Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Chang, Martin C.
In this paper we discuss how classroom instruction can benefit from state-of-the-art technologies in networks, worldwide web access through Internet, multimedia, databases, and computing. Functional requirements for establishing such a high-tech classroom are identified, followed by descriptions of our current experimental implementations. The focus of the paper is on the capabilities of distributed collaboration, which supports both synchronous multimedia information sharing as well as a shared work environment for distributed teamwork and group decision making. Our ultimate goal is to achieve the concept of 'living world in a classroom' such that live and dynamic up-to-date information and material from all over the world can be integrated into classroom instruction on a real-time basis. We describe how we incorporate application developments in a geography study tool, worldwide web information retrievals, databases, and programming environments into the collaborative system.
Craig Chaudron; Graham Crookes
@@ In"Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction,"Crookes and Chaudron review research and practice in both second and foreign language contexts.The main areas of classroom instruction described are:presentational modes and focus on form,types of activities and parameters of tasks and interaction,classroom organization,teacher control of interaction,and corrective feedback.
Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a) the target language (TL) should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students' first language (L1); (b) translation…
Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga
This article presents experiences and student perceptions on the introduction of the flipped classroom model in two consecutive semesters at Media Technology department of Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduced the flipped instruction model to a statistics course and a mathematics......-in-time explanations when learning with online resources and they questioned the quality and validity of some of them. Based on these findings and our own experience, we discuss requirements for resources and activities in flipped classrooms in order for the student to engage and learn. Finally, we present a framework...... for experienced-based learning in flipped classrooms to promote student reflection....
Gerace, William; Beatty, Ian
Essentially, a classroom response system is technology that: 1) allows an instructor to present a question or problem to the class; 2) allows students to enter their answers into some kind of device; and 3) instantly aggregates and summarizes students' answers for the instructor, usually as a histogram. Most response systems provide additional functionality. Some additional names for this class of system (or for subsets of the class) are classroom communication system (CCS), audience response system (ARS), voting machine system, audience feedback system, and--most ambitiously--CATAALYST system (for ``Classroom Aggregation Technology for Activating and Assessing Learning and Your Students' Thinking''). UMPERG has been teaching with and researching classroom response systems since 1993. We find that the technology has the potential to transform the way we teach science in large lecture settings. CRSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall, thereby allowing students to become more actively involved in constructing and using knowledge. CRSs not only make it easier to engage students in learning activities during lecture but also enhance the communication among students, and between the students and the instructor. This enhanced communication assists the students and the instructor in assessing understanding during class time, and affords the instructor the opportunity to devise instructional interventions that target students' needs as they arise.
Kuhn, Matt; Hubbell, Elizabeth R.; Pitler, Howard
If you've upgraded to the second edition of the landmark book "Classroom Instruction That Works," you need this companion guide to help you use technology to support research-based instruction. The authors follow the revised Instructional Planning Guide that makes it easier for you to know when to emphasize each of the instructional strategies,…
This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking
Hill, Jane D.; Bjork, Cynthia Linnea
Everyone who participates in your workshop on "Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners" needs this participant's workbook to gain expertise in strategies that are effective with ELL (English Language Learners) students.
Colombo, Michaela W.; Colombo, Paul D.
The need for highly qualified science teachers who can differentiate instruction for diverse learners is acute. The authors show how the wise use of classroom blogs, coupled with podcasts and vodcasts, can help teachers extend and differentiate their instruction. (Contains 4 endnotes.)
Lipp, Jamie R.; Helfrich, Sara R.
Effective teachers are continuously striving to improve their instruction. Reading Recovery teachers have detailed and specific literacy training and expertise that can be of great value to classroom teachers, especially in the area of guided reading instruction. This article explores the ways in which key Reading Recovery strategies can be…
Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric
Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide…
Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.
Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga
This article presents experiences and student perceptions on the introduction of the flipped classroom model in two consecutive semesters at Media Technology department of Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduced the flipped instruction model to a statistics course and a mathematics workshop. We collected data by two online survey studies, which show support for student perceptions that out-of-classroom instruction with online resources enhances learning, by providing visual and...
Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…
Concannon-Gibney, Tara; Murphy, Brian
Despite a wealth of international research indicating the importance but also the dearth of explicit reading comprehension instruction in classrooms, current classroom reading pedagogy does not appear to have acknowledged and addressed this shortcoming to any significant degree. This is cause for some considerable concern, as today's students…
Garza Mitchell, Regina L.
Community colleges are known for keeping abreast of the latest instructional technologies, but the constant and rapid growth of available technology also presents challenges. This chapter reviews the current literature regarding instructional technology usage, with a focus on beneficial applications of technology for teaching and learning, and…
Appell, Claudia J.
Asserts that the use of electronic keyboards enables music educators to incorporate technological advances into instruction and take advantage of the popularity of electronic and computerized keyboards. Discusses advantages of electronic keyboard instruction related to student motivation and behavior. Describes methods of incorporating…
Susi, Frank D.
Spatial mapping is a category system for directly observing instruction in art classrooms. A rationale for studying the spatial dimensions of teaching is presented, how to train observers is explained, procedures involved in a mapping episode are described, methods for analyzing data are suggested, and examples of instruments are presented.…
Featro, Susan Mary; DiGregorio, Daniela
Theories on emerging technologies have stated that using blogs in the classroom can engage students in discussion, support peer learning, and improve students' literacy skills. Research has pointed to many ways that blogging is beneficial to student learning when used as an instructional tool. The researchers conducted a project that investigated…
van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.
This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these t
Minner, Sam; Knutson, Richard
The use of a token economy in teaching special needs students is outlined. Steps in establishing a token economy are presented and activities, such as the use of charge cards and a classroom bank, which help develop related skills are discussed. (PHR)
As applied teaching, it refers to focus-on-form instruction and focus-on-meaning instruction which have been used in the second language classroom. By analyzing what the effectiveness of focus-on-form instruction is, what the disadvantages of focus-on-meaning instruction are? Therefore, it makes the conclusion: focus-on-form instruction is better than focus-on-meaning instruction within the second language classroom.
Faryadi, Qais; Bakar, Zainab Abu; Maidinsah, Hamidah; Muhamad, Aminuddin
This critical assessment attempts to define a good instructional design through the eyes and the minds of renowned scholars and the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Gagne, John Keller, Jerome Bruner, and Richard E. Mayer and so on. This examination also discusses ways in directing the mental map of students for better knowledge…
Full Text Available Misconceptions in statistics among students of non-statistics major are quite common. This paper will present the humble efforts of the author in trying to reduce misconceptions among her statistics students using technology. The examples were drawn from the teaching and learning of statistics to Master of Technical and Vocational Education students in the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. EXCEL spreadsheet, power point presentation slides and a concept-mapping tool were integrated into classroom instructions on descriptive statistics. Increased class-room interactions were observed through out the learning process and a decrease in the percentage of students committing the specific misconceptions were recorded.
Graham Crookes; Craig Chaudron
continued from Issue 10 4.FacilitationA major role of the instructor is to arrange matters so the material presented gets used and thereby learned.This may be far more critical in the learning of a cognitive skill,in which practice assumes major dimensions,than in the learning of most school subjects,in which declarative knowledge(Anderson 1982;O'Malley,Chamot,and Walker 1987)is being presented and clear presentation may be sufficient in itself to ensure learning(of.West 1960).We need,therefore,to give some consideration to such matters as the overall organization of the classroom.
The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…
Dean, Ceri B.; Stone, BJ; Hubbell, Elizabeth; Pitler, Howard
First published in 2001, "Classroom Instruction That Works" revolutionized teaching by linking classroom strategies to evidence of increased student learning. Now this landmark guide has been reenergized and reorganized for today's classroom with new evidence-based insights and a refined framework that strengthens instructional planning. Whether…
Turpen, Chandra; Finkelstein, Noah D.
This paper summarizes variations in instructors' implementation practices during Peer Instruction (PI) and shows how these differences in practices shape different norms of classroom interaction. We describe variations in classroom norms along three dimensions of classroom culture that are integral to Peer Instruction, emphasis on: (1)…
The traditional method for classroom instruction in China is teacher-centered and exam-oriented, which results in students＇ misunderstanding the information given by the teacher and poor ability in using English. This essay focuses on how to create communicative situations to develop students＇ oral skill, Some pratical and effective suggestions are given in the essay to help English teachers in China to achieve this goal.
This dissertation examines the instructional and relational moves implemented by an equity-conscious teacher in service of supporting discursive participation among her English Learners specifically in a problem-based science classroom. The research included also examines the evolution of discursive participation among English Learners as well as the nature of collaboration among English Learners and their English Fluent peers. Initial findings suggest that there were productive, unproductive, and problematic responses to the teacher's caring approach. Students saw the teacher as approachable and accessible which resulted in students seeking the teacher out, which in turn meant that the teacher was able to scaffold instruction for her students. Students recognized and appreciated teacher strategies, but did not generally take up or adopt her instructional supports when working with their peers. English Fluent students shielded English Learners from more rigorous participation in an effort to prevent them from feeling uncomfortable. Furthermore, English Learners and their English Fluent peers defined "help" in the context of group work differently. The implications for this work include further addressing the ways in which teachers support and scaffold science instruction, thinking more critically about the ways in which teachers are explicit in modeling instructional strategies, and working with students to better understand the implications of differences in the ways that they define help and collaborate.
McNeill, Katherine L.; Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; González-Howard, María; Loper, Suzanna
Science education research, reform documents and standards include scientific argumentation as a key learning goal for students. The role of the teacher is essential for implementing argumentation in part because their beliefs about argumentation can impact whether and how this science practice is integrated into their classroom. In this study, we surveyed 42 middle school science teachers and conducted follow-up interviews with 25 to investigate the factors that teachers believe impact their argumentation instruction. Teachers responded that their own learning goals had the greatest impact on their argumentation instruction while influences related to context, policy and assessment had the least impact. The minor influence of policy and assessment was in part because teachers saw a lack of alignment between these areas and the goals of argumentation. In addition, although teachers indicated that argumentation was an important learning goal, regardless of students' backgrounds and abilities, the teachers discussed argumentation in different ways. Consequently, it may be more important to help teachers understand what counts as argumentation, rather than provide a rationale for including argumentation in instruction. Finally, the act of trying out argumentation in their own classrooms, supported through resources such as curriculum, can increase teachers' confidence in teaching argumentation.
Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly
This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two remained traditional. The quiz and posttest data were adjusted for pretest differences using ANCOVA. The results suggest that flipped instruction had a positive effect student achievement, with effect sizes ranging from +0.16 to +0.44. In addition, some students reported that they preferred watching video lectures outside of class and appreciated more active approaches to learning.
Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly
This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two remained traditional. The quiz and posttest data were adjusted for pretest differences using ANCOVA. The results suggest that flipped instruction had a positive effect student achievement, with effect sizes ranging from +0.16 to +0.44. In addition, some students reported that they preferred watching video lectures outside of class and appreciated more active approaches to learning.
Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric
Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or
Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.
We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…
Kaur, Dalwinder; Yong, Esther; Zin, Norhayati Mohd; DeWitt, Dorothy
Even though technology is known to have a transformative effect on teaching and learning, videos are not widely used as an instructional tool in the classrooms in Malaysia. This paper focuses on using videos a cognitive stimulator and an instructional tool especially in tertiary ESL classrooms. This paper the potential of using videos for…
Martin, Peter Clyde
One of the major hurdles in preparing preservice teachers to differentiate instruction has been that they tend not to see much differentiated instruction in actual classrooms (Benjamin, 2002; Tomlinson, 1999). There always may be a contradiction in wanting to promote change in instructional practices while, at the same time, relying on a teacher…
This paper demonstrates how an electronic dialogue with a panel of human factors experts was used effectively as an augmentation to traditional classroom instruction. Nine students spent a one and one- half hour class session using a variety of commercial electronic mail software packages available on their own desk-tops (not in a university computer lab) to engage in discussion with remotely distributed instructors on topics generated by the students themselves. Ninety eight messages were exchanged, with about 60% having technical content. Interaction content and style were analyzed, and a survey was distributed to participants to evaluate the session. Process observations by this author augmented these data. Strengths and weaknesses of using technology not specifically designed for this function are discussed.
Wenger, Matthew; Impey, Chris D.; Rivera Chavez, Wendy
Astronomy: State of the Art is a MOOC specifically developed to study student participation in an online learning environment. The project aims to serve multiple audiences of learners. For this project we focused on college students who use the online environment for lectures and quizzes but whose classroom time is devoted to hands-on activities and group work; this is the “flipped classroom” model.In spring 2014, Astronomy: State of the Art was co-convened with “The Physical Universe,” a Natural Sciences course taught at the University of Arizona that satisfies a General Education requirement for non-science majors. Using the same core material as Astronomy - State of the Art (with additional modules on the physics of radiation, atomic structure, energy, and gravity that are not necessary for the informal learners), the local course employed a “flipped” model where the students access lectures and podcasts online but are in a face-to-face classroom two times a week for labs and hands-on activities, lecture tutorials, group discussions, and other research-validated tools for enhancing learning. A flipped or hybrid model gives students flexibility, uses the online medium for the aspects of instruction where interaction with an instructor isn’t required, and optimizes the scarce resource of time in a large classroom.Final student grades were closely related to their attendance, however, performance in this class was not correlated with completion of the online video lectures, even though the quizzes were closely tied to the content of these videos. The course will next be taught using Coursera which allow instructors to more closely examine the relationship between students use of course materials and understanding of course topics. The eventual goal is to recruit undergraduates from anywhere in the United States and award them transferrable credit for completing the class.
Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.
Noah D. Finkelstein
Full Text Available This paper summarizes variations in instructors’ implementation practices during Peer Instruction (PI and shows how these differences in practices shape different norms of classroom interaction. We describe variations in classroom norms along three dimensions of classroom culture that are integral to Peer Instruction, emphasis on: (1 faculty-student collaboration, (2 student-student collaboration, and (3 sense-making vs answer-making. Based on interpretations by an observing researcher, we place three different PI classrooms along a continuum representing a set of possible norms. We then check these interpretations against students’ perceptions of these environments from surveys collected at the end of the term. We find significant correspondence between the researchers’ interpretations and students’ perceptions of Peer Instruction in these environments. We find that variation in faculty practices can set up what students perceive as discernibly different norms. For interested instructors, concrete classroom practices are described that appear to encourage or discourage these norms.
Effective classroom instruction is a critical element to improving outcomes for low performing students and optimizing the effectiveness of multi-tiered systems. Middle school is a particularly important area to address in improving classroom literacy instruction as it becomes a place where students learn skills that allow them to transition from "learning to read" to "reading to learn." Professional development literature has suggested some effectiveness with the use of coaching, but study ...
Karjalainen, Katri; Pörn, Michaela; Fredrik RUSK; Linda BJÖRKSKOG
The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the nat...
Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric
Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs)] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.
The flipped classroom, a teaching method that delivers lecture content to students at home through electronic means and uses class time for practical application activities, may be useful for information literacy instruction. This article describes many of the characteristics of the flipped classroom teaching model, illustrated with examples from…
Nelson, Peter M.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Christ, Theodore J.
The impact and feasibility of using student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment as an instructional feedback tool were explored. Thirty-one teachers serving 797 middle school students collected data twice across 3 weeks using the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT). Researchers randomly assigned half of…
Bature, Iliya Joseph; Atweh, Bill; Treagust, David
Mathematics classrooms instruction in Nigeria secondary schools has been termed a major problem to both teachers and their students. Most classroom activities are teacher-centred with students as mere listeners and recipients of knowledge rather than being active initiators of their knowledge. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of…
Students come to the music classroom with different educational readiness, learning styles, abilities, and preferences. In addition to these learner differences, classrooms in the United States are becoming more linguistically and culturally diverse each year. Differentiated instruction is an approach to teaching and learning that allows for these…
Andreassen, Rune; Braten, Ivar
In this intervention study, teachers tried to implement four instructional principles derived from the literature on research-based, explicit reading comprehension instruction in their fifth-grade classrooms. The principles focused on relevant background knowledge, reading comprehension strategies, reading-group organization, and reading…
Alodail, Abdullah K.
The present study will present Kemp's design in the classroom setting for students with hearing impairments. Based on his model, the researcher will design various instructional methods of how to teach students with hearing aids in the school, focusing on the instruction of English to America K-12 students. The study will also include a list of…
Fienup, Daniel M.; Mylan, Sanaa E.; Brodsky, Julia; Pytte, Carolyn
Equivalence-based instruction (EBI) has been used to successfully teach college-level concepts in research laboratories, but few studies have examined the results of such instruction on classroom performance. The current study answered a basic question about the ordering of training stimuli as well as an applied question regarding the effects of…
Kleen, Betty; Shell, L. Wayne
The researchers, using a variation of the SERVQUAL instrument, repeated a 1999 study to measure students' satisfaction with instructional technology tools used in their classrooms. Student satisfaction varied by course discipline, by instructional technology, by anticipated grade, and by frequency of use. Female respondents were less satisfied…
Kaufman, Julia Heath; Stein, Mary Kay; Junker, Brian
We investigated the alignment between a teacher survey self-report measure and classroom observation measure of ambitious mathematics instructional practice among teachers in two urban school districts using two different standards-based mathematics curricula. Survey reports suggested mild differences in teachers' instructional practices between…
This background paper for a symposium on the school of the future reviews the current instructional applications of computers in the classroom (the computer as a means or the subject of instruction), and suggests strategies that administrators might use to move toward viewing the computer as a productivity tool for students, i.e., its use for word…
Mazur, Amber D.; Brown, Barbara; Jacobsen, Michele
The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment…
Short, Deborah J.; Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine
This article describes an extended program of research in sheltered instruction and the effects on the academic literacy development of English language learners. It also highlights the challenges of scaling up an instructional intervention. The intervention was the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model, an approach that teaches…
Klahr, David; Li, Junlei
Can cognitive research generate usable knowledge for elementary science instruction? Can issues raised by classroom practice drive the agenda of laboratory cognitive research? Answering yes to both questions, we advocate building a reciprocal interface between basic and applied research. We discuss five studies of the teaching, learning, and transfer of the "Control of Variables Strategy" in elementary school science. Beginning with investigations motivated by basic theoretical questions, we situate subsequent inquiries within authentic educational debates—contrasting hands-on manipulation of physical and virtual materials, evaluating direct instruction and discovery learning, replicating training methods in classroom, and narrowing science achievement gaps. We urge research programs to integrate basic research in "pure" laboratories with field work in "messy" classrooms. Finally, we suggest that those engaged in discussions about implications and applications of educational research focus on clearly defined instructional methods and procedures, rather than vague labels and outmoded "-isms."
Callender, Aimee A.; Franco-Watkins, Ana M.; Roberts, Andrew S.
Accurately judging one's performance in the classroom can be challenging considering most students tend to be overconfident and overestimate their actual performance. The current work draws upon the metacognition and decision making literatures to examine improving metacognition in the classroom. Using historical data from several semesters of an…
Skiba, Russ; Ormiston, Heather; Martinez, Sylvia; Cummings, Jack
Psychological science has identified positive classroom management and climate building strategies as a key element in developing and maintaining effective learning environments. In this article, we review the literature that has identified effective strategies that build classroom climates to maximize student learning and minimize disruption. In…
Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.
The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.
Richards, Stephanie; Sturm, Janet M; Cali, Kathleen
This study used a survey of primary general education teachers to examine the frequency of writing instructional activities and the genres composed most frequently by students in these classrooms. Surveys were completed by first-, third-, and fifth-grade general education teachers, with questions addressing writing activities, writing instruction, instructional strategies, writing genres, and writing environment. Means of teacher responses were calculated for each grade level to determine how many days per school year each activity occurred. To better understand the changes that occur in writing instructional practices and genres across grade levels, these means are compared and shifts are discussed. Results of this study revealed that the frequency of writing instructional practices and genre usage change across the primary grade levels, but that great variation also exists among teachers at each grade level. Links among the survey results, the Common Core State Standards for writing, and best practices for writing instruction will be made.
Sezer, Baris; Karaoglan Yilmaz, Fatma Gizem; Yilmaz, Ramazan
In this study, to present an instructional model by considering the existing models of instructional design (ARCS, ADDIE, ASSURE, Dick and Carey, Seels and Glasgow, Smith and Ragan etc.) with the nature of technology-based education and to reveal analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, and to revise levels with lower levels of…
Mattis, Kristina V.
Flipped classrooms are an instructional technology trend mostly incorporated in higher education settings, with growing prominence in high school and middle school (Tucker in Leveraging the power of technology to create student-centered classrooms. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, 2012). Flipped classrooms are meant to effectively combine traditional and…
Poland, Donna Lorraine
This study examined the extent to which science teachers in Academic Year Governor's Schools were adhering to the national standards for suggested science instruction and providing an appropriate learning environment for gifted learners. The study asked 13 directors, 54 instructors of advanced science courses, and 1190 students of advanced science courses in 13 Academic Year Governor's Schools in Virginia to respond to researcher-developed surveys and to participate in classroom observations. The surveys and classroom observations collected demographic data as well as instructors' and students' perceptions of the use of various instructional strategies related to national science reform and gifted education recommendations. Chi-square analyses were used to ascertain significant differences between instructors' and students' perceptions. Findings indicated that instructors of advanced science classes in secondary schools for the gifted are implementing nationally recognized gifted education and science education instructional strategies with less frequency than desired. Both students and instructors concur that these strategies are being implemented in the classroom setting, and both concur as to the frequency with which the implementation occurs. There was no significant difference between instructors' and students' perceptions of the frequency of implementation of instructional strategies. Unfortunately, there was not a single strategy that students and teachers felt was being implemented on a weekly or daily basis across 90% of the sampled classrooms. Staff development in gifted education was found to be minimal as an ongoing practice. While this study offers some insights into the frequency of strategy usage, the study needs more classroom observations to support findings; an area of needed future research. While this study was conducted at the secondary level, research into instructional practices at the middle school and elementary school gifted science
Niedermeyer, Fred C.
