would be a target for in situ combustion or steam drive, that reservoir is reported in both sections. Data were collectd from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  15. New proposed method for prediction of reservoir sedimentation distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Hosseinjanzadeh; K. Hosseini; K. Kaveh; S.F. Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    abstract Prediction of sediment distribution in reservoirs is an important issue for dam designers to determine the reservoir active storage capacity. Methods proposed to calculate sediment distribution are varied, and mainly empirical. Among all the methods currently available, only area-reduction and area-increment methods are considered as the principal methods for prediction of sediment distribution. In this paper, data of 16 reservoirs in the United States are used to propose a new empirical method for prediction of sediment distribution in reservoirs. In the proposed method, reservoir sediment distribu-tion is related to sediment volume and original reservoir characteristics. To validate the accuracy of the new proposed method, obtained results are compared with survey data for two reservoirs. The results of this investigation showed that the proposed method has an acceptable accuracy.

  16. The forming factors and distribution rules of giant oil and gas fields in the coastal basins of West Africa%西非海岸盆地带大油气田形成条件与分布规律探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑应钊; 何等发; 马彩琴; 万德辉

    2011-01-01

    and difference of two petroleum systems in Niger delta basin and Low Congo basin is summarized and than the giant fields distribution rules are identified. Results In the coastal basins of West Africa, the deposit of salt rocks has crucial effects to the oil and gas generation, immigration, and accumulation. Basins in the middle section of the rift which deposited abundant salt rocks accumulated more hydrocarbon than that of the other sections which deposited inadequate salt rocks. The petroleum systems can be divided into the pre-salt and post-salt petroleum systems by the Aptian evaporate rock. The source rock of the pre-salt petroleum system is lacustrine shale, the reservoir is the river, delta and shoreland sandstone, and the transitional evaporate rock is the cap rock; the source rock of the post-salt petroleum system is marine shale, the turbidite is the major reservoir, the cap rock is shale. Conclusion The giant oil and gas fields distribute as a belt along or near the coast, the distribution are controlled by the structure position and sedimentary faces. The reservoirs are mainly Tertiary clastic rocks. Basins in the southern section of the rift formed big gas fields. Basins in the middle section of the rift, such as Lower Congo basin and Gabon basin only form oil fields, but no gas field; while Niger delta basin forms big gas fields and oil fields. In the northern section of the rift, neither big oilfield nor gas field is found. In the future, the exploration can focus on the middle section, especially on the turbidite in deep water.

  17. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  18. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  19. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  20. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Optimal Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using the adjo......Practical oil reservoir management involves solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. In this paper we present a numerical method for solution of large-scale constrained optimal control problems. The method is a single-shooting method that computes the gradients using...... the adjoint method. We use an Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method for the integration and a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm for the constrained optimization. We use this algorithm in a numerical case study to optimize the production of oil from an oil...... reservoir using water ooding and smart well technology. Compared to the uncontrolled case, the optimal operation increases the Net Present Value of the oil field by 10%....

  1. Geomechanical Properties of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Eshkalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production from unconventional reservoirs has gained an increased attention among operators in North America during past years and is believed to secure the energy demand for next decades. Economic production from unconventional reservoirs is mainly attributed to realizing the complexities and key fundamentals of reservoir formation properties. Geomechanical well logs (including well logs such as total minimum horizontal stress, Poisson’s ratio, and Young, shear, and bulk modulus are secured source to obtain these substantial shale rock properties. However, running these geomechanical well logs for the entire asset is not a common practice that is associated with the cost of obtaining these well logs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical well logs for a Marcellus shale asset located in southern Pennsylvania are generated using data-driven modeling. Full-field geomechanical distributions (map and volumes of this asset for five geomechanical properties are also created using general geostatistical methods coupled with data-driven modeling. The results showed that synthetic geomechanical well logs and real field logs fall into each other when the input dataset has not seen the real field well logs. Geomechanical distributions of the Marcellus shale improved significantly when full-field data is incorporated in the geostatistical calculations.

  2. ARTIFICIAL FISH PROPAGATION IN KANEV RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Gurbik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the dynamics of structural parameters of fish fauna of the Kanev reservoir, we determined the major measures for artificial fish propagation (stocking, which would allow increasing their commercial stocks and maintain biological diversity. It was found that main biological factors, which defined the conditions of existence of fish at different stages of their life cycle in the Kanev reservoir was as a whole favorable for providing sufficient efficiency of measures for stocking it with juveniles of commercially and environmentally valuable fishes. With current state of fish fauna and possibilities of fish hatcheries, the priority in the part of artificial maintenance of fish populations should be given to pike-perch, wels, and tench. An increase of amounts of commercial catches should be based first of all on full-scale stocking with silver and bighead carps, the created stock of which will be available for effective exploitation at a regime, which is protective for native fish fauna. The current bioproductive potential allows increasing the indices of the stock of commercially valuable species up to 120 kg/ha that is twice more than the actual indices for 2012-2013. Key words: fish fauna, artificial propagation, commercial stock, Kanev reservoir.

  3. Environmental History in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  4. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  5. Integrated reservoir and decision modeling to optimize spacing in unconventional gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkarslan, G.; McVay, D.A.; Ortiz, R.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Bickel, J.E.; Montiel, L.V. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Unconventional gas plays are risky and operators must balance the need to conserve capital and protect the environment by avoiding over drilling with the desire to increase profitability. The purpose of this study was to develop technology and tools to help operators determine optimal well spacing in highly uncertain and risky unconventional gas reservoirs as quickly as possible