WorldWideScience

Sample records for classifying wood products

  1. Molecular database for classifying Shorea species (Dipterocarpaceae) and techniques for checking the legitimacy of timber and wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Kado, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Kazumasa; Abe, Hisashi; Ohtani, Masato; Taguchi, Yuriko; Fukue, Yoko; Tani, Naoki; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Kamiya, Koichi; Harada, Ko; Takeuchi, Yayoi; Diway, Bibian; Finkeldey, Reiner; Na'iem, Mohamad; Indrioko, Sapto; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Lee, Soon Leong

    2011-01-01

    The extent of tropical forest has been declining, due to over-exploitation and illegal logging activities. Large quantities of unlawfully extracted timber and other wood products have been exported, mainly to developed countries. As part of the export monitoring effort, we have developed methods for extracting and analyzing DNA from wood products, such as veneers and sawn timbers made from dipterocarps, in order to identify the species from which they originated. We have also developed a chloroplast DNA database for classifying Shorea species, which are both ecologically and commercially important canopy tree species in the forests of Southeast Asia. We are able to determine the candidate species of wood samples, based on DNA sequences and anatomical data. The methods for analyzing DNA from dipterocarp wood products may have strong deterrent effects on international trade of illegitimate dipterocarp products. However, the method for analyzing DNA from wood is not perfect for all wood products and need for more improvement, especially for plywood sample. Consequently, there may be benefits for the conservation of tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

  2. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  3. Wood Products Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Structural Reliability Consultants' computer program creates graphic plots showing the statistical parameters of glue laminated timbers, or 'glulam.' The company president, Dr. Joseph Murphy, read in NASA Tech Briefs about work related to analysis of Space Shuttle surface tile strength performed for Johnson Space Center by Rockwell International Corporation. Analysis led to a theory of 'consistent tolerance bounds' for statistical distributions, applicable in industrial testing where statistical analysis can influence product development and use. Dr. Murphy then obtained the Tech Support Package that covers the subject in greater detail. The TSP became the basis for Dr. Murphy's computer program PC-DATA, which he is marketing commercially.

  4. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  5. IMPACT OF THE EU TIMBER REGULATION ON RUSSIAN COMPANIES EXPORTING WOOD AND WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    NESHATAEVA ELENA V.; KARJALAINEN TIMO

    2015-01-01

    The problem of illegal logging forced EU, which is one of the major consumers of wood in the world, to develop legislation aimed at termination of supplies of illegally harvested wood and wood-based products into EU. EU Timber Regulation №995 is applicable for any company placing wood or wood-based products on the EU market. Russia ranks first in illegally harvested timber export into EU markets, therefore EU Timber Regulation should influence substantially on Russian companies. Possible infl...

  6. Solid Wood Products from Eucalypts Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To improve and diversify the use of tropical plantation timbers in Southern China, with support from International Tropical Timber Organizations (ITTO), a research project was started in 2002 focusing on development of processing and manufacturing technologies to promote production of value-added wood products from eucalypts plantations. This project will also facilitate the formulation of forest management strategy in China to supplement the diminishing supply of timber from the natural forests. The sp...

  7. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  8. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVA ÇAUSHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic market demand. The remaining 20% of domestic market needs in wood furniture are afforded by import. Small entities do not make serious investment in technology. Big enterprises such as Ardeno in Tirana, Biçaku in Durres, Shaga in Tirana, Ital-wood in Elbasan, Dafinori in Shkoder, etc., have made remarkable investments in their technology. They have installed several mechanized lines of production. So, Ital-wood has invested in a mechanized saw timber production line; Bicaku in wood panels coated with PVC lines; Dafinori in a wood handrail production technologic line; Ardeno in wooden chairs production technologic lines, and Shaga in the production of furniture with particle panels. These enterprises are using modern numerical command machines, vacuum presses for gluing PVC, cutting equipment for panels with laser ray, finishing lines with electrostatic field, modern lines of pneumatic transport for wood dust etc. These investments in new technologies have increased the quantity and quality of native wood products.

  10. Rupture and Modulus of Elasticity of Heat Treated Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Wood by Fuzzy Logic Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yapıcı

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, test samples prepared from Anatolian chestnut (Castanea sativa wood were first exposed to heat treatment at 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205 ºC for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. Then the values of the samples of the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined and evaluated by multiple variance analysis. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of heat treatment on the MOR and MOE values of wood samples by using fuzzy logic classifier. Secondly, input and output values and rule base of the fuzzy logic classifier model were built by using the results obtained from the experiment. The developed fuzzy classifier model could predict the MOR and MOE values of test samples at the accuracy levels of 92.64 % and 90.35 %, respectively. The model could be especially employed in manufacturing stages of timber industry.

  11. Classifying forest productivity at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when evaluating, using, or constructing forest productivity classifications. First, the factors which dominate spatial variability in forest productivity are scale dependent. For example, within a stand, spatial variability in productivity is dominated by microsite differences; within a national forest such as the Cherokee National Forest, spatial variability is dominated by topography and land-use history (e.g., years since harvest); within a large region such as the southeast, spatial variability is dominated by climatic patterns. Second, classifications developed at different spatial scales are often used for different purposes. For example, stand-level classifications are often keys or rules used in the field to judge the quality or potential of a site. National-forest classifications are often presented as maps or tables and may be used in forest land planning. Regional classifications may be maps or tables and may be used to quantify or predict resource availability. These scale-related differences in controlling factors and purposes will affect both the methods and the data used to develop classifications. In this paper, I will illustrate these points by describing and comparing three forest productivity classifications, each developed for a specific purpose at a specific scale. My objective is not to argue for or against any of these particular classifications but rather to heighten awareness of the critical role that spatial scale plays in the use and development of forest productivity classifications. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  13. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  14. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Classified Marketing of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Classified marketing of agricultural products was analyzed using the Logistic Regression Model. This method can take full advantage of information in agricultural product database,to find factors influencing best selling degree of agricultural products,and make quantitative analysis accordingly. Using this model,it is also able to predict sales of agricultural products,and provide reference for mapping out individualized sales strategy for popularizing agricultural products.

  15. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  16. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    OpenAIRE

    António J. A. Santos; Ofélia Anjos; Maria Cristina Morais; Graça Diogo; Rogério Simões; Helena Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal) and P. sylvestris (Finland) were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05) tracheid diameter and wall thick...

  17. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  18. THEORETICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTION OF THE CUTTING EDGE RECESSION DURING MILLING WOOD AND SECONDARY WOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolesław Porankiewicz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical method for prediction of cutting edge recession during milling wood and wood-based products, due to the presence of hard mineral contamination, High Temperature Tribochemical Reactions (HTTR, and frictional wearing, based on 3D random distribution of contaminant particles is presented and positively verified based on the example of three experiments from the literature, showing good correlation between the predicted and observed cutting edge recession.

  19. Genetic improvement of trees for wood production, with particular refeference to wood traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocetti M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of selected propagation material from tree improvement programs is expected to lead to a more homogenous product, generally appreciated by industry. So far, breeding strategy have been mainly targeted to maximize acclimation/adaptation to specific environment conditions, tree growth and disease resistance, but it is not obvious that such strategy might lead to improvement of wood characteristics at the same time. Therefore, it seems important to introduce wood traits improvement as specific target of the selection process in tree breeding programs, and/or to assess heritability of wood technological properties of trees previously selected based on different criteria. Investigations reported so far have revealed that several wood traits are under a medium to high genetic control. The main goal of this work is to discuss the suitability of wood traits improvement as main target of specific breeding programs, with particular attention to wood technological characteristics to be considered in the tree selection process. Finally, we focused on noble hardwoods, that have been the target species for many improvement programs developed in Italy, and particularly on wild cherry, where studies on the genetic control of wood traits are rare.

  20. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  1. Ethanol from wood. Cellulase enzyme production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengyel, Zsolt

    2000-03-01

    Conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such as ethanol, has been investigated during the past decades. First due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and lately because of concerns about greenhouse effect, ethanol has been found to be a suitable substitute for gasoline in transportation. Although ethanol is produced in large quantities from corn starch, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is rather problematic. However, cellulosic raw materials are important as they are available in large quantities from agriculture and forestry. One of the most extensively investigated processes is the enzymatic process, in which fungal cellulolytic enzymes are used to convert the cellulose content of the biomass to glucose, which is then fermented to ethanol. In order to make the raw material accessible to biological attack, it has to be pretreated first. The most successful method, which has been evaluated for various lignocellulosic materials, is the steam pretreatment. In this thesis the utilization of steam pretreated willow (hardwood) and spruce (softwood) was examined for enzyme production using a filamentous fungus T. reesei RUT C30. Various carbon sources originating from the steam pretreated materials have been investigated. The replacement of the solid carbon source with a liquid carbon source, as well as the effect of pH, was studied. The effect of toxic compounds generated during pretreatment was also examined. Comparative study of softwood and hardwood showed that steam pretreated hardwood is a better carbon source than softwood. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme solutions produced on wood derived carbon sources was better compared to commercial cellulases. Also enzyme solutions produced on steam pretreated spruce showed less sensitivity towards toxic compounds formed during steam pretreatment.

  2. Energy of the wood – to quality of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rijov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The group of authors is engaged in development and deployment in production of products of biomass of the wood in agriculture. Lately we introduced in production more than five domestic import-substituting products, more than 20 applications for inventions are submitted, 4 patents are taken out, more than 30 articles on this subject are published.

  3. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  4. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... is (202) 564-8930. Such deliveries are only accepted during the DCO's normal hours of operation, and... compliance on the bill of lading or invoice for the composite wood product. The CARB ATCM also imposes... finished good product bill of lading or invoice. Like manufacturers, distributors, importers,...

  5. Integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood from young stands; Integroitujen tuotantomenetelmien vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the competitiveness of different harvesting chains and processing methods of first thinning wood. Great expectations have been laid on integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood. Results produced in other bioenergy projects were taken into account, and in this project some field experiments on mechanised felling-bunching and compressing of the load of tree sections during forwarding were carried out. The new processing methods, the MASSAHAKE-method and chain-flail delimbing combined with small-scale drum debarking, still are under development giving a rather unstable data for comparisons. Both in pine and birch dominant stands modern multiple tree logging gave the most favourable results when ranking on the bases of the price of pulp chips. Integrated methods were not very far and they have more potential than methods based on harvesting delimbed short wood. When compared on the bases of the production cost of pulp, integrated methods were in general the most favourable because they give good subsidies on the form of bioenergy. (orig.)

  6. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  7. Production management within the concept of digital enterprises of wood-processing and furniture production

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Matičević; Tadija Lovrić

    2008-01-01

    Wood processing and furniture production represent a big chance for Croatia to enter the international market. Besides the natural advantages such as world-class quality of wood, Croatia also has the tradition, experience and current technological knowledge in production of semi-manufactured products and final products. Inorder to enter and survive at the competitive international market it is necessary to increase the level of logistics support for production preparation and production in or...

  8. Urea modified cottonseed protein adhesive for wood composite products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonseed protein has the potential to be used as renewable and environmentally friendly adhesives in wood products industry. However, the industry application was limited by its low mechanical properties, low water resistance and viscosity. In this work, urea modified cottonseed protein adhesive w...

  9. Wood products biomass gasification: technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G.; Scarzella, L.

    In this paper, a design lay-out is presented for the gasification of wood products biomass. Regarding this alternative energy form, the paper discusses historical aspects and recent technological developments made by Italian industry. The design, construction, performance, efficiency, present and future applications of a twin-feeding system are described.

  10. Properties of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Agostinho Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy potential of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage wood. The samples were collected in the municipality of Cerro Negro, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Samples were collected from 5 trees at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of commercial height. It was determined basic density, high calorific value, elemental composition, immediate chemical analysis, lower calorific value, energy density, carbon storage and energy production. The physical and chemical variables studied and energy potential of wood did not present differences along the stem.

  11. Wood hydrolysis and hydrolysate detoxification for subsequent xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converti, A.; Perego, P.; Zilli, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' ; Dominguez, J.M. [Universidad de Vigo, Ourense (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Politecnico; Silverio da Silva, S. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL) (Brazil). Departamento de Biotecnologia

    2000-11-01

    A great deal of work has been done during the last decade to develop alternative processes for the integral utilization and revaluation of vegetable biomass. Hardwoods (in particular Eucalyptus globulus) were demonstrated to be of particular interest, because of their rapid growth as well as of the excellent quality of the wood pulp that can be obtained. Today only the cellulose fraction is used for paper production from wood pulp, whereas the lignin and hemicellulose fractions are burnt to produce heat or wasted. This process could be performed in a more profitable way by fractionating the woody material into these fractions and separately using them in different processes. (orig.)

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus benthamii WOOD FOR KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for kraft pulp production. A hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, probably the most planted Eucalyptus clone in Brazil, was also analyzed for comparison purposes. Basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions were determined for the two species. The Eucalyptus benthamii wood presented an anatomical structure, basic density and fiber dimensions quite similar to those of other species planted by the Brazilian pulp industry. However, it presented poorer wood quality characteristics when compared to the hybrid urograndis species, with higher amounts of extractives and lignin, lower amount of glucans, more galactans and lower S/G ratio, characteristics leading to lower pulping yield. Additional studies should be carried out to establish its pulping, bleaching and paper strength properties.

  13. The development of eco-efficient wood-based pellet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuokkanen, M.; Kuokkanen, T. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: toivo.kuokkanen@oulu.fi; Pohjonen, V. (Univ. of Helsinki, Vaerrioe Research Station, Ruuvaoja (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Up to 20 million tons of waste wood biomass per year are left unused in Finland mainly in the forests during forestry operations. Due to global demands to considerably increase the proportion of renewable energy, there is currently tremendous enthusiasm in Finland to substantially increase wood-based pellet production. Pellets are short cylindrical pieces (the diameter being usually 6-10 mm and the length 10-30 mm), which are produced mechanically by compressing the uniform material that has first passed through a hammer mill or mills to provide a homogeneous dough-like mass. As part of European objective to increase the eco- and cost-efficient utilization of bioenergy from the European forest belt, the aim of our research group is to promote the development of Nordic wood-based pellet production both in the quantitative as well as in the qualitative sense. The main fields of pellet research, and our chemical toolbox, developed for these studies, including a new specific staining and optical microscope method for understanding the binding mechanisms of pellet processing, and thus for the control and development of pellet production, are described in this paper. In Finland the goal suggested by the EU sets the total proportion of renewable energy as high as 38% by 2020. The goal is demanding and requires also a strong increase of utilizing forestry waste biomasses which are classified as carbon dioxide emission neutral, in terms of the emission trading in the EU. Concerning the utilization of strongly increasing amount of wood biomass energy, one reasonable solution in Nordic forest belt is decentralized and optimized wood pellet production. Forest economists have calculated that with present costs the maximum distance of profitable transport for forest chips, saw dust or shavings in Finland is ca.100 km, for round wood it is 1000 km, but for wood pellets transported by sea the figure, however, is as much as 5000 km. These calculations, in conjunction with the

  14. Production management within the concept of digital enterprises of wood-processing and furniture production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Matičević

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood processing and furniture production represent a big chance for Croatia to enter the international market. Besides the natural advantages such as world-class quality of wood, Croatia also has the tradition, experience and current technological knowledge in production of semi-manufactured products and final products. Inorder to enter and survive at the competitive international market it is necessary to increase the level of logistics support for production preparation and production in order to increase the use of wood and wood material, to decrease time loss during development and acceptance of the new product and during production preparation, and especially to decrease time required for production. This paper deals with the results achieved during the development and application of the production management system that was based on theoretical principles of JIT (Just In Time and MRPII Manufacturing Resource Planning Japanese and American production theory and integrated in ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning system in wood processing and furniture production enterprises. In this way, the prerequisites are created for the development of the digital enterprise in wood processing and furniture production.

  15. Exposure assessment to alpha- and beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene and wood dust in industrial production of wood pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, K; Lofstedt, H; Berg, P; Eriksson, K; Axelsson, S; Bryngelsson, I; Fedeli, C

    2003-04-01

    The main aim of the study was to measure the exposure to monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene and Delta(3)-carene) and wood dust during industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes. Additional aims were to compare the results from wood dust sampled on a filter with real time measurements using a direct reading instrument and to identify peak exposures to dust. Twenty-four men working at six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes participated in the study. Monoterpenes were measured by diffusive sampling and wood dust was measured as total dust. A data logger (DataRAM) was used for continuous monitoring of dust concentration for 18 of the participants. The sampling time was approximately 8 h. The personal exposure to monoterpenes ranged from 0.64 to 28 mg/m(3) and a statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0002) difference in levels of monoterpenes for workers at different companies was seen. In the companies the personal exposure to wood dust varied between 0.16 and 19 mg/m(3) and for 10 participants the levels exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m(3). The levels of wood dust during the morning shift were significantly (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.04) higher compared with the afternoon shift. Continuous registration of dust concentration showed peak values for several working operations, especially cleaning of truck engines with compressed air. For 24 workers in six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets the personal exposure to monoterpenes was low and to wood dust high compared with the present Swedish OEL and previous studies in Swedish wood industries. Since the DataRAM can identify critical working tasks with high wood dust exposure a reduction in exposure levels could probably be achieved by changes in working routines and by the use of protective equipment.

  16. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases...

  17. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  18. Influence of wood barrels classified by NIRS on the ellagitannin content/composition and on the organoleptic properties of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-20

    Ellagitannins are extracted from oak wood during wine aging in oak barrels. This research is based on the NIRS (Oakscan) oak wood classification according to their index polyphenolic (IP) (between 21.07 and 70.15). Their level in wood is very variable (between 5.95 and 32.91 mg/g dry wood) and influenced their concentration in red wine (between 2.30 and 32.56 mg/L after 24 months of aging) and thus their impact on wine organoleptic properties. The results show a good correlation between the NIRS classification and the chemical analysis (HPLC-UV-MS and acidic hydrolysis procedure) and with the wood ellagitannin level, the ellagitannin extraction kinetic, and the ellagitannins evolution in red wine (Cabernet Sauvignon). Moreover, a correlation between the NIRS classification and the increasing intensity of some wood aromas (woody, spicy, vanilla, and smoked/toasted), flavors (bitterness and astringency), and a decreasing intensity of fruitiness was also observed.

  19. Utilization potential of wood clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels. The study used six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla with 8 years of age, from the Companhia Mineira de Metais, located in Paracatu - MG. For the formation of the panels it was used Portland cement CP V - ARI / Plus, possessing high initial resistance to mineral binder and calcium chloride (CaCl2 as accelerator for the cement curing. The panels were produced with the following parameters: dimensions of 49.5 x 49.5 x 1.5 cm, nominal density of 1.2 g/cm ³, relation wood: cement (1:2.5 and relation water: cement (1:1.5. The results can showed that: (1 for thickness swelling in two and twenty-four hours, only clones 19.28 and 58 attended the specifications, (2 for water absorption, clone 62 showed the best results, (3 to internal bond, only clone 58 didn`t attend specifications, (4 for the compression, clones 19.36 and 58 showed the best results, (5 for MOE and MOR, none of the clones presented values compatible to the bison process. It is suggested the continuation of this line of research, including the manipulation of variables of production, so that all properties be compatible to the minimum required standards.

  20. 40 CFR 63.2267 - Initial compliance demonstration for a reconstituted wood product press or board cooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reconstituted wood product press or board cooler. 63.2267 Section 63.2267 Protection of Environment... for a reconstituted wood product press or board cooler. If you operate a reconstituted wood product press at a new or existing affected source or a reconstituted wood product board cooler at a...

  1. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  2. MARKET OF NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Afonso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the main non-wood forest products from Brazilian savanna. We studied the behavior and the growth rates of production and prices of almond of babaçu, oil of copaiba, fiber of buriti, leaf of jaborandi, bark of barbatimão, bark of angico, fruit of mangaba, almonds of pequi, from 1982 to 2005. All the products exhibited decreasing production, with exception of the oil of copaiba and almonds of pequi, which showed positive growth rates: 12.9% and 8.5%, respectively. The analysis of prices for most products was not significant, except for barks of barbatimão and angico, and almonds of pequi, which showed positive trends: 10.9%, 6.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. We believe that results were not significant due to the severe variations of the Brazilian currency in the period. We conclude that pequi is the main product from savanna and that oil of copaiba has the biggest increase in the production because most of the production comes from the whole Brazilian Amazon region.

  3. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. The influence of urea formaldehyde resins on pyrolysis characteristics and products of wood-based panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshun Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In China each year, large amounts of wood-based panels are consumed and abandoned. These are huge resources for energy recovery and materials reuse. In order to study the influence of urea formaldehyde resin (UF resin on waste wood-based panels during pyrolysis, thermobalance experiments together with the evolution of main gaseous products of wood, wood-based panels, and UF resins were carried out and analyzed by TG-FTIR. Elementary and GC-MS analyses were also done to study the characteristics of solid and liquid products. Results from TG and DTG analyses indicated that UF resin used in wood-based panels accelerated the degradation rate of wood-based panels at lower temperature; however the resin inhibited the degradation of wood-based panels over the later stage at higher temperatures. Compared with solid wood, the higher intensity and earlier releasing time of HNCO and NH3 in wood board revealed that the release of nitric gases is mainly due to the presence of UF resin, especially between 180 °C and 320 °C. Mass loss of hydrogen is significantly inhibited by UF resin, and nitrogen is quite stable in the char. The influence of UF resin on pyrolysis liquids of wood-based panels is mainly on nitrogen compounds and ketones rather than aldehydes and esters, which is probably due to the chemical reactions of UF resin with lignin constituent in wood.

  5. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified.

  6. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  7. 76 FR 35474 - Colville Indian Plywood and Veneer, Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation Wood Products Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Corporation Wood Products Division, Including On-Site Workers from Colville Tribal Construction and On-Site..., Laramie Logging, Lone Rock Contracting, Mawdsley Logging, Mccuen Jones, San Poil Logging, Scott Thorndike... Veneer, Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation Wood Products Division, Omak, Washington. The...

  8. Analysis of the global production location dynamics in the industrial wood pellet market : an MCDA approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T. Pieter; Junginger, H. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wood pellet demand and international trade have been growing rapidly, requiring producers to build new production facilities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the trade-offs of different wood pellet production locations across the world within the next ten years and to improve t

  9. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Baker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. Here, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and wood production for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Firstly, we examine how community-level species traits vary across Amazonia. Average species maximum height and wood density are low in western, compared to eastern, Amazonia and are negatively correlated with aboveground wood productivity and soil fertility. Secondly, we compare biomass growth rates across functional groups defined on the basis of these two traits. In similar size classes, biomass growth rates vary little between trees that differ in wood density and maximum height. However, biomass growth rates are generally higher in western Amazonia across all functional groups. Thirdly, we ask whether the data on the abundance and average biomass growth rates of different functional groups is sufficient to predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of wood productivity. We find that the lower rate of wood production in eastern compared to western Amazonia cannot be estimated on the basis of this information. Overall, these results suggest that the correlations between community-level trait values and wood productivity in Amazonian forests are not causative: direct environmental control of biomass growth rates appears to be the most important driver of wood production at regional scales. This result contrasts with findings for forest biomass where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns. Tropical forest wood productivity may therefore be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.

  10. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  11. PRODUCTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL FILTER PAPER FROM WOOD CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Paper has a visible market-share in hygiene products either in the form of personal hygiene or as food packaging. The designation “hygiene”, though it suggests cleanliness, does not imply antibacterial properties; rather it can be stated that hygiene products do not initiate microorganism growth. Antibacterial products could restrict propagation of pathogenic bacteria either by holding bacteria or by trapping and neutralizing them. Most research in this field has been conducted using textile fibers as a substrate, but the present work uses paper instead. The objective was to produce an antibacterial filter paper capable of trapping and neutralizing pathogenic microorganisms using wood fibers. To produce antibacterial paper, chitosan and nanosilver capped with PAA (polyacrylic acid were deposited on the fiber surface using a layer-by-layer technique. Samples for the tests were prepared from refined bleached softwood (RBSW kraft pulp. The deposition of antibacterial agents on fiber as well as paper were monitored using a zeta potential analyzer (ZPA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS. The minimum requirement for deposition of the agents was a multilayer comprised of eight alternating layers. The deposition onto fiber or paper had no effect on tensile strength or the pore structure of the substrate.

  12. RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

  13. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  14. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  15. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econ

  16. 75 FR 41896 - Colville Indian Precision Pine, Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation, Wood Products Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ..., Wood Products Division, Including On-Site Contract Workers From C & K General Contractor, Doran Richter... Peone, Joe Somday Logging, Jus'N Logging, Laramie Logging, Lone Rock Contracting, Mawdsley Logging, Mc... to workers of Colville Indian Precision Pine, Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation Wood...

  17. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupolttoaineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K. [Enso Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilisation targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilisation was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenise the quality of chips. (orig.)

  18. Can this approach be useful to detect, to classify and to filter Large Wood from TLS data clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Lorenzo; Iroumé, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    The calculation of differences between subsequent DEMs (difference of DEMs, DoD) is a commonly applied method to analyze and quantify morphological changes occurred along a riverine environment. The higher levels of uncertainty in the DoD computation are, typically, localized in area with low point density, steepest slopes and highest roughness values. A common source of roughness in riverine environment is the presence of Large Wood (LW). In turn, in certain conditions, the roughness map can help to detect the LW position. The aim of this research is to define a new approach to detect the LW into DEMs, as to permit its removal from TLS datasets. The study was carried out along the Blanco River (Southern Chile), a fourth order river un-impacted by human pressure. After the 2008 Chaiten volcanic eruption, and the subsequent floods, the Blanco River has been severely affected by sediment and LW input. Huge amount of tephra (up to 8 m) was deposited into the river channel and over 3.5 km2 of evergreen forest. This event generated considerable changes in geomorphological settings, and a considerable input of LW into the active channel (100 m3 /ha). Three TLS surveys were carried out along a 2.2 km-long study reach in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Thanks to the high point cloud density, has been possible to obtain high resolution DEMs with 0.07 x 0.07 m pixel size. The study area is characterized by consistent differences between grainsize characteristics (D16=0.007 m; D50=0.070 m; D84=0.156 m), and LW diameter (D) and length (L) (Dmax=1.20 m; Dmin= 0.10 m; Dmean= 0.25 m; Lmin=1.00 m; Lmean= 3.36 m). These differences in dimension permit us to define the distribution of LW from the roughness map. Using then, the "Select by Location" tool in ESRI ArcGIS environment has been possible to remove the LW from the DEMs. In fact, Select by Location tool permit to select features based on their location relative to features in another layers. Finally, to fill the empty

  19. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Integroitu energiapuun tuotanto-menetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Hooli Oy, operating mainly in the Northern Finland has developed the production method suitable for bunch-processing of small wood. The mobile machine, consisting of delimber-debarker, and fuel fraction crusher units, produces debarked stemwood for pulping industry and branchwood-bark chips for thermal power stations. The basic method has been ready for demonstration and practical applications since in the beginning of year 1996. The objective of the project is to develop a method suitable for bundle processing of small wood, in which the trees are delimbed and debarked, and the formed waste wood is crushed using a machine unit, developed especially for this purpose. The method is based on utilisation of a separate delimbing-debarking unit, which operates separately from the pulpwood transportation chain, so the pulpwood transportations can be done at the proper time either as debarked roundwood or chips. Based on field experiments in 1995 - 1996, to attain the targets of the project looks promising. In 1997 there will happen technical modifications to the machine to improve the debarking results (target < 1 % bark content) of the bolts and to improve the logistic productivity of the whole production chain

  20. International carbon accounting of harvested wood products: evaluation of two models for the quantification of wood product related emissions and removals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    At the moment three alternative approaches for estimating emissions and removals of CO2 from forest harvesting and wood products are under discussion. These are atmospheric flow approach, stock change approach, and the production approach. Several methodologies are being developed to deal with these

  1. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and Fixture... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or... manufacture of wood furniture and fixtures at establishments that (a) do not utilize water wash spray...

  2. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  3. New perspectives of the diffusion of forest non-wood products in the multiethnic Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to non-wood forest products, whose consumption in Europe increased largely in recent years due to immigration, is discussed with reference to sustainable forest management of tropical forests.

  4. Marketing of non-wood forest products: Case study of the enterprise for forest mushroom processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of climate changes it is increasingly obvious that forestry should rely more strongly on the multi­functional character of the managed resources. In addition to wood, there is a series of non­wood products and services offered by forests. Non­wood forest products and services consist of various fruits of forest trees and shrubs, mushrooms, various objects made of non­wood material, and especially forest social services, such as recreation, tourism, hunting, photo­safari, etc. This paper presents a marketing analysis on the example of the enterprise dealing with the purchase, processing and sale of wild mushrooms and products made of mushrooms. The study applies a modern methodological approach implemented in similar researches.

  5. Spatial Estimation of Timber Production and Carbon in Harvested Wood Products Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, P. Y.; Baiocchi, G.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the annual production of different kinds of timbers at different locations has many science and policy implications. For example, timber type information is needed for accurate estimation of the amount and life cycle of carbon stored in the harvested wood product (HWP) pool, and possible transport of carbon in wood products through trade. Several attempts have been made to estimate the carbon storage in the HWP, regardless which approach to use, information of the annual timber production are required. A statistic model has been developed to estimate the annual roundwood production at the county level. The inputs of the model includes forest disturbance area calculated using the VCT algorithm derived from the Landsat time series stack, a forest type map, and timber product output (TPO) data collected from wood processing mills by the USFS. The model is applied to North Carolina, a state with a large forestry sector and where harvesting and logging are a primary forest disturbance type. Ten-fold cross validation were done to the preliminary estimation for each type of HWP. The root mean square errors range between 13.6 and 31.5 for hardwood types; and between 1.3 and 55.6 for softwood types. The model is empirical as it depends on the local information on forest disturbance, forest types, and the amount of the roundwood output. However, the approach of the model can be used to apply to other areas with the local information provided. The result can be served as a starting point in spatial estimation of carbon storage in HWP.

  6. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning wood fuels production was 36. The main goals of the research are to develop new production methods for wood fuels in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels (100 km distance). The second goal is to decrease the small scale production costs by 20 % as compared with the 1992 technology level. Also, new harvesting technology and new work methods will be developed for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs in the course of the programme. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 in this programme are presented in this publication. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research areas because they seem to be most promising. Most of the projects are focused in the wood fuel production from first thinnings and from final fellings. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. The follow up project of Evaluation-drum chipper was completed with good fuel quality and productivity results. Also the large Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was completed. The project was a significant technology transfer and information dissemination project. (orig.)

  7. Physisporinus vitreus: a versatile white rot fungus for engineering value-added wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Francis W M R; Schubert, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The credo of every scientist working in the field of applied science is to transfer knowledge "from science to market," a process that combines (1) science (fundamental discoveries and basic research) with (2) technology development (performance assessment and optimization) and (3) technology transfer (industrial application). Over the past 7 years, we have intensively investigated the potential of the white rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, for engineering value-added wood products. Because of its exceptional wood degradation pattern, i.e., selective lignification without significant wood strength losses and a preferential degradation of bordered pit membranes, it is possible to use this fungus under controlled conditions to improve the acoustic properties of tonewood (i.e., "mycowood") as well as to enhance the uptake of preservatives and wood modification substances in refractory wood species (e.g., Norway spruce), a process known as "bioincising." This minireview summarizes the research that we have performed with P. vitreus and critically discusses the challenges encountered during the development of two distinct processes for engineering value-added wood products. Finally, we peep into the future potential of the bioincising and mycowood processes for additional applications in the forest and wood industry.

  8. Health evaluation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from exotic wood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, L; Witterseh, T; Funch, L W

    2009-01-01

    analyses by climate chamber measurement (iroko, ramin, sheesham, merbau, and rubber tree). Samples of exotic wood (rubber tree and belalu) were further analyzed for emission of chemical compounds by migration into artificial saliva and for content of pesticides and allergenic natural rubber latex (NR latex......) (rubber tree). The toxicological effects of all substances identified were evaluated and the lowest concentrations of interest (LCI) assessed. An R-value was calculated for each wood product (R-value below 1 is considered to be unproblematic as regards health). Emission from the evaluated exotic wood only...

  9. An evaluation of total and inhalable samplers for the collection of wood dust in three wood products industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Muller, Brian S

    2002-10-01

    In 1998 the American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) proposed size selective sampling for wood dust based on the inhalable fraction. Thus the proposed threshold limit values (TLVs) require the use of a sampler whose performance matches the inhalable convention. The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler has shown good agreement with the inhalable convention under controlled conditions, and the Button sampler, developed by the University of Cincinnati, has shown reasonable agreement in at least one laboratory study. The Button sampler has not been previously evaluated under wood working conditions, and the IOM has been shown to sample more mass than expected when compared to the standard closed-face cassette, which may be due to the collection of very large particles in wood working environments. Some projectile particles may be > 100 microm aerodynamic diameter and thus outside the range of the convention. Such particles, if present, can bias the estimates of concentration considerably. This study is part of an on-going research focus into selecting the most appropriate inhalable sampler for use in these industries, and to examine the impact of TLV changes. This study compared gravimetric analyses (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Method 0500) of side-by-side personal samples using the Button, IOM, and 37 mm closed-face cassette (CFC) under field-use conditions. A total of 51 good sample pairs were collected from three wood products industries involved in the manufacturing of cabinets, furniture, and shutters. Paired t-tests were run on each sample pair using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 10. The IOM and the CFC measured statistically different concentrations (p woodworking environments, and, taken together, the data imply a conversion factor greater than the 2.5 normally applied to CFC results to approximate inhalable values, as measured by the IOM. Raising the limit values by

  10. Walk-through survey report: control technology for wood-lamination presses at Jasper Wood Products, Jasper, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollett, B.A.

    1983-03-01

    A visit was made to Jasper Wood Products, Jasper, Indiana for the purpose of including the company in an in-depth study of formaldehyde control methods during the manufacturing of wood products. Parts for furniture, cabinetry, and musical instruments such as drums, violas, and harps were manufactured. The site had a 150,000 cubic feet per minute local exhaust system for the wood machining tools and additional exhaust fans in the press department. Temperature was maintained at 70 degrees. About 25,000 to 30,000 square feet of laminated panels were produced per day. Only one of two hot presses was operated at any one time. They occupied a room with a ceiling enclosure and three roof exhaust fans. The six RF presses were located in a wire mesh enclosure to contain stray RF emissions. This area was ventilated by two wall exhaust fans. The adhesive used for both press operations contained 2 to 3% formaldehyde. An additional control method was the addition of a glue formulation fume suppressent. Breathing-zone formaldehyde concentrations were all within the 1.12 mg/cu m range for hot-press workers and the readings for the RF drum press operators was only slightly higher. Area samples were below the limits of detection except for a 0.4 mg/cu m reading at the RF press instrument back control panel sample and a 0.3 mg/cu m reading taken outside the ceiling enclosure on the take-off end of the hot press.

  11. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  12. NEW APPROACH TO OIL PALM WOOD UTILIZATION FOR WOODWORKING PRODUCTION Part 1: Basic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Balfas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An explosive development in oil palm plantations in the country has produced a consequence in the generation of  plantation wastes. The  disposal of these wastes  has created  an  enormous environmental problem that some practical solution to their economic utilization has to  be sought.  A series of experiments have been accomplished to observe the possibility of converting the oil palm stem into valuable woodworking products. The  first stage of  this effort was determining basic characteristics of oil palm wood.  Results in general showed that the wood has a great characteristic variation across and along the stem, which may develop problems in its utilization. Characteristics of this wood also vary according to species variety.  Quality degradations of oil palm wood were mostly happened during drying process; hence, modifications to upgrade quality should be undertaken before or within the drying process.

  13. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON WOOD MARKETS (CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria‐Loredana POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic crisis represents one of the causes why wood consumption is increasing especially in countries less developed. In countries where governments couldn’t improve the quality of life and unemployment rate is higher, local communities devastate a lot of forestry. In last thirty years we saw a deforestation process at the global level related to land being converted to other uses: agriculture and urbanization, which represent a positive trend of a negative use. The statistics reveal, on one hand, an increasing demand for paper, paper products, wood products and wood energy. So this point is important to analyze: where wood came from and where it is going as either raw material or processed goods? For undeveloped countries, like Romania, it is easy to export primary wood product without evaluating the consequences. On the other hand, developed countries like Sweden export value added products which brig them higher value and profits and require greater manufacturing and marketing skills (case IKEA. For this, government policy could introduce trade barriers to decrease log consumption (like export taxes and simultaneously support furniture production and trade (e.g. export.