The guidelines suggested in this article have evolved from the development of nationally distributed instructional systems over the past seven years at SWRL, a National Institute of Education-sponsored educational research and development laboratory. (Author)
Carson, Karyn L.; Gillon, Gail T.; Boustead, Therese M.
Purpose: Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on…
Abell, Michael M.; Jung, Eunjoo; Taylor, Matthew
Using a sample of 867 students in Grades 5-12, the present study investigated whether students' perceptions toward the instructional environment in classrooms that employed Universal Design for Learning differed by school grade level and teacher gender. High-school students in the study showed higher perception scores than upper-elementary or…
Shoulders, Tori L.; Krei, Melinda Scott
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in rural high school teachers' (n = 256) self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management using selected teacher characteristics. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences between different levels of education in self-efficacy for…
Okojie, Mabel C. P. O.; Olinzock, Anthony
The aim of this paper is to examine various indicators associated with the development of a positive mind-set toward the use of technology for instruction. The paper also examines the resources available to help teachers keep pace with technological innovation. Electronic classrooms have some complexities associated with them; therefore, support…
Wasko, Christopher W.
The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the DSAP Framework to guide instructional design and technology integration for teachers piloting a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) initiative and to measure the impact the initiative had on the amount and type of technology used in pilot classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were…
Savasci Açikalin, Funda
The purpose of this study was to investigate how science teachers use instructional technologies in science classrooms. Participants were 63 teachers who have just completed an alternative teaching certificate program in one of the largest universities in Turkey. They were asked to make a lesson plan based on any topic by assuming that they had an…
McNeill, Brigid; Kirk, Cecilia
The current study aimed to examine teachers' reported spelling assessment and instruction practices. Analysis of the match between teachers' theoretical beliefs about spelling and their reported pedagogy was conducted to elucidate factors that may support or impede the use of evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. An…
Wilkinson, Ian A. G.; Townsend, Michael A. R.
Investigates how a select group of New Zealand teachers organize their classrooms for reading instruction to avoid the pitfalls that may be associated with ability grouping and yet meet the needs of students of diverse backgrounds and abilities. Offers 3 fundamental reasons why these groups may provide effective contexts for learning as one part…
Valle, Melisa S.; Waxman, Hersh C.; Diaz, Zulmaris; Padron, Yolanda N.
The authors, in a nonexperimental randomized study, used national data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to examine present instructional practices for Grade 5 mathematics classrooms and its impact on achievement for White non-Hispanic non-English language learners (ELLs), Hispanic non-ELLs, and Hispanic…
Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Nikula, Tarja
Using a pragmatic framework, this paper examines how directives are performed by teachers and students in Finnish and Austrian CLIL classrooms, that is settings where a foreign language (in this case English) is used as the medium of instruction in non-language subjects such as history or chemistry. We explore how interpersonal aspects of…
Patchen, Terri; Smithenry, Dennis W.
Recent calls asking science teachers to increase student authority by diversifying instruction appear stalled by a lack of empirical evidence supporting the actual implementation of any such shifts. To better support the practical integration of more student-directed inquiry into the science classroom, we consider one teacher's day-to-day…
Sandefur, Walter; Turner, William
During the spring semester of 1991, a survey was taken of a random sample of teachers and principals in the Texas public schools to discover what their perceptions were in regard to 20 selected problems that have an effect on classroom instruction. Participants were asked to check whether they felt that each problem was negligible, moderate,…
Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Kroon, Sjaak
This contribution compares literacy instruction in three different scripts in Eritrea. It uses data stemming from classroom observations of beginning readers of Tigrinya (Ge'ez script), Arabic (Arabic script) and Saho (Roman alphabet), the examination of teaching materials, and teacher interviews. Our analysis focuses on literacy events. We…
Shifflet, Mark; Brown, Jane
The purpose of this study was to investigate how exposure to classroom instruction affected the use of a computer simulation that was designed to provide students an opportunity to apply material presented in class. The study involved an analysis of a computer-based crisis communication case study designed for a college-level public relations…
McLean, Leigh; Sparapani, Nicole; Toste, Jessica R; Connor, Carol McDonald
This study investigated how quality of the classroom learning environment influenced first grade students' (n=533) time spent in two non-instructional classroom activities (off-task and in transition) and their subsequent literacy outcomes. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that higher classroom quality was related to higher student performance in reading comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Further, classroom quality predicted the amount of time students spent off-task and in transitions in the classroom, with slopes of change across the year particularly impacted. Mediation effects were detected in the case of expressive vocabulary such that the influence of classroom quality on students' achievement operated through students' time spent in these non-instructional activities. Results highlight the importance of overall classroom quality to how students navigate the classroom environment during learning opportunities, with subsequent literacy achievement impacted. Implications for policy and educational practices are discussed. PMID:27268569
McLean, Leigh; Sparapani, Nicole; Toste, Jessica R; Connor, Carol McDonald
This study investigated how quality of the classroom learning environment influenced first grade students' (n=533) time spent in two non-instructional classroom activities (off-task and in transition) and their subsequent literacy outcomes. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that higher classroom quality was related to higher student performance in reading comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Further, classroom quality predicted the amount of time students spent off-task and in transitions in the classroom, with slopes of change across the year particularly impacted. Mediation effects were detected in the case of expressive vocabulary such that the influence of classroom quality on students' achievement operated through students' time spent in these non-instructional activities. Results highlight the importance of overall classroom quality to how students navigate the classroom environment during learning opportunities, with subsequent literacy achievement impacted. Implications for policy and educational practices are discussed.
Blood, Erika; Gulchak, Daniel
Student response systems, often called clickers, have become more popular and visible in the K-12 classroom in recent years. There are numerous competing systems on the market, but all perform the same function: to allow the student to use a small hand-held device (i.e., a clicker), or even web browsers on laptops or mobile phones, to respond to…
The GALAXY Classroom, developed as a nation-wide reform effort, was designed to make a significant positive difference in the educational lives of elementary school students who have traditionally been labeled "at-risk." As part of a 2-year demonstration and research phase, 39 elementary schools across the United States (and one school in Mexico)…
Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric
Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to…
Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…
Chilcoat, George W.
Presents nine guidelines for structuring instructional presentations on all grade levels so that student achievement will be enhanced and lists the correlational and experimental research studies on which the guidelines are based. The importance of precision and structure is emphasized. (119 references) (LRW)
Flores, Raymond; Koontz, Esther; Inan, Fethi A.; Alagic, Mara
This study examined the impact of the order of two teaching approaches on students' abilities and on-task behaviors while learning how to solve percentage problems. Two treatment groups were compared. MR first received multiple representation instruction followed by traditional algorithmic instruction and TA first received these teaching…
Full Text Available The authors present the results of a study conducted at a comprehensive, urban, coeducational, land-grant university. A quasi-experimental design was chosen for this study to compare student performance in two different classroom environments, traditional versus flipped. The study spanned 3 years, beginning fall 2012 through spring 2015. The participants included 433 declared business majors who self-enrolled in several sections of the Management Information Systems course during the study. The results of the current study mirrored those of previous works as the instructional method impacted students’ final grade. Thus, reporting that the flipped classroom approach offers flexibility with no loss of performance when compared to traditional lecture-based environments.
Berry, Ruth A Wiebe
Links between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and teaching practices were investigated with respect to process writing instruction. Participants included 5 teachers, 44 general education students, and 23 special education students in 2 elementary multi-age inclusion classrooms. Findings suggested that, although the teachers shared similar views on inclusion and were convinced of the uniqueness of their respective instructional approaches, they nuanced their writing instruction to conform to their implicit theories about teaching, learning, and disability. One set of teachers believed that the writing "breakdowns" of students with disabilities required a structural approach-sequenced, individualized, phonics-based instruction targeting individual performance levels. Another set of teachers advocated a relational approach, wherein students with disabilities are "protected" and "empowered" in learning communities characterized by shared activities, student choice, and interpersonal communication.
McDuffie, Sarah Faye
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which chemistry teachers across North Carolina were engaging in inquiry-oriented instruction and the relationship between inquiry-oriented instruction and the eight demographic factors: level of teacher's education, years of teaching experience, gender, ethnicity, academic level of class, class size, school setting, and type of class schedule. The behaviors used to identify inquiry-oriented instruction practiced by North Carolina chemistry teachers (Flick, 1997; Keys, 1994; Layman, 1996; Priestley, Priestley & Schmucker, 1997; Rowe, 1973; Young, Brett, Squires & Lemire, 1995) were: (1) Teacher encourages student inquiry by posing thoughtful, open-ended questions or by posing authentic problems. (2) Teacher emphasizes process and uses terminology such as classify, analyze, predict, and create. (3) Teacher organizes small cooperative-learning groups for the purpose of generating, sharing or interpreting information, or for practicing skills. (4) Teacher engages students in experimentation that is integrated with theories from disciplines. (5) Teacher uses raw data as a primary source of post-laboratory student/student and student/teacher interaction. (6) Teacher models or demonstrates problem clarification, collection and interpretation of information, and application to new situations. A survey containing 10 items on demographic factors and 12 items on teaching practices was mailed to a random sample of 412 chemistry teachers (from a comprehensive list of 624 chemistry teachers provided by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction). After 12 weeks, 252 chemistry teachers returned completed surveys. Data were analyzed to determine the respondents' reported level of inquiry-oriented instruction, which was designated, on a continuum from engaging in no inquiry-oriented instruction to engaging in total inquiry-oriented instruction. Subsequent telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 12
The demand for "a laptop in every satchel" (BMBF, 2000) coincides with a recent international debate about the innovation of classroom instruction through information technology. It is assumed that information technology will foster the acquisition of cross curricular and media competencies, of team and cooperation skills as well as of meaningful learning in complex and authentic environments. Mobile computers are seen as particularly beneficial to initiate such a change -- but so far there i...
The growing impact of biotechnology globally and nationally over the past few decades has prompted the need for elevating general biotechnological literacy levels in all populations. This need is currently being addressed through the field of technology education (TE). Although included in the Standards for Technological Literacy (ITEA, 2000), the actual delivery of biotechnology instruction in TE classrooms has not realized broad implementation. Previous studies have recognized this issue an...
Barley, Leah M.
Integrating instructional technology within the elementary classroom is required by both state and federal mandates, set forth in the form of standards and guidelines. The integration of technology within the classroom setting requires time, training, and teacher willingness. Teachers are likely to develop beliefs and attitudes regarding the…
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve
This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…
Mathew, Nalliveettil George; Alidmat, Ali Odeh Hammoud
A resourceful English language teacher equipped with eclecticism is desirable in English as a foreign language classroom. The challenges of classroom instruction increases when prescribed English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course books (textbooks) are constituted with too many interactive language proficiency activities. Most importantly, it has…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedish-medium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.
Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina
Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología
Ness, Molly K.
The purpose of this mixed methodology study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in middle and high school social studies and science classrooms. An additional purpose was to explore teachers' perceptions of and beliefs about the need for reading comprehension instruction. In 2,400 minutes of direct classroom…
Yukhymenko, Mariya A.; Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brodowinska, Kamila; Mullin, Gregory
Problem-based learning (PBL) environment is a student-centered instructional method based on the use of ill-structured problems as a stimulus for collaborative learning. This study tried to gain an understanding of teachers' instructional practices and students' responses to such practices in middle school classrooms with PBL environment through…
Ottmar, Erin R.; Decker, Lauren E.; Cameron, Claire E.; Curby, Timothy W.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.
This study examined the quality of teacher-child interactions and exposure to mathematics instruction as predictors of 5th grade student's mathematics achievement. The sample was a subset of the children involved in the NICHD-SECC longitudinal study (N = 657). Results indicate that, even after controlling for student demographic…
Carter, B. L.; Stockman, S.; Bojkov, B.
NASA's Earth Observing Satellite Aura was launched in 2004, and since that time has been collecting a wealth of data that contributes to scientists' understanding of the complexity of air quality issues. The Aura spacecraft monitors five of the six EPA criteria pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, aerosols, and CO). Data from one of the criteria pollutants, NO2, are now available in a format useful to educators and students. The data by itself is not enough for students to engage in the scientific reasoning process. Thus, inquiry-driven supporting material in the form of lessons, project based learning scenarios, and curricular support for online data have all been adapted as part of the scaffolding necessary to help students gain an understanding of issues pertaining to air quality. These materials are delivered online which makes them readily accessible to the education community. Currently, NO2 data are available for manipulation using tools such as GoogleEarth and MY NASA DATA (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov). These tools are used to investigate common relationships between spatial distribution and variability of NO2 concentrations. Through guided investigations in the Earth Exploration Toolbook (http://serc.carleton.edu/eet/index.html) or MY NASA DATA, students gain an understanding of NO2 variability. Students are then asked to extrapolate their knowledge and understanding to investigate other air quality issues relating to NO2. Within the coming year, the lessons built around Aura data will be introduced in professional development workshops. Feedback from those attending the professional development workshops about how the data and lessons are used in the classroom will be used to help shape future lesson development on new data. Subsequent data on criteria pollutants of SO2, aerosols, and O3 will soon be made available in a similar format to the education community, helping to further student understanding of the complex nature of air quality issues.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A
A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.
Muchoney, David P.
The content mastery and epistemological effects of an integrated, Interactive Engagement (IE) model of physics instruction and of a traditional model of physics instruction were investigated. Three groups of high school students participated in the study, for which a quasi-experimental design was employed. A General physics class (n=21) served as the control group in the study, and received a traditional mode of instruction consisting of lecture, group problem solving, and laboratory exercises. A General physics class (n=28) and an Advanced physics class (n=30) served as the experimental groups in the study. These groups received an integrated, IE model of instruction consisting of lectures infused with ConcepTests (CTs) and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs), group problem solving, laboratory exercises, and a protocol of Student Constructed Problems (SCP) and presentations. The data collection instruments employed in the study were the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science (EBAPS). Significant differences in the average FCI normalized gains and EBAPS posttest scores were found between the Advanced physics experimental group and the General physics control group, and between the Advanced physics experimental group and the General physics experimental group. No significant difference was found between the two types of instruction with regard to the cognitive gains or epistemological development of males and females. The results of this study indicate that an integrated, IE model of instruction can concurrently promote the conceptual content mastery and epistemological development of Advanced physics students. Additional analyses revealed content-mastery benefits associated with the implementation of CT/ILD protocols and with interaction-based classroom activities. Physics teachers can utilize the results of this study to design instruction that attends to both the cognitive and epistemological needs of their
Costley, Kevin C.; Tyler, Brenda L.
College of Education students are always interested in the purpose and use of educational theories and what theories can be used to aid in classroom instruction and learning. This article contains written dialogues from of university educational graduate students elaborating on their personal perceptions of the usefulness of theories in public…
Full Text Available Generally learning style is a contributory factor in the teaching – learning processes. This study aimed to determine the learning style and its relationship to age, sex, monthly income and academic performance as basis tom improve classroom instruction. It employed the descriptive research method utilizing frequency count, percentage, mean, standard deviation, spearman rank correlation and chi-square test of independence. The study found out the grade V pupils are generally auditory learners. Therefore, they could best learn through listening. It is therefore recommended that the grade V teachers provide classroom instruction like taking down notes, mapping, coupled with lecture and explanation or through listening to a recorded discussion.
Templin, Mark Arnold
This dissertation focuses on the development of students' scientific literacy discourse in a middle grade science classroom as the teacher attempted to establish a learning community. Instructional design features included a change in teacher and students' roles such that authority over many classroom decisions was shared and students were encouraged to design their own investigations within the context of extended learning projects. The study followed the progress of two groups of four students, representing diversity in academic performance, gender, and ethnicity, over the course of four months. Target group discourse was recorded once every other school day and then transcribed. Accompanying field notes were written. Classroom artifacts, including a complete set of daily lesson plans, instructional materials, and student products, were collected. The interpretive framework, which highlighted different discourse practices and the instructional moves that supported them, evolved during data analysis as it was repeatedly tried out against the empirical materials through stages of data reduction, display, conclusion drawing, and verification. Analysis of the teacher's practice indicated that he initiated and maintained a classroom learning community by encouraging students to (a) think about their thinking by responding to questions that promoted such reflection; (b) share their reflections and other written products with each other and revise them through peer review; (c) decide for themselves which science content was relevant to their investigations; (d) share problem solving strategies; and (e) debate the meaning of terms so that a common understanding of science concepts could be developed. The teacher modeled and asked questions to promote these reflective and collaborative practices, successively withdrawing his active involvement in group dialogue as the term progressed. Analysis of students' discourse indicated that students increasingly developed
Capturing the Complexity: Content, Type, and Amount of Instruction and Quality of the Classroom Learning Environment Synergistically Predict Third Graders' Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Outcomes
Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom learning environment. We observed 27 3rd-grade classrooms serving 315 target students using 2 different…
This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…
Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes
Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instru...
The role of education all over the world is becoming more and more significant and requires an in depth study since the life of the people is advanced, expanded and complicated. Educators are once again asked to address problems which have arisen within their own society. Thus, the search for ways to improve quality of education is global especially in line with nuclear science and technology. One area of focus is that managing and promoting learning inside the classroom, how teacher's utilized instructional materials were such an issue. Indeed, qualifications and resources are not the only factors that influence teachers' effectiveness, equally important are teachers' motivation, commitment, resourcefulness, innovativeness and creativeness in dealing with instructional materials. Lack of these things will produce poor attendance and unprofessional attitudes towards students. This paper aims to present a proposal on the use of innovative teaching device from the sample photographs as a result of the experiment taken at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) where samples were treated with gamma rays from a radioactive source 60Co and lately exposed to photographic giving rise to understanding of photons emitted by radioactive material in a form of electromagnetic waves and later converted into visible light in a more authentic and simplified manners. As a consequent, this proposal was made to enhance teaching and encourage science teachers to exert great effort to develop instructional materials specifically in this area that requires the concretization of concepts which could not be detected by human senses. (author)
The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…
Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.
The problem of finding relevant material to answer a classroom need is the focus of this report. The Automated Instructional Resources Retrieval System (AIRR) is designed to assist teachers by storing information in a number of categories, including the following: media type, maturity level, length, producer or publisher, main curriculum area,…
Proctor, Michael D.; Marks, Yaela
This research reports and analyzes for archival purposes surveyed perceptions, use, and access by 259 United States based exemplar Primary and Secondary educators of computer-based games and technology for classroom instruction. Participating respondents were considered exemplary as they each won the Milken Educator Award during the 1996-2009…
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a…
Roush, Cora; Song, Liyan
The purpose of this paper is to report a study that examined the impact of using Clickers technology on classroom instruction from both the students' and the teachers' perspectives. The students in this study came from six high school Spanish classes, and the teachers were from six different subject areas in the high school and two…
This book provides a wide variety of strategies for differentiating instruction for students in grades 3-12. Chapter 1 presents an overview of differentiated content, process, and product, and the role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom. Chapter 2 focuses on the first step of differentiation: gathering information about students. Chapter…
To meet the increasing demand for change in the incorporation of ICT in education the Greek Ministry of Education and the Institute of Educational Policy of Greece, launched a nationwide project of in-service training (INSET) of teachers of the second level, training of teachers in the use and evaluation of ICT pedagogy in classroom instruction.…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate
Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…
Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia
Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students.
Tolbert, Sara E.
This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching
Cunha, Thais B. P. da
Science education reform in the United States has been slow to reduce the troubling science achievement gap between students from mainstream and non-mainstream backgrounds. Recent data suggest the gap persists in spite of improved attention to the multicultural education of teachers, and in spite of recent, more culturally inclusive and responsive curricular materials and instructional recommendations. In this study, I examine the cases of two European American male novice science teachers in middle schools with highly diverse populations, exploring their perceptions of the necessity of adapting their instructional approaches and the science curricula in order to meet the needs of their predominantly Native American, Mexican American, and African American students. Two theoretical frameworks inform this study, Rodriguez's (2005) sociotransformative constructivism, and Freire's critical pedagogy. I apply a qualitative case study method, to better understand and analyze the classroom setting and power relations of the context. Data consist of semi-structured interviews with each teacher, classroom observation and other field notes, the science curricular and instructional materials, and teachers' lesson plans. Each teacher acknowledged the ethnicities of students positively and noticed distinctive ethnocultural features (e.g., quinceaneras, Mexican Americans). Yet, their teaching approaches were primarily teacher-centric and monocultural. Each followed the book, usually lecturing, and striving dutifully to "cover" the topics. They did not solicit students' knowledge or engage them in dialog to explore their thinking. Even when the curriculum guide detailed relevant science knowledge students of some cultural groups might have, both teachers declined to use it. These well-meaning teachers did not fully perceive that students whose culture was different from their own might have different and relevant knowledge, experiences, or histories which were resources for
Rearden, Kristin Theresa
There are a myriad of factors which influence a teacher' s classroom behaviors. Taken together, these factors are referred to as a teacher's practical theory. Some of the elements of practical theories are perceptions regarding classroom role, impressions of student abilities, reflection on experiences, and content knowledge. First-year teachers, or beginning teachers, are faced with many new challenges as they embark on their endeavor to facilitate the learning of their students. The congruence of the elements within their practical theories of teaching can provide the foundation for consistency within their classroom practices. The researcher investigated two aspects of the practical theories of beginning secondary science teachers. The first aspect was teachers' perceptions of their roles in the classroom The second aspect was teachers' intended instructional methods. Interview data from 27 beginning secondary science teachers who earned their teacher certification from one of three institutions were used for the study. The interviews were analyzed for information regarding the aforementioned aspects. An interview theme analysis (Hewson, Kerby, & Cook, 1995) was completed for each teacher. The characterization of each teacher's role was based on three categories outlined by Fenstermacher and Soltis (1986): Executive, Therapist, and Liberationist. In describing their classroom role, most of the teachers alluded to an Executive-type approach to teaching, in which their concerns regarding conveyance of content, processes or skills were paramount. In many cases, they mentioned the use of more than one instructional method; topics and variability in student learning styles accounted for the implementation of multiple methods. Methods usually included activities or hands-on experiences. Some teachers mentioned a certain "feel" of the classroom that was necessary for student learning. More than two-thirds of the teachers either expressed conflicts in their interview or
Raker, Jeffrey R.
Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in
Watson, V. R.
A personal computer has been used to illustrate physical phenomena and problem solution techniques in engineering classes. According to student evaluations, instruction of concepts was greatly improved through the use of these illustrations. This paper describes the class of phenomena that can be effectively illustrated, the techniques used to create these illustrations, and the techniques used to display the illustrations in regular classrooms and over an instructional TV network. The features of a personal computer required to apply these techniques are listed. The capabilities of some present personal computers are discussed and a forecast of the capabilities of future personal computers is presented.
Vowell, Julie E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which debriefing impacts the level of cognitive understanding among students in the fifth-grade science classroom. This mixed methods study involved two fifth-grade science classrooms (N = 39) in a one month exploration of rocks and minerals. Two fifth-grade science classrooms participated in a unit using identical content, but had different pedagogical orientations. The experimental class was taught using the "Do-Talk-Do-Debrief" instructional method and the control class was taught using the "Do-Talk-Do" instructional method without the "Debrief" (metacognitive component). Research for the quantitative portion of this study was conducted using a pretest-posttest control-group design. The design was used to test the hypothesized relationship between an activity-based instructional method with debriefing and students' achievement. Two intact, equivalent fifth-grade classes were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. Prior to the beginning of the study, a researcher-developed pretest was administered to all participants to assess the students' prior knowledge of rocks and minerals. A posttest measure was given to the participants upon conclusion of the unit to measure knowledge and understanding. Following the posttest, the participants did not receive additional instruction over rocks and minerals. A similar posttest was administered to both groups two weeks later as an added measure for retention. A t-test for independent samples was used to examine differences on the pretest between the experimental and control groups. Likewise, a t-test was used to compare the mean scores on the first posttest (achievement). A separate t-test was conducted on the second posttest (retention) and was followed by a Pearson Product Moment Correlation, conducted by group. Research for the qualitative portion of this study involved classroom observations throughout the rock and mineral unit followed by a teacher
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…
Roberts, Gina; Berry, Chad; Nugent, Chris; Wentz, Karen; Cowan, Peggy; O'Gorman, Mark
Maryville College's (Tennessee) first Faculty Instructional Technology (FIT) Fellows, who received funding and release time to develop technology-based instructional materials for their courses, are developing and implementing exciting projects in history, religion, freshman seminar, and political sciences courses. In this paper, the FIT Fellows…
Full Text Available This Article addresses the difficult issues faced by law schools in determining the use of accommodations for students with disabilities in the context of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA and, in particular, for those with “invisible disabilities,” such as learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and attention disorders. Because the manner in which accommodations are delivered is specific for each university and factintensive for each student, there often is confusion about the role played by accommodations in supporting an educational process while providing equal access in academic environments as mandated by the ADA. We suggest an alternative to the exclusive use of accommodations as the vehicle through which access is attained. We argue that law schools should adopt Universal Design for Instruction (UDI principles as the foundation of pedagogical practice in law school classrooms and for assessment of learning outcomes. Changes based on these principles have the potential to provide access for students with disabilities without altering the essential nature of the curriculum and program objectives.
Aiken, John; Schatz, Michael; Burk, John; Caballero, Marcos; Thoms, Brian
We describe the assessment of computational modeling in a ninth grade classroom in the context of the Arizona Modeling Instruction physics curriculum. Using a high-level programming environment (VPython), students develop computational models to predict the motion of objects under a variety of physical situations (e.g., constant net force), to simulate real world phenomenon (e.g., car crash), and to visualize abstract quantities (e.g., acceleration). The impact of teaching computation is evaluated through a proctored assignment that asks the students to complete a provided program to represent the correct motion. Using questions isomorphic to the Force Concept Inventory we gauge students understanding of force in relation to the simulation. The students are given an open ended essay question that asks them to explain the steps they would use to model a physical situation. We also investigate the attitudes and prior experiences of each student using the Computation Modeling in Physics Attitudinal Student Survey (COMPASS) developed at Georgia Tech as well as a prior computational experiences survey.
Haight, Carrie; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.
This study investigates the effectiveness of deductive and guided inductive approaches for teaching grammar in college French classrooms. Forty-seven second-semester French students were taught eight grammatical structures: four with a deductive instructional approach and four with a guided inductive instructional approach. A quasi-experimental…
Penzone, Colleen C.
In the late 1970's, Durkin's landmark study showed that less than 1% of elementary classroom reading instruction was dedicated to comprehension strategies because teachers were not explicit in their instruction. This qualitative study explored the types of questions posed by elementary and middle school teachers to elicit students' responses and…
Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler
A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…
Luehmann, April Lynn; Frink, Jeremiah
Science teachers struggle with meeting curricular goals outlined by professional organizations within the constraints of traditional school. Engaging science learners as a community who collaboratively and creatively co-construct scientific understanding through inquiry requires teachers to adopt new tools as well as a different mindset about the kind of classroom culture they need to nurture. Classroom blogs (i.e., blogs that are managed by a teacher for his/her students to post their work and exchange ideas) have been purported in the literature as offering unique opportunities to achieve this goal, although with little empirical support thus far. To fill this gap, nine classroom blogs were selected through an extensive search, and systematically analyzed to determine how the teachers' instructional designs and classrooms' enactment were able to capitalize on the specific affordances blogging may offer to support reform-based learning goals. The shift in teacher mindset needed to realize blogging affordances occurred as teachers engaged with students in the process of `living' the classroom blog.
Towndrow, Phillip A.
This article explores teachers' classroom monitoring in English language learning and asks if it has a role to play beyond what we know and recognize as mainstream classroom management. As part of a larger study of pedagogical practices in classrooms in Singapore, researchers collected and analyzed videographic data on the types and…
Our study contributes on several levels: firstly, we provide course responsibles with a detailed insight into how a seminar redesign to RPT can be achieved. Secondly, we provide a basis for introducing such change by documenting the positive assessment as an outcome of the monitoring. We thereby address diversity and in-classroom heterogeneity on a didactical level.
Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer
This case study documents a seminar redesign from a teacher-centered instruction format to collaborative "reciprocal peer tutoring" (RPT) at Aarhus University, Denmark. Departing from concepts by Bourdieu and Vertovec, we argue that teaching concepts should meet the needs of students within Higher Education (HE). Our student sample is…
Retta Guy; Gerald Marquis
The authors present the results of a study conducted at a comprehensive, urban, coeducational, land-grant university. A quasi-experimental design was chosen for this study to compare student performance in two different classroom environments, traditional versus flipped. The study spanned 3 years, beginning fall 2012 through spring 2015. The participants included 433 declared business majors who self-enrolled in several sections of the Management Information Systems course during the study. T...
There has been much debate in composition studies about authority in the postmodern writing classroom. A redefinition of "authority" for the postmodern writing classroom necessitates a careful analysis of all those sets of relations which factor into the teacher-student relationship, and an awareness that authority is contingent, reprocessing…
Pressure for students to produce writing perfection in the classroom often eclipses the emphasis placed on the need for students to practice writing. Occasions for students to choose, challenge, and reflect--to actually risk risking--are too often absent from conversations among students and teachers in countless English classrooms. Tom Romano…
Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.
Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…
Cleveland, Sandra D.
Nurse educators may express a willingness to use educational technology, but they may not have the belief or ability to carry out the technology use in the classroom. The following non-experimental, quantitative study examined factors that predict nurse educators' willingness to accept and use educational technology in the classroom. The sample…
Deng, Meng; Pei, Miao
"Learning in Regular Classrooms" (LRC) has been the main strategy to universalize compulsory education for children with special educational needs in China after 1980s. Methods such as whole-class teaching combined with individual tutoring, differentiated teaching, and cooperative learning have been widely practiced in general classrooms for…
General education teachers in the secondary sector are held responsible for adapting their lessons and classroom environment for students with Asperger Syndrome. With the growing number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder being placed in general education classrooms, teachers are faced with yet another challenge in making their curriculum…
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a fifth grade science class entirely comprised of language minority students transitioning out of bilingual education. Therefore, English was the means of instruction in science, supported by informal peer-to-peer Spanish-language communication. This study is grounded in a social constructivist paradigm. From this standpoint, learning science is a social process where social, cultural, and linguistic factors are all considered crucial to the process of acquiring scientific knowledge. The study was descriptive in nature, examining specific linguistic behaviors with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the linguistic functions of students' utterances while participating in science learning. The results suggest that students purposefully adapt their use of linguistic resources in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. What is underscored in this study is the importance of explicitly acknowledging, supporting, and incorporating bilingual students' linguistic resources both in Spanish and English into the science classroom in order to optimize students' participation and facilitate their understanding.
Donaldson, Rebecca S.
Reading comprehension is one of the most critical academic skills to be acquired in school; therefore, the comprehension instruction provided by teachers is of utmost importance. This study examined 3 years of classroom observation data to describe the comprehension instruction provided by kindergarten through third-grade teachers who were participating in the federal Reading First reading reform initiative within 22 high-poverty Title I schools located in rural, suburban, and urban school di...
Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey
This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual certification program articulated more asset-oriented and less stereotypical ideas than those not seeking bilingual certification. Results can inform teacher education programs that aim to prepare graduates for teaching science in multilingual classrooms.
Bohlscheid, Jeffri C.; Davis, John C.
Constructivist-based inquiry instruction has been popularized for several decades in primary- and secondary-science education, with overwhelmingly positive results across all sciences. Importantly, higher education faculties have begun to embrace inquiry instruction in many subject areas. In fact, a growing body of literature illustrates the…
Echevarria, Jana; Short, Deborah J.
This paper introduces a research-based model of sheltered instruction that promotes teaching practices that make teachers more effective in promoting the learning of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The model is instantiated in an observation instrument, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). The SIOP may be used as part…
Keel, Marie C.; Dangel, Harry L.; Owens, Sherie H.
This article discusses factors involved in selecting appropriate inclusion intervention strategies for students with mild disabilities. Teacher-directed and student-directed interventions include direct instruction, precision teaching, time delay, story maps, advance organizers, student-directed task engagement, student-directed instruction,…
This manual contains a description of each of the instructional kits for teaching about Germany offered by the Goethe Institute. Each kit contains lessons plans, handouts, worksheets, color transparencies, and other support materials. This teaching packet provides information regarding the "best fit" of each lesson in the instructional materials…
Kluth, Paula; Danaher, Sheila
Differentiated instruction engages students of all abilities as active learners, decision-makers, and problem solvers--making educational experiences more meaningful for all. This one-of-a-kind book proves that designing differentiated instruction can be simple and fun! Packed with creative adaptation ideas like fidget bags, doodle notes, and…
Salminen, Jenni; Hannikainen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena
This study examined the diversity of teaching practices to illuminate the qualitative variety of instructional teaching practices among preschool teachers. Further, teachers' self-rated educational goals were explored to complement the multifaceted nature of preschool teachers' instructional teaching practices. The study was carried out…
Watson, Silvana M. R.; Gable, Robert A.; Greenwood, Charles R.
In this article, the authors discuss ways ecobehavioral assessment (EBA) has contributed to greater understanding of students' response to instructional intervention and its relationship to academic learning and achievement. EBA represents a proven effective way to conduct a contextual analysis of the instructional environments, teacher and…
Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.
Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.
An increasingly loud call by parents, school administrators, teachers, and even business leaders for "authentic learning", emphasizing both group-work and problem solving, has led to growing enthusiasm for inquiry-based learning over the past decade. Although "inquiry" can be defined in many ways, a curriculum called "project-based learning" has recently emerged as the inquiry practice-of-choice with roots in the educational constructivism that emerged in the mid-twentieth century. Often, project-based learning is framed as an alternative instructional strategy to direct instruction for maximizing student content knowledge. This study investigates the empirical evidence for such a comparison while also evaluating the overall quality of the available studies in the light of accepted standards for educational research. Specifically, this thesis investigates what the body of quantitative research says about the efficacy of project-based learning vs. direct instruction when considering student acquisition of content knowledge in science classrooms. Further, existing limitations of the research pertaining to project based learning and secondary school education are explored. The thesis concludes with a discussion of where and how we should focus our empirical efforts in the future. The research revealed that the available empirical research contains flaws in both design and instrumentation. In particular, randomization is poor amongst all the studies considered. The empirical evidence indicates that project-based learning curricula improved student content knowledge but that, while the results were statistically significant, increases in raw test scores were marginal.
Paraeducator Professional Development Curriculum. Module II: Building an Effective Instructional Team. Part Two: Assisting and Supporting the Teacher Through the Use of Effective Classroom Management and Effective Instructional Strategies. Trainer's Manual
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory NWREL, 2005
This two-day institute examines the basic concepts of effective classroom management techniques as well as the use of effective instructional strategies for all students that will help paraeducators to support effective learning and teaching environment. This module addresses two goals: (1) to provide participants with an awareness of basic…
Hunzicker, J.; Lukowiak, T.
The authors present initial findings from a collaborative self-study exploring student engagement as a measure of teaching effectiveness. Focused on their college classrooms during one semester, the study pilots a peer observation model of the Instructional Practices Inventory (IPI) (Valentine, 2005). Data collection included IPI codes, anecdotal…
van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria
Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…
Goethe House, New York, NY.
This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4) "Germany in Europe"; (5)…
Thomas de Lange
Full Text Available This paper examines how a classroom culture developsadvanced strategies and procedures for handling complexdigital tools. We report from a vocational Mediaand Communication course at an Upper SecondarySchool in Oslo, Norway. Our analysis reveals how aprocedure called practical assignments has developedhistorically at the school, and how this procedure iscarried out in the classroom. Theoretically, our studyis informed by Activity Theory, which affords us toolsto analyze how social institutions and learning trajectoriesevolve over time, and how longitudinal dimensionsemerge in situ. Our findings show how teachers andlearners create a space for solving context-specific problemsinvolving sophisticated technology. A historicalanalysis is here crucial not only in understanding whydigital technologies are used in specific ways, but alsohow they evolve into classroom conventions.
Cihak, David F.; Castle, Kristin
Forty eighth grade students with and without learning disabilities in an inclusive classroom participated in an adapted Step-Up to Writing (Auman, 2002) intervention program. The intervention targeted expository essays and composing topic, detail, transitional, and concluding sentences. A repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that both students with…
Hathaway, Dawn; Norton, Priscilla
In these times of high-stakes testing, pressure to meet annual yearly progress goals, and standards-driven classroom curriculums, today's teachers face many obstacles that interfere with their ability to teach with and about television and video. If graduate study for teacher educators was designed in ways that reflect the realities of their…
Nanclares, Núria Hernández; Rodríguez, Mónica Pérez
This paper aims to discuss the impact on promoting student satisfaction and improving their involvement in their own learning when applying a "Flipped classroom" design in a first-year bilingual, English-taught module in a non-English-speaking country. "World Economy" is taught in the Faculty of Business and Economics at a…
Romero, Gabriela; DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Fradkin, Claudia
Drawing from Chicana feminist perspectives and Pérez ("Living Chicana theory." Third Woman Press, Berkeley, pp 87-101, 1998) theories of "sitios y lenguas" (space and discourses) the authors reposition understandings of teaching and learning through a qualitative case study of a first grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom.…
Kerstetter, John P.
Presents guidelines relative to audiovisual specifications for school classrooms, lecture halls, and auditoriums, to serve as a checklist for preliminary planning for facilities' construction or remodeling. Specifications are included for lights and lighting; electrical wiring; conduit; projection screens, booth, and stations; display boards; and…
Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.
Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…
Rehberg, Robb S.; Gazzillo Diaz, Linda; Middlemas, David A.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computer-based CPR training is comparable to traditional classroom training. Design and Setting: This study was quantitative in design. Data was gathered from a standardized examination and skill performance evaluation which yielded numerical scores. Subjects: The subjects were 64…
Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.
The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics…
Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit
Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…
McNamee, Merideth M.
School accountability and high-stakes testing often shift classroom focus from the use of engaging learning activities that promote critical thinking and creativity to simple test preparation practices. Using brain research as a guide, educators may be able to improve test scores, while still providing a balanced education that promotes critical…
Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman
Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…
van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Henery, Ashlie
In this article, we investigate the integration of concept-based pragmatics instruction, grounded in Vygotskian sociocultural psychology, in an intact second-semester French class (n = 13) over the course of an academic term. Our focus is on learners' appropriation of the concepts of self-presentation, social distance, and power with respect…
Cha, H. J.; Ahn, M. L.
The purpose of this study was to elicit design guidelines for a teacher tool to support students' diverse needs by facilitating differentiated instructions (DIs). The study used a framework based on activity theory and principles from universal design for learning. As for the research methods, design-based research methods were adopted, and…
Alghanmi, Bayan; Shukri, Nadia
Teacher cognition (Borg, 2015) of grammar instruction is a relatively new phenomenon that has yet to be explored in the Saudi context. While many studies have focused on the teaching of grammar in general (Ellis, 2006; Corzo, 2013; Braine, 2014), further research needs to be done - particularly when it comes to understanding teachers' beliefs of…
Martella, Ronald C.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.
Research has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between behavior problems and low academic achievement. Student success and/or failures are in large part determined by how well teachers provide effective instruction to their students. This article overviews key behavior-management approaches related to academic and behavioral success that…
The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…
Cohen, LeoNora M.
This paper discusses four assumptions and four concerns regarding instruction using the World Wide Web. The assumptions address: the novice status of the Web course developer; the developer's appreciation for various aspects of the Web; her high expectations for doing it right; and her commitment to not incurring more costs for distance learners.…
Lazonder, A.W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou
Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children’s ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 5
Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Arends, Enti; Canrinus, Esther
This quasi-experimental study compares the effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammar instruction and investigates to what extent complexity influences these results. A total of 981 Dutch students in lower secondary education learning German, English or Spanish as a secon
I discuss an instructional model that I have used in my number theory classes. Facets of the model include using small group work and whole class discussion, having students generate examples and counterexamples, and giving students the opportunity to write proofs and make conjectures in class. The model is designed to actively engage students in…
Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira J.
The papers in this special issue focus on instructional strategies with manipulatives. Often described as "hands-on learning", these strategies emphasize the use of physical and, more recently, virtual objects to represent target information and concepts. These strategies are frequently suggested as effective techniques for teaching…
Harward, Stan; Peterson, Nancy; Korth, Byran; Wimmer, Jennifer; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Black, Sharon; Simmerman, Sue; Pierce, Linda
This qualitative study explored reasons K-6 teachers did or did not engage students regularly in writing. Interviews with 14 teachers, classified as high, transitional, and low implementers of writing instruction, revealed three themes: hindrances and helps, beliefs concerning practice, and preparation and professional development. Both high and…
The purpose of this work is to present an instructional model entitled the "Modelo de Calidad de Situacion Educativa" (MCSE) and how teachers can use it to reflect and investigate in a formal educational setting. It is a theoretical framework which treat to explain the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the…
Morris, Lajuana Trezette
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…
This paper investigates the prospects of integrating Edmodo into Saudi EFL female secondary school instruction. It concentrates on students' perceptions and challenges regarding Edmodo use and its effect on their attitudes towards EFL learning. The 42 participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group received traditional teaching…
Hora, Matthew T.; Holden, Jeremiah
Instructional technology plays a key role in many teaching reform efforts at the postsecondary level, yet evidence suggests that faculty adopt these technology-based innovations in a slow and inconsistent fashion. A key to improving these efforts is to understand local practice and use these insights to design more locally attuned interventions.…
In designing the lesson teachers have to adapt the method or learning model with the material to be taught. In the teaching of measuring concept, students frequently faced with measuring instruments, micrometer, screw, scale, and so on. Direct Instruction Model would be suitable for teaching the measurement concepts specifically the skill of using…
Since the wide-scale adoption of the ACRL "Information Literacy Standards" (2000), there have been numerous students who have graduated from universities that have formal library instruction programs. Currently there has been very little assessment of their post-graduate research skills or what role information literacy plays on workplace…
Siebert, Daniel K.; Draper, Roni Jo; Barney, Daniel; Broomhead, Paul; Grierson, Sirpa; Jensen, Amy P.; Nielson, Jennifer; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Wimmer, Jennifer
Current reforms in content area education present new challenges for literacy educators. These reforms promote engaging students in the practices of the disciplines--teaching students how to participate in an activity in which disciplinary content is produced. Content area literacy (CAL) instruction that supports only the learning of general…
Nelson, Kristin L.; Dole, Janice A.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the vocabulary teaching of primary-grade teachers (K-3) in low-income schools. A total of 337 observations were conducted during language arts blocks over a three-year period. A coding scheme was developed to analyze teachers' vocabulary instruction. Results indicated that teachers spent less than 5%…
This article provides a literature review of the research concerning the role of faculty perspectives about instructional technology. Learning management systems, massive open online courses (MOOCs), cloud-based multimedia applications, and mobile apps represent the tools and the language of academia in the 21st century. Research examined…
This study investigates a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) technique that combines oral reading with peer review to improve pronunciation of Taiwanese English major students. In addition to traditional in-class instruction, students were given a short passage every week along with a recording of the respective text, read by a native…
Fienup, Daniel M.; Critchfield, Thomas S.
