Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a) the target language (TL) should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students' first language (L1); (b) translation…
Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga
This article presents experiences and student perceptions on the introduction of the flipped classroom model in two consecutive semesters at Media Technology department of Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduced the flipped instruction model to a statistics course and a mathematics......-in-time explanations when learning with online resources and they questioned the quality and validity of some of them. Based on these findings and our own experience, we discuss requirements for resources and activities in flipped classrooms in order for the student to engage and learn. Finally, we present a framework...... for experienced-based learning in flipped classrooms to promote student reflection....
Gerace, William; Beatty, Ian
Essentially, a classroom response system is technology that: 1) allows an instructor to present a question or problem to the class; 2) allows students to enter their answers into some kind of device; and 3) instantly aggregates and summarizes students' answers for the instructor, usually as a histogram. Most response systems provide additional functionality. Some additional names for this class of system (or for subsets of the class) are classroom communication system (CCS), audience response system (ARS), voting machine system, audience feedback system, and--most ambitiously--CATAALYST system (for ``Classroom Aggregation Technology for Activating and Assessing Learning and Your Students' Thinking''). UMPERG has been teaching with and researching classroom response systems since 1993. We find that the technology has the potential to transform the way we teach science in large lecture settings. CRSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall, thereby allowing students to become more actively involved in constructing and using knowledge. CRSs not only make it easier to engage students in learning activities during lecture but also enhance the communication among students, and between the students and the instructor. This enhanced communication assists the students and the instructor in assessing understanding during class time, and affords the instructor the opportunity to devise instructional interventions that target students' needs as they arise.
Kuhn, Matt; Hubbell, Elizabeth R.; Pitler, Howard
If you've upgraded to the second edition of the landmark book "Classroom Instruction That Works," you need this companion guide to help you use technology to support research-based instruction. The authors follow the revised Instructional Planning Guide that makes it easier for you to know when to emphasize each of the instructional strategies,…
This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking
Hill, Jane D.; Bjork, Cynthia Linnea
Everyone who participates in your workshop on "Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners" needs this participant's workbook to gain expertise in strategies that are effective with ELL (English Language Learners) students.
Kelcey, Ben; Carlisle, Joanne F.
The purpose of this study is to contribute to efforts to improve methods for gathering and analyzing data from classroom observations in early literacy. The methodological approach addresses current problems of reliability and validity of classroom observations by taking into account differences in teachers' uses of instructional actions…
Lipp, Jamie R.; Helfrich, Sara R.
Effective teachers are continuously striving to improve their instruction. Reading Recovery teachers have detailed and specific literacy training and expertise that can be of great value to classroom teachers, especially in the area of guided reading instruction. This article explores the ways in which key Reading Recovery strategies can be…
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012
Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…
Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric
Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide…
Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga
This article presents experiences and student perceptions on the introduction of the flipped classroom model in two consecutive semesters at Media Technology department of Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduced the flipped instruction model to a statistics course and a mathematics workshop. We collected data by two online survey studies, which show support for student perceptions that out-of-classroom instruction with online resources enhances learning, by providing visual and...
Appell, Claudia J.
Asserts that the use of electronic keyboards enables music educators to incorporate technological advances into instruction and take advantage of the popularity of electronic and computerized keyboards. Discusses advantages of electronic keyboard instruction related to student motivation and behavior. Describes methods of incorporating…
Garza Mitchell, Regina L.
Community colleges are known for keeping abreast of the latest instructional technologies, but the constant and rapid growth of available technology also presents challenges. This chapter reviews the current literature regarding instructional technology usage, with a focus on beneficial applications of technology for teaching and learning, and…
Minner, Sam; Knutson, Richard
The use of a token economy in teaching special needs students is outlined. Steps in establishing a token economy are presented and activities, such as the use of charge cards and a classroom bank, which help develop related skills are discussed. (PHR)
As applied teaching, it refers to focus-on-form instruction and focus-on-meaning instruction which have been used in the second language classroom. By analyzing what the effectiveness of focus-on-form instruction is, what the disadvantages of focus-on-meaning instruction are? Therefore, it makes the conclusion: focus-on-form instruction is better than focus-on-meaning instruction within the second language classroom.
Faryadi, Qais; Bakar, Zainab Abu; Maidinsah, Hamidah; Muhamad, Aminuddin
This critical assessment attempts to define a good instructional design through the eyes and the minds of renowned scholars and the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Gagne, John Keller, Jerome Bruner, and Richard E. Mayer and so on. This examination also discusses ways in directing the mental map of students for better knowledge…
Full Text Available Misconceptions in statistics among students of non-statistics major are quite common. This paper will present the humble efforts of the author in trying to reduce misconceptions among her statistics students using technology. The examples were drawn from the teaching and learning of statistics to Master of Technical and Vocational Education students in the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. EXCEL spreadsheet, power point presentation slides and a concept-mapping tool were integrated into classroom instructions on descriptive statistics. Increased class-room interactions were observed through out the learning process and a decrease in the percentage of students committing the specific misconceptions were recorded.
Graham Crookes; Craig Chaudron
continued from Issue 10 4.FacilitationA major role of the instructor is to arrange matters so the material presented gets used and thereby learned.This may be far more critical in the learning of a cognitive skill,in which practice assumes major dimensions,than in the learning of most school subjects,in which declarative knowledge(Anderson 1982;O'Malley,Chamot,and Walker 1987)is being presented and clear presentation may be sufficient in itself to ensure learning(of.West 1960).We need,therefore,to give some consideration to such matters as the overall organization of the classroom.
Turpen, Chandra; Finkelstein, Noah D.
This paper summarizes variations in instructors' implementation practices during Peer Instruction (PI) and shows how these differences in practices shape different norms of classroom interaction. We describe variations in classroom norms along three dimensions of classroom culture that are integral to Peer Instruction, emphasis on: (1)…
The traditional method for classroom instruction in China is teacher-centered and exam-oriented, which results in students＇ misunderstanding the information given by the teacher and poor ability in using English. This essay focuses on how to create communicative situations to develop students＇ oral skill, Some pratical and effective suggestions are given in the essay to help English teachers in China to achieve this goal.
This dissertation examines the instructional and relational moves implemented by an equity-conscious teacher in service of supporting discursive participation among her English Learners specifically in a problem-based science classroom. The research included also examines the evolution of discursive participation among English Learners as well as the nature of collaboration among English Learners and their English Fluent peers. Initial findings suggest that there were productive, unproductive, and problematic responses to the teacher's caring approach. Students saw the teacher as approachable and accessible which resulted in students seeking the teacher out, which in turn meant that the teacher was able to scaffold instruction for her students. Students recognized and appreciated teacher strategies, but did not generally take up or adopt her instructional supports when working with their peers. English Fluent students shielded English Learners from more rigorous participation in an effort to prevent them from feeling uncomfortable. Furthermore, English Learners and their English Fluent peers defined "help" in the context of group work differently. The implications for this work include further addressing the ways in which teachers support and scaffold science instruction, thinking more critically about the ways in which teachers are explicit in modeling instructional strategies, and working with students to better understand the implications of differences in the ways that they define help and collaborate.
Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly
This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two remained traditional. The quiz and posttest data were adjusted for pretest differences using ANCOVA. The results suggest that flipped instruction had a positive effect student achievement, with effect sizes ranging from +0.16 to +0.44. In addition, some students reported that they preferred watching video lectures outside of class and appreciated more active approaches to learning.
Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric
Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or
Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.
We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…
Kaur, Dalwinder; Yong, Esther; Zin, Norhayati Mohd; DeWitt, Dorothy
Even though technology is known to have a transformative effect on teaching and learning, videos are not widely used as an instructional tool in the classrooms in Malaysia. This paper focuses on using videos a cognitive stimulator and an instructional tool especially in tertiary ESL classrooms. This paper the potential of using videos for…
Martin, Peter Clyde
One of the major hurdles in preparing preservice teachers to differentiate instruction has been that they tend not to see much differentiated instruction in actual classrooms (Benjamin, 2002; Tomlinson, 1999). There always may be a contradiction in wanting to promote change in instructional practices while, at the same time, relying on a teacher…
Wenger, Matthew; Impey, Chris D.; Rivera Chavez, Wendy
Astronomy: State of the Art is a MOOC specifically developed to study student participation in an online learning environment. The project aims to serve multiple audiences of learners. For this project we focused on college students who use the online environment for lectures and quizzes but whose classroom time is devoted to hands-on activities and group work; this is the “flipped classroom” model.In spring 2014, Astronomy: State of the Art was co-convened with “The Physical Universe,” a Natural Sciences course taught at the University of Arizona that satisfies a General Education requirement for non-science majors. Using the same core material as Astronomy - State of the Art (with additional modules on the physics of radiation, atomic structure, energy, and gravity that are not necessary for the informal learners), the local course employed a “flipped” model where the students access lectures and podcasts online but are in a face-to-face classroom two times a week for labs and hands-on activities, lecture tutorials, group discussions, and other research-validated tools for enhancing learning. A flipped or hybrid model gives students flexibility, uses the online medium for the aspects of instruction where interaction with an instructor isn’t required, and optimizes the scarce resource of time in a large classroom.Final student grades were closely related to their attendance, however, performance in this class was not correlated with completion of the online video lectures, even though the quizzes were closely tied to the content of these videos. The course will next be taught using Coursera which allow instructors to more closely examine the relationship between students use of course materials and understanding of course topics. The eventual goal is to recruit undergraduates from anywhere in the United States and award them transferrable credit for completing the class.
Gray, Walter W.
Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…
Noah D. Finkelstein
Full Text Available This paper summarizes variations in instructors’ implementation practices during Peer Instruction (PI and shows how these differences in practices shape different norms of classroom interaction. We describe variations in classroom norms along three dimensions of classroom culture that are integral to Peer Instruction, emphasis on: (1 faculty-student collaboration, (2 student-student collaboration, and (3 sense-making vs answer-making. Based on interpretations by an observing researcher, we place three different PI classrooms along a continuum representing a set of possible norms. We then check these interpretations against students’ perceptions of these environments from surveys collected at the end of the term. We find significant correspondence between the researchers’ interpretations and students’ perceptions of Peer Instruction in these environments. We find that variation in faculty practices can set up what students perceive as discernibly different norms. For interested instructors, concrete classroom practices are described that appear to encourage or discourage these norms.
Karjalainen, Katri; Pörn, Michaela; Fredrik RUSK; Linda BJÖRKSKOG
The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the nat...
Effective classroom instruction is a critical element to improving outcomes for low performing students and optimizing the effectiveness of multi-tiered systems. Middle school is a particularly important area to address in improving classroom literacy instruction as it becomes a place where students learn skills that allow them to transition from "learning to read" to "reading to learn." Professional development literature has suggested some effectiveness with the use of coaching, but study ...
Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert
Policy-makers, administrators, researchers, and teachers are increasingly vested in ensuring the quality of preschool instruction, particularly in the areas of language and literacy. This research was conducted to characterize the quality of language and literacy instruction in 135 publicly-funded preschool classrooms serving at-risk pupils. As all teachers in these classrooms were implementing the same language and literacy curriculum, we also studied the interrelationships among procedural ...
Bature, Iliya Joseph; Atweh, Bill; Treagust, David
Mathematics classrooms instruction in Nigeria secondary schools has been termed a major problem to both teachers and their students. Most classroom activities are teacher-centred with students as mere listeners and recipients of knowledge rather than being active initiators of their knowledge. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of…
The flipped classroom, a teaching method that delivers lecture content to students at home through electronic means and uses class time for practical application activities, may be useful for information literacy instruction. This article describes many of the characteristics of the flipped classroom teaching model, illustrated with examples from…
Nelson, Peter M.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Christ, Theodore J.
The impact and feasibility of using student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment as an instructional feedback tool were explored. Thirty-one teachers serving 797 middle school students collected data twice across 3 weeks using the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT). Researchers randomly assigned half of…
Romiro Gordo Bautista
Full Text Available This study investigated the learning impact of self-paced learning prototype in optimizing classroom instruction towards students’ learning in Chemistry. Two sections of 64 Laboratory High School students in Chemistry were used as subjects of the study. The Quasi-Experimental and Correlation Research Design was used in the study: a pre-test was conducted, scored and analyzed which served as the basis in determining the initial learning schema of the respondents. A questionnaire was adopted to find the learning motivation of the students in science. Using Pearson-r correlation, it was found out that there is a highly significant relationship between their internal drive and their academic performance. Moreover, a post-test was conducted after self-paced learning prototype was used in the development of select topics in their curricular plot. It was found out that the students who experienced the self-paced learning prototype performed better in their academic performance as evidenced by the difference of their mean post-test results. ANCOVA results on the post-test mean scores of the respondents were utilized in establishing the causal-effect of the learning prototype to the academic performance of the students in Chemistry. A highly significant effect on their academic performance (R-square value of 70.7% and significant interaction of the models to the experimental grouping and mental abilities of the respondents are concluded in the study.
Fienup, Daniel M.; Mylan, Sanaa E.; Brodsky, Julia; Pytte, Carolyn
Equivalence-based instruction (EBI) has been used to successfully teach college-level concepts in research laboratories, but few studies have examined the results of such instruction on classroom performance. The current study answered a basic question about the ordering of training stimuli as well as an applied question regarding the effects of…
Alodail, Abdullah K.
The present study will present Kemp's design in the classroom setting for students with hearing impairments. Based on his model, the researcher will design various instructional methods of how to teach students with hearing aids in the school, focusing on the instruction of English to America K-12 students. The study will also include a list of…
This background paper for a symposium on the school of the future reviews the current instructional applications of computers in the classroom (the computer as a means or the subject of instruction), and suggests strategies that administrators might use to move toward viewing the computer as a productivity tool for students, i.e., its use for word…
Ndoro, Virginia W; Hanley, Gregory P; Tiger, Jeffrey H; Heal, Nicole A
The current study describes preschool teacher–child interactions during several commonly scheduled classroom activities in which teachers deliver instructions. An observation system was developed that incorporated measurement of evidence-based compliance strategies and included the types of instructions delivered (e.g., integral or deficient directives, embedded directives, “do” or “don't” commands), the children's behavior with respect to the instructions (e.g., compliance, noncompliance, ac...
Mazur, Amber D.; Brown, Barbara; Jacobsen, Michele
The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment…
Short, Deborah J.; Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine
This article describes an extended program of research in sheltered instruction and the effects on the academic literacy development of English language learners. It also highlights the challenges of scaling up an instructional intervention. The intervention was the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model, an approach that teaches…
Kuran, Kezban; Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi
As elementary education has a critical and vital importance within an educational system, the classroom teachers working in these institutions have gained increasing importance. A qualified teaching service in elementary education institutions depends on classroom teachers having certain competencies in the three main duty areas of the teaching and learning processes, which can be termed “the planning of instruction”, “the organizing of instruction in the classroom” and “effective communicati...
Sezer, Baris; Karaoglan Yilmaz, Fatma Gizem; Yilmaz, Ramazan
In this study, to present an instructional model by considering the existing models of instructional design (ARCS, ADDIE, ASSURE, Dick and Carey, Seels and Glasgow, Smith and Ragan etc.) with the nature of technology-based education and to reveal analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, and to revise levels with lower levels of…
Mattis, Kristina V.
Flipped classrooms are an instructional technology trend mostly incorporated in higher education settings, with growing prominence in high school and middle school (Tucker in Leveraging the power of technology to create student-centered classrooms. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, 2012). Flipped classrooms are meant to effectively combine traditional and…
Luykx, Aurolyn; Lee, Okhee
This article is situated within a theoretical framework, instructional congruence, articulating issues of student diversity with the demands of academic disciplines. In the context of a large-scale study targeting elementary school science, the article describes a research instrument that aims to combine the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to classroom data. The project-developed classroom observation guideline is a series of detailed scales that produce numerical ratings based on qualitative observations of different aspects of classroom practice. The article's objectives are both pedagogical and methodological, reflecting the dual functionality of the instrument: (a) to concretize theoretical constructs articulating academic disciplines with student diversity in ways that are useful for rethinking classroom practice; and (b) to take advantage of the strengths of qualitative educational research, but within a quantitative analytical framework that may be applied across large numbers of classrooms.
Poland, Donna Lorraine
This study examined the extent to which science teachers in Academic Year Governor's Schools were adhering to the national standards for suggested science instruction and providing an appropriate learning environment for gifted learners. The study asked 13 directors, 54 instructors of advanced science courses, and 1190 students of advanced science courses in 13 Academic Year Governor's Schools in Virginia to respond to researcher-developed surveys and to participate in classroom observations. The surveys and classroom observations collected demographic data as well as instructors' and students' perceptions of the use of various instructional strategies related to national science reform and gifted education recommendations. Chi-square analyses were used to ascertain significant differences between instructors' and students' perceptions. Findings indicated that instructors of advanced science classes in secondary schools for the gifted are implementing nationally recognized gifted education and science education instructional strategies with less frequency than desired. Both students and instructors concur that these strategies are being implemented in the classroom setting, and both concur as to the frequency with which the implementation occurs. There was no significant difference between instructors' and students' perceptions of the frequency of implementation of instructional strategies. Unfortunately, there was not a single strategy that students and teachers felt was being implemented on a weekly or daily basis across 90% of the sampled classrooms. Staff development in gifted education was found to be minimal as an ongoing practice. While this study offers some insights into the frequency of strategy usage, the study needs more classroom observations to support findings; an area of needed future research. While this study was conducted at the secondary level, research into instructional practices at the middle school and elementary school gifted science
Niedermeyer, Fred C.
The guidelines suggested in this article have evolved from the development of nationally distributed instructional systems over the past seven years at SWRL, a National Institute of Education-sponsored educational research and development laboratory. (Author)
Savasci Açikalin, Funda
The purpose of this study was to investigate how science teachers use instructional technologies in science classrooms. Participants were 63 teachers who have just completed an alternative teaching certificate program in one of the largest universities in Turkey. They were asked to make a lesson plan based on any topic by assuming that they had an…
Wasko, Christopher W.
The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the DSAP Framework to guide instructional design and technology integration for teachers piloting a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) initiative and to measure the impact the initiative had on the amount and type of technology used in pilot classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were…
Abell, Michael M.; Jung, Eunjoo; Taylor, Matthew
Using a sample of 867 students in Grades 5-12, the present study investigated whether students' perceptions toward the instructional environment in classrooms that employed Universal Design for Learning differed by school grade level and teacher gender. High-school students in the study showed higher perception scores than upper-elementary or…
Lau, Carrie; Rao, Nirmala
Vocabulary instruction during English language learning was observed for one week in six classrooms (three K2 classes for four-year olds and three K3 classes for five-year olds) from three kindergartens in two districts of Hong Kong. From 23 sessions of observations and 535 minutes of data, field notes were coded to identify instances of…
Valle, Melisa S.; Waxman, Hersh C.; Diaz, Zulmaris; Padron, Yolanda N.
The authors, in a nonexperimental randomized study, used national data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to examine present instructional practices for Grade 5 mathematics classrooms and its impact on achievement for White non-Hispanic non-English language learners (ELLs), Hispanic non-ELLs, and Hispanic…
Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Nikula, Tarja
Using a pragmatic framework, this paper examines how directives are performed by teachers and students in Finnish and Austrian CLIL classrooms, that is settings where a foreign language (in this case English) is used as the medium of instruction in non-language subjects such as history or chemistry. We explore how interpersonal aspects of…
Shoulders, Tori L.; Krei, Melinda Scott
The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in rural high school teachers' (n = 256) self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management using selected teacher characteristics. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences between different levels of education in self-efficacy for…
McNeill, Brigid; Kirk, Cecilia
The current study aimed to examine teachers' reported spelling assessment and instruction practices. Analysis of the match between teachers' theoretical beliefs about spelling and their reported pedagogy was conducted to elucidate factors that may support or impede the use of evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. An…
Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Kroon, Sjaak
This contribution compares literacy instruction in three different scripts in Eritrea. It uses data stemming from classroom observations of beginning readers of Tigrinya (Ge'ez script), Arabic (Arabic script) and Saho (Roman alphabet), the examination of teaching materials, and teacher interviews. Our analysis focuses on literacy events. We…
Carson, Karyn L.; Gillon, Gail T.; Boustead, Therese M.