  14. Preliminary Study on Willingness to Pay for Environmentally Certified Wood Products Among Consumers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shukri; Lukhman Ibrahim, Muhamad

    Consumers are expected to demand and would be willing to pay a price premium for environment-friendly products stemming from the growing global environmental consumerism. While consumers in the developed countries are reported to be willing to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products, there is hardly any study on consumers` willingness in other markets. This preliminary study examines consumer willingness to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products in Malaysia. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 100 systematically-sampled, mall-intercepted respondents. Results indicated that some 38% of the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 14.4% more for environmentally certified wood products.

  15. Status and Trends in International Trade of Major Wood Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junchang; Hu Mingxing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the current conditions, a forecast of trends in imports and exports of wood products and their demand and supply is presented in this paper for the years of 2005 and 2015. It is expected that imports will continue to exceed exports but that the trade deficit in wood products will decline. The form of trade will be changed from a condition of unilateral imports to one of exerting mutual advantage through imports and exports. The structure of trade in forest products will alter with changes in the forest resource base and with new developments in the forest industry.

  16. Guide to exporting solid wood products (revised August 1996) Agricultural handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This revision of the 1990 handbook is intended to help interested U.S. wood products producers begin the process of examining and preparing for export markets by providing them with a brief overview of the necessary steps in developing a successful export marketing strategy. It details how to obtain accurate and up-to-date export market information so that the production, scheduling, and shipping of U.S. wood products can be done profitably. The flowchart on page 3 provides an outline of the major activities associated with exporting and export marketing. The outline includes many of the topics covered in this guide.

  17. Production of wood derived fuels. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The research and development work was very active on the area of wood derived fuels during the past year 1996. Totally some 40 projects were going on, and till the end of the year about 15 projects were completed. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. When new production methods and machinery was introduced earlier by demonstration projects, now they were investigated by follow up projects. The economical and quality results of logging residue harvesting and comminution seem quite satisfactory, but integrated methods and production chains still need research and development. (orig.)

  18. Demineralization of wood using wood-derived acid: Towards a selective pyrolysis process for fuel and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Aldenkamp, N.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    A process concept for the pyrolysis of demineralized wood to obtain high organic and especially levoglucosan yields is proposed and tested experimentally. The wood is demineralized using organic acids, produced and concentrated within the same pyrolysis process. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a fluidiz

  19. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Residential wood burning contributes to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas-phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming considerable quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA, and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle- and gas-phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings; however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ±2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high-load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average-load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average-load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and

  20. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential wood burning contributes significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming significant quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle and gas phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings, however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ± 2 sample standard deviations to the total OA mass in high load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average load experiments. In the AMS, an

  1. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  2. UTILIZATION OF CANDEIA (Eremanthus erythropappus WOOD RESIDUES IN THE PRODUCTION OF PARTICLEBOAD WITH ADDITION OF PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate, through the physical and mechanical properties, the panels production viability with inclusion of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus wood residues and the influence of different percentages of PET (polyethylene terephthalate, as well as the presence and absence of paraffin on the properties of particleboard. There were used candeia wood residues, after oil extraction, in association with eucalypt wood in the proportion of 25:75 and urea-formaldehyde adhesive (12% for panels production; besides the PET incorporation in particle form, which were originated from soft drink bottles and included in three percentages (0%, 25% e 50% in treatments in the presence (1% and absence of paraffin emulsion. The panels pressing cycle occurred under electric heating at 160°C, 0.4 MPa of pressure, during 8 minutes. The experimental design was entirely randomized with three repetitions. The properties evaluated, according to DIN (1971, ASTM D 1037-93 (1995 and CS 236-66 (1968 standards, were: internal bonding; static bending (modulus of elasticity – MOE and rupture – MOR; compression parallel to the panel surface; water absorption and thickness swelling, after 2 and 24 hours water immersion. The panel mechanical properties decreased with increasing in PET level; in general, paraffin addition did not improve the wood/plastic panels resistance and higroscopicity; the utilization of candeia wood residues is viable, in association with eucalypt wood, for the wood/plastic panel production, since the properties attended the minimum demands of the standards, except static bending.

  3. Effect of wood type and thickness on acetification kinetics in traditional vinegar production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesús Torija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Jesús Torija1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Carlos-Alfredo Vegas1, Carla Jara1, Angel González1, Montse Poblet1, Cristina Reguant1, Jóse-Manuel Guillamon2, Albert Mas11Biotecnología enológica. Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 2Departamento de Biotecnología de los Alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC, Burjassot, València, SpainAbstract: Traditional vinegar production is a lengthy process which implies high operational risks and jeopardizes the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. In an effort to solve these problems without changing the traditional model, we modified the wood type and thickness of vinegar barrels. We acetified in triplicate in barrels made of acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak and in three wood thicknesses (15, 20, and 25 mm in two different vinegar plants. The operating volume was set at 60 L. Reducing wood thickness improved neither maximum acetification velocity or the total length of the process, and in some cases even worsened them. The process took longer in oak barrels than in other types of wood barrel in one of the vinegar plants. Therefore, the choice of wood is a parameter to be considered in the wine vinegar production. Keywords: acacia, cherry, chestnut, oak, acetic acid bacteria

  4. Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Model for the Material Flow of Resonant Wood Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Aláč

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision-making model, for the selection and evaluation of the most valuable wooden input—resonant wood. Application of a given model can improve the process of input valuation as well as impact and improve particular economic indicators for the resonant wood manufacturer. We have tried to describe and evaluate the supply chain of resonant wood manufacturing and production of musical instruments. Particular value-added and non-value-added activities have been chosen according to the logical sequence of technology. Then, concrete criteria were specified and their significance weightings. Another important part of our paper is the description of resonant wood, specifications, and demands on log and wood species. There are some important physical and mechanical properties which should be taken into account and evaluated during the production of musical instruments. By the application of this model, a particular enterprise can reach an enhanced tool for the continuous evaluation of the product flowing through the supply chain. Visibility of particular operations and their logical sequence, presented by Petri nets, can lead to easier detection of possible defects in these operations and their origin. So, the main purpose of the paper lies in the suggestion of an objective and quantified managerial tool for the decision making.

  5. Health Effects of Operators in the Production of Wood Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Arvidsson, H.; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, C. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Eriksson, K. [Univ. Hospital of Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Andersson, E. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable sources such as biofuels, e.g., wood Pellets produced from shavings and sawdust of pine and spruce. Reported health effects in the wood processing industries are airway, eye and skin irritation, reduced lung function as well as eczema. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of airway and skin symptoms and measure lung function in a population of pellet operators in the Swedish wood industry. Additional reported acute effects from the airways, eyes, nose and skin were recorded. From May 2004 until April 2005 50 blue-collar workers from four Swedish pellet-producing industries were investigated. The study included a questionnaire about skin and airway symptoms (n=50), acute effect questionnaire (n=67; 44 individuals) as well as a test of the lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift (n=118; 39 individuals). Acute effects questionnaire and spirometry were done one to three times per participants and for the acute effects the worker had to assess their symptoms in the airways, eyes, nose and skin between 6 and 8 times during a day. The results from the symptom questionnaires were compared with reference data from other Swedish studies and the lung function data with a European reference material. Statistical tests used were chi-2-test for the questionnaire, t-test for lung function before shift compared expected values, and for difference in lung function between before and after work shift mixed models with subjects as a random factor. No statistical significant difference was seen for the skin and airway symptoms in the questionnaire. Reported acute effects were seen especially for eye and nose symptoms (table 1). Spirometry showed significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC; p=0.0003) and no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; p=0.08) before work shift compared to expected values. FVC was 108,1 % and FEV1 was 104

  6. Expressing product diversification - Categorizing and classifying variability in software product family engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaring, M; Bosch, J

    2004-01-01

    In a software product family context, software architects design architectures that support product diversification in both space (multiple contexts) and time (changing contexts). Product diversification is based on the concept of variability: a single architecture and a set of components support a

  7. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture and Fixture...; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with laundry... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the...

  9. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Baker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. In this study, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and above-ground, coarse wood production of trees ≥10 cm diameter (CWP for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Average species maximum height and wood density are lower in Western than Eastern Amazonia and are negatively correlated with CWP. To test the hypothesis that variation in these traits causes the variation in CWP, we generate plot-level estimates of CWP by resampling the full distribution of tree biomass growth rates whilst maintaining the appropriate tree-diameter and functional-trait distributions for each plot. These estimates are then compared with the observed values. Overall, the estimates do not predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of CWP, suggesting that the variation in community-level trait values does not determine variation in coarse wood productivity in Amazonian forests. Instead, the regional gradient in CWP is caused by higher biomass growth rates across all tree types in Western Amazonia. Therefore, the regional gradient in CWP is driven primarily by environmental factors, rather than the particular functional composition of each stand. These results contrast with previous findings for forest biomass, where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns in above-ground biomass. Therefore, in tropical forests, above-ground wood productivity may be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.

  10. Equipment for biomass. Wood burners; Materiels pour la biomasse, les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R., 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    A review of the French classification of biomass wastes (and more especially wood and wood wastes) concerning classified burning equipment, is presented: special authorization is thus needed for burning residues from wood second transformation processes. Limits for combustion product emission levels are detailed and their impact on wood burning and process equipment is examined: feeder, combustion chamber, exchanger, fume treatment device, residue disposal. Means for reducing pollutant emissions are reviewed

  11. Typology of Non-Wood Forest Products Based Enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan NONIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia, as in other European countries, small and medium enterprises are recognized as a pillar of economic development. At the same time, a clear need for support to those enterprises and entrepreneurship, both in urban and rural areas, is emphasized in national strategic documents. In forestry, small and medium enterprises are of special importance for sector development. However, in Serbia, there is a lack of knowledge about them, and particularly about small and medium enterprises whose business is based on non-wood forest products. Bearing in mind the importance of these enterprises for development of private forestry sector and rural areas, research aiming to determine their characteristics and types is needed. Door-to-door survey was conducted with 91 representatives of non-wood forest products based small and medium enterprises in Central Serbia. Results of cluster analysis showed there were three types of non-wood forest products based small and medium enterprises, in regard to their characteristics. The same number of types was distinguished, in regard to business activities. Results of this research can be used for further detailed study on types of forest-based small and medium enterprises and as a basis for formulation of support measures and, thus, improvement of the entrepreneurship in non-wood forest products sector in Serbia.

  12. 75 FR 41896 - Colville Indian Plywood and Veneer Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation Wood Products Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Corporation Wood Products Division Including On-Site Contract Workers From C & K General Contractor, Doran... Logging, Joe Peone, Joe Somday Logging, Jus'n Logging, Laramie Logging, Lone Rock Contracting, Mawdsley..., applicable to workers of Colville Indian Plywood and Veneer, Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation...

  13. A Survey of Educational Needs and Online Training Perceptions in the Wood Products Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Pineda, Henry J.; Conn, Samuel S.; Sanchez, L. Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 651 wood products industries were surveyed to determine their educational needs and quantify their interest in receiving continuing education via an online format. In the survey, respondents were asked to rank, in order of priority, their educational needs. With a 15.2% response rate, survey respondents (n=99) indicated that an online…

  14. MODELING OF THE FAST ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD-FINISHING PRODUCT -- FLOOR WAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses environmental chamber and full-scale residential house tests conducted to characterize the fast organic emissions from a wood finishing product, floor wax. For the environmental chamber tests, a very small amount (wax was applied to an alumi...

  15. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bartın province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  16. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of alluvial terrain forest, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  17. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  18. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. O.; Malhi, Y.; Ladle, R. J.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Baker, T.; Costa, A. C. L.; Espejo, J. S.; Higuchi, N.; Laurance, W. F.; López-González, G.; Monteagudo, A.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C. A.; Almeida, S.

    2009-09-01

    Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  19. Asynchronism in leaf and wood production in tropical forests: a study combining satellite and ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wagner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fixation of carbon in tropical forests mainly occurs through the production of wood and leaves, both being the principal components of net primary production. Currently field and satellite observations are independently used to describe the forest carbon cycle, but the link between satellite-derived forest phenology and field-derived forest productivity remains opaque. We used a unique combination of a MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI dataset, a wood production model based on climate data and direct litterfall observations at an intra-annual timescale in order to question the synchronism of leaf and wood production in tropical forests. Even though leaf and wood biomass fluxes had the same range (respectively 2.4 ± 1.4 and 2.2 ± 0.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, they occurred separately in time. EVI increased with leaf renewal at the beginning of the dry season, when solar irradiance was at its maximum. At this time, wood production stopped. At the onset of the rainy season, when new leaves were fully mature and water available again, wood production quickly increased to reach its maximum in less than a month, reflecting a change in carbon allocation from short-lived pools (leaves to long-lived pools (wood. The time lag between peaks of EVI and wood production (109 days revealed a substantial decoupling between the leaf renewal assumed to be driven by irradiance and the water-driven wood production. Our work is a first attempt to link EVI data, wood production and leaf phenology at a seasonal timescale in a tropical evergreen rainforest and pave the way to develop more sophisticated global carbon cycle models in tropical forests.

  20. Chemical characterization of smoke from the production process of wood-plastic composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shi-fa; Zhang Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of unpleasant smell, emitted from the production process of wood-plastic composites using Manchurian ash sawdust (Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr.) and polypropylene powder as the raw material, was investigated. Wood sawdust and polypropylene powder were subjected to heat treatment to 290℃ during 8 min (the conditions were similar to those employed on an industrial scale). The emitted compounds were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical results showed that the unpleasant smell was emitted from the pyrogenation of wood sawdust rather than from the polypropylene powder. Nine types of compounds (hydrocarbons, ethers, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, acids and their derivatives, furan and its derivatives, and nitrogen-containing compounds) were collected in the gas phase during heating.Among those 126 components detected by GC-MS, 112 compounds were identified.

  1. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  2. BROMINATION OF 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXANE AND APPLYING THE RESULTING PRODUCT TO IMPROVE THE FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the demand for timber is increasing. Wood and products on its basis are considered to be the most popular in the construction industry, furniture industry, as building materials and other However, along with the positive features of this material there are also negative factors, which include low resistance to biological degradation, high temperature, resistance. Wood and materials based on it are the most flammable, and fire safety is characterized by the velocity of propagation of fire on the wooden structure. He is able to destroy it in a matter of minutes. So the wooden house elements must be protected from fire. It was therefore necessary for the fire protection of wood. It is in the handling of wood with flame retardants. Basic fire fighting methods is the impregnation of wood antipyrene composition, painting fire paint and constructive ways - insulation of timber, non-combustible compositions which can resist the fire. In the work of brominated 4-vinylcyclohexane formed as a by-product in the petrochemical industry, in chloroform synthesized compound with bromine 62-64 % and the possibility of using this product to get antiferromag composition. It is established that the application for the protective treatment of wood synthesized flame retardant has shown that this product can be used for the protective treatment of natural wood to make it flame retardant properties. Use as antiperiodic compositions bromodomain based products 4-vinylcyclohexane allows to obtain images of wood first group of flame retardant efficiency.

  3. Integration of heat treatment of wood with cogeneration production and district heating; Vaermebehandling av trae integrerad med kraftvaermeproduktion och fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delin, Lennart; Essen, Henrik (AaF, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    Heat treatment of wood changes the properties of wood so that the moisture uptake is reduced and the wood movements are reduced at variations in the ambient air humidity. The wood gets an increased resistance to rot and can therefore replace impregnated wood in certain applications. Heat treated wood is however not suitable for direct contact with soil. The strength is also reduced by heat treatment, so it is not recommended for supporting constructions. No additives whatsoever are used in the treatment, so the heat treated wood is very advantageous from an environmental point of view. The wood is dried completely at the heat treatment and heated to about 200 deg C. The question has hence been put, if it is advantageous to collocate a heat treatment plant with district heating or a power cogeneration plant. The aim of the study is to assess the value of such a collocation. Existing heat treatment plants are both few and small and the calculations have hence been made for how a large plant could be designed. A market study is included to assess the market for this type of plants. This shows that the present market for heat treated wood is very small. A full scale treatment plant of the type discussed in this study could probably not be built, since even single plants of this size would require a too large part of the market. The potential to replace impregnated wood is on the other hand very large. The cost for large scale heat treatment should be significantly lower than for impregnated wood and the cost for handling hazardous waste (which impregnated wood is classified as) is also removed. There should therefore be a potential for a future much larger volume of heat treated wood. The study shows that the energetic profit of collocation of a heat treatment plant for wood with district heating or power cogeneration plants is of lower importance. Maximally about 0.5 MSEK/year can be saved for a 25 000 m3/year plant. The initial drying of all sawn lumber has much more

  4. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  5. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Polttojakeen hankinta puun yhdistelmaekorjuussa ja integroitu energiapuun tuotantomenetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ranta, T. [Finntech Ltd. Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Chip production company Hooli Ltd. has built an innovative mobile chain-flail delimbing-debarking-unit which includes also a hammer crusher for wood fuel. This integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood based on that unit has been planned especially for the circumstances where the power or heating plants are near and the pulp mills more remote from the wood processing sites. The trees are felt into bunches and transported as whole trees or tree-sections to the roadside. The Hooli-unit delimbs and debarks the trees using multi-tree processing. The optimal bark content of Scot pine bolts after processing is under 1 %. All green branches, stops and bark are directly crushed into wood fuel in the same unit. Fuel chips are carried to the nearest power plant. The debarked bolts are transported to the pulpmills in the form of roundwood or pulpchips, thus giving better economy for the whole method. Based on first field experiments in 1995 this method has operated well. However, there are still development work ahead: e.g. good debarking quality of birch and spruce in the winter conditions. To attain the targets of the project looks promising. The project is carried out as joint project between Hooli Ltd, Finntech Ltd. Oy, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Veitsiluoto Ltd and VTT Energy. The chain-flail delimbing-debarking-crushing unit was built at Tervolan Konepaja Ky

  6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE PRODUCTS IN THE U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knowles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the market potential for wood plastic composite (WPC products in the highway construction sector in place of non-renewable materials (e.g. virgin plastic and steel and preservative-based products (treated wood. State-level transportation officials indicate that the majority of highway construction purchases are conducted by highway construction contractors. Results from a mail survey of highway contractors in eight western U.S. states indicate that a substantial volume of highway construction material may be suitable for substitution with WPCs. Overall, respondents were not familiar with WPC as a material, but compared it favorably with other materials commonly used in the sector. When making purchase decisions, respondents were most concerned with products meeting regulatory specifications, cost, availability, and trust in quality. Attributes related to sustainability, location of manufacture, and content of recycled material were viewed as less important.

  7. Disentangling biodiversity and climatic determinants of wood production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, M.; Carrillo-Gavilán, A.; Vayreda, J.; Bugmann, H.; Fridman, J.; Grodzki, W.; Haase, J.; Kunstler, G.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Trasobares, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Despite empirical support for an increase in ecosystem productivity with species diversity in synthetic systems, there is ample evidence that this relationship is dependent on environmental characteristics, especially in structurally more complex natural systems. Empirical support for t

  8. An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products.

  9. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fabien H.; Hérault, Bruno; Bonal, Damien; Stahl, Clément; Anderson, Liana O.; Baker, Timothy R.; Becker, Gabriel Sebastian; Beeckman, Hans; Boanerges Souza, Danilo; Botosso, Paulo Cesar; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Bräuning, Achim; Brede, Benjamin; Irving Brown, Foster; Julio Camarero, Jesus; Barbosa Camargo, Plínio; Cardoso, Fernanda C. G.; Alvim Carvalho, Fabrício; Castro, Wendeson; Koloski Chagas, Rubens; Chave, Jérome; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Clark, Deborah A.; Capellotto Costa, Flavia Regina; Couralet, Camille; Henrique da Silva Mauricio, Paulo; Dalitz, Helmut; Resende de Castro, Vinicius; Eloisa de Freitas Milani, Jaçanan; Consuelo de Oliveira, Edilson; de Souza Arruda, Luciano; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Drew, David M.; Dünisch, Oliver; Durigan, Giselda; Elifuraha, Elisha; Fedele, Marcio; Ferreira Fedele, Ligia; Figueiredo Filho, Afonso; Guimarães Finger, César Augusto; César Franco, Augusto; Lima Freitas Júnior, João; Galvão, Franklin; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Gliniars, Robert; Maurício Lima de Alencastro Graça, Paulo; Griffiths, Anthony D.; Grogan, James; Guan, Kaiyu; Homeier, Jürgen; Raquel Kanieski, Maria; Khoon Kho, Lip; Koenig, Jennifer; Valerio Kohler, Sintia; Krepkowski, Julia; Pires Lemos-Filho, José; Lieberman, Diana; Lieberman, Milton Eugene; Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Longhi Santos, Tomaz; López Ayala, José Luis; Eijji Maeda, Eduardo; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maria, Vivian R. B.; Marques, Marcia C. M.; Marques, Renato; Maza Chamba, Hector; Mbwambo, Lawrence; Liana Lisboa Melgaço, Karina; Mendivelso, Hooz Angela; Murphy, Brett P.; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Okada, Naoki; Pélissier, Raphaël; Prior, Lynda D.; Alejandro Roig, Fidel; Ross, Michael; Rodrigo Rossatto, Davi; Rossi, Vivien; Rowland, Lucy; Rutishauser, Ervan; Santana, Hellen; Schulze, Mark; Selhorst, Diogo; Rodrigues Silva, Williamar; Silveira, Marcos; Spannl, Susanne; Swaine, Michael D.; Julio Toledo, José; Toledo, Marcos Miranda; Toledo, Marisol; Toma, Takeshi; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Valdez Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Verbesselt, Jan; Aparecida Vieira, Simone; Vincent, Grégoire; Volkmer de Castilho, Carolina; Volland, Franziska; Worbes, Martin; Bolzan Zanon, Magda Lea; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68 include aboveground wood productivity measurements and 35 litter productivity measurements), their associated canopy photosynthetic capacity (enhanced vegetation index, EVI) and climate, we ask how carbon assimilation and aboveground allocation are related to climate seasonality in tropical forests and how they interact in the seasonal carbon cycle. We found that canopy photosynthetic capacity seasonality responds positively to precipitation when rainfall is < 2000 mm yr-1 (water-limited forests) and to radiation otherwise (light-limited forests). On the other hand, independent of climate limitations, wood productivity and litterfall are driven by seasonal variation in precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. Consequently, light-limited forests present an asynchronism between canopy photosynthetic capacity and wood productivity. First-order control by precipitation likely indicates a decrease in tropical forest productivity in a drier climate in water-limited forest, and in current light-limited forest with future rainfall < 2000 mm yr-1.

  10. Effects of forest management on sustainability of integrated timber and energy wood production. Scenario analysis based on ecosystem model simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routa, J.

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to study the effects of forest management on the sustainability of integrated timber and energy wood production in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), on fertile and medium fertile sites, and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), on medium fertile and less fertile sites. In this context, an ecosystem model was used in scenario analyses, which considered the effects of management on the total stem wood production, timber and energy wood production. Furthermore, the management implications for net present value (NPV) and net CO{sub 2} emissions of the use of energy wood was addressed. The management included varying pre-commercial stand density, timing, and intensity of energy wood thinning, N fertilization (Papers 2-4), and rotation length (Paper 4). In addition, the effects of the genetic entry on above-ground biomass production of Norway spruce were studied based on experimental data (Paper 1). In general, the management with higher pre-commercial stand density than that used in basic management and N fertilization clearly increased stem wood production (i.e. sawlogs, pulp and small-sized stem wood), energy wood production (logging residuals, small-sized stem wood, stump wood and roots) and also NPV over the rotation for both Norway spruce and Scots pine, regardless of site fertility type and rotation length used in the simulations (Papers 2-4). However, the total stem wood production and energy wood production were also affected by the timing of energy wood thinning. Fertilization had a positive effect, but the effects of number of applications and amount of N fertilization were negligible on the total stem wood and energy wood production. Additionally, in the case of net CO{sub 2} emissions, the increase of pre-commercial stand density and fertilization clearly decreased the net CO{sub 2} emission in energy production over the rotation regardless of tree species, site fertility type and rotation length used in simulations (Papers

  11. Production management information system in wood processing and furniture manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Grladinović

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of a production management information system is one of the ways that could help the management to increase its efficiency. It should enable the monitoring of the whole business of a firm through co-ordination in the process of collecting and using information.

  12. Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

  13. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  14. “Foreign” forestry companies: possible changes and nuisances of the wood product market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatta G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a major change has been taking place in forestry companies involved in coppice logging in the province of Forlì-Cesena (northern Apennines, Italy. Entrepreneurs of foreign origin who live and work in Italy, though having the legal head office and the tax domicile in a different EU country (particularly Romania, entered the local market of coppice logging. Such “foreign” companies may benefit of significant tax advantages at different stages (stand purchase, forest exploitation, sale of wood products, creating serious difficulties to the national forestry companies and representing a possible nuisance to the local market of wood products. Possible actions aimed at contrasting such situation are discussed.

  15. Wood pellet production costs under Austrian and in comparison to Swedish framework conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thek, Gerold [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Obernberger, Ingwald [Bios Bioenergiesysteme GmbH, Graz (Austria); Graz Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Graz (Austria)

    2004-12-01

    Owing to the rapidly increasing importance of pellets as high-quality biomass fuel in Austria and Europe within the last years, many companies, mainly from the wood industry, are thinking of entering this market. The calculation of the production costs before starting a pellet plant is essential for an economic operation. Based on comprehensive investigations within the EU-ALTENER project 'An Integrated European Market for Densified Biomass Fuels', calculations of the pellet production costs loco factory for different framework conditions with basic data based on already realised plants as well as a questionnaire survey of pellet producers in Austria, South Tyrol and Sweden have been performed. The production costs for wood pellets are mainly influenced by the raw material costs and, in the case of using wet raw materials, by the drying costs. Depending on the framework conditions these two parameters can contribute up to one-third of the total pellet production costs. Other important parameters influencing the pellet production costs are the plant utilisation (number of shifts per week) as well as the availability of the plant. For an economic production of wood pellets at least three shifts per day at 5 days per week are necessary. An optimum would be an operation at 7 days per week. A low plant availability also leads to greatly increased pellet production costs. A plant availability of 85-90% should therefore be achieved. The calculations show that a wood pellet production is possible both in small-scale (production rates of some hundred tonnes per year) as well as in large-scale plants (some ten thousand tonnes per year). However, especially for small-scale units it is very important to take care of the specific framework conditions of the producer, because the risk of a non-economic pellet production is considerably higher than for large-scale systems. The direct comparison of typical pellet production costs in Austria and Sweden showed the Swedish

  16. TECHNO-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCTION FOR U.S. MANUFACTURERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pirraglia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many companies in the U.S. are entering the wood pellets market due to the increasing importance of woody biomass utilization for energy purposes. Despite a 200% increase in U.S. production, it is difficult to obtain reliable information from the research community relative to the production costs, requirements, and market trends for wood pellets. Based on comprehensive investigations, a techno-economical model for the determination of production costs for U.S. manufacturers (internal market, with sell strategy based on bagged product was developed, considering the most important technical and financial factors that affect pellet production. Outcomes from a case-study show that pellet production is profitable for U.S. manufacturers and distributors/retailers, with more revenue margin for retailers. Sensitivity analyses were performed, showing that a pellet plant is especially sensitive to changes to the cost of biomass and labor. In addition, changes in energy and CAPEX also affect the NPV and IRR of the project, but not as significantly as biomass and labor costs. Additional findings indicate that increasing the plant size especially increases CAPEX, with labor being the least increased cost factor; in addition, production factors have to be closely monitored for small-scale producers, due to increases in operational costs.

  17. EFFECT OF AGE AND CLONE ON THE QUALITY OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD AIMING BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814587The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of age and clone on the quality of Eucalyptus spp wood aiming the production of charcoal and bioenergy. Four Eucalyptus spp clones at the ages of 57 and 69 months were evaluated. Four trees per clone in each age were evaluated. The average basic density, the basic density at the DBH, higher heating value and contents of lignin, total extractives, ashes, holocellulose an elemental chemica analylsis (C, H, N, S and O were evaluated. In the evaluation of the assay, and entirely randomized design in the factorial scheme 4 x 2 was used. Besides, a multivariate analysis of main components was made. In general, it was observed effect of age on wood quality. Ash, hydrogen and nitrogen contents tended to diminish with increases in age for all the clones evaluated. However, oxygen content presented an increase with the increase in age of the clones. Lignin content presented significant increase with age increase, being the contrary observed for holocellulose content. The clones at the age of 69 months presented the highest contents of lignin, but the same did not happen for basic density of wood. The clones I144 and I220 had the highest average values for this characteristic, what may be advantageous for charcoal production

  18. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensho Honma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  19. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K. [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  20. Influence of wood density in tree-ring based annual productivity assessments and its errors in Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bouriaud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of tree annual biomass increments are used by a variety of studies related to forest productivity or carbon fluxes. Biomass increment estimations can be easily obtained from diameter surveys or historical diameter reconstructions based on tree rings records. However, the biomass models rely on the assumption of a constant wood density. Converting volume increment into biomass also requires assumptions on the wood density. Wood density has been largely reported to vary both in time and between trees. In Norway spruce, wood density is known to increase with decreasing ring width. This could lead to underestimating the biomass or carbon deposition in bad years. The variations between trees of wood density has never been discussed but could also contribute to deviations. A modelling approach could attenuate these effects but will also generate errors. Here were developed a model of wood density variations in Norway spruce, and an allometric model of volume growth. We accounted for variations in wood density both between years and between trees, based on specific measurements. We compared the effects of neglecting each variation source on the estimations of annual biomass increment. We also assessed the errors of the biomass increment predictions at tree level, and of the annual productivity at plot level. Our results showed a partial compensation of the decrease in ring width in bad years by the increase in wood density. The underestimation of the biomass increment in those years reached 15%. The errors related to the use of an allometric model of volume growth were modest, around ±15%. The errors related to variations in wood density were much larger, the biggest component being the inter-tree variability. The errors in plot-level annual biomass productivity reached up to 40%, with a full account of all the error sources.

  1. Influence of wood density in tree-ring based annual productivity assessments and its errors in Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouriaud, O.; Teodosiu, M.; Kirdyanov, A. V.; Wirth, C.

    2015-04-01

    Estimations of tree annual biomass increments are used by a variety of studies related to forest productivity or carbon fluxes. Biomass increment estimations can be easily obtained from diameter surveys or historical diameter reconstructions based on tree rings records. However, the biomass models rely on the assumption of a constant wood density. Converting volume increment into biomass also requires assumptions on the wood density. Wood density has been largely reported to vary both in time and between trees. In Norway spruce, wood density is known to increase with decreasing ring width. This could lead to underestimating the biomass or carbon deposition in bad years. The variations between trees of wood density has never been discussed but could also contribute to deviations. A modelling approach could attenuate these effects but will also generate errors. Here were developed a model of wood density variations in Norway spruce, and an allometric model of volume growth. We accounted for variations in wood density both between years and between trees, based on specific measurements. We compared the effects of neglecting each variation source on the estimations of annual biomass increment. We also assessed the errors of the biomass increment predictions at tree level, and of the annual productivity at plot level. Our results showed a partial compensation of the decrease in ring width in bad years by the increase in wood density. The underestimation of the biomass increment in those years reached 15%. The errors related to the use of an allometric model of volume growth were modest, around ±15%. The errors related to variations in wood density were much larger, the biggest component being the inter-tree variability. The errors in plot-level annual biomass productivity reached up to 40%, with a full account of all the error sources.

  2. Influence of wood density in tree-ring-based annual productivity assessments and its errors in Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouriaud, O.; Teodosiu, M.; Kirdyanov, A. V.; Wirth, C.

    2015-10-01

    Estimations of tree annual biomass increments are used by a variety of studies related to forest productivity or carbon fluxes. Biomass increment estimations can be easily obtained from diameter surveys or historical diameter reconstructions based on tree rings' records. However, the biomass models rely on the assumption that wood density is constant. Converting volume increment into biomass also requires assumptions about the wood density. Wood density has been largely reported to vary both in time and between trees. In Norway spruce, wood density is known to increase with decreasing ring width. This could lead to underestimating the biomass or carbon deposition in bad years. The variations between trees of wood density have never been discussed but could also contribute to deviations. A modelling approach could attenuate these effects but will also generate errors. Here a model of wood density variations in Norway spruce, and an allometric model of volume growth were developed. We accounted for variations in wood density both between years and between trees, based on specific measurements. We compared the effects of neglecting each variation source on the estimations of annual biomass increment. We also assessed the errors of the biomass increment predictions at tree level, and of the annual productivity at plot level. Our results showed a partial compensation of the decrease in ring width in bad years by the increase in wood density. The underestimation of the biomass increment in those years reached 15 %. The errors related to the use of an allometric model of volume growth were modest, around ±15 %. The errors related to variations in wood density were much larger, the biggest component being the inter-tree variability. The errors in plot-level annual biomass productivity reached up to 40 %, with a full account of all the error sources.

  3. Wood pulp as an immobilization matrix for the continuous production of isopropanol and butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survase, Shrikant A; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The study was focused on developing a continuous method to produce an alcohol mixture suitable to be used as a gasoline supplement. The immobilized column reactor with wood pulp fibers was successfully used for the continuous production of butanol and isopropanol using Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423. A sugar mixture (glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose and xylose) representing lignocellulose hydrolysate was used as a substrate for the production of solvents. The effect of dilution rate on solvent production was studied during continuous operation. The maximum total solvent concentration of 11.99 g/l was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.16 h(-1). The maximum solvent productivity (5.58 g/l h) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.5 h(-1). The maximum solvent yield of 0.45 g/g from sugar mixture was observed at 0.25 h(-1). The system will be further used for the solvent production using wood hydrolysate as a substrate.

  4. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    of virgin wood does not change the results radically (—665 to —125 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes...

  5. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 4, annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Yan, Hui [and others

    1997-07-01

    Heating softwood in a low-headspace environment draws out the VOCs from the wood, without removing the water. The VOCs can be collected from the headspace, and represent a valuable product. The VOC-depleted wood can then be dried conventionally with much reduced emissions. Heating can be accomplished through radiofrequency (RF) or steam. For lumber, steam is inefficient, but brief RF treatment under low-headspace conditions draws out 80% of the VOCs. The power used is quite low, since the RF energy is not used to remove water, but only to maintain the wood at a set temperature. The technology is now at the pre-pilot stage. Either steam or RF can be used for particle, OSB, and veneer, again under low-headspace conditions. Increasing steam temperature facilitates VOC removal. In order to understand the mechanism of VOC release in lumber, the transport of water and VOCs to the surface is being studied as a function of sample size and orientation. Characterization of the terpenes and resin/fatty acids from a control set of trees is underway in order to define the seasonal influence on VOCs.

  6. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  7. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  8. Ecological Modernisation and Discourses on Rural Non-Wood Bioenergy Production in Finland from 1980 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Rural bioenergy production is currently a much debated question worldwide. It is closely connected to questions of environmental protection and rural development in both developing and industrial world. In Finland, rural bioenergy production has traditionally meant the production of wood fuels for heating purposes. The utilisation of forest…

  9. Production of wood pellets. Influence of additives on production, quality, storage, combustion and life cycle analysis of wood pellets; Herstellung von Holzpellets. Einfluss von Presshilfsmitteln auf Produktion, Qualitaet, Lagerung, Verbrennung sowie Energie- und Oekobilanz von Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, P.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buerli, J. [Buerli Pellets, Willisau (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study concerning the influence of additives on the various factors related to the manufacture of wood pellets and their use. Results of tests concerning the production, storage and combustion of wood pellets with and without additives are presented. Process modifications are discussed. The report shows that for all investigated additives neither energy consumption nor pellet throughput was improved. The influence of additives on the mechanical strength of the pellets is discussed, as are the combustion characteristics of the pellets, which emit significantly lower levels of NO{sub x} and particulate matter than typical wood chips. The authors recommend the application of advanced control technology to ensure optimum combustion conditions. A life-cycle analysis is presented which shows that pellets are ecologically more favourable than wood chips. The ecological potential for improvement in the manufacturing process is discussed, including emission reductions and heat recovery.

  10. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Analysis of marketing mix elements of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-quality products of biological origin has been increasing, in accordance with changes in objectives of forest management, which are caused by socio-economic development. Although non-wood forest products (NW­FPs have been collected and used for generations, only in recent decades their importance has been recognized. The aim of this paper is to analyze marketing strategies of companies involved in processing and distribution of NWFPs. Due to the specificity and comprehensiveness of the problem, the various general and specific methods and techniques, which are used in the study of marketing elements, have been applied. A’WOT analysis was applied in order to better interpret results of SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted among small and medium enterprises dealing with NWFPs in central Serbia. Conducted research determined the most important final products, prices, types of promotion and structure of distribution channel.