College students in a psychology research-methods course learned concepts related to inferential statistics and hypothesis decision making. One group received equivalence-based instruction on conditional discriminations that were expected to promote the emergence of many untaught, academically useful abilities (i.e., stimulus equivalence group). A…
Galway, Lindsay; Corbett, Kitty; Takaro, Timothy; Tairyan, Kate; Frank, Erica
Background In 2013, a cohort of public health students participated in a ‘flipped’ Environmental and Occupational Health course. Content for the course was delivered through NextGenU.org and active learning activities were carried out during in-class time. This paper reports on the design, implementation, and evaluation of this novel approach. Methods Using mixed-methods, we examined learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model and assessed changes in students'...
Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler
A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean, specifically in Belize, an English-speaking nation with a high school system guided by a regional biology syllabus and strict standardized tests. Using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument and knowledge test, we investigated (1) the current level of acceptance and understanding of evolution as given by 97% of high school biology teachers in Belize; (2) the factors associated with acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory. With an average MATE score of 64.4 and a mean knowledge score of 47.9%, Belizean teachers were classified as having both 'Low Acceptance' and 'Low Understanding' of evolutionary theory. A positive correlation was found between teacher acceptance and understanding of evolution. A review of the Caribbean Secondary Examination Certificate biology syllabus suggests that evolution plays a minimal role in the high school biology classroom. We believe that Belize presents a unique opening for future training on evolution instruction since 57% of the biology teachers self-proclaim to be unprepared to teach evolution. The results of this study have implications for policy, practice and research with teachers' acceptance, understanding and confidence in teaching evolution serving as important predictors for instructional approaches used in the biology classroom.
Full Text Available The theme of the publication is to show the influence of human factor on traffic conditions during the traffic incident. The publication also depicts the functionality of the model at which the simulation was performed. The model was constructed in the VISSIM and VISUM software also using Visual Basic for Applications – Excel, [8,9]. By coordinating programs VBA and VISSIM was automated turned on or off the incident as well as turned on or off the VMS with information about the proposed of the alternative route. The additional differentiation of the percentage of drivers using the information displayed enabled to compare the data with identical external conditions influencing at traffic. For statistical analysis of data was used statistical program Statgraphics Centurion which made possible to build a model describing the impact of the behavior of drivers on traffic conditions. It is an innovative approach to modeling the impact on traffic conditions accepted by drivers information transmitted on the boards.
Andrews, Jean F; Rusher, Melissa
The authors present a perspective on emerging bilingual deaf students who are exposed to, learning, and developing two languages--American Sign Language (ASL) and English (spoken English, manually coded English, and English reading and writing). The authors suggest that though deaf children may lack proficiency or fluency in either language during early language-learning development, they still engage in codeswitching activities, in which they go back and forth between signing and English to communicate. The authors then provide a second meaning of codeswitching--as a purpose-driven instructional technique in which the teacher strategically changes from ASL to English print for purposes of vocabulary and reading comprehension. The results of four studies are examined that suggest that certain codeswitching strategies support English vocabulary learning and reading comprehension. These instructional strategies are couched in a five-pronged approach to furthering the development of bilingual education for deaf students.
Pratt, Amy; Logan, Jessica; Cain, Kate
This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the impacts of a curriculum supplement, Let’s Know! on the quantity and quality of language-focused comprehension instruction in pre-Kindergarten to third grade classrooms. Sixty classrooms (12 per each of pre-K to grade 3) were enrolled in the study, with 40 teachers assigned to implement one of two versions of the experimental Let’s Know! curriculum and 20 assigned to a control condition, in which they maintained their typical language-arts...
Francisca Maria Ivone
Full Text Available This article addresses some important issues regarding the teaching of foreign vocabulary. It draws on the literature reviews in this field and is also based on personal reflections and experiences of the writer. This article critically highlights the teaching of English vocabulary in Indonesian schools and universities. More particularly, it discusses issues dealing with curriculum, teaching techniques, instructional media, and vocabulary assessment. Finally, this article provides recommendations for the improvement of the teaching of English vocabulary in the Indonesian context
AKTEPE, Vedat; Buluç, Bekir
This study deals with both defining and evaluating the features of school directors regarding instructional leadership based on the perceptions of school teachers. The study is of qualitative nature and the study group, chosen by means of maximum variation sampling method, consists of elementary school teachers, from low, middle and high socio-economic backgrounds with 5 female, 8 male teachers from 9 elementary schools in Kırşehir. The data of the study were obtained by interview method and ...
Francisca Maria Ivone
This article addresses some important issues regarding the teaching of foreign vocabulary. It draws on the literature reviews in this field and is also based on personal reflections and experiences of the writer. This article critically highlights the teaching of English vocabulary in Indonesian schools and universities. More particularly, it discusses issues dealing with curriculum, teaching techniques, instructional media, and vocabulary assessment. Finally, this article provides recommenda...
Dibianca, Richard Paul
In an examination of the experiences of 375 high school students enrolled in two urban comprehensive high schools, the present study is an effort to identify those elements of high school math and science and instruction that captivate students' interest. Data were gathered over the course of approximately 20 lessons for each of 17 math and science classes using the Experience Sampling Method. A descriptive analysis revealed that the classes were dominated by traditional instructional formats such as lecture, demonstration, recitation, and reviewing problems. Lessons afforded minimal opportunities for students to use technology, instruments, and equipment; to work with other students in order to complete a task; to have any choices regarding the completion of their task; and to apply the lesson topics to the "real world." Features of academic tasks such as these, which have often been proposed to correlate with higher levels of student engagement, were the independent variables for the study. Student engagement---as measured by the student indices of involvement and concentration, as well as their overall desire to be in a given classroom at a given time---was the dependent variable. The general state of engagement among the students was found to be modest. A second set of analyses examined the relationships that each of the study's proposed independent variables had to student engagement. The more an instructional format was student-paced, challenging, and interactive, the higher the levels of student engagement. Novelty also seemed to be at work; engagement levels were frequently higher in those classes that experienced a given format less often than did other classes. Second, the presence of each of the task features that was proposed to enhance student engagement in high school math and science classes did, in fact, correspond to higher levels of student engagement. Finally, the correlation between teacher and student engagement was modest. Throughout the study
Julie A. Belz
Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.
Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.
Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…
Sureka, Ashish; Gupta, Monika; Sarkar, Dipto; Chaudhary, Vidushi
We present a case-study on teaching an undergraduate level course on Software Engineering (second year and fifth semester of bachelors program in Computer Science) at a State University (New Delhi, India) using a novel teaching instruction model. Our approach has four main elements: inverted or flipped classroom, studio-based learning, real-client projects and deployment, large team and peer evaluation. We present our motivation and approach, challenges encountered, pedagogical benefits, find...
Beck, S E
This article reports on a research study conducted as part of a doctoral dissertation on the development of a cooperative learning teaching model in nursing education. The subjects for the study were a convenience sample of registered nurses who were pursuing a baccalaureate degree in nursing at an urban university. Principles of feminist pedagogy were incorporated as part of the cooperative learning model. The teacher/researcher taught two sections of the same course and, through the use of action research, developed a model for using cooperative learning strategies as the primary teaching modality. End of class and end of semester evaluations provided feedback that suggested that this was an exciting and effective alternative to traditional classroom teaching. PMID:7790974
Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert
Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population. PMID:23870443
Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.
Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction
Reid-Smith, Jennifer Ann
a science-related career. If NOS instructional materials are to be used effectively, designers must take into account the needs of classroom teachers by limiting the length of the materials and providing additional teacher support resources. Many teachers will likely require professional development opportunities to build their NOS understanding, develop a compelling rationale for teaching NOS and using the stories, observe modeling of effective implementation, and collaborate with other teachers regarding how to mitigate constraints.
Baer, A M; Rowbury, T; Baer, D M
Differential reinforcement of compliance with teacher invitations to complete a specific academic task was applied to three extremely negativistic children in a special preschool class. For each child, this technique resulted in clear and useful increases in compliance as it was applied. In addition, the technique produced a greater diversity of sampling the available tasks by all children, enabling them to contact instructional materials they had previously avoided. The reinforcement system, contingent access to free playtime, materials, and a snack, mediated by a token, was thus demonstrated to be an effective contingency. In the case of two children whose compliance was not maximized by differential reinforcement alone, further increases in compliance were produced by combining a 1-min timeout for noncompliance with the differential reinforcement procedure. PMID:16795410
Baer, A M; Rowbury, T; Baer, D M
Differential reinforcement of compliance with teacher invitations to complete a specific academic task was applied to three extremely negativistic children in a special preschool class. For each child, this technique resulted in clear and useful increases in compliance as it was applied. In addition, the technique produced a greater diversity of sampling the available tasks by all children, enabling them to contact instructional materials they had previously avoided. The reinforcement system, contingent access to free playtime, materials, and a snack, mediated by a token, was thus demonstrated to be an effective contingency. In the case of two children whose compliance was not maximized by differential reinforcement alone, further increases in compliance were produced by combining a 1-min timeout for noncompliance with the differential reinforcement procedure.
Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most. PMID:24130865
Full Text Available Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most.
Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Smith, Bryan K; Greene, Jerry L; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E
The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 +/- 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 +/- 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOFIT score and body weight [PAEE (kcal/min) = (1.384*SOFIT + 0.084*weight (kg)--5.126), R = .81, SEE = 1.23 kcal/min]. PAEE measured by indirect calorimeter and predicted from SOFIT and body weight were 3.04 +/- 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.04 +/- 0.9 kcal/min) respectively. SOFIT and body weight may provide a useful measure of PAEE associated with classroom based physical activity. PMID:19168920
Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.
Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered environmental biology unit. The unit materials included features meant to support teachers in eliciting and working with students' ideas and questions as a source for student-led investigations. We present three contrasting cases of teachers to highlight evidence that shows teachers' differing strategies for eliciting students' ideas and questions, and for developing their ideas, questions and questioning skills. Results from our cross case analysis provide insight into the ways in which teachers' enactments enabled them to work with students' ideas and questions to help advance learning. Consistent with other studies, we found that teachers could readily elicit ideas and questions but experienced challenges in helping students develop them. Findings suggest a need for more specified supports, such as specific discourse strategies, to help teachers attend to student thinking. We explore implications for curricular tools and discuss a need for more examples of effective discourse moves for use by teachers in orchestrating scientific discourse.
Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most.
Bower, P.; Liddicoat, J.
Brownfield Action III (BA III) is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation developed by Barnard College and the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning in which students explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA III is a proven inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning that, since its inception in 1999, has been recognized as an exemplary curriculum. Indeed, in 2002 it was selected as a national model curriculum by SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities). BA III provides instruction in environmental site assessments and in the remediation of former industrial sites (brownfields) for secondary and higher education students. The initial full-semester, three hours of weekly laboratory instruction that complements lectures in BA II has been revised for modular use in Hydrology, Environmental Science, and Environmental Ethics undergraduate and graduate courses in the United States. The remediation of brownfields is important because they have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites. As part of determining the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA III contains a narrative that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams construct a detailed narrative
Blackburn, Heidi; Hays, Lauren
As librarians take on more instructional responsibilities, the need for classroom management skills becomes vital. Unfortunately, classroom management skills are not taught in library school and therefore, many librarians are forced to learn how to manage a classroom on the job. Different classroom settings such as one-shot instruction sessions…
Concern with science literacy and how to achieve it has a long history in our education system. The goals and definitions established by the National Science Education Standards (1996) suggest that if we are to successfully prepare students for the information age, science education must blend the natural and social sciences. However, research indicates that connections between hands-on science and literacy, as a tool for processing information, do not regularly occur during school science instruction. This case study explored the use of literacy by a second year teacher in a fifth grade class during consecutive science units on chemistry and liquids. The research questions focused on how and why the teacher and students used literacy during science and how and why the teacher and selected focus students believed literacy influenced their learning in science. Data was collected through classroom observations and multiple interviews with the teacher and selected focus students. Interview data was analyzed and coded using an iterative process. Field notes and student artifacts were used to triangulate the data. The study found that the teacher and students used reading and writing to record and acquire content knowledge, learn to be organized, and to facilitate assessment. Although the teacher had learned content literacy strategies in her pre-service program, she did not implement them in the classroom and her practice seemed to reflect her limited science content knowledge and understanding of the nature of science. The focus students believed that recording and studying notes, reading books, drawing, and reading study guides helped them learn science. The findings suggest the following implications: (1) More data is needed on the relationship between teaching approach, science content knowledge, and beliefs about science. (2) Elementary student voices make a valuable contribution to our understanding of science learning. (3) Pre-service candidates should have
Anderson, Karen; May, Frances A.
The researchers, a librarian and a faculty member, collaborated to investigate the effectiveness of delivery methods in information literacy instruction. The authors conducted a field experiment to explore how face-to-face, online, and blended learning instructional formats influenced students' retention of information literacy skills. Results are…
Tröbst, Steffen; Kleickmann, Thilo; Lange-Schubert, Kim; Rothkopf, Anne; Möller, Kornelia
Students' interest in science declines substantially in the transition from elementary to secondary education. Using students' ratings of their instruction on the topic of evaporation and condensation, we examined if changes in instructional practices accounted for differences in situational interest in science instruction and enduring individual…
Drawing inferences about the extent to which student performance reflects instructional opportunities relies on the premise that the measure of student performance is reflective of instructional opportunities. An instructional sensitivity framework suggests that some assessments are more sensitive to detecting differences in instructional…
Applying Banks' Typology of Ethnic Identity Development and Curriculum Goals to Story Content, Classroom Discussion, and the Ecology of Classroom and Community: Phase One. Instructional Resource No. 24.
Tomlinson, Louise M.
This instructional resource describes ways in which J. A. Banks' typology of the stages of ethnic identity development and related curriculum goals can be applied to literacy instruction. Banks' definitions of the stages of development and the curriculum goals for each stage are provided. Strategies for analyzing materials and developing relevant…
Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are
Clark, Kevin R.
In many of the secondary classrooms across the country, students are passively engaged in the mathematics content, and academic performance can be described, at best, as mediocre. This research study sought to bring about improvements in student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom through the implementation of the…
Nelson, Peter M.; Demers, Joseph A.; Christ, Theodore J.
This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol; Lane, Holly; Kosanovich, Marcia L; Schatschneider, Chris; Dyrlund, Allison K; Miller, Melissa S; Wright, Tyran L
This study investigated the role of the amount, content, and implementation of reading instruction provided by 17 kindergarten teachers in eight Reading First elementary schools as it related to students' progress (n=286 students) on early reading assessments of phonological awareness and letter naming-decoding fluency. Children's phonological awareness and letter naming-decoding fluency grew significantly from fall to spring. On average, across the three 60 min observations, teachers provided over 30 min a day of phonological awareness and phonics instruction and 15 min a day of vocabulary and comprehension instruction. Global ratings of instructional quality revealed two implementation factors: explicit and individualized implementation and meaningful interactions around text. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that the amounts of specific instructional content, as well as how this instruction was implemented, was related to students' letter knowledge and phonological awareness skill growth.
Waight, Noemi; Liu, Xiufeng; Gregorius, Roberto Ma.; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa
This paper reports on a case study of an immersive and integrated multi-instructional approach (namely computer-based model introduction and connection with content; facilitation of individual student exploration guided by exploratory worksheet; use of associated differentiated labs and use of model-based assessments) in the implementation of coupled computer-based models and assessment in a high-school chemistry classroom. Data collection included in-depth teacher interviews, classroom observations, student interviews and researcher notes. Teacher conceptions highlighted the role of models as tools; the benefits of abstract portrayal via visualizations; appropriate enactment of model implementation; concerns with student learning and issues with time. The case study revealed numerous challenges reconciling macro, submicro and symbolic phenomena with the NetLogo model. Nonetheless, the effort exhibited by the teacher provided a platform to support the evolution of practice over time. Students' reactions reflected a continuum of confusion and benefits which were directly related to their background knowledge and experiences with instructional modes. The findings have implications for the role of teacher knowledge of models, the modeling process and pedagogical content knowledge; the continuum of student knowledge as novice users and the role of visual literacy in model decoding, comprehension and translation.
ARCS model proposed by Professor Keller offers theoretical guidance to decrease learners’de-mo-tivation in classroom instruction. Based on Keller’s ARCS model, this paper puts forward the new mode of college English classroom instruction, i.e. to draw learners’attention and raise questions, to clarify learning objectives and explain the relevance, to build up learners’confidence by presenting teaching materials, and to arouse learners’satisfaction by cooperative learning.%美国凯勒教授提出的ARCS动机设计模式为减少学生课堂学习动机缺失提供了有效的理论框架。在此理论基础上提出大学英语课堂教学模式：吸引注意、提出问题；阐明目的、引起相关；呈现内容、建立自信；小组活动、引发满足。
Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills, although taught in medical schools around the world, are not optimally practiced in clinical environments because of multiple barriers, including learners' difficulty transferring EBM skills learned in the classroom to clinical practice. This lack of skill transfer may be partially due to the design of EBM training. To facilitate the transfer of EBM skills from the classroom to clinical practice, the authors explore one instructional approach, called the Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model, to guide the design of EBM training. On the basis of current cognitive psychology, including cognitive load theory, the premise of the 4C/ID model is that complex skills training, such as EBM training, should include four components: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The combination of these four components can inform the creation of complex skills training that is designed to avoid overloading learners' cognitive abilities; to facilitate the integration of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to execute a complex task; and to increase the transfer of knowledge to new situations. The authors begin by introducing the 4C/ID model and describing the benefits of its four components to guide the design of EBM training. They include illustrative examples of educational practices that are consistent with each component and that can be applied to teaching EBM. They conclude by suggesting that medical educators consider adopting the 4C/ID model to design, modify, and/or implement EBM training in classroom and clinical settings.
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative research study examines how Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in their homeroom classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school district located in the southwestern part of the United States. The school was chosen based on the criterion that the school is located in an area considered economically depressed, with a predominantly Latino student, school, and neighborhood population. The object of study was a fifth grade bilingual (Spanish/English) classroom where English was the means of instruction. Classroom interaction was examined from a sociolinguistics perspective. The study was descriptive in nature with the objective of analyzing the students' use of their linguistic resources while participating in science learning. The results of this study suggest that the students used their linguistic resources purposefully in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. In the same manner, it was observed the students' reliance on Spanish as a foundation to enhance their comprehension of the scientific concepts and the dynamics involved in the science lessons, with the purpose of making sense, and thus, to express their understanding (orally and in writing) using their linguistic resources, especially their English language, as it was expected from them. Further, the findings disclose the students' awareness of their own bilingualism, preference for speaking Spanish, and their conceptualization of English as the language to achieve academic success. It has also been observed how the pressure put upon the teacher and the students by the accountability system brings about an implicit bias against Spanish, causing the teacher to assume a paradoxical stance regarding the students' use of Spanish, and thereby, placing the students in an ambivalent position, that might affect, to a certain extent, how students use their Spanish language as a resource to
Koh, Joyce H. L.; Frick, Theodore W.
Technology skills instruction is an important component of educational technology courses, which has been shown to raise pre-service teachers' computer self-efficacy. Computer self-efficacy, in turn, is positively related to their self-efficacy for technology integration. Studies of undergraduate technology skills instruction found that classroom…
Bature, Iliya Joseph; Jibrin, Adamu Gagdi
This paper was designed to investigate the perceptions of four preservice mathematics teachers on the role of scaffolding in supporting and assisting them achieves quality classroom teaching. A collaborative approach to teaching through a community of practice was used to obtain data for the three research objectives that were postulated. Two methods were used to collect data for the research which include classroom observations and the reflection meetings. While the researchers adopted the g...
Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.
This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience, professional qualification and teacher academic qualification). It also sought to determine the extent to which each of these four selected variables individually and jointly affected the teachers' report of their instructional assessment practices. A sample of 55 science teachers from nine secondary schools in Barbados was randomly selected to participate in this study. Data was collected by means of a survey and was analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the instructional assessment practices scores and linear, multiple and binary logistic regression. The results of the study were such that the majority of the sample reported good overall instructional assessment practices while only a few participants reported moderate assessment practices. The instructional assessment practices in the area of student knowledge were mostly moderate as indicated by the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between or among the mean scores of the teachers' reported instructional assessment practices based on sex ( t = 0.10; df = 53; p = 0.992), teaching experience ( F[4,50] = 1.766; p = 0.150), the level of professional qualification (F[3,45] = 0.2117; p = 0.111) or the level of academic qualification (F[2,52] = 0.504; p = 0.607). The independent variables (teacher sex, teaching experience, teacher professional qualification or teacher academic qualification) were not significant predictors of the instructional assessment practices scores. However, teacher sex was a significant predictor of the teachers' report of good instructional assessment practices. The study also found that the joint effect of the
The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers teach reading comprehension in primary three inclusive classrooms in Uganda. The study developed a theoretical framework from the literature review consisting of reading comprehension theories that directed the study and underpinned the methods and strategies that are used in teaching reading comprehension. The theories helped to clarify definitions and concepts about the teaching of reading comprehension. Qualitative approach was used wit...