Purpose: Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on…
Shifflet, Mark; Brown, Jane
The purpose of this study was to investigate how exposure to classroom instruction affected the use of a computer simulation that was designed to provide students an opportunity to apply material presented in class. The study involved an analysis of a computer-based crisis communication case study designed for a college-level public relations…
McLean, Leigh; Sparapani, Nicole; Toste, Jessica R; Connor, Carol McDonald
This study investigated how quality of the classroom learning environment influenced first grade students' (n=533) time spent in two non-instructional classroom activities (off-task and in transition) and their subsequent literacy outcomes. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that higher classroom quality was related to higher student performance in reading comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Further, classroom quality predicted the amount of time students spent off-task and in transitions in the classroom, with slopes of change across the year particularly impacted. Mediation effects were detected in the case of expressive vocabulary such that the influence of classroom quality on students' achievement operated through students' time spent in these non-instructional activities. Results highlight the importance of overall classroom quality to how students navigate the classroom environment during learning opportunities, with subsequent literacy achievement impacted. Implications for policy and educational practices are discussed. PMID:27268569
Jones, Shelly Monica
The purpose of this study was to characterize instruction in integrated middle school mathematics and science classrooms. Specifically, this study examined the beliefs of teachers who integrate mathematics and science, the level of integration of the tasks used in integrated classrooms, and specific aspects of integrated classrooms including the Grouping arrangements, contexts of the tasks, sources of authority, and types of discourse. The study involved multiple case studies of four middle school teachers using the Integrated Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IMaST) Curriculum designed at Illinois State University. Two seventh-grade and two eighth-grade teachers participated in the study. Data collection included self-reported background data, classroom observations, a beliefs survey, structured interviews for teachers, and student-focus-group sessions for selected students from each class. A qualitative data analysis method was used to analyze the data. The findings suggest that the classroom instructional practices in integrated mathematics and science classrooms are similar to those espoused by the current mathematics and science reform documents. Consistent with previous research, this study found that one of the benefits to integrating mathematics and science was the natural connections that these two disciplines have and the real-world connections that students recognized. The level of integration found in tasks varied on Huntley's Math/Science Continuum. This suggests that it is not necessary for each task in an integrated mathematics and science classroom to be fully integrated. Having a curriculum that was designed to integrate mathematics and science helped teachers make connections even when they did not explicitly try to do so. It was found that the students in these integrated classrooms saw mathematics and science connections as well as real-life connections in all the activities they participated. The aspect of connection making by students in
The GALAXY Classroom, developed as a nation-wide reform effort, was designed to make a significant positive difference in the educational lives of elementary school students who have traditionally been labeled "at-risk." As part of a 2-year demonstration and research phase, 39 elementary schools across the United States (and one school in Mexico)…
Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric
Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to…
Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…
Ober, D.; Errington, P.; Islam, S.; Robertson, T.; Watson, J.
In the fall of 1996, thirteen (13) classrooms on the Ball State campus were equipped with technological aids to enhance learning in large classrooms (for typically 100 students or larger). Each classroom was equipped with the following built-in equipment: computer, zip drive, laser disc player, VCR, LAN and Internet connection, TV monitors, and Elmo overhead camera with large-screen projection system. This past fall semester a student response system was added to a 108-seat classroom in the Physics and Astronomy department for use with large General Education courses. Each student seat was equipped with a hardwired hand-held unit possessing input capabilities and LCD feedback for the student. The introduction of the student response system was added in order enhance more active learning by students in the large classroom environment. Attendance, quizzes, hour exams, and in-class surveys are early uses for the system; initial reactions by student and faculty users will be given.
In the 1900’s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or “canned” broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed DE to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb) model, where content was disseminated in about the same time constraints as a traditional class: taught at scheduled times throughout the week–almost anywhere but not always anytime. Moreover, th...
Full Text Available The authors present the results of a study conducted at a comprehensive, urban, coeducational, land-grant university. A quasi-experimental design was chosen for this study to compare student performance in two different classroom environments, traditional versus flipped. The study spanned 3 years, beginning fall 2012 through spring 2015. The participants included 433 declared business majors who self-enrolled in several sections of the Management Information Systems course during the study. The results of the current study mirrored those of previous works as the instructional method impacted students’ final grade. Thus, reporting that the flipped classroom approach offers flexibility with no loss of performance when compared to traditional lecture-based environments.
Lowery, Lillian Margretta
Instructional Strategies and Practices Used to Enhance Student Success in the High School Algebra I Inclusive Classroom Lillian M. Lowery Dr. Jean B. Crockett, Chair (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the instructional conditions and practices described as successful for teachers in the Algebra I inclusive classroom. In the southeastern suburban school district used for this study, students who began their freshman year of high school in fiscal y...
McDuffie, Sarah Faye
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which chemistry teachers across North Carolina were engaging in inquiry-oriented instruction and the relationship between inquiry-oriented instruction and the eight demographic factors: level of teacher's education, years of teaching experience, gender, ethnicity, academic level of class, class size, school setting, and type of class schedule. The behaviors used to identify inquiry-oriented instruction practiced by North Carolina chemistry teachers (Flick, 1997; Keys, 1994; Layman, 1996; Priestley, Priestley & Schmucker, 1997; Rowe, 1973; Young, Brett, Squires & Lemire, 1995) were: (1) Teacher encourages student inquiry by posing thoughtful, open-ended questions or by posing authentic problems. (2) Teacher emphasizes process and uses terminology such as classify, analyze, predict, and create. (3) Teacher organizes small cooperative-learning groups for the purpose of generating, sharing or interpreting information, or for practicing skills. (4) Teacher engages students in experimentation that is integrated with theories from disciplines. (5) Teacher uses raw data as a primary source of post-laboratory student/student and student/teacher interaction. (6) Teacher models or demonstrates problem clarification, collection and interpretation of information, and application to new situations. A survey containing 10 items on demographic factors and 12 items on teaching practices was mailed to a random sample of 412 chemistry teachers (from a comprehensive list of 624 chemistry teachers provided by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction). After 12 weeks, 252 chemistry teachers returned completed surveys. Data were analyzed to determine the respondents' reported level of inquiry-oriented instruction, which was designated, on a continuum from engaging in no inquiry-oriented instruction to engaging in total inquiry-oriented instruction. Subsequent telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 12
The demand for "a laptop in every satchel" (BMBF, 2000) coincides with a recent international debate about the innovation of classroom instruction through information technology. It is assumed that information technology will foster the acquisition of cross curricular and media competencies, of team and cooperation skills as well as of meaningful learning in complex and authentic environments. Mobile computers are seen as particularly beneficial to initiate such a change -- but so far there i...
The growing impact of biotechnology globally and nationally over the past few decades has prompted the need for elevating general biotechnological literacy levels in all populations. This need is currently being addressed through the field of technology education (TE). Although included in the Standards for Technological Literacy (ITEA, 2000), the actual delivery of biotechnology instruction in TE classrooms has not realized broad implementation. Previous studies have recognized this issue an...
Crouse, Tricia Lynn
Recent advancements in the speed and availability of the Internet have catapulted distance education into the forefront of possible economic education alternatives. Distance learning courses are taught exclusively over the Internet. Economics distance courses provide alternatives for economics students to traditional classroom instruction, and also invite new students to the discipline who may not have otherwise enrolled. An increase in the number of distance courses in the economics field...
Barley, Leah M.
Integrating instructional technology within the elementary classroom is required by both state and federal mandates, set forth in the form of standards and guidelines. The integration of technology within the classroom setting requires time, training, and teacher willingness. Teachers are likely to develop beliefs and attitudes regarding the…
Mathew, Nalliveettil George; Alidmat, Ali Odeh Hammoud
A resourceful English language teacher equipped with eclecticism is desirable in English as a foreign language classroom. The challenges of classroom instruction increases when prescribed English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course books (textbooks) are constituted with too many interactive language proficiency activities. Most importantly, it has…
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve
This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedish-medium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.
Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina
Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología
Yukhymenko, Mariya A.; Brown, Scott W.; Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brodowinska, Kamila; Mullin, Gregory
Problem-based learning (PBL) environment is a student-centered instructional method based on the use of ill-structured problems as a stimulus for collaborative learning. This study tried to gain an understanding of teachers' instructional practices and students' responses to such practices in middle school classrooms with PBL environment through…
Olsen, Daniel J.
While speech analysis technology has become an integral part of phonetic research, and to some degree is used in language instruction at the most advanced levels, it appears to be mostly absent from the beginning levels of language instruction. In part, the lack of incorporation into the language classroom can be attributed to both the lack of…
Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.
In the era of teacher evaluation and effectiveness, assessment tools that identify and monitor educators' instruction and behavioral management practices are in high demand. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) Observer Form is a multidimensional teacher progress monitoring tool designed to assess teachers' usage of instructional and behavioral…
Carter, B. L.; Stockman, S.; Bojkov, B.
NASA's Earth Observing Satellite Aura was launched in 2004, and since that time has been collecting a wealth of data that contributes to scientists' understanding of the complexity of air quality issues. The Aura spacecraft monitors five of the six EPA criteria pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, aerosols, and CO). Data from one of the criteria pollutants, NO2, are now available in a format useful to educators and students. The data by itself is not enough for students to engage in the scientific reasoning process. Thus, inquiry-driven supporting material in the form of lessons, project based learning scenarios, and curricular support for online data have all been adapted as part of the scaffolding necessary to help students gain an understanding of issues pertaining to air quality. These materials are delivered online which makes them readily accessible to the education community. Currently, NO2 data are available for manipulation using tools such as GoogleEarth and MY NASA DATA (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov). These tools are used to investigate common relationships between spatial distribution and variability of NO2 concentrations. Through guided investigations in the Earth Exploration Toolbook (http://serc.carleton.edu/eet/index.html) or MY NASA DATA, students gain an understanding of NO2 variability. Students are then asked to extrapolate their knowledge and understanding to investigate other air quality issues relating to NO2. Within the coming year, the lessons built around Aura data will be introduced in professional development workshops. Feedback from those attending the professional development workshops about how the data and lessons are used in the classroom will be used to help shape future lesson development on new data. Subsequent data on criteria pollutants of SO2, aerosols, and O3 will soon be made available in a similar format to the education community, helping to further student understanding of the complex nature of air quality issues.
Ismail M. Saiboon; Reza M. Qamruddin; Johar M. Jaafar; Afliza A. Bakar; Faizal A. Hamzah; Ho S. Eng; Colin E. Robertson
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED) usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI) method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV) technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN). Methods: A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014) at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI ...
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A
A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum. PMID:15947210
Muchoney, David P.
The content mastery and epistemological effects of an integrated, Interactive Engagement (IE) model of physics instruction and of a traditional model of physics instruction were investigated. Three groups of high school students participated in the study, for which a quasi-experimental design was employed. A General physics class (n=21) served as the control group in the study, and received a traditional mode of instruction consisting of lecture, group problem solving, and laboratory exercises. A General physics class (n=28) and an Advanced physics class (n=30) served as the experimental groups in the study. These groups received an integrated, IE model of instruction consisting of lectures infused with ConcepTests (CTs) and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs), group problem solving, laboratory exercises, and a protocol of Student Constructed Problems (SCP) and presentations. The data collection instruments employed in the study were the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science (EBAPS). Significant differences in the average FCI normalized gains and EBAPS posttest scores were found between the Advanced physics experimental group and the General physics control group, and between the Advanced physics experimental group and the General physics experimental group. No significant difference was found between the two types of instruction with regard to the cognitive gains or epistemological development of males and females. The results of this study indicate that an integrated, IE model of instruction can concurrently promote the conceptual content mastery and epistemological development of Advanced physics students. Additional analyses revealed content-mastery benefits associated with the implementation of CT/ILD protocols and with interaction-based classroom activities. Physics teachers can utilize the results of this study to design instruction that attends to both the cognitive and epistemological needs of their
Early, Diane M.; Rogge, Ronald D.; Deci, Edward L.
This paper investigates engagement (E), alignment (A), and rigor (R) as vital signs of high-quality teacher instruction as measured by the EAR Classroom Visit Protocol, designed by the Institute for Research and Reform in Education (IRRE). Findings indicated that both school leaders and outside raters could learn to score the protocol with…
Carter, Nina Leann
The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the transfer of learning process in student teachers. This was carried out by focusing on information learned from an elementary science methods and how it was transferred into classroom instruction during student teaching. Participants were a purposeful sampling of twelve elementary education student teachers attending a public university in north Mississippi. Factors that impacted the transfer of learning during lesson planning and implementation were sought. The process of planning and implementing a ten-day science instructional unit during student teaching was examined through lesson plan documentation, in-depth individual interviews, and two focus group interviews. Narratives were created to describe the participants' experiences as well as how they plan for instruction and consider science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Categories and themes were then used to build explanations applying to the research questions. The themes identified were Understanding of Science PCK, Minimalism, Consistency in the Teacher Education Program, and Emphasis on Science Content. The data suggested that the participants lack in their understanding of science PCK, took a minimalistic approach to incorporating science into their ten-day instructional units, experienced inconsistencies in the teacher education program, and encountered a lack of emphasis on science content in their field experience placements. The themes assisted in recognizing areas in the elementary science methods courses, student teaching field placements, and university supervision in need of modification.
This study investigated the impact of content-based language instruction (CBLI) on EFL young learners' motivated behaviours, namely attention, engagement, and eager volunteering, and classroom verbal interaction. Situational factors play vital roles in shaping language learners' motivation particularly in EFL contexts. While many private schools…
Full Text Available Generally learning style is a contributory factor in the teaching – learning processes. This study aimed to determine the learning style and its relationship to age, sex, monthly income and academic performance as basis tom improve classroom instruction. It employed the descriptive research method utilizing frequency count, percentage, mean, standard deviation, spearman rank correlation and chi-square test of independence. The study found out the grade V pupils are generally auditory learners. Therefore, they could best learn through listening. It is therefore recommended that the grade V teachers provide classroom instruction like taking down notes, mapping, coupled with lecture and explanation or through listening to a recorded discussion.
Templin, Mark Arnold
This dissertation focuses on the development of students' scientific literacy discourse in a middle grade science classroom as the teacher attempted to establish a learning community. Instructional design features included a change in teacher and students' roles such that authority over many classroom decisions was shared and students were encouraged to design their own investigations within the context of extended learning projects. The study followed the progress of two groups of four students, representing diversity in academic performance, gender, and ethnicity, over the course of four months. Target group discourse was recorded once every other school day and then transcribed. Accompanying field notes were written. Classroom artifacts, including a complete set of daily lesson plans, instructional materials, and student products, were collected. The interpretive framework, which highlighted different discourse practices and the instructional moves that supported them, evolved during data analysis as it was repeatedly tried out against the empirical materials through stages of data reduction, display, conclusion drawing, and verification. Analysis of the teacher's practice indicated that he initiated and maintained a classroom learning community by encouraging students to (a) think about their thinking by responding to questions that promoted such reflection; (b) share their reflections and other written products with each other and revise them through peer review; (c) decide for themselves which science content was relevant to their investigations; (d) share problem solving strategies; and (e) debate the meaning of terms so that a common understanding of science concepts could be developed. The teacher modeled and asked questions to promote these reflective and collaborative practices, successively withdrawing his active involvement in group dialogue as the term progressed. Analysis of students' discourse indicated that students increasingly developed
This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…
Capturing the Complexity: Content, Type, and Amount of Instruction and Quality of the Classroom Learning Environment Synergistically Predict Third Graders' Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Outcomes
Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom learning environment. We observed 27 3rd-grade classrooms serving 315 target students using 2 different…
Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes
Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instru...
The role of education all over the world is becoming more and more significant and requires an in depth study since the life of the people is advanced, expanded and complicated. Educators are once again asked to address problems which have arisen within their own society. Thus, the search for ways to improve quality of education is global especially in line with nuclear science and technology. One area of focus is that managing and promoting learning inside the classroom, how teacher's utilized instructional materials were such an issue. Indeed, qualifications and resources are not the only factors that influence teachers' effectiveness, equally important are teachers' motivation, commitment, resourcefulness, innovativeness and creativeness in dealing with instructional materials. Lack of these things will produce poor attendance and unprofessional attitudes towards students. This paper aims to present a proposal on the use of innovative teaching device from the sample photographs as a result of the experiment taken at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) where samples were treated with gamma rays from a radioactive source 60Co and lately exposed to photographic giving rise to understanding of photons emitted by radioactive material in a form of electromagnetic waves and later converted into visible light in a more authentic and simplified manners. As a consequent, this proposal was made to enhance teaching and encourage science teachers to exert great effort to develop instructional materials specifically in this area that requires the concretization of concepts which could not be detected by human senses. (author)
To meet the increasing demand for change in the incorporation of ICT in education the Greek Ministry of Education and the Institute of Educational Policy of Greece, launched a nationwide project of in-service training (INSET) of teachers of the second level, training of teachers in the use and evaluation of ICT pedagogy in classroom instruction.…
Proctor, Michael D.; Marks, Yaela
This research reports and analyzes for archival purposes surveyed perceptions, use, and access by 259 United States based exemplar Primary and Secondary educators of computer-based games and technology for classroom instruction. Participating respondents were considered exemplary as they each won the Milken Educator Award during the 1996-2009…
Varzaneh, Soheila Shafiee; Baharlooie, Roya
This study investigated the effect of virtual vs. traditional classroom instruction on creative thinking among Iranian High school EFL Learners. One-hundred and forty three female of high and low level of proficiency, who were selected randomly, were assigned to two VLI (N = 60) and TCI group (N = 60) based on their scores in OPT. Then, each group…
Roush, Cora; Song, Liyan
The purpose of this paper is to report a study that examined the impact of using Clickers technology on classroom instruction from both the students' and the teachers' perspectives. The students in this study came from six high school Spanish classes, and the teachers were from six different subject areas in the high school and two…
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a…
After hours of introducing team training, facilitation skills, and Total Quality Management tools, the old classroom practices of "chalk and talk" faded in Virginia Beach schools' technical and career education classes. Academic teachers also improved instruction, using innovative TQM tools such as nominal group voting, course mission statements,…
Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.
Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered…
The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…
Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine
Purpose: This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent-community ties, and the school's learning climate. It identifies paths through which leadership explains differences in achievement and…
Tolbert, Sara E.
This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching
Rearden, Kristin Theresa
There are a myriad of factors which influence a teacher' s classroom behaviors. Taken together, these factors are referred to as a teacher's practical theory. Some of the elements of practical theories are perceptions regarding classroom role, impressions of student abilities, reflection on experiences, and content knowledge. First-year teachers, or beginning teachers, are faced with many new challenges as they embark on their endeavor to facilitate the learning of their students. The congruence of the elements within their practical theories of teaching can provide the foundation for consistency within their classroom practices. The researcher investigated two aspects of the practical theories of beginning secondary science teachers. The first aspect was teachers' perceptions of their roles in the classroom The second aspect was teachers' intended instructional methods. Interview data from 27 beginning secondary science teachers who earned their teacher certification from one of three institutions were used for the study. The interviews were analyzed for information regarding the aforementioned aspects. An interview theme analysis (Hewson, Kerby, & Cook, 1995) was completed for each teacher. The characterization of each teacher's role was based on three categories outlined by Fenstermacher and Soltis (1986): Executive, Therapist, and Liberationist. In describing their classroom role, most of the teachers alluded to an Executive-type approach to teaching, in which their concerns regarding conveyance of content, processes or skills were paramount. In many cases, they mentioned the use of more than one instructional method; topics and variability in student learning styles accounted for the implementation of multiple methods. Methods usually included activities or hands-on experiences. Some teachers mentioned a certain "feel" of the classroom that was necessary for student learning. More than two-thirds of the teachers either expressed conflicts in their interview or
Raker, Jeffrey R.
Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in
Watson, V. R.
A personal computer has been used to illustrate physical phenomena and problem solution techniques in engineering classes. According to student evaluations, instruction of concepts was greatly improved through the use of these illustrations. This paper describes the class of phenomena that can be effectively illustrated, the techniques used to create these illustrations, and the techniques used to display the illustrations in regular classrooms and over an instructional TV network. The features of a personal computer required to apply these techniques are listed. The capabilities of some present personal computers are discussed and a forecast of the capabilities of future personal computers is presented.
Mary Jo Garcia BIGGS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article reports the results of a project that examined student perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment in a distance education classroom. The study utilized a survey instrument, Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES that was distributed as a pre-test/post-test to three sections of the same course taught in three distinct formats: traditional classroom instruction, distance learning, and hybrid (partially on-line/partially face-to-face. The DELES survey is a web-based tool specifically designed to assess the learning environment using a standardized, validated instrument. At the beginning of the project, the DELES-Preferred was administered to the three pilot groups. It measures the perception of the “actual” environment, perceptions of the preferred environment, or the “ideal” learning environment of the students. In addition, a brief overview of the DELES instrument is described as well as the implications of the research project findings. Project results, based on the DELES administration, indicate that Instructor Support was rated highest by the students enrolled in the course taught in the traditional manner (4.68 mean closely followed by the Hybrid course (4.66 mean while the course taught totally at a distance averaged a 3.62 mean. However, Student Interaction and Collaboration averaged higher scores in the course taught in the Hybrid manner (4.23 followed by the traditional course (3.97 and then the distance course (3.12. Specific scales of Personal Relevance, Authentic Learning, Active Learning, Student Autonomy and Satisfaction (scale of affect are further addressed in the article.