  12. Typology of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies are characterized by a growing importance of cooperation and the creation of networks of enterprises, organizations and institutions, which are all part of a supply chain, in order to achieve competitive advantage in a market. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in selected forest areas of Central Serbia (Golijsko, Podrinjsko-kolubarsko, Posavsko-podunavsko, Rasinsko and Tarsko-zlatiborsko FAs. The comparative method was applied in this paper, along with the method of specialization (classification, the method of structural partial analysis (supply chain analysis and the statistical method (analysis of frequencies and two-step cluster. The data collection was conducted in 2011, by using the technique of door-to-door survey. The analysis of the basic types of the supply chains of non-wood forest products and their main stages (purchasing, processing and placement was conducted in the selected areas. A cluster analysis showed that there were six basic types of supply chains in the selected forest areas and one dominant type. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 443007/16 –III: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu -praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  13. Harvested wood products in the context of climate change : A comparison of different models and approaches for the Norwegian greenhouse gas inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bache-Andreassen, Lihn

    2009-07-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases is accounted for and reported annually under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol. In the current accounting system, emissions of CO2 from harvested wood products (HWP) are attributed to the year of harvest and the country of harvest. All harvested wood is thus assumed to be oxidised to CO{sub 2} in the year of harvesting, and no wood goes into long term storage. This is called the IPCC default approach. Much of the harvested wood will however be stored for a short or long period of time before it oxidises and this will cause a delayed emission of CO{sub 2}. If more wood is stored than oxidised in a given year, harvested wood products will act as a sink and a removal of CO{sub 2} is recorded. However, if the consumption of wood decreases to a level below what is oxidised, harvested wood products will act as a source and emissions of CO{sub 2} is recorded. In Norway, as on many other countries, the stock of harvested wood products has been increasing for many years, and is likely to increase further. Including emissions/removals of CO{sub 2} from harvested wood products in the post Kyoto 2012 regime is under consideration by the UNFCCC, and in that context it is imperative to evaluate estimation models and approaches for the reporting/accounting. (Author)

  14. Wood dusts induce the production of reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Lea; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene; Alenius, Harri; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2009-08-21

    Wood dusts are associated with several respiratory symptoms, e.g. impaired lung function and asthma, in exposed workers. However, despite the evidence from epidemiological studies, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated different wood dusts for their capacity to induce cytotoxicity and production of radical oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of the apoptotic caspase-3 enzyme in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Dusts from three different tree species widely used in wood industry were studied; birch and oak represented hardwood species, and pine a common softwood species. All the experiments were carried out in three different concentrations (10, 50, and 500 microg/ml) and the analysis was performed after 0.5, 2, 6, and 24h exposure. All wood dusts studied were cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner after 2 and 6h treatment. Exposure to pine, birch, or oak dust had a significant stimulating effect on the production of ROS. Also an induction in caspase-3 protease activity, one of the central components of the apoptotic cascade, was seen in BEAS-2B cells after 2 and 6h exposure to each of the wood dusts studied. In summary, we demonstrate that dusts from pine, birch and oak are cytotoxic, able to increase the production of ROS and the apoptotic response in human broncho-epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, our current data suggest oxidative stress by ROS as an important mechanism likely to function in wood dust related pulmonary toxicity although details of the cellular targets and cell-particle interactions remain to be solved. It is though tempting to speculate that redox-regulated transcription factors such as NFkappaB or AP-1 may play a role in this wood dust-evoked process leading to apparently induced apoptosis of target cells.

  15. Wood ant nests as hot spots of carbon dioxide production and cold spots of methane oxidation in temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Picek, Tomas; Cajthaml, Tomas; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Wood ant nests are known as hot spots of carbon dioxide (CO2) production and are also thought to affect methane (CH4) flux. Stable high temperatures are maintained in ant nests even in cold environments. Here we focused on quantification of CO2 and CH4 flux in wood ant nests, contribution of ants and microbes to CO2 production, properties of nest material that affect CO2 production and the role of ants and microbes in the maintenance of nest temperature. The research was conducted in temperate and boreal forests inhabited by wood ants (Formica s. str.). Gas fluxes were measured either by an infrared gas analyser or a static chamber technique. Ants and nest materials were also incubated in a laboratory. Material properties potentially influencing CO2 flux, such as moisture, nutrient content or temperature were determined. According to the results, CH4 oxidation was lower in wood ant nests than in the surrounding forest soil suggesting that some characteristics of ant nests hinder CH4 oxidation or promote CH4 production. These characteristics were mainly available carbon and nitrogen contents. Wood ant nests clearly are hot spots of CO2 production in temperate forests originating mainly from ant and also from microbial metabolism. Most important properties positively affecting CO2 production were found to be moisture, nutrient content and temperature. Nest temperature is maintained by ant and microbial metabolism; nests from colder environments produce more metabolic heat to maintain similar temperature as nests from warmer environments. In conclusion, as the abundance of wood ant nests in some forests can be very high, ant nests may largely increase heterogeneity in greenhouse gas fluxes in forest ecosystems.

  16. Comparative effects of pyrolytic products of fiber reinforced plastic and wood shavings on the respiratory variables in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Deb, Utsab; Gautam, Anshoo; Vijayaraghavan, R; Ratna, Debdatta; Chakraborty, B C

    2010-08-01

    Comparative inhalation toxicity studies of pyrolytic products (smoke) from synthetic polymer, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and teak wood shavings were carried out in male Swiss albino mice. The breathing pattern and the respiratory variables were monitored using a computer program that recognizes the modifications of the respiratory pattern. Exposure to the smoke from both the polymers caused a concentration dependent decrease in normal breathing and an increase in sensory irritation measure. The acute lethal concentration 50 values for a 15 min static inhalation exposure to the smoke from FRP and teak wood shavings were found to be > 200.00 and 62.99 g/m(3), respectively. Hence the inhalation toxicity of smoke from FRP sample on a mass basis is approximately one-third that of the smoke from teak wood. The concentration of smoke causing 50% respiratory depression of the exposed animals were found to be 6.877 and 0.106 g/m(3) for FRP and teak wood samples, respectively. Thus the sensory irritancy of the smoke from FRP sample is approximately 65 times lesser than the smoke from teak wood. The higher sensory irritancy potential of wood smoke as compared to FRP smoke may be caused by a greater number of submicron particles (size range of 2 micron and less) and greater percentage of gases present in wood smoke as compared to FRP smoke. Thus in case of accidental fires, synthetic polymers like FRP may be a safer choice for structural parts and interiors than the natural wood.

  17. Fundamental study on production of 'hyper wood pellet' - (4) characterization of torrefied products obtained using various methods of heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Sano, Tetsuya; Ohara, Seiji [Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan)], e-mail: tyoshid@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Nomura, Takashi; Watada, Hiroki [Fukui Prefectural Green Center, Sakai, Fukui (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Improved wood pellets (hyper wood pellets) were produced from the torrefaction of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and oak (Konara, Quercus serrata). Five types of ovens were used under dry and wet conditions for the torrefaction of wood chips and the subsequent pellet samples. As a result, calorific values were improved in both Japanese cedar and oak species, and a 30% higher HHV was obtained in Japanese cedar by heat treatment at 240 deg C using an inert gas torrefaction oven. We also investigated the characteristics of torrefied products obtained using four other types of heat treatment under reduced pressure, with superheated steam, and using conventional charcoal ovens in view of larger-scale production. By using a flow-type oven with superheated steam, hyper wood pellets having a calorific value of 21.4MJ/kg were produced by heat treatment at 240 deg C. Elemental analyses showed that dehydration mainly occurred during the torrefaction conducted in this study.

  18. Carbon stored in harvested wood products in Turkey and projections for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is an Annex-I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and therefore submits its Greenhouse gases (GHG emissions and removals from anthropogenic sources to the UNFCCC secretariat on an annual basis, through a National GHG Inventory Report (NIR. GHG emissions and removals from Land Use, Land Use and Forestry (LULUCF constitute one of the main sectors in this report. One of the major land use categories in this sector is Forestland, and harvests in this category must be considered as a direct GHG emission to the atmosphere, unless the fate of the Harvested Wood Products (HWP is reported. In this study, we estimated the carbon sequestration in the HWP category of the Turkish NIR, according to the 2006 Guidelines for GHG inventory in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, from the International Panel of Experts on Climate Change (IPCC. This is the first time such an estimate of carbon stocks and carbon stock changes in the HWP pool has been carried out in Turkey. The calculation has been done in Tier 2. We used United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE Timber database disaggregated figures for HWP produced in Turkey from 1964 to 2013. We focused on the two main HWP categories, which are sawnwood and wood-based panels. Comparing UNECE data series with Orman Genel Müdürlügü (OGM, the Republic of Turkey, General Directorate of Forestry data series for industrial roundwood over 1976-2013 (starting date for OGM data series, we noticed some anomalies (with UNECE data series as a basis: max: +47%, min = -23%, mean = +16%. Thus, the UNECE data on sawnwood and wood based panels were corrected based on OGM data. These anomalies could be due to: (i use of volume over bark for UNECE and volume under bark for OGM (+15% for volume over bark, and (ii integration of industrial roundwood coming from the private sector for UNECE. In order to ensure coherence, we then corrected the 1976

  19. ECOLOGY SAFE METHOD OF OBTAINING FROM FIR-WOOD THE CELLULOSIC PRODUCT WITH HIGH CONTENT OF ALFA-CELLULOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Владимир Александрович Левданский; Александр Владимирович Левданский; Борис Николаевич Кузнецов

    2014-01-01

    The «green» method of obtaining from fir-wood the cellulosic product with high content of alpha-cellulose was developed. It consists of the stage of wood delignification by hydrogen peroxide in the medium «acetic acid – water – sulfuric acid catalyst» and of the stage of alkaline treatment by NaOH. Preparation conditions were selected which allow to obtain with an acceptable yield (30–31% mas.) the cellulosic product containing 97,3–98,0% mas. of alpha-cellulose.

  20. Cost of non-renewable energy in production of wood pellets in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Liu, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Assessing the extent to which all bio-fuels that are claimed to be renewable are in fact renewable is essential because producing such renewable fuels itself requires some amount of non-renewable energy (NE) and materials. Using hybrid life cycle analysis (LCA)—from raw material collection to delivery of pellets to end users—the energy cost of wood pellet production in China was estimated at 1.35 J/J, of which only 0.09 J was derived from NE, indicating that only 0.09 J of NE is required to deliver 1 J of renewable energy into society and showing that the process is truly renewable. Most of the NE was consumed during the conversion process (46.21%) and delivery of pellets to end users (40.69%), during which electricity and diesel are the two major forms of NE used, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the distance over which the pellets are transported affects the cost of NE significantly. Therefore the location of the terminal market and the site where wood resources are available are crucial to saving diesel.

  1. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J.-M.

    2012-12-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines, or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. The paper is summarizing results obtained through a non thermal arc plasma reactor at laboratory scale. A stationary discharge (I = 150mA) is used to perform physical diagnostics and also chemical analysis. The arc is formed between two electrodes made of graphite. We first present results on plasma-steam reforming of alcohols and bio-oils mixed in water. The outlet gas compositions are given from various alcohols and-bio-oils obtained at different experimental conditions. The second part of the paper is dedicated to a direct plasma treatment of wood (beech) at laboratory scale. One of the electrodes is surrounded by wood. The final part of the paper is a general discussion about efficiencies and comparisons of plasma treatments presented. The results obtained are discussed by considering the steam reforming reactions and the water gas shift reaction.

  2. Cost of non-renewable energy in production of wood pellets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changbo WANG; Lixiao ZHANG; Jie LIU

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the extent to which all bio-fuels that are claimed to be renewable are in fact renewable is essential because producing such renewable fuels itself requires some amount of non-renewable energy (NE) and materials.Using hybrid life cycle analysis (LCA)—from raw material collection to delivery of pellets to end users—the energy cost of wood pellet production in China was estimated at 1.35 J/J,of which only 0.09 J was derived from NE,indicating that only 0.09 J of NE is required to deliver 1 J of renewable energy into society and showing that the process is truly renewable.Most of the NE was consumed during the conversion process (46.21%) and delivery of pellets to end users (40.69%),during which electricity and diesel are the two major forms of NE used,respectively.Sensitivity analysis showed that the distance over which the pellets are transported affects the cost of NE significantly.Therefore the location of the terminal market and the site where wood resources are available are crucial to saving diesel.

  3. Utilization of contribution margin in the costing system in production of components for wood working machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Potkány

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose optimization of costing method for planning a production-sales programme of the chosen engineering enterprise dealing with the production of components for wood working machines. This engineering company uses the calculation pattern methodology in the comprehensive cost accounting system. All costs components are absorbed by individual outputs in this cost calculation. The results of this calculation are not available for decision-making tasks. In order to solve the decision tasks relating to output assortment optimization, it is necessary to show separately variable costs influenced by changes in production volume and fixed costs not influenced by changes in production volume. For these reasons we propose a specific application of retrograde costing as a necessary condition for effective system of decision-making on the basis of contribution margin calculation. The contribution margin/standard hour is the criteria for the calculation in a critical place of production and this is very important information for developing an optimal production-sales programme.

  4. Commercialization and marketing of non-wood forest products in Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of return to nature and its original values is increasingly common worldwide in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. In this context, it is particularly important to pay attention to organic products, as well as the increased demand for healthy food. In these circumstances non-wood forest products (NWFPs emerge as forestry products that meet the criteria of organic farming and as such are placed on the market. The aim of this research was to acquire knowledge about the behavior of the marketing mix elements of NWFPs in Central Serbia in the period from 2007 to 2011. The purpose of this paper was to point to the opportunities for the development of enterprises, and the overall potential of Serbia for the development of companies engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs. The research object were the quantities of products purchased and placed on both domestic and foreign markets, the types of promotional activities, the prices of final products and distribution of the products among the enterprises engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs in Central Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji

  5. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  6. Productivity and Cost of Integrated Harvesting of Wood Chips and Sawlogs in Stand Conversion Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Harrill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the operational performance and cost of an integrated harvesting system that harvested sawlogs and biomass (i.e., energy wood chips in stand conversion clearcut operations. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees were processed into sawlogs while whole trees of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus, and sub-merchantable materials (small-diameter trees, tops and limbs were fed directly into a chipper to produce biomass for energy production. A standard time study method was used to determine productivity and costs. Over 26 working days, the integrated system produced 1,316 bone-dry metric tonnes (BDTs of sawlogs, and 5,415.89 BDT of chips, with an average moisture content of 43.2%. Using the joint products allocation costing method, the costs of the integrated system were $29.87/BDT for biomass and $4.26/BDT for sawlogs. Chipping utilization was as low as 41%, directly affecting production and cost of chipping operation. Single-lane, dirt, spur roads were the most costly road type to transport whole trees to a centralized processing site: transportation costs for biomass and sawlogs were increased by $0.08/BDT and $0.02/BDT, respectively, for every 50 meter increase in traveling distance. Diesel fuel price could raise total system cost for each product by $0.78/BDT and $0.08/BDT for each $0.10/liter increase.

  7. 木材加工与人造板行业产品种类分布概况%Species Distribution Situation of Products of Wood Processing and Wood-based Panels Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑芹; 李光哲

    2012-01-01

      The collected information on the enterprises of wood processing and wood-based panels industry was classified and summaried, analyzed the industry status quo, finally raized some suggestions on the industry development.%  通过对收集到的木材加工与人造板行业的企业信息进行分类汇总,分析了其行业现状,并对行业发展方向提出建议

  8. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Yan; Hooda, Usha; Banerjee, Sujit [and others

    1998-03-01

    Green pine blocks (2x1x 1) were dried to different moisture levels at 120 degrees C. They were immersed in D{sub 2}O (greater than 99% isotopic Content) for different periods at room temperature, and were then cut in halves. One piece from each set was then wrapped in plastic, and microwaved at 110 W, for 30 minutes, with the field being cycled to keep the wood surface at 90-100 degrees C. Fibers taken from just inside the wet surface from five regions along the length of the piece were then analysed by mass spectrometry with a direct insertion probe. The m/e profiles of the three isotopic forms of water, namely H{sub 2}O, HOD, and D{sub 2}O, remained unchanged as the wood was heated inside the spectrometer, indicating that they were bound equally strongly to the wood. The water released from the green wood had the same isotopic composition regardless of whether or not the wood was microwaved (Table 1), indicating that the exchangeable protons in wood were not affected by microwaving. However, as the wood progressively dried, the water released from the microwaved wood was of lower isotopic content, which means that microwaving increases access of the exchangeable protons in wood tissue to water. The only exchangeable protons in dried wood are those sited on hydroxyl groups, and the difference in isotopic exchange is the greatest for dried wood. This must mean that as wood dries, internal hydrogen bonding restricts access of D{sub 2}O to the hydroxyl protons. Presumably the energy transferred to water upon microwaving is sufficient to at least partially overcome this barrier. The effect is akin to the hysteresis that occurs for moisture sorption to green and dried wood. Similar isotope exchange work with D{sub 2}O has been previously conducted to determine the accessibility of cellulose to water.

  9. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  10. Wood production response to climate change will depend critically on forest composition and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, David A; Flores, Olivier; Holdaway, Robert; Jucker, Tommaso; Lines, Emily R; Vanderwel, Mark C

    2014-12-01

    Established forests currently function as a major carbon sink, sequestering as woody biomass about 26% of global fossil fuel emissions. Whether forests continue to act as a global sink will depend on many factors, including the response of aboveground wood production (AWP; MgC ha(-1 ) yr(-1) ) to climate change. Here, we explore how AWP in New Zealand's natural forests is likely to change. We start by statistically modelling the present-day growth of 97 199 individual trees within 1070 permanently marked inventory plots as a function of tree size, competitive neighbourhood and climate. We then use these growth models to identify the factors that most influence present-day AWP and to predict responses to medium-term climate change under different assumptions. We find that if the composition and structure of New Zealand's forests were to remain unchanged over the next 30 years, then AWP would increase by 6-23%, primarily as a result of physiological responses to warmer temperatures (with no appreciable effect of changing rainfall). However, if warmth-requiring trees were able to migrate into currently cooler areas and if denser canopies were able to form, then a different AWP response is likely: forests growing in the cool mountain environments would show a 30% increase in AWP, while those in the lowland would hardly respond (on average, -3% when mean annual temperature exceeds 8.0 °C). We conclude that response of wood production to anthropogenic climate change is not only dependent on the physiological responses of individual trees, but is highly contingent on whether forests adjust in composition and structure.

  11. Classifying FM Value Positioning by Using a Product-Process Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katchamart, Akarapong

    Purpose and Background: Facilities management value position is conceptualized as the relative optimal point of value delivering of facilities management (FM). This paper argues that the degree of value delivering is based on the degree of facilities product customization and complexity comparing...... with the type of facilities processes between FM organizations with their clients. Approach (Theory/Methodology): The paper develops the facilities product - process matrix to allow comparisons of different facilities products with facilities processes and illustrate its degree of value delivering. The building......, characterized by levels of information, knowledge and innovation sharing, and mutual involvement, defines four facilities process types. Positions on the matrix capture the product-process interrelationships in facilities management. Practical Implications: The paper presents propositions of relating...

  12. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. INFLUENCE OF OSCILLATORY IMPACT ON MOVEMENT IN LIQUID AND GRINDING OF WOOD PULP USED FOR PACKAGING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Karpunin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates an influence of oscillatory impacts on wood pulp grinding which is used for packaging production.It has been established that plate oscillatory impact promotes better quality of the obtained paper sheet made of grind plant fiber.

  14. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  15. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DENSITY AND CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON PULPING YIELD AND PRODUCT QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colodette, J.L.; Mokfienski, A.; Gomide,J.L.; Oliveira, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions of ten Eucalyptus sp wood samples and verify the impact of this set of parameters and their combination on the Kraft pulping process yield and on bleached pulp quality. Ten eucalypt woods of different species, with basic densities varying from 365 to 544 kg/m3 and total wood carbohydrate contents varying from 70.0 to 74.5%, were transformed into kraft pulp of kappa number 17-18and bleached to 90% ISO brightness by the sequenceOD (PO)D. Wood basic density showed strongercorrelations with fiber dimensions, pulping yield and pulp quality than did chemical composition. Lighter woods resulted in higher yields. However, wood specific consumption was lower for denser woods,even though these demanded more drastic pulping conditions to achieve a given kappa number. The pulp quality results suggest that lower density woods should be directed towards fabrication of refined paper (printing and writing grades) while the denser woods be directed to the sanitary papers segment (tissue grades).

  16. Environmentally adapted energy production and working environment. Manufacture of wood pellets; Miljoeanpassad energiproduktion och arbetsmiljoe. Tillverkning av traepellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez de Davila, Eliana

    2002-04-01

    The working environment at three wood pellet production plants was studied. Measurements were made of dust, microorganisms (bacteria and molds) and terpenes. Both stationary and personal sampling equipment were used. Dust sources and dust diffusion were mapped. Work in the raw material storage rooms and at the semi-automatic sack-filling stations can give high exposure to wood dusts (max. 4.7 mg/m{sup 3}). These high levels might cause irritations in the respiratory tract. Relatively high levels of terpenes were detected in the plant that did not dry wood shavings or sawdust. Pressing of non-dried shavings probably leads to emission of terpenes and other gaseous substances in the plant. Recommendations for improvements of the working conditions are given in the report.

  17. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  18. Emission of reactive compounds and secondary products from wood-based furniture coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, T.; Schwarz, A.; Fuhrmann, F.

    Emissions of organic fragmentation products, so-called "secondary emission products" and reactive species from wood-based furniture coatings have been studied in 1 m 3 test chambers. the climatic conditions were representative of indoor environments. Relevant compounds and compound groups were the wetting agent 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-dicyne-4,7-diol (T4MDD), the plasticiser di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP), aliphatic aldehydes, monoterpenes, photoinitiator fragments, acrylic monomers/reactive solvents and diisocyanate monomers. Such substances may affect human health in several ways. Aliphatic aldehydes and some photoinitiator fragments are of strong odour, while acrylates and diisocyanates cause irritation of skin, eyes and upper airways. Terpenes and reactive solvents like styrene undergo indoor chemistry in the presence of ozone, nitrogen oxides or hydroxy radicals. Secondary emission products and reactive species can achieve significant indoor concentrations. On the other hand, it has been reported that even small quantities can cause health effects. In the cases of indoor studies with special regard to emissions from furniture, chemical analysis should always include these compounds.

  19. Production and regulation of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes of Poria-like wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsovský, M; Popelárová, P; Baldrian, P

    2009-01-01

    The wood-decomposing fungal species Antrodia macra, A. pulvinascens, Ceriporiopsis aneirina, C. resinascens and Dichomitus albidofuscus were determined for production of laccase (LAC), Mn peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), endo-l,4-P-beta-glucanase, endo-l,4-beta-xylanase, cellobiohydrolase, 1,4-beta-glucosidase and 1,4-beta-xylosidase. The results confirmed the brown-rot mode of Antrodia spp. which did not produce the activity of LAC and MnP. The remaining species performed detectable activity of both enzymes while no strain produced LiP. Significant inhibition of LAC production by high nitrogen was found in all white-rot species while only MnP of D. albidofuscus was regulated in the same way. The endoglucanase and endoxylanase activities of white-rotting species were inhibited by glucose in the medium while those of Antrodia spp. were not influenced by glucose concentration. The regulation of enzyme activity and bio-mass production can vary even within a single fungal genus.

  20. The Certification Labels of Alcoholic Drinks Products will Be Classified into Three Kinds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Commerce and the State Certification and Supervision Commission of China have recently officially promulgated a department regulatory document Implementing Regulation for Food Quality Certification - Alcoholic Drinks, which is the first one using the way of certification to demonstrate the respective quality of the alcoholic drinks products and is another one that is co-promulgated by the Ministry of Commerce and the State Certification and Supervision Commission of China.

  1. Classifying Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the coexistence of two systems for classifying organisms and species: a dominant genetic system and an older naturalist system. The former classifies species and traces their evolution on the basis of genetic characteristics, while the latter employs physiological characteris......This paper describes the coexistence of two systems for classifying organisms and species: a dominant genetic system and an older naturalist system. The former classifies species and traces their evolution on the basis of genetic characteristics, while the latter employs physiological...... and integration possible, the field of molecular biology seems to be overwhelmingly homogeneous, and in need of heterogeneity and conflict to add drive and momentum to the work being carried out. The paper is based on observations of daily life in a molecular microbiology laboratory at the Technical University...

  2. Soil quality, crop productivity and soil organic matter (SOM) priming in biochar and wood ash amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Eleanor Swain; Chadwick, David; Hill, Paul; Jones, Davey

    2016-04-01

    The application of energy production by-products as soil amendments to agricultural land is rapidly growing in popularity, however the increasing body of literature on primarily biochar but also wood ash have yielded contrary evidence of the range of these soil amendments function sensitivity in soil. This study aims to assess the efficacy of two by-products; biochar and wood ash to provide nutrients to grassland as well as the potential to improve overall soil quality. The study of soil amendments at field scale are scarce, and the agronomic benefits of biochar and wood ash in temperate soils remain unclear. We used replicated field plots with three soil treatments (biochar, wood ash and control) to measure the soil and crop properties over twelve months, including PLFA analysis to quantify the total soil microbial biomass and community structure. After a soil residency of one year, there were no significant differences in soil EC, total N, dissolved organic N (DON), dissolved organic C (DOC), NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations, between biochar amended, wood ash amended and un-amended soil. In contrast, the application of biochar had a significant effect on soil moisture, pH, PO4-P concentrations, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total organic carbon (TOC), whilst the wood ash amendment resulted in an increase in soil pH only. There were no significant treatment effects on the growth performance or nutrient uptake of the grass. In a parallel laboratory incubation study, the effects of biochar and wood ash on soil C priming was explored, in which soil with 14C-labelled native SOC was amended with either biochar or wood ash at the same rate as the field trial. The rates of 14CO2 (primed C) production was measured with a liquid scintillation counter over a 50 day period. The 14CO2 that evolved during decomposition likely originated from conversions in the (microbial) biomass. The results indicated that biochar application did not prime for the loss of native SOC (i.e. there

  3. List of currently classified documents relative to Hanford Production Facilities Operations originated on the Hanford Site between 1961 and 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has declared that all Hanford plutonium production- and operations-related information generated between 1944 and 1972 is declassified. Any documents found and deemed useful for meeting Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) objectives may be declassified with or without deletions in accordance with DOE guidance by Authorized Derivative Declassifiers. The September 1992, letter report, Declassifications Requested by the Technical Steering Panel of Hanford Documents Produced 1944--1960, (PNWD-2024 HEDR UC-707), provides an important milestone toward achieving a complete listing of documents that may be useful to the HEDR Project. The attached listing of approximately 7,000 currently classified Hanford-originated documents relative to Hanford Production Facilities Operations between 1961 and 1972 fulfills TSP Directive 89-3. This list does not include such titles as the Irradiation Processing Department, Chemical Processing Department, and Hanford Laboratory Operations monthly reports generated after 1960 which have been previously declassified with minor deletions and made publicly available. Also Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) Document Control determined that no KEH documents generated between January 1, 1961 and December 31, 1972 are currently classified. Titles which address work for others have not been included because Hanford Site contractors currently having custodial responsibility for these documents do not have the authority to determine whether other than their own staff have on file an appropriate need-to-know. Furthermore, these documents do not normally contain information relative to Hanford Site operations.

  4. Isolation and characterization of lignin from the oak wood bioethanol production residue for adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Cho, Eun Jin; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Lignin was isolated from the residue of bioethanol production with oak wood via alkaline and catalyzed organosolv treatments at ambient temperature to improve the purity of lignin for the materials application. The isolated lignins were analyzed for their chemical composition by nitrobenzene oxidation method and their functionality was characterized via wet chemistry method, element analysis, (1)H NMR, GPC and FTIR-ATR. The isolated lignin by acid catalyzed organosolv treatment (Acid-OSL) contained a higher lignin content, aromatic proton, phenolic hydroxyl group and a lower nitrogen content that is more reactive towards chemical modification. The lignin-based adhesives were prepared and the bond strength was measured to evaluate the enhanced reactivity of lignin by the isolation. Two steps of phenolation and methylolation were applied for the modification of the isolated lignins and their tensile strengths were evaluated for the use as an adhesive. The acid catalyzed organosolv lignin-based adhesives had comparable bond strength to phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. The analysis of lignin-based adhesives by FTIR-ATR and TGA showed structural similarity to phenol adhesive. The results demonstrate that the reactivity of lignin was enhanced by isolation from hardwood bioethanol production residues at ambient temperature and it could be used in a value-added application to produce lignin-based adhesives.

  5. Postmortem endogenous ethanol production and diffusion from the lung due to aspiration of wood chip dust in the work place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumiya, Junichi; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-07-01

    We report an autopsy case of postmortem ethanol diffusion into the cardiac blood after aspiration of wood chips, although antemortem ethanol consumption was not evident. A man in his twenties, who was loading a truck with small wood chips in a hot, humid storehouse, was accidentally buried in a heap of chips. At the time the body was discovered, 20 h after the accident, rectal temperature was 36°C. Autopsy showed the cause of death to be asphyxia due to obstruction of the airway by aspiration of wood chips. The ethanol and n-propanol levels were significantly higher in the lungs (left, 0.603 and 0.009 mg/g; right, 0.571 and 0.006 mg/g) than in other tissues. A significant difference in ethanol concentration was observed between the left cardiac blood (0.243 mg/g) and the right femoral blood (0.042 mg/g). Low levels of ethanol and n-propanol were detected in the stomach contents (0.105 and 0.001 mg/g, respectively). In order to determine whether aspiration of wood chips affects postmortem ethanol production in the lung, we measured the ethanol and n-propanol levels of homogenized rabbit lung tissue incubated with autoclaved or non-autoclaved wood chips. Levels of ethanol and n-propanol were significantly higher in the homogenates incubated with non-autoclaved chips for 24h. The results of this animal experiment suggested that the ethanol detected in the lung was produced by putrefactive bacteria within the wood chips. After death, the ethanol produced endogenously in the lung appears to have diffused and affected the ethanol concentration of the left cardiac blood.

  6. Durability of the reaction to fire performance for fire retardant treated (FRT wood products in exterior applications – a ten years report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several long term experimental studies on the maintained reaction to fire performance of fire retardant treated (FRT wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated ageing according to different procedures and natural weathering up to ten years. Main conclusions are: The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood products used commercially. The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural ageing if the retention levels are high enough, but several FRT wood products loose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering. Paint systems contribute considerably to maintain of the fire performance at exterior application and are usually needed to maintain the fire performance after weathering.

  7. Production Process of Wood-based Panel Door Leaves Filled with Honeycomb Paper%蜂窝纸填充人造板门扇生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董明光; 李军伟

    2013-01-01

      分析了蜂窝纸填充人造板门扇的结构及用料,结合昆明红塔木业的蜂窝纸填充人造板门扇生产实际,着重阐述了人造板门扇的生产工艺,探讨了门扇生产中存在的质量问题及其解决措施。%  The structure and materials of wood-based panel door leaves filled with honeycomb paper are analyzed. Based on the actual production of wood-based panel door leaves filled with honeycomb paper of Kunming Hongta Wood Industry, focus is placed on the production process of wood-based panel door leaves and the quality problems existing in the production of wood-based panel door leaves and relevant solutions to such problems are discussed.

  8. Feedbacks between earlywood anatomy and non-structural carbohydrates affect spring phenology and wood production in ring-porous oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Lis, Gonzalo; García-González, Ignacio; Rozas, Vicente; Olano, José Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play a central role in the construction and maintenance of a tree's vascular system, but feedbacks between the NSC status of trees and wood formation are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate multiple dependencies among wood anatomy, winter NSC, and phenology for coexisting temperate (Quercus robur) and sub-Mediterranean (Q. pyrenaica) oaks along a water-availability gradient in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Sapwood NSC concentrations were quantified at three sites in December 2012 (N = 240). Leaf phenology and wood anatomy were surveyed in 2013. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the interplay among hydraulic diameter (Dh), winter NSC, budburst date, and earlywood vessel production (EVP), while the effect of Dh and EVP on latewood width was assessed by using a mixed-effects model. NSC and wood production increased under drier conditions for both species. Q. robur showed a narrower Dh and lower soluble sugar (SS) concentration (3.88-5.08 % dry matter) than Q. pyrenaica (4.06-5.57 % dry matter), but Q. robur exhibited larger EVP and wider latewood (1403 µm) than Q. pyrenaica (667 µm). Stem diameter and Dh had a positive effect on SS concentrations, which were related to an earlier leaf flushing in both species. Sapwood sugar content appeared to limit EVP exclusively in Q. pyrenaica. In turn, Dh and EVP were found to be key predictors of latewood growth. Our results confirm that sapwood SS concentrations are involved in modulating growth resumption and xylem production in spring. Q. pyrenaica exhibited a tighter control of carbohydrate allocation to wood formation than Q. robur, which would play a role in protecting against environmental stress in the sub-Mediterranean area.

  9. Consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on wood and forests: An application of the Global Forest Products Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, J.; Raunikar, R.; Zhu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was applied to project the consequences for the global forest sector of doubling the rate of growth of bioenergy demand relative to a base scenario, other drivers being maintained constant. The results showed that this would lead to the convergence of the price of fuelwood and industrial roundwood, raising the price of industrial roundwood by nearly 30% in 2030. The price of sawnwood and panels would be 15% higher. The price of paper would be 3% higher. Concurrently, the demand for all manufactured wood products would be lower in all countries, but the production would rise in countries with competitive advantage. The global value added in wood processing industries would be 1% lower in 2030. The forest stock would be 2% lower for the world and 4% lower for Asia. These effects varied substantially by country. ?? 2011 Department of Forest Economics, SLU Ume??, Sweden.

  10. Sustainability Impact Assessment on the Production and Use of Different Wood and Fossil Fuels Employed for Energy Production in North Karelia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Pekkanen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization rate of woody biomass in eastern Finland is high and expected to increase further in the near future as set out in several regional, national and European policies and strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability impacts of changes in fuel consumption patterns. We investigated fossil and woody biomass-based energy production chains in the region of North Karelia, focusing on some economic, environmental and social indicators. Indicators were selected based on stakeholder preferences and evaluated using the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA. The analysis was based on representative values from National Forest Inventory data, scientific publications, national and regional statistics, databases, published policy targets and expert opinion. From the results it became evident that shifting from fossil to wood-based energy production implies some trade-offs. Replacing oil with woody biomass in energy production would increase the local value added remaining in the region, create employment opportunities and would reduce total GHG emissions. However, firewood, wood chips from small-diameter trees from early thinning and wood pellets have high production costs. Moreover, large greenhouse gas emission resulted from wood pellet production. The case study generated valuable reference data for future sustainability assessments and demonstrated the usefulness of ToSIA as a tool presenting existing knowledge on sustainability impacts of alternative energy supply chains to inform decision making.

  11. Using remote sensing products to classify landscape. A multi-spatial resolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llamas, Paula; Calvo, Leonor; Álvarez-Martínez, José Manuel; Suárez-Seoane, Susana

    2016-08-01

    The European Landscape Convention encourages the inventory and characterization of landscapes for environmental management and planning actions. Among the range of data sources available for landscape classification, remote sensing has substantial applicability, although difficulties might arise when available data are not at the spatial resolution of operational interest. We evaluated the applicability of two remote sensing products informing on land cover (the categorical CORINE map at 30 m resolution and the continuous NDVI spectral index at 1 km resolution) in landscape classification across a range of spatial resolutions (30 m, 90 m, 180 m, 1 km), using the Cantabrian Mountains (NW Spain) as study case. Separate landscape classifications (using topography, urban influence and land cover as inputs) were accomplished, one per each land cover dataset and spatial resolution. Classification accuracy was estimated through confusion matrixes and uncertainty in terms of both membership probability and confusion indices. Regarding landscape classifications based on CORINE, both typology and number of landscape classes varied across spatial resolutions. Classification accuracy increased from 30 m (the original resolution of CORINE) to 90m, decreasing towards coarser resolutions. Uncertainty followed the opposite pattern. In the case of landscape classifications based on NDVI, the identified landscape patterns were geographically structured and showed little sensitivity to changes across spatial resolutions. Only the change from 1 km (the original resolution of NDVI) to 180 m improved classification accuracy. The value of confusion indices increased with resolution. We highlight the need for greater effort in selecting data sources at the suitable spatial resolution, matching regional peculiarities and minimizing error and uncertainty.