Unveiling the Teachers' Profiles through an INSET (In Service Training) Course of Greek Primary School Teachers in the Pedagogy of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) In-Classroom Instruction
To meet the increasing demand for change in the infusion of ICT pedagogy in education a nationwide project was launched in Greece on May 2008. An INSET course for primary school teachers in the pedagogy of ICT in classroom instruction. The writer, aimed to study the teachers' views about certain aspects of the training experience in terms of the…
Roehrig, G H; Michlin, M; Schmitt, L; MacNabb, C; Dubinsky, J M
In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sustained, multiyear professional development in a program that combined neuroscience content and knowledge of the neurobiology of learning with inquiry-based pedagogy on teachers' inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations demonstrated the value of multiyear professional development in solidifying adoption of inquiry-based practices and cultivating progressive yearly growth in the cognitive environment of impacted classrooms.
Nomi, Takako; Raudenbush, Stephen W.
In 2003, Chicago launched "Double-Dose Algebra," requiring students with pretest scores below the national median to take two periods of math--algebra and supplemental coursework. In many schools, assignment to Double Dose changed the peer composition of the algebra classroom. Using school-specific instrumental variables within a…
Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Imbeau, Marcia; Perner, Darlene E.
This book discusses how educators can achieve inclusive classrooms that give students with different abilities the maximum opportunity for growth. It provides frameworks for planning learning environments, content, process, and products that enable students with learning challenges to succeed with meaningful curriculum. Decision-making guidelines…
Mooney, Melody Anne
The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of integrating new literacies practices into high school curriculum content classrooms. This study examined data collected through observations and semi-structured interviews conducted with four high school content curriculum teachers. Analysis of the data resulted in essential findings emerging…
This study is a descriptive study that adopts relational screening model with the aim of determining pre-service classroom teachers' opinions about laboratory use in science teaching their preferences among laboratory approaches and identifying the reasons of the answers given by the pre-service teachers. The sample of the study is 236 pre-service…
Mays, Faye Jeanette
Teachers' knowledge, goals, beliefs, and decision-making activities were explored individually and combined relative to their philosophical beliefs and practices in the elementary classroom setting in response to unforeseen interruptions. Schoenfeld's Theory of Teaching-in-Context and Brown's "The Experimental Mind in…
Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Leonie J.
Focuses on female performance in science and mathematics in a single-sex classroom setting. Reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. Gathers qualitative and quantitative data from…
van Zee, Emily H.
In this commentary, I first consider what Oliveira defines inquiry-based science instruction to be. Next I discuss what the discourse practices are that he is advocating. Then I examine what he presents as evidence of changes in two teachers' discourse practices due to a summer institute and how their pragmatic awareness seems to have been enhanced through institute activities. Finally I ponder whether, when, how, and why professional development should include a focus on ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction.
姜占好; 陶源; 周保国
This article probes into the classroom instructions on interlanguage pragmatic development abroad in the past 30 years in terms of necessity,approaches,effect assessment and instruction period.Both the implicit nature of pragmatic knowledge and the existe%本文从必要性、教学方法、评估手段和教学时间四个层面探讨了国外近30年课堂语用教学状况,以期对我国课堂语用教学有所启示。研究发现：语用知识隐性特征和语用教学实践成果使得课堂语用教学成为必然,语用知识特征决定了课堂语用教学多使用显性手段,语用教学效果的评估要集中在能折射学习者语用知识运用的开放式的方法上,语用教学时间与教学效果成正相关。
Nagatsuka, Yasuhiro; 長塚, 康弘
Considering the recent increasing tendency of traffic accidents in Japan, it seems urgently necessary for us to "improve drivers' behavior" by driver training for future accident reduction. In order to clarify what should be instructed in the training for safe driving, a driver training system was examined. It was pointed out that both beginner drivers and the licensed drivers were not yet adequately trained to be useful as safe drivers in considering especially the situations that beginner d...
Wang, Jui-Sheng; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Ribera, Amy K.
In this study the authors analyze longitudinal student survey data from the 17-institution Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS) to determine the extent that the influence of overall exposure to clear and organized instruction on four-year growth in two measures of cognitive development is mediated by student use of deep approaches…
Scholars and practitioners have reported the positive outcomes of a flipped, or inverted, approach to instruction (Baker, 2000; Lage, Platt, & Treglia, 2000; Bergmann, 2011; Wright, 2011; Pearson, 2012; Butt, 2012; Bates, 2012). While many of the reports are anecdotal, the sheer number of instructors that have reported successful…
Kariuki, Patrick N.; Blair, Paul W.
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of Cardio-Syntactic Analysis instruction on writing scores in an 11th grade English class. The sample consisted of 35 students enrolled in an Honor's English 11 class at Volunteer high School, in Church Hill, TN. The class was randomly assigned into an experimental group of 17 students and…
Handsfield, Lara J.; Jimenez, Robert T.
This study reports data from a year-long ethnographic case study of a third-grade teacher's literacy instruction for her linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, we use Bourdieu's social practice theory (1991, 1998) to examine the teacher's linguistic and literate habitus and the discourses of the field converge in her use of…
McAteer, Todd C.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine how knowledgeable teachers are in utilizing brain-researched instructional strategies. The research focused on determining which brain-researched strategies are implemented, the accuracy with which they are employed, and the degree to which they are utilized. A literature review revealed the most…
Morreale, Sherwyn P.; Staley, Constance M.
The essays that comprise "Communication Education's" Forum on Instructional Communication and Millennial Students provide excellent summaries of existing research on this new generational cohort as college students. Taken as a whole, the writings paint an intriguing picture of this cohort, including both challenges and opportunities to…
Self-regulated learning (SRL) encourages students to learn using metacognition, strategic action, and motivation. This nontraditional approach to education relies on the student's active role in learning and the instructor's facilitatory role in teaching. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of an SRL instructional model the author…
Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer
This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.
The aim of this report is to describe a field trial conducted in Italy during the academic year 2009-10, with primary and secondary school teachers (grades K-8), in order to test prototypes of "ready to use" kits to be used to implement PBL laboratory sessions in the classroom. This work is meant to provide a sort of snapshot of the classroom implementation of the teaching recommendations (so that any readers can conduct their own analysis). The kits were designed by matematita (Interuniversity Research Center for the Communication and Informal Learning of Mathematics, http://www.matematita.it). I wish to thank the "Ufficio Scolastico Regionale della Lombardia" for sponsoring the trial.
Roehrig, G. H.; Michlin, M.; Schmitt, L.; MacNabb, C.; Dubinsky, J M
In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sust...
With the renewal of teaching ideas and development of internet technology,the integration of information technology and courses has been becoming more important in the teaching practice.Nowa-days,the flipped classroom provides a new approach to teaching practice of“taking the student as the cen-ter of education and teacher as the leading factor”.This paper conducts instructional design and practice of flipped classroom on the bases of reviewing its’origin and connotation.It concludes that flipped classroom offers practical significance on students’ability of self-study and problem-solving via analysis and study on the previewing effects and learning process in class.In the end,this paper put forward that flipped class-room is also a challenge for teachers ’ competence of class design and leading experience as well as students’ability of self-control and independent learning before class,which demand further enhancement.%伴随日益更新的教学理念和网络技术，信息技术与课程整合在教学实践中日渐深入。当前翻转课堂为“主体—主导”的教学实践提供了新的路向。在梳理翻转课堂起源与内涵基础上对翻转课堂进行教学设计与实践，通过对课前预习效果与课上学习过程的分析，得出翻转课堂对学生自主学习能力以及解决问题能力提高有一定教学实践意义，指出翻转课堂对教师课堂设计与引领经验以及学生课前自控与自主学习能力是一种挑战，需要进一步加强与提高。
Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.
The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 ± 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 ± 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOF...
Bednarski, M.; Larsen, K.
Astronomy activities often pose problems for in-service teachers, especially at the elementary level, as many do not have a solid content background. Often astronomy instruction revolves around reading and answering questions. This is not an effective way to work with abstract concepts or engage students, and also fails to meet the standards of inquiry-based instruction recommended by the National Science Teachers Association and national and state standards. Science museums and planetariums bring unique and exciting perspectives to astronomy education. However, bringing students to the museum can sometimes be perceived as only a ``cool field trip.'' With mounting pressure for teachers to teach to the new standardized tests demanded by No Child Left Behind, and shrinking school budgets, field trips are rapidly becoming an endangered species. Coordinating museum, science center, and planetarium offerings with national and state science standards can renew interest in (and perceived relevance of) field trips. Therefore, university faculty, in-service teachers, and museum/planetarium staff can form successful partnerships which can both improve student learning and increase attendance at informal education science events and facilities. This workshop will first briefly introduce participants to national and representative state standards as well as research on in-service teachers' astronomy content knowledge and the educational value of field trips. For the majority of the workshop, participants will engage in the actual steps of coordinating, planning, and writing inquiry-based astronomy curriculum embedded performance tasks that collectively meet the learning needs of students in elementary, middle, or high school.
随着信息技术和教学模式的不断改进和创新，翻转课堂为教学改革的开展注入了新活力，也成为国内外教育界的热门话题。探讨翻转课堂教学模式应用于大学英语写作教学中的可行性，设计较为完整的写作教学设计方案并开展了实证性研究。研究结果显示，翻转课堂对提高大学生英语写作水平及提高英语写作兴趣等方面具有积极作用。%With the development and innovation of technology and educational model,flipped class-room has added great vitality to instructional reform and has been a hot topic in the educational field home and abroad.The study made an analysis on the feasibility of applying the flipped classroom model to the English writing instruction,and it designed a comparatively complete schema and carried out an empirical research on the writing instruction.The study shows flipped classroom has played an impor-tant role in improving students'writing level and interests.
Multi-media technology is one of teaching resources of politics classroom instructions,it has the characteristics of large amount of information, transmission speed and audio-visual features.It can be able to deal with some classroom teahing problems that cannot be sovled by using traditional teaching methods and illustrate by the classroom examlpes.%多媒体教学作为思想政治课程资源之一，具有信息量大、传输快、音画兼备、形象直观等特点。运用多媒体教学可以处理一些传统教学中难以解决的问题，并以课堂实例举例说明。
The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to design and produce electronic content of a microbiology course for students in AJA (Islamic Republic of Iran Army University of Medical Sciences based on Gagne's instructional design model and determine its effectiveness. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. All medical students studying in the 2014-2015 academic year in AJA University of Medical Sciences who had taken the microbiology course were entered in the study. Students were divided randomly into two groups, control and trial (16 subjects in each. After designing and producing the educational multimedia, the trial group was trained in concepts of the microbiology course using multimedia educational software during 6 sessions over 6 continuous weeks. Finally, they were given post-test questions to determine the educational progress level among the students. Results: The mean ± standard deviation for pre-test and post-test in the trial group were 4.44 ± 1.99 and 12.75 ± 1.06, respectively, and in the control group they were 3.75 ± 2.32 and 9.31 ± 1.25, respectively. The results of the analysis of covariance between adjusted means of both groups for variable of learning show a significant difference between the two groups (F(29,1= 65.69; P=0.001. The effect size was 0.69. Conclusion: The multimedia software produced in AJA University of Medical Sciences can be used as a proper educational instrument for teaching the microbiology courses. So, it is better to incorporate the multimedia method as a part of education into curriculum of universities, especially medical sciences universities. Keywords: e-learning, Gagne's instructional design, model, Education, Army, microbiology course
Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R
This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning.
Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R
This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning. PMID:26399719
Design of Instructional Model Based on Flipped Classroom from the Perspective of Developing Critical Thinking--The Case of Instruction of “Intermediate Financial Accounting”%批判性思维培养视角下翻转课堂教学模式设计--以《中级财务会计》教学为例
The instructional model of flipped classroom regards the students as the center,which transfers knowledge by the information technology before the class, and provides effective communication channels for instruction and study in the class, in order to help students to finish knowledge construction. All of these will help to create equal and harmonious classroom atmosphere to promote the development of critical thinking. Critical thinking is the basis of innovative thinking. Traditional accounting instruction is focused on the rote memory, so most of the cultivated students under this model are lack of innovation. Therefore, it is very necessary to build the instructional model of flipped classroom which help the development of critical thinking based on the theory of critical thinking and core idea of flipped classroom.%翻转课堂教学模式以学生为中心，课前利用信息技术实现高效快捷传递知识，课内为教与学创设有效沟通渠道，完成对知识的内化，这有利于营造平等和谐的课堂氛围，促进批判性思维的培养。批判性思维是创新思维的基础。传统会计教学以机械记忆为主，培养的学生缺乏创新力。因此，结合批判性思维基本理论，围绕翻转课堂核心理念，构建有利于批判性思维培养的翻转课堂教学模式显得尤为必要。
Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Cooper, S. K.; Ledley, T. S.
Inspiring the next generation of geoscientists and preparing students for the 21st century workforce requires lifting science outside of the classroom and giving learners the opportunity to think critically about real-world geoscience problems. The EarthLabs suite of climate science modules challenges students with a variety of learning experiences including current scientific data analysis, computer visualizations, satellite imagery, and engaging videos. Each module includes a series of hands-on activities to allow students to explore Earth's complex and dynamic climate history, leading to a deeper understanding of present and future changes to our planet. A new EarthLabs module in development 'Climate Detectives: An Expedition on board the JOIDES Resolution," focuses on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 to Southern Alaska. The module is structured to allow students to work collaboratively, mimicking scientific research groups on the JOIDES Resolution. As students assume the role of a scientist, learn about data collection methods, and analyze authentic data, they learn about the climate history and tectonic processes of the Southern Alaska continental margin, as well as explore the relationship between climate, sedimentation, and tectonics. The Project Based Learning (PBL) approach used in the module teaches students how to analyze data and solve problems like scientists, strengthening the development of higher order thinking skills and preparing them for college coursework. The 'Climate Detectives' Module also provides students with opportunities to interact with scientists through live video conferencing and pre-recorded video presentations by scientists. In this presentation, Expedition 341 Education Officer, Alison Mote, describes the new module, which takes students on an educational journey as they learn about the scientific objectives, methods, and data collection tools scientists use to conduct research on sediment cores retrieved
Griess, Carolyn J.; Keat, Jane B.
Teacher education faculty are experiencing increasingly diverse higher education classrooms. In many ways, the diversities present in collegiate classrooms mirror the differences in classrooms of young children. The diversity may be a result of a range of ethnic, socioeconomic, and linguistic differences. Or it may be differences resulting from…
Doan, Tomalee; Doan, Corey
These slides show data for Instruction Matters Purdue Academic Course Transformation (IMPACT) Program, including current classroom configurations, and growth in classroom seats and technology. Also models expected growth in classroom space and seats. Includes current classroom efficiencies and comments from current IMPACT instructors.
Irving, Karen; Sanalan, Vehbi; Shirley, Melissa
Case-study descriptions of secondary and middle school classrooms in diverse contexts provide examples of how teachers implement connected classroom technology to facilitate formative assessment in science instruction. Connected classroom technology refers to a networked system of handheld devices designed for classroom use. Teachers were…
Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…
"Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).
Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…
... be more older drivers on the road. A Complex Task Click for more information Driving is a ... common for people to have declines in visual, thinking, or physical abilities as they get older. As ...
Pearson, P. David; Dole, Janice A.
Reviews representative instructional studies of inference training, reciprocal teaching, and process training. Discusses both the concept of explicit comprehension instruction and potential difficulties in classroom implementation. Raises two important curricular concerns. (NH)
针对多媒体幻灯在课堂应用中存在的问题,分析并指出其存在的关键问题是教学设计不到位,强调幻灯制作要为教学对象、教学内容、教学目标服务,以教学设计指导技术应用.%In view of the problems of multimedia slides applied in classroom teaching, this paper analyzes and points out that the key problem is the inadequate instructional design and emphasizes that making of multimedia slides must serve teaching object, teaching content and teaching target. It concludes that instructional design must guide the utilization of technology.
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory.
Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Taylor, W. Patrick; Carlson, Coleen D.; Lei, Xiaoxuan; Hunter, C. Vincent; Francis, David J.
In order to examine the effectiveness of instruction, the authors confront formidable statistical problems, including multivariate structure of classroom observations, longitudinal dependence of both classroom observations and student outcomes. As the authors begin to examine instruction, classroom observations involve multiple variables for which…
Tucker, Catlin R.
Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…
智障教育课堂教学中，指导语作为师生信息交换的中介，对于课堂教学的有效实施起着桥梁的作用。智障教育课堂实践中，对于如何恰当使用指导语存在着三个误区“：不清晰“”无指向”和“不存在”。要消除指导语使用的误区，需要明晰智障教育学校指导语的四种功能，即导向功能、反馈功能、强化功能和调节功能；正确把握指导语运用的四个原则：稳定性原则、准确性原则、简洁性原则和差异性原则；提高指导语运用的水平需要教师准确把握课程，细致了解学生，并建立反思习惯。%In the classroom teaching for mentally retarded children, instructions, as the medium for information interchange between teachers and students, play the role of a bridge. In the classroom practice of education for the mentally-retarded, there are three misunderstandings about how to employ instructions properly, namely,“unclearness”,“pointlessness”and“nonexistence”. To clear up the misunderstandings in the use of instructions, four functions of instructions in schools for mentally retarded children should be made clear, namely, orientation, feedback, reinforcement and adjustment; four principles of the use of instructions should be stuck to, that is, stability, accuracy, conciseness and discrepancy;the improvement of the application of the instructions needs the teacher’s knowing well of the curricula, detailed understanding of students and forming the habit of introspection.
Child, Angela R.
Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...
Reynolds, Richard Jennings [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The purpose of this course is to introduce safe hoisting and rigging practices to personnel who are attempting to become LANL incidental crane operators and to review and refresh safe hoisting and rigging practices with existing incidental crane operators.
Grypp, Lynette; Luebeck, Jennifer
Technology is causing educators to rethink the entire notion of classroom learning, not only with respect to what learning should take place but also where it should take place. One such innovation is flipped instruction, broadly defined by Staker and Horn (2012) as an instructional model in which students learn partly through online delivery and…
Hessler, Karen L
This article will introduce the innovative educational concept of the "flipped classroom." How to implement the flipped learning model will be addressed within the framework of The Intentional Instruction Environment Model. PMID:26795837
Hessler, Karen L
This article will introduce the innovative educational concept of the "flipped classroom." How to implement the flipped learning model will be addressed within the framework of The Intentional Instruction Environment Model.
Discusses the background of rap music, its definition, its themes and messages, and rap as a blend of language and music. Offers ideas for its use in the classroom as a way to motivate and instruct students. (SR)
Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey
This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual…
Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony
Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…
Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.
The classroom environment is uppermost in teachers' minds at the start of each school year. Designing an effective classroom environment for learning to read and reading is both an art and a science. Aligning physical space with instructional goals involves the flexible use of space that is adapted to instructional needs. A well-designed classroom…
Richardson, Rita Coombs; Arker, Emily
Teachers' personality traits are reflected in their classroom instruction--especially in their selection of various instructional strategies, the materials they choose, and their classroom management techniques. Moreover, personality styles are positively interrelated with learning styles as well as teaching styles. In many classrooms, however,…
Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing
The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…
Jones-Carey, Margaret H.
This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…
For dynamic web design course project pedagogy problems,the article was analyzed flipped classroom teaching mode, we proposed the instructional design ideas on flipped classroom of dynamic web design courses under network environment. It was built to micro-teaching resources according to the needs of project pedagogy, and according to the flipped classroom teach-ing philosophy, we carry out"before class, classroom, after class"teaching activity design,through network learning platform to realize the sharing of micro-lesson learning resources and Online testing, inspection, feedback, evaluation and discussion.%针对动态网页设计课程项目教学法中存在的问题，通过对翻转课堂教学模式的分析，提出了网络环境下动态网页技术课程翻转课堂的教学设计思路，既根据项目教学法的需要来构建翻转课堂的微课教学资源，并根据翻转课堂的教学理念进行“课前-课中-课后”的教学活动设计，然后再通过网络学习平台来实现微课学习资源的共享和在线测试、检查、反馈、评价和讨论。
Moran, Kristen; Milsom, Amy
The flipped classroom is proposed as an effective instructional approach in counselor education. An overview of the flipped-classroom approach, including advantages and disadvantages, is provided. A case example illustrates how the flipped classroom can be applied in counselor education. Recommendations for implementing or researching flipped…
Freiberg, H. Jerome
Too often, classroom-management systems built on trust and support in primary grades are replaced by compliance and obedience systems in higher grades. Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline is a research-based, classroom-tested Texas program that combines instructional effectiveness (through consistent classroom organization) with…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Piasta, Shayne B.; Fishman, Barry; Glasney, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher; Crowe, Elizabeth; Underwood, Phyllis; Morrison, Frederick J.
Recent findings demonstrate that the most effective reading instruction may vary with children’s language and literacy skills. These child X instruction interactions imply that individualizing instruction would be a potent strategy for improving students’ literacy. A cluster-randomized control field trial, conducted in 10 high-moderate poverty schools, examined effects of individualizing literacy instruction. The instruction each first grader received (n=461 in 47 classrooms, mean age = 6.7 y...