Sabina Eggert; Frauke Ostermeyer; Marcus Hasselhorn; Susanne Bögeholz
e purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cooperative training strategies to enhance students’ socioscientic decision making as well as their metacognitive skills in the science classroom. Socioscientic decision making refers to both describing socioscientic issues as well as developing and evaluating solutions to socioscientic issues. We investigated two cooperative training strategies which differed with respect to embedded metacognitive instructions tha...
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…
Elgun-Gunduz, Zennure; Akcan, Sumru; Bayyurt, Yasemin
Content-based language instruction and form-focused instruction (FFI) have been investigated extensively in the context of English as a second language. However, there has not been much research concerning FFI in the context of English as a foreign language. The study described here explores the effect of integrated and isolated FFI on the…
Roberts, Gina; Berry, Chad; Nugent, Chris; Wentz, Karen; Cowan, Peggy; O'Gorman, Mark
Maryville College's (Tennessee) first Faculty Instructional Technology (FIT) Fellows, who received funding and release time to develop technology-based instructional materials for their courses, are developing and implementing exciting projects in history, religion, freshman seminar, and political sciences courses. In this paper, the FIT Fellows…
Full Text Available This Article addresses the difficult issues faced by law schools in determining the use of accommodations for students with disabilities in the context of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA and, in particular, for those with “invisible disabilities,” such as learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and attention disorders. Because the manner in which accommodations are delivered is specific for each university and factintensive for each student, there often is confusion about the role played by accommodations in supporting an educational process while providing equal access in academic environments as mandated by the ADA. We suggest an alternative to the exclusive use of accommodations as the vehicle through which access is attained. We argue that law schools should adopt Universal Design for Instruction (UDI principles as the foundation of pedagogical practice in law school classrooms and for assessment of learning outcomes. Changes based on these principles have the potential to provide access for students with disabilities without altering the essential nature of the curriculum and program objectives.
Aiken, John; Schatz, Michael; Burk, John; Caballero, Marcos; Thoms, Brian
We describe the assessment of computational modeling in a ninth grade classroom in the context of the Arizona Modeling Instruction physics curriculum. Using a high-level programming environment (VPython), students develop computational models to predict the motion of objects under a variety of physical situations (e.g., constant net force), to simulate real world phenomenon (e.g., car crash), and to visualize abstract quantities (e.g., acceleration). The impact of teaching computation is evaluated through a proctored assignment that asks the students to complete a provided program to represent the correct motion. Using questions isomorphic to the Force Concept Inventory we gauge students understanding of force in relation to the simulation. The students are given an open ended essay question that asks them to explain the steps they would use to model a physical situation. We also investigate the attitudes and prior experiences of each student using the Computation Modeling in Physics Attitudinal Student Survey (COMPASS) developed at Georgia Tech as well as a prior computational experiences survey.
Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler
A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…
Luehmann, April Lynn; Frink, Jeremiah
Science teachers struggle with meeting curricular goals outlined by professional organizations within the constraints of traditional school. Engaging science learners as a community who collaboratively and creatively co-construct scientific understanding through inquiry requires teachers to adopt new tools as well as a different mindset about the kind of classroom culture they need to nurture. Classroom blogs (i.e., blogs that are managed by a teacher for his/her students to post their work and exchange ideas) have been purported in the literature as offering unique opportunities to achieve this goal, although with little empirical support thus far. To fill this gap, nine classroom blogs were selected through an extensive search, and systematically analyzed to determine how the teachers' instructional designs and classrooms' enactment were able to capitalize on the specific affordances blogging may offer to support reform-based learning goals. The shift in teacher mindset needed to realize blogging affordances occurred as teachers engaged with students in the process of `living' the classroom blog.
Despite wide research-based support for the implementation of inquiry-based science instruction, very few studies have closely examined its enactment across varied modes of instruction. Such studies can contribute to a finer understanding of the knowledge teachers must have in order to implement high-quality inquiry-based science instruction. This dissertation study investigated the enactment of three modes of inquiry-based science instruction by three guest teachers who were university-based researchers. The 50 fourth grade student participants were matched on achievement and prior content knowledge and randomly assigned to one of six small groups across three conditions employing different modes of inquiry-based science instruction: first-hand investigation, second-hand investigation, and an interplay of first- and second-hand investigation (Palincsar and Magnusson, 2001). Children in the first-hand investigation condition directly manipulated scientific phenomena, collected and reported data, and used these data to make knowledge claims. Children in the second-hand investigation condition studied the phenomena by following the investigations of a fictitious scientist who documents her study in an innovative notebook text. Children in the interplay condition experienced an interplay of the first- and second-hand investigations. Guided by sociocognitive theories of learning, the first phase of data analysis identified the differential opportunities for students to engage with scientific practices and conceptual claims across the modes of instruction. The findings from this analytical phase showed that in the context of this study, instruction featuring second-hand investigations provided students with richer opportunities for engaging with scientific practices and conceptual claims as compared to instruction featuring first-hand investigation. Following this, three sets of contrastive case studies were analyzed that demonstrated how opportunities for learning were
Our study contributes on several levels: firstly, we provide course responsibles with a detailed insight into how a seminar redesign to RPT can be achieved. Secondly, we provide a basis for introducing such change by documenting the positive assessment as an outcome of the monitoring. We thereby address diversity and in-classroom heterogeneity on a didactical level.
Retta Guy; Gerald Marquis
The authors present the results of a study conducted at a comprehensive, urban, coeducational, land-grant university. A quasi-experimental design was chosen for this study to compare student performance in two different classroom environments, traditional versus flipped. The study spanned 3 years, beginning fall 2012 through spring 2015. The participants included 433 declared business majors who self-enrolled in several sections of the Management Information Systems course during the study. T...
There has been much debate in composition studies about authority in the postmodern writing classroom. A redefinition of "authority" for the postmodern writing classroom necessitates a careful analysis of all those sets of relations which factor into the teacher-student relationship, and an awareness that authority is contingent, reprocessing…
Cleveland, Sandra D.
Nurse educators may express a willingness to use educational technology, but they may not have the belief or ability to carry out the technology use in the classroom. The following non-experimental, quantitative study examined factors that predict nurse educators' willingness to accept and use educational technology in the classroom. The sample…
Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.
Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…
Pressure for students to produce writing perfection in the classroom often eclipses the emphasis placed on the need for students to practice writing. Occasions for students to choose, challenge, and reflect--to actually risk risking--are too often absent from conversations among students and teachers in countless English classrooms. Tom Romano…
General education teachers in the secondary sector are held responsible for adapting their lessons and classroom environment for students with Asperger Syndrome. With the growing number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder being placed in general education classrooms, teachers are faced with yet another challenge in making their curriculum…
Deng, Meng; Pei, Miao
"Learning in Regular Classrooms" (LRC) has been the main strategy to universalize compulsory education for children with special educational needs in China after 1980s. Methods such as whole-class teaching combined with individual tutoring, differentiated teaching, and cooperative learning have been widely practiced in general classrooms for…
Donaldson, Rebecca S.
Reading comprehension is one of the most critical academic skills to be acquired in school; therefore, the comprehension instruction provided by teachers is of utmost importance. This study examined 3 years of classroom observation data to describe the comprehension instruction provided by kindergarten through third-grade teachers who were participating in the federal Reading First reading reform initiative within 22 high-poverty Title I schools located in rural, suburban, and urban school di...
Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey
This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual certification program articulated more asset-oriented and less stereotypical ideas than those not seeking bilingual certification. Results can inform teacher education programs that aim to prepare graduates for teaching science in multilingual classrooms.
There is gap in passing rates on the standardized science assessment between European American and Hispanic American students. The purpose of this study was to examine student performance in science and the closing of the achievement gap between European American and Hispanic American students based upon receipt of an inquiry or noninquiry instruction method. Guided by the theoretical framework of constructive learning, this quantitative ex post facto research design gathered data from 8 teachers who had already implemented 1 of the 2 methods of instruction. The teachers were chosen through purposive sampling based on previous observations of instructional method and were placed into 2 groups depending upon the type of instruction: inquiry or noninquiry. Descriptive statistics were used to determine mean differences and a 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine mean differences in science test scores between European American and Hispanic American students and between the instructional methods to which they had been exposed. Results found that the inquiry instructional method was related to a significant increase in mean scores for both ethnic groups, but the achievement gap between the two groups was not closed by the inquiry instruction method. This study can promote positive social change for students by informing the efforts of educational leaders and teachers to create professional development using inquiry instruction. Students may perform higher on standardized tests when they are allowed to explore science by asking questions and answering their own questions through the collection and analysis of data.
Salminen, Jenni; Hannikainen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena
This study examined the diversity of teaching practices to illuminate the qualitative variety of instructional teaching practices among preschool teachers. Further, teachers' self-rated educational goals were explored to complement the multifaceted nature of preschool teachers' instructional teaching practices. The study was carried out…
Echevarria, Jana; Short, Deborah J.
This paper introduces a research-based model of sheltered instruction that promotes teaching practices that make teachers more effective in promoting the learning of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students. The model is instantiated in an observation instrument, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP). The SIOP may be used as part…
Ming, Kavin; Dukes, Charles
There is a large collection of students who experience difficulty with the development of reading fluency and comprehension. Many students receive little to no benefit from non-systematic instructional methods. In order to become proficient readers many students need explicit instruction in fluency to serve as a building block to comprehension.…
Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.
Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.
Hunzicker, J.; Lukowiak, T.
The authors present initial findings from a collaborative self-study exploring student engagement as a measure of teaching effectiveness. Focused on their college classrooms during one semester, the study pilots a peer observation model of the Instructional Practices Inventory (IPI) (Valentine, 2005). Data collection included IPI codes, anecdotal…
van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria
Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…
Thomas de Lange
Full Text Available This paper examines how a classroom culture developsadvanced strategies and procedures for handling complexdigital tools. We report from a vocational Mediaand Communication course at an Upper SecondarySchool in Oslo, Norway. Our analysis reveals how aprocedure called practical assignments has developedhistorically at the school, and how this procedure iscarried out in the classroom. Theoretically, our studyis informed by Activity Theory, which affords us toolsto analyze how social institutions and learning trajectoriesevolve over time, and how longitudinal dimensionsemerge in situ. Our findings show how teachers andlearners create a space for solving context-specific problemsinvolving sophisticated technology. A historicalanalysis is here crucial not only in understanding whydigital technologies are used in specific ways, but alsohow they evolve into classroom conventions.
Hathaway, Dawn; Norton, Priscilla
In these times of high-stakes testing, pressure to meet annual yearly progress goals, and standards-driven classroom curriculums, today's teachers face many obstacles that interfere with their ability to teach with and about television and video. If graduate study for teacher educators was designed in ways that reflect the realities of their…
Cihak, David F.; Castle, Kristin
Forty eighth grade students with and without learning disabilities in an inclusive classroom participated in an adapted Step-Up to Writing (Auman, 2002) intervention program. The intervention targeted expository essays and composing topic, detail, transitional, and concluding sentences. A repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that both students with…
Nanclares, Núria Hernández; Rodríguez, Mónica Pérez
This paper aims to discuss the impact on promoting student satisfaction and improving their involvement in their own learning when applying a "Flipped classroom" design in a first-year bilingual, English-taught module in a non-English-speaking country. "World Economy" is taught in the Faculty of Business and Economics at a…
Kerstetter, John P.
Presents guidelines relative to audiovisual specifications for school classrooms, lecture halls, and auditoriums, to serve as a checklist for preliminary planning for facilities' construction or remodeling. Specifications are included for lights and lighting; electrical wiring; conduit; projection screens, booth, and stations; display boards; and…
Rehberg, Robb S.; Gazzillo Diaz, Linda; Middlemas, David A.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computer-based CPR training is comparable to traditional classroom training. Design and Setting: This study was quantitative in design. Data was gathered from a standardized examination and skill performance evaluation which yielded numerical scores. Subjects: The subjects were 64…
Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.
The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics…
McNamee, Merideth M.
School accountability and high-stakes testing often shift classroom focus from the use of engaging learning activities that promote critical thinking and creativity to simple test preparation practices. Using brain research as a guide, educators may be able to improve test scores, while still providing a balanced education that promotes critical…
Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman
Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…
Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.
Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…
Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia
This article reports the results of a project that examined student perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment in a distance education classroom. The study utilized a survey instrument, Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES) that was distributed as a pre-test/post-test to three sections of the same course taught in three…
Saiboon, Ismail M.; Qamruddin, Reza M.; BAO, MBBch; Jaafar, Johar M.; Bakar, Afliza A.; Hamzah, Faizal A.; Eng, Ho S.; Robertson, Colin E.
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED) usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI) method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV) technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN). Methods: A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014) at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI or SIV instructional techniques. We assessed knowledge, skill and confidence level at baseline, immediate and 6-months post-intervention. Knowledge and confidence were assessed via questionnaire; skill was assessed by a calibrated and blinded independent assessor using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) method. Results: Pre-test mean scores for knowledge in the TCI group was 10.87 ± 2.34, and for the SIV group was 10.37 ± 1.85 (maximum achievable score 20.00); 4.05 ± 2.87 in the TCI and 3.71 ± 2.66 in the SIV (maximum score 11.00) in the OSCE evaluation and 9.54 ± 3.65 in the TCI and 8.56 ± 3.47 in the SIV (maximum score 25.00) in the individual’s personal confidence level. Both methods increased the mean scores significantly during immediate post-intervention (0-month). At 6-months, the TCI group scored lower than the SIV group in all aspects 11.13 ± 2.70 versus 12.95 ± 2.26 (p=0.03) in knowledge, 7.27 ± 1.62 versus 7.68 ± 1.73 (p=0.47) in the OSCE, and 16.40 ± 2.72 versus 18.82 ± 3.40 (p=0.03) in confidence level. Conclusion: In NCCN’s, SIV is as good as TCI in providing the knowledge, competency, and confidence in performing AED defibrillation. PMID:27052286
Fagen, Adam Paul
Most introductory college science courses in the United States are taught in large lectures with students rarely having the opportunity to think critically about the material being presented nor to participate actively. Further, many classes focus on teaching rather than learning, that is, the transfer of information as opposed to actual student understanding. This thesis focuses on three studies about the assessment and enhancement of learning in undergraduate science courses. We describe the results of an international survey on the implementation of Peer Instruction (PI), a collaborative learning pedagogy in which lectures are interspersed with short conceptual questions designed to challenge students to think about the material as it is being presented. We present a portrait of the many instructors teaching with PI and the settings in which it is being used as well as data on the effectiveness of PI in enhancing student learning in diverse settings. The wide variety of implementations suggests that PI is a highly adaptable strategy that can work successfully in almost any environment. We also provide recommendations for those considering adopting PI in their classes. Classroom demonstrations are an important aspect of many introductory science courses, but there is little evidence supporting their educational effectiveness. We explore the effect of different modes of presentation on enhancing student learning from demonstrations. Our results show that students who actively engage with a demonstration by predicting the outcome before it is conducted are better able to recall and explain the scenario posed by that demonstration. As preliminary work for the creation of an inventory of conceptual understanding in introductory biology, we discuss results from a survey of vocabulary familiarity and understanding in an undergraduate genetics course. Students begin introductory classes with significant gaps in their understanding, some of which are retained beyond
The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…
This paper investigates the prospects of integrating Edmodo into Saudi EFL female secondary school instruction. It concentrates on students' perceptions and challenges regarding Edmodo use and its effect on their attitudes towards EFL learning. The 42 participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group received traditional teaching…
This article provides a literature review of the research concerning the role of faculty perspectives about instructional technology. Learning management systems, massive open online courses (MOOCs), cloud-based multimedia applications, and mobile apps represent the tools and the language of academia in the 21st century. Research examined…
van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Henery, Ashlie
In this article, we investigate the integration of concept-based pragmatics instruction, grounded in Vygotskian sociocultural psychology, in an intact second-semester French class (n = 13) over the course of an academic term. Our focus is on learners' appropriation of the concepts of self-presentation, social distance, and power with respect…
Lazonder, A.W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou
Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children’s ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 5
Cha, H. J.; Ahn, M. L.
The purpose of this study was to elicit design guidelines for a teacher tool to support students' diverse needs by facilitating differentiated instructions (DIs). The study used a framework based on activity theory and principles from universal design for learning. As for the research methods, design-based research methods were adopted, and…
Hora, Matthew T.; Holden, Jeremiah
Instructional technology plays a key role in many teaching reform efforts at the postsecondary level, yet evidence suggests that faculty adopt these technology-based innovations in a slow and inconsistent fashion. A key to improving these efforts is to understand local practice and use these insights to design more locally attuned interventions.…
Cohen, LeoNora M.
This paper discusses four assumptions and four concerns regarding instruction using the World Wide Web. The assumptions address: the novice status of the Web course developer; the developer's appreciation for various aspects of the Web; her high expectations for doing it right; and her commitment to not incurring more costs for distance learners.…
Fienup, Daniel M.; Critchfield, Thomas S.
College students in a psychology research-methods course learned concepts related to inferential statistics and hypothesis decision making. One group received equivalence-based instruction on conditional discriminations that were expected to promote the emergence of many untaught, academically useful abilities (i.e., stimulus equivalence group). A…
Morris, Lajuana Trezette
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…
In designing the lesson teachers have to adapt the method or learning model with the material to be taught. In the teaching of measuring concept, students frequently faced with measuring instruments, micrometer, screw, scale, and so on. Direct Instruction Model would be suitable for teaching the measurement concepts specifically the skill of using…
Nelson, Kristin L.; Dole, Janice A.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the vocabulary teaching of primary-grade teachers (K-3) in low-income schools. A total of 337 observations were conducted during language arts blocks over a three-year period. A coding scheme was developed to analyze teachers' vocabulary instruction. Results indicated that teachers spent less than 5%…
Hsu, Kuo-Chung; Wang, Jing-Ru
The main purpose of this paper was to describe how the author, Kuo-Chung Hsu, changed his teaching beliefs and science instruction through participating in a cooperative action research, which is conducted by the author, Jing-Ru Wang. Self-study was adopted to explain and interpret Kuo-Chung Hsu's experience of teaching science in Taiwan island.…
This study investigates a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) technique that combines oral reading with peer review to improve pronunciation of Taiwanese English major students. In addition to traditional in-class instruction, students were given a short passage every week along with a recording of the respective text, read by a native…
The purpose of this work is to present an instructional model entitled the "Modelo de Calidad de Situacion Educativa" (MCSE) and how teachers can use it to reflect and investigate in a formal educational setting. It is a theoretical framework which treat to explain the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the…
With close to 50 million children attending 98,000 public schools in the United States, the public school classroom continues to be an essential locus of change that, if improved at scale, could increase educational and life outcomes of many young people. Improved student learning requires an improved instructional core and school leaders are essential drivers of this improvement across a complex system of classrooms. The systematic study and codification of the behaviors, practices, and habi...
Galway, Lindsay; Corbett, Kitty; Takaro, Timothy; Tairyan, Kate; Frank, Erica
Background In 2013, a cohort of public health students participated in a ‘flipped’ Environmental and Occupational Health course. Content for the course was delivered through NextGenU.org and active learning activities were carried out during in-class time. This paper reports on the design, implementation, and evaluation of this novel approach. Methods Using mixed-methods, we examined learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model and assessed changes in students'...
Full Text Available The theme of the publication is to show the influence of human factor on traffic conditions during the traffic incident. The publication also depicts the functionality of the model at which the simulation was performed. The model was constructed in the VISSIM and VISUM software also using Visual Basic for Applications – Excel, [8,9]. By coordinating programs VBA and VISSIM was automated turned on or off the incident as well as turned on or off the VMS with information about the proposed of the alternative route. The additional differentiation of the percentage of drivers using the information displayed enabled to compare the data with identical external conditions influencing at traffic. For statistical analysis of data was used statistical program Statgraphics Centurion which made possible to build a model describing the impact of the behavior of drivers on traffic conditions. It is an innovative approach to modeling the impact on traffic conditions accepted by drivers information transmitted on the boards.
Pratt, Amy; Logan, Jessica; Cain, Kate
This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the impacts of a curriculum supplement, Let’s Know! on the quantity and quality of language-focused comprehension instruction in pre-Kindergarten to third grade classrooms. Sixty classrooms (12 per each of pre-K to grade 3) were enrolled in the study, with 40 teachers assigned to implement one of two versions of the experimental Let’s Know! curriculum and 20 assigned to a control condition, in which they maintained their typical language-arts...
AKTEPE, Vedat; Buluç, Bekir
This study deals with both defining and evaluating the features of school directors regarding instructional leadership based on the perceptions of school teachers. The study is of qualitative nature and the study group, chosen by means of maximum variation sampling method, consists of elementary school teachers, from low, middle and high socio-economic backgrounds with 5 female, 8 male teachers from 9 elementary schools in Kırşehir. The data of the study were obtained by interview method and ...
Francisca Maria Ivone
This article addresses some important issues regarding the teaching of foreign vocabulary. It draws on the literature reviews in this field and is also based on personal reflections and experiences of the writer. This article critically highlights the teaching of English vocabulary in Indonesian schools and universities. More particularly, it discusses issues dealing with curriculum, teaching techniques, instructional media, and vocabulary assessment. Finally, this article provides recommenda...