  12. Implications of Expanding Bioenergy Production from Wood in British Columbia: An Application of a Regional Wood Fibre Allocation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stennes, B.; Niquidet, K.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Energy has been produced from woody biomass in British Columbia for many decades, primarily within the pulp and paper sector, using residual streams from timber processing to create heat and electricity for on-site use. More recently, there has been some stand-alone electricity production and an inc

  13. Commercialization of non-wood forest products on the territory of AP Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous utilization of natural resources in forestry as an economic activity, timber exploitation was always the dominant part, and the utilization of other forest products was partly neglected. Nowadays, non-wood forest products (NWFPs occupy an increasingly significant position in the forestry sector in numerous countries, so that the revenue from their utilization approaches the returns realized by the classical production of timber products. The research performed in Vojvodina, on the sample of six enterprises dealing with NWFP purchase, processing and sale was aimed at the analysis of their market activities to create the image of the market of this group of products. After the study data were analyzed by dynamic statistical methods, the changes in the activities on purchase, the domestic sales and export sales between 2004 and 2010 were presented and future projects were visualized. The research in the form of questionnaire included the quantities of purchased raw materials, the scope of production and sales, both in the domestic, and in foreign markets, as well as the prices of final products. Some species of medicinal plants were purchased on the territories of Croatia and Macedonia, and the purchasing network in the domestic market was remarkably wide and it included predominantly: Niš, Svrljig, Čoka, Apatin, Pančevo, Ruma, Boljevac, Kanjiža, etc. The most significant growth was realised in the purchase of a mixture of medicinal plants. Also significant are the purchased quantities of mint, which on average increased by 7.9 t and rose hip by 5.5 t per year. During the study period, the domestic sale of all species of herbal teas and medicinal plants increased significantly, while spices and honey were subject to a fluctuation in sales quantity. Average algebraic deviation of the original final NWFP sale value from the arithmetic mean accounts for 3.48%. With the significance level of 95%, it is estimated that the sale in

  14. COLOR STABILITY FOR WOOD PRODUCTS DURING USE: EFFECTS OF INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Blanchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress having been achieved in recent years to improve wood’s durability, additional developments are still necessary to increase its color stability. ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles were compared to UV absorbers (Tinuvin 477 DW, 292 and 5151 commonly used to stabilize the wood products color. Nanoparticles, with concentrations in the range 1 to 2 wt%, and UV absorbers, using concentrations advised by the manufacturer, were dispersed in a waterborne UV curable polyurethane/polyacrylate resin. Dispersions were carried out with a high speed mixer at 2,500 RPM with micro glass beads or not, depending on the form of the nanoparticles. Nanocomposite coatings were aged with a weather-o-meter (CI 3000+ - Atlas according ASTM G155. Color variations were measured with a colorimeter (BYK Gardner – Color Guide 45/0 working with the CIE L*a*b* system. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of inorganic UV absorbers on the stabilization of color under indoor conditions. Results showed that nanoparticles (ZnO, CeO2 absorbed UV light frequencies in a manner similar to common organic molecules. Their efficiency was better at medium durations of light exposure, for which they could achieve the action of organic absorbers. Finally, the simultaneous use of both absorbers seems to create a protective synergy when degradation is due to UV energy alone.

  15. NOISE REDUCTION IN CIRCULAR WOODWORKING MACHINES IN THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Asminin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Woodworking machinery is extensively used in the production of wood components for the construction of objects for various purpose. Operation of woodworking machinery is accompanied by high noise emissions. Circular woodworking machines are the most problematic in terms of their noise characteristics, and also most widespread. The dominating noise source is a saw disk.Results. Vibration-damping structure is suggested in the form of seals with dry friction placed be-tween clamping flanges and a saw disk. Vibration-damping properties of seals are experimentally examined using H. Oberst’s method. The analysis amounted to establishing how the value of the total loss coefficient is affected by the following factors: seal foundation type, frequency of excitation, particles size (dispersion, temperature factor. Based on the obtained results, an experimental study of acoustic efficiency of vibration-damping seals with dry friction was performed, varying being such parameters as the particles size (dispersion and seal foundation type.Conclusions. The construction of vibration-damping seals with dry friction with the appropriate particle dispersion and foundation material is based on the results of the experimental study. The suggested construction has considerable advantages over polymeric seals.

  16. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one-tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 2.16 MM Scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per Scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $26,680,000 - September 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood prices represent the cost of unchipped wood delivered to the plant site. For utility financing, the gas production costs are, respectively, $14.34, $14.83, $15.86, and $17.84 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $18.76, $19.26, $20.28, and $22.31 per MM Btu for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for char is 57.4%.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of production and characterization of wood vinegar from rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraivan Ratanapisit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a slow pyrolysis of rubberwood in a furnace at an atmospheric pressure to produce pyroligneous liquid or wood vinegar. Pyroligneous liquids produced were separated into two fractions based on temperatures in a furnace. The yields of wood vinegar were quantified. Also pH, SG and boiling ranges were determined. The optimum condition of pyrolysis was obtained at the heating rate of 1.4oC/min to the final temperature at 550oC/min with a yield of 27.45%. The pH and specific gravity were attained at about 2.9-3.83 and 1.009-1.027, respectively, depend on process conditions. Also the boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar approximately were 96-108oC based on the ASTM-D86 method. However, no significantlychanges were seen in the pH, specific gravity and boiling ranges of rubberwood vinegar regarding to hearting rates. For characterization, wood vinegar was fractionated by a distillation into three fractions. Both crude and distilled wood vinegars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography. Results showed that the wood vinegar is mainly composed of acetic acid. Also the rubberwood pyrolysis yields high methanol content compared to other woods.

  18. Optimum stand density of Leucaena leucocephala for wood production in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, J.V.N.S.; Korwar, G.R.; Rao, K.V.; Mandal, U.K.; Rao, G.R.; Srinivas, I.; Venkateswarlu, B. [Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Hyderabad-500059 (India); Rao, S.N. [Indian Tobacco Company (ITC), Paper Boards and Specialty Papers Division (PSPD), Secunderabad-500003 (India); Kulkarni, H.D. [Indian Tobacco Company (ITC), Paper Boards and Specialty Papers Division (PSPD), Sarapaka, Khammam (Dt), Andhra Pradesh-507 201 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Leucaena leucocephala is widely used as raw material for the manufacture of paper and packaging material and in biomass based power plants in the state of Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. Experiments were conducted to study the affect of tree density on the growth, biomass partitioning and wood productivity. Six treatments 1 x 1 m, 1.3 x 1.3 m, 3 x 0.75 m, 3 x 1 m, 5 x 0.8 m and 3 x 2 m corresponding to a tree density of 10,000, 6666, 4444, 3333, 2500 and 1666 were evaluated with leucaena variety K636. At 51 months after planting, spacings significantly influenced tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), number of branches and biomass partitioning. Wider tree rows resulted in greater tree height and diameter growth resulting in higher per plant productivity. At harvest, 70% of trees in 3 x 2 m attained a diameter of more than 7.5 cm, while 35% of the trees attained the same DBH in 1 x 1 m spacing. Increased spacing levels decreased the relative amount of growth allocated to the bole of the tree. Marketable biomass yield was highest with 1 x 1 m spacing. Spacing of 3 x 0.75 m produced marketable biomass comparable to that of 1 x 1 m and greater proportion of stems with more than 5 cm diameter. Leucaena can be grown at 3 x 0.75 m spacing either for pulpwood or fuelwood depending on the prevailing market prices and demand. (author)

  19. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix B: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle. PNL obtained this information from laboratory and process development unit testing. The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to methanol. Plant production is 997 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $120,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are respectively $.45, $.48, $.55, and $.69 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $.59, $.62, $.69, and $.83 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. Both calculation methods include a return on equity capital in the costs. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.9%.

  20. Replicated throughfall exclusion experiment in an Indonesian perhumid rainforest: wood production, litter fall and fine root growth under simulated drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Gerald; Schuldt, Bernhard; Hertel, Dietrich; Horna, Viviana; Coners, Heinz; Barus, Henry; Leuschner, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Climate change scenarios predict increases in the frequency and duration of ENSO-related droughts for parts of South-East Asia until the end of this century exposing the remaining rainforests to increasing drought risk. A pan-tropical review of recorded drought-related tree mortalities in more than 100 monitoring plots before, during and after drought events suggested a higher drought-vulnerability of trees in South-East Asian than in Amazonian forests. Here, we present the results of a replicated (n = 3 plots) throughfall exclusion experiment in a perhumid tropical rainforest in Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this first large-scale roof experiment outside semihumid eastern Amazonia, 60% of the throughfall was displaced during the first 8 months and 80% during the subsequent 17 months, exposing the forest to severe soil desiccation for about 17 months. In the experiment's second year, wood production decreased on average by 40% with largely different responses of the tree families (ranging from -100 to +100% change). Most sensitive were trees with high radial growth rates under moist conditions. In contrast, tree height was only a secondary factor and wood specific gravity had no influence on growth sensitivity. Fine root biomass was reduced by 35% after 25 months of soil desiccation while fine root necromass increased by 250% indicating elevated fine root mortality. Cumulative aboveground litter production was not significantly reduced in this period. The trees from this Indonesian perhumid rainforest revealed similar responses of wood and litter production and root dynamics as those in two semihumid Amazonian forests subjected to experimental drought. We conclude that trees from paleo- or neotropical forests growing in semihumid or perhumid climates may not differ systematically in their growth sensitivity and vitality under sublethal drought stress. Drought vulnerability may depend more on stem cambial activity in moist periods than on tree height or wood

  1. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  2. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DENSITY AND CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON PULPING YIELD AND PRODUCT QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colodette,J.L.; Mokfienski; Gomide; J.L.; Oliveiral; R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate basicdensity, chemical composition and fiber dimensionsof ten Eucalyptus sp wood samples and verify theimpact of this set of parameters and theii"combination on the Kraft pulping process yield andon bleached pulp quality. Ten eucalypt woods ofdifferent species, with basic densities varying from365 to 544 kg/m3 and total wood carbohydratecontents varying from 70.0 to 74.5% , weretransformed into kraft pulp of kappa number 17-18and bleached to 90% ISO brightness by the sequenceOD (PO)D. Wood basic density showed strongercorrelations with fiber dimensions, pulping yield andpulp quality than did chemical composition. Lighterwoods resulted in higher yields. However, woodspecific consumption was lower for denser woods,even though these demanded more drastic pulpingconditions to achieve a given kappa number. Thepulp quality results suggest that lower density woodsshould be directed towards fabrication of refinedpaper (printing and writing grades) while the denserwoods be directed to the sanitary papers segment(tissue grades).

  3. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

  4. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP, Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-coppice, defined as "transitory silvicultural system" as a common case study for the Pre-alps region. Using data collected with forest plans during the period 1983 - 2005, aboveground and belowground forest carbon stock and sink of a specific forest compartment were estimated by the Carbon Stock Method proposed by the IPCC Guidelines. In order to apply this approach 41 trees were cut and a species-specific allometric equation was developed. Considering the aboveground tree biomass, the carbon sink amounts to 1.99 and 1.84 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for the period 1983 - 1994 and 1994 - 2005 respectively. Adding the belowground tree biomass, the estimated sink amounts to 2.59 and 2.39 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for each period. Taking the harvested wood products (firewood, the total carbon sequestration during the second period is 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1. The case study highlights the possible rules for the different management strategies. In effect, the utilisation of the entire increase in aboveground biomass as firewood gives an energy substitution effect but, according to the Marrakesh Accords, it cannot be accounted for the KP. On the other hand, an accumulation strategy gives the maximum possible carbon absorption and retention.

  5. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 100 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $34,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are, respectively, $1.20, $1.23, $1.30, and $1.44 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $1.60, $1.63, $1.70, and $1.84 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method include a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.0%.

  6. Eucalyptus urophylla stands wood utilization at two different ages for production of particleboard panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the quality of wood particle panels manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12 years. To that end, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB and cement-bonded panels were produced in a laboratory and then analyzed for the following physical and mechanical properties: water absorption and thickness swell 2 and 24 hours after immersion, internal bond, compression parallel, as well as MOE and MOR from static bending. The obtained results demonstrate that tree age had little influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard, OSB and cement-bonded panels. After evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of these three panel types, all manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12, we can argue that our results are satisfactory in comparison to existing literature results.

  7. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H2SO4) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light.

  8. Drought effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground carbon cycling in an Amazon forest: results of a throughfall reduction experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Davidson, Eric A; Trumbore, Susan E; Ray, David; Camargo, Plínio

    2008-05-27

    The Amazon Basin experiences severe droughts that may become more common in the future. Little is known of the effects of such droughts on Amazon forest productivity and carbon allocation. We tested the prediction that severe drought decreases litterfall and wood production but potentially has multiple cancelling effects on belowground production within a 7-year partial throughfall exclusion experiment. We simulated an approximately 35-41% reduction in effective rainfall from 2000 through 2004 in a 1ha plot and compared forest response with a similar control plot. Wood production was the most sensitive component of above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) to drought, declining by 13% the first year and up to 62% thereafter. Litterfall declined only in the third year of drought, with a maximum difference of 23% below the control plot. Soil CO2 efflux and its 14C signature showed no significant treatment response, suggesting similar amounts and sources of belowground production. ANPP was similar between plots in 2000 and declined to a low of 41% below the control plot during the subsequent treatment years, rebounding to only a 10% difference during the first post-treatment year. Live aboveground carbon declined by 32.5Mgha-1 through the effects of drought on ANPP and tree mortality. Results of this unreplicated, long-term, large-scale ecosystem manipulation experiment demonstrate that multi-year severe drought can substantially reduce Amazon forest carbon stocks.

  9. VENEER AND PLYWOOD PRODUCTION OF GUAPURUVU WOOD (Schizolobium parayba Blake. COMING FROM A MIXED PLANTATION OF BRAZILIAN TREE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bortoletto Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the guapuruvu wood(Schizolobium parayba, coming a mixed plantings of Brazilian native species, for veneer and plywoodproduction. The peeling yield was 61%, linking green veneer and peeling wood. The obtained veneers, afterclipped and dried, they were graded according to Brazilian Standards (NBR 9531/1986. Thefollowing grades o veneer were obtained: 2% of grade A, 24% of grade B, 48% of grade C and 26%of grade D. After, it was manufactured plywood of grade B/C/B, glued with urea-formaldehydeadhesive, and their properties of static bending (MOR and MOE and bonding line strength in shear test (dry and wet were appraised. Treatments (1, 2 and 3 varied according to the formulation of theglue (35, 50 and 65% of wheat flour in relation to the pure adhesive. The results indicated that theguapuruvu wood has potential for veneer and plywood production. The plywood showed significantdifference between treatments in the static bending (perpendicular MOR and shear (dry and wet. Theplywood presents possibility of interior and intermediate use for the formulations 1 and 2, and interioruse for the formulation 3. The plywood has potential for use in furniture, packing and box factory.

  10. Life Cycle Analysis of Carbon Flow and Carbon Footprint of Harvested Wood Products of Larix principis-rupprechtii in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Larix principis-rupprechtii is a native tree species in North China with a large distribution; and its harvested timbers can be used for producing wood products. This study focused on estimating and comparing carbon flows and carbon footprints of different harvested wood products (HWPs from Larix principis-ruppechtii based on the life cycle analysis (from seedling cultivation to HWP final disposal. Based on our interviews and surveys, the system boundary in this study was divided into three processes: the forestry process, the manufacturing process, and the use and disposal process. By tracking carbon flows of HWPs along the entire life cycle, we found that, for one forest rotation period, a total of 26.81 tC/ha sequestered carbon was transferred into these HWPs, 66.2% of which were still stored in the HWP when the rotation period had ended; however, the HWP carbon storage decreased to 0.25 tC/ha (only 0.9% left in the 100th year after forest plantation. The manufacturing process contributed more than 90% of the total HWP carbon footprint, but it was still smaller than the HWP carbon storage. In terms of the carbon storage and the carbon footprint, construction products had the largest net positive carbon balance compared to furniture and panel products. In addition, HWP are known to have a positive impact on global carbon mitigation because they can store parts of the sequestered carbon for a certain period of time and they have a substitution effect on carbon mitigation. Furthermore, there still exist great opportunities for carbon mitigation from HWPs through the use of cleaner energy and increasing the utilization efficiency of wood fuel.

  11. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 μm (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model

  12. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    Finland is enhancing its use of renewable sources in energy production. From the 1995 level, the use of renewable energy is to be increased by 50 % by 2010, and 100 % by 2025. Wood-based fuels will play a leading role in this development. The main source of wood-based fuels is processing residues from the forest industries. However, as all processing residues are already in use, an increase is possible only as far as the capacity and wood consumption of the forest industries grow. Energy policy affects the production and availability of processing residues only indirectly. Another large source of wood-based energy is forest fuels, consisting of traditional firewood and chips comminuted from low-quality biomass. It is estimated that the reserve of technically harvest-able forest biomass is 10-16 Mm' annually, when no specific cost limit is applied. This corresponds to 2-3 Mtoe or 6-9 % of the present consumption of primary energy in Finland. How much of this re-serve it will actually be possible to harvest and utilize depends on the cost competitiveness of forest chips against alternative sources of energy. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 Mm' forest chips annually by 2010. The use of wood fuels is being promoted by means of taxation, investment aid and support for chip production from young forests. Furthermore, research and development is being supported in order to create techno-economic conditions for the competitive production of forest chips. In 1999, the National Technology Agency Tekes established the five-year Wood Energy Technology Programme to stimulate the development of efficient systems for the large-scale production of forest chips. Key tar-gets are competitive costs, reliable supply and good quality chips. The two guiding principles of the programme are: (1) close cooperation between researchers and practitioners and (2) to apply research and development to the practical applications and commercialization. As of

  13. Production of wood vinegars from coconut shells and additional materials for control of termite workers, Odontotermes sp. and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunan Wititsiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shells and coir are considered as wastes of coconut based products that have not been utilized efficiently.By using these abundant bioresources, which are widely available in Thailand, as raw materials, we were able to producewood vinegars that may be alternatives to termiticides and pesticides. The wood vinegars were obtained from carbonizationprocess using a 200-liter fuel tank as charcoal brazier under temperatures of 300-400°C. In this study, termiticidal and pesticidalactivities of wood vinegars were evaluated against termite workers, Odontotermes sp., and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisiavirgata, using direct contact application. Percent mortalities in the experiments were recorded after 24 hours and correctedfor control mortality with Abbott’s formula. Wood vinegars of 850, 696, and 898 milliliters were produced from coconut shell(wood vinegar A and the mixture of coconut shell and coir (wood vinegar B and the mixture of coconut shell, coir and holybasil (wood vinegar C, respectively. Wood vinegar A exhibited high termiticidal activity against termite workers at a dilutionof 1:50, wood vinegar: sterile water (v/v. By this way, 85% (81.71% corrected mortality of termite workers were killed afterthe 24 hours of test. At a dilution of 1:10, both wood vinegar A and B had exhibited high pesticidal activities against mealybugs, 96% (95.12% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs were killed by those wood vinegars. In the weakest termiticidaland pesticidal activities, wood vinegar C was able to kill 60% (51.22% corrected mortality of termite workers at a dilution of1:50 within 24 hours. Also it killed 93% (91.89% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs with a dilution of 1:10 (v/v withinthe same amount of time. Post-hoc comparisons (Tukey test revealed that wood vinegar A possessed the most effectivetermiticidal activity against termite workers. However, a similarity in high pesticidal activity was found among three woodvinegars

  14. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9 [January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  15. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report Number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Conners, T.; Ingram, L.L.; Dalton, A.T.; Templeton, M.C.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Results from a multi-year study show that a significant part of the extensive variability observed in oriented strand board (OSB) flake dryer emissions can be traced to physiological effects, and the rest can be attributed to handling and other factors. Low-headspace treatment of lumber was scaled up to the 50 kg level. The amount of turpentine collected was of the same magnitude as that released upon drying lumber. For the process to be economical, the wood must first be brought to about 95 C with steam, and then processed with RF. Attempts to remove VOCs from OSB through low-headspace by placing a curtain over the wood failed because of leaks. A more rigid container will be required. RF-treatment does not alter the gas permeability of lumber.

  16. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The national Wood Energy Technology Programme was carried out by Tekes during the period 1999- 2003 to develop efficient technology for large- scale production of forest chips from small- sized trees and logging residues. This is the final report of the programme, and it outlines the general development of forest chip procurement and use during the programme period. In 2002, a sub-programme was established to address small-scale production and use of wood fuels. This sub-programme will continue to the end of 2004, and it is not reported here. The programme was coordinated by VTT Processes. As of January 2004, the programme consisted of 44 public research projects, 46 industrial or product development projects, and 29 demonstration projects. Altogether, 27 research organizations and 53 enterprises participated. The total cost of the programme was 42 M euro of which 13 M euro was provided by Tekes. The Ministry of Trade and Industry provided investment aid for the new technology employed in the demonstration projects. When the programme was launched at the end of the 1990s, the major barriers to the use of forest chips were high cost of production, shortage of reliable chip procurement organizations, and the unsatisfactory quality of fuel. Accordingly, the programme focused largely on these problems. In addition, upgrading of the fuel properties of bark was also studied. The production of forest chips must be adapted to the existing operating environment and infrastructure. In Finland, these are charaterized by rich bio-mass potential, a sophisticated and efficient organization for the procurement of industrial timber, a large capacity of heating and CHP plants to use wood fuels, the possibility to co-fire wood and peat, and the unreserved acceptance of society at large. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 million m3 (0.9 Mtoe) chips annually by 2010. The Wood Energy Technology Programme was an important link in the long chain of activities

  17. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This project is based on the finding that brief microwave or RF-treatment of wood under low-headspace conditions leads to the release of VOCs. On occasion the authors have found that prolonged irradiation increases turpentine yield much more than anticipated from a simple mass balance; i.e., more pinene appeared to be released than was present in the wood in the first place. If taken at face value, this suggests that brief low-headspace irradiation removes VOCs, while prolonged exposure creates it. While seemingly improbable, this could follow if dielectric heating exposed regions of wood that were otherwise inaccessible to the solvent used for extraction (unlikely), or if the irradiation induced depolymerization of terpene dimers or higher polymers. In this report the authors attempt to identify the conditions that lead to this apparent enhancement of terpene yield, by constructing relationships between yield and irradiation parameters. The tentative conclusions are that this enhancement only occurs with relatively wet heartwood, and only under prolonged irradiation. An additional conclusion is that continuing analyses of twelve trees in the MSU forest confirm that the absence of a significant seasonal influence on turpentine content. An apparatus for permeability testing has been constructed, and work is underway.

  18. A Bayesian Belief Network approach to assess the potential of non wood forest products for small scale forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacik, Harald; Huber, Patrick; Hujala, Teppo; Kurtilla, Mikko; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    It is an integral element of the European understanding of sustainable forest management to foster the design and marketing of forest products, non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and services that go beyond the production of timber. Despite the relevance of NWFPs in Europe, forest management and planning methods have been traditionally tailored towards wood and wood products, because most forest management models and silviculture techniques were developed to ensure a sustained production of timber. Although several approaches exist which explicitly consider NWFPs as management objectives in forest planning, specific models are needed for the assessment of their production potential in different environmental contexts and for different management regimes. Empirical data supporting a comprehensive assessment of the potential of NWFPs are rare, thus making development of statistical models particularly problematic. However, the complex causal relationships between the sustained production of NWFPs, the available ecological resources, as well as the organizational and the market potential of forest management regimes are well suited for knowledge-based expert models. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) are a kind of probabilistic graphical model that have become very popular to practitioners and scientists mainly due to the powerful probability theory involved, which makes BBNs suitable to deal with a wide range of environmental problems. In this contribution we present the development of a Bayesian belief network to assess the potential of NWFPs for small scale forest owners. A three stage iterative process with stakeholder and expert participation was used to develop the Bayesian Network within the frame of the StarTree Project. The group of participants varied in the stages of the modelling process. A core team, consisting of one technical expert and two domain experts was responsible for the entire modelling process as well as for the first prototype of the network

  19. Nanoscale in Wood, Nanowood and Wood-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guangjie; Lu Wenhua

    2003-01-01

    In order to introduce nano science and technology (NST) into the research field of wood science and technology, andpromote the research of wood science and wood-inorganic composites to nanoscale, some new concepts, such as the nano space inwood, nano structure units of wood and nanowood are put forward in this paper based on the layer structure of wood cell wall and thepile-up model of its main components. Furthermore, the process of preparing nanowood is discussed, and wood-inorganic nanocom-posites may be operated in three ways with wood (matrix) and inorganic filler phase in 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3 dimensions respectively. Thefollowing results are obtained: (1) The nanoscale voids in wood indicate that wood has inherent space to accommodate nanosizedmaterials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanosticks; (2) According to the size from top down, the nano structure units in woodcan be classified as: nanolayers, nano CMF (cellulose microfibril) and matrix, nano crystallite units and cellulose chain clusters, andthese can theoretically form nanowood; (3) The preparation of wood-inorganic nanocomposites can be operated on 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3dimensions.

  20. 吉林省实木产品生产中的木材损失研究%STUDY ON THE WOOD WASTE IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS IN JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成元

    2000-01-01

    The average wood utilization percent from log to solid Pr oducts in Jilin Province was 10.5%~23.4%. In the view of internal connection an d influence among log making, lumber manufacturing, drying and further processin g, the causes of the wood waste were analysed; the accomplishment of the resea rch concered wood waste and the succeeded experience of some plants were introduced; the measures for reducting the wood waste was advanced.

  1. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  2. Multi-objective optimization of an insulating product based on wood fibre material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobballah, Mohamad; Vignon, Pierre; Tran, Huyen

    2016-10-01

    This article addresses the optimization of the quality of an insulating material that is based on wood fibres. In a context where several conflicting objectives must be satisfied simultaneously in the design process, meta-heuristic approaches provide efficient methods for optimization. Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) has been chosen here to solve this complex problem in which physical properties such as thermal conductivity and thickness recovery, that are conflicting, are modelled through heterogeneous variables and nonlinear mathematical models. This is an ongoing work; Influence graph and the first mathematical model are presented in this paper while the preliminary optimization results will be presented during the ESAFROM conference.

  3. Exposure conditions, lung function and airway symptoms in industrial production of wood pellets. A pilot project; Exponeringsfoerhaallanden, lungfunktion och luftvaegsbesaer vid industriell produktion av traepellets. Ett pilotprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, Katja; Loefstedt, Haakan; Berg, Peter; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, Cecilia; Selden, Anders [Oerebro Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Eriksson, Kaare [Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Holmstroem, Mats; Rask- Andersen, Anna [Uppsala Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The production of wood pellets is a relatively new branch of the Swedish wood industry and has increased during the last years. A pilot study was performed to investigate the prevalence of airway symptoms, lung function and exposure among all 39 men employed in industrial production of wood pellets at six companies. The study included a questionnaire, medical examination, registration of nasal-PEF (peak expiratory flow) during a week, allergy screening (Phadiatop) and lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift. The results were compared with different reference data from other Swedish studies. Exposure measurements of monoterpenes and wood dust on filter and with a data logger (DataRAM) were also performed. The study group reported a higher frequency of cough without phlegm, awakening due to breathlessness and current asthma medication compared with reference data. For five of the six participants with physician-diagnosed asthma the disease debuted before the current employment and the results did not indicate an unusual asthma morbidity. Spirometry showed lower lung function before work shift than expected. However no difference over work shift was observed. A negative and non-significant correlation was seen between time with current work task and lung function. The study group reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms mostly blockage, sneezing and dryness compared with reference data. The registrations of nasal-PEF did not show any differences between work and spare time. The prevalence of positive Phadiatop (23 %) did not differ from reference data. No association between exposure (wood dust and monoterpenes) and acute effects on lung function was observed. The wood dust exposure (0.16-19 mg/m{sup 3}) was high and 11 of 24 measurements exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 2 mg/m{sup 3}. Peak exposures could be identified, e.g. at cleaning of engines with compressed air, with the DataRAM. The exposure to monoterpenes (0

  4. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.; Wild, M.P.; Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Twenty five Southern pine boards were machined into 2 x 4 inch pieces. Next, the 8 foot boards were cut in half into matched pairs. One of the two was irradiated with RF, while the other served as a control. Both sets were dried under a conventional temperature-time based schedule. Results and conclusions are: RF pretreatment of lumber does not affect strength; the amount of pinene lost into the headspace during low-VOC RF-treatment of wood approximately corresponds to the amount of material lost from the wood; virtually all the pinene can be removed from the low-VOC reactor with steam, suggesting that pinene can be collected when the small amount of steam released during low-headspace treatment is condensed; temperature and moisture loss profiles for particle at 105 C has been modeled using experimental data at 130 C and 160 C; the VOC-temperature curve from dried particle shows a break at about 156 C, the boiling point of {alpha}-pinene, demonstrating that pinene boil-off occurs beyond this threshold; VOC release from dry particle has been successfully modeled; the transport of VOC from sapwood to the atmosphere for pine is faster than the corresponding movement from heartwood to sapwood; and seasonal variations in pine extractives are small.

  5. The wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba at the end of the Middle Ages: an example of exploitation of the Mediterranean mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López Rider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate and explain, the practice of wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba during the Middle Ages Period. In the absence of anthracological studies; the documentary sources reveal the typology of existing charcoals, how this raw material was obtained, which its uses were, how it was transported to the city and in wich ways it was commercialized. Thanks to all this information we come to understand the importance of wood charcoal production for our ancestors, who have left us a carboniferous legacy we still use.

  6. Bio-Oil Production from Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Wastes and Eucalyptus Wood in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Ebrahimi-Nik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis is an attractive technology for biomass conversion, from which bio-oil is the preferred product with a great potential for use in industry and transport. Corn wastes (cob and stover and eucalyptus wood are widely being produced throughout the world. In this study, fast pyrolysis of these two materials were examined under the temperature of 500 °C; career gas flow rate of 660 l h-1; particle size of 1-2 mm; 80 and 110 g h-1 of feed rate. The experiments were carried out in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. Pyrolysis vapor was condensed in 3 cooling traps (15, 0 and -40 °C plus an electrostatic one. Eucalyptus wood was pyrolyised to 12.4, 61.4, and 26.2 percent of bio-char, bio-oil and gas, respectively while these figures were as 20.15, 49.9, and 29.95 for corn wastes. In all experiments, the bio-oil obtained from electrostatic trap was a dark brown and highly viscose liquid.

  7. Coordination of foliar and wood anatomical traits contributes to tropical tree distributions and productivity along the Malay-Thai Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Jennifer L; Grégoire, Dorthea M; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Noor, N Supardi M; Davies, Stuart J

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a critical factor in plant species distributions. Much research points to its relevance even in moist tropical regions. Recent studies have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the distributions of tropical tree species with respect to drought; however, how such desiccation tolerance mechanisms correspond with the coordination of hydraulic and photosynthetic traits in determining species distributions with respect to rainfall seasonality deserves attention. In the present study, we used a common garden approach to quantify inherent differences in wood anatomical and foliar physiological traits in 21 tropical tree species with either widespread (occupying both seasonal and aseasonal climates) or southern (restricted to aseasonal forests) distributions with respect to rainfall seasonality. Use of congeneric species pairs and phylogenetically independent contrast analyses allowed examination of this question in a phylogenetic framework. Widespread species opted for wood traits that provide biomechanical support and prevent xylem cavitation and showed associated reductions in canopy productivity and consequently growth rates compared with southern species. These data support the hypothesis that species having broader distributions with respect to climatic variability will be characterized by traits conducive to abiotic stress tolerance. This study highlights the importance of the well-established performance vs. stress tolerance trade-off as a contributor to species distributions at larger scales.

  8. THE DIFFERENCE OF MACHINING PROPERTIES OF TIMO (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. And KABESAK WOOD (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. FROM EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Rianawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining properties is one of the parameters to determine the quality of the wood. Tests on machining properties of wood are important to know the easiness level of workmanship as raw materials of furniture industry, construction wood and other wood products. This research was aimed at determining the difference of machining properties between timo wood (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. and kabesak wood (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. from the village of Reknamo, Kupang district, East Nusa Tenggara. Testing procedures were based on ASTM D1666 including: planning, shaping, sanding, drilling and turning. The observation of qualities of the machining were done visually by calculating the percentage of defects that arise on the surface of the samples after the machining process, then the qualities were classified into five quality classes. The results showed that the machining properties of timo wood and kabesak wood were very good and belonging to the quality of class I. The significant difference between the machining properties of both the timbers is in the sanding properties, where the average free defect of sanding timo wood is 85% while kabesak wood is 84.5%. Both timo and kabesak wood are suitable as raw material, for the variety of furniture and molding products.

  9. Implications from the Use of Non-timber Forest Products on the Consumption of Wood as a Fuel Source in Human-Dominated Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Maria Clara B. T.; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida L.; Albuquerque, Ulysses P.

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about what possible effects on wood resources might be caused by non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Here, we assessed the patterns of fuelwood consumption related to an NTFP ( Caryocar coriaceum) oil extraction and how this non-domestic activity can indirectly increase the use pressure on fuelwood species in a protected area, semiarid of Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in situ inventories, phytosociological surveys, and analyses of wood quality to identify the set of woody plants used in oil production. Householders use large volumes of dry wood and a set of woody species, which are highly exploited. Additionally, many preferred species have low fuel potential and suffer much use pressure. The best fuelwood species are underused, what requires management strategies to improve their potential as a source of energy. As a result, we suggest some conservation and management actions of fuelwood resources related to the use of NTFPs.

  10. Carbon Balance and Contribution of Harvested Wood Products in China Based on the Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyi Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013 (IPCC, this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in China’s HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China.

  11. Identifying Effective Pedagogical Approaches for Online Workplace Training: A case study of the South African wood products manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. Macdonald

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated appropriate pedagogical techniques for workplace e-learning programs in the South African wood products (furniture manufacturing sector. The study found that learners responded favourably to constructivist teaching approaches, such as asynchronous discussions, open-ended task-based activities, and assignments incorporating authentic, real-world examples. Learners viewed constructivist activities to be more useful than quizzes and traditional essay-based assignments, as they allowed new concepts to be learned in context and were perceived to promote deeper understanding of the subject matter. Nevertheless, they valued the inclusion of a blend of pedagogical approaches in the course design, as this enabled them to approach and analyze new concepts in an assortment of ways. Learners placed importance on regular interaction with other learners and course instructors, and were strongly in favour of including face-to-face components in Web-based courses.

  12. A CONTINUING REVERENCE FOR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Our ancestors knew a great deal about wood. They had to in order to do well in life. Wood has played a dominant role in human infrastructure for many generations, and for most of that time woodcraft has depended on the decentralized knowledge passed down among families and guilds. This editorial, while celebrating the knowledge, skills, and insights of the woodworkers of past generations, also calls for a renewed attention to wood’s unique character, including characteristics that today are too often classified as “defects.” We may need to take lessons from generations past to truly derive the best value from wood resources.

  13. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M.; Pankakari, P. [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  14. Intelligent Garbage Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rodríguez Novelle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available IGC (Intelligent Garbage Classifier is a system for visual classification and separation of solid waste products. Currently, an important part of the separation effort is based on manual work, from household separation to industrial waste management. Taking advantage of the technologies currently available, a system has been built that can analyze images from a camera and control a robot arm and conveyor belt to automatically separate different kinds of waste.

  15. ROUGHNESS ON WOOD SURFACES AND ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Aydın; Gürsel Çolakoğlu

    2003-01-01

    Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomic...

  16. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix A. Feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to SNG. Plant production is 21.6 MM scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $95,115,000 - September, 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. For utility financing, the gas production costs are respectively $5.09, $5.56, $6.50, and $8.34 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton delivered to the plant at a moisture content of 49.50 wt %. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $6.62, $7.11, $8.10, and $10.06 per MM Btu. The cost calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for by-product char is 58.3%.

  17. Intensification of combustion in wood product industry; Huonekaluteollisuuden laemmityskattiloiden polton tehostaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Siltanen, T. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Metsae, A. [Suomen Puututkimus Oy, Espoo (Finland); Tormonen, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Kolsi, A.; Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Muurinen, M. [Enemi Oy, Lahti (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The study involved optimization of the burning process in furniture industry boilers and reduction of noxious emissions by simple remedies and adjustments. This was realized in four boilers whose initial concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in the flue gas was 1500-2000 ppm. In addition some other similar boilers were measured and tuned. As a result, emissions due to incomplete burning diminished. The concentration of carbon monoxide in flue gas during the turning off phase was in the range 3 000 - 30 000 ppm in the on/off controlled boilers. It was observed that the CO-level in the flue gas correlated with the amount of fuel left on the grate at the end of each full output sequence. The emissions during the turning-off phase could not be reduced. Grate and control equipment showed defects and malfunction originating from negligence of maintenance and lack of proper operating instructions. The emissions from maintained boilers were reduced by adjusting the fuel stream and the primary and secondary air flows, with brickwork in the furnace over the grate and by insulating the secondary burning chamber. The flow adjustments were carried out on the basis of flue gas analysis. Mounting a catalyst into the convection part of one tested boiler reduced the CO concentration in of flue gas from the initial value 500 ppm to 300 ppm. However the tested catalyst was poisoned by pollutants in the wood chips. In addition to improving the burning phase, the total emissions of one boiler were minimised by removing the turning off phase completely and changing the burning to a continuous process. This required that the boiler automation was renewed and new automation equipment

  18. Study on HCl emission behavior during pyrolysis of demolition wood with PVC and municipal solid waste for clean hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, first, HCl emission during the pyrolysis of demolition wood containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) converted from municipal wastes was measured with a laboratory scale cylindrical batch reactor. The difference in the HCl emission behavior between both feedstocks was discussed. In the case of the demolition wood with PVC, the effects of wood composition on HCl emission were investigated by not only measuring the HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin) with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. Finally, the reduction of HCl emission due to blending demolition wood and PVC film with a K-rich biomass was experimentally evaluated as a method for reducing the HCl emission. (authors)

  19. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  20. Bioethanol - Status report on bioethanol production from wood and other lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott-Kerr, Chris; Johnson, Tony; Johnson, Barbara; Kiviaho, Jukka

    2010-09-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of renewable fuels, reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. However, there are technical and economic impediments to the development of commercial processes that utilise biomass feedstocks for the production of liquid fuels such as ethanol. Significant investment into research, pilot and demonstration plants is on-going to develop commercially viable processes utilising the biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies for ethanol. This paper reviews the current status of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production and identifies global production facilities.