As advanced technology increasingly infiltrated into classroom, the flipped classroom has come to light in secondary educational settings. The flipped classroom is a new instructional approach that intends to flip the traditional teacher-centered classroom into student centered. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the…
Johnson, Vincent Robert
A discussion of audiovisual instruction in the law school classroom looks at the strengths, weaknesses, equipment and facilities needs and hints for classroom use of overhead projection, audiotapes and videotapes, and slides. (MSE)
Clark, Kevin R.
In many of the secondary classrooms across the country, including the research site for this study, students are passively engaged in the mathematics content, and academic performance can be described, at best, as mediocre. This action research study sought to bring about improvements in student engagement and performance in the secondary…
Dennis, Larinee B.
"It is often assumed that changing the classroom by introducing technology will result in better teaching and increased student motivation, which ultimately means more effective student learning experiences" (Donovan, Green, & Hartley, 2010, p. 423). But does it? This is the controversy and debate that surrounds the promise and…
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…
Wiginton, Barry Lynn
This study utilized an explanatory mixed-methods research design to investigate the effect of learning environment on student mathematics achievement, and mathematics self-efficacy, and student learning style in a ninth grade Algebra I classroom. The study also explored the lived experiences of the teachers and students in the three different…
Hall, Jeffrey; Chamblee, Gregory; Slough, Scott
Two high school mathematics teachers who use Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in the classroom were interviewed annually over the course of three years regarding their perceptions of the technology. During the third year, the two teachers were asked to complete the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Stages of Concern Questionnaire. The data obtained from…
Piasta, Shayne B.; Purpura, David J.; Wagner, Richard K.
Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive small group instruction in letter names and/or sounds or numbers (treated control). Alphabet instruction followed one of two approaches currently utilized in early childhood classrooms: combined letter name and sound instruction or letter sound only instruction. Thirty-four 15…
语际语语用学是20世纪80年代新兴的语用学分支，是在二语习得和语用学理论基础上发展起来的交叉学科。基于此，对语用能力的发展这个语际语语用学研究的主要问题进行概述，并探讨英语课堂语用习得能力培养模式，以期进一步提高大学英语课堂教学质量。%Interlanguage pragmatics is a new interdisciplinary branch of study emerging in 1980s based on the theories of SLA and pragmatics. This paper focuses on the major issue about the study in interlanguage pragmatics,namely,the development of pragmatic competence and the exploration of a model for cultivating students' pragmatic competence through English classroom instruction in order to further improve college English classroom teaching quality.
Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.
Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…
Flipped classroom model is a shock to traditional classroom process.It has brought revolution and innovation to traditional teaching models.Aiming at an enrichment of the connotation and practical experiences of flipped classroom, this paper discusses the instructional design and application of flipped classroom model in the course of Strategic Management.%翻转课堂教学模式颠覆了传统的教学流程，带来了教学模式的革命与创新。通过对翻转课堂教学模式的认识与研究，探讨翻转课堂在企业战略管理课程中的教学设计与应用，丰富翻转课堂的研究内涵和实践经验。
Scott, Sally S.; Mcguire, Joan M.; Foley, Teresa E.
The purpose of this article is to examine Universal Design (UD) applied to instruction as a means of promoting educational access to higher education, not only for students with disabilities but also for a broad range of diverse learners now very much a part of the fabric of higher education. A brief overview of UD is provided. Seminal literature…
Barriteau Phaire, Candace
The teaching and learning of mathematics has been the subject of debate for over 30 years and the most recent reform efforts are in response to concerns regarding the mathematical competence of students in the United States (Ball, Hill, & Bass, 2005; Battista, 1994; Cavanagh, 2008). Standards-based Instructional Materials (SBIM) allows…
Jones, Karrie A.; Jones, Jennifer L.
Cooperative learning is viable yet generally underutilized method of instruction at the college level (Paulsen and Faust, 2008). This paper highlights the work of teacher educator Dr. Paul J. Vermette in his implementation of cooperative learning based practices in a graduate level Multicultural education course. In analyzing the "Five…
A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…
对于物理课堂上的例题，可以从语言意境优美化、物理情景新颖化和有趣化、题干内容生活化、渗透情感道德熏陶等角度进行改进，增强例题对学生的吸引力，激发学生的学习热情与兴趣，提高课堂例题的教学质量。%The physics classroom examples can be improved from the beautiful artistic conception ,novel and interesting physical situations , the content of life , emotion ethics point of view , enhance the exam ple attractive to students , and stim ulate students′ interest in learning enthusiasm ,to improve the teaching quality of classroom exam ples .
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a tiered instructional design on classroom management, attitude and the learning level of students. The instructional program was prepared for an introductory science course for 3rd grade students. The case study research method was used. Observation form, teacher and student interview forms were used to collect data. The teaching program was planned using a tiered instruction method for nine subjects of the “Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow” curriculum theme. The teacher made a short presentation and then students were classified into ability groups. Finally, each group completed learning activity via individual and group tasks based on activities appropriate to their abilities. The results indicate that tiered instruction had positive effects on the learning outcomes of students. All groups completed the classroom activities easily, which increased their motivation. Students participated in activities voluntarily and enthusiastically.
Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann
Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV and pregnancy instruction, 3 months after instruction, and 1 year after instruction). Results indicated…
Fredriksen, Helge; Said HADJERROUIT
International audience The main concept of Flipped Classroom (FC) is to invert, or flip, the content of teaching in terms of what is done during the homework phase, compared to the activity in the class with the teacher. Traditionally, the students at higher education attend a lecture, accompanied with tasks to solve at home or in a colloquium arranged by the University. The FC model will alter this completely, giving the students the opportunity to watch the lectures at home using pre-rec...
Wonder-McDowell, Carla V
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aligning supplemental reading instruction with core classroom reading instruction on struggling second-grade students’ proficiency in phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Alignment was defined as core classroom and supplemental instruction that are congruent in philosophy, goals, instructional materials, instructional methods, student activities, and reading strategies that follow the same scope and sequence. This study e...
The inquiry learning is a ways of learning derived by the mode of scientific research. Focusing on classroom teaching is the fulcrum of inquiry learning. Finding problems in the operating activities, and finding laws in the observation, and develop association in the comparison, and solving problem through conjecture and verification are the antecedent conditions to carry out the inquiry learning. Carrying out the inquiry learning based on problems in proposition classroom, and Carrying out three levels of inquiry learning are the implementation strategies to engineer the inquiry learning.%探究性学习是一种由科学研究的方式推演而成的学习方式。聚焦课堂教学是探究性学习的着力点。在操作活动中发现问题，在观察中发现规律，在比较中联想，通过猜想和验证来解决问题是实施探究性学习的先决条件之一。在命题课中大力开展发现式问题探究，在习题课中大力开展3个层次的探究，是探究性学习在课堂教学中的工程化实施策略。
Vivid language teaching classroom cannot do without the wonderful reading. Reading is an important language practice content,it is an important means of language learning students,students learning is one of the goals of the process. In actual teaching, teachers should teach reading skills and methods for students,so that the students can truly understand the text,read the text,but also can make the students to read,to improve the effectiveness of reading,let the language classroom sound reading aloud.%生动的语文教学课堂离不开精彩的朗读。朗读作为一项重要的语文实践内容，它既是学生学习语文的重要手段，又是学生学习过程中追求的目标之一。在实际教学中，教师要教给学生适合的朗读技巧和方法，才能让学生真正读懂文字、读好文字，同时也能够使学生亲近朗读，提高朗读的实效性，让语文课堂书声琅琅。
Closing the Mathematical Achievement Gap Through the Heart To the Brain: A Case Study of Urban High School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of How Their Emotional Intelligence Facilitates Instruction and Learning in the Classroom
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine urban high school mathematics teachers' perceptions of how they manage their own and their students' emotional intelligence (EI) to facilitate instruction and learning; their reports of how they handle their emotions as urban mathematics teachers; and their reports of how they manage the emotions of their students. The study focused on the voices of sixteen urban mathematics teachers and was undertaken in reaction to the significant mathematics achievement gap between urban students and their suburban counterparts. The conceptual framework undergirding the study was synthesized work by Daniel Goleman, (1995) and Mayer and Salovey (1997); categorizing emotional intelligence in emotional selfawareness, managing emotions, harnessing emotions, empathy, and handling relationships. Research questions addressing each category were created and from these categories an interview guide was developed. Data gathered during individual teacher interviews was transcribed and sorted into emergent categories using open coding. The findings were organized and presented according to the study's research questions. Urban math teachers reported passion for their students, their feelings affect teaching and learning, and that humor is an important tool in mediating emotions. The study concludes with multiple recommendations for further research and practices. Future studies should compare teachers assuming paternal vs. mentor role when dealing with their students. The study can evaluate if either role has a significant impact in student teacher relationships. A recommendation for practice is for teachers to have professional development experiences focusing on the proper use of humor in the classroom. Humor used properly promotes a positive classroom environment. This is a skill that would be especially beneficial to urban teachers.
‘Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History’: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)
St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.
This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely ‘Big Ideas’ with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation
Dennis, J. Richard; Kansky, Robert J.
This book is directed to any educator who is interested in the use of the computer to improve classroom instruction. It is a book about the materials, human factors, and decision-making procedures that make up the instructional application of computers. This document's single goal is to promote educators' thoughtful selection and use of both…
This training package - complete with full-color book and instructional video - is the easiest way to learn HTML5!HTML5 boasts extensive new features that allow you to create dynamic web pages and present users with amazing multimedia experiences, and this one-of-a-kind training package is your guide to creating websites that wow! HTML5 Digital Classroom provides step-by-step instruction to help you gain the essential HTML5 knowledge you need to master the latest HTML5 specifications. This book-and-video package will have you creating web pages and web applications using HTML5, styling using
Brown, Anna F.
The changing educational needs of undergraduate students have not been addressed with a corresponding development of instructional methods in higher education classrooms. This study used a phenomenological approach to investigate a classroom-based instructional model called the "inverted" or "flipped" classroom. The flipped…
Zaleski, Diana Janet
Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science.…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students’ informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for informational text comprehension, was provided in four-week instructional units for 615 grade 7 students. These classroom motivational-engagement supports w...
This paper looks at second language acquisition in a classroom setting. It considers whether formal instruction makes a difference to SLA. This is an important issue, because it address the question of the role played by environmental factors in SLA. It is also an important educational issue, as language pedagogy has traditionally operated on the assumption that grammar can be taught.
Maxim, George W.
Describes a kindergarten/first-grade and a second-grade program for teaching map reading skills. Suggests that map- reading instruction is required to improve children's geography knowledge. Provides ideas on how to observe the environment, use photos, encourage block play, use books, share maps, construct a model of the classroom, read cardinal…
Donaldson, Brady E.
Core reading programs (CRPs) provide the curriculum and guide reading instruction for many classroom teachers. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of reading fluency instruction in current (2008-2011 copyright) grade 2 and 3 top-selling core reading program lessons to answer the following two research questions: (1) How do core reading programs recommend that fluency skills be taught? (2) How do reading fluency instructional practices in core programs compare to eviden...
Clifford, Matthew Aaron
Local instructional design describes the process of customization that naturally occurs when curriculum innovations interface with local classrooms and schools. Describing the practice of local instructional design can help to explain how curriculum is adapted to local conditions and provides insight on how instructional leaders mediate…
Parsons, Seth A.
Researchers frequently suggest that effective teachers adapt their teaching to navigate the complexity of classroom literacy instruction. However, little research has examined how teachers adapt their instruction, teachers' reflections on their adaptations, or the instructional conditions in which they adapt. To address this gap in the research…
With an increased emphasis on instructional accountability with respect to instruction, assessment and curriculum development, administrators have been struggling to find a model of supervision that is clinical and collaborative and that will produce an accurate assessment of classroom instruction. According to Goe (2007), "In recent years,…
Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.
Classroom research on adaptive teaching indicates few teachers modify instruction for at-risk students in a manner that benefits them. Responsiveness-To-Intervention, with its tiers of increasingly intensive instruction, represents an alternative approach to adaptive instruction that may prove more workable in today's schools.
Hall, Ashley A.; DuFrene, Debbie D.
Popularity is growing for flipped classroom instruction, which replaces lectures with out-of-class delivery of streaming video, reading materials, online chats, and other modalities. Face-to-face class time is spent on instructor-student and student-student interaction, including small group problem solving and discussion. Classroom flipping has…
Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Harris, Alexis R.; Katz, Deirdre A.; Jennings, Patricia A.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Teachers are responsible for delivering academic instruction, facilitating student learning and engagement, and managing classroom behavior. Stress may interfere with performance in the classroom, however (Tsouloupas, Carson, Matthews, Grawitch, & Barber, 2010), and recent studies suggest that stress is quite common among today's educators. In…
Savich, Carl; Bizzotto, Glenda
The purpose of this paper was to analyze and critique the proposals made in "The Engaged Classroom" by Sam Intrator to increase student engagement in the classroom. The methodology used was to analyze, compare, and critique the proposals based on educational research on apathy and boredom in the instruction of history. The results were that the…
Classroom instructions Task 1 In teaching English to beginning children,would you insist on yourself using more Eng-lish in the classroom or do you prefer to usemore Chinese to begin with?Why and Whynot?Please give your reasons in the space be-low and then compare and discuss them with
Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.
Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom…
@@ Classroom instructions Task 1 In teaching English to beginning children,would you insist on yourself using more English in the classroom or do you prefer to use more Chinese to begin with?Why and Why not?Please give your reasons in the space below and then compare and discuss them with another teacher.
Enwall, Beverly; Joiner, Elizabeth
This classroom activity supplement is designed to accompany the "En Francais" language instruction series (programs 1-13) used on closed circuit television in South Carolina. It is intended to enrich classroom follow-up of the film program and to prvide a variety of activities and suggestions for teaching French language skills. Lessons introduce…
Chan, Paula E.
Teachers face the challenging job of differentiating instruction for the diverse needs of their students. This task is difficult enough with happy students who are eager to learn; unfortunately students often enter the classroom in a bad mood because of events that happened outside the classroom walls. These events--called setting events--can…
Nickels, Stefanie; Opitz, Bertram; Steinhauer, Karsten
The loss of brain plasticity after a 'critical period' in childhood has often been argued to prevent late language learners from using the same neurocognitive mechanisms as native speakers and, therefore, from attaining a high level of second language (L2) proficiency [7,11]. However, more recent behavioral and electrophysiological research has challenged this 'Critical Period Hypothesis', demonstrating that even late L2 learners can display native-like performance and brain activation patterns , especially after longer periods of immersion in an L2 environment. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to show that native-like processing can also be observed in the largely under-researched domain of speech prosody - even when L2 learners are exposed to their second language almost exclusively in a classroom setting. Participants listened to spoken sentences whose prosodic boundaries would either cooperate or conflict with the syntactic structure. Previous work had shown that this paradigm is difficult for elderly native speakers, however, German L2 learners of English showed very similar ERP components for on-line prosodic phrasing as well as for prosody-syntax mismatches (garden path effects) as the control group of native speakers. These data suggest that L2 immersion is not always necessary to master complex L2 speech processing in a native-like way.
Johnson, Joseph A.
This study involved an intervention in which I explored how the multimodal, inquiry-based teaching strategies from a professional development model could be used to meet the educational needs of a group of middle school students, who were refugees, newly arrived in the United States, now residing in a large urban school district in the northeastern United States, and learning English as a second language. This group remains unmentioned throughout the research literature despite the fact that English Language Learners (ELLs) represent the fastest growing group of K-12 students in the United States. The specific needs of this particular group were explored as I attempted daily to confront a variety of obstacles to their science achievement and help to facilitate the development of a scientific discourse. This research was done in an effort to better address the needs of ELLs in general and to inform best practices for teachers to apply across a variety of different cultural and linguistic subgroups. This study is an autoethnographic case study analysis of the practices of the researcher, working in a science classroom, teaching the described group of students.
Emerson, Tisha L. N.
One associate editor's perspective on classroom experiment articles is detailed in this article. The associate editor provides recommendations for manuscripts for the Instruction (those that describe new classroom experiments) and Research (those reporting studies into the efficacy of classroom experiments as a pedagogical tool) Sections of…
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one…
Students cannot learn in chaotic, badly managed classrooms. In the first years of teaching experiences, teachers revealed that novice teachers came to recognize the importance of discipline skills and classroom management for effective instruction. The purpose of the study was (i) to develop Science teachers' views towards classroom management…
One of the novel ideas in teaching that heavily relies on current technology is the “flipped classroom” approach. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. Students are provided with online material in order to gain necessary knowledge before class, while...... class time is devoted to clarifications and application of this knowledge. The hypothesis is that there could be deep and creative discussions when teacher and students physically meet. This paper presents design considerations for flipped classrooms, and discusses how Moodle can facilitate...... communication and information sharing in such classrooms. Furthermore, it provides guidelines for supporting out-of-class instruction in the flipped model by using quizzes and feedback in Moodle, and comments on the potential to follow student use of resources by using Moodle reports. This paper concludes...
Connor, Carol McDonald; Piasta, Shayne B; Fishman, Barry; Glasney, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher; Crowe, Elizabeth; Underwood, Phyllis; Morrison, Frederick J
Recent findings demonstrate that the most effective reading instruction may vary with children's language and literacy skills. These Child x Instruction interactions imply that individualizing instruction would be a potent strategy for improving students' literacy. A cluster-randomized control field trial, conducted in 10 high-moderate poverty schools, examined effects of individualizing literacy instruction. The instruction each first grader received (n = 461 in 47 classrooms, mean age = 6.7 years) during fall, winter, and spring was recorded. Comparing intervention-recommended amounts of instruction with observed amounts revealed that intervention teachers individualized instruction more precisely than did comparison teachers. Importantly, the more precisely the children received recommended amounts of instruction, the stronger was their literacy skill growth. Results provide strong evidence of Child x Instruction interaction effects on literacy outcomes. PMID:19236394
School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…
Full Text Available This research study focuses on teacher-student and student-student interaction, which are considered very important aspects of classroom life. There has been a growth of interest in the analysis of teacher language and interaction in language classrooms and many (e.g. Ellis, 1994; Tsui, 2001 believe that classroom interaction is one of the major variables affecting SLA in formal settings. This study aims to give some insight into classroom interaction and how this interaction shapes L2 learning and teaching in Turkey and England. Systematic classroom observation along with the field notes taken to record observations is the main research method in this study used to describe and examine interaction patterns and to measure learner production in secondary classes in Turkey and England. The participants are foreign language teachers and non-native speaking students. Over a month, more than 50 lessons were observed in the secondary schools in both Turkey and England at two levels (13-14 and 14-15 year age group. In Turkey, English classes were observed whereas in England, the observation was conducted in German and French classes. English is taught as a foreign language in Turkey; German and French are also taught as a foreign language in England. The findings of this research study are expected to provide a better understanding of instructional practices and procedures in L2 classrooms. The results of this research study, however, should be seen as suggestive rather than conclusive since they are derived from a relatively small sample.
Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R
Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. PMID:26809775
Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud
The current study set to examine the effects of simulator use in driving instruction on newly licensed drivers, comparing the road safety knowledge and reported intended behavior, as well as the actual driving performance of new drivers. Participants consisted of 280 newly licensed driver, of which 140 whose drivers license training included additional simulator-based lessons, and 140 drivers whose training precluded simulator-based lessons. All drivers answered questionnaires pertaining to their intended safe driving behaviors (according to Ajzen's (2000) theory of planned behavior), and to their traffic safety knowledge. Of the initial sample, 40 drivers received actual driving performance evaluation by an expert driving instructor, as well as by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs). We assumed that safer drivers report safer driving intentions, demonstrate greater traffic safety knowledge, evaluated as safer drivers by the driving instructor, and display lower and stable driving parameters on the IVDRs. We hypothesized that theoretical driving studies combined with practical training on simulators will elevate the safety level of novices driving. Hierarchical regression analyses on driving intentions indicated that drivers who did not receive simulator-based lessons demonstrated safer driving intentions compared to drivers who received simulator-based lessons. This pattern possibly indicating the drivers who received simulator-based lessons felt more confident in their driving abilities compared to drivers who did not receive simulated training. No significant difference was found in traffic safety knowledge, or in the evaluation of the expert driving instructor. IDVR data comparisons indicated drivers who received simulator-based lessons braked more often and were less prone to headway events, suggesting a more responsive driving style. These findings do not point to any significant advantage or disadvantage of the current simulator-based driving training over
Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.
's STEP Center in the geosciences. The module goals are: 1) Pre-service teachers will apply classification methods, testing procedures and interdisciplinary systems thinking to analyze and evaluate a relevant societal issue in the context of soils, 2) Pre-service teachers will design, develop, and facilitate a standards-based K-8 soils unit, incorporating a relevant broader societal issue that applies authentic geoscientific data, and incorporates geoscientific habits of mind. In addition, pre-service teachers will look toward the NGSS and align activities with content standards, systems thinking, and science and engineering practices. This poster will provide an overview of module development to date as well as a summary of pre-semester survey results indicating pre-service elementary teachers' ideas (beliefs, attitudes, preconceptions, and content knowledge) about teaching soils, and making science relevant in a K-8 classroom.
Lang, Russell; Shogren, Karrie A.; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; O'Reilly, Mark; Baker, Sonia; Regester, April
Classroom rules are an integral part of classroom management. Children with Asperger's may require systematic instruction to learn classroom rules, but may be placed in classrooms in which the rules are not explicitly taught. A multiple baseline design across students with probes for maintenance after the intervention ceased was used to evaluate…
Strayer, Jeremy F.; Hart, James B.; Bleiler, Sarah K.