This paper investigates the prospects of integrating Edmodo into Saudi EFL female secondary school instruction. It concentrates on students’ perceptions and challenges regarding Edmodo use and its effect on their attitudes towards EFL learning. The 42 participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group received traditional teaching plus a six-week daily interaction via Edmodo. The control group received traditional teaching only. Findings of the post-treatment questionnaire show...
Julie A. Belz
Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.
Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.
Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…
Sureka, Ashish; Gupta, Monika; Sarkar, Dipto; Chaudhary, Vidushi
We present a case-study on teaching an undergraduate level course on Software Engineering (second year and fifth semester of bachelors program in Computer Science) at a State University (New Delhi, India) using a novel teaching instruction model. Our approach has four main elements: inverted or flipped classroom, studio-based learning, real-client projects and deployment, large team and peer evaluation. We present our motivation and approach, challenges encountered, pedagogical benefits, find...
Beck, S E
This article reports on a research study conducted as part of a doctoral dissertation on the development of a cooperative learning teaching model in nursing education. The subjects for the study were a convenience sample of registered nurses who were pursuing a baccalaureate degree in nursing at an urban university. Principles of feminist pedagogy were incorporated as part of the cooperative learning model. The teacher/researcher taught two sections of the same course and, through the use of action research, developed a model for using cooperative learning strategies as the primary teaching modality. End of class and end of semester evaluations provided feedback that suggested that this was an exciting and effective alternative to traditional classroom teaching. PMID:7790974
Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert
Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population. PMID:23870443
Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.
Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction
Reid-Smith, Jennifer Ann
a science-related career. If NOS instructional materials are to be used effectively, designers must take into account the needs of classroom teachers by limiting the length of the materials and providing additional teacher support resources. Many teachers will likely require professional development opportunities to build their NOS understanding, develop a compelling rationale for teaching NOS and using the stories, observe modeling of effective implementation, and collaborate with other teachers regarding how to mitigate constraints.
Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.
Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered environmental biology unit. The unit materials included features meant to support teachers in eliciting and working with students' ideas and questions as a source for student-led investigations. We present three contrasting cases of teachers to highlight evidence that shows teachers' differing strategies for eliciting students' ideas and questions, and for developing their ideas, questions and questioning skills. Results from our cross case analysis provide insight into the ways in which teachers' enactments enabled them to work with students' ideas and questions to help advance learning. Consistent with other studies, we found that teachers could readily elicit ideas and questions but experienced challenges in helping students develop them. Findings suggest a need for more specified supports, such as specific discourse strategies, to help teachers attend to student thinking. We explore implications for curricular tools and discuss a need for more examples of effective discourse moves for use by teachers in orchestrating scientific discourse.
Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most. PMID:24130865
Full Text Available Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most.
Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Smith, Bryan K; Greene, Jerry L; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E
The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 +/- 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 +/- 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOFIT score and body weight [PAEE (kcal/min) = (1.384*SOFIT + 0.084*weight (kg)--5.126), R = .81, SEE = 1.23 kcal/min]. PAEE measured by indirect calorimeter and predicted from SOFIT and body weight were 3.04 +/- 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.04 +/- 0.9 kcal/min) respectively. SOFIT and body weight may provide a useful measure of PAEE associated with classroom based physical activity. PMID:19168920
Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies
Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.
As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…
Bower, P.; Liddicoat, J.
Brownfield Action III (BA III) is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation developed by Barnard College and the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning in which students explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA III is a proven inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning that, since its inception in 1999, has been recognized as an exemplary curriculum. Indeed, in 2002 it was selected as a national model curriculum by SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities). BA III provides instruction in environmental site assessments and in the remediation of former industrial sites (brownfields) for secondary and higher education students. The initial full-semester, three hours of weekly laboratory instruction that complements lectures in BA II has been revised for modular use in Hydrology, Environmental Science, and Environmental Ethics undergraduate and graduate courses in the United States. The remediation of brownfields is important because they have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites. As part of determining the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA III contains a narrative that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams construct a detailed narrative
Blackburn, Heidi; Hays, Lauren
As librarians take on more instructional responsibilities, the need for classroom management skills becomes vital. Unfortunately, classroom management skills are not taught in library school and therefore, many librarians are forced to learn how to manage a classroom on the job. Different classroom settings such as one-shot instruction sessions…
Concern with science literacy and how to achieve it has a long history in our education system. The goals and definitions established by the National Science Education Standards (1996) suggest that if we are to successfully prepare students for the information age, science education must blend the natural and social sciences. However, research indicates that connections between hands-on science and literacy, as a tool for processing information, do not regularly occur during school science instruction. This case study explored the use of literacy by a second year teacher in a fifth grade class during consecutive science units on chemistry and liquids. The research questions focused on how and why the teacher and students used literacy during science and how and why the teacher and selected focus students believed literacy influenced their learning in science. Data was collected through classroom observations and multiple interviews with the teacher and selected focus students. Interview data was analyzed and coded using an iterative process. Field notes and student artifacts were used to triangulate the data. The study found that the teacher and students used reading and writing to record and acquire content knowledge, learn to be organized, and to facilitate assessment. Although the teacher had learned content literacy strategies in her pre-service program, she did not implement them in the classroom and her practice seemed to reflect her limited science content knowledge and understanding of the nature of science. The focus students believed that recording and studying notes, reading books, drawing, and reading study guides helped them learn science. The findings suggest the following implications: (1) More data is needed on the relationship between teaching approach, science content knowledge, and beliefs about science. (2) Elementary student voices make a valuable contribution to our understanding of science learning. (3) Pre-service candidates should have
Anderson, Karen; May, Frances A.
The researchers, a librarian and a faculty member, collaborated to investigate the effectiveness of delivery methods in information literacy instruction. The authors conducted a field experiment to explore how face-to-face, online, and blended learning instructional formats influenced students' retention of information literacy skills. Results are…
Drawing inferences about the extent to which student performance reflects instructional opportunities relies on the premise that the measure of student performance is reflective of instructional opportunities. An instructional sensitivity framework suggests that some assessments are more sensitive to detecting differences in instructional…
Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are
Clark, Kevin R.
In many of the secondary classrooms across the country, students are passively engaged in the mathematics content, and academic performance can be described, at best, as mediocre. This research study sought to bring about improvements in student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom through the implementation of the…
Nelson, Peter M.; Demers, Joseph A.; Christ, Theodore J.
This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale…
ARCS model proposed by Professor Keller offers theoretical guidance to decrease learners’de-mo-tivation in classroom instruction. Based on Keller’s ARCS model, this paper puts forward the new mode of college English classroom instruction, i.e. to draw learners’attention and raise questions, to clarify learning objectives and explain the relevance, to build up learners’confidence by presenting teaching materials, and to arouse learners’satisfaction by cooperative learning.%美国凯勒教授提出的ARCS动机设计模式为减少学生课堂学习动机缺失提供了有效的理论框架。在此理论基础上提出大学英语课堂教学模式：吸引注意、提出问题；阐明目的、引起相关；呈现内容、建立自信；小组活动、引发满足。
Waight, Noemi; Liu, Xiufeng; Gregorius, Roberto Ma.; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa
This paper reports on a case study of an immersive and integrated multi-instructional approach (namely computer-based model introduction and connection with content; facilitation of individual student exploration guided by exploratory worksheet; use of associated differentiated labs and use of model-based assessments) in the implementation of coupled computer-based models and assessment in a high-school chemistry classroom. Data collection included in-depth teacher interviews, classroom observations, student interviews and researcher notes. Teacher conceptions highlighted the role of models as tools; the benefits of abstract portrayal via visualizations; appropriate enactment of model implementation; concerns with student learning and issues with time. The case study revealed numerous challenges reconciling macro, submicro and symbolic phenomena with the NetLogo model. Nonetheless, the effort exhibited by the teacher provided a platform to support the evolution of practice over time. Students' reactions reflected a continuum of confusion and benefits which were directly related to their background knowledge and experiences with instructional modes. The findings have implications for the role of teacher knowledge of models, the modeling process and pedagogical content knowledge; the continuum of student knowledge as novice users and the role of visual literacy in model decoding, comprehension and translation.
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative research study examines how Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in their homeroom classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school district located in the southwestern part of the United States. The school was chosen based on the criterion that the school is located in an area considered economically depressed, with a predominantly Latino student, school, and neighborhood population. The object of study was a fifth grade bilingual (Spanish/English) classroom where English was the means of instruction. Classroom interaction was examined from a sociolinguistics perspective. The study was descriptive in nature with the objective of analyzing the students' use of their linguistic resources while participating in science learning. The results of this study suggest that the students used their linguistic resources purposefully in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. In the same manner, it was observed the students' reliance on Spanish as a foundation to enhance their comprehension of the scientific concepts and the dynamics involved in the science lessons, with the purpose of making sense, and thus, to express their understanding (orally and in writing) using their linguistic resources, especially their English language, as it was expected from them. Further, the findings disclose the students' awareness of their own bilingualism, preference for speaking Spanish, and their conceptualization of English as the language to achieve academic success. It has also been observed how the pressure put upon the teacher and the students by the accountability system brings about an implicit bias against Spanish, causing the teacher to assume a paradoxical stance regarding the students' use of Spanish, and thereby, placing the students in an ambivalent position, that might affect, to a certain extent, how students use their Spanish language as a resource to
Bature, Iliya Joseph; Jibrin, Adamu Gagdi
This paper was designed to investigate the perceptions of four preservice mathematics teachers on the role of scaffolding in supporting and assisting them achieves quality classroom teaching. A collaborative approach to teaching through a community of practice was used to obtain data for the three research objectives that were postulated. Two methods were used to collect data for the research which include classroom observations and the reflection meetings. While the researchers adopted the g...
Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.
This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience, professional qualification and teacher academic qualification). It also sought to determine the extent to which each of these four selected variables individually and jointly affected the teachers' report of their instructional assessment practices. A sample of 55 science teachers from nine secondary schools in Barbados was randomly selected to participate in this study. Data was collected by means of a survey and was analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the instructional assessment practices scores and linear, multiple and binary logistic regression. The results of the study were such that the majority of the sample reported good overall instructional assessment practices while only a few participants reported moderate assessment practices. The instructional assessment practices in the area of student knowledge were mostly moderate as indicated by the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between or among the mean scores of the teachers' reported instructional assessment practices based on sex ( t = 0.10; df = 53; p = 0.992), teaching experience ( F[4,50] = 1.766; p = 0.150), the level of professional qualification (F[3,45] = 0.2117; p = 0.111) or the level of academic qualification (F[2,52] = 0.504; p = 0.607). The independent variables (teacher sex, teaching experience, teacher professional qualification or teacher academic qualification) were not significant predictors of the instructional assessment practices scores. However, teacher sex was a significant predictor of the teachers' report of good instructional assessment practices. The study also found that the joint effect of the
The purpose of this study was to explore how teachers teach reading comprehension in primary three inclusive classrooms in Uganda. The study developed a theoretical framework from the literature review consisting of reading comprehension theories that directed the study and underpinned the methods and strategies that are used in teaching reading comprehension. The theories helped to clarify definitions and concepts about the teaching of reading comprehension. Qualitative approach was used wit...
Unveiling the Teachers' Profiles through an INSET (In Service Training) Course of Greek Primary School Teachers in the Pedagogy of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) In-Classroom Instruction
To meet the increasing demand for change in the infusion of ICT pedagogy in education a nationwide project was launched in Greece on May 2008. An INSET course for primary school teachers in the pedagogy of ICT in classroom instruction. The writer, aimed to study the teachers' views about certain aspects of the training experience in terms of the…
Paul, Susan Merry
To prepare all students--regardless of their abilities, language, and economic or cultural differences--to learn the skills needed for success in a global economy, teachers need training and support to teach in ways that respond to children's differences and to the changes in our world. The instructional leadership skills of the site principal make a difference in how effectively teachers meet these challenges. The role of the district office in preparing principals to become instructional le...
This study is a descriptive study that adopts relational screening model with the aim of determining pre-service classroom teachers' opinions about laboratory use in science teaching their preferences among laboratory approaches and identifying the reasons of the answers given by the pre-service teachers. The sample of the study is 236 pre-service…
Barnes, Judith A.; Hayes, Andrew F.
Surveys high school English teachers in California. Finds that in many areas English teachers' classroom practices do not conform to the integration curriculum guidelines issued by the state. Finds no systematic trend for teachers with an oral communication background to be integrating the language arts more than teachers without this training.…
Nayfeld, Irena; Brenneman, Kimberly; Gelman, Rochel
Research Findings: This paper reports on children's use of science materials in preschool classrooms during their free choice time. Baseline observations showed that children and teachers rarely spend time in the designated science area. An intervention was designed to "market" the science center by introducing children to 1 science tool, the…
Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Leonie J.
Focuses on female performance in science and mathematics in a single-sex classroom setting. Reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. Gathers qualitative and quantitative data from…
Nomi, Takako; Raudenbush, Stephen W.
In 2003, Chicago launched "Double-Dose Algebra," requiring students with pretest scores below the national median to take two periods of math--algebra and supplemental coursework. In many schools, assignment to Double Dose changed the peer composition of the algebra classroom. Using school-specific instrumental variables within a…
Bernard, Jeanne T.; Digman, R. Michael
To evaluate and document the effectiveness of miner training, a study monitored a wide variety of classroom sessions conducted for new miner and annual refresher training. Seven trainers and 275 mine trainees at fourteen sites in Kentucky, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia participated. Observations were made of classes in underground new…
van Zee, Emily H.
In this commentary, I first consider what Oliveira defines inquiry-based science instruction to be. Next I discuss what the discourse practices are that he is advocating. Then I examine what he presents as evidence of changes in two teachers' discourse practices due to a summer institute and how their pragmatic awareness seems to have been enhanced through institute activities. Finally I ponder whether, when, how, and why professional development should include a focus on ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction.
Nagatsuka, Yasuhiro; 長塚, 康弘
Considering the recent increasing tendency of traffic accidents in Japan, it seems urgently necessary for us to "improve drivers' behavior" by driver training for future accident reduction. In order to clarify what should be instructed in the training for safe driving, a driver training system was examined. It was pointed out that both beginner drivers and the licensed drivers were not yet adequately trained to be useful as safe drivers in considering especially the situations that beginner d...
Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer
This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.
Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer
This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.
Scholars and practitioners have reported the positive outcomes of a flipped, or inverted, approach to instruction (Baker, 2000; Lage, Platt, & Treglia, 2000; Bergmann, 2011; Wright, 2011; Pearson, 2012; Butt, 2012; Bates, 2012). While many of the reports are anecdotal, the sheer number of instructors that have reported successful…
Morreale, Sherwyn P.; Staley, Constance M.
The essays that comprise "Communication Education's" Forum on Instructional Communication and Millennial Students provide excellent summaries of existing research on this new generational cohort as college students. Taken as a whole, the writings paint an intriguing picture of this cohort, including both challenges and opportunities to…
Wang, Jui-Sheng; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Ribera, Amy K.
In this study the authors analyze longitudinal student survey data from the 17-institution Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS) to determine the extent that the influence of overall exposure to clear and organized instruction on four-year growth in two measures of cognitive development is mediated by student use of deep approaches…
Kariuki, Patrick N.; Blair, Paul W.
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of Cardio-Syntactic Analysis instruction on writing scores in an 11th grade English class. The sample consisted of 35 students enrolled in an Honor's English 11 class at Volunteer high School, in Church Hill, TN. The class was randomly assigned into an experimental group of 17 students and…
Self-regulated learning (SRL) encourages students to learn using metacognition, strategic action, and motivation. This nontraditional approach to education relies on the student's active role in learning and the instructor's facilitatory role in teaching. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of an SRL instructional model the author…
Burton, Larry D.; Nino, Ruth J.; Hollingsead, Candice C.
This investigation focused on instructional practices within fifth- through eighth-grade science classes of selected Seventh-day Adventist schools. Teachers reported regular use of discussion, student projects, and tests or quizzes. Most respondents said they did not feel prepared or had "never heard of" inquiry, the learning cycle, or…
McAteer, Todd C.
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine how knowledgeable teachers are in utilizing brain-researched instructional strategies. The research focused on determining which brain-researched strategies are implemented, the accuracy with which they are employed, and the degree to which they are utilized. A literature review revealed the most…
The aim of this report is to describe a field trial conducted in Italy during the academic year 2009-10, with primary and secondary school teachers (grades K-8), in order to test prototypes of "ready to use" kits to be used to implement PBL laboratory sessions in the classroom. This work is meant to provide a sort of snapshot of the classroom implementation of the teaching recommendations (so that any readers can conduct their own analysis). The kits were designed by matematita (Interuniversity Research Center for the Communication and Informal Learning of Mathematics, http://www.matematita.it). I wish to thank the "Ufficio Scolastico Regionale della Lombardia" for sponsoring the trial.
Roehrig, G. H.; Michlin, M.; Schmitt, L.; MacNabb, C.; Dubinsky, J M
In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sust...
Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.
The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic information. PAEE (portable indirect calorimeter) and physical activity (SOFIT) were simultaneously assessed in 38, 2nd through 5th grade children. PAEE and SOFIT were 3.04 ± 1.1 (kcal/min) and 3.8 ± 0.4 (score), respectively. PAEE was predicted from SOF...
随着信息技术和教学模式的不断改进和创新，翻转课堂为教学改革的开展注入了新活力，也成为国内外教育界的热门话题。探讨翻转课堂教学模式应用于大学英语写作教学中的可行性，设计较为完整的写作教学设计方案并开展了实证性研究。研究结果显示，翻转课堂对提高大学生英语写作水平及提高英语写作兴趣等方面具有积极作用。%With the development and innovation of technology and educational model,flipped class-room has added great vitality to instructional reform and has been a hot topic in the educational field home and abroad.The study made an analysis on the feasibility of applying the flipped classroom model to the English writing instruction,and it designed a comparatively complete schema and carried out an empirical research on the writing instruction.The study shows flipped classroom has played an impor-tant role in improving students'writing level and interests.
The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to design and produce electronic content of a microbiology course for students in AJA (Islamic Republic of Iran Army University of Medical Sciences based on Gagne's instructional design model and determine its effectiveness. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. All medical students studying in the 2014-2015 academic year in AJA University of Medical Sciences who had taken the microbiology course were entered in the study. Students were divided randomly into two groups, control and trial (16 subjects in each. After designing and producing the educational multimedia, the trial group was trained in concepts of the microbiology course using multimedia educational software during 6 sessions over 6 continuous weeks. Finally, they were given post-test questions to determine the educational progress level among the students. Results: The mean ± standard deviation for pre-test and post-test in the trial group were 4.44 ± 1.99 and 12.75 ± 1.06, respectively, and in the control group they were 3.75 ± 2.32 and 9.31 ± 1.25, respectively. The results of the analysis of covariance between adjusted means of both groups for variable of learning show a significant difference between the two groups (F(29,1= 65.69; P=0.001. The effect size was 0.69. Conclusion: The multimedia software produced in AJA University of Medical Sciences can be used as a proper educational instrument for teaching the microbiology courses. So, it is better to incorporate the multimedia method as a part of education into curriculum of universities, especially medical sciences universities. Keywords: e-learning, Gagne's instructional design, model, Education, Army, microbiology course
Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R
This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning. PMID:26399719
Design of Instructional Model Based on Flipped Classroom from the Perspective of Developing Critical Thinking--The Case of Instruction of “Intermediate Financial Accounting”%批判性思维培养视角下翻转课堂教学模式设计--以《中级财务会计》教学为例
The instructional model of flipped classroom regards the students as the center,which transfers knowledge by the information technology before the class, and provides effective communication channels for instruction and study in the class, in order to help students to finish knowledge construction. All of these will help to create equal and harmonious classroom atmosphere to promote the development of critical thinking. Critical thinking is the basis of innovative thinking. Traditional accounting instruction is focused on the rote memory, so most of the cultivated students under this model are lack of innovation. Therefore, it is very necessary to build the instructional model of flipped classroom which help the development of critical thinking based on the theory of critical thinking and core idea of flipped classroom.%翻转课堂教学模式以学生为中心，课前利用信息技术实现高效快捷传递知识，课内为教与学创设有效沟通渠道，完成对知识的内化，这有利于营造平等和谐的课堂氛围，促进批判性思维的培养。批判性思维是创新思维的基础。传统会计教学以机械记忆为主，培养的学生缺乏创新力。因此，结合批判性思维基本理论，围绕翻转课堂核心理念，构建有利于批判性思维培养的翻转课堂教学模式显得尤为必要。
Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Cooper, S. K.; Ledley, T. S.