  1. Evaluating the effect of wood ultrastructural changes from mechanical treatment on kinetics of monomeric sugars and chemicals production in acid bisulfite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalan; Wang, Jinwu; Wolcott, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Currently, various chemical-mechanical treatments were widely used in biofuel production to achieve high total sugar yields. However, the interaction between two treatments was scarcely investigated. In this study, we employed a ball milling process to create ultrastructural changes for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) micronized wood powders. The 0, 30, and 60min ball milled wood powders resulted in a crystallinity index of 0.41, 0.21, and 0.10 respectively. It was found that the ultrastructural changes accelerate monomeric sugars production without influencing the yield of sugar degradation products. The optimal acid bisulfite treatment time was substantially decreased from 120min to 40min as the cellulose crystallinity decreased. Meanwhile, total sugar yield increased from 65% to 92% and had a linear relation with a decrease of the cellulose crystallinity.

  2. Muir Woods National Monument Data Landcover Product - NOAA C-CAP Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape CCAP landcover (CCAP_LAC - 1996, 2001 and 2006) and landcover change (CCAP_LCC) products. Landcover change is produced from the 1996-2001 NOAA C-CAP and...

  3. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered.

  4. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  5. Genetic Improvement of Wood Properties in Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon for Sawn Timber Production in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Missanjo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of genetic potential and response to selection in breeding requires knowledge of genetic parameters for important selection traits. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters for wood properties in Khasi pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon grown in Malawi. Data on wood properties and growth traits were collected from six families of Pinus kesiya at the age of 30. The results show that wood density had a higher genetic control (h2 = 0.595 ± 0.055 than wood stiffness (h2 = 0.559 ± 0.038 and wood strength (h2 = 0.542 ± 0.091. The genetic correlation among wood quality traits was significantly moderate (0.464 ± 0.061 to high (0.735 ± 0.025. The predicted genetic response indicated that selection for wood density at 10% selection intensity would increase stiffness and strength by 12.6% and 8.85%, respectively. The genetic correlations between growth and wood quality traits were moderately unfavourable. However, sufficient variation exists within the breeding population to select individuals with both good growth rate and high wood quality traits. It is therefore suggested that all trees with both diameter at breast height (DBH greater than 32.0 cm and density greater than 0.593 g/cm3 must be selected in order to increase the efficiency of the breeding programme. However, in the long term, it is recommended that the best selection strategy would be to develop a multiple-trait selection index. The selection index should be developed using optimal index weights for the advanced Pinus kesiya breeding programme in Malawi.

  6. Wood gas; Holz gibt Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Claudia

    2011-06-17

    Sixty years ago, wood gas was even used as a car fuel. Today, this ancient technology is experiencing a renaissance. Small cogeneration plants with wood gasifiers are ideal for renewable and decentral power supply concepts for tomorrow. Until then, there is much pioneering work to do until plants will be ready for serial production.

  7. Wood - An Innovative Component of High-tech Products? 6th Wädenswil Day of Chemistry 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2014-10-01

    Wood is a multifunctional renewable material that could replace oil-based and other non-renewable resources in many applications. In the Swiss National Science Foundation project NFP 66, entitled 'Wood as a resource', researchers are attempting to find ways to use wood more efficiently in the future. The 6th Wädenswil Day of Chemistry, which was organised by the Institute of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry at Zurich University of Applied Sciences in Wädenswil, gave an overview of the innovative activities currently being undertaken in this field.

  8. New productive technologies for wood and furniture industry; Nuevas tecnologias productivas para el sector de la madera y del mueble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojo Calvo, F. J.

    2012-07-01

    During recent years, the wood industry and furniture industry have declined sharply, up to 46,5% of the total employment. These companies have always had a familiar character, their cost structure has enabled them to stay afloat during the crisis while larger companies have succumbed. The main problems that threaten their viability are the fall of the construction sector in the case of wood and the increasing imports in the case of furniture. The Industrial Observatory of the Wood Industry has made available two tools to put the latest technology available to the companies. (Author)

  9. Analysis of ergonomic furniture made of wood and sub-products from renewable forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Fialho, Patrícia Bhering; Minette, Luciano José; de Torres, Fernanda Freitas Costa

    2012-01-01

    The furniture ergonomic evaluation was carried out through the use of questionnaires and forms in industries. For the ergonomic product analysis, it was used the methodology "Object Ergonomics - Ergonomic System Technical Reading" (design goals and management actions), and measurements of products. The values achieved were compared with the standard dimensions, and the compliance or non-compliance of the furniture to it was assessed. In relation to the dimensions of the bed, the following variables did not comply with the norms: external and internal length, external and internal width, height and width of the sidebar and distance to the floor. The dimensions of these variables were above the recommended values. The double bed was inadequate for management actions and maintenance. Since the kitchen cabinet is a product that went through physical testing and follows national standards; the finish used is powder coating. The kitchen cabinet proved to be appropriate in all design requirements and for management actions. Both furniture pieces were inadequate, considering the difficulty for maintenance when a product or part of it was damaged. It was recommended the creation of regulatory standards for the production of safe and comfortable furniture.

  10. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  11. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  12. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 2. Vegetative propagation of Eucalypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of large-scale plantation establishment by various methods was examined, and the following conclusions were reached: seedling plantations are limited in potential yield due to genetic variation among the planting stock and often inadequate supplies of appropriate seed; vegetative propagation by rooted cuttings can provide good genetic uniformity of select hybrid planting stock; however, large-scale production requires establishment and maintenance of extensive cutting orchards. The collection of shoots and preparation of cuttings, although successfully implemented in the Congo and Brazil, would not be economically feasible in Florida for large-scale plantations; tissue culture propagation of select hybrid eucalypts offers the only opportunity to produce the very large number of trees required to establish the energy plantation. The cost of tissue culture propagation, although higher than seedling production, is more than off-set by the increased productivity of vegetative plantations established from select hybrid Eucalyptus.

  13. Overview of Wood-based Panel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The production of wood-based panel was presented firstly in this paper. Some features of China’s wood-based panel industry were reviewed, including production bases, raw materials and main markets of wood-based panel. In addition, the trade flow of wood-based panel was described in the end.

  14. Slow pyrolysis of wood barks from Pinus brutia Ten. and product compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensöz, Sevgi

    2003-09-01

    Biomass in the form of pine bark (Pinus brutia Ten.) was pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effects of temperature and heating rate on the yields and compositions of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using reactor temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees C with heating rates of 7 and 40 degrees Cmin(-1). The product yields were significantly influenced by the process conditions. The bio-oil obtained at 450 degrees C, at which the liquid product yield was maximum, was analysed. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the solid and liquid products were analysed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. Chemical fractionation of bio-oil showed that only low quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.03 MJkg(-1) was established as CH(1.43)O(0.332)N(0.0013).

  15. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  16. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood

    OpenAIRE

    Arabi, Khadija; Aubry, Olivier; Khacef, Ahmed; Cormier, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines, or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. The paper is summarizing results obtained through a non thermal arc plasma reactor at laboratory scale. A stationary discharge (I = 150mA) is used to perform physical diagnostic...

  17. Biorefining of wood: combined production of ethanol and xylanase from waste fiber sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavka, Adnan; Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Jönsson, Leif J

    2011-08-01

    The possibility to utilize fiber sludge, waste fibers from pulp mills and lignocellulose-based biorefineries, for combined production of liquid biofuel and biocatalysts was investigated. Without pretreatment, fiber sludge was hydrolyzed enzymatically to monosaccharides, mainly glucose and xylose. In the first of two sequential fermentation steps, the fiber sludge hydrolysate was fermented to cellulosic ethanol with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although the final ethanol yields were similar, the ethanol productivity after 9.5 h was 3.3 g/l/h for the fiber sludge hydrolysate compared with only 2.2 g/l/h for a reference fermentation with similar sugar content. In the second fermentation step, the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (the stillage obtained after distillation) was used as growth medium for recombinant Aspergillus niger expressing the xylanase-encoding Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) xyn2 gene. The xylanase activity obtained with the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate (8,500 nkat/ml) was higher than that obtained in a standard medium with similar monosaccharide content (1,400 nkat/ml). Analyses based on deglycosylation with N-glycosidase F suggest that the main part of the recombinant xylanase was unglycosylated and had molecular mass of 20.7 kDa, while a minor part had N-linked glycosylation and molecular mass of 23.6 kDa. Chemical analyses of the growth medium showed that important carbon sources in the spent fiber sludge hydrolysate included xylose, small aliphatic acids, and oligosaccharides. The results show the potential of converting waste fiber sludge to liquid biofuel and enzymes as coproducts in lignocellulose-based biorefineries.

  18. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  19. Novel Cellulase Screening and Optimal Production from the Wood Decaying Xylariaceae: Daldinia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, I-Son; Chen, Po Ting; Ju, Yu-Ming; Tsai, Shau-Wei

    2010-10-21

    The highest cellulases production from Daldinia caldariorum 263 (D-263) was found among Daldinia eschscholzii and Daldinia childiae. Three cellulases, one xylanase and one β-glucosidase of the molecular weights 55, 43, 34, 30, and 105 kDa, respectively, were determined by zymographic sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. From the N-terminal sequencing, the major cellulase CelA belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 was determined. By following an orthogonal experiment design (L9), factors affecting the cultivation of D. caldariorum 263 are ranked as medium composition > temperature > pH ≥ FP (%). The optimum cultivation conditions for obtaining the best FPase (600 mU/ml) at 72 h are 150 rpm, 35 °C, pH 7, 0.2% soy peptone and 0.5% α-cellulose in minimal requirement medium. In comparison with Trichoderma reesei (ATCC26921) secreting 1,135 mU/ml of FPase after 6 days cultivation at pH 5, D. caldariorum 263 grew faster at 35 °C and produced the maximum FPase within 3 days at pH 7.

  20. Design of Fuzzy Classifier for Wood Board Texture based on GLCM%基于灰度共生矩阵的板材纹理模糊分类器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡卓; 许超; 李想; 薛瑞

    2014-01-01

    We designed a classifier based on fuzzy logic for straight and curved texture.We extracted energy and correlation from the features of gray level co-occurrence matrix ( GLCM) by analyzing its scatter, and then designed the fuzzy domain and the membership function for the extracted features and texture patterns .We constructed fuzzy reasoning and the lookup ta-ble by the extracted fuzzy rules and Mamdani gravity method.The experiments were conducted with 100 straight and curved textures with the classification rate of 90.5%.%针对板材表面的纹理特征,设计了直纹、弯纹二维模糊逻辑分类器。首先对灰度共生矩阵提取的板材特征量进行散点分布分析,提取出用于纹理分类的能量和相关性基本特征;设计能量、相关性与纹理的模糊论域及隶属度函数,完成了特征量与纹理类别的模糊化;通过提取样本的模糊规则和Mamdani重心法,完成模糊推理,并得到纹理分类查询表。应用设计的纹理模糊分类器对样本库中100幅直纹和弯纹样本进行分类实验,分类总体正确率达到90.5%。

  1. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-08-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Baseline soil carbon was determined for each of the eighty-one plots. Fertility analysis of soil samples was completed and these data were used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions and the pre-designated plots were fertilized. We also evaluated economic-based policy instruments that are designed to mitigate the reforestation burden borne by the owner of reclaimed mined land. Results suggest that although profitability of reforestation of these previously reclaimed mine lands may be achievable on better sites under lower interest rates, substantial payments would be required to reach &apos

  2. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  3. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  4. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystems Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2006-04-30

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During this quarter we worked on methodologies for analyzing carbon in mine soils. A unique property of mine soils is the presence of coal and carboniferous rock particles that are present in mine soils in various sizes, quantities, and qualities. There is no existing method in the literature that may be of use for quantitative estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in mine soils that can successfully differentiate between pedogenic and geogenic carbon forms. In this report we present a detailed description of a 16-step method for measuring SOC in mine soils designed for and tested on a total of 30 different mine soil mixtures representing a wide spectrum of mine soils in the hard-rock region of the Appalachian coalfield. The proposed method is a combination of chemical procedure for carbonates removal, a thermal procedure for pedogenic C removal, and elemental C analysis procedure at 900 C. Our methodology provides a means to correct for the carbon loss from the more volatile constituents of coal fragments in the mine soil samples and another correction factor for the protected organic matter that can also remain unoxidized following thermal pretreatment. The correction factors for coal and soil material-specific SOM were based on carbon content loss from coal and SOM determined by a parallel thermal oxidation analysis of pure ground coal fragments retrieved from the same mined site as the soil samples and of coal-free soil rock fragments of sandstone and siltstone origin.

  5. Colorimetry as grouping tool of eucalyptus clones wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio da Fonseca Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneity of wood color in a batch to be marketed is of fundamental importance, as it will reflect in products quality resulting from its processing. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate, through colorimetric technique, the colorimetric parameters of Eucalyptus spp. wood from 25 clones and classify them into groups, according to color similarity degree. It was determined the lightness (L*, red-green color coordinate (a*, yellow-blue chromatic coordinate (b*, chromaticity (C* and ink angle (h. Radial and tangential faces and three positions in the radial direction were characterized using a colorimeter. Comparing to tangential planes, the results showed that radial plane presented larger values of L* and h in wood near the bark. Furthermore, it was observed higher values of L* in samples from intermediate radial positions. Finally, it was found that, as radial growth ocurred, developed timber showed less intense yellow shades. The definition of the wood color tones will be useful in timber market in the homogenization of their products, which will facilitate their marketing.

  6. Clonal variation in heavy metal accumulation and biomass production in a poplar coppice culture: I. Seasonal variation in leaf, wood and bark concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureysens, I; Blust, R; De Temmerman, L; Lemmens, C; Ceulemans, R

    2004-10-01

    The use of plants to decontaminate soils polluted by heavy metals has received considerable attention in recent years as a low-cost technique. Poplars (Populus spp.) can accumulate relatively high levels of certain metals, and have the added advantage of producing biomass that can be used for energy production. A short rotation coppice culture with 13 poplar clones was established on a former waste disposal site, which was moderately polluted with heavy metals. Total content of metals in leaves, wood and bark were determined in August and October/November. Significant clonal differences in accumulation were found for most metals, although clones with the highest concentration of all metals were not found. Cadmium, zinc and aluminium were most efficiently taken up. The lowest concentration was found in wood; the highest concentrations were generally found in senescing leaves, making removal and treatment of fallen leaves necessary.

  7. Methane from wood: phase 1 - Production of synthetic natural gas from wood for use as a biofuel; Methan-aus-Holz: Phase 1. Erzeugung von synthetischem Erdgas aus Holz zur Nutzung als Biotreibstoff (CNG/CMG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biollaz, S.; Seemann, M.; Schildhauer, T. J.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises work done during 2003 and 2004 on methods for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood. The proof of the methanisation concept on a laboratory scale is described and the step-wise development to a full-size, 20 MW industrial plant is discussed. The results of tests made using an existing 8 MW gasifier in Guessing, Austria, are presented and discussed, as are the results from a 10 kW, mini-pilot installation that was used for unmanned tests over several hundred hours of operation. Sulphur-poisoning of the catalyst used and possible solutions are reviewed. The results of the 2003 and 2004 campaigns are to provide the technical basis for a proposed EU-project to be started in 2006.

  8. Drivers of aboveground wood production in a lowland tropical forest of West Africa: teasing apart the roles of tree density, tree diversity, soil phosphorus, and historical logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucker, Tommaso; Sanchez, Aida Cuni; Lindsell, Jeremy A; Allen, Harriet D; Amable, Gabriel S; Coomes, David A

    2016-06-01

    Tropical forests currently play a key role in regulating the terrestrial carbon cycle and abating climate change by storing carbon in wood. However, there remains considerable uncertainty as to whether tropical forests will continue to act as carbon sinks in the face of increased pressure from expanding human activities. Consequently, understanding what drives productivity in tropical forests is critical. We used permanent forest plot data from the Gola Rainforest National Park (Sierra Leone) - one of the largest tracts of intact tropical moist forest in West Africa - to explore how (1) stand basal area and tree diversity, (2) past disturbance associated with past logging, and (3) underlying soil nutrient gradients interact to determine rates of aboveground wood production (AWP). We started by statistically modeling the diameter growth of individual trees and used these models to estimate AWP for 142 permanent forest plots. We then used structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect pathways which shape rates of AWP. Across the plot network, stand basal area emerged as the strongest determinant of AWP, with densely packed stands exhibiting the fastest rates of AWP. In addition to stand packing density, both tree diversity and soil phosphorus content were also positively related to productivity. By contrast, historical logging activities negatively impacted AWP through the removal of large trees, which contributed disproportionately to productivity. Understanding what determines variation in wood production across tropical forest landscapes requires accounting for multiple interacting drivers - with stand structure, tree diversity, and soil nutrients all playing a key role. Importantly, our results also indicate that logging activities can have a long-lasting impact on a forest's ability to sequester and store carbon, emphasizing the importance of safeguarding old-growth tropical forests.

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-02-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During the reporting period (October-December 2004) we completed the validation of a forest productivity classification model for mined land. A coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.68 confirms the model's ability to predict SI based on a selection of mine soil properties. To determine carbon sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio (Figure 1), West Virginia (Figure 2), and Virginia (Figure 3). The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). For hybrid poplar, total plant biomass differences increased significantly with the intensity of silvicultural input. Root, stem, and foliage biomass also increased with the level of silvicultural intensity. Financial feasibility analyses of reforestation on mined lands previously reclaimed to grassland have been completed for conversion to white pine and mixed hardwood species. Examination of potential policy instruments for promoting financial feasibility also have been completed, including lump sum payments at time of conversion, annual payments through the life of the stand, and payments based on carbon sequestration that provide both minimal profitability and fully offset initial reforestation outlays. We have compiled a database containing mine permit information obtained from permitting agencies in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Due to differences and irregularities in permitting procedures

  10. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  11. ROUGHNESS ON WOOD SURFACES AND ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomical properties of wood. Contact and non-contact tracing methods are used to measure of wood surface roughness. Surface roughness also affects the gluability and wettability of wood surfaces. The success in finishing also depends on the surface roughness of wood.

  12. Enhancement of bio-oil production via pyrolysis of wood biomass by pretreatment with H2SO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Matsuno, Ryo; Grause, Guido; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a Japanese cedar wood sample was treated during the first step at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure using several concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in a stirred flask. During this pretreatment C-O bonds of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were cleaved. The second step involved the pyrolysis of the pretreated wood sample at 550 °C in a quartz glass tube reactor. A maximum oil yield of 46.8 wt% with the minimum char yield of 10.1 wt% was obtained by the treatment with 3 M H2SO4, whereas untreated wood samples resulted in a 30.1 wt% yield of oil. The main components in the oils were levoglucosan and tar. These results suggest that moderate acid pretreatment produced shorter chain units of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, thereby facilitating the conversion into oil by pyrolysis. The results of thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy supported the presence of shorter chain units in the pretreated wood samples.

  13. Socio-economic impact of wood biomass utilization for energy production and its impact on small communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzida Baten, C.; Pulkki, R. (Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada), Faculty of Natural Resources Management), e-mail: csanzida@lakeheadu.ca, e-mail: rpulkki@lakehaedu.ca

    2010-07-01

    Bioenergy refers to all forms of renewable energy that are derived from plant materials produced by photosynthesis. Biomass fuels can be derived from wood, agricultural crops and other organic residues. These fuels can be obtained from many sources in Canada, including sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. This study deals with the socio-economic aspects of bioenergy development. Normally, the socio-economic impact of bioenergy can be measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment, monetary gains, etc. Recently some pulp and paper mills in northwestern Ontario have initiated bioenergy plants to generate heat and electricity for their use. The Ontario Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure is investigating the possibility of replacing coal with renewable forest biomass as feedstock for the Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) located in northwestern Ontario. The APGS has already successfully tested 100 % wood biomass feedstock instead of coal. This study evaluates the socio-economic impacts of wood biomass utilization for energy production in small communities in northwestern Ontario Canada. (orig.)

  14. A Study to Measure Clinician Productivity in the Internal Medicine Clinic at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-23

    treat inq that cordi t ion, as WCi as te rismbesuppl ies for the irnoat ient stay (as mneasured by 9 Stjvirrrmr Oi and anK. i Vr Cv iC u t i ized...annoying, plus the calls reqardinq patients or from patients often don’t get logged for purposes of productivity counts A;I call’s shouid o throuqh

  15. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values

  16. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  17. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  18. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  19. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values

  20. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Modeling the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on wood production and carbon storage: A case study in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Francesca; Pesola, Lucia; Vizzarri, Matteo; Antonello, Leonardo; Barbati, Anna; Chirici, Gherardo; Corona, Piermaria; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Garfì, Vittorio; Giannico, Vincenzo; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Nocentini, Susanna; Riccioli, Francesco; Travaglini, Davide; Sallustio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are fundamental for the terrestrial biosphere as they deliver multiple essential ecosystem services (ES). In environmental management, understanding ES distribution and interactions and assessing the economic value of forest ES represent future challenges. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit method based on a multi-scale approach (MiMoSe-Multiscale Mapping of ecoSystem services) to assess the current and future potential of a given forest area to provide ES. To do this we modified and improved the InVEST model in order to adapt input data and simulations to the context of Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Specifically, we integrated a GIS-based model, scenario model, and economic valuation to investigate two ES (wood production and carbon sequestration) and their trade-offs in a test area located in Molise region (Central Italy). Spatial information and trade-off analyses were used to assess the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on investigated services. Scenario A was designed to describe the current Business as Usual approach. Two alternative scenarios were designed to describe management approaches oriented towards nature protection (scenario B) or wood production (scenario C) and compared to scenario A. Management scenarios were simulated at the scale of forest management units over a 20-year time period. Our results show that forest management influenced ES provision and associated benefits at the regional scale. In the test area, the Total Ecosystem Services Value of the investigated ES increases 85% in scenario B and decreases 82% in scenario C, when compared to scenario A. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate about trade-offs and synergies between carbon sequestration and wood production benefits associated with socio-ecological systems. The MiMoSe approach can be replicated in other contexts with similar characteristics, thus providing a useful basis for the projection of benefits from forest

  2. Development of Non-wood Forest Products in Lancang County%澜沧县发展非木质林产品的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠群; 马赛宇

    2011-01-01

    Status of distribution, numbers, and gathering of Non-wood forest products of tea, rosin, rubber , coffee, bamboo shoots, grass and fruit, forest herbs, wild edible mushrooms, forest vegetables and others were introduced. This paper analyzed the characteristics of Non-wood product such as big output value, large variety which lead to those issues like;the resources destruction by non-standard collection methods, lack of processing enterprises and technology, poor infrastructure and others. Proposals have been put forward to strengthen resources monitoring, to develop workable policies and programs, to introduce technology, to artificially cultivate introduced species of non-wood forest products, to establish professional cooperatives, to obtain national project funds, etc.%介绍澜沧县茶叶、松香、橡胶、咖啡、竹笋、草果、森林药材、野生食用菌、森林蔬菜等非木质林产品的分布、数量及采集情况,分析其产值大、种类多、主要集中在山区、以农村群众自己利用为主等特点.认为目前存在着不规范的采集方式导致资源的破坏,缺乏加工企业和技术,基础设施不完善导致运输困难等问题.藉此提出了加强资源监测,制定可行的政策和规划;引进技术,人工引种培育非木质林产品,成立专业合作社,争取国家项目资金扶持等建议.

  3. Wood and natural gas as fuels for tunnel kilns in the clay-product industry; Serragem e gas natural como fontes energeticas em fornos tuneis na industria ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gabriel M. dos; Bazzo, Edson; Nicolau, Vicente de P.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: mann@emc.ufsc.br; ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; vicente@lmpt.ufsc.br; amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The clay-product industry is responsible to large part of the thermal energy consumption, especially on drying and burning process. In spite of the success obtained with the burning of wood like principal fuel for tunnel kilns, the clay-product industries of Santa Catarina have looked for alternatives to substitute it. The interest appears especially due to imminent shortage of the wood on the market and due to possibility of use natural gas as a good and environmentally favorable alternative to reduce the energy specific consumption of the kilns, to increase the production and to improve the quality of the ceramic products. Nowadays, the natural gas is more expensive when compared with the wood. However, we believe that additional studies can place this fuel as a viable alternative to the clay-product industries. (author)

  4. The study of different methods of bio-liquids production from wood biomass and from biomass/polyolefine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, K. Marx str., 42 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Svobodny, 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Sharypov, V.I.; Kuznetsova, S.A.; Taraban' ko, V.E.; Ivanchenko, N.M. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, K. Marx str., 42 (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    The different methods of wood biomass thermal liquefaction at atmospheric and elevated pressures were investigated in order to select the more effective one. Wood biomass liquefaction by melted formate/alkali mixtures and with the use of metallic iron/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} system is carried out at low pressures. But these methods give only moderate yield of bio-liquids. The highest yield of bio-liquid was obtained in the process of biomass dissolvation in methanol media in the presence of Zn-Cr-Fe catalyst at 20 MPa. Co-pyrolysis and co-hydropyrolysis of biomass/polyolefine mixtures makes it possible to obtain the rather high yield of bio-liquid at the moderate pressures (3 MPa). (author)

  5. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  6. Plywood Industry by Using Eco-efficiency Approach and LIA- Wood Balance Sheet Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nurendah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general purposes of this study were to improve the efficiency of wood utilization and to create wood’s value added for plywood industry. To achieve the above purposes a strategy for Agro forestry Industry should be develop based on eco-efficiencyprinciples. The details of targets were: (1. to analyze critical factors in plywood industry management regarding to eco-efficiency implementation, (2 to analyze production technology that is used in plywood industry, and (3. to design a developing strategy of integrated plywood industry based on eco-efficiency principles. The result of this study show that the key factors for plywood management’s policy was environmental awareness; material utilization; and international issues. The production technology of all plywood industry in Indonesia is relatively similar. They are using the machineries of the 80’s and have the similar working procedures. The kinds of wood wastes generated from plywood industry were classified into log end, reject log end, green veneer waste, and others. The wood waste was calculated 49.52% released from 100% input log in plywood industry. There are three strategy of integrated plywood industry based on eco-efficiency, namely (1 selecting and managing of environmental impact, showing three kinds of waste which affect the environment (2 Improvement the plywood manufacturing technology, showing the newinnovation technology or process control management and (3 Development of new product from wood waste. Wood waste can be used to produce block board, laminated board, handicraft, and others.

  7. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  8. Enhanced Production of Xylitol from Poplar Wood Hydrolysates Through a Sustainable Process Using Immobilized New Strain Candida tropicalis UFMG BX 12-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Sai Swaroop; da Silva, Silvio Silverio; Uprety, Bijaya K; Rakshit, Sudip K

    2017-01-04

    A new strain, Candida tropicalis UFMG BX 12-a, was found to produce higher yields of xylitol on poplar wood hemicellulose hydrolysate. The hemicellulose hydrolysate liquor was detoxified using a novel method we developed, involving vacuum evaporation and solvent separation of inhibitors which made the hydrolysate free of toxins while retaining high concentrations of fermentable sugars. The effect of the detoxification method on the fermentation was also reported and compared to well-known methods reported in literature. In this study, the new strain C. tropicalis UFMG BX 12-a was used on the detoxified hydrolysate to produce xylitol. It was also compared to Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037, which has been reported to be one of the best strains for fermentative production of xylitol. To further improve the efficiency of the fermentation process, these strains were immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The yield (0.92 g g(-1)) and productivity (0.88 g L(-1) h(-1)) obtained by fermenting the wood hydrolysate detoxified by our new detoxification technique using an immobilized new Candida strain were found to be higher than the values reported in literature.

  9. Sustainability of Wood Productivity of Pinus TaedaBased on Nutrient Export and Stocks in the Biomass and in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Michael de Melo Sixel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The impact of intensive management practices on the sustainability of forest production depends on maintenance of soil fertility. The contribution of forest residues and nutrient cycling in this process is critical. A 16-year-old stand of Pinus taeda in a Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico léptico (Humic Endo-lithic Dystrudept in the south of Brazil was studied. A total of 10 trees were sampled distributed in five diameter classes according to diameter at breast height. The biomass of the needles, twigs, bark, wood, and roots was measured for each tree. In addition to plant biomass, accumulated plant litter was sampled, and soil samples were taken at three increments based on sampling depth: 0.00-0.20, 0.20-0.40, 0.40-0.60, 0.60-1.00, 1.00-1.40, 1.40-1.80, and 1.80-1.90 m. The quantity and concentration of nutrients, as well as mineralogical characteristics, were determined for each soil sample. Three scenarios of harvesting intensities were simulated: wood removal (A, wood and bark removal (B, and wood + bark + canopy removal (C. The sum of all biomass components was 313 Mg ha-1.The stocks of nutrients in the trees decreased in the order N>Ca>K>S>Mg>P. The mineralogy of the Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico léptico showed the predominance of quartz sand and small traces of vermiculite in the silt fraction. Clay is the main fraction that contributes to soil weathering, due to the transformation of illite-vermiculite, releasing K. The depletion of nutrients from the soil biomass was in the order: P>S>N>K>Mg>Ca. Phosphorus and S were the most limiting in scenario A due to their low stock in the soil. In scenario B, the number of forest rotations was limited by N, K, and S. Scenario C showed the greatest reduction in productivity, allowing only two rotations before P limitation. It is therefore apparent that there may be a difference of up to 30 years in the capacity of the soil to support a scenario such as A, with a low nutrient removal

  10. Study on product distributions and char morphology during rapid co-pyrolysis of platanus wood and lignite in a drop tube fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Haiyu; Wang, Shuzhong; Chen, Lin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The rapid co-pyrolytic behavior of platanus wood and Pingzhuang lignite was explored in a drop tube fixed-bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Synergistic effects were evaluated using the deviations between experimental and predicted values of product yields and gas components. Surface morphology of residual chars were also investigated applying the scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM). This study found that the experimental values of gas volume yields were greater than the predicted, and the maximum gas volume yield exhibited with 50% biomass blending ratio at 1000°C. Positive or negative synergistic effects happened in gas components at different blending ratios and temperatures. The SEM results indicated that the differences of char surface morphology were evident. The fractal dimensions of residual chars increased with increasing biomass blending ratio, which may improve their gasification or combustion reactivity. The change in product yields and gas components was attributed to the secondary reactions and tar cracking.

  11. Perceptions & use of termite resistant treated wood products. Part I: The perspective of homeowners in Formosan subterranean termite infected States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vlosky

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is estimated to cause hundreds of millions of dollars in losses annually in North America. Unlike most subterranean species, Formosan termites often build nests (cartons in living trees and wooden buildings, and even penetrate plaster, plastic, asphalt, mortar, creosote, concrete, and rubber to reach wood. The study addresses issues that U.S. home owners consider in evaluating whether to buy or build homes that are built with termite resistant building materials. The sample frame for this study consisted of a random sample of 5.000 home owners in the region where Formosan subterranean termites are a current or potential problem. When examined by state, 50 percent of respondents in Hawaii said termites have damaged the home they currently live in followed by respondents from Louisiana and California. On average, respondents indicated that preservative pressure treated wood and regular fumigation as being most effective in protecting a house against termites and only 8 percent of respondents said they would not pay a premium for a guaranteed termite-free new home.

  12. Dynamic system classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpe, Daniel; Greiner, Maksim; Müller, Ewald; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic differential equations describe well many physical, biological, and sociological systems, despite the simplification often made in their derivation. Here the usage of simple stochastic differential equations to characterize and classify complex dynamical systems is proposed within a Bayesian framework. To this end, we develop a dynamic system classifier (DSC). The DSC first abstracts training data of a system in terms of time-dependent coefficients of the descriptive stochastic differential equation. Thereby the DSC identifies unique correlation structures within the training data. For definiteness we restrict the presentation of the DSC to oscillation processes with a time-dependent frequency ω (t ) and damping factor γ (t ) . Although real systems might be more complex, this simple oscillator captures many characteristic features. The ω and γ time lines represent the abstract system characterization and permit the construction of efficient signal classifiers. Numerical experiments show that such classifiers perform well even in the low signal-to-noise regime.

  13. Techno-economic assessment of a wood-based biorefinery concept for the production of polymer-grade ethylene, organosolv lignin and fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Roy; Budzinski, Maik; Gröngröft, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose biorefineries are distinguished by an explicitly integrative, multi-functional concept that transforms biomass into multiple products, using a variety of conversion and separation processes. This study focuses on the technical design and economic evaluation of a lignocellulose biorefinery, that converts 400,000tDM/a (≙250MW) of beech wood into chemicals and fuel. A model was simulated with Aspen Plus® including the process steps pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, alcoholic fermentation, dehydration and biogas generation and upgrading. Mass and energy balances showed that 61,600t/a polymer-grade ethylene, 58,520tDM/a organosolv lignin, 38,400t/a biomethane and 90,800tDM/a hydrolysis lignin can be produced with a total energy efficiency of 87.1%. A discounted cash flow analysis indicated that the heat integrated biorefinery concept is not yet profitable. However, the economic results are greatly sensitive regarding various assumptions, in particular in terms of the prices for beech wood, ethylene and organosolv lignin.

  14. Determination of resin acids during production of wood pellets--a comparison of HPLC/ESI-MS with the GC/FID MDHS 83/2 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Sara; Eriksson, Kåre; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2011-10-01

    Resin acids are constituents of natural and technical products of widespread use. Exposure is known to cause health effects in the airways and on the skin. Liquid chromatography/positive ion electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC/pos ESI-MS) was investigated for determination of 7-oxodehydroabietic (7-OXO), dehydroabietic (DHAA) and abietic acid (AA) in wood dust-containing air samples as a derivatisation-free alternative to the GC/FID HSE method 83/2, developed by the Health and Safety Executive UK. The resin acid 7-OXO was measured as a marker for oxidised resin acids, which are known to be the main contact allergens in colophonium. The found detection limits were 0.42 ng m(-3) for 7-OXO, 5.2 ng m(-3) for DHAA and 9.4 ng m(-3) for AA, respectively, which are considerably lower than with the GC/FID method (24, 115 and 89 ng m(-3)). The two methods correlated well, although consistently and significantly lower concentrations of 7-OXO were detected with LC/MS. The higher concentration of this compound with MDHS 83/2 is suggested to be an artefact from the derivatisation step in the presence of soluble wood dust remains.

  15. Pavement Crack Classifiers: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siddharth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non Destructive Testing (NDT is an analysis technique used to inspect metal sheets and components without harming the product. NDT do not cause any change after inspection; this technique saves money and time in product evaluation, research and troubleshooting. In this study the objective is to perform NDT using soft computing techniques. Digital images are taken; Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM extracts features from these images. Extracted features are then fed into the classifiers which classifies them into images with and without cracks. Three major classifiers: Neural networks, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Linear classifiers are taken for the classification purpose. Performances of these classifiers are assessed and the best classifier for the given data is chosen.

  16. An economic method to determine the strength class of wood species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenshorst, G.J.P.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    2004-01-01

    As a result of the demand for wood from forests that are managed in an environmentally sustainable manner, many unknown wood species are introduced into the market at the moment. To classify a wood species into a strength class and determine the accompanying grading parameters for visual grading in

  17. Process for production of wood charcoal from fine-particle lignocellulose wastes and installation for its accomplishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R.; Perzynski, B.

    1979-05-15

    For producing wood charcoal from sawdust, shells of nuts, and other lignin-containing wastes by drying, roasting, and cooling the obtainable carbon, a multizone kiln is used, consisting of zones for drying (DZ), low-temperature carbonization (SCZ), and cooling (CZ), each of which is divided by racks into two parts. Between the zones racks having openings for feedstock charging are also arranged. In the SCZ, air nozzles are mounted, above which there is a ceramic screen. Waste gases from the SCZ and CZ pass through the heat exchanger-afterburner and are admitted into the condenser, whence they are released into the atmosphere. The temperature in the DZ is 120-60/sup 0/, and in the SCZ -- 400-600/sup 0/.