In this article, we share a model of flipped instruction that allowed us to gain a window into our students' mathematical thinking. We depict how that increased awareness of student thinking shaped our mathematics instruction in productive ways. Drawing on our experiences with students in our own classrooms, we show how flipped instruction can be…
Describes how the author puts people in place to deal with the technology in order to allow teachers to focus on the content and the instruction. Notes how Weblogs allow anyone to publish on the Internet. Describes a variety of uses for Weblogs in the classroom. (SG)
Powell, Rebecca, Ed.; Rightmyer, Elizabeth, Ed.
The Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) is a framework for implementing culturally relevant literacy instruction and classroom observation. Drawing on research and theory reflecting a range of perspectives--multicultural instruction, literacy theory, equity pedagogy, language and discourse models, sheltered instruction,…
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one group of educators exploring the flipped classroom. In foreign language classes, such an approach may offer great benefits for both the teachers and ...
Prefume, Yuko Enomoto
A flipped classroom approach promotes active learning and increases teacher-student interactions by maximizing face-to-face class time (Hamdan, McKnight, Mcknight, Arfstrom, & Arfstrom, 2013). In this study, "flipped classroom" is combined with the use of technology and is described as an instructional approach that provides lectures…
Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…
This article concerns issues of classroom management in heterogeneous classrooms. Although research in the field of learning styles has yielded mixed results, there is a call for information about how they could be used to individualize instruction, especially in primary schools. This article is part of an ethnographic study aiming to examine…
Khalil, Mahmood; Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel
In this paper a conceptual model of instruction "the six mirrors of the classroom" used as a frame for teaching a learning topic, the microorganisms are depicted. The paper consists of four sections: (a) the six mirrors of the classroom model (SMC); (b) the SMC as implemented in the expository and cooperative modes of instruction in classrooms and…
Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...
Kramer, Barton Hale
Discipline in the classroom has been a concern of educators and the general public for years. Numerous programs have been developed to help the classroom teacher with his/her classroom Management. These programs present skills that when properly applied could help to reduce the problems of classroom discipline. One program in particular, the Classroom Management Training Program (CMTP), has stated that the skills of positive instruction and positive discipline will hel...
Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.
This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.
The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI) has emerged,intending to bring language forms instruction back to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types ...
Kugelmass, J W
Because every classroom in American schools contains heterogeneous groups of students, inclusion is more than an issue of concern just for special educators. This article provides examples of elementary classrooms that have adopted the Foxfire approach to instruction as a means of developing learning communities that serve all children. The teachers who are described turned to learner-centered instruction not as a method to promote the inclusion of children with learning disabilities, but, rather, as a means of providing optimal learning experiences for all their students. The rationale for developing elementary classrooms that are learner-centered communities is explored, and specific examples of instructional approaches are provided.
Kendall, Arthur J.; Solomon, Daniel
Although classroom "openness" has been much discussed in recent years, there has been little effort to investigate to what degree this openness occurs within a general sample of classrooms. The purpose of this study is to identify significant attributes of classroom activity and organization relevant to the concepts of "traditional" and "open" and…
Discusses the main goal of this workshop, which is to show how the use of information literacy and instructional design theory and skills have been easily integrated into the normal classroom routine in one Ohio school district. (LRW)
Youngkin, C Andrew
The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services. PMID:25316072
Youngkin, C Andrew
The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services.
Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H
Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the e
From drill-and-practice software,to word-processing programs,to network and hypertext software,the gradual integration of technology in classrooms over the last twenty years has tended to reflect the technological developments and more importantly the theories of learning and instruction developed by scholars.Thus,the introduction of network technologies in education coincided with a shift in education from an interest in cognitive and developmental theories of learning to a social and collaborative view of learning.The present paper focuses on synchronous computer-mediated interaction,namely computer-assisted instruction and discussion in the second language classroom.
Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”
Considers the teaching of grammar and its importance in the writing classroom. Examines what grammar is; why writing instruction has moved away from grammar; differing opinions regarding grammar and writing instruction; and grammar's place in the writing classroom of the new century. Argues that grammar must be applied to students' own writing.…
Burchinal, Margaret; Field, Samuel; Lopez, Michael L.; Howes, Carollee; Pianta, Robert
This study examined associations between classroom quality, amount of instruction in Spanish, and academic learning of Spanish-speaking 4 years-olds. Findings suggest that gains in reading and math were larger when children received more instruction in Spanish in classrooms with more responsive and sensitive teachers. It is possible that…
Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin
The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. PMID:26310799
California State Dept. of Motor Vehicles, Sacramento.
The development of a 6-hour motorcycle course of instruction for personnel responsible for motorcycle licensing is described in this project report. The primary goals are stated and include (1) training driver licensing personnel in motorcycle safety and principles of operation, and (2) purchasing and installing appropriate motorcycle skill…
How is that you can walk into a classroom and gain an overall sense of the quality of math instruction taking place there? What contributes to getting that sense? In "Math Sense," Chris Moynihan explores some of the components that comprise the look, sound, and feel of effective teaching and learning. Does the landscape of the classroom feature…
Hange, Jane; Rolfe, Helen
This paper reports on the 30th study group sponsored by the Appalachia Education Laboratory's (AEL) Classroom Instruction Program. Twenty-three K-12 teachers worked in seven teams in six schools throughout Virginia to design and implement classroom interdisciplinary curriculum units with accompanying alternative assignments. Project research…
Knight, Courteney Lester
Although research has concluded that technology can enhance the teaching and learning processes, teachers have not yet fully adopted technology to support their teaching methodologies. In the last decade or so, as the accessible gap narrowed, the focus switched to other factors. This study attempts to answer the question: Why teachers do not fully…
Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kiuru, Noona
Classroom research has typically focused on the role of teaching practices and the quality of instruction in children's academic performance, motivation and adjustment--in other words, classroom interactions initiated by the teacher. The present article presents a model of classroom interactions initiated by the child, that is, the notion that a…
Balaban, Rita A.; Gilleskie, Donna B.; Tran, Uyen
This research provides evidence that the flipped classroom instructional format increases student final exam performance, relative to the traditional instructional format, in a large lecture principles of economics course. The authors find that the flipped classroom directly improves performance by 0.2 to 0.7 standardized deviations, depending on…
Vossler, W. [Kinetic Safety Consulting Inc., Grande Prairie, AB (Canada)
Skid avoidance training is a recent approach to driver training and has been employed in various countries with a high degree of success. Among top ranked countries, motor vehicle incidents trends indicate higher incident rates among drivers are often due to lack of knowledge, experience and risk awareness. If lowered age limit experience is attained under direct supervision and in safe training conditions, it was suggested, incident frequency is reduced. A Norway study confirmed an increase in vehicle incident rates after drivers had received skid control training. The drivers were unable to maintain skill levels needed to react to critical driving tasks and had unrealistic expectations of skill after training. However, a skid avoidance training program launched in Sweden in 1999 has resulted in a 50 per cent reduction of vehicle incidents in the last 2 years. Details of the Skidcar System were presented, including details of the driving simulator, where simulation of actual driving situations is achieved by simply adjusting the amount of grip the vehicle has with the driving surface. Instructors modify driving behaviors based upon the driver's ability to maintain grip. There are over 200 units in North America. In addition, a Proactive Light Vehicle Driver Training/ Heavy Vehicle Assessment Program was initiated in 2003, with a motor vehicle incident rate reduction of 50 per cent at the end of 2004. Various examples of situations in which drivers have used their skid avoidance skills to avoid incidents were included. It was noted that the trend among driver training professionals has been towards decision-based rather than skills-based training, as skills-based training will diminish over time, and requires frequent re-training periods. Cognitive and perceptual skills were examined, as well as cognitive, associative and autonomous learning phases. It was concluded that skid avoidance is largely a decision-based skill. tabs, figs.
Goodwin, Deborah; Webb, Mary Ann
A review of available books, articles and on-line resources which deal with "Research-Based Instructional Strategies" will produce a plethora of materials which promote the effectiveness of these strategies on student achievement. Also, a perusal of classroom instruction and teacher evaluation instruments will reveal that many of the…
This Digest reviews the literature on recent attempts to incorporate technology into the instruction of journalism and mass communication. It first discusses the four main categories of current technology use in journalism and mass communication: classroom instruction; online syllabi/materials; distance learning; and technological literacy. It…
Kay, Robin; Knaack, Liesel; Muirhead, Bill
To date, limited research has been done examining and evaluating the instructional wrap for using learning objects effectively. The current study examined instructional strategies used by 15 teachers to integrate learning objects into 30 secondary school classrooms (510 students). Four key areas were examined: preparation time, purpose for using a…
Munroe, Myra D.
Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors contributing to student learning (Marzano et al., 2005). Understanding the role of emotional intelligence in instructional leadership behaviors with a focus on establishing expectations for student academic success provides valuable information about practices…
Culturally responsive instruction appears to offer the potential to improve students' academic achievement and chances for success in school. However, it is not easy to see how culturally responsive instruction can be applied, especially in classrooms with students of many different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. In the first section of this…
Zumbrunn, Sharon; Krause, Keegan
Findings from research demonstrate that student writing proficiency and classroom writing instruction is a national concern (Applebee & Langer, 2006, 2009; Graham, Harris, Fink-Chorzempa, & MacArthur, 2003; Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). This qualitative study explored principles of effective writing instruction through the perspectives of leading…
In theory, language teaching today should be entirely monolingual-using target language as the medium of instruction.ciency' (Brice 2000). This paper is devoted to exploring the theoretical justification for the existence of code switching and the pedagogical purposes for the use of it in EFL classroom, with a hope to raise EFT teachers' awareness of the actual use of code switching in classroom and help them develop an appropriate attitude towards its role in EFL teaching.
TAN, ESTHER; Rusman, Ellen
This part of the symposium focuses on the design of seamless learning experiences in a borderless classroom. There are two parts to this symposium. We start with unpacking various theoretical approaches that inform the instructional design of boundary-crossing learning scenarios, such as social learning theory, experiential learning, situated cognition and theory of play. We then identify critical design elements for connecting in-and-out of classroom learning experiences, such as learning th...
Pianta, Robert C.; Belsky, Jay; Houts, Renate; Morrison, Fred
Observations in 737 5th-grade classrooms reveal high amounts of basic skills instruction in reading and math as whole-group or individual-seatwork, delivered with mediocre instructional quality. Cooperative learning, technology, social studies or science are rare. Observed opportunities show little association with features of teachers or schools. Across 1st, 3rd and 5th grades, classroom quality is low if children are poor or are low on achievement; for others quality is inconsistent across ...
The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g
Vance, Kate O'Brien
This article discusses how several simple adaptations in the music classroom can greatly enhance dyslexic students' learning. The sections included in this article are: (1) What Is Dyslexia?; (2) Students with Dyslexia; (3) What to Look for; (4) Adapting Instruction; (5) Reading Notation; and (6) Motor Skills. A list of practical adaptations; and…
Following the guidelines given in the "White Book on Intercultural Dialogue," this article reflects on whether the use of the Complex Instruction (CI) model would create the conditions for a more equal dialogue in educational contexts. An ethnographic study was carried out in four Italian primary school classrooms to explore how this…
Rupley, William H.; Logan, John W.; Nichols, William D.
Explores the role of vocabulary in reading development and suggests some classroom-tested approaches for nurturing students' vocabulary development and interest. Discusses vocabulary growth, vocabulary and concept development, and active processing of vocabulary. Discusses applications and examples of active-process vocabulary instruction,…
Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer
Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…
The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.
Osburne, Andrea G.
Situational leadership can be used in the English-as-a-Second-Language classroom to help students accept and adapt to instructional innovation. Leadership style is determined by the leader's task (directive) and relationship (supportive) behavior and by the classroom environment. Follower readiness is both job-related and psychological. Case…
Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Siekkinen, Martti
The present study set out to identify and examine dialogic educational interactions in Finnish pre-school classrooms. Video recordings of five observed pre-school classrooms that had shown a high or moderate quality of instructional support in literacy, maths and science studies were transcribed for micro-scale qualitative content analysis. Three…
Using microlectures in a flipped classroom is a growing trend. In this media review, the benefits of microlectures for such classrooms are discussed, including how they can be used to help students become more responsible for their learning, as well as how they can be used by teachers to provide differentiated instruction. A list of resources for…
The flipped classroom approach was implemented across three semesters of a College Algebra course. This paper is part of a larger design and development research study and focuses on student perceptions of the flipped classroom teaching approach. Qualitative methodology was used to describe how students perceived the instruction of their College…
With the growing need to make the curriculum accessible to students with special needs, there has been an increase in the inclusion of special education students with learning disabilities in general education classroom. The major challenge that has faced teachers in inclusive classrooms is using instructional strategies that will accommodate the…
Salend, Spencer J.
Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…
Furtak, Erin Marie; Morrison, Deb; Kroog, Heidi
An increasing number of researchers are calling for learning progressions to be used as interpretive frameworks for teachers conducting classroom assessment. The argument posits that by linking classroom assessments to learning progressions, teachers will have better resources to interpret and take instructional action on the basis of what…
Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim
Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…
Lopez, Omar S.
This article advances a theory of educational productivity based on a paradigm of classroom diversification that defines a strategic view of the education production process. The paradigm's underlying premise is that classroom student performance, and the instructional interactions that produce such outcomes, depend on economies derived from the…
Chandler, Carolyn Ebel
Newspapers can be inexpensive and useful tools in the literacy classroom, but newspapers written for native English speakers are not always appropriate for English-as-as-Second-Language (ESL) students. Adapting the newspaper to classroom instruction is a natural way to introduce students to cultural and linguistic concepts. The newspaper can be…
Classroom management is perhaps one of the most difficult aspects of an elementary teacher's job. Most focus on discipline when they think about managing a classroom, but much more is involved. Without an effectively managed classroom, teachers face a loss of instructional time, and experience stress and feelings of inadequacy (Sayeski &…
The flipped classroom seeks to remove didactic instruction from the classroom and deliver it via electronic videos outside of the classroom, leaving contact time free for more interactive and engaging teaching and learning activities. This paper has two distinct aims: (1) to conduct a literature review of published UK-based "flipped…
Nelson, Angela C.
It is widely recognized that technology in the classroom has the potential to transform education at every stage from Pre-K, to K-12, to Higher Education and Adult Education. Using the Digital Teaching Platform as an exemplar of 21st Century classroom instruction style, the author offers an overview of classroom technology and its effects on…
Foley, Brian J.; Reveles, John M.
The prevalence of computers in the classroom is compelling teachers to develop new instructional skills. This paper provides a theoretical perspective on an innovative pedagogical approach to science teaching that takes advantage of technology to create a connected classroom. In the connected classroom, students collaborate and share ideas in…
Reviews topical and methodological trends in the past 85 years of research on language classrooms in "The Modern Language Journal." Focus is on empirical investigations into oral classroom instruction in post-secondary classes, which include comparisons of language teaching methodology, observational procedures in classrooms, examinations of…
Sam Van Horne; Cecilia Murniati; Jon D. H. Gaffney; Maggie Jesse
In this case study, the authors describe the successful implementation of technology-infused TILE classrooms at the University of Iowa. A successful collaboration among campus units devoted to instructional technologies and teacher development, the TILE Initiative has provided instructors with a new set of tools to support active learning. The authors detail the implementation of the TILE classrooms, the process of training instructors to design effective instruction for these classrooms, and...
Wertheim, Cheruta; Leyser, Yona
Examined efficacy beliefs and choices of differentiated instructional strategies needed for effective teaching in inclusive classrooms. Israeli preservice teachers completed teacher efficacy scale and instructional strategy scales. Overall, personal teaching efficacy related to choice of instruction, but teaching efficacy did not. Participants…
Rubie, Christine; Wilkinson, Ian; Parr, Judy; Townsend, Michael
Grouping of students for instruction is an organizational pattern that is commonplace in literacy instruction in classrooms. A debate exists, however, about whether instruction is more effective when groups are heterogeneous or homogeneous with regard to student ability. A study aimed to provide a description of the grouping practices of New…
Swicegood, Philip; Miller, Melinda
Literacy instruction for students with mild to moderate special needs should include authentic literature. Literature-based reading instruction provides time for students to develop new knowledge and strategies in a supportive context. When reading instruction occurs in an inclusion classroom, it also allows time for general education and special…
Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy
To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…
Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Sprick, Randy
Highly accessible and user-friendly, this book focuses on helping K-12 teachers increase their use of classroom management strategies that work. It addresses motivational aspects of teacher consultation that are essential, yet often overlooked. The Classroom Check-Up is a step-by-step model for assessing teachers' organizational, instructional,…
The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce
Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed
Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise
Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....
Pomerantz, Andrew M.; Santanello, Cathy R.; Kirn, Kim L.
The primary goal of classroom assessment is the improvement of student learning rather than the evaluation of teaching through observation. Many formative assessment techniques, including the group instructional feedback technique (GIFT), electronic mail feedback, and small group instructional diagnosis, carry an implicit or explicit promise of…
Small group instruction is important yet it is one of the most underused strategies in early childhood classrooms. This paper presents guidelines based on research-based best practices for using small groups in early childhood. In addition, the benefits of small group instruction for both children and teachers are described. Specific suggestions…
Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E.
Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of…
Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.
Middle level educators around the country aim to create a classroom environment and a way of teaching that is developmentally responsive, challenging, empowering, and equitable for every student. One way to ensure this is to include instruction that promotes creativity. This article offers guiding principles and shares instructional lessons that…
Taede Tillema, Jaco Berveling, George Gelauff, Jan van der Waard, Lucas Harms en Harry Derriks
Self-driving cars can change our society radically. Whether that happens depends on how much the car can actually do itself, but also on what the consumer wants. Will cars become a luxury second home or does a car driver remain a necessity? Also the sharing-economy has an impact. If many people will share self-driving vehicles and rides, this may change the traffic and transport system fundamentally.These are some of the conclusions of the report 'Driver at the wheel - Self-driving vehicles a...
A new wave of "road killers", or new drivers, on Beijing's streets has prompted traffic authorities to do something to make driving tests more difficult. This year, the move has targeted new drivers to keep them from posing a threat, the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau says. The new test has been adopted citywide and the average pass rate is down to 50 per cent from a previous 80 per cent, at the city's 22 test centers, said Jiang Jing, a bureau press officer. The test now has six mandatory items chosen r...
Koch, H B
The advantages of using audiovisual instructional techniques in training programs for nurses were noted and administrative strategies for encouraging the effective use of educational technology were provided. Audiovisual instructional techniques can enhance classroom learning, create opportunity for individualized learning programs, and can serve as an effective tool for monitoring and supervising clinical training. In the classroom situation, audiovisual techniques should be incorporated as a basic instructional tool and not simply used to occasionally supplement traditional learning techniques. The use of these tools can free the teacher for more personalized teaching tasks. Educational technology permits instructors to develop individualized learning programs for their students. Students can progress at their own pace and students can learn to manage their own learning process. Audiovisual tools can be used to monitor student-patient interactions. Supervisors can monitor the work of a larger number of students with these devices. These devices also permit students to reexamine and to judge their own performance. Administrations should not view educational technology as a way to reduce costs. Costs will not decline and may, at least initially, increase. Administrators should purchase equipment to fit the needs of the faculty and the students instead of expecting the faculty to develop programs suited to particular types of equipment. The faculty should be provided with assistance to learn how to operate the new equipment. PMID:45869
Please note that the Safety Instructions N0 37 rev. 3 (IS 37 rev. 3) entitled ""LEVEL-3" SAFETY ALARMS AND ALARM SYSTEMS" Is available on the web at the following URL: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335802 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: email@example.com TIS Secretariat
Hoglund, Wendy L G; Klingle, Kirsten E; Hosan, Naheed E
The current paper presents two related sets of findings on the classroom context in high needs elementary schools. First, we investigated change over one school term in teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) and classroom quality (emotional and instructional support, organization) and assessed the degree to which burnout and classroom quality co-varied over the term with each other and with aggregate externalizing behaviors (average child externalizing behaviors in the classroom). These analyses describe the classroom context in which the children are nested. Second, we examined change over one school term in children's social adjustment (relationship quality with teachers and friends) and academic adjustment (school engagement, literacy skills) and assessed how adjustment co-varied over time with child externalizing behaviors and was predicted by teacher burnout, classroom quality and aggregate externalizing behaviors. These models were tested with a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse children in kindergarten to grade 3 and their teachers. The children and teachers were assessed three times over one school term. Personal accomplishment co-varied positively with overall classroom quality. Reciprocally, classroom organization co-varied positively with overall teacher burnout. Aggregate externalizing behaviors co-varied positively with depersonalization and negatively with personal accomplishment and overall classroom quality, including emotional support and organization. In turn, teacher burnout interacted with aggregate externalizing behaviors to predict change in child social and academic adjustment. Alternatively, classroom quality interacted with aggregate and child externalizing behaviors to predict change in child social and academic adjustment. PMID:26407833
Samuels, Natan; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird
We describe changes in a physics teacher's pedagogy and cultural awareness that resulted from her students' involvement in reforming their classroom. For this case study, we examined a veteran high school teacher's semester-long use of CMPLE (the Cogenerative Mediation Process for Learning Environments) in her Modeling Instruction classroom. CMPLE is a formative intervention designed to help students and instructors collaborate to change classroom dynamics, based on how closely the environment matches their learning preferences. Analysis of classroom videos, interviews, and other artifacts indicates that adapting the environment to align with the preferences of that shared culture affected the instructor in complex ways. We will trace her teaching practices and her self-described awareness of the culture of learning, to highlight notable changes. The teacher espoused deeper understanding of her students' physics learning experience, which she gained from including students in responding to their own individual and collective learning preferences.