Inspiring the next generation of geoscientists and preparing students for the 21st century workforce requires lifting science outside of the classroom and giving learners the opportunity to think critically about real-world geoscience problems. The EarthLabs suite of climate science modules challenges students with a variety of learning experiences including current scientific data analysis, computer visualizations, satellite imagery, and engaging videos. Each module includes a series of hands-on activities to allow students to explore Earth's complex and dynamic climate history, leading to a deeper understanding of present and future changes to our planet. A new EarthLabs module in development 'Climate Detectives: An Expedition on board the JOIDES Resolution," focuses on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 to Southern Alaska. The module is structured to allow students to work collaboratively, mimicking scientific research groups on the JOIDES Resolution. As students assume the role of a scientist, learn about data collection methods, and analyze authentic data, they learn about the climate history and tectonic processes of the Southern Alaska continental margin, as well as explore the relationship between climate, sedimentation, and tectonics. The Project Based Learning (PBL) approach used in the module teaches students how to analyze data and solve problems like scientists, strengthening the development of higher order thinking skills and preparing them for college coursework. The 'Climate Detectives' Module also provides students with opportunities to interact with scientists through live video conferencing and pre-recorded video presentations by scientists. In this presentation, Expedition 341 Education Officer, Alison Mote, describes the new module, which takes students on an educational journey as they learn about the scientific objectives, methods, and data collection tools scientists use to conduct research on sediment cores retrieved
Griess, Carolyn J.; Keat, Jane B.
Teacher education faculty are experiencing increasingly diverse higher education classrooms. In many ways, the diversities present in collegiate classrooms mirror the differences in classrooms of young children. The diversity may be a result of a range of ethnic, socioeconomic, and linguistic differences. Or it may be differences resulting from…
Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…
Doan, Tomalee; Doan, Corey
These slides show data for Instruction Matters Purdue Academic Course Transformation (IMPACT) Program, including current classroom configurations, and growth in classroom seats and technology. Also models expected growth in classroom space and seats. Includes current classroom efficiencies and comments from current IMPACT instructors.
Irving, Karen; Sanalan, Vehbi; Shirley, Melissa
Case-study descriptions of secondary and middle school classrooms in diverse contexts provide examples of how teachers implement connected classroom technology to facilitate formative assessment in science instruction. Connected classroom technology refers to a networked system of handheld devices designed for classroom use. Teachers were…
"Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).
Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…
... Divisions Staff Visitor Information Contact Us FAQs Stay Connected Home » Older Drivers Heath and Aging Older ... She’s noticed a few new dents on her car and doesn’t know how they got there. ...
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针对多媒体幻灯在课堂应用中存在的问题,分析并指出其存在的关键问题是教学设计不到位,强调幻灯制作要为教学对象、教学内容、教学目标服务,以教学设计指导技术应用.%In view of the problems of multimedia slides applied in classroom teaching, this paper analyzes and points out that the key problem is the inadequate instructional design and emphasizes that making of multimedia slides must serve teaching object, teaching content and teaching target. It concludes that instructional design must guide the utilization of technology.
Shimwooshili Shaimemanya, Cornelia Ndahambelela
The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of teacher attributes (teaching experience, age, and science content preparation), classroom attributes (grade level, class size, and teaching resources), and instructional strategies on Namibian junior secondary school teachers' locus of control, attitudes toward desertification, and self-efficacy. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis strategy were used to test a hypothesized causal model that expressed the relationships among these factors. Sample data were collected from 221 teachers from 218 schools representing 4 northern education regions of Namibia. Overall MANOVA results were not significant and hence no follow-up analyses were conducted. However, when the causal model was retested in the absence of 13 variables, which were incorrectly specified, MANOVA results, although still not significant, improved considerably: The p-value decreased from 28.5% to 15%. As a result., follow-up analyses were conducted at an inflated alpha level relative to this alternative model. The results indicated that science content preparation, syllabus use, and Internet use had significant influences on teachers' self-efficacy, but none of the IVs had a significant relationship with either of the other two dependent measures. A follow-up exploratory analysis was also conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM) via LISREL. The resulting LISREL model indicated that (1) age and textbook use are positive measures that determine a teacher's ability to teach desertification, (2) Internet use is a negative measure of teachers' desertification teaching ability, and (3) self-efficacy and attitudes toward desertification are measures of teachers' motivation to teach desertification, with self-efficacy as the stronger measure. Findings suggest that: (1) teachers' desertification teaching can be improved by a stronger science content background as part of teacher training programs; (2
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. PMID:27068989
This case study explored a process of team-based curriculum deliberation, design, and delivery, used to teach a classroom management course in the context of a school university partnership. A team of university and school-based teacher educators negotiated how best to prepare preservice teachers with effective classroom management knowledge and…
智障教育课堂教学中，指导语作为师生信息交换的中介，对于课堂教学的有效实施起着桥梁的作用。智障教育课堂实践中，对于如何恰当使用指导语存在着三个误区“：不清晰“”无指向”和“不存在”。要消除指导语使用的误区，需要明晰智障教育学校指导语的四种功能，即导向功能、反馈功能、强化功能和调节功能；正确把握指导语运用的四个原则：稳定性原则、准确性原则、简洁性原则和差异性原则；提高指导语运用的水平需要教师准确把握课程，细致了解学生，并建立反思习惯。%In the classroom teaching for mentally retarded children, instructions, as the medium for information interchange between teachers and students, play the role of a bridge. In the classroom practice of education for the mentally-retarded, there are three misunderstandings about how to employ instructions properly, namely,“unclearness”,“pointlessness”and“nonexistence”. To clear up the misunderstandings in the use of instructions, four functions of instructions in schools for mentally retarded children should be made clear, namely, orientation, feedback, reinforcement and adjustment; four principles of the use of instructions should be stuck to, that is, stability, accuracy, conciseness and discrepancy;the improvement of the application of the instructions needs the teacher’s knowing well of the curricula, detailed understanding of students and forming the habit of introspection.
Tucker, Catlin R.
Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…
Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Hug, Barbara; Lubienski, Sarah Theule
This study examines the impact of a new master's degree program on the instructional practices of K-8 in-service teachers. This 2.5-year master's program was designed to deepen in-service teachers' knowledge in science and mathematics and promote greater use of reform-oriented instruction. Teachers' instructional practices were…
Reynolds, Richard Jennings [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The purpose of this course is to introduce safe hoisting and rigging practices to personnel who are attempting to become LANL incidental crane operators and to review and refresh safe hoisting and rigging practices with existing incidental crane operators.
Child, Angela R.
Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...
Hessler, Karen L
This article will introduce the innovative educational concept of the "flipped classroom." How to implement the flipped learning model will be addressed within the framework of The Intentional Instruction Environment Model. PMID:26795837
Discusses the background of rap music, its definition, its themes and messages, and rap as a blend of language and music. Offers ideas for its use in the classroom as a way to motivate and instruct students. (SR)
Spivak, Howard; Varden, Stuart
The authors cite specific ways that the classroom computer can aid the teacher, by providing a wide variety of independent instruction for students and by cutting down the time required for recordkeeping, testing, and other administrative tasks. (Author/SJL)
Grypp, Lynette; Luebeck, Jennifer
Technology is causing educators to rethink the entire notion of classroom learning, not only with respect to what learning should take place but also where it should take place. One such innovation is flipped instruction, broadly defined by Staker and Horn (2012) as an instructional model in which students learn partly through online delivery and…
Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony
Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…
Roskos, Kathleen; Neuman, Susan B.
The classroom environment is uppermost in teachers' minds at the start of each school year. Designing an effective classroom environment for learning to read and reading is both an art and a science. Aligning physical space with instructional goals involves the flexible use of space that is adapted to instructional needs. A well-designed classroom…
This digest focuses on teaching integrated skills in the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom (ESL/EFL). Segregated-skill instruction is examined and two types of integrated-skills instruction are highlighted: content-based instruction and task-based instruction. The advantages of integrated-skill instruction are discussed, and five…
Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey
This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual…
Richardson, Rita Coombs; Arker, Emily
Teachers' personality traits are reflected in their classroom instruction--especially in their selection of various instructional strategies, the materials they choose, and their classroom management techniques. Moreover, personality styles are positively interrelated with learning styles as well as teaching styles. In many classrooms, however,…
Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing
The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…
Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.
The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.
This paper presents active learning theory and how implementation of dynamic instruction strategies can transform the K-12 classroom. A multi-part study was conducted to determine both the level of active learning knowledge among participants and applicability of newly acquired approaches within the participants' classrooms. First, teachers were…
Moran, Kristen; Milsom, Amy
The flipped classroom is proposed as an effective instructional approach in counselor education. An overview of the flipped-classroom approach, including advantages and disadvantages, is provided. A case example illustrates how the flipped classroom can be applied in counselor education. Recommendations for implementing or researching flipped…
Freiberg, H. Jerome
Too often, classroom-management systems built on trust and support in primary grades are replaced by compliance and obedience systems in higher grades. Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline is a research-based, classroom-tested Texas program that combines instructional effectiveness (through consistent classroom organization) with…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Piasta, Shayne B.; Fishman, Barry; Glasney, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher; Crowe, Elizabeth; Underwood, Phyllis; Morrison, Frederick J.
Recent findings demonstrate that the most effective reading instruction may vary with children’s language and literacy skills. These child X instruction interactions imply that individualizing instruction would be a potent strategy for improving students’ literacy. A cluster-randomized control field trial, conducted in 10 high-moderate poverty schools, examined effects of individualizing literacy instruction. The instruction each first grader received (n=461 in 47 classrooms, mean age = 6.7 y...
As advanced technology increasingly infiltrated into classroom, the flipped classroom has come to light in secondary educational settings. The flipped classroom is a new instructional approach that intends to flip the traditional teacher-centered classroom into student centered. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the…
Johnson, Vincent Robert
A discussion of audiovisual instruction in the law school classroom looks at the strengths, weaknesses, equipment and facilities needs and hints for classroom use of overhead projection, audiotapes and videotapes, and slides. (MSE)
Clark, Kevin R.
In many of the secondary classrooms across the country, including the research site for this study, students are passively engaged in the mathematics content, and academic performance can be described, at best, as mediocre. This action research study sought to bring about improvements in student engagement and performance in the secondary…
Dennis, Larinee B.
"It is often assumed that changing the classroom by introducing technology will result in better teaching and increased student motivation, which ultimately means more effective student learning experiences" (Donovan, Green, & Hartley, 2010, p. 423). But does it? This is the controversy and debate that surrounds the promise and…
Hall, Jeffrey; Chamblee, Gregory; Slough, Scott
Two high school mathematics teachers who use Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in the classroom were interviewed annually over the course of three years regarding their perceptions of the technology. During the third year, the two teachers were asked to complete the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Stages of Concern Questionnaire. The data obtained from…
Wiginton, Barry Lynn
This study utilized an explanatory mixed-methods research design to investigate the effect of learning environment on student mathematics achievement, and mathematics self-efficacy, and student learning style in a ninth grade Algebra I classroom. The study also explored the lived experiences of the teachers and students in the three different…
Piasta, Shayne B.; Purpura, David J.; Wagner, Richard K.
Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive small group instruction in letter names and/or sounds or numbers (treated control). Alphabet instruction followed one of two approaches currently utilized in early childhood classrooms: combined letter name and sound instruction or letter sound only instruction. Thirty-four 15…
Flipped classroom model is a shock to traditional classroom process.It has brought revolution and innovation to traditional teaching models.Aiming at an enrichment of the connotation and practical experiences of flipped classroom, this paper discusses the instructional design and application of flipped classroom model in the course of Strategic Management.%翻转课堂教学模式颠覆了传统的教学流程，带来了教学模式的革命与创新。通过对翻转课堂教学模式的认识与研究，探讨翻转课堂在企业战略管理课程中的教学设计与应用，丰富翻转课堂的研究内涵和实践经验。
Penkivich, Robert R.
The purpose of this book, written by a retired law enforcement officer, is to educate the public about drunk drivers, drinking drivers, and high-speed driving, in an effort to prevent injury, death, and suffering. It is intended to be an instructional manual and a practical, common-sense survival guide for the average individual. National…
Barriteau Phaire, Candace
The teaching and learning of mathematics has been the subject of debate for over 30 years and the most recent reform efforts are in response to concerns regarding the mathematical competence of students in the United States (Ball, Hill, & Bass, 2005; Battista, 1994; Cavanagh, 2008). Standards-based Instructional Materials (SBIM) allows…
Jones, Karrie A.; Jones, Jennifer L.
Cooperative learning is viable yet generally underutilized method of instruction at the college level (Paulsen and Faust, 2008). This paper highlights the work of teacher educator Dr. Paul J. Vermette in his implementation of cooperative learning based practices in a graduate level Multicultural education course. In analyzing the "Five…
Scott, Terrance M.; Shearer-Lingo, Amy
This study used two reading programs with three students in a self-contained class for children with emotional and/or behavior disorders. Results indicated that when instruction sets students up to succeed on a daily basis and monitor their own progress, positive academic and social outcomes are likely. Single subject research results and…
A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a tiered instructional design on classroom management, attitude and the learning level of students. The instructional program was prepared for an introductory science course for 3rd grade students. The case study research method was used. Observation form, teacher and student interview forms were used to collect data. The teaching program was planned using a tiered instruction method for nine subjects of the “Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow” curriculum theme. The teacher made a short presentation and then students were classified into ability groups. Finally, each group completed learning activity via individual and group tasks based on activities appropriate to their abilities. The results indicate that tiered instruction had positive effects on the learning outcomes of students. All groups completed the classroom activities easily, which increased their motivation. Students participated in activities voluntarily and enthusiastically.
Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann
Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV and pregnancy instruction, 3 months after instruction, and 1 year after instruction). Results indicated…
Fredriksen, Helge; Said HADJERROUIT
International audience The main concept of Flipped Classroom (FC) is to invert, or flip, the content of teaching in terms of what is done during the homework phase, compared to the activity in the class with the teacher. Traditionally, the students at higher education attend a lecture, accompanied with tasks to solve at home or in a colloquium arranged by the University. The FC model will alter this completely, giving the students the opportunity to watch the lectures at home using pre-rec...
According to this study, through leadership training, school principals learn about highquality instruction and about actions that they can take to motivate and support their teachers. Principals then organize professional learning for their teachers and otherwise help teachers improve their classroom practices. With improved instruction, the theory maintains, student achievement will also improve.The study objective of learning for district and school administrators is guided by a theory of ...
The inquiry learning is a ways of learning derived by the mode of scientific research. Focusing on classroom teaching is the fulcrum of inquiry learning. Finding problems in the operating activities, and finding laws in the observation, and develop association in the comparison, and solving problem through conjecture and verification are the antecedent conditions to carry out the inquiry learning. Carrying out the inquiry learning based on problems in proposition classroom, and Carrying out three levels of inquiry learning are the implementation strategies to engineer the inquiry learning.%探究性学习是一种由科学研究的方式推演而成的学习方式。聚焦课堂教学是探究性学习的着力点。在操作活动中发现问题，在观察中发现规律，在比较中联想，通过猜想和验证来解决问题是实施探究性学习的先决条件之一。在命题课中大力开展发现式问题探究，在习题课中大力开展3个层次的探究，是探究性学习在课堂教学中的工程化实施策略。
Wonder-McDowell, Carla V
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aligning supplemental reading instruction with core classroom reading instruction on struggling second-grade students’ proficiency in phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Alignment was defined as core classroom and supplemental instruction that are congruent in philosophy, goals, instructional materials, instructional methods, student activities, and reading strategies that follow the same scope and sequence. This study e...
Robinson, Lora; Maldonado, Nancy; Whaley, Jerita
The absence of differentiated instruction in many classrooms stifles success for students who do not learn the same way as their peers. Providing teachers with the knowledge and tools to differentiate in their classrooms may increase test scores and help low achieving students find success, while expanding the learning growth of gifted and…
Closing the Mathematical Achievement Gap Through the Heart To the Brain: A Case Study of Urban High School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of How Their Emotional Intelligence Facilitates Instruction and Learning in the Classroom
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine urban high school mathematics teachers' perceptions of how they manage their own and their students' emotional intelligence (EI) to facilitate instruction and learning; their reports of how they handle their emotions as urban mathematics teachers; and their reports of how they manage the emotions of their students. The study focused on the voices of sixteen urban mathematics teachers and was undertaken in reaction to the significant mathematics achievement gap between urban students and their suburban counterparts. The conceptual framework undergirding the study was synthesized work by Daniel Goleman, (1995) and Mayer and Salovey (1997); categorizing emotional intelligence in emotional selfawareness, managing emotions, harnessing emotions, empathy, and handling relationships. Research questions addressing each category were created and from these categories an interview guide was developed. Data gathered during individual teacher interviews was transcribed and sorted into emergent categories using open coding. The findings were organized and presented according to the study's research questions. Urban math teachers reported passion for their students, their feelings affect teaching and learning, and that humor is an important tool in mediating emotions. The study concludes with multiple recommendations for further research and practices. Future studies should compare teachers assuming paternal vs. mentor role when dealing with their students. The study can evaluate if either role has a significant impact in student teacher relationships. A recommendation for practice is for teachers to have professional development experiences focusing on the proper use of humor in the classroom. Humor used properly promotes a positive classroom environment. This is a skill that would be especially beneficial to urban teachers.
‘Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History’: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)
St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.
This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely ‘Big Ideas’ with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation
This training package - complete with full-color book and instructional video - is the easiest way to learn HTML5!HTML5 boasts extensive new features that allow you to create dynamic web pages and present users with amazing multimedia experiences, and this one-of-a-kind training package is your guide to creating websites that wow! HTML5 Digital Classroom provides step-by-step instruction to help you gain the essential HTML5 knowledge you need to master the latest HTML5 specifications. This book-and-video package will have you creating web pages and web applications using HTML5, styling using
Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.
This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…
Brown, Anna F.
The changing educational needs of undergraduate students have not been addressed with a corresponding development of instructional methods in higher education classrooms. This study used a phenomenological approach to investigate a classroom-based instructional model called the "inverted" or "flipped" classroom. The flipped…
Zaleski, Diana Janet
Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science.…
Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz
We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students’ informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for informational text comprehension, was provided in four-week instructional units for 615 grade 7 students. These classroom motivational-engagement supports w...
This paper looks at second language acquisition in a classroom setting. It considers whether formal instruction makes a difference to SLA. This is an important issue, because it address the question of the role played by environmental factors in SLA. It is also an important educational issue, as language pedagogy has traditionally operated on the assumption that grammar can be taught.
Today's classrooms are more diverse than ever. In fact, research shows that there will be a steady increase in Hispanic, Asian Americans, and African American students in the coming years. Therefore, differentiated instruction may be the panacea that educators are searching for. This paper commences with an introduction and then segways into a…
Donaldson, Brady E.
Core reading programs (CRPs) provide the curriculum and guide reading instruction for many classroom teachers. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of reading fluency instruction in current (2008-2011 copyright) grade 2 and 3 top-selling core reading program lessons to answer the following two research questions: (1) How do core reading programs recommend that fluency skills be taught? (2) How do reading fluency instructional practices in core programs compare to eviden...
Hornberger, Nancy H.; Link, Holly
As US classrooms approach a decade of response to No Child Left Behind, many questions and concerns remain around the education of those labeled as English language learners, in mainstream, English as a Second Language, and bilingual education classrooms. A national policy context where standardized tests dominate curriculum and instruction, and…
Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.
Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom…
Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Harris, Alexis R.; Katz, Deirdre A.; Jennings, Patricia A.; Greenberg, Mark T.
Teachers are responsible for delivering academic instruction, facilitating student learning and engagement, and managing classroom behavior. Stress may interfere with performance in the classroom, however (Tsouloupas, Carson, Matthews, Grawitch, & Barber, 2010), and recent studies suggest that stress is quite common among today's educators. In…
Fecho, Bob; Coombs, Dawan; McAuley, Sean
Authors Fecho, Coombs, and McAuley discuss the integral role of dialogue in literacy classrooms dominated by standardized testing, curriculum, and instruction. Their argument in support of the dialogical literacy classroom begins with a historical and theoretical justification for these principles, then transitions into a discussion of the…
Savich, Carl; Bizzotto, Glenda
The purpose of this paper was to analyze and critique the proposals made in "The Engaged Classroom" by Sam Intrator to increase student engagement in the classroom. The methodology used was to analyze, compare, and critique the proposals based on educational research on apathy and boredom in the instruction of history. The results were that the…
From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one…
One of the novel ideas in teaching that heavily relies on current technology is the “flipped classroom” approach. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. Students are provided with online material in order to gain necessary knowledge before class, while...... class time is devoted to clarifications and application of this knowledge. The hypothesis is that there could be deep and creative discussions when teacher and students physically meet. This paper presents design considerations for flipped classrooms, and discusses how Moodle can facilitate...... communication and information sharing in such classrooms. Furthermore, it provides guidelines for supporting out-of-class instruction in the flipped model by using quizzes and feedback in Moodle, and comments on the potential to follow student use of resources by using Moodle reports. This paper concludes...
Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.