  18. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  19. Dynamic system classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Pumpe, Daniel; Müller, Ewald; Enßlin, Torsten A

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic differential equations describe well many physical, biological and sociological systems, despite the simplification often made in their derivation. Here the usage of simple stochastic differential equations to characterize and classify complex dynamical systems is proposed within a Bayesian framework. To this end, we develop a dynamic system classifier (DSC). The DSC first abstracts training data of a system in terms of time dependent coefficients of the descriptive stochastic differential equation. Thereby the DSC identifies unique correlation structures within the training data. For definiteness we restrict the presentation of DSC to oscillation processes with a time dependent frequency {\\omega}(t) and damping factor {\\gamma}(t). Although real systems might be more complex, this simple oscillator captures many characteristic features. The {\\omega} and {\\gamma} timelines represent the abstract system characterization and permit the construction of efficient signal classifiers. Numerical experiment...

  20. Fungicides affect the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) and the peripheral growth unit (PGU) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesentini, Damiano; Dickinson, David J; Murphy, Richard J

    2006-10-01

    This study shows the effect of two fungicides on the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes and identifies a mechanism that might be responsible for the variation observed. Increasing concentrations of the fungicides copper sulphate (CuSO4) and cyproconazole in the growth medium increased the proportion of ECMM in the biomass of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. These fungicides also caused a reduction in the length of the peripheral growth unit (PGU) of the mycelia leading to a more highly branched morphology and a larger number of hyphal tips, the sites for active secretion of ECMM, per unit length of mycelium. It is postulated that both in T. versicolor and G. trabeum this change in growth leads to the increases observed in the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to a potential protective role of ECMM against stress and toxic environments.

  1. USE OF CANDEIA’S (Eremanthus erythropappus WASTE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The use of the candeia´s waste wood after oil extraction for particle panels production becomes a viable alternative, avoiding environmental problems and increasing the availability of these products in the consuming market. This work verified the viability of producing wood-cement panels using waste wood generated after the extraction of candeia’s oil, in association with pinus and eucalipto woods. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two wooden species and three replacement percentages of the woods by candeia’s waste. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood, after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood-cement panels.

  2. Xylitol production by yeasts isolated from rotting wood in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, and description of Cyberlindnera galapagoensis f.a., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guamán-Burneo, Maria C; Dussán, Kelly J; Cadete, Raquel M; Cheab, Monaliza A M; Portero, Patricia; Carvajal-Barriga, Enrique J; da Silva, Sílvio S; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated D-xylose-assimilating yeasts that are associated with rotting wood from the Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, for xylitol production from hemicellulose hydrolysates. A total of 140 yeast strains were isolated. Yeasts related to the clades Yamadazyma, Kazachstania, Kurtzmaniella, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia and Saturnispora were predominant. In culture assays using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate, Candida tropicalis CLQCA-24SC-125 showed the highest xylitol production, yield and productivity (27.1 g L(-1) xylitol, Y p/s (xyl) = 0.67 g g(-1), Qp = 0.38 g L(-1). A new species of Cyberlindnera, strain CLQCA-24SC-025, was responsible for the second highest xylitol production (24 g L(-1), Y p/s (xyl) = 0.64 g g(-1), Qp = 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1)) on sugarcane hydrolysate. The new xylitol-producing species Cyberlindnera galapagoensis f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the strain CLQCA-24SC-025(T) (=UFMG-CM-Y517(T); CBS 13997(T)). The MycoBank number is MB 812171.

  3. Definitions and Carbon Stocks Accounting Approaches of Harvested Wood Products in Climate Change Negotiation%气候变化谈判中木质林产品的相关概念及其碳储量核算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白彦锋; 姜春前; 张守攻; 雷静品

    2011-01-01

    Under the United Nations framework convention on climate change ( UNFCCC ), all parties are required to report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals. The carbon stocks of harvested wood products (HWP) are also a part of greenhouse gases (GHG) inventory. Forest harvest and wood product consumption play an important role in the carbon balance between forests and atmosphere. Consumption of wood products emits carbon, especially they are used in the landfill. However, the definitions and accounting approaches of HWP are still uncertainty. The implication of approaches applying in different countries is unclear. To impulse the ongoing international negotiation, this paper discussed the definitions and accounting approaches within the documents of UNFCCC and intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) report, and also expanded the implication of HWP from a new position, which gave prominence to equity. In addition, this paper firstly put forward the new definition of carbon quality.%@@ 森林在维持全球碳平衡中发挥着重要的作用.采伐后木质林产品(harvested wood products,HWP)以下简称木质林产品.木质林产品是森林资源利用的自然延伸.

  4. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  5. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage caused by... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 2902.42 Section...

  6. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces Strain K61; Registration... with chemical fungicides. The Wood Oils and Gums Registration Review Case no longer contains any other wood oils or gums with active ingredients with registered products except for cedarwood oil....

  7. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system.

  8. Enzymatic degradation of finely divided wood meal. II. Rollmilling and the subsequent enzymic degradation of Pinus densiflora wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraki, E.; Yaku, F.; Tanaka, R.; Koshijima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The roll-milling of wood (P. densiflora) gave products with particle size less than 10 mu and high rate of saccharification under enzymic hydrolysis. About 90% of the available polysaccharides in wood could be converted into reducing sugars when roll-milled wood was subjected to enzymic hydrolysis using cellulase.

  9. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

  10. Walking in the woods with quantum chemistry--applications of quantum chemical calculations in natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Dean J

    2013-08-01

    This Highlight describes applications of quantum chemical calculations to problems in natural products chemistry, including the elucidation of natural product structures (distinguishing between constitutional isomers, distinguishing between diastereomers, and assigning absolute configuration) and determination of reasonable mechanisms for their formation.

  11. Genetic selection and improvement of hard wood tree species for fuelwood production on sodic soil with particular reference to Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Tree Biology

    2001-07-01

    This study is part of a research programme on selection and improvement of fast growing tree species suitable for wood fuel production on sodic wastelands (pH 8.6-10.5). Field trials of nine legumes (Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, A. procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecellobium dulce) and three other tree species (Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Terminalai arjuna) were selected for this study. Prosopis juliflora was the most promising species in terms of its biomass productivity (68.7 t ha{sup -1}) and fuel value index (148.8) after 8-yr of growth. Acacia nilotica ranked second. Intra-specific variations were screened at provenance and individual tree level in order to improve fuelwood production potential of P. juliflora through selection and breeding. Successful populations (gene pools) and individuals (genotypes) were closed and conserved in clonal gardens to produce quality germplasm for plantations on sodic wastelands. Genetic testing, selection and multiplication of selected material are under progress. This will optimise gains in future afforestation programmes on sodic soils. (Author)

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plantation to the Proceeded Wood Products via State Timber Corporation Depots for Selected Tree Species using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DKL Senadheera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA provides a methodological framework for evaluating environmental performance over the life cycle of a product, process, or an activity. In Sri Lanka, majority of timber for wood based industries comes from homegardens and Government owned forest plantations. State Timber Corporation (STC is the authoritative body for timber harvesting in state owned forest plantations. This LCA study was carried out to calculate Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions of the STC timber movements from the plantation to the finished product. The study concentrated on teak, eucalypt and mahogany species as they represented fast moving commercial timber of high significance. Assessment boundary was from the harvesting to the product. Updated emission factors were used to calculate the CO2 eq units. When considering the emissions during the process, the highest was recorded in the sawmilling process (48% from sawing, 9% from surfacing and 9% from drying. The transportation accounted for 31.25% of emissions while harvesting contributed to 6%. Other indirect emissions accounted for 2.75%.

  13. Effect of copper, nutrient nitrogen, and wood-supplement on the production of lignin-modifying enzymes by the white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Lundell, Taina; Hatakka, Annele; Hildén, Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    Production of the oxidoreductive lignin-modifying enzymes - lignin and manganese peroxidases (MnPs), and laccase - of the white-rot basidiomycete Phlebia radiata was investigated in semi-solid cultures supplemented with milled grey alder or Norway spruce and charcoal. Concentrations of nutrient nitrogen and Cu-supplement varied also in the cultures. According to extracellular activities, production of both lignin peroxidase (LiP) and MnP was significantly promoted with wood as carbon source, with milled alder (MA) and low nitrogen (LN) resulting with the maximal LiP activities (550 nkat l(-1)) and noticeable levels of MnP (3 μkat l(-1)). Activities of LiP and MnP were also elevated on high nitrogen (HN) complex medium when supplemented with spruce and charcoal. Maximal laccase activities (22 and 29 μkat l(-1)) were obtained in extra high nitrogen (eHN) containing defined and complex media supplemented with 1.5 mM Cu(2+). However, the nitrogen source, either peptone or ammonium nitrate and asparagine, caused no stimulation on laccase production without Cu-supplement. This is also the first report to demonstrate a new, on high Cu(2+) amended medium produced extracellular laccase of P. radiata with pI value of 4.9, thereby complementing our previous findings on gene expression, and cloning of a second laccase of this fungus.

  14. Energy wood production in short rotation. Opportunities and problems in their implementation. An analysis involving expert interviews; Energieholzproduktion im Kurzumtrieb. Chancen und Probleme bei ihrer Umsetzung. Eine Analyse unter Einbeziehung von Experteninterviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, Ronny

    2010-12-01

    The thesis has to the content the latest stand and the possibilities of further development of wood energy production by short rotation coppice (SRC). After analyzing the development of this relatively new option of the management of fast growing tree species and their possibilities, the associated legal bases are being analyzed. In addition to related agricultural land, other options will be considered to establish land (forest, fallow land). Weaknesses in delimitation and promotion, especially at country level are discussed. There follows a detailed consideration of the economical and ecological contemplation of wood agricultural cultivation, as well as the basics of the management including the raw material supply. The analyzed results serve as a basis for running interviews with experts of the subject fast growing tree species. The results of the interviews show that SRC mainly as an opportunity for long-term wood energy supply and establishment of regional circuits is seen with emphasis on the agricultural sector, but in this context there are lots of deficits on side of the management technology, basic conditions and other establishment barriers that we are confront with. After overcoming the remaining start-up difficulties however the chances are good to expand the energy wood production in short rotation forestry in an economically viable, ecologically profitable and socially acceptable way and therewith contribute to the diversification of agricultural production and relief of multifunctional forest management. (orig.)

  15. Classifier in Age classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Face is the important feature of the human beings. We can derive various properties of a human by analyzing the face. The objective of the study is to design a classifier for age using facial images. Age classification is essential in many applications like crime detection, employment and face detection. The proposed algorithm contains four phases: preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The classification employs two class labels namely child and Old. This study addresses the limitations in the existing classifiers, as it uses the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM for feature extraction and Support Vector Machine (SVM for classification. This improves the accuracy of the classification as it outperforms the existing methods.

  16. AESTHETICS APPRECIATION OF WOOD COLOUR AND PATTERNS BY COLORIMETRY: PART 1. COLORIMETRY THEORY FOR THE CIELAB SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The colorimetry theory for the CIELab system today allows us to compute the chromatic coordinates of the raw timber colour along the wood - chain industry. The wood industry is nd strongly behind in such areas. Progress in the wood appearance description by means of colour and pattern characteristics would be suitable to classify the wood. It would also help to match pieces of wood in furniture and inside the houses, to study the wood colour change in wood ageing by photodecoloration or by dr...

  17. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  18. Enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips for energy reductions in TMP production. A method for ranking of enzymes; Enzymatisk foerbehandling av flis foer energibesparing vid TMP tillverkning. Metod foer rankning av enzymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2010-11-15

    The production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) demands high levels of energy. This, together with current expensive energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, which is the reason why there is a demand for processes that require less energy. One way of reducing energy consumption in TMP refining could be to pretreat the wood chips with enzymes before the subsequent refining step. However, enzymes molecules are relatively large, which limits the impregnation process, and so the pores in the fibre walls are not large enough to fit the size of the enzymes. By mechanically pretreating wood chips in a screw feeder and press equipment, this opens the wood structure significantly which increases enzyme penetration. If enzymes are used for reducing energy consumption in TMP processes, it is necessary to optimise the enzymatic effect during the pretreatment of wood chips. It is very expensive to evaluate completely the effect of enzymes in large scale refining. Thus there is a need for other relevant methods for rapidly and effectively evaluating the energy saving effects when it comes to refining enzymatic pretreated wood chips. The aim of this project was to find a method for ranking of enzymes for pretreatment of chips for energy savings at TMP production. This method was to be independent of the type of enzyme used and of the type of pretreated wood chips involved. In order to asses the method for ranking enzymes being used in the pretreatment of chips to reduce energy input during refining, a comparison between the method and a mill trial was carried out in the mill trial. A known chemical pretreatment was used; here it was sulphonation of the wood chips before refining with low sulphite levels. Further, a laboratory wing refiner was used as an evaluation equipment. The trial started with the running conditions for a wing refiner that the best correspond with industrial refining. An evaluation was made on the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on energy

  19. Generalized classifier neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyildirim, Buse Melis; Avci, Mutlu

    2013-03-01

    In this work a new radial basis function based classification neural network named as generalized classifier neural network, is proposed. The proposed generalized classifier neural network has five layers, unlike other radial basis function based neural networks such as generalized regression neural network and probabilistic neural network. They are input, pattern, summation, normalization and output layers. In addition to topological difference, the proposed neural network has gradient descent based optimization of smoothing parameter approach and diverge effect term added calculation improvements. Diverge effect term is an improvement on summation layer calculation to supply additional separation ability and flexibility. Performance of generalized classifier neural network is compared with that of the probabilistic neural network, multilayer perceptron algorithm and radial basis function neural network on 9 different data sets and with that of generalized regression neural network on 3 different data sets include only two classes in MATLAB environment. Better classification performance up to %89 is observed. Improved classification performances proved the effectivity of the proposed neural network.

  20. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  1. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  2. The value chain of non-wood forest products as a component of development of the forestry sector in a part of South Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The value chain represents a detailed outline of the process that a product or service passes from raw materials, production and distribution to the consumer. The aim of this article is that within the analyzed companies in the area of the statistical region of South Serbia determined the dynamics of purchasing and marketing of non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and their value. The purpose of this research is to examine the possibilities for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs towards sustainable use of NWFPs in a part of the territory of South Serbia. The subjects of the research are: purchased and sold quantities in analyzed companies, as well as the prices of these products in the market. The research was conducted in the territory of the dominant Pcinja, and they included 19 companies engaged in purchasing, processing and sale of NTFPs. The purchase of forest raspberries, wild strawberries and blackberries and herbs is represented within the Pcinja District. The highest average annual growth rates were recorded in the sales of products with added value of dog rose (Rosa canina and cornelian (Cornus mas. Export oriented enterprises in this area are at a low level. The total gross revenue earned by the placement of the selected final NWFPs in the domestic market was about 6,315,710 €. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji, i br. TP 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  3. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions (

  4. Enzyme production by wood-rot and soft-rot fungi cultivated on corn fiber followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir K; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2009-05-27

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert lignocellulosic corn fiber into fermentable sugars at a moderate temperature (37 °C) with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum), and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used for in situ enzyme production to hydrolyze cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber by either white- or brown-rot fungi followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with coculture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown a possibility of enhancing wood rot saccharification of corn fiber for ethanol fermentation. The laboratory-scale fungal saccharification and fermentation process incorporated in situ cellulolytic enzyme induction, which enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose components of corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, and trisaccharides). The yeast fermentation of the hydrolyzate yielded 7.8, 8.6, and 4.9 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol per 100 g initial corn fiber) is equivalent to 35% of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. This research has significant commercial potential to increase net ethanol production per bushel of corn through the utilization of corn fiber. There is also a great research opportunity to evaluate the remaining biomass residue (enriched with fungal protein) as animal feed.

  5. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  6. Wood Crosscutting Process Analysis for Circular Saws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Krilek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the influence of some cutting parameters (geometry of cutting edge, wood species, and circular saw type and cutting conditions on the wood crosscutting process carried out with circular saws. The establishment of torque values and feeding power for the crosswise wood cutting process has significant implications for designers of crosscutting lines. The conditions of the experiments are similar to the working conditions of real machines, and the results of individual experiments can be compared with the results obtained via similar experimental workstations. Knowledge of the wood crosscutting process, as well as the choice of suitable cutting conditions and tools could decrease wood production costs and save energy. Changing circular saw type was found to have the biggest influence on cutting power of all factors tested.

  7. Wood science department enters partnership to create seamless pathway for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Wood Science and Forest Products in the College of Natural Resources at Virginia Tech has initiated a partnership with kindergarten through twelfth grade schools, the Southern Virginia Higher Education Center, and Danville Community College to create seamless educational pathways in the areas of wood science, advanced wood manufacturing, and wood design.

  8. PRODUCTION NETWORKS, AND DIGITAL LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE WOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN THE CITY OF BURI, SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Helena Sguizzardi Abascal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil municipalities and regions face nowadays plenty of challenges to achieve a sustainable development founded in logistic and productive relationship networks. These networks and respective operations require knowledge and domain of productive possibilities and business opportunities that can develop themselves in regional and endogenous territorial scales. These challenges derive of the fact that municipalities are part of many government and administrative regions in brazilian states to actuate in solidary and synergic way, potentializing relationships with respective congeners. Networks formation requests a rigorous knowledge of the socioeconomic conditions, the municipalities and the regions characters, and it requests TIC (Communication and Information Technologies instrumental use, being able to give ways to expand and to know the social actors that are related and their potential partners through digital networks. This type of networks enables a synchronic management of territorial and economic complexities, in real time (just in time. This article analyzes by critical way the causes of socioeconomic depression of Sao Paulo State southwest region, with the objective of identifying the responsible factors of its stagnation. It also analyzes specific characteristics of Buri Municipality that is situated in southwest Sao Paulo State region. Showing business networks formation based on the transformation wood industry. This natural product is available in the region, here we investigate the local development possibilities, productive and logistic networks (Material Networks and we suggest digital networks use. These actions not just only create regional advantages, but indeed releases Sao Paulo metropolis: either its spaces and its circulation highways, unduly congested due vehicle concentration that is responsible by transport, state and federal logistic.

  9. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Classifier parameters V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 TOA/Cloud Classifiers Product. It contains the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), Regional Cloud Classifiers, Cloud Shadow Mask, and...

  10. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  11. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel; Sianchuk, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    , modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles....... Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was affected...... substantially by the number of houses in the stock and their half-lives. Approximately 4.5 million tonnes of SWP demolition waste were produced in 2010, and in the same year, the stock of SWPs in US single family homes reached 1,220 million tonnes. © Forest Products Society 2012....

  12. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    Full Text Available As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST, so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE, 9-11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40, and environmental chamber method (EC of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1 Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2 In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3 Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC-the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk

  13. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  14. Classifying TDSS Stellar Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Rachael Christina; Green, Paul J.; TDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), a subprogram of SDSS-IV eBOSS, obtains classification/discovery spectra of point-source photometric variables selected from PanSTARRS and SDSS multi-color light curves regardless of object color or lightcurve shape. Tens of thousands of TDSS spectra are already available and have been spectroscopically classified both via pipeline and by visual inspection. About half of these spectra are quasars, half are stars. Our goal is to classify the stars with their correct variability types. We do this by acquiring public multi-epoch light curves for brighter stars (rprogram for analyzing astronomical time-series data, to constrain variable type both for broad statistics relevant to future surveys like the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and to find the inevitable exotic oddballs that warrant further follow-up. Specifically, the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram and the Box-Least Squares Method are being implemented and tested against their known variable classifications and parameters in the Catalina Surveys Periodic Variable Star Catalog. Variable star classifications include RR Lyr, close eclipsing binaries, CVs, pulsating white dwarfs, and other exotic systems. The key difference between our catalog and others is that along with the light curves, we will be using TDSS spectra to help in the classification of variable type, as spectra are rich with information allowing estimation of physical parameters like temperature, metallicity, gravity, etc. This work was supported by the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, which is funded by a grant from Sloan Foundation to the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  15. Parameters of quality of the woodworkability for determination of different usage of Eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood products used in the furniture industry need to have wood work machine surfaces quality optimized andpatronized. There are some classification methods to determine the wood quality, including visual inspection, determination of theadvance per tooth (fz, rugosimeter and laser or just touching. After the wood classification it is determined the usage of the differentwood qualities. The empiricism of the quality parameters in the indication of uses is not always ideal. This study determined the qualityof surfaces of Eucalyptus flat wood and defined appropriate uses for the different quality classes obtained. It had been worked machinedifferent Eucalyptus samples by planer with speed of advance of 3,6,15 and 30 m*min-1. To classify the wood, the determination of theadvance per tooth (calculated fz and measured fz and the visual qualification (ASTMD 1666-87, 1995 were used. Later the woodusage according to quality was determined. The percentage of good samples decreased as the speed advance increased: reaching92%, 69%, 0% and 0% for advance speed of 3,6,15 and 30 m*min-1 respectively. Samples prepared at the speed of 3 and 6 m*min-1 were used to fabricate furniture, cabinet frame and thresholds. About 54%of samples prepared at the speed of 15 m*min-1 were usedfor railing, lambris, structural panels and flooring. About 46% and 100% of samples prepared at the speed of 15 and 30 m*min-1,respectively, were used to fabricate dividers, trusses, fences and, or, exterior gates.

  16. Wood quality and value production in mixed fir-spruce-beech stands: long-term research in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem quality and damage was evaluated in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands. Moreover, an assortments structure was determined with their financial value. Results were compared with pure spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst., fir (Abies alba Mill. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands. Repeated measurements on 31 long-term research plots, stand assortment models, assortment yield models and value yield models were used. Stem quality of fir and spruce was only slightly lower in mixed stands compared to pure stands but beech stem quality was considerably worse in mixed stands. Fir and spruce had slightly lower proportions of better IIIA quality logs and higher proportions of IIIB quality in mixed stands. Beech had worse assortment structure than spruce and fir, in general. Pure beech stands had higher proportions of better I–IIIA quality assortments than mixed stands by 1–7%. Fir and spruce average value production (€ m−3 culminated at about 56 and 62 cm mean diameters. Almost the same value production was found in pure stands. In these stands it culminated at the mean diameter of 58 and 60 cm. Beech produced substantially less value on the same sites. In mixed stands, its value production culminated at the mean diameter of 40 cm. In pure stands, it culminated at the mean diameter of 36 cm. Although the production was found to be similar in both mixed and pure forests, higher damage intensity and less stem quality in mixed forests suggest that the pure forests can be more profitable.

  17. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VI. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm: the natural system interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-05-01

    A review of pertinent literature covered the following: eucalypt background, the candidate species, biomass plantation considerations, effects of site production, leachate and allelopathy, and some exotic flora considerations. The comparative eucalypt field survey covers mined land stands, unmined south Florida stands, and Glade County eucalypt stands. The problem of eucalypt naturalization is discussed.

  18. Strategies for reducing supplemental medium cost in bioethanol production from waste house wood hydrolysate by ethanologenic Escherichia coli: inoculum size increase and coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simultaneous realization of both efficient ethanol production and saving medium nutrient (corn steep liquor [CSL]) during bioethanol fermentation of overliming-treated hydrolysate of waste house wood (WHW) using ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11. In cultivation using WHW hydrolysate supplemented with 4% (v/v) CSL and 0.2 g-dry cell weight (DCW)/l E. coli KO11 cells, the overall ethanol yield reached 84% of the theoretical value at 61 h. When we conducted the cultivation with 1% CSL to reduce the supplemental medium cost, the overall ethanol yield remained in the range of 66-72% even at 90 h. We proposed two alternative methods for increasing the overall yield even with 1% CSL. The first method involved increasing the inoculum size of E. coli KO11 up to 0.8 g-DCW/l, where 83% of the overall yield was attained at 60 h of cultivation. The second method involved the coculture of 0.2 g-DCW/l E. coli KO11 together with 0.02 g-DCW/l of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ1, and the overall yield reached 81% at 47 h of cultivation.

  19. Inspecting wood surface roughness using computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezeng

    1995-01-01

    Wood surface roughness is one of the important indexes of manufactured wood products. This paper presents an attempt to develop a new method to evaluate manufactured wood surface roughness through the utilization of imaging processing and pattern recognition techniques. In this paper a collimated plane of light or a laser is directed onto the inspected wood surface at a sharp angle of incidence. An optics system that consists of lens focuses the image of the surface onto the objective of a CCD camera, the CCD camera captures the image of the surface and using a CA6300 board digitizes the image. The digitized image is transmitted into a microcomputer. Through the use of the methodology presented in this paper, the computer filters the noise and wood anatomical grain and gives an evaluation of the nature of the manufactured wood surface. The preliminary results indicated that the method has the advantages of non-contact, 3D, high-speed. This method can be used in classification and in- time measurement of manufactured wood products.

  20. Research advance in wood composites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Wood composites can generally be classified in three parts: laminated composites, mixed composites and penetrated composites. Every part has its own characteristic and can be further divided. This paper introduces the history and the state of development of wood composites in China. The research about glue-laminated timber is rare and the industry hardly comes to being. A great of achievements have been obtained in mixed composites and it is well industrialized. Many studies on scrimber have been done and the Chinese researchers are looking for a feasible way to develop the scrimber industry in China. Chinese researchers also spent so much energy in studying wood plastic composites (WPC), but it has not been industrialized due to the high cost.

  1. The sensitivity of wood production to seasonal and interannual variations in climate in a lowland Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Lucy; Malhi, Y; Silva-Espejo, J E; Farfán-Amézquita, F; Halladay, K; Doughty, C E; Meir, P; Phillips, O L

    2014-01-01

    Understanding climatic controls on tropical forest productivity is key to developing more reliable models for predicting how tropical biomes may respond to climate change. Currently there is no consensus on which factors control seasonal changes in tropical forest tree growth. This study reports the first comprehensive plot-level description of the seasonality of growth in a Peruvian tropical forest. We test whether seasonal and interannual variations in climate are correlated with changes in biomass increment, and whether such relationships differ among trees with different functional traits. We found that biomass increments, measured every 3 months on the two plots, were reduced by between 40 and 55% in the peak dry season (July-September) relative to peak wet season (January-March). The seasonal patterns of biomass accumulation are significantly (p productive in the wet season, but more vulnerable to water limitation in the dry season.

  2. Application of Touch Screen Panels in the Control System of Wood-based Board Production Lines%触摸屏在人造板生产线控制系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭会堂

    2012-01-01

    The application of touch screen panels in the control system of wood-based board production lines is introduced. A touch screen panel, a man-machine interface, serves as a bridge for the bi-directional communication between operators and machines, suitable for the wide application and popularization in the control system of small and medium-sized wood-based board production lines.%介绍了触摸屏在人造板生产线控制系统中的应用。触摸屏这一人机界面作为操作人员和机器之间双向沟通的桥梁,适合在中小型人造板生产线控制系统中广泛推广应用。

  3. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  4. [Hygienic and immuno-allergologic aspects of the effects of formaldehyde and wood dust in furniture production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueva, L A; Avdeeva, I A; Rodman, L S

    1996-01-01

    The study evaluated effects of threshold sensitizing levels of formaldehyde (and its combination with woody dust) on health of furniture production workers. The results enable to conclude that MAC of formaldehyde (or combined with woody dust) increases danger of symptomatic allergies and considerably alters immune reactivity, causing atopic immune state. Formaldehyde promotes general nonspecific diseases by inducing the hyperergic reactivity that exhausts immune defense mechanisms.

  5. Production of bio-oils from wood by flash pyrolysis; Herstellung von Bio-Oelen aus Holz in einer Flash-Pyrolyseanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Ollesch, T. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes; Gerdes, C.; Kaminsky, W. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMCh)

    1998-09-01

    Flash pyrolysis is a medium-temperature process (around 475 C) in which biomass is heated up rapidly in the absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis products are cooled down rapidly, condensing into a reddish-brown liquid with around half the calorific value of a conventional heating oil. In contrast to conventional charcoal production, flash pyrolysis is a modern process whose process parameters enure high liquid yields. Modern fluidized-bed reactors for flash pyrolysis of biomass tend to have high heating rates and short times of residue. In the `Hamburg process`, fluidized-bed reactors are used successfully for pyrolysis of plastics. A flash pyrolysis plant for biomass treatment was constructed in cooperation with Hamburg University with funds provided by the `Bundesstiftung Umwelt`. This contribution describes the first series of experiments, mass balances and oil analyses using beech wood as material to be pyrolyzed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Flash-Pyrolyse ist ein Mitteltemperatur-Prozess (ca. 475 C), in dem Biomasse unter Sauerstoffausschluss sehr schnell erhitzt wird. Die entstehenden Pyrolyseprodukte werden schnell abgekuehlt und kondensieren zu einer roetlich-braunen Fluessigkeit, die etwa die Haelfte des Heizwertes eines konventionellen Heizoeles besitzt. Flash-Pyrolyse ist, im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Holzverkohlung, ein modernes Verfahren, dessen spezielle Verfahrensparameter hohe Fluessigausbeuten ermoeglichen. Hohe Aufheizraten, verbunden mit kurzen Verweilzeiten, werden mit stationaeren Wirbelbettreaktoren erzielt die gegenwaertig vorwiegend fuer die Flash-Pyrolyse von Biomasse eingesetzt werden. Im `Hamburger Verfahren` haben sich Wirbelbettreaktoren im Bereich der Kunststoffpyrolyse bewaehrt. Daher wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universitaet Hamburg und finanzieller Foerderung der Bundesstiftung Umwelt eine Flash-Pyrolyseanlage fuer Biomasse gebaut: In dieser Arbeit werden erste Versuchsreihen, Massenbilanzen und Oelanalysen aus der Pyrolyse von

  6. HYGROSCOPICITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE WITH PADOU FLOUR AND POLYPROPYLENE PELLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Emmanuel NZUDJOM SOUOP; Joseph Albert MUKAM FOTSING

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of objects in wood-plastic composites which is a material already available in many developed countries seems almost unknown in Cameroon since the production factory of objects in wood-plastic composites does not exist up till here. Interested in the study of properties of wood-plastic composites throughconnection of simple plastic and wood, we have oriented our paper in the elaboration, realization and physical characterization of wood-plastic composites with Padou and polypr...

  7. Lignification and tension wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.

  8. Use of Non Wood Forest Products by local people bordering the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi", Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belem, Bassirou; Nacoulma, Blandine Marie Ivette; Gbangou, Roland

    2007-01-01

    In the French-speaking countries of Africa, strategies of conservation, inherited from thecolonial time, exclude the bordering people in the management of the national parks plant resources. Today, policies and legislation try to reconcile forest conservation and development by associating local...... this issue in the case of the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi" in Burkina Faso, byproposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products, analyse...... the park vegetation structure and assess the degree of regeneration of the main useful species. The surveys reveal that bordering people consider the park as their granary, their pharmacy, their pasture, their place of religious worship, and the source of the strength of their territory. They harvest...

  9. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  10. Particleboards with waste wood from reforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the potential of manufacturing bonded particleboards using timber industry waste of Pinus spp. Panels were evaluated with 0.6 and 0.8 g cm-3 of density and produced with urea-formaldehyde resin and bi-component polyurethane resin based on castor oil. Panels were made of particles with nominal dimensions 40 x40 cm and a thickness of1 cm. As process parameters was adopted 2 - 5% moisture content, temperature ranging from 90 to130°C, average pressure of 5.0 MPa and resin content from 10 to 15% of the weight particles. This study determined physical-mechanical properties of the panels, following the recommendations of ABNT (2006 NBR 14810. The results indicated statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 in physical and mechanical properties of the panels studied. Panels were classified by ANSI (1993 A208.1 – Mat-formed wood particleboard: Specification, as of low and medium density. Scanning electron microscopy images (SEM illustrated the agglomeration of particles for the different resins. The polyurethane resin based on castor oil stood out as a viable alternative in the production of particleboards with timber waste.

  11. Liquidambar para produção de madeira no sul e sudeste do Brasil Sweetgum for wood production in the South and Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

    2011-03-01

    equilíbrio. Além disso, esta espécie tem  a capacidade de regenerar vigorosamente a partir das  touças e das raízes adventícias.
    Sweetgum is a North and Central American tree species well known for the healing gum since the times of the Aztec civilization. In the southern United States, this is the most widely planted broadleaf species for wood  production. It grows well on a variety of site conditions, including on alluvial soil prone to flooding. As a result  of the wide natural distribution, it shows important variations in phenology and growth traits. The more  northern provenances tend to shut down growth processes much earlier and resume them later than the southern sources. These variations reflect directly on  the growth patterns among seed sources. Experiments  in several sites have demonstrated its potential value for wood production in small wood lots in the South and Southeastern Brazil. The most southern seed sources  (Central American have proved to be far more  productive than the North Americans; the fastest  growing provenances have shown productivity similar to fast growing eucalypts, in the order of 40 m3/ha.yr. The  ood has multiple use including pulp, railway sleepers, sawn timber, furniture and firewood. It is  especially valued for use in veneer and plywood  industries. However, it must be dealt with cautiously because of its highly invasive nature. In Brazil, it  produces large amounts of seed with great chances to  germinate and to rapidly take over the site. One key  factor for this success is the absence of foraging agents  uch as birds and rodents which coexist in its  natural range. Moreover, this species regenerates vigorously from stumps as well as from adventitious  roots.

  12. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF “CERRADO” VEGETATION WOOD FOR ENERGY PROUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The wood anatomy of 7 from “cerrado”(chapada natives specie, Santa Quitéria(Maranhão was studied. Mainlyrelated to their qualification for energy production (charcoal and fire wood. The fraction of total area in a transverse section,fiber vessel, parenchyma cells, and total biomass per cubic meter of dry wood and also the basic density (specific weight ofwood were studied. For energy production, wall fraction in relation to the occupied area of the cell (%, percent of fibers,vessel, and both axial and ray parenchyma, as well as wall density were considered. The study was based in 3 areas in a crosssectionof the trunk, from the center towards the sapwood, called areas 1, 2 and 3. Based on anatomy and density mentioned,Lindackeria paraensis (farinha-seca, Parkia platycephala (faveira, Platonia insignis (bacuri, Salvertia convallariodora(folha-grande, Swartzia flaemingii(jacarandá, Vatarea macrocarpa (amargoso and Zeyhera tuberculata(pau-d”arcocabeludocan be classified as energy production tree species.

  13. Development of Electroless Copper and Gold Plating on Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUGao; ZHAOGuangjie

    2004-01-01

    The use of more and more electron products requires interior wood products to have the performance of electromagnetic shielding. One of the ways to realize it is to introduce the chemical plating which has already been developed in electron industry into wood processing. The paper clarifies the mechanism of electroless copper and gold plating and its application to wood. It emphasizes the development and technology of electroless copper and gold plating on wood. Meanwhile, it points out that it is highly feasible to take this technology into effect.

  14. Edge Glued Wood Panel Technology and an Assessment on the Development of Edge Glued Wood Panel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Dilik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it is aimed to determine the general situation of edge glued wood panel industry that is rapidly developing in Turkey with the reasons of this development similar to the development edge glued wood panel industry in the world. Besides, starting from its definition, there are information about edge glued wood panel, comparison with other panel products and technology preferences of production. As the result of this study, there are 3 essential reasons of the rapid development of edge glued wood panel industry in Turkey. These are; (1 Environmental health and ecological approaches as a movement of thought having impact on the consumer behaviors and rapidly improving throughout the world, (2 Having less production and investment cost compared to the other wood based material production and investments and (3 In addition to the advantages owned when compared to the other wood based materials, having the production technology involving flexible production systems to respond to every demand level. According to the data related to edge glued wood panel demand and supplies, the production of edge glued wood panels replace to East Europe where there is also Turkey. It is determined that investment and cost of Turkish edge glued wood panel are mainly in Marmara region (43.3% and raw material (43% respectively. 67% coniferous and 33% broad leaved tree species are used in Turkish edge glued wood panel production. The most preferred edge glued wood panel thicknesses are 16, 19, 30 and 42 mm. The technological preferences of the manufacturers depend on their machines and production line with optimization systems where as the users’ preferences are price and quality by 90%. It is determined that with its structural condition, the sector is open for investment and development.

  15. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  16. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe. Price formation and internationalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Olle

    2012-07-01

    unrefined wood fuel markets still are mainly national, wood pellet markets are becoming internationalized. As for external impacts on wood fuel prices, the influence of forest products markets seem hitherto have been more important than oil price fluctuations. Wood fuels can be an important part of the future European energy system, but the complexities of the markets must be understood more thoroughly to ensure efficient resource utilization.