In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be adequ
Taede Tillema, Jaco Berveling, George Gelauff, Jan van der Waard, Lucas Harms en Harry Derriks
Self-driving cars can change our society radically. Whether that happens depends on how much the car can actually do itself, but also on what the consumer wants. Will cars become a luxury second home or does a car driver remain a necessity? Also the sharing-economy has an impact. If many people will
... Powerful In Driving Restrictions: Study - Nature World News Pokemon Go and distracted driving | WWLP.com - wwlp.com The ... for earlier curfew for teen drivers - WGRZ.com Pokémon GO continues to raise distracted driving worries - Wisconsin Radio ...
Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…
Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry
A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 "Classic Chemistry Demonstrations" (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61-2, French and Hibbert 2010 "Phys. Educ." 45 221-2). The method…
Blair, Erik; Maharaj, Chris; Primus, Simone
Changes in the conceptualisation of higher education have led to instructional methods that embrace technology as a teaching medium. These changes have led to the flipped classroom phenomenon--where content is delivered outside class, through media such as video and podcast, and engagement with the content, through problem-solving and/or group…
Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee
This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will…
Numerous research studies prove that wide reading improves children's comprehension, background knowledge, vocabulary, fluency, and writing. The author, a sixth-grade language arts teacher, describes the classroom conditions and instructional practices that encourage wide reading and increase her students' reading motivation such as choice in…
Tran, Thu H.
The vast majority of second language teachers feels confident about their instructional performance and does not usually have much difficulty with their teaching thanks to their professional training and accumulated classroom experience. Nonetheless, many second language teachers may not have received sufficient training in test development to…
Hein, George E.
Essay which argues that the new instructional materials often lose their vitality by being fitted into a static curriculum. The author states: "We must go much farther than we have in both bringing 'stuff' into the classroom and using it there. The only hope of significant change in students' long-term attitudes, competence and self-reliance rests…
The Iowa Board of Regents requires faculty to present a disclaimer when classroom instructional materials include sexually explicit content and allow students to complete alternative assignments. Some feel the policy strikes a healthy balance between academic freedom and student choice; others see it as giving students undue authority. (MSE)
Tan, Esther; Rusman, Ellen
This part of the symposium focuses on the design of seamless learning experiences in a borderless classroom. There are two parts to this symposium. We start with unpacking various theoretical approaches that inform the instructional design of boundary-crossing learning scenarios, such as social lear
Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.
One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…
Discusses the use of a shortwave radio in the geography classroom as a means of making instruction more meaningful to students. Presents a lesson plan, for use in elementary and secondary schools, which is designed to introduce students to various cultures, ideas, and information while activating interest in current events. (GEA)
Debora Tri Ragawanti
Classroom management is commonly believed to be the key to the success of an instruction. Many student teachers, however, might find it very challenging to handle their classrooms. It is, therefore, necessary to advance their professional practice in the context of a real classroom such as through teaching practicum and reflective practice. This study is aimed at identifying classroom management problems of student-teachers as revealed in their reflective journal entries and to demonstrate ho...
With the invention of World Wide Web in 1992, delivery of distance education via internet and emergency of web-based classrooms have rapidly gained acceptance as an alternative and supplement to traditional face to face classroom instruction (Alavi, Yoo & Vogel, 1997; Rahm & Reed, 1997), which represents a paradigm shift challenging all traditionally accepted assumptions concerning dynamics of classroom management. Classroom is highly complicated environment with its features of multi...
This report on the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting held at Osaka, Japan, 15-19 April, 1991, contains (1) an overview of the meeting, (2) a technical summary of the meeting, including short discussions on requirements of the driver, candidate drivers, national programme of driver development, and (3) topical summaries of the sessions (solid state lasers, gas lasers, reactor design and new concepts)
textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries. Furtherm
Robert Joseph McKee
Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages...
Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.
As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.
Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.
The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.
Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation . The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes . While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments . This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.
The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.
V. B. Yashan
Full Text Available The article describes the various types of biotechnical systems of transport security, that often called by general title "Antison. Their main disadvantage is the uncertainty of detecting drowsiness phase of driver’s state and the absence of biological feedbacks, that providing control of functional parameters of a human-driver in a mode of adaptation. Structurally, these systems are complicated by the presence of contact with the driver of sensors that restrict the freedom of his movements. There is described experiment, which was carried out in Greece in 2008, and where tested different types of systems which include motion sensors, EEG monitoring for the eyes, the recognition of road markings, control automotive electrical system. The results showed the feasibility of using sleep prevent devices.
Killion, Cheryl M; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan; Reilly, Janet
E-learning, increasingly employed in nursing education, has been embraced as a means to enhance options for all students, particularly those with limited educational opportunities. Although a desire to increase access for underserved students is often cited, disparities in availability, usage, and quality of e-learning persist among diverse households and student populations when compared to the general population. In this article, these issues will be examined along with reflection on the extent to which culture has been integrated into on-line design and instruction. Historical and cultural aspects, circumscribing virtual classrooms, are discussed using African Americans as an exemplar. The imperative to harness the democratizing potential of this educational format is underscored. In this article, culture will be examined in light of the significant growth in on-line nursing education over the past several decades. PMID:26428346
Sunny S. J. Lin
Full Text Available 無First reviews the development of Computer. Assisted Instruction (CAI in Taiwan. This study describes the training of teachers from different levels of schools to design CAI coursewares, and the planning of CAI courseware bank possesses 2,000 supplemental coursewares. Some CAI's c1assroom application system should be carefully established to prevent the easy abuse of a CAI courseware as an instructional plan. The study also claims to steer CAI in our elemantary and secondary education could rely on the mastery learning as the instructional plan. In this case, CAI must limit its role as the formative test and remedial material only. In the higher education , the Keller's Personalized System of Instruction could be an effective c1assroom management system. Therefore, CAI will offer study guide and formative test only. Using these 2 instructional system may enhance student's achievement , and speed up the learning rate at the same time. Combining with individualized instruction and CAI will be one of the most workable approach in current c1assroom . The author sets up an experiment 10 varify their effectiveness and efficiency in the near future.
Closing the Mathematical Achievement Gap through the Heart to the Brain: A Case Study of Urban High School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of How Their Emotional Intelligence Facilitates Instruction and Learning in the Classroom
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine urban high school mathematics teachers' perceptions of how they manage their own and their students' emotional intelligence (EI) to facilitate instruction and learning; their reports of how they handle their emotions as urban mathematics teachers; and their reports of how they manage the…
Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.
To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.
The flipped classroom changes the traditional teaching sequence of knowledge’s indoctrination and internalization,which exerts considerable influence on the innovations of the college English teaching mode.Based on the significance of the flipped classroom in English teaching,the paper discusses how to design micro-lectures with ADDIE model in college English speaking class.%“翻转课堂”教学将传统教学模式中知识传授和知识内化两个阶段的顺序进行了翻转，对创新大学英语教学模式具有十分重要的意义。大学英语口语课可以借鉴教学设计理论中的 ADDIE 模型，通过微课的设计实现翻转。
Full Text Available This paper deals with a representational and conditional approach regarding norms. In the framework of social representations, conditionality is linked to individual practices or behaviors. Taking a questionnaire based on conditional scenarios that permitted to articulate individual and group behaviors to the prescriptions of Highway Code, two studies manipulating instructions with samples of young drivers were designed. The first study confirmed that conditional transgressions declared through individual practices refer to what young drivers fell acceptable to contravene. In the second study, substitution instructions i.e., to answer at the scenario “to be well-seen by yours friends” or “to be badly-seen by yours friends”, and standard instructions (e.g., “response as you behave”, were administrated, using a scenario of speed limit, to study the influence of norms in subjects’ responses. A multiple regression analysis showed that the responses were mediated by normative models. In conclusion, the studies illustrated an important complementary aspect of road safety concerning the social perception of rules, the influence of normative models and theirs impacts on young driver behavior.
Davis, Tonya N.; Dacus, Sharon; Bankhead, Jenna; Haupert, Megan; Fuentes, Lisa; Zoch, Tamara; Kang, Soyeon; Attai, Shanna; Lang, Russell
In this study we analyzed the effects of a self-monitoring and self-monitoring plus reinforcement intervention on classroom behavior. A typically-developing high school student demonstrating difficulty staying on-task during classroom instruction was observed in three classroom settings associated with high levels of off-task behavior. During…
Aitken, Claudia Jean
This practicum set up a classroom-based model for peer mediation in grades 3 and 4. During the project's implementation, the school psychologist delivered, individually to each of 6 different third and fourth-grade classrooms, 8 weeks of classroom instruction on conflict resolution. When all 6 classes were familiar with conflict resolution…
Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Ze; Newcomer, Lori; King, Kathleen
Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors…
Tatana M. Olson
Full Text Available As the use of Web-based instruction increases in the educational and training domains, many people have recognized the importance of evaluating its effects on student outcomes such as learning, performance, and satisfaction. Often, these results are compared to those of conventional classroom instruction in order to determine which method is “better.” However, major differences in technology and presentation rather than instructional content can obscure the true relationship between Web-based instruction and these outcomes. Computer-based instruction (CBI, with more features similar to Web-based instruction, may be a more appropriate benchmark than conventional classroom instruction. Furthermore, there is little consensus as to what variables should be examined or what measures of learning are the most appropriate, making comparisons between studies difficult and inconclusive. In this article, we review the historical findings of CBI as an appropriate benchmark to Web-based instruction. In addition, we review 47 reports of evaluations of Web-based courses in higher education published between 1996 and 2002. A tabulation of the documented findings into eight characteristics is offered, along with our assessments of the experimental designs, effect sizes, and the degree to which the evaluations incorporated features unique to Web-based instruction.
Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated
Stevens, Jacqueline; And Others
Describes five classroom activities or projects used in Canadian social studies classes. Includes discussions of the use of artifacts, a field trip to Spain, a simulation of the Earth Summit meeting, and the application of mahatma Gandhi's philosophy to current problems. (CFR)
This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…
Baumann, Martin; Colonius, Hans; Hungar, Hardi; Köster, Frank; Langner, Michael; Lüdtke, Andreas; Möbus, Claus; Peinke, Joachim; Puch, Stefan; Schiessl, Carola; Steenken, Rieke; Weber, Lars
The project IMoST addresses the problem of capturing the behavior of a car driver in an executable model enabling design-time predictions of the interplay between driver, assistance system and car in realistic traffic scenarios. To this end, a generic cognitive model is instantiated and extended based on data gathered in targeted simulator experiments. The considered example scenario covers the entering of an expressway, with possible support for the driver in the form of an intelligent assis...
Spada, Nina; Lyster, Roy
Describes the development and organization of the Colt (Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching) observation scheme and Lyster and Ranta's (1997) error treatment model, instruments including predetermined categories to describe features of instructional input and interaction in second language classrooms. Concludes that the choice of…
Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Piotr Bahia; ayarei（译）
设备驱动漏洞现在正在增长成为Windows和其他操作系统安全的主要威胁。这是一个新领域，很少有公开的技术文档讲述这个方面。据我所知，第一个windows设备驱动攻击是由SEC-LABS小组在win32 Device Drivers Communication Vulnerabilities白皮书中提到的。
Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.
The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…
Tiffany Ko; Marie Tejero Hughes
Reading comprehension is a significant concern for adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), particularly in secondary schools in the United States (US) where content is taught primarily through textbooks. Surprisingly little is known about the actual reading instruction for students with LD in secondary classrooms. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the reading comprehension instruction in US secondary special education classrooms. Eight special education teachers in urban hig...
Wallén Warner, Henriette
Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...
Rajiv Kumar Singh; Hari Shankar Joshi
A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, ...
Berg, Uwe; Wojke, Philipp; Zöbel, Dieter
Backing up tractors with trailers is a difficult task since the kinematic behavior of articulated vehicles is complex and hard to control. Especially unskilled drivers are overstrained with the complicated steering process. To learn and practice the steering behavior of articulated vehicles, we developed a 3D driving simulator. The simulator can handle different types of articulated vehicles like semi-trailers, one- and two-axle trailers, or gigaliners. The use of a driving simulator offers many advantages over the use of real vehicles. One of the main advantages is the possibility to learn the steering behavior of all vehicle types. Drivers can be given more and better driving instructions like collision warnings or steering hints. Furthermore, the driver training costs can be reduced. Moreover, mistakes of the student do not lead to real damages and costly repairs. The hardware of the simulator consists of a low cost commercial driving stand with original truck parts, a projection of the windshield and two flat panel monitors for the left and right exterior mirrors. Standard PC hardware is used for controlling the driving stand and for generating the realtime 3D environment. Each aspect of the simulation like realistic vehicle movements or generation of different views, is handled by a specific software module. This flexible system can be easily extended which offers the opportunity for other uses than just driver training. Therefore, we use the simulator for the development and test of driver assistance systems.
Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.
Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.
Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm
There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200
Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm
There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.
As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 (Omega) load with pulse duration of 1.5 μs FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred
Osborn, Jeremy; Team, AGI Creative
Dreamweaver CS4 Digital Classroom is like having a personal instructor guiding readers through each lesson, while they work at their own pace. This book includes 13 self-paced lessons that let readers discover essential skills and explore new features and capabilities of Adobe Dreamweaver CS4. Each lesson is presented in full color with step-by-step instructions. Learning is reinforced with video tutorials and lesson files on a companion DVD that were developed by the same team of Adobe Certified Instructors and Dreamweaver experts who have created many of the official training titles for Adob
Osborn, Jeremy; Heald, Greg
Learning Dreamweaver is a dream with this instructional book-and-video training package! Dreamweaver CS5 Digital Classroom covers Dreamweaver CS5 and Dreamweaver CS5.5. Adobe Dreamweaver allows you to easily create robust Web sites without needing extensive programming knowledge or skills. The latest version of Dreamweaver boasts enhanced capabilities and this exciting book-and-downloadable video training package makes learning the new features of Dreamweaver less intimidating. Sixteen self-paced lessons explain how to design, develop, and maintain a fully functioning si
McGuire, Joan M.
Shifts in enrollment patterns are affecting college classrooms and elements of teaching ranging from options for delivering course materials online to multiple methods of assessing learning. With the enrollment of more diverse college learners comes a call to intentionally design instruction that is more inclusive and responsive to multiple learning styles. The notion of Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) is examined from its roots in the architectural field to its application as a model ...
Frey, Rick Chan
Decodable books based on previous classroom instruction are the most frequently used texts for 1st grade reading instruction in public schools, yet no empirical studies exist demonstrating their efficacy or their benefits for beginning readers. This study attempts to address this gap in the research literature by analyzing the reading behaviors of a group of 1st grade students reading the decodable texts included as part of the 1st grade reading curriculum in a large public, urban school dist...
随着信息技术的不断发展，当今社会已经进入到了信息化时代。在课堂教学中，传统的教学模式在信息技术的冲击下受到很大影响，开始得到转变．作为中学阶段重要学科的物理课应该与时俱进。跟上时代的步伐。本文将就高中物理课堂教学网络化实施的必要性及具体的发展对策等问题进行探讨。%With the continuous development of information technology, today＇s society has entered the information age. In classroom teaching, the traditional teaching mode under the impact of information technology has been greatly affected, began to get change. The most important subjects for middle school physics course should keep pace with the times, keep pace with the times. This article on the high school physics classroom teaching network implementation necessity and specific development countermeasure are discussed.
Les contributions de la psychologie cognitive a l'enseignement strategique des langues secondes au niveau universitaire (The Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to Strategic Second Language Instruction at the University Level).
Contributions of the field of cognitive psychology to second language instruction are reviewed. It is proposed that these concepts can contribute not only to classroom language instruction, but also to methodology of language teacher education. (MSE)
Gilboy, Mary Beth; Heinerichs, Scott; Pazzaglia, Gina
The flipped classroom is an innovative pedagogical approach that focuses on learner-centered instruction. The purposes of this report were to illustrate how to implement the flipped classroom and to describe students' perceptions of this approach within 2 undergraduate nutrition courses. The template provided enables faculty to design before, during, and after class activities and assessments based on objectives using all levels of Bloom's taxonomy. The majority of the 142 students completing the evaluation preferred the flipped method compared with traditional pedagogical strategies. The process described in the report was successful for both faculty and students.
Accessible Mathematics is Steven Leinwand's latest important book for math teachers. He focuses on the crucial issue of classroom instruction. He scours the research and visits highly effective classrooms for practical examples of small adjustments to teaching that lead to deeper student learning in math. Some of his 10 classroom-tested teaching shifts may surprise you and others will validate your thinking. But all will improve students' performance. Read Accessible Mathematics, try its 10 suggestions, and discover how minor shifts in teaching can put learning into high gear.
Sullivan, Rebecca M.
Despite the author's initial skepticism, a classroom set of iPads has reinforced a student-directed approach to writing instruction, while also supporting an inclusive classroom. Using the iPads, students guide their writing process with access to the learning management system, electronic information resources, and an online text editor. Students…
Smith, Dennie; McLaughlin, Tim; Brown, Irving
This study explored computer animation vignettes as a replacement for live-action video scenarios of classroom behavior situations previously used as an instructional resource in teacher education courses in classroom management strategies. The focus of the research was to determine if the embedded behavioral information perceived in a live-action…
Joseph, Laurice M.; Kastein, Laura A.; Konrad, Moira; Chan, Paula E.; Peters, Mary T.; Ressa, Virginia A.
The ongoing collection and documentation of evidence of students' performance in the classroom is a fundamental component of formative instructional practices, essential for ensuring student success. Multiple methods of collecting and documenting evidence of students' academic performance in the classroom are described. These methods…
Kramer, David C.
Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)
One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd3+: Glass and CO2, have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another
Carr, D B
More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation. PMID:10643955
皮亚杰的构建主义学习观和维果斯基的＂最近发展区＂理论是支架教学模式的理论基础。支架教学模式由搭脚手架、进入情境、独立探索协作学习、效果评价等5个环节组成。在语言教学领域中运用支架教学模式,为学生搭建英语口语学习的支架,促进口语知识与技能的自我构建,从根本上提升大学英语口语教学效果。%Scaffolding instruction is based on Piaget's constructing learning theory and Vygotsky's theory of "Zone of Proximal Development". Scaffloding instruction consists of five processes, establishing a shared goal, providing tailored assistance, individual pursuit of the goal, group work and evaluatioin. Applying scaffolding in- struction to language teaching and offering scaffold to students' oral English practice boost students' self-con- struction of English communication skills, which improves college oral English teaching effect fundamentally.
Henderson, C; Famiano, M; Beach, Andrea; Famiano, Michael; Henderson, Charles
Physics Education Research (PER) has made significant progress in developing knowledge about teaching and learning as well as effective instructional strategies based on this knowledge. Disseminating knowledge and strategies to other faculty, however, has proven difficult. Coteaching is a promising and cost-effective alternative to traditional professional development that may be applicable in many situations. In this article, we discuss the theoretical background of co-teaching and describe our initial experience with co-teaching. A new instructor (MF) cotaught with an instructor experienced in PER-based reforms (CH). The pair worked within the scaffolding of the course structure typically used by the experienced instructor and met regularly to discuss instructional decisions. An outsider (AB) conducted separate interviews with each instructor at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester and observed several class sessions. Classroom observations show an immediate use of PER-based instructional practice...
Spigelman, Candace; Grobman, Laurie
Classroom-based writing tutoring is a distinct form of writing support, a hybrid instructional method that engages multiple voices and texts within the college classroom. Tutors work on location in the thick of writing instruction and writing activity. On Location is the first volume to discuss this emerging practice in a methodical way. The essays in this collection integrate theory and practice to highlight the alliances and connections on-location tutoring offers while suggesting strategie...
Carver, Jeffrey S.
The instructional decision-making processes of high school science teachers have not been well established in the literature. Several models for decision-making do exist in other teaching disciplines, business, computer game programming, nursing, and some fields of science. A model that incorporates differences in science teaching that is consistent with constructivist theory as opposed to conventional science teaching is useful in the current climate of standards-based instruction that includes an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. This study focuses on three aspects of the decision-making process. First, it defines what factors, both internal and external, influence high school science teacher decision-making. Second, those factors are analyzed further to determine what instructional decision-making processes are articulated or demonstrated by the participants. Third, by analyzing the types of decisions that are made in the classroom, the classroom learning environments established as a result of those instructional decisions are studied for similarities and differences between conventional and constructivist models. While the decision-making process for each of these teachers was not clearly articulated by the teachers themselves, the patterns that establish the process were clearly exhibited by the teachers. It was also clear that the classroom learning environments that were established were, at least in part, established as a result of the instructional decisions that were made in planning and implementation of instruction. Patterns of instructional decision-making were different for each teacher as a result of primary instructional goals that were different for each teacher. There were similarities between teachers who exhibited more constructivist epistemological tendencies as well as similarities between teachers who exhibited a more conventional epistemology. While the decisions that will result from these two camps may be different, the six step
Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.
Guided reading is a staple of elementary literacy instruction, yet planning and conducting reading groups can be time consuming and challenging. This hands-on book presents an innovative approach to guided reading that is manageable even for teachers who are new to small-group, differentiated reading instruction. Numerous classroom examples…