Classroom research on adaptive teaching indicates few teachers modify instruction for at-risk students in a manner that benefits them. Responsiveness-To-Intervention, with its tiers of increasingly intensive instruction, represents an alternative approach to adaptive instruction that may prove more workable in today's schools.
Clifford, Matthew Aaron
Local instructional design describes the process of customization that naturally occurs when curriculum innovations interface with local classrooms and schools. Describing the practice of local instructional design can help to explain how curriculum is adapted to local conditions and provides insight on how instructional leaders mediate…
With an increased emphasis on instructional accountability with respect to instruction, assessment and curriculum development, administrators have been struggling to find a model of supervision that is clinical and collaborative and that will produce an accurate assessment of classroom instruction. According to Goe (2007), "In recent years,…
Johnson, Joseph A.
This study involved an intervention in which I explored how the multimodal, inquiry-based teaching strategies from a professional development model could be used to meet the educational needs of a group of middle school students, who were refugees, newly arrived in the United States, now residing in a large urban school district in the northeastern United States, and learning English as a second language. This group remains unmentioned throughout the research literature despite the fact that English Language Learners (ELLs) represent the fastest growing group of K-12 students in the United States. The specific needs of this particular group were explored as I attempted daily to confront a variety of obstacles to their science achievement and help to facilitate the development of a scientific discourse. This research was done in an effort to better address the needs of ELLs in general and to inform best practices for teachers to apply across a variety of different cultural and linguistic subgroups. This study is an autoethnographic case study analysis of the practices of the researcher, working in a science classroom, teaching the described group of students.
School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Piasta, Shayne B; Fishman, Barry; Glasney, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher; Crowe, Elizabeth; Underwood, Phyllis; Morrison, Frederick J
Recent findings demonstrate that the most effective reading instruction may vary with children's language and literacy skills. These Child x Instruction interactions imply that individualizing instruction would be a potent strategy for improving students' literacy. A cluster-randomized control field trial, conducted in 10 high-moderate poverty schools, examined effects of individualizing literacy instruction. The instruction each first grader received (n = 461 in 47 classrooms, mean age = 6.7 years) during fall, winter, and spring was recorded. Comparing intervention-recommended amounts of instruction with observed amounts revealed that intervention teachers individualized instruction more precisely than did comparison teachers. Importantly, the more precisely the children received recommended amounts of instruction, the stronger was their literacy skill growth. Results provide strong evidence of Child x Instruction interaction effects on literacy outcomes. PMID:19236394
Foley, Leslie M.
As digital media practices become readily available in today's classrooms, literacy and literacy instruction are changing in profound ways (Alvermann, 2010). Professional organizations emphasize the importance of integrating new literacies (New London Group, 1996) practices into language-arts instruction (IRA, 2009; NCTE, 2005). As a result,…
Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R
Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. PMID:26809775
Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud
The current study set to examine the effects of simulator use in driving instruction on newly licensed drivers, comparing the road safety knowledge and reported intended behavior, as well as the actual driving performance of new drivers. Participants consisted of 280 newly licensed driver, of which 140 whose drivers license training included additional simulator-based lessons, and 140 drivers whose training precluded simulator-based lessons. All drivers answered questionnaires pertaining to their intended safe driving behaviors (according to Ajzen's (2000) theory of planned behavior), and to their traffic safety knowledge. Of the initial sample, 40 drivers received actual driving performance evaluation by an expert driving instructor, as well as by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs). We assumed that safer drivers report safer driving intentions, demonstrate greater traffic safety knowledge, evaluated as safer drivers by the driving instructor, and display lower and stable driving parameters on the IVDRs. We hypothesized that theoretical driving studies combined with practical training on simulators will elevate the safety level of novices driving. Hierarchical regression analyses on driving intentions indicated that drivers who did not receive simulator-based lessons demonstrated safer driving intentions compared to drivers who received simulator-based lessons. This pattern possibly indicating the drivers who received simulator-based lessons felt more confident in their driving abilities compared to drivers who did not receive simulated training. No significant difference was found in traffic safety knowledge, or in the evaluation of the expert driving instructor. IDVR data comparisons indicated drivers who received simulator-based lessons braked more often and were less prone to headway events, suggesting a more responsive driving style. These findings do not point to any significant advantage or disadvantage of the current simulator-based driving training over
Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.
's STEP Center in the geosciences. The module goals are: 1) Pre-service teachers will apply classification methods, testing procedures and interdisciplinary systems thinking to analyze and evaluate a relevant societal issue in the context of soils, 2) Pre-service teachers will design, develop, and facilitate a standards-based K-8 soils unit, incorporating a relevant broader societal issue that applies authentic geoscientific data, and incorporates geoscientific habits of mind. In addition, pre-service teachers will look toward the NGSS and align activities with content standards, systems thinking, and science and engineering practices. This poster will provide an overview of module development to date as well as a summary of pre-semester survey results indicating pre-service elementary teachers' ideas (beliefs, attitudes, preconceptions, and content knowledge) about teaching soils, and making science relevant in a K-8 classroom.
Strayer, Jeremy F.; Hart, James B.; Bleiler, Sarah K.
In this article, we share a model of flipped instruction that allowed us to gain a window into our students' mathematical thinking. We depict how that increased awareness of student thinking shaped our mathematics instruction in productive ways. Drawing on our experiences with students in our own classrooms, we show how flipped instruction can be…
Thornell, John G.
Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…
Snider, Robert C.
Since the 1960s, difficulty of developing a technology of instruction in public schools has proved insurmountable; results have been spotty, machines have come and gone, and classroom practices remain largely unchanged. Public clamor for reform has provided neither direction nor purpose. Technology will ultimately prevail; the problem is educating…
Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one group of educators exploring the flipped classroom. In foreign language classes, such an approach may offer great benefits for both the teachers and ...
Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.
This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…
Yeh, Stuart S.; Connell, David B.
Sixteen Head Start classrooms, involving 128 children, were randomly assigned to three approaches for augmenting early literacy instruction: (a) instruction in phoneme segmentation, blending, and letter-sound relationships, (b) rhyming instruction and (c) vocabulary instruction. The phoneme segmentation approach was more effective in promoting…
Khalil, Mahmood; Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel
In this paper a conceptual model of instruction "the six mirrors of the classroom" used as a frame for teaching a learning topic, the microorganisms are depicted. The paper consists of four sections: (a) the six mirrors of the classroom model (SMC); (b) the SMC as implemented in the expository and cooperative modes of instruction in classrooms and…
Kramer, Barton Hale
Discipline in the classroom has been a concern of educators and the general public for years. Numerous programs have been developed to help the classroom teacher with his/her classroom Management. These programs present skills that when properly applied could help to reduce the problems of classroom discipline. One program in particular, the Classroom Management Training Program (CMTP), has stated that the skills of positive instruction and positive discipline will hel...
Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...
Milner, H. Richard, IV; Tenore, F. Blake
Classroom management continues to be a serious concern for teachers and especially in urban and diverse learning environments. The authors present the culturally responsive classroom management practices of two teachers from an urban and diverse middle school to extend the construct, culturally responsive classroom management. The principles that…
Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.
This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.
Youngkin, C Andrew
The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services. PMID:25316072
Casner, Stephen M.
This study explores the idea of teaching fundamental cockpit automation concepts and skills to aspiring professional pilots in a classroom setting, without the use of sophisticated aircraft or equipment simulators. Pilot participants from a local professional pilot academy completed eighteen hours of classroom instruction that placed a strong emphasis on understanding the underlying principles of cockpit automation systems and their use in a multi-crew cockpit. The instructional materials consisted solely of a single textbook. Pilots received no hands-on instruction or practice during their training. At the conclusion of the classroom instruction, pilots completed a written examination testing their mastery of what had been taught during the classroom meetings. Following the written exam, each pilot was given a check flight in a full-mission Level D simulator of a Boeing 747-400 aircraft. Pilots were given the opportunity to fly one practice leg, and were then tested on all concepts and skills covered in the class during a second leg. The results of the written exam and simulator checks strongly suggest that instruction delivered in a traditional classroom setting can lead to high levels of preparation without the need for expensive airplane or equipment simulators.
Driver"s efficiency, his ability to perform physical and mental work connected with driving skillfully maintain specified speed and overcome fatigue are naturally changing during the working day. To research driver"s efficient work under various road conditions, it is necessary to predict the change of driver"s efficiency phases under different ratios and absolute values of physical activity and data traffic.
From drill-and-practice software,to word-processing programs,to network and hypertext software,the gradual integration of technology in classrooms over the last twenty years has tended to reflect the technological developments and more importantly the theories of learning and instruction developed by scholars.Thus,the introduction of network technologies in education coincided with a shift in education from an interest in cognitive and developmental theories of learning to a social and collaborative view of learning.The present paper focuses on synchronous computer-mediated interaction,namely computer-assisted instruction and discussion in the second language classroom.
Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin
The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. PMID:26310799
Adcock, Julie; Cuvo, Anthony J.
Children with autism spectrum disorders sometimes are fully included in regular education classrooms with its standard curriculum and instructional methods. Under these classroom conditions, the children might perform successfully for some academic subjects but not for others. For these latter academic subjects, standard instruction could be…
Burchinal, Margaret; Field, Samuel; Lopez, Michael L.; Howes, Carollee; Pianta, Robert
This study examined associations between classroom quality, amount of instruction in Spanish, and academic learning of Spanish-speaking 4 years-olds. Findings suggest that gains in reading and math were larger when children received more instruction in Spanish in classrooms with more responsive and sensitive teachers. It is possible that…
Considers the teaching of grammar and its importance in the writing classroom. Examines what grammar is; why writing instruction has moved away from grammar; differing opinions regarding grammar and writing instruction; and grammar's place in the writing classroom of the new century. Argues that grammar must be applied to students' own writing.…
Christensen, Jon L.; Pierson, Brian E.
Visualization is key in helping a student understand the fundamentals of Calculus. The new generation of computer literate students, raised in a video-based environment, will expect more than the traditional chalkboard methods in assisting them in this visualization. By integrating computers into the classroom and developing software to assist in mathematics instruction, we can enhance student comprehension of, and ability to apply, mathematics in solving real world problems of interest to th...
California State Dept. of Motor Vehicles, Sacramento.
The development of a 6-hour motorcycle course of instruction for personnel responsible for motorcycle licensing is described in this project report. The primary goals are stated and include (1) training driver licensing personnel in motorcycle safety and principles of operation, and (2) purchasing and installing appropriate motorcycle skill…
How is that you can walk into a classroom and gain an overall sense of the quality of math instruction taking place there? What contributes to getting that sense? In "Math Sense," Chris Moynihan explores some of the components that comprise the look, sound, and feel of effective teaching and learning. Does the landscape of the classroom feature…
Hange, Jane; Rolfe, Helen
This paper reports on the 30th study group sponsored by the Appalachia Education Laboratory's (AEL) Classroom Instruction Program. Twenty-three K-12 teachers worked in seven teams in six schools throughout Virginia to design and implement classroom interdisciplinary curriculum units with accompanying alternative assignments. Project research…
Knight, Courteney Lester
Although research has concluded that technology can enhance the teaching and learning processes, teachers have not yet fully adopted technology to support their teaching methodologies. In the last decade or so, as the accessible gap narrowed, the focus switched to other factors. This study attempts to answer the question: Why teachers do not fully…
Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kiuru, Noona
Classroom research has typically focused on the role of teaching practices and the quality of instruction in children's academic performance, motivation and adjustment--in other words, classroom interactions initiated by the teacher. The present article presents a model of classroom interactions initiated by the child, that is, the notion that a…
Full Text Available This study seated out as objective to locate the discourses that the users of Transmilenio use to contribute to theconstruction of the identity of the system´s driver, considering that such discourses give account of the work identitiesconstructed from the practice of the driver. The work was made with written texts and oral stories (telephoneinterviews of users of the Transmilenio system, which used the Call Center of the organization in the lapse of oneweek, in order to inform about the drivers´ performance. The technique of Discourse Analysis was used to identify thediscourses of the users, which were then used to analyze the political implications that they have in the construction ofa part of the identity of the drivers.
Some of the initiatives in setting up an oilfield driver training program were highlighted. The objectives of the general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course which is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry is to help reduce accidents and injuries by teaching drivers professional driving attitudes, off-highway driving skills, regulatory requirements, inspection and maintenance procedures, other driving-related skills, and hauling and towing procedures. The topics covered at an oilfield haulers course (OHC) include: (1) moving equipment, (2) winching, (3) crane and truck mounted crane operation, (4) securing loads, and (5) rig moves. GODI and OHC have become industry standards since July 1996. GODI and OHC are now prerequisites for drivers of vehicles greater than 4500 kg GVW going to oilfield locations
The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry
In theory, language teaching today should be entirely monolingual-using target language as the medium of instruction.ciency' (Brice 2000). This paper is devoted to exploring the theoretical justification for the existence of code switching and the pedagogical purposes for the use of it in EFL classroom, with a hope to raise EFT teachers' awareness of the actual use of code switching in classroom and help them develop an appropriate attitude towards its role in EFL teaching.
TAN, ESTHER; Rusman, Ellen
This part of the symposium focuses on the design of seamless learning experiences in a borderless classroom. There are two parts to this symposium. We start with unpacking various theoretical approaches that inform the instructional design of boundary-crossing learning scenarios, such as social learning theory, experiential learning, situated cognition and theory of play. We then identify critical design elements for connecting in-and-out of classroom learning experiences, such as learning th...
Pianta, Robert C.; Belsky, Jay; Houts, Renate; Morrison, Fred
Observations in 737 5th-grade classrooms reveal high amounts of basic skills instruction in reading and math as whole-group or individual-seatwork, delivered with mediocre instructional quality. Cooperative learning, technology, social studies or science are rare. Observed opportunities show little association with features of teachers or schools. Across 1st, 3rd and 5th grades, classroom quality is low if children are poor or are low on achievement; for others quality is inconsistent across ...
Systems Technology, Inc. developed a technique to study/measure behavioral changes brought on by long term isolation is now being used in a system for determining whether a driver is too drunk to drive. Device is intended to discourage intoxicated drivers from taking to the road by advising them they are in no condition to operate a vehicle. System is being tested experimentally in California.
Regan, M.; Hallett, C
The term 5driver distraction‟ is widely discussed and studied, implying that people understand what it means; but this is not necessarily so. In this chapter, the authors attempt to provide the reader with a general overview of the term "driver distraction": what it means; how it relates to other forms of driver inattention; types of driver distraction; sources of driver distraction; factors that moderate the effects of distraction on driving; the interference that can derive from distr...
Munroe, Myra D.
Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors contributing to student learning (Marzano et al., 2005). Understanding the role of emotional intelligence in instructional leadership behaviors with a focus on establishing expectations for student academic success provides valuable information about practices…
Kay, Robin; Knaack, Liesel; Muirhead, Bill
To date, limited research has been done examining and evaluating the instructional wrap for using learning objects effectively. The current study examined instructional strategies used by 15 teachers to integrate learning objects into 30 secondary school classrooms (510 students). Four key areas were examined: preparation time, purpose for using a…
Schrum, Lynne; Lamb, Theodore A.
Reports on the early stages of a project at the U.S. Air Force Academy, in which the instructional applications of a networked classroom laboratory, an intranet, and the Internet are explored as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of groupware and computer networks as instructional environments. Presents the results of the first pilot tests.…
When I was asked to teach the entire literacy curriculum to my grade six students in only five months, I implemented reading conferences as an instructional practice to deepen students' reading comprehension. Classroom events related to reading conferences, student decision-making, and instructional planning were recorded in a journal. This…
Culturally responsive instruction appears to offer the potential to improve students' academic achievement and chances for success in school. However, it is not easy to see how culturally responsive instruction can be applied, especially in classrooms with students of many different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. In the first section of this…
Fletcher, Edward C., Jr.; Djajalaksana, Yenni; Eison, James
Despite the need to provide differentiated instruction to diverse learners in contemporary CTE programs across institutes of higher education, little research has explored the actual classroom instructional strategies employed in postsecondary settings. To that end, this study found 387 CTE faculty most frequently use interactive lecture,…
This Digest reviews the literature on recent attempts to incorporate technology into the instruction of journalism and mass communication. It first discusses the four main categories of current technology use in journalism and mass communication: classroom instruction; online syllabi/materials; distance learning; and technological literacy. It…
The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g
Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Siekkinen, Martti
The present study set out to identify and examine dialogic educational interactions in Finnish pre-school classrooms. Video recordings of five observed pre-school classrooms that had shown a high or moderate quality of instructional support in literacy, maths and science studies were transcribed for micro-scale qualitative content analysis. Three…
Salend, Spencer J.
Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…
Using microlectures in a flipped classroom is a growing trend. In this media review, the benefits of microlectures for such classrooms are discussed, including how they can be used to help students become more responsible for their learning, as well as how they can be used by teachers to provide differentiated instruction. A list of resources for…
Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim
Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…
Osburne, Andrea G.
Situational leadership can be used in the English-as-a-Second-Language classroom to help students accept and adapt to instructional innovation. Leadership style is determined by the leader's task (directive) and relationship (supportive) behavior and by the classroom environment. Follower readiness is both job-related and psychological. Case…
The flipped classroom approach was implemented across three semesters of a College Algebra course. This paper is part of a larger design and development research study and focuses on student perceptions of the flipped classroom teaching approach. Qualitative methodology was used to describe how students perceived the instruction of their College…
Ratliff, Gerald Lee
Classroom exercises and role-playing activities that culminate in performance are invaluable instructional tools that stimulate active student responses to the aesthetic, emotional or intellectual content of literary texts and, ultimately, enrich a student's learning experience. The basic principles of classroom performance are to provide a…
Price-Dennis, Detra; Holmes, Kathlene A.; Smith, Emily
In this article instructional practices from a diverse inclusive 5th grade classroom are examined to better understand how students engaged in 21st century literacies. The authors focus on one classroom to provide insight into how a 21st century literacies perspective can support inclusive literacy practices that 1) create a community of learners,…
The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.
A major task involved in teaching pupils is to group them wisely for instruction. Most elementary schools group learners in terms of a self-contained classroom. While it may seem extreme, all curriculum areas on each grade in the elementary school may be departmentalized. In some ways, departmentalization harmonizes more with a separate subjects…
Crawford, Donald B.; Snider, Vicki E.
A two-year study conducted in two fourth grade classrooms investigated the effectiveness of two mathematics curricula. Results found that a direct instruction program, "Connecting Math Concepts," resulted in significantly higher student scores on mathematics tests than the use of a traditional math basal textbook. (Contains references.) (CR)
Vance, Kate O'Brien
This article discusses how several simple adaptations in the music classroom can greatly enhance dyslexic students' learning. The sections included in this article are: (1) What Is Dyslexia?; (2) Students with Dyslexia; (3) What to Look for; (4) Adapting Instruction; (5) Reading Notation; and (6) Motor Skills. A list of practical adaptations; and…
Following the guidelines given in the "White Book on Intercultural Dialogue," this article reflects on whether the use of the Complex Instruction (CI) model would create the conditions for a more equal dialogue in educational contexts. An ethnographic study was carried out in four Italian primary school classrooms to explore how this…
Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason A.; Neumerski, Christine M.; Murphy, Joseph; Blissett, Richard; Porter, Andy
This three-volume report describes the "SAM (School Administration Manager) process," an approach that about 700 schools around the nation are using to direct more of principals' time and effort to improve teaching and learning in classrooms. Research has shown that a principal's instructional leadership is second only to teaching among…
Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer
Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…
Foley, Brian J.; Reveles, John M.
The prevalence of computers in the classroom is compelling teachers to develop new instructional skills. This paper provides a theoretical perspective on an innovative pedagogical approach to science teaching that takes advantage of technology to create a connected classroom. In the connected classroom, students collaborate and share ideas in…
Nelson, Angela C.
It is widely recognized that technology in the classroom has the potential to transform education at every stage from Pre-K, to K-12, to Higher Education and Adult Education. Using the Digital Teaching Platform as an exemplar of 21st Century classroom instruction style, the author offers an overview of classroom technology and its effects on…
Reviews topical and methodological trends in the past 85 years of research on language classrooms in "The Modern Language Journal." Focus is on empirical investigations into oral classroom instruction in post-secondary classes, which include comparisons of language teaching methodology, observational procedures in classrooms, examinations of…
The flipped classroom seeks to remove didactic instruction from the classroom and deliver it via electronic videos outside of the classroom, leaving contact time free for more interactive and engaging teaching and learning activities. This paper has two distinct aims: (1) to conduct a literature review of published UK-based "flipped…
Explores a set of pedagogic practices in a 'progressivist' classroom as practices of covert institutional regulation. The article attempts to show how the instructional potential of the pedagogic act is subordinated to the regulative rules of the institutional context of the classroom, so that following classroom rules becomes the main focus of…
Sam Van Horne; Cecilia Murniati; Jon D. H. Gaffney; Maggie Jesse
In this case study, the authors describe the successful implementation of technology-infused TILE classrooms at the University of Iowa. A successful collaboration among campus units devoted to instructional technologies and teacher development, the TILE Initiative has provided instructors with a new set of tools to support active learning. The authors detail the implementation of the TILE classrooms, the process of training instructors to design effective instruction for these classrooms, and...