  17. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  18. 超细气流粉碎分级系统产品粒径的确定与控制%Determination and Control of Product Size for a Ultrafine Milling-Classifying Closed Loop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪东; 卓震

    2001-01-01

    The closed loop system which composed by ultrafine pancake jet mill and ultrafine centrifugal air classifier has been set up. The product cut size of jet mill is less than 10 μm. The classifier obtains sharp distributio n of end product cut size. Feeding rate of jet mill, rotational speed of classif ier, flow rate of secondary air flow and flow rate of third air flow are the fac tors that affect on the cut size of end product. The optimal operation conditio ns of the system are discussed by using orthogonal experiment. The relation among rotational speed of classifier, feeding rate of jet mill, flow rate of s econda ry air flow of classifier and end product cut size has been analyzed by means of regressive method. Based on the results of regressive analysis, the end product cut size control process of ultrafine milling and classifying system is introdu ced in this paper. The feasibility of compuer control system has been testified by the results of experiments.%建立扁平式超细气流粉碎机与离心式超细空气分级机 组成的闭路循环系统。粉碎机将 粉碎原料粉碎至粒度10 μm左右,分级机使粉碎产品的粒度分布更窄。影响超细气流粉 碎分级系统产品粒径的因素有粉碎机的加料速度、分级机叶轮转速及分级机二、三次风量等 。通过正交试验及最小二乘法得到分级机分级叶轮转速、粉碎机加料速度、二次风量等对产 品粒径影响的回归公式。正交试验结果表明,当分级机分级叶轮转速增加时,产品粒径减小 ;当原料加入速度增加,产品粒径增大;二次风量增加,产品粒径稍有减少。在回归分析的 基础上,建立粉碎分级系统产品粒径的计算机控制过程。通过计算机控制粉碎分级系统产品 粒径,实现粉碎产品粒径的“目标控制”。控制系统的可行性得到试验结果的验证。

  19. A Review of Relationships Between Wood Quality and Silvicultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy Listyanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of silviculture on wood quality has been approached from different perspectives. This relationship is being a critical concern of forest managers, landowners, and also researchers. Reliable information is needed to support forest managers in predicting the consequences of various silvicultural practices in terms of quantity and wood quality. Wood has beed used for a variety of products. Each product has particular requirements regarding quality. The variation of wood quality requirement allows industries to decide to use timber resource appropriate for their products. Silvicultural practives cover all treatments applied in forest stand management especially to improve the quality of stand, including manipulation of the availability of sunlight, nutrient and water by using several treatments such as thinning, control of spacing, fertilizing, and pruning. The quality of stand is aimed to achieve particular forest management objectives including higher wood quality. There is no broad generalization regarding the relation between silvicultural practice and wood quality. Many investigators showed positive results in relation to producing high quality of wood products, while other researchers revealed negative effects. Reliable information is needed to support forest managers in predicting the consequences of various silvicultural practices in relation to the wood quantity and quality. Continuous research is needed to find methods of producing wood of high quality based on silvicultural practices and genetic improvement which can be used in wider area by considering limitation including environment and geographic variation.

  20. Challenges and Opportunities in the Use of Marketing Tools and the Promotion of Non Wood Forest Products-Based Small and Medium Enterprises in the South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonka Stojanovska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The South-east Europe (SEE region is facing a new market economy era where establishing new businesses is more than needed in all sectors. The forest sector, faced with new market emerging opportunities, is affected by the constant increase of a number of forest related enterprises. This paper describes the challenges and opportunities related to the use of marketing tools for improving business of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs dealing with non-wood forest products (NWFPs in SEE region. The research on this subject in the SEE region is scarce despite the rich biodiversity as a solid base for establishing eco-businesses. Materials and Methods: The method used in this paper is quantitative, based on survey data collected from enterprises in the NWFPs sector followed by statistical data analyses using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The survey was conducted during 2011 and 2012 in four SEE countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia. Results: The results showed that developed channels of distribution, branding and advertising of NWFPs are recognized in all countries as important and very important, but these marketing tools are used only few times per year. The majority of respondents pointed out advertising as the most frequently used and as the most successful tool. Interviewees’ future investments are to be focused on improving equipment for drying, packing, refrigerating and transport. Several entrepreneurs from Macedonia pointed out that they would invest in increasing the number of buying points and herb plantations while almost all Croatian entrepreneurs will invest in advertising, branding and promotion. Majority of respondents from Serbia are also of the opinion that financial resources should be invested in new equipment. The reasons for these investments can be summarized in reducing costs and increasing profit or in faster turnover. Conclusions: The use of marketing

  1. SCENARIO OF WOOD-FUEL PROCUREMENT FOR A NEW BOILER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov Y. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the results of computer simulation of wood harvesting in the North Ladoga region with wood-fuel production and delivery of its part to the new boiler plant in Suojarvi being under construction

  2. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Classifying Finitely Generated Indecomposable RA Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelissen, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    In 1995, E. Jespers, G. Leal and C. Polcino Milies classified all finite ring alternative loops (RA loops for short) which are not direct products of proper subloops. In this paper we extend this result to finitely generated RA loops and provide an explicit description of all such loops.

  4. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-05-24

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  5. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  6. Feature Selection and Effective Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogun, Jitender S.; Choubey, Suresh K.; Raghavan, Vijay V.; Sever, Hayri

    1998-01-01

    Develops and analyzes four algorithms for feature selection in the context of rough set methodology. Experimental results confirm the expected relationship between the time complexity of these algorithms and the classification accuracy of the resulting upper classifiers. When compared, results of upper classifiers perform better than lower…

  7. 基于绿色消费心理木制品供应链追溯卡的设计∗%Design of a Tracing Card for Wood Product Supply Chain Based on Green Consumption Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜桂梅; 胡连珍; 巫慧丽; 邱荣祖

    2015-01-01

    Western countries have formed a green consumption psychology in recent years and intro ̄duced a series of related international trade laws. This has created green trade barriers and brought a ̄bout adverse effects to China’s wood product export. In order to meet such a green consumption psy ̄chology, M1S70 card was applied as the tracing card for wood product supply chain, in order to real ̄ize the recording and tracing of the entire wood product supply chain. The design of the security mech ̄anism consists of three levels of permission: the enterprise permission can read upstream log and write production log; the government permission can lock upstream log permanently during supervision; the consumer permission can read the entire process log. This design may prevent illegal timber from ente ̄ring the manufacturing process, so as to improve the international competitiveness of domestic wood products and to help consumers understand the sources of raw materials as well as the manufacturing process.%为了满足欧美消费者绿色消费心理需求,应用M1S70卡作为木制品供应链追溯卡,实现了对木制品供应链日志的全程记录。设计了三级权限的安全机制:企业权限可以阅读上游日志并写入生产日志;政府权限可以在监管时永久锁定上游日志;而消费者权限可透明阅读全程日志。安全机制能阻绝盗砍滥伐的非法木材进入加工环节,提高国产木制品的国际竞争力,帮助消费者了解木制品原料来源和工艺流程。

  8. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  9. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  10. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  11. Formation of silicon carbide nanorods from wood-based carbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T; Castro, [No Value; Fujisawa, M; Imamura, Y; Bonnamy, S; Bronsveld, P; Kikuchi, H

    2005-01-01

    Man-made ceramic wood similar to petrified wood found in nature can be used at high temperature as the high oxidation rate of carbon above 500 degrees C is suppressed by a mu m thin SiC coating similar to the shuttle's heat shield. Possible applications are in the field of energy production, e.g., g

  12. Wood pellet market and trade: A global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Cocchi, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Marchal, D.; Thrän, D.; Hennig, C.; Heinimo, J.; Nikolaisen, L.; Schouwenberg, P.P.; Bradley, D.; Hess, R.F.; Jacobson, J.; Ovard, L.; Deutmeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high signifi cance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric

  13. MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fu...

  14. Composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood": a new material for fresh water production from atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Avadhesh

    2016-04-01

    In this study a novel composite desiccant material "CaCl2/Vermiculite/Saw wood" have been synthesized and tested for the water generation from atmospheric air. The vermiculite- saw wood used as a host matrix and CaCl2 as a hygroscopic salt. A solar glass desiccant box type system with a collector area of 0.36 m2 has been used. Design parameters for water generation are height of glass from the desiccant material bed as 0.22 m, inclination in angle as 30º, the effective thickness of glass as 3 mm and number of glazing as single. It has been found that the concentration of calcium chloride is the most influencing factor for fresh water generation from atmospheric air. The maximum amount of water produced by using novel composite desiccant material is 195 ml/kg/day.

  15. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and secondary production in three wood-poor, second-growth, headwater streams in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, S. A.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.; Tank, J. L.; Lamberti, G. A.

    2005-05-01

    Benthic organic matter (BOM) is retained by in-stream wood in forested streams and is often the primary food resource for aquatic macroinvertebrates. We sampled BOM and macroinvertebrates in three, forested headwater streams within the same watershed and predicted that BOM standing stocks would be high and, therefore, macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups would be dominated by shredders and gatherers. However, all streams had low annual average standing stocks of BOM (75 to 166 gAFDM m-2), and low shredder biomass (bryophytes for food and habitat. We conclude that macroinvertebrate communities in these streams are limited by BOM that was not retained in-stream because of reduced wood inputs from past logging.

  16. Process optimisation for the production of heat for greenhouses using wood; Prozessoptimierung bei der Waermeerzeugung mit Holz in Gewaechshaeusern. 1'600 kW Holzheizung Steinmaur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a wood-fired, 1,600 kW heating system for several greenhouses in Steinmaur, Switzerland. The system is to offer an alternative to traditional oil or gas-fired heating systems generally used for this purpose. The aims of the project are listed and the results obtained from measurements made during a half-year period are discussed. The authors stress the importance of a 100 m{sup 3} storage tank and optimal storage management as an important feature of the project. The requirements placed on heating systems for greenhouses are discussed. The particular characteristics of wood-fired heating systems and their control in such applications are discussed. Further, economical aspects and the optimisation of the system are looked at and recommendations for further projects are made.

  17. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schubert; Pascal Ruedin; Chiara Civardi; Michael Richter; André Hach; Herbert Christen

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected...

  18. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  19. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schubert

    Full Text Available Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water. The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin. The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA, the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  20. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%.

  1. Classified

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    In the last issue of the Bulletin, we have discussed recent implications for privacy on the Internet. But privacy of personal data is just one facet of data protection. Confidentiality is another one. However, confidentiality and data protection are often perceived as not relevant in the academic environment of CERN.   But think twice! At CERN, your personal data, e-mails, medical records, financial and contractual documents, MARS forms, group meeting minutes (and of course your password!) are all considered to be sensitive, restricted or even confidential. And this is not all. Physics results, in particular when being preliminary and pending scrutiny, are sensitive, too. Just recently, an ATLAS collaborator copy/pasted the abstract of an ATLAS note onto an external public blog, despite the fact that this document was clearly marked as an "Internal Note". Such an act was not only embarrassing to the ATLAS collaboration, and had negative impact on CERN’s reputation --- i...

  2. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  3. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  4. Comportamento da cor de lâminas de madeira de Pau-marfim (Balfourodendron riedelianum tratada com produtos de acabamento Color behavior of Pau-marfim (Balfourodendron riedelianum wood laminates treated with finishing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Melo Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho testou produtos no combate ao envelhecimento da madeira. Através de uma câmara de envelhecimento e aparelho de espectrocolorimetria, caracterizou-se a influência de produtos químicos de acabamentos aplicados à madeira durante processo artificial de fotodegradação. Acompanhou-se o envelhecimento do Pau-marfim (Balfourodendron riedelianum por 8.807 medições colorimétricas, após receber ciclos de radiação ultravioleta durante períodos: 20, 40, 60, 80, 120, 180, 250, 310, 410 e 500 horas. O sistema CIE La*b* de 1976 mostrou as modificações das cores. O uso da seladora provocou uma maior variação dos parâmetros colorimétricos da madeira quando comparado aos demais tratamentos.This study tested products to combat aging of wood. Through an aging chamber and a spectrocolorimetry device, the influence of chemical finishing products applied to wood were characterized during artificial photodegradation process. The aging of Balfourodendron riedelianum was monitored through 8.807 colorimetry measurements, with the samples undergoing cycles of ultraviolet radiation for periods of: 20, 40, 60, 80, 120, 180, 250, 310, 410 and 500 hours. The data was loaded to Excel and processed. The CIE La*b* system of 1976 showed the color changes. The use of a sealant caused a greater variation in the wood's colorimetric parameters when compared to other treatment methods.

  5. Optimally Training a Cascade Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den

    2010-01-01

    Cascade classifiers are widely used in real-time object detection. Different from conventional classifiers that are designed for a low overall classification error rate, a classifier in each node of the cascade is required to achieve an extremely high detection rate and moderate false positive rate. Although there are a few reported methods addressing this requirement in the context of object detection, there is no a principled feature selection method that explicitly takes into account this asymmetric node learning objective. We provide such an algorithm here. We show a special case of the biased minimax probability machine has the same formulation as the linear asymmetric classifier (LAC) of \\cite{wu2005linear}. We then design a new boosting algorithm that directly optimizes the cost function of LAC. The resulting totally-corrective boosting algorithm is implemented by the column generation technique in convex optimization. Experimental results on object detection verify the effectiveness of the proposed bo...

  6. Combining different types of classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Gatnar, Eugeniusz

    2008-01-01

    Model fusion has proved to be a very successful strategy for obtaining accurate models in classification and regression. The key issue, however, is the diversity of the component classifiers because classification error of an ensemble depends on the correlation between its members. The majority of existing ensemble methods combine the same type of models, e.g. trees. In order to promote the diversity of the ensemble members, we propose to aggregate classifiers of different t...

  7. Wood energy Technology Program; Puuenergian teknologiaohjelma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    The National Wood Energy Technology Program focuses on developing the production technology and improving the quality of forest chips from logging residues and small- sized trees. In 1998, energy use of forest chips in Finland amounted to 0.5 million solid-m{sup 3}. The main research areas of the program are: integration of energy production into industrial wood production in the conventional forestry; development of planning and logistics in the production and storage of forest chips; development of technology for chipping, handling and storage including operations at chip terminals and at the end-users facilities; development of long-distance transport of fuel chips and unchipped forest residues; preparing forest machine and truck contractors for the production of forest chips on a large scale; development of quality control to improve the heat value of the chips; and the operational reliability of wood chip-fired plants improving the handling and combustion properties of bark, sawdust and other solid wood residues from forest industry. The total budget for 1999 - 2003 is million FIM 250, Tekes' share of which amounts to million FIM 50.

  8. Optimal weighted nearest neighbour classifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Samworth, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    We derive an asymptotic expansion for the excess risk (regret) of a weighted nearest-neighbour classifier. This allows us to find the asymptotically optimal vector of non-negative weights, which has a rather simple form. We show that the ratio of the regret of this classifier to that of an unweighted $k$-nearest neighbour classifier depends asymptotically only on the dimension $d$ of the feature vectors, and not on the underlying population densities. The improvement is greatest when $d=4$, but thereafter decreases as $d \\rightarrow \\infty$. The popular bagged nearest neighbour classifier can also be regarded as a weighted nearest neighbour classifier, and we show that its corresponding weights are somewhat suboptimal when $d$ is small (in particular, worse than those of the unweighted $k$-nearest neighbour classifier when $d=1$), but are close to optimal when $d$ is large. Finally, we argue that improvements in the rate of convergence are possible under stronger smoothness assumptions, provided we allow nega...

  9. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Gava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas

  10. Application of Non-destructive Techniques in Evaluation of Wood Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGLijuan; JIANGXiaomei; YINYafang; ZHANGShuangbao

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of wood and wood products demands in the world, non-destructive evaluation techniques of wood are more and more important. This article clarifies the importance and present situation of non-destructive evaluation and introduces some instruments about non-destructive evaluation, and some advice and ideas are put forward.

  11. 40 CFR 429.90 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-Boulton subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving-Boulton Subcategory § 429.90 Applicability; description of the wood...

  12. The influence of irradiated wood filler on some properties of polypropylene - wood composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Điporović-Momčilović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of compatibility between the wood filler and thermoplastic matrix is of essential importance in composite production. Numerous methods have been developed for increasing this compatibility, which is still representing a challenging objective of composite research throughout the world. The research into these methods is primarily directed towards their efficiency from the viewpoint of the composite performance and their economical acceptability. The latter is of particular importance for the composite production in the developing countries with respect to the shortage of the corresponding funds. With this respect, the utilization of ionizing radiation might have considerable advantages. In this research, the beech wood flour was irradiated by a dose of 10 kGy of 60Co gamma rays for purpose of provoking the changes by the ionizing effect. The effects of ionizing radiation upon the properties of wood particles have been examined by IR spectroscopy and by determination of contents of hydroxyl groups in wood by acetylating as an indirect method. All these methods have been expected to reveal the chemical effects of the applied radiation treatment. The irradiated and the control wood flour were used in order to produce the samples of composite with polypropylene. The polypropylene-wood flour (PP-WF composites were produced with 40% of wood particles having fraction size 0.3 mm. The melt-blended composites were modified with amido-acrylic acid (AMACA as a new coupling agent synthesized for this propose in amount of 6 wt.% (based on wood filler and successively with 0.05 wt.% (based on PP of organic peroxide during mixing step. The composites containing coupling agents showed superior mechanical properties, compared to the untreated one. The highest extent of improvement of tensile was achieved in PP-WFl composites modified with AMACA coupling agent.

  13. Impacts of traditional architecture on the use of wood as an element of facade covering in Serbian contemporary architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Šekularac Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trend of re-use of wood and wood products as materials for construction and covering of architectural structures is present not only because of the need to meet the aesthetic, artistic and formal requirements or to seek inspiration in the return to the tradition and nature, but also because of its ecological, economic and energetic feasibility. Furthermore, the use of wood fits into contemporary trends of sustainable development and application of modern technical and technological solutions in the production of materials, in order to maintain a connection to nature, environment and tradition. In this study the author focuses on wood and wood products as an element of facade covering on buildings in our country, in order to extend knowledge about possibilities and limitations of their use and create a base for their greater and correct application. The subject of this research is to examine the application of wood and wood products as an element covering the exterior in combination with other materials applied in our traditional and contemporary homes with the emphasis on functional, representational art and the various possibilities of wood. In this study all the factors that affect the application of wood and wood products have been analyzed and the conclusions have been drawn about the manner of their implementation and the types of wood and wood products protection. The development of modern technological solutions in wood processing led to the production of composite materials based on wood that are highly resistant, stable and much longer lasting than wood. Those materials have maintained in an aesthetic sense all the characteristics of wood that make it unique and inimitable. This is why modern facade coating based on wood should be applied as a facade covering in the exterior of modern architectural buildings in Serbia, and the use wood reduced to a minimum.

  14. Hybrid classifiers methods of data, knowledge, and classifier combination

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a definite and compact knowledge on how hybridization can help improving the quality of computer classification systems. In order to make readers clearly realize the knowledge of hybridization, this book primarily focuses on introducing the different levels of hybridization and illuminating what problems we will face with as dealing with such projects. In the first instance the data and knowledge incorporated in hybridization were the action points, and then a still growing up area of classifier systems known as combined classifiers was considered. This book comprises the aforementioned state-of-the-art topics and the latest research results of the author and his team from Department of Systems and Computer Networks, Wroclaw University of Technology, including as classifier based on feature space splitting, one-class classification, imbalance data, and data stream classification.

  15. Wood preservation of low-temperature carbonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Krosse, A.M.A.; Putten, van der J.C.; Kolk, van der J.C.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood with dimensions (100 x 10 x 10mm) was thermally treated at 275degreesC in a muffle oven to impart resistance to microbial degradation. Low-temperature carbonised pine resulted in a visually homogeneously treated product with a substantial (about 70% w/w) reduced non-c

  16. Feasibility study for new ecolabels according to ISO 14024 (type 1) within the product group: wood pellet heating systems; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen fuer die Produktgruppe: Holzpelletfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Weiss, J.; Hirschl, B. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    This assessment is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for wood pellet heating systems and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants could be specified. The study begins with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants is analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between wood pellet heating systems and heating systems which use gas, oil or wood was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were discussed with company representatives and other experts in this field. As a result of this dialogue and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants can be recommended. Wood pellet heating systems are characterized by their high level of automatation and the use of standardized fuels with constant high quality. Thus, they reach high combustion quality with low emission rates, and risks of misuse are minimized. They may contribute to the increased use of renewable energies and thereby to the achievement of climate protection goals. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding (a) the efficient energy use (efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, plant's supplementary energy consumption), (b) emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, (c) the offer of additional services, as well as (d) requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel.. because low emission and energy-efficient'. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer Holzpelletfeuerungen

  17. Conception of the technology of wood production out of short rotation coppice. Pt. 1; Konzept fuer ein Gesamtverfahren der Energieholzproduktion aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Mirko; Grosa, Andre; Firus, Siegfried; Herlitzius, Thomas [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl Agrarsystemtechnik

    2011-07-01

    To reach the ambitious German aims in energy and climate politics within ten years, it will be necessary to focus on renewable resources. Great potential is seen in short rotation coppices (SRC), which are based on fast growing wood to use it for energetic and material applications. So far, the installation of these coppices was not very successful, because farmers had have to enter unknown territory and got no overview of economic risks. A lot of scientific institutions acquired knowledge, so they are able to give basics to farmers. (orig.)

  18. Conception of the technology of wood production from short rotation coppice. Pt. 2; Konzept fuer ein Gesamtverfahren der Energieholzproduktion aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Mirko; Firus, Siegfried; Grosa, Andre; Herlitzius, Thomas [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl Agrarsystemtechnik

    2011-07-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) of fast-growing tree species are becoming more and more important in Germany. Already in the issue 1.2011 of Landtechnik a part of the current research and development projects in the field of SRC at the professorship of agricultural machines of the Technische Universitaet Dresden were presented. In this second part the importance of harvesting, drying and storage of wood chips will be shown in detail, as they have significant influence on the chip quality. Possible solutions, studies and required developments will be highlighted to existing problems. (orig.)

  19. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers.

  20. Suitable operating conditions improving hydrogen production from pine wood sawdust in supercritical water%适宜操作条件提高松木屑超临界水气化制氢效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗威; 廖传华; 陈海军; 朱跃钊

    2015-01-01

    efficient hydrogen production technology, which has been developed recently. It can directly handle the biomass with high moisture content, and need not the drying process with high energy consumption; it can obtain the high gasification rate and effectively overcome the above problems of biomass gasification technology and biomass pyrolysis technology. Therefore, it has become an international hot technology for biomass utilization. The technology is based on a series of unique properties of supercritical water, such as low dielectric constant, low viscosity and high diffusion coefficient, and uses supercritical water as the reaction medium; and the conversion from biomass to H2 is completed in hot compressed water with the temperature and pressure above the critical values (647 K and 22.1 MPa). Many researches of hydrogen production from biomass with supercritical water gasification technology have focused on the effects of different operating conditions (reaction temperature, reaction pressure, reactant mass fraction, residence time, catalyst, etc.) on the biomass (mainly the compound concentration, such as cellulose and glucose) and its inherent mechanism, but the researches on real biomass (such as wood sawdust and straw) are few. In order to understand the effect of operating conditions on hydrogen production process of biomass gasification in supercritical water, the catalytic activities of hydrogen production of Fe, Na2CO3 and CuSO4were explored. The result showed that the order of effects was Fe > Na2CO3 > CuSO4 under the conditions of 500℃ reaction temperature, 30 MPa reaction pressure, 30 min residence time, wood sawdust mass fraction of 8% and particle size from 8 to 16 mesh with pine wood sawdust as raw material. The effects of reaction pressure 30 MPa, residence time 30 min, reaction temperature (420-500℃), wood sawdust mass fraction (8%-40%)and particle size (2-1000 mesh) on the hydrogen production processes with Fe as catalyst were investigated. The

  1. General Regularities of Wood Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGOSS, Endre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface roughness of wood products is depending on many factors related both towood properties and wood working operational parameters. Probably this is the reason why there areno generally valid correlation determining surface roughness parameters as a function of influencingfactors. In particular, the account of wood structure in the surface roughness interpretation proved tobe difficult.In the last years an important progress was made in recognizing the role of the anatomicalstructure of wood species in the attainable surface roughness. The introduction of a structure numbermade it possible to express and characterize the different wood species numerically.The aim of these studies was the separation of roughness components due to the anatomicalstructure and the woodworking operation. Using a special finishing technique, the roughnesscomponent due to woodworking operations was not significant and could be separated. The samespecimens were also subjected to different woodworking operations using cutting velocities between10 and 50 m/s. The processing of experimental data resulted in a chart showing the minimumroughness component due to different woodworking operations. Special experimental investigationwas conducted to clear the influence of edge dullness on the surface roughness, especially on itsAbbott-parameters. The measurements showed that the Rk-parameter is a good indicator to predictedge dullness.

  2. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  3. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  4. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  5. NATURAL DECAY RESISTANCE OF SIX AMAZON WOOD SPECIES IN SOIL BLOCK TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius da Silva Alves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the natural resistance of six Amazonian wood species: Aspidosperma desmanthum (Araracanga, Parinari excelsa (Parinari, Mouriri callocarpa (Miraúba, Marmaroxylon racemosum (Angelim-rajado, Peltogyne paniculata (Roxinho e Astronium sp. (Muiracatiara against Pycnoporus sanguineous, a white rot fungus, and Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus. Testing was performed based on the American Society for Testing and Materials - Standard Method for Accelerated Laboratory Test of Natural Decay Resistance of Woods - ASTM D2017/81(86. Results showed that all tested wood species were classified as very resistant to both decay fungi, except the wood of Aspidosperma desmanthum, which demonstrated to be very resistant to Pycnoporus sanguineous and resistant to Gloeophyllum trabeum. The wood of Peltogyne paniculata showed the best performance against Pycnoporus sanguineous, whereas the wood of Astronium sp. presented the best results when submitted to Gloeophyllum trabeum attack.

  6. Representation of classifier distributions in terms of hypergeometric functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper derives alternative analytical expressions for classifier product distributions in terms of Gauss hypergeometric function, 2F1, by considering feed distribution defined in terms of Gates-Gaudin-Schumann function and efficiency curve defined in terms of a logistic function. It is shown that classifier distributions under dispersed conditions of classification pivot at a common size and the distributions are difference similar.The paper also addresses an inverse problem of classifier distributions wherein the feed distribution and efficiency curve are identified from the measured product distributions without needing to know the solid flow split of particles to any of the product streams.

  7. Sound quality assessment of wood for xylophone bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Mitsuko; Baillères, Henri; Brancheriau, Loïc; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi

    2007-04-01

    Xylophone sounds produced by striking wooden bars with a mallet are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the wood species chosen by the xylophone maker. In this paper, we address the relationship between the sound quality based on the timbre attribute of impacted wooden bars and the physical parameters characterizing wood species. For this, a methodology is proposed that associates an analysis-synthesis process and a perceptual classification test. Sounds generated by impacting 59 wooden bars of different species but with the same geometry were recorded and classified by a renowned instrument maker. The sounds were further digitally processed and adjusted to the same pitch before being once again classified. The processing is based on a physical model ensuring the main characteristics of the wood are preserved during the sound transformation. Statistical analysis of both classifications showed the influence of the pitch in the xylophone maker judgement and pointed out the importance of two timbre descriptors: the frequency-dependent damping and the spectral bandwidth. These descriptors are linked with physical and anatomical characteristics of wood species, providing new clues in the choice of attractive wood species from a musical point of view.

  8. TCP HolyWood

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Núñez Mori

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

  9. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  10. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  11. Bleaching Wood with Blue-Stain During Slice Production%薄木生产中蓝变木材的漂白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常德龙; 董儒贞; 谢青; 黄文豪; 黄琳

    2012-01-01

    The bleaching test of blue stain wood indicated that impacts of reagent concentration and pH value on yellow blue axis index b* and general chromatism A£ * all reached extreme significance levels, and treatment time also reached a sub-extreme significance level. The best combination of bleaching blue-stain wood was obtained as content of bleach reagent TSBL 3% , treatment time 3 h, temperature 40 degrees C, and pH 7. Bleach reagent TSBL over 3% could be able to remove blue stain from wood. pH value had a significant effect on bleaching of blue-stain wood. The blue-stain could be eliminated when the pH value was less than 7, while it could not be removed when pH value was over 7. The decoloration results and bleaching deepness had direct relationships with treatment time. A good result with a deeper bleaching depth could be obtained with increasing treatment time, and vice versa, even the blue-stain could not be removed. It took 5 to 9 hours to eliminate the blue-stain on paulownia wood due to its bad permeability, while it took 3 to 7 hours to eliminate the blue-stain on Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Hevea spuceana, Cinnamonum camphora and moso bamboo due to their good permeability.%蓝变木材漂白试验表明:试剂质量分数和酸碱度对黄蓝轴色品指数b*及总色差△E*影响达到了极显著水平,处理时间也达到了次极显著的水平.蓝变木材脱色处理最佳组合为:脱色剂质量分数为3%,处理时间3h,温度为40℃,pH=7时,樟子松微薄木材蓝变可以脱出.其它木材脱色配方略有不同.质量分数3%以上的脱色剂TSBL药液即可脱出木材蓝变.pH值对蓝变木材脱色影响明显,当脱色剂处于酸性状态,蓝变木材色斑可以去除;当脱色剂处于碱性状态,大于7时,蓝变色斑不能脱出.脱色效果、脱色深度与处理时间有直接关系,处理时间越长,脱色深度越深,效果好;反之则差,甚至蓝变不能脱出.泡桐木材由于渗透性差,需要5

  12. Produtividade de madeira do eucalipto correlacionada com atributos do solo visando ao mapeamento de zonas específicas de manejo Eucalyptus wood productivity correlated with soil attributes aiming the mapping of management specifics regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel de Passos e Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A correta intervenção espacial na administração da lavoura, decorrente das zonas específicas de manejo do solo, aumenta a produtividade e a lucratividade agrícola. No ano de 2010, em Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (20° 20' S lat.; 51° 24' W long. foram empregadas correlações, espaciais e de Pearson, entre dados da planta de eucalipto e alguns atributos físico-químicos do solo, visando encontrar aquele que se correlacionasse bem com a produtividade de madeira. Para tanto, instalou-se uma rede geoestatística para a coleta de dados de solo e planta, com 120 pontos amostrais, num talhão de Eucalyptus camaldulensis de 2 anos. O solo foi um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Haplic Acrustox com declive de 0,025m m-1. O diâmetro basal da copa e a densidade do solo, por resultarem estreitas correlações com o volume de madeira, evidenciaram zonas específicas de manejo do solo intimamente associadas à produção de madeira do eucalipto.The perfect spatial intervention to manage the cultivation of the land, deriving from specific regions of the soil mapping, increases the agricultural productivity, as well as its clear gain. The relationships, spatial and Pearson, between eucalyptus data plant with some physical and chemical attributes of soil, in the growing season of 2011, in Selviria County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil (20° 20' S lat.; 51° 24' W long., were studied in order to obtain the one that could have the best relationship in order to improve the wood productivity. Thus, a geostatistical grid was installed for the soil and plant data collection, it contained 120 sample points, in plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis of 2 years old. The soil was a Dystrophic Red Latosol (Haplic Acrustox whit slope of 0.025m m-1. Due to their excellent relationship with wood productivity, the basis diameter of the crown and the bulk density showed management specific regions of soil whit high relation to eucalyptus wood productivity.

  13. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  14. Energy from wood - an overview; Holzenergie, Uebersicht - Energie du bois, apercu du bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  15. Constructed wetlands as wood stork habitat: Good, bad, or ugly?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Objectives of our project are to determine the productivity of the wood stork colony nesting at the Jacksonville Zoo, to determine actual use of constructed wetlands...

  16. Not Just Lumber—Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-09-01

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  17. Not Just Lumber--Using Wood in the Sustainable Future of Materials, Chemicals, and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakes, Joseph E.; Arzola, Xavier; Bergman, Rick; Ciesielski, Peter; Hunt, Christopher G.; Rahbar, Nima; Tshabalala, Mandla; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C.; Zelinka, Samuel L.

    2016-09-01

    Forest-derived biomaterials can play an integral role in a sustainable and renewable future. Research across a range of disciplines is required to develop the knowledge necessary to overcome the challenges of incorporating more renewable forest resources in materials, chemicals, and fuels. We focus on wood specifically because in our view, better characterization of wood as a raw material and as a feedstock will lead to its increased utilization. We first give an overview of wood structure and chemical composition and then highlight current topics in forest products research, including (1) industrial chemicals, biofuels, and energy from woody materials; (2) wood-based activated carbon and carbon nanostructures; (3) development of improved wood protection treatments; (4) massive timber construction; (5) wood as a bioinspiring material; and (6) atomic simulations of wood polymers. We conclude with a discussion of the sustainability of wood as a renewable forest resource.

  18. Avaliação de defeitos no processo de fabricação de lamelas para pisos de madeira engenheirados com uso de ferramentas de controle de qualidade Evaluation of the production process of lamella for engineered wood floor using quality control instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Coletti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os defeitos das lamelas são responsáveis em grande parte pelo retrabalho, perdas e diminuição da qualidade do piso acabado. Esses defeitos geram aumento de custos de produção sendo um fator muito importante para o processo de fabricação de pisos de madeira. Este trabalho tem por objetivos classificar e quantificar os defeitos ocorrentes na produção de lamelas, buscar causas, propor soluções e melhorias através da aplicação de ferramentas de qualidade como: “Brainstorming", “ Diagrama de Pareto", “Diagrama de Ishikawa" e 5W2H . Foram amostrados 1598,47 m² de lamelas das seguintes espécies: Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms e timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq com as seguintes dimensões: espessuras (2,5mm e 3,5mm, larguras (76,2mm, 82,5mm e 127mm, comprimentos (450mm a 1.200mm. O defeito mais freqüente encontrado na produção de lamelas foi a marca de serra (31%, seguido de corte da madeira feito pelo fornecedor (23% e falta de instrução de trabalho (15%. As principais causas dos defeitos de marca de serra são devidas aos problemas de manutenção de serras da empresa fornecedora de madeira.Lamella defects are responsible in large part for rework losses and decrease in the quality of the finished floor. These defects increase costs, a very important factor in the process wood floor production. This work aimed to quantify and classify the common defects occurring in the lamella production, find out causes and propose solutions and improvements using the tools “Brainstorming", “Pareto Diagram", “Ishibawa Diagram", and 5W2H. 1598,47 square meters of lamella of the species Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei Ducke, Amendoim (Pterogyne nitens Tul, Cabreúva (Myroxylon Balsamum Harms and Timborana (Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens Miq were sampled with the following dimensions: thickness (2.5mm and 3.5mm, width (76,2mm, 82,5mm and 127mm, lenght

  19. Classifying Cereal Data (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  20. Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian

    2012-03-01

    We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.

  1. Nondestructive Testing of Wood Defects Based on Stress Wave Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshu Lin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The wood samples were tested by the technique of stress wave, and the testing results were analyzed by using the statistic software of SPSS. The results showed that the length, density and knots of wood, the sizes of holes and numbers of holes have significant influence on propagation parameters and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Under the same specifications, the propagation time of the stress wave was longer in the wood with holes than the perfect wood samples, and the time become longer with the increasing the sizes and numbers of holes. The studying results of this paper will provide a sound background for the application of stress-wave technique in detecting the inner defects of wood products and other wooden structures.  

  2. Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.

  3. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  4. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  5. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institute for Work and Health, rue du Bugnon 21, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of mug.g{sup -1} or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  6. Adhesion quality of glued joints from different commercial wood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Miguel do Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of wood density, adhesive type and gluing pressure on the shear strength of glued joints of fourteen commercial wood species. Wood pieces were classified in three density classes (Class 1: less than 0.55 g cm-3; Class 2: from 0.55 to 0.75 g cm-3; and Class 3: greater than 0.75 g cm-3 and joints bonded with two adhesives: polyvinyl acetate (PVA and urea-formaldehyde (UF, under two different pressures: 6 and 12 kgf cm-2. Glued joints bonded with PVA adhesive presented higher shear strength than those bonded with UF adhesive. For percentage of wood failure, the PVA adhesive had the best performance, however, only Classes 1 and 2 reached the values required by ASTM 3110 standard. Glued joints from Class 3, bonded with UF adhesive, did not reach the values of solid wood. The gluing pressure of 12 kgf cm-2 was more efficient for Class 3, for both shear strength and percentage of wood failure.