Rubie, Christine; Wilkinson, Ian; Parr, Judy; Townsend, Michael
Grouping of students for instruction is an organizational pattern that is commonplace in literacy instruction in classrooms. A debate exists, however, about whether instruction is more effective when groups are heterogeneous or homogeneous with regard to student ability. A study aimed to provide a description of the grouping practices of New…
Hasan Basri Memduhoğlu; Mevsim Zengin
In this study, implementability of instructional supervision as one of contemporary educational supervision models in Turkish Education System was evaluated. Instructional supervision which aims to develop instructional processes and increase the quality of student learning based on observation of classroom activities requires collaboration among supervisors and teachers. In this literature review, significant problems have been detected due to structural organization, structural and control-...
Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy
To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…
Kapuscinski, B. Phyllis
Traditional research comparing the effects of individualized instruction and conventional modes of instruction has been inconclusive. Naturalistic research dealing with the process of innovation as a critical issue was proposed as an alternative. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of change at the classroom level through identifying factors influencing change, as perceived by administrators, teachers, pupils, and investigator-observer. Ten teachers participated in an in-service experience in individualized instruction, which consisted of a series of workshops and regular classroom visits conducted by the investigator-observer. Additional data were obtained from teachers' diaries, informal pupil reactions, and interviews with a comparison group of teachers and administrators. Factors influencing change at the classroom level were identified. Naturalistic research was shown to be functional and valuable in that it suggested new patterns of organization in studies on individualized instruction, particularly the role of the pupil in educational change.
Pomerantz, Andrew M.; Santanello, Cathy R.; Kirn, Kim L.
The primary goal of classroom assessment is the improvement of student learning rather than the evaluation of teaching through observation. Many formative assessment techniques, including the group instructional feedback technique (GIFT), electronic mail feedback, and small group instructional diagnosis, carry an implicit or explicit promise of…
Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.
Middle level educators around the country aim to create a classroom environment and a way of teaching that is developmentally responsive, challenging, empowering, and equitable for every student. One way to ensure this is to include instruction that promotes creativity. This article offers guiding principles and shares instructional lessons that…
Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed
The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce
Taede Tillema, Jaco Berveling, George Gelauff, Jan van der Waard, Lucas Harms en Harry Derriks
Self-driving cars can change our society radically. Whether that happens depends on how much the car can actually do itself, but also on what the consumer wants. Will cars become a luxury second home or does a car driver remain a necessity? Also the sharing-economy has an impact. If many people will share self-driving vehicles and rides, this may change the traffic and transport system fundamentally.These are some of the conclusions of the report 'Driver at the wheel - Self-driving vehicles a...
A new wave of "road killers", or new drivers, on Beijing's streets has prompted traffic authorities to do something to make driving tests more difficult. This year, the move has targeted new drivers to keep them from posing a threat, the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau says. The new test has been adopted citywide and the average pass rate is down to 50 per cent from a previous 80 per cent, at the city's 22 test centers, said Jiang Jing, a bureau press officer. The test now has six mandatory items chosen r...
Mrs. Smita Jawale; Ms. Pragati Malvadia; Ms. Ashwini Meena
A Drowsy Driver Detection System is an Image processing based system. This system is developed using a non-intrusive machine vision based concepts. In this system, there is a camera that will be continuously monitoring the driver’s face to detect fatigue. In case the driver is detected as fatigue, the system issues an alarm. This system detects drowsiness by checking the amount of time the eyes are closed. The first five consecutive frames of the camera is checked, if the eyes are found...
In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of adolescents and young adults. Road safety effects may be achieved among this group by introducing a 'graduated driving licence'. The 2toDrive experiment that enables adolescents to pass their driving ...
Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise
Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....
Koch, H B
The advantages of using audiovisual instructional techniques in training programs for nurses were noted and administrative strategies for encouraging the effective use of educational technology were provided. Audiovisual instructional techniques can enhance classroom learning, create opportunity for individualized learning programs, and can serve as an effective tool for monitoring and supervising clinical training. In the classroom situation, audiovisual techniques should be incorporated as a basic instructional tool and not simply used to occasionally supplement traditional learning techniques. The use of these tools can free the teacher for more personalized teaching tasks. Educational technology permits instructors to develop individualized learning programs for their students. Students can progress at their own pace and students can learn to manage their own learning process. Audiovisual tools can be used to monitor student-patient interactions. Supervisors can monitor the work of a larger number of students with these devices. These devices also permit students to reexamine and to judge their own performance. Administrations should not view educational technology as a way to reduce costs. Costs will not decline and may, at least initially, increase. Administrators should purchase equipment to fit the needs of the faculty and the students instead of expecting the faculty to develop programs suited to particular types of equipment. The faculty should be provided with assistance to learn how to operate the new equipment. PMID:45869
The major purpose of this case study was to document the classroom management beliefs and practices of three teachers reputed to implement student-centered instruction and to examine the relationship between their instructional and managerial approaches. More specifically, do teachers who use student-centered instruction also implement…
Tomory, Annette; Watson, Sunnie Lee
This article explains how issues regarding dual credit and Advanced Placement high school science courses could be mitigated via a flipped classroom instructional model. The need for advanced high school courses will be examined initially, followed by an analysis of advanced science courses and the reform they are experiencing. Finally, it will…
This book describes the special way one teacher, Jeanette Amidon, approaches children's thinking, with a particular focus on reading and writing instruction. The root value of her first-grade classroom in Massachusetts is respect for children's ideas, with the children's art and writing as visible signs of the teacher's respect for their thinking.…
Goldberg, Jennifer; Enyedy, Noel; Welsh, Kate Muir; Galiani, Kathryn
In this study, we explore language--specifically the use of Spanish, in a sixth-grade science classroom, where the district recognises English as the official language of instruction. The question guiding our analysis is: How is Spanish positioned in Ms. Cook's science class? Transcribed interaction from twelve weeks of videotaping is coded and…
Hein, George E.
Essay which argues that the new instructional materials often lose their vitality by being fitted into a static curriculum. The author states: "We must go much farther than we have in both bringing 'stuff' into the classroom and using it there. The only hope of significant change in students' long-term attitudes, competence and self-reliance rests…
The Iowa Board of Regents requires faculty to present a disclaimer when classroom instructional materials include sexually explicit content and allow students to complete alternative assignments. Some feel the policy strikes a healthy balance between academic freedom and student choice; others see it as giving students undue authority. (MSE)
Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry
A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 "Classic Chemistry Demonstrations" (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61-2, French and Hibbert 2010 "Phys. Educ." 45 221-2). The method…
Mielke, Keith W.
Shows how "3-2-1 Contact," a public television science series, was applied to social studies instruction, identifying "Sesame Street" and "Square One TV" as additional educational resources produced by Children's Television Workshop. Lists classroom materials available for use with CTW programs, states U.S. copyright laws for using videocassettes,…
McHaney, Jane; Wallace, Deborah; Taylor, Beverley
The purpose of the Kennesaw State University (KSU) Coca Cola/Board of Regents Classroom Technology Initiative was to develop preservice and inservice teachers' expertise in educational technology such as computers, presentation software, and multimedia and to teach educators to apply those skills to content instruction. Project goals were to…
Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi
This study focuses on exploring teacher learning in terms of teachers' professional agency embedded in the classroom. Teachers' sense of professional agency is related to perceiving instruction as a bidirectional process, use of students as a resource for professional learning and continuous reflection on teaching practices. Accordingly, the…
Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.
One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…
Tran, Thu H.
The vast majority of second language teachers feels confident about their instructional performance and does not usually have much difficulty with their teaching thanks to their professional training and accumulated classroom experience. Nonetheless, many second language teachers may not have received sufficient training in test development to…
Taede Tillema, Jaco Berveling, George Gelauff, Jan van der Waard, Lucas Harms en Harry Derriks
Self-driving cars can change our society radically. Whether that happens depends on how much the car can actually do itself, but also on what the consumer wants. Will cars become a luxury second home or does a car driver remain a necessity? Also the sharing-economy has an impact. If many people will
... Powerful In Driving Restrictions: Study - Nature World News Pokemon Go and distracted driving | WWLP.com - wwlp.com The ... for earlier curfew for teen drivers - WGRZ.com Pokémon GO continues to raise distracted driving worries - Wisconsin Radio ...
Debora Tri Ragawanti
Classroom management is commonly believed to be the key to the success of an instruction. Many student teachers, however, might find it very challenging to handle their classrooms. It is, therefore, necessary to advance their professional practice in the context of a real classroom such as through teaching practicum and reflective practice. This study is aimed at identifying classroom management problems of student-teachers as revealed in their reflective journal entries and to demonstrate ho...
With the invention of World Wide Web in 1992, delivery of distance education via internet and emergency of web-based classrooms have rapidly gained acceptance as an alternative and supplement to traditional face to face classroom instruction (Alavi, Yoo & Vogel, 1997; Rahm & Reed, 1997), which represents a paradigm shift challenging all traditionally accepted assumptions concerning dynamics of classroom management. Classroom is highly complicated environment with its features of multi...
Robert Joseph McKee
Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages...
Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.
As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.
This report on the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting held at Osaka, Japan, 15-19 April, 1991, contains (1) an overview of the meeting, (2) a technical summary of the meeting, including short discussions on requirements of the driver, candidate drivers, national programme of driver development, and (3) topical summaries of the sessions (solid state lasers, gas lasers, reactor design and new concepts)
textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries. Furtherm
Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.
The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.
Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan
The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225
Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation . The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes . While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments . This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.
Levitt, Steven D.; Jack Porter
We present a methodology for measuring the risks posed by drinking drivers that relies solely on readily available data on fatal crashes. The key to our identification strategy is a hidden richness inherent in two-car crashes. Drivers with alcohol in their blood are seven times more likely to cause a fatal crash; legally drunk drivers pose a risk 13 times greater than sober drivers. The externality per mile driven by a drunk driver is at least 30 cents. At current enforcement rates the punish...
This paper deals with a representational and conditional approach regarding norms. In the framework of social representations, conditionality is linked to individual practices or behaviors. Taking a questionnaire based on conditional scenarios that permitted to articulate individual and group behaviors to the prescriptions of Highway Code, two studies manipulating instructions with samples of young drivers were designed. The first study confirmed that conditional transgressions declared throu...
Closing the Mathematical Achievement Gap through the Heart to the Brain: A Case Study of Urban High School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of How Their Emotional Intelligence Facilitates Instruction and Learning in the Classroom
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine urban high school mathematics teachers' perceptions of how they manage their own and their students' emotional intelligence (EI) to facilitate instruction and learning; their reports of how they handle their emotions as urban mathematics teachers; and their reports of how they manage the…
In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be adequate. The quality of the simulator lessons is also important, as is the way in which these lessons are embedded in the total learning path. In the Netherlands simulators are mainly used for teaching...
Sunny S. J. Lin
Full Text Available 無First reviews the development of Computer. Assisted Instruction (CAI in Taiwan. This study describes the training of teachers from different levels of schools to design CAI coursewares, and the planning of CAI courseware bank possesses 2,000 supplemental coursewares. Some CAI's c1assroom application system should be carefully established to prevent the easy abuse of a CAI courseware as an instructional plan. The study also claims to steer CAI in our elemantary and secondary education could rely on the mastery learning as the instructional plan. In this case, CAI must limit its role as the formative test and remedial material only. In the higher education , the Keller's Personalized System of Instruction could be an effective c1assroom management system. Therefore, CAI will offer study guide and formative test only. Using these 2 instructional system may enhance student's achievement , and speed up the learning rate at the same time. Combining with individualized instruction and CAI will be one of the most workable approach in current c1assroom . The author sets up an experiment 10 varify their effectiveness and efficiency in the near future.
Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.
To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.
The flipped classroom changes the traditional teaching sequence of knowledge’s indoctrination and internalization,which exerts considerable influence on the innovations of the college English teaching mode.Based on the significance of the flipped classroom in English teaching,the paper discusses how to design micro-lectures with ADDIE model in college English speaking class.%“翻转课堂”教学将传统教学模式中知识传授和知识内化两个阶段的顺序进行了翻转，对创新大学英语教学模式具有十分重要的意义。大学英语口语课可以借鉴教学设计理论中的 ADDIE 模型，通过微课的设计实现翻转。
Full Text Available This paper deals with a representational and conditional approach regarding norms. In the framework of social representations, conditionality is linked to individual practices or behaviors. Taking a questionnaire based on conditional scenarios that permitted to articulate individual and group behaviors to the prescriptions of Highway Code, two studies manipulating instructions with samples of young drivers were designed. The first study confirmed that conditional transgressions declared through individual practices refer to what young drivers fell acceptable to contravene. In the second study, substitution instructions i.e., to answer at the scenario “to be well-seen by yours friends” or “to be badly-seen by yours friends”, and standard instructions (e.g., “response as you behave”, were administrated, using a scenario of speed limit, to study the influence of norms in subjects’ responses. A multiple regression analysis showed that the responses were mediated by normative models. In conclusion, the studies illustrated an important complementary aspect of road safety concerning the social perception of rules, the influence of normative models and theirs impacts on young driver behavior.
In the Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark, the project GNU (Grænseoverskridende Nordisk Undervisning, i.e. Transnational Nordic Teaching) is experimenting with ways of conducting teaching across the borders in the elementary schools. The cloud classes are organised with one class ...... benefits in regard to learning and pedagogy with virtual classroom....
This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…
Davis, Tonya N.; Dacus, Sharon; Bankhead, Jenna; Haupert, Megan; Fuentes, Lisa; Zoch, Tamara; Kang, Soyeon; Attai, Shanna; Lang, Russell
In this study we analyzed the effects of a self-monitoring and self-monitoring plus reinforcement intervention on classroom behavior. A typically-developing high school student demonstrating difficulty staying on-task during classroom instruction was observed in three classroom settings associated with high levels of off-task behavior. During…
Aitken, Claudia Jean
This practicum set up a classroom-based model for peer mediation in grades 3 and 4. During the project's implementation, the school psychologist delivered, individually to each of 6 different third and fourth-grade classrooms, 8 weeks of classroom instruction on conflict resolution. When all 6 classes were familiar with conflict resolution…
Andersen, Mike Kirk; Caglio, Agnese
In this paper we report an ongoing study of driving school practice. We recorded several hours of driving lessons in different environments, which we analyze with the Interaction Analysis method. Our initial analysis suggests that looking at how teachers make use of different communicative resour...... resources to instruct students in driving, can provide insights for the development of technologies that support drivers in managing distractions....
Tatana M. Olson
Full Text Available As the use of Web-based instruction increases in the educational and training domains, many people have recognized the importance of evaluating its effects on student outcomes such as learning, performance, and satisfaction. Often, these results are compared to those of conventional classroom instruction in order to determine which method is “better.” However, major differences in technology and presentation rather than instructional content can obscure the true relationship between Web-based instruction and these outcomes. Computer-based instruction (CBI, with more features similar to Web-based instruction, may be a more appropriate benchmark than conventional classroom instruction. Furthermore, there is little consensus as to what variables should be examined or what measures of learning are the most appropriate, making comparisons between studies difficult and inconclusive. In this article, we review the historical findings of CBI as an appropriate benchmark to Web-based instruction. In addition, we review 47 reports of evaluations of Web-based courses in higher education published between 1996 and 2002. A tabulation of the documented findings into eight characteristics is offered, along with our assessments of the experimental designs, effect sizes, and the degree to which the evaluations incorporated features unique to Web-based instruction.
Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated
Spada, Nina; Lyster, Roy
Describes the development and organization of the Colt (Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching) observation scheme and Lyster and Ranta's (1997) error treatment model, instruments including predetermined categories to describe features of instructional input and interaction in second language classrooms. Concludes that the choice of…
Baumann, Martin; Colonius, Hans; Hungar, Hardi; Köster, Frank; Langner, Michael; Lüdtke, Andreas; Möbus, Claus; Peinke, Joachim; Puch, Stefan; Schiessl, Carola; Steenken, Rieke; Weber, Lars
The project IMoST addresses the problem of capturing the behavior of a car driver in an executable model enabling design-time predictions of the interplay between driver, assistance system and car in realistic traffic scenarios. To this end, a generic cognitive model is instantiated and extended based on data gathered in targeted simulator experiments. The considered example scenario covers the entering of an expressway, with possible support for the driver in the form of an intelligent assis...
Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Osborn, Jeremy; Heald, Greg
Learning Dreamweaver is a dream with this instructional book-and-video training package! Dreamweaver CS5 Digital Classroom covers Dreamweaver CS5 and Dreamweaver CS5.5. Adobe Dreamweaver allows you to easily create robust Web sites without needing extensive programming knowledge or skills. The latest version of Dreamweaver boasts enhanced capabilities and this exciting book-and-downloadable video training package makes learning the new features of Dreamweaver less intimidating. Sixteen self-paced lessons explain how to design, develop, and maintain a fully functioning si
Osborn, Jeremy; Team, AGI Creative
Dreamweaver CS4 Digital Classroom is like having a personal instructor guiding readers through each lesson, while they work at their own pace. This book includes 13 self-paced lessons that let readers discover essential skills and explore new features and capabilities of Adobe Dreamweaver CS4. Each lesson is presented in full color with step-by-step instructions. Learning is reinforced with video tutorials and lesson files on a companion DVD that were developed by the same team of Adobe Certified Instructors and Dreamweaver experts who have created many of the official training titles for Adob
Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.
Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.
Berg, Uwe; Wojke, Philipp; Zöbel, Dieter
Backing up tractors with trailers is a difficult task since the kinematic behavior of articulated vehicles is complex and hard to control. Especially unskilled drivers are overstrained with the complicated steering process. To learn and practice the steering behavior of articulated vehicles, we developed a 3D driving simulator. The simulator can handle different types of articulated vehicles like semi-trailers, one- and two-axle trailers, or gigaliners. The use of a driving simulator offers many advantages over the use of real vehicles. One of the main advantages is the possibility to learn the steering behavior of all vehicle types. Drivers can be given more and better driving instructions like collision warnings or steering hints. Furthermore, the driver training costs can be reduced. Moreover, mistakes of the student do not lead to real damages and costly repairs. The hardware of the simulator consists of a low cost commercial driving stand with original truck parts, a projection of the windshield and two flat panel monitors for the left and right exterior mirrors. Standard PC hardware is used for controlling the driving stand and for generating the realtime 3D environment. Each aspect of the simulation like realistic vehicle movements or generation of different views, is handled by a specific software module. This flexible system can be easily extended which offers the opportunity for other uses than just driver training. Therefore, we use the simulator for the development and test of driver assistance systems.
Rajiv Kumar Singh; Hari Shankar Joshi
A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, ...
Wallén Warner, Henriette
Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...
Tiffany Ko; Marie Tejero Hughes
Reading comprehension is a significant concern for adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), particularly in secondary schools in the United States (US) where content is taught primarily through textbooks. Surprisingly little is known about the actual reading instruction for students with LD in secondary classrooms. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the reading comprehension instruction in US secondary special education classrooms. Eight special education teachers in urban hig...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to capture the evolution of applying cost drivers in calculating costs since their initial occurrence until the present times. There are different conceptual approaches of cost drivers, and new insights from applying cost modeling techniques from the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC. The article looks at the typology, criteria for selection of cost drivers and their benefits. The cost allocation method is also presented with specific steps corresponding to the ABC calculation method. In the end, the authors conclusions on the benefits of cost drivers are presented.
As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 (Omega) load with pulse duration of 1.5 μs FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred
Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm
There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200
Gilboy, Mary Beth; Heinerichs, Scott; Pazzaglia, Gina
The flipped classroom is an innovative pedagogical approach that focuses on learner-centered instruction. The purposes of this report were to illustrate how to implement the flipped classroom and to describe students' perceptions of this approach within 2 undergraduate nutrition courses. The template provided enables faculty to design before, during, and after class activities and assessments based on objectives using all levels of Bloom's taxonomy. The majority of the 142 students completing the evaluation preferred the flipped method compared with traditional pedagogical strategies. The process described in the report was successful for both faculty and students. PMID:25262529
随着信息技术的不断发展，当今社会已经进入到了信息化时代。在课堂教学中，传统的教学模式在信息技术的冲击下受到很大影响，开始得到转变．作为中学阶段重要学科的物理课应该与时俱进。跟上时代的步伐。本文将就高中物理课堂教学网络化实施的必要性及具体的发展对策等问题进行探讨。%With the continuous development of information technology, today＇s society has entered the information age. In classroom teaching, the traditional teaching mode under the impact of information technology has been greatly affected, began to get change. The most important subjects for middle school physics course should keep pace with the times, keep pace with the times. This article on the high school physics classroom teaching network implementation necessity and specific development countermeasure are discussed.
McGuire, Joan M.
Shifts in enrollment patterns are affecting college classrooms and elements of teaching ranging from options for delivering course materials online to multiple methods of assessing learning. With the enrollment of more diverse college learners comes a call to intentionally design instruction that is more inclusive and responsive to multiple learning styles. The notion of Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) is examined from its roots in the architectural field to its application as a model ...
Nida BAYINDIR; Çavdar, Hüseyin; GÖKÇE, Mehmet
Teaching profession, 43 of the 1739 National Education Basic Law their duties according to the article on the education field is a specialized profession. Considered as guiding learning activities that occur in the classroom environment and instructional experience is one of the most important role assumed by teachers. The purpose of this study, teachers' instructional skills of teachers ideally should be about what is to clarify expectations. Research of the candidates, ideally to be aware o...
Frey, Rick Chan
Decodable books based on previous classroom instruction are the most frequently used texts for 1st grade reading instruction in public schools, yet no empirical studies exist demonstrating their efficacy or their benefits for beginning readers. This study attempts to address this gap in the research literature by analyzing the reading behaviors of a group of 1st grade students reading the decodable texts included as part of the 1st grade reading curriculum in a large public, urban school dist...
Les contributions de la psychologie cognitive a l'enseignement strategique des langues secondes au niveau universitaire (The Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to Strategic Second Language Instruction at the University Level).
Contributions of the field of cognitive psychology to second language instruction are reviewed. It is proposed that these concepts can contribute not only to classroom language instruction, but also to methodology of language teacher education. (MSE)
Accessible Mathematics is Steven Leinwand's latest important book for math teachers. He focuses on the crucial issue of classroom instruction. He scours the research and visits highly effective classrooms for practical examples of small adjustments to teaching that lead to deeper student learning in math. Some of his 10 classroom-tested teaching shifts may surprise you and others will validate your thinking. But all will improve students' performance. Read Accessible Mathematics, try its 10 suggestions, and discover how minor shifts in teaching can put learning into high gear.
Joseph, Laurice M.; Kastein, Laura A.; Konrad, Moira; Chan, Paula E.; Peters, Mary T.; Ressa, Virginia A.
The ongoing collection and documentation of evidence of students' performance in the classroom is a fundamental component of formative instructional practices, essential for ensuring student success. Multiple methods of collecting and documenting evidence of students' academic performance in the classroom are described. These methods…
Sullivan, Rebecca M.
Despite the author's initial skepticism, a classroom set of iPads has reinforced a student-directed approach to writing instruction, while also supporting an inclusive classroom. Using the iPads, students guide their writing process with access to the learning management system, electronic information resources, and an online text editor. Students…
Koch, Lisa S.
Elementary instruction of fifth grade classrooms was found to be primarily in two organizational models in a school district northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. The self-contained classroom provided a generalist teacher responsible for the instruction of all academic subjects to one group of students throughout the day, while departmentalized…
Spigelman, Candace; Grobman, Laurie
Classroom-based writing tutoring is a distinct form of writing support, a hybrid instructional method that engages multiple voices and texts within the college classroom. Tutors work on location in the thick of writing instruction and writing activity. On Location is the first volume to discuss this emerging practice in a methodical way. The essays in this collection integrate theory and practice to highlight the alliances and connections on-location tutoring offers while suggesting strategie...
Carr, D B
More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation. PMID:10643955
One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd3+: Glass and CO2, have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another
Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational...... processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally, the...... antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion is that...
Henderson, C; Famiano, M; Beach, Andrea; Famiano, Michael; Henderson, Charles
Physics Education Research (PER) has made significant progress in developing knowledge about teaching and learning as well as effective instructional strategies based on this knowledge. Disseminating knowledge and strategies to other faculty, however, has proven difficult. Coteaching is a promising and cost-effective alternative to traditional professional development that may be applicable in many situations. In this article, we discuss the theoretical background of co-teaching and describe our initial experience with co-teaching. A new instructor (MF) cotaught with an instructor experienced in PER-based reforms (CH). The pair worked within the scaffolding of the course structure typically used by the experienced instructor and met regularly to discuss instructional decisions. An outsider (AB) conducted separate interviews with each instructor at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester and observed several class sessions. Classroom observations show an immediate use of PER-based instructional practice...
Bartelheim, Frederick J.; Evans, Susan
Four expert high school special education resource teachers were observed providing classroom instruction. Content analysis of postobservation interview transcripts was used to identify the presence of 124 reflective practice indicators in the subjects' instructional decisions: 49 for personal responsibility, 39 for testing, and 36 for problem…
Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.
Guided reading is a staple of elementary literacy instruction, yet planning and conducting reading groups can be time consuming and challenging. This hands-on book presents an innovative approach to guided reading that is manageable even for teachers who are new to small-group, differentiated reading instruction. Numerous classroom examples…
Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun
Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…
Jones, Cindy D.; Reutzel, D. Ray
This article describes a 2-year exploratory research study of alphabet knowledge instruction in 13 kindergarten classrooms in four at-risk urban schools. Based on insights for teaching from five evidence-based advantages that influence acquisition of letter names and sounds, instruction of letter names and sounds was enhanced to increase students'…
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Bartle, Heidi; Hill, Susan C.; Barnes, Michael D.
Investigated elementary school teachers' perspectives on barriers and enablers to teaching health in the classroom. Data from teacher interviews and focus groups revealed several barriers and few enablers, with three general thematic areas: existing policies or guidelines for instruction, limited instruction time, and teacher preferences. Overall,…
Microblogging tools such as Twitter show potential to enrich classroom experience and benefit student learning. Research shows that instructional guidance is particularly necessary in computer-assisted learning environments, but no research has been done to study the effects of instructional guidance in microblogging-based learning. Using a…
Myers, Karen A.; Wood, Jo Nell; Pousson, Mark
This article provides a community relations professional the rationale and background regarding the use of Universal Instructional Design in classrooms. It also provides community relations specialists with a communication plan for educating the public on Universal Instructional Design via a teaching and modeling approach. Results of a recent…
In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…
Parker, Zachari. A.
The influence that teacher beliefs have on classroom instructional practices in areas such as science and mathematics have been studied and documented by researchers. However, only a few researchers were found to have specifically investigated the influence of technology teachers' beliefs on instructional practices, relating to the teaching…
Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ and...
This article is designed as an educational research study focused on e-Classroom as a medium of instruction based on assisted didactics design and teacher assisted learning in order to develop interactive applications, integrating concepts map approach. In this context, the paper proposes a specific conceptual framework applied in a theoretical model, as a base of an analytical framework used in a case study. Such a paradigm defines the classwork as the basic activity of the student which con...
Geist, Melissa J.
Science curricula should reflect the nature of science as experienced by its practitioners (Hacking, 1992; Harding & Hare, 2000; Latour, 1987; Pickering, 1992). Contemporary literature depicts scientific research laboratories as social spaces, where intellectual debate plays a significant role in discovery. However, this is not the way science instruction is conducted in most science classrooms. Tharp and Gallimore (1988) argue that pedagogical methods have not changed in The United States in over one hundred years. Driver, Leach, Millar, and Scott (1996) suggest that in order for students to understand the scientific process, teachers must focus on the "actual work of scientists and illustrate the internal social relations within science" (p. 146). In light of the widespread appeals for change, why does the traditional classroom structure persist? The aim of the present study is to address the issue of classroom change to support students as they engage in the practice of posing questions and constructing scientific explanations complete with peer review. Although theoretical perspectives clearly support designing classroom environments in which the language of conjecture and evidence is the norm, translating these ideas into classroom practice has not been as successful. The original intent of the current study was to explore how students in one intact fifth grade class, positioned as specialists who each had access to one component of a problem with the responsibility of teaching that component to their peers, would differ from students in a second intact fifth grade class, who did not assume this role. The students were compared in terms of the predictions made and the types of evidence presented to support claims. The data indicated that the students did not engage in discussions as anticipated. In fact, the children from both classes approached the problem as a search for the correct answer. Very little evaluation of evidence or debate took place. Given that
Raupach, Tobias; Brown, Jamie; Anders, Sven; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Harendza, Sigrid
Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation is a core clinical skill that needs to be acquired during undergraduate medical education. Intensive teaching is generally assumed to produce more favorable learning outcomes, but recent research suggests that examinations are more powerful drivers of student learning than instructional format. This study assessed the differential contribution of teaching format and examination consequences to learning outcome regarding ECG interpretation skil...
Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E.
Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of adaptive exploration, in which exploration in a high fidelity graphical environment is integrated with immediate testing and feedback in repeated cycles o...
Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of…
Kaminski, Karen; Bolliger, Doris
Technology, Learning, and the Classroom, a workshop designed to jump-start faculty's use of instructional technology in face-to-face classrooms, was offered as a week-long intensive workshop and once-a-week session over a semester. Faculty were interviewed five years after participation to determine the longitudinal effects, differences in opinion…
Dreher, Mariam Jean; Kletzien, Sharon B.
Despite both longstanding and recent calls for more informational text in K-3 classrooms, research indicates that narrative text remains in the majority for read alouds, classroom libraries, and instruction, thus limiting children's opportunity to experience the demands of expository text. Because national associations' recommended book lists are…
Krug, Kevin; Love, John; Mauzey, Ed; Dixon, Wayne
Subjective confidence for solving classroom problems while instructing students in appropriate academic material is crucial for effective teaching. One way to develop problem solving confidence may result from the semester most education majors spend in the classroom as student teachers. The problem solving inventory (PSI) was given to university…
Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford
The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…
Thomas, Kevin M.; O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Bolton, Natalie
Historically viewed as a disruption by teachers, cell phones have been banned from 69% of classrooms (Common Sense Media, 2009). The increased ubiquity and instructional features of cell phones have prompted some teachers to re-evaluate the ban and consider the benefits associated with allowing cell phones in the classroom. This study surveyed 79…
The Profile of Interaction in the Classroom (PIC) is a short-cut method of interaction analysis that can provide the quick feedback essential to effective supervision of instruction. And because the PIC contains a record of all the behaviors that occurred in the classroom, as well as the sequence, the data may be used to build a traditional…
Varank, Ilhan; Ilhan, Savas
Because technology integrations require changes in instructional processes it may require different approaches for classroom management. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether teachers' educational technology skills, besides their gender and years of experiences, significantly explain their classroom management skills. The data…
Inquiry-based classroom is widely distributed in the school science based on its useful and effective instruction. Science teachers are key elements allowing students to have scientific inquiry. If teachers understand and imply inquiry-based learning into science classroom, students will learn science as scientific inquiry and understand nature of…
Mielke, Keith W.
Barriers to the use of The Electric Company (TEC) instructional television (ITV) series in primary education classrooms are examined. Findings from interviews with teachers in classrooms where ITV facilities are available and professional ITV spokespersons are summarized. Based upon the findings from these interviews and past ITV research, the…
Blas, Elise A.
Sociocultural literacy guides an instructor's pedagogy in the multicultural university classroom. By employing sociocultural literacy in the information literacy classroom, the instruction librarian can better teach students from all cultures including international students, first generation students, or students from a wide array of…
Day, Stephanie L; Connor, Carol McDonald; McClelland, Megan M
Classroom learning environments are an important source of influence on children's development, particularly with regard to literacy achievement and behavioral regulation, both of which require the coordination of task inhibition, attention, and working memory. Classroom observations were conducted in 18 schools and 51 first grade classrooms for 500 children. The non-instructional activities were recorded for each student in the classroom. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that children with weaker fall behavioral regulation were more likely to attend classrooms where more time was spent in disruptions and wasted instructional time over the course of the school year, such as waiting for the teacher to gather materials before beginning instruction. For literacy outcomes, children who were in classrooms where more time in disruptions, transitions, and waiting was observed showed weaker literacy skill gains in the spring compared to children in classrooms with lesser amounts of such unproductive non-instructional time and this effect was generally greater for students with initial weaker skills. These results also reveal that the classroom environment and the incoming characteristics of the students themselves influence students' development of behavioral regulation and literacy. PMID:26407837
Halai, Anjum; Karuku, Simon
In this paper, we examine selected literature on classroom-based research to understand how students and teachers (re)negotiate the language of interaction in a mathematics classroom when the official medium of instruction is different from the students' dominant language. We identify the tensions and dilemmas associated with the implementation of…
Explores two video instructional strategies for the foreign language classroom: advance organizers and captions in the target language. A set of classroom procedures are proposed that combine advance organizers and captions to teach English as a foreign language. (9 references) (Author/CK)
Friedman, Debra A.
This study uses a language socialization approach to explore the role of Ukrainian language instruction in the revitalization of Ukrainian as the national language. Based on 10 months ethnographic observation and videotaping of classroom interaction in two fifth-grade Ukrainian language and literature classrooms, it focuses on corrective feedback…
Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper
Beckerle, Andrea Laux
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to assess the perceptions of classroom teachers, administrators and professional support staff in one Midwest school district regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of the iPad device as an instructional and support tool within the classroom. The need to address classroom teacher, administrator and…
Junyi Meng; Tao Zhao; Athithouthay Chattouphonexay
Questions are the most common form of interaction between teachers and students in classroom teaching. However, while many studies go to questioning techniques in ESL/EFL classrooms, few turn to content-based classrooms, especially for young learners. The goal of this study is to explore types and functions of questions that teachers use in Content-Based Instruction (CBI), and how teachers deal with the non-responded questions. The participants were 16 Grade-three students and 1 teacher teach...
Teemant, Annela; Wink, Joan; Tyra, Serena
This study evaluates a performance-based instructional coaching model intended to improve teacher pedagogy and classroom organization for educating diverse student populations. Elementary teachers (N = 21) participated in a 30-h workshop and seven individual coaching sessions across an academic year. The coaching model promoted use of the…
Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany
This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…
King, Kenneth P.; Milson, Andrew J.
The science-technology-society (STS) movement represents an attempt to "liberate the student from narrow utilities" (Dewey) through an interdisciplinary approach to the three content areas (science, technology, and society) providing a coherent conceptual scheme for integrating classroom instruction. This action research study sought to identify…
VanderNoor, Jeffrey Michael
In light of the emerging emphasis on interpreting technology, this study investigated how teachers' technology self-efficacy influenced their use of technology in the classroom technology use. The secondary purpose was to examine the extent teacher technology self-efficacy was related to instructional time. The study findings answered questions of…
Blake, J; Goodman, J
Games are a creative teaching strategy that enhances learning and problem solving. Gaming strategies are being used by the authors to make learning interesting, stimulating and fun. This article focuses on the development and implementation of computer games as an instructional strategy. Positive outcomes have resulted from the use of games in the classroom. PMID:10409946
Cornelius-White, Jeffrey H.D.; Harbaugh, Adam P.
This book covers teaching methods, classroom management strategies, and ways to engage students and support their success. Authors Jeffrey H. D. Cornelius-White and Adam P. Harbaugh show K-12 teachers how to use the learner-centered instruction model to develop teacher-student relationships, as well as relationships with parents, administrators,…
This briefing paper focuses on the choices of instructional language in Pacific classrooms, as mandated by national or state policies, and discusses consequences of such choices on students' academic achievement and career preparation in the changing Pacific region. The paper first notes that in most South Pacific secondary schools, English is the…
Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael
Using Homemade PowerPoint games as an instructional strategy incorporates elements of game design and constructionism in the classroom using "Microsoft PowerPoint," which is ubiquitous in schools today. However, previous research examining the use of these games has failed to show statistical differences in performance. In the second…
Kibler, Amanda K.; Heny, Natasha A.; Andrei, Elena
As writing has assumed increasing importance in discussions of pedagogy for diverse classrooms, attention to the contexts in which secondary teachers develop and implement writing instruction for adolescent English language learners (ELLs) is of great importance. Drawing on ecological language learning theories and situated teacher learning theory…
Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason A.; Neumerski, Christine M.; Murphy, Joseph; Blissett, Richard; Porter, Andy
This three-volume report describes the "SAM (School Administration Manager) process," an approach that about 700 schools around the nation are using to direct more of principals' time and effort to improve teaching and learning in classrooms. Research has shown that a principal's instructional leadership is second only to teaching among…
Stout, David E.
This paper describes a classroom-tested instructional resource, grounded in principles of active learning and a constructivism, that embraces two primary objectives: "demystify" for accounting students technical material from statistics regarding ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression analysis--material that students may find obscure or…
Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Fowler, Shawn
This article helps designers of Web-based science instruction construct analogies that are as effective as those used in classrooms by exemplary science teachers. First, the authors explain what analogies are, how analogies foster learning, and what form analogies should take. Second, they discuss science teachers' use of analogies. Third, they…
Using differentiated instruction in the classroom can be a challenge, especially when teaching mathematics. This book cuts through the difficulties with two powerful and universal strategies that teachers can use across all math content: Open Questions and Parallel Tasks. Specific strategies and examples for grades Kindergarten - 8 are organized…
Expanded to include connections to Common Core State Standards, as well as National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards, this critically acclaimed book will help every teacher and coach to meet the challenges of differentiating mathematics instruction in the K-8 classroom. In this bestseller, math education expert Marian Small…
Haas, Lindsay B.; Stickney, Eric M.; Ysseldyke, James E.
The authors examined the extent to which classroom teachers in naturalistic settings used a Goal-Setting Tool to set instructional goals for struggling students, the kinds of goals they set, their progress monitoring practices with and without goals, and the extent to which students gain more when a goal-setting tool is used. The goal-setting tool…
Ertem, İhsan Seyit
The purpose of the study was to present a comprehensive review of researches and practices on digital children’s literature and technology-based literacy instruction in classroom. Studies on the technology based literacy instruction were investigated in word reading, phonological skills, fluency, and reading comprehension. The research questions that guided this study include: a) What role does digital children’s literature plays in literacy instruction? b) How can technology-based literacy i...
English Language teaching involves various English teaching techniques in terms of listening, speaking, reading, writ-ing and the like skills. Traditional teaching ways are mostly discussed from that standpoint. Here, some new English classroom teaching techniques are introduced and evaluated in a dimensional perspective, which relate to such elements as the students, the teacher, classroom organization and management, and instructional strategies, etc. It makes English classroom teaching more effec-tive, thus improve English classroom teaching results. So, it’s advisable for English teachers to reconsider and reevaluate their teaching strategy and result in language classroom from a new multi-dimensional angle in order to improve English teaching effi-ciency.
Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer; Dooley, Caitlin McMunn
Educational policies in the United States often adhere to society's ideal scenario for the perfect college and career ready student, but the realities of and differences in classroom instruction are often not considered. Whether or not policies will effectively improve student performance is unknown until implementation. The Common Core State…
Cramer, Susan R.
Learning objects are instructional materials found on the Internet that can be used to illustrate, support, supplement, or assess student learning. Small in size, they can provide instruction that is just enough, just in time, just for you. Is it time to move your classroom into the twenty-first century? In this article, the author explores what…
Guth, Gloria J. A.; Block, Clifford
The GALAXY Language Arts Demonstration Program is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches that features the organization of instruction around themes presented through television broadcasts, children's literature, classroom activities, and the use of interactive technology. During the GALAXY Project demonstration phase for…
This qualitative case study examined the place that historical empathy, as both a subjective and an objective endeavor, occupied in one teacher's instruction and her students' response. Data--collected over five months--include 29 hours of classroom observations in an Advanced Placement European History course, instructional artifacts, and…
Zapata, Gabriela C.
In 2013, Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) was adopted at all levels of instruction at a private university in southern California. The study reports the opinions of 1,236 Novice, Intermediate Low, and Intermediate Mid Spanish students concerning IPA and their perceptions of the way in which classroom instruction was reflected in the content…
Karlsson, Gunnar; Janson, Sverker
In this report we present guidelines for developing and giving courses that blend online and in-class instruction, offering a simple default based on the Flipped Classroom and Peer Instruction teaching models and use of a web-based teaching platform. The guidelines naturally fall into two parts, developing new courses and giving already developed courses.
Lam, Wendy Y. K.
While strategy instruction research generally focuses on the effect of the teaching on learners' use of the strategies targeted for instruction, the present study examines the "wash over" effect on learners' use of pre-existing, non-target strategies. The study involved a treatment class and a comparison class in the ESL oral classroom in Hong…
Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Roseborough, James E W
The purpose of this study was to identify personality and individual difference measures related to driver vengeance, as measured by the Driver Vengeance Questionnaire (DVQ; Wiesenthal, Hennessy, & Gibson, 2000). There were 170 undergraduate students who completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires including the DVQ and measures of narcissism, impulsivity, and trait driver stress. A hierarchical linear regressidn predicting DVQ score revealed that being male (β = .25), narcissism (β = .19), and trait driver stress (β = .41) were significantly associated with vengeance. Impulsivity was significant in the third block of the regression but was not a significant predictor of vengeance in the final block. Interactions between gender and the individual difference measures were not significant. The final model accounted for 34% of the variance. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25774420