  7. 试论砂光质量、效率和成本%Quality, Productivity and Cost in Wood-based Panel Sanding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李道育

    2001-01-01

    Thorough analysis and discussion are made on several hot topics of common interest to wood-based panel manufacturers,including 1 )how to detennine internal control standard for sanding quality? 2)how to assess the sanding parameters through mathematical calculation? 3)how to reduce the cost in sanding process?%就人造板生产企业当前所关注的几个热点问题,包括:如何确定砂光质量的内控标准、如何利用计算法来决定砂光工艺参数和如何降低砂光成本等作了较深入的分析和讨论。

  8. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  9. Logging potentials and energy wood resources in southern Finland; Potentiaaliset hakkuumahdollisuudet ja energiapuuvarat Etelae- Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesonen, M.; Malinen, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. METLA, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Development of energy wood resources in Southern Finland over the next 40 years was studied on the basis of four cutting scenarios. Development of energy wood accrual was considered on the production cost levels of FIM 45/MWh and FIM 55/MWh in scenarios describing sustainable cutting potential, long-term cutting plans of forest owners and cutting of industrial mechandable wood over the years of depression. Effects of limitations concerning energy wood harvesting from meagre forest land and bogs on the energy wood accruals of sustainable cutting potential were also studied. The energy wood potential in Southern Finland was estimated at 3.6 million m{sup 3}/a on the production cost level of FIM 45/MWh. The energy wood accrual equal to sustainable cutting potential was 70 % of the energy wood potential. The energy wood potential increased to 8.8 m{sup 3}/a when the production cost level increased to FIM 55/MWh, the energy wood accrual of sustainable cutting potential being 51 %. The energy wood accruals according to felling plans of forest owners and cuttings over the years of depression were smaller than that of sustainable cutting potential, due to smaller loggings. Limitation of energy wood harvesting from meagre forest land and bogs would reduce the energy wood accrual of sustainable cutting potential by 22 %. This would involve a reduction of one million m{sup 3} in the harvesting potential. The energy wood accrual of sustainable cutting potential in Finland was 5.8 million m{sup 3}/a on the production cost level of FIM 55/MWh. This is equal to the aim set by the BIOENERGY Research Programme for the use potential of 1 Mtoe (equivalent oil tonne) on the production cost level of FIM 45/MWh

  10. Wood ash effects on plant and soil in a willow bioenergy plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byungbae Park; Yanai, Ruth D.; Sahm, James M.; Abrahamson, Lawrence P. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Lee, Don K. [Seoul National Univ., Dept. of Forest Sciences, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    Intensive management for biomass production results in high rates of nutrient removal by harvesting. We tested whether wood ash generated when burning wood for energy could be used to ameliorate negative soil effects of short-rotation harvesting practices. We measured the temporal and spatial dynamics of soil nutrient properties after wood ash applications in a willow plantation in central New York State and determined the influence of wood ash application on willow growth. Wood ash was applied annually for 3 years at the rates of 10 and 20 Mg ha{sup -1} to coppiced willow, Salix purpurea, clone SP3. Wood ash application significantly increased soil pH in the 0-10 cm soil layer from 6.1 in the control to 6.9 and 7.1 in the 10 and 20 Mg ha{sup -1} treated plots. Wood ash application significantly increased soil extractable phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations. Potassium was the element most affected by wood ash treatment at all soil depths. Wood ash had no significant effect on nutrient concentrations of foliar, litter, and stem tissue. Wood ash did not affect either individual plant growth or plot biomass production, which declined over the course of the study; it did increase the size of stems, but this effect was balanced by a decrease in the number of stems. Applying nitrogen as well as wood ash might be required to maintain the productivity of this SRIC system. (Author)

  11. 76 FR 34761 - Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Classified National Security Information AGENCY: Marine Mammal Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... information, as directed by Information Security Oversight Office regulations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., ``Classified National Security Information,'' and 32 CFR part 2001, ``Classified National Security......

  12. Classifying self-gravitating radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    We study static systems of self-gravitating radiations confined in a sphere by using numerical and analytic calculations. We classify and analyze the solutions systematically. Due to the scaling symmetry, any solution can be represented as a segment of a solution curve on a plane of two-dimensional scale invariant variables. We find that a system can be conveniently parametrized by three parameters representing the solution curve, the scaling, and the system size, instead of the parameters defined at the outer boundary. The solution curves are classified to three types representing regular solutions, conically singular solutions with, and without an object which resembles an event horizon up to causal disconnectedness. For the last type, the behavior of a self-gravitating system is simple enough to allow analytic calculations.

  13. ANALYSIS OF BAYESIAN CLASSIFIER ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Schneider Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The naïve Bayes classifier is considered one of the most effective classification algorithms today, competing with more modern and sophisticated classifiers. Despite being based on unrealistic (naïve assumption that all variables are independent, given the output class, the classifier provides proper results. However, depending on the scenario utilized (network structure, number of samples or training cases, number of variables, the network may not provide appropriate results. This study uses a process variable selection, using the chi-squared test to verify the existence of dependence between variables in the data model in order to identify the reasons which prevent a Bayesian network to provide good performance. A detailed analysis of the data is also proposed, unlike other existing work, as well as adjustments in case of limit values between two adjacent classes. Furthermore, variable weights are used in the calculation of a posteriori probabilities, calculated with mutual information function. Tests were applied in both a naïve Bayesian network and a hierarchical Bayesian network. After testing, a significant reduction in error rate has been observed. The naïve Bayesian network presented a drop in error rates from twenty five percent to five percent, considering the initial results of the classification process. In the hierarchical network, there was not only a drop in fifteen percent error rate, but also the final result came to zero.

  14. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  15. Influência dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft Influence of soil attributes on quality of Pinus taeda wood for cellulose Kraft production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Rigatto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados os efeitos dos atributos do solo sobre a qualidade da madeira de Pinus taeda para produção de celulose Kraft, em áreas da Klabin, em Telêmaco Borba-PR. Foram estudados oito sítios com árvores de 12 anos de idade, selecionados pelo tipo de solo, textura e vegetação primária. Para caracterização dos sítios foram realizadas coletas de amostras em três horizontes, tendo sido coletadas amostras indeformadas e compostas, analisando-se as seguintes variáveis no solo: densidade global, porosidade total, macroporosidade, disponibilidade de água, fertilidade e granulometria. Selecionaram-se cinco árvores médias por sítio, nas quais foram medidos as alturas total e comercial e o DAP e retirados discos, sendo este material ensaiado quanto a densidade básica, composição química, características morfológicas dos traqueídeos e produção de celulose Kraft. Com relação às propriedades da madeira, os atributos físicos do solo demonstraram ter maior influência. De modo geral, as madeiras provenientes de sítios com texturas mais argilosas apresentaram menores valores de densidade básica; maiores teores de extrativos e lignina; menores teores de holocelulose e celulose; traqueídeos mais curtos, mais largos, com paredes mais finas e com diâmetros do lúmen maiores; e menor rendimento em celulose. A partir destes resultados, concluiu-se ser possível a previsão de propriedades da polpa através da análise das características da madeira associada às condições edáficas reinantes.To meet the increasing demand for forest products, much of the future timber supply will come from trees grown in managed plantations. This work was carried out to analyze the effects of soil attributes on Pinus taeda wood quality to produce Kraft cellulose at Klabin Parana Cellulose Co., in Telêmaco Borba, PR, Brazil. The study focused on the influence of soil attributes on the anatomical, physical and chemical wood

  16. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    The research project 'Torrefaction of woody biomasses as energy carriers for the European markets' was carried out within the Tekes BioRefine programme in 2010-2012 and was coordinated by VTT. The main objective of the project was to create a discussion platform and collate basic information for the Finnish industrial stakeholders involved in developing torrefaction technology or planning to include torrefied biomass in their fuel supply for energy production. Given the availability of torrefaction pilot facilities in Europe, it was decided at an early phase of the national torrefaction research project not to build and operate separate pilot equipment, and thus save time and money. Experimental research was conducted in cooperation with ECN, The Netherlands. Finnish wood chips and crushed forest residue were tested at different torrefaction temperatures in the PATRIG torrefaction test rig with great success, and large quantities of torrefied wood chips and pellets were produced. CFD simulation work was carried out at VTT to investigate the feasibility of torrefied fuels to replace part of the coal. From the combustion point of view it seems feasible to replace coal by torrefied wood biomass with shares up to 50% by weight. Basic, small-scale experiments were carried out to compare torrefied wood pellets with conventional wood and straw pellets with regard to their handling and storage properties. The experiments showed that the torrefied pellets are clearly more hydrophobic than wood and straw pellets and do not disintegrate completely on exposure to water. A study on dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics indicated that the torrefied dust does not differ significantly from the normal biomass dust, but is clearly more reactive than coal dust. Commercial development of torrefaction is currently in its early phase. The current general view is that most of the demonstration plants have technical problems, which have delayed their commercial

  17. Gearbox Condition Monitoring Using Advanced Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Večeř

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New efficient and reliable methods for gearbox diagnostics are needed in automotive industry because of growing demand for production quality. This paper presents the application of two different classifiers for gearbox diagnostics – Kohonen Neural Networks and the Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Interface System (ANFIS. Two different practical applications are presented. In the first application, the tested gearboxes are separated into two classes according to their condition indicators. In the second example, ANFIS is applied to label the tested gearboxes with a Quality Index according to the condition indicators. In both applications, the condition indicators were computed from the vibration of the gearbox housing. 

  18. The use of FTIR technique for determination of gas phase emissions from wood pellet manufacturing. Evaluation of the Time Correlated Tracer (TCT) method for assessment of diffuse terpene emissions from wood pellet production; Anvaendning av FTIR teknik foer bestaemning av gasformiga emissioner vid traepelletstillverkning. Utvaerdering av Time Correlated Tracer (TCT)-metoden foer bestaemning av diffusa terpenemissioner fraan pelletstillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedberg, Urban; Galle, Bo [Sundsvall Hospital (Sweden). Clinic of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2001-04-01

    In the original project proposal, quantification of the total emission of terpenes from wood pellet manufacturing with the novel TCT-method (Time Correlated Tracer) based on FTIR-technique (Fourier Transform Infrared) and tracer gas was suggested. The expected outcome was a general algorithm for the calculations of the emissions expressed as amount emitted per unit produced. This information would be useful when planning the location of new facilities in relation to domestic housing as well as to other industrial activities. Initial point sampling with an FTIR White cell was made in order to establish the locations of the sources of terpene emissions. The results showed that the dominating terpene emissions came from the smoke stacks gases and was not of such diffuse nature as originally believed. Neither in the pellet storage room, inside the main process facilities, outside the buildings, nor close to the wood chip storage piles, could terpene be detected with the FTIR point sampling cell. In the smoke stack gases terpenes, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acetone, methanol, ethylene, acetylene, formaldehyde and methane was detected. The conclusions so far is that it is not economically or scientifically justifiable to continue the measurements with the proposed TCT method since, the terpene emissions are not of a diffuse nature. Instead it is concluded that terpene emission is best established by direct measurement in the smoke stack gases. In accordance with the intentions of the project, an algorithm for the terpene emission was established based on the measurements in the smoke stack gases. This algorithm shows an average emission of 255 grams of terpenes per produced ton of pellets. This gives an annual emission of 21,700 kg of gaseous terpenes from the investigated plant, based on an annual production of 85,000 tons pellets. When compared to other establishments processing wood, i.e. saw mills, this amount is not large. The results shed some light on other

  19. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...... is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level...

  20. Analysis of Wood Floor Industry's Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As an emerging industry,China's wood floor industry dates back to the early 1980s. Despite a late start,it has developed rapidly during the last 20 years.The past decades have witnessed great changes in China's wood floor industry.With high quality,many products"made in China"are available widely abroad nowadays.Current global economic shocks,however,affect China's domestic real estate sector;hence the falling domestic sales of wood floor.The paper aims to identify the current situation of floor industry...

  1. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  2. Effects of process parameters on particle size distribution and productivity of narrow level product in turbo air classifier%涡流空气分级机工艺参数对窄级别产品粒径分布和产率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜林; 谌永祥; 李双跃

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of establishing the narrow level experimental system of turbo air classifier,and in order to study the effects of process parameters on particle size distribution and productivity of narrow level product in turbo air classifier,the rotation speed difference of two-stage rotor cages and the second wind speed of the second classifier were used as experimental factors. Particle size distribution curve of the product was used as experimental index. Narrow level experiment system of turbo air classifier was investigated. The experimental results showed that with the rotation speed difference decreasing,the particle size distribution curve of the product became narrower. When the second wind speed increased,the content of the fine powder of product reduced and the particle size distribution curve of the product became narrower. In addition,the relationship among productivity, uniformity of narrow level product and rotation speed difference was studied. Results showed that with rotation speed difference decreasing,productivity of narrow level product decreased and the uniformity increased. Further study indicated that there was a best rotation speed difference Δn0,under which product could be able to both meet the requirement of uniformity and productivity.%在建立涡流空气分级机的窄级别实验系统的基础上,为了研究工艺参数对窄级别产品粒径分布和产率的影响,确定了以两级分级机的转笼转速差和第二级分级机的二次风速为实验因素,以产品的粒径分布曲线为实验指标,对涡流空气分级机的窄级别实验系统进行实验。实验结果表明,随着转速差的减小,产品的粒径分布曲线变窄;随着二次风速的增大,产品中的细粉含量减少,粒径分布曲线变窄。进一步研究了窄级别产品的产率、均匀度和转速差的关系。结果表明,窄级别产品的产率随转速差的减小而降低,均匀度随转速差的减小而

  3. Production of plastified wood with stronger static bending strength means of polymerization induced by gamma radiation; Producao da madeira plastificada de elevada resistencia a flexao estatica mediante polimerizacao induzida por raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Elias [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: leocadie@elogica.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation to obtain wood-polymer composites is one of the applications of radiation that presents the most commercial interest. The process, denominated radiopolymerization, comprises the impregnation of monomers into the completely dried wood followed by exposure to gamma radiation to induce polymerization of the impregnated monomers. I this context, the present work aimed the application of this process to seven kinds of wood existing in the brazilian forests. The considered monomer is styrene and the gamma source is Cobalt-60. The obtained wood-polystyrene composites were found to have stronger static bending strength. (author)

  4. Study of consolidating materials applied on wood by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, G.; Serranti, S.; Capobianco, G.; Agresti, G.; Calienno, L.; Picchio, R.; Lo Monaco, A.; Santamaria, U.; Pelosi, C.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study was addressed to investigate the potentiality of HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) in the monitoring of commercial consolidant products applied on wood samples. Poplar (Populus Sp.) and walnut (Juglans Regia L.) were chosen for the consolidant application. Both traditional and innovative products were selected, based on acrylic, epoxy and aliphatic compounds. Wood samples were stresses by freeze/thaw cycles in order to cause material degradation. Then the consolidants were applied under vacuum. The samples were finally artificially aged for 168 hours in a solar box chamber. The samples were acquired in the SWIR (1000-2500 nm) range by SISUChema XL™ device (Specim, Finland) after 168 hours of irradiation. As comparison, color measurement was also used as economic, simple and noninvasive technique to evaluate the deterioration and consolidation effects on wood. All data were then processed adopting a chemometric approach finalized to define correlation models, HSI based, between consolidating materials, wood species and short time ageing effects.

  5. Predictions on Availability and Possibilities of the use of Wood for Energy Purposes in Europe and in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliszewski Adam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies concerning the availability and possibilities of the use of wood for energy purposes in Europe and in Poland. It describes in detail the current use of wood for energy production purposes, as well as predictions on volume, composition, and sources of energy wood. It also presents the results concerning potential impact of energy wood harvesting on wood industries. The paper concludes that the question of utilization of forest biomass for large-scale energy generation is very complex and has far-reaching consequences for environment, society and economy. So as to be effective, wood resources management should give a priority to wood-based production of the greatest added value, and energy generation should be a closing-down stage in the wood value chain

  6. Classifying Coding DNA with Nucleotide Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Carels

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we compared the success rate of classification of coding sequences (CDS vs. introns by Codon Structure Factor (CSF and by a method that we called Universal Feature Method (UFM. UFM is based on the scoring of purine bias (Rrr and stop codon frequency. We show that the success rate of CDS/intron classification by UFM is higher than by CSF. UFM classifies ORFs as coding or non-coding through a score based on (i the stop codon distribution, (ii the product of purine probabilities in the three positions of nucleotide triplets, (iii the product of Cytosine (C, Guanine (G, and Adenine (A probabilities in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions of triplets, respectively, (iv the probabilities of G in 1st and 2nd position of triplets and (v the distance of their GC3 vs. GC2 levels to the regression line of the universal correlation. More than 80% of CDSs (true positives of Homo sapiens (>250 bp, Drosophila melanogaster (>250 bp and Arabidopsis thaliana (>200 bp are successfully classified with a false positive rate lower or equal to 5%. The method releases coding sequences in their coding strand and coding frame, which allows their automatic translation into protein sequences with 95% confidence. The method is a natural consequence of the compositional bias of nucleotides in coding sequences.

  7. MISR Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Classifier parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 FIRSTLOOK TOA/Cloud Classifiers Product. It contains the Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), Cloud Classifiers, and Support Vector Machine...

  8. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD AND THEIR REDUCTION BY CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment is a suitable method for improving the quality of wood types like spruce, beech or poplar, and thus to open up new fields of application that used to be limited to tropical woods or woods treated with timber preservatives. These thermally treated woods are characterized by a typical odor caused by degradation products of miscellaneous wood components. The characterization and removal of those odorous substances were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Headspace gas chromatography (GC in combination with solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used for a qualitative analysis of volatile wood emissions, and the detectable volatiles were compared before and after solvent extraction. Wood solvent extractives were investigated by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then evaluated in terms of changes in composition caused by the thermal treatment process.

  10. 木粉酯化改性制备生物基塑料%Modification of Wood Powder by Esterification for the Production of Bio-based Plastic Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭飞; 罗彦卿; 洪建国

    2015-01-01

    以胡桑枝条木粉为原料制备木质纤维类生物基塑料,木粉先经过球磨预处理后,在二甲亚砜( DMSO)分散介质中,以邻苯二甲酸酐( PA)为改性试剂, 4-二甲氨基吡啶( DMAP)为催化剂对其进行酯化改性,并考察了反应温度、时间和试剂用量对改性产物质量增长率及材料力学性能的影响. 研究结果表明,以木质纤维为原料,可以成功制备注塑级的生物基塑料,实现木质纤维原料全组分的高效利用. 在最佳工艺条件下,经改性制备材料的质量增长率为98. 8%,熔融指数0. 903 g/min,其拉伸和弯曲强度分别达到24. 1和41. 9 MPa,具有较好的热塑性和力学性能.%Mulberry branches wood powder was used as the raw material for preparation of bio-based plastic material. After ball milling,wood powder was first esterified by phthalic anhydride(PA) using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)as the catalyst in dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO ) as the dispersion medium. The effects of temperature, time and the weight of reagents on weight percent gain( WPG ) and mechanical property of modified production were studied. The results showed that esterified lignocellulosic material could be used as bio-based plastic injection molding product with whole components. Under the optimum conditions,the mass growth rate and melt index of the modified product were 98. 8% and 0. 903 g/min, respectively, and the modified product was found with good thermoplastic and mechanical properties with the tensile strength of 24. 1 MPa and the flexural strength of 41. 9 MPa.

  11. Wood-mineral wool hybrid particleboards

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiński, M. Ł.; Król, M. E.; Jaskółowski, W.; Borysiuk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to compound mineral wool with wood particles in the production of particleboards of reduced flammability. Three series of boards with various contents of mineral wool (10, 20, 30 wt%) were successfully manufactured using urea-formaldehyde resin as binder. Thickness swelling, mechanical and thermal properties as well as ignitability of the boards were assessed. It occurred that reduced ignitability is accompanied by a decrease in mechanical pe...

  12. 长白落叶松木芯基本密度与材性指标相关及建筑材优良家系选择研究%Correlations among wood density,wood physical mechanics index and growth trait,and selection of elite families for production of building products in Larix olgensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞; 张含国; 邓继峰; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    对24年生长白落叶松优树子代测定林14个处理(13个家系和1个对照)的生长性状、木芯基本密度进行遗传变异分析和方差分析,结果表明,家系间生长性状和木芯基本密度均存在较大变异,家系间生长性状差异极显著,木芯基本密度差异显著,树高、胸径、材积和木芯基本密度家系遗传力分别为0.73、0.72、0.80和0.60,进行家系水平的改良具有很大的潜力。生长性状、木芯基本密度与物理力学指标相关分析结果表明:生长性状与木芯基本密度、解析木基本密度、气干密度呈正相关不显著,与大多数力学指标间相关不显著;木芯基本密度与解析木基本密度、气干密度、径面抗劈力、抗弯弹性模量、抗弯强度、顺纹抗压强度和径面硬度呈极显著正相关,且回归分析模型比较理想,可以利用胸径木芯基本密度值预测物理力学指标值,间接选择和评价长白落叶松建筑材优良家系。通过生长性状和木芯基本密度综合分析选出166、169为优良家系,根据解析木物理力学性状选出的优良家系与其结果一致;树高、胸径、材积和木芯基本密度的遗传增益分别为14.27%、19.96%、48.12%和14.06%;优良家系树高、胸径、材积和木芯基本密度分别比对照高7.20%、13.31%、38.46%和4.76%。%The growth traits and wood density of 14 families of 24-year-old Larix olgensis progeny testing forests composed of 13 open-pollinated families and one control were selected as the research object of this tractate,which went through genetic variation analysis and deviation analysis. The results showed that there were larger variations in both the growth traits among families and wood basic density, the differences of growth traits among families were extremely significant,the differences of wood basic density values were significant,and that the

  13. On engineering of properties of wood-polypropylene composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Điporović Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available New materials based on wood have the advantage in the sense that their properties can be engineered so as to correspond to user demands. The properties which can be engineered are those relating both to their utilisation and machining, in particular - the tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus of elasticity and impact resistance. The research at the Faculty of Forestry and "Hipol" Chemical Industry related to the new type of wood-polypropylene composite. The content of wood filler was varied in the range between 40% and 70% mass contents of beech wood flour. After the highest tensile strength at 50% of filler content was determined, the effect of the wood filler origin was also examined at this content value. Therefore, wood flour of beech, poplar, acetylated pine and the waste MDF was used. The influence of the composition of the wood filler (beech combined with MDF, poplar and acetylated pine in comparison with pure polypropylene matrix was also examined, as well as the effect of the type of coupling agent. Hopefully, the results obtained in this study might serve as the initial data for production of easily machined high-strength composites.

  14. Integrated production of wood fuels and pulpwood using chain-flail delimbing-debarking technology; Puupolttoaineen ja selluhakkeen integroitu tuotanto ketjukarsinta-kuorintatekniikalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland); Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland); Aho, V.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the research was to develop a procurement method for small-diameter pulpwood based on chain-flail delimbing-debarking method. The study consisted of four parts: Development of the chain-flail delimbing-debarking method (based on Peterson Pacific DDC 5000 device); Combined chain-flail delimbing and drum-debarking; Processing and procurement of the chain-flail delimbing chips and; Intensifying of the timber debarking in chain-flail delimbing. The project was coordinated by Metsaeteho, and it was carried out as cooperation between Metsaeteho, the Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), VTT Energy, Pertti Szepaniak Oy and Enso-Gutzeit Oy. A calculation model, by which it is possible to determine the costs of pulpwood chips and fuel-rawmaterials formed beside the pulpwood chips while using different kinds of procurement methods and chains, was developed for chain-flail delimbing-debarking-chipping method based on utilization of Peterson Pacific device. By the model it is possible to optimize the utilization of the method in practice. A new fixed version of the combined chain-flail delimbing drum-debarking equipment was constructed in 1995. Tests with this equipment started in February 1996. A debarking simulator, by which it is possible to study the effects of the lengths of the chains and brushes, the positioning, the hit-angles and speeds on the removal of branches and bark, has been compiled in the `Intensification of wood debarking in chain-flail delimbing` sub-task. Preliminary tests have been made using mainly frozen first thinning pine as test material

  15. The global wood furniture value chain: what prospects for upgrading by developing countries? The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplinsky, Raphael; Memedovic, Olga; Morris, Mike; Readman, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Because of its resource and labour intensity, the wood furniture sector presents an opportunity for developing countries and their firms to participate effectively in the global economy. This paper begins with a brief description of the global wood furniture industry and highlights the importance of exports wood furniture products for developing countries and emerging and transitional economies. The paper then maps the wood furniture value chain and opens-up the nature of the buying function,...

  16. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.

    2011-07-01

    pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents for the two investigated fuels: pine wood produced chars of porous spherical particles, whereas beech sawdust chars showed a somewhat less drastic change of morphology with respect to the parent fuel. Char produced by low heating rate pyrolysis fully retained the original fibrous structure of wood. Fast pyrolysis chars were significantly more reactive than slow pyrolysis chars (for the same activation energy, the pre-exponential factor was up to 2 orders of magnitude greater for chars increased). The amount and composition of the ash forming matter of the wood fuels is believed to play an important role in determining the differences in char yield, morphology and reactivity. The modelling of wood char combustion is the subject of Chapter 5. The lowest and the highest reactivities obtained for the chars produced in the EFR are used in a simple single particle combustion model in combination with a description of Avedoerevaerket's boiler. In the model the char particle is assumed to burn in a gas with constant temperature and constant oxygen fraction. The particle temperature is on the other hand determined taking reaction heat, convection through boundary gas layer and radiation into account. The model accounts for external diffusion of oxygen to the particle outer surface, internal diffusion in the pores and heterogeneous chemical reaction (CO is considered the only product). The model calculates an overall efficiency factor for combustion, yet assumes that all the reacting carbon is consumed at the outer surface of the char. The model predicts that at an average furnace temperature of 1200 K the conversion of char particles with radius 20-350 {micro}m is very much affected by the reactivity of the char. The influence of the particle's reactivity is lower at higher temperatures: at furnace temperatures of 1500 K and 1700 K the combustion of the char is

  17. Mechanical and physical properties of Tipuana tipu Wood deteriorated by decaying fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brazolin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The tipuana was widely used in urban arborization. In general, inadequate management exposes the wood to the action of wood decaying fungi and insects, often associated with the fall of the trees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of sound and rotten tipuana wood from São Paulo City´s afforestation. Thirteen old trees with symptoms of wood deterioration were removed. From the basal region of the trunk were cut 1 m-length stem segments, to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of sound and decayed wood. The results indicated that through the radial wood density profile by X-ray densitometry were classified seven pattern of wood biodeterioration, named (EXS with accumulation of extractives and sound, (ZR with the reaction zone and sound, (NS normal and sound, (PBINC; PBINT incipient and intense white rot (PMINC; PMINT incipient and intense soft rot, with apparent densities of 0.94, 0.92, 0.82, 0.66, 0.41, 0.67 and 0.44 g.cm-3, respectively. The mechanical tests showed that wood classified as (ZR (EXS presented the highest values of strength and stiffness of 84 and 80 MPa and 6461 MPa and 5826, respectively; the (NS showed values of 62 and 4642 MPa, and the (PBINC (PMINTthe significant and lowest values of strength and stiffness, enhancing (PBINT with values of 5 and 571 MPa. The reduction of density, strength and stiffness of wood is related to the biodeterioration of wood cell walls of trees tipuana by decaying fungi.

  18. Assessment and Management of Dead-Wood Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    ., 2001). In Oregon and Washington, approximately 150 species of wildlife are reported to use dead wood in forests (O'Neil et al., 2001). Forty-seven sensitive and special-status species are associated with dead wood (Appendix A). These are key species for management consideration because concern over small or declining populations is often related to loss of suitable dead-wood habitat (Marshall et al., 1996). Primary excavators (woodpeckers) also are often the focus of dead-wood management, because they perform keystone functions in forest ecosystems by creating cavities for secondary cavity-nesters (Martin and Eadie, 1999; Aubry and Raley, 2002). A diverse guild of secondary cavity-users (including swallows, bluebirds, several species of ducks and owls, ash-throated flycatcher, flying squirrel, bats, and many other species) is unable to excavate dead wood, and therefore relies on cavities created by woodpeckers for nesting sites. Suitable nest cavities are essential for reproduction, and their availability limits population size (Newton, 1994). Thus, populations of secondary cavity-nesters are tightly linked to the habitat requirements of primary excavators. Although managers often focus on decaying wood as habitat for wildlife, the integral role dead wood plays in ecological processes is an equally important consideration for management. Rose et al. (2001) provide a thorough review of the ecological functions of dead wood in Pacific Northwest forests, briefly summarized here. Decaying wood functions in: soil development and productivity, nutrient cycling, nitrogen fixation, and carbon storage. From ridge tops, to headwater streams, to estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems, decaying wood is fundamental to diverse terrestrial and aquatic food webs. Wildlife species that use dead wood for cover or feeding are linked to these ecosystem processes through a broad array of functional roles, including facilitation of decay and trophic interactions with other org

  19. Genetic and environmental modification of the mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederoff, R.; Allona, I.; Whetten, R.

    1996-02-01

    Wood is one of the nation's leading raw materials and is used for a wide variety of products, either directly as wood, or as derived materials in pulp and paper. Wood is a biological material and evolved to provide mechanical support and water transport to the early plants that conquered the land. Wood is a tissue that results from the differentiation and programmed cell death of cells that derive from a tissue known as the vascular cambium. The vascular cambium is a thin cylinder of undifferentiated tissue in plant stems and roots that gives rise to several different cell types. Cells that differentiate on the internal side of the cambium form xylem, a tissue composed in major part, of long thin cells that die leaving a network of interconnected cell walls that serve to transport water and to provide mechanical support for the woody plant. The shape and chemical composition of the cells in xylem are well suited for these functions. The structure of cells in xylem determines the mechanical properties of the wood because of the strength derived from the reinforced matrix of the wall. The hydrophobic phenolic surface of the inside of the cell walls is essential to maintain surface tension upon which water transport is based and to resist decay caused by microorganisms. The properties of wood derived from the function of xylem also determine its structural and chemical properties as wood and paper products. Therefore, the physical and chemical properties of wood and paper products also depend on the morphology and composition of the cells from which they are derived. Wood (xylem cell walls) is an anisotropic material, a composite of lignocellulose. It is a matrix of cellulose microfibrils, complexed with hemicelluloses, (carbohydrate polymers which contain sugars other than glucose, both pentoses and hexoses), embedded together in a phenolic matrix of lignin. The high tensile strength of wood in the longitudinal direction, is due to the structure of cellulose and the

  20. The international logistics of wood pellets for heating and power production in Europe: Costs, energy-input and greenhouse gas balances of pellet consumption in Italy, Sweden and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.; Junginger, H.M.; Pichler, W.; Hayes, S.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The European wood pellet market is booming: concerns about climate change and renewable energy targets are predominant drivers. The aim of this analysis is to compare typical wood pellet chains from the purchase of the feedstock from sawmills to the conversion into heat or electricity. Cost structur

  1. Carbon emission reduction potentials through thinned wood in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninomiya H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Substituting fossil fuel with woody biomass for bioelectricity production has great potentials for carbon emission reductions while increasing forest productivity to increase carbon sequestration and improve ecological functionalities. Until recently, study on such potentials was very limited. Beginning in 2007, Japan’s special budgets were allocated for a 6-year intensive thinning on about 3.3 million ha of young stands for increasing carbon sinks in Japanese forests to meet the capped amount of 47.7 Tg CO2 year-1 allowed under the Marrakesh Accord. Because of only 30% of the thinned wood were used for sawntimber, CO2 and CH4 must have been emitted from the disposed thinned wood and wood waste. Such emissions and reduction potentials need to be assessed to provide future alternatives for climate change mitigation. We assessed carbon emission reduction potentials when woody biomass from thinned wood is fully utilized for bioelectricity production as compared with the generation of the same amount of energy produced under coal, oil, and natural gas scenarios. Our analytical results show that if all disposed thinned wood and wood waste are utilized to generate energy, about 62.6, 58.3, and 37.8 Tg CO2 year-1 could be prevented from emitting depending on emission scenarios or about 33.2, 30.9, and 20.0% of Japan’s reduction commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. On the other hand, if thinned wood and wood waste are not utilized, about 13.4 Tg CO2 year-1 would be released due to thinning. Our results suggest that incentives to reducing emission reductions in forest sector in the future climate change mitigation agreements will likely lead to large emission reductions, otherwise leakages due to thinning are unavoidable.

  2. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome.

  3. The Efficacy of Organo-Complex-Based Wood Preservative Formula Against Dry-Wood Termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoirul Himmi Setiawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of pesticides often leaves residues which potentially pollute the environment. This journal issue has been encouraging some researchers to find an environmentally friendly insecticide by a cheaper wood preservative method. The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 15 (ISPM 15 [1] that is adopted in wood packaging protection in Europe is not suitable for tropical countries like Indonesia. Therefore, the treatment by Organo-Complex-based wood preservation, which consists of copper chromium combined with natural organic compounds, is proposed for effective treatment at a lower cost. The bioassay test was subjected to dry wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. The result showed that wood materials treated by 10 ppm Organo-Complex formula gave good results which were indicated by the low consumption and the fast termination of the termites. The toxicity analysis of C-C organic compound solution is classified as grade IV (WHO, 2003 [2], or not harmful. Analysis of the residual content four weeks after the spraying treatment showed a significant reduction in the inorganic content (copper chromate complex, in the range of 35%, and in extracts of natural materials (natural extracts, above 80%.

  4. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  5. Thermal Proprieties of Concrete Lightened by Wood Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Taoukil

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is about an experimental study of the thermal proprieties of a concrete lightened by wood aggregates stemming from waste products of the carpentry work. We were especially interested in the comparison between the proprieties of concretes lightened by sawdust and those lightened by wood shavings. The determination of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of various samples allowed us to demonstrate that the incorporation of wood aggregates in the concrete increases considerably its thermal insulation capacity. Also, we found that, at equal mass percentage of wood aggregates, the concretes elaborated from shavings present thermal insulation capacities better than those obtained from sawdust. On other hand, we have examined the influence of the water content on the thermophysical properties of the studied concretes. So, we have demonstrated and confirmed that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the studied materials are strongly dependent on the water content.

  6. Comparative study of Danish prefab houses made of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The use of wood in Danish prefab building projects is increasing, but there is not a strong architectural tradition in Denmark for constructing timber housing. This paper therefore contains a comparative study of various manners of incorporating architectural features in prefab houses made of wood....... In the study four Danish prefab housing concepts based on wood con¬struc¬tion is compared and discussed, in order to investigate and exemplify how it is possible to work with architectural quality in prefab timber housing and maximise the use of the material, the prefab production and the architectural values....... It was concluded that especially two aspects are of great importance for the concrete handling of the architectural quality of prefab houses made of wood; 1) flexibility in relation to user and site, and 2) the interaction between form, logics and material. It is suggested that keeping these two aspects in mind...

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  8. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture abso

  9. Design Wood Nanocomposites from Polymer Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVWenhua; ZHAOGuangjie

    2004-01-01

    Researches on wood nanocomposites, which involve nano science and technology, wood science,materials science and other related subjects, have important science signification and promising prospect for the development and study of new wood composites with high appending values and multi-properties. This paper reviewed the conventional wood composites, and then discussed the approaches to prepare wood nanocomposites. Based on the achievements of researches on polymer/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, the design ideas of preparing nanocomposites of wood and inorganic MMT were systematically put forward. Nano compounding of wood and other materials is an effective approach to greatly improve or modify wood.

  10. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  11. Wood or Laminate?—Psychological Research of Customer Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood is generally associated with being practical, aesthetic and economy-friendly. Using wood in interior settings also can be based on psychological expectations and assumptions, as wood is attributed as warmer, more homely, more relaxing and more inviting. However, when investigating psychological differences, wood is usually compared to carpets, glass, leather, stone, or plastic but is not compared to a visually similar material such as laminate. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the various psychological characteristics related to wooden and laminate materials in interior settings. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 design (material, sequence with repeated measures for material. Forty participants were asked to evaluate a framed piece of wood floor and a framed piece of laminate floor regarding technical, practical, and psychological aspects. Further, three questions about one’s purchase decision were asked. The results show that the wooden floor was evaluated significantly better than the laminate floor regarding “materials and processing”, “atmosphere”, and “values and symbolic functions”. For the criterion “health”, a tendency in favor of wood could be found. In addition, the participants would more likely recommend and purchase wooden products and also accept more deficiencies in wooden products.

  12. Studies on Some Properties of Quality and Performance in Wood Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Dilik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of some quality and performance properties of windows, made of tree species used frequently in industrial window manufacturing and the effects of tree species on those properties have been examined. According to the results of the study by considering regular standards, in the air resistance tests, the classification has been determined as follows: those made of Scots pine as (Pinus sylvestris A4, European larch (Larix decidua as A3 and Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindiricum as A2. The water resistance test has classified those made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris as in between RA6 and RA7, European Larch (Larix decidua as in between RA1 and RA3 and Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindiricum as RA1. As for wind resistance test, all species have been found in the class W5. When having made the same test in PVC for the purpose of controlling and making comparison and to verify the outcomes obtained from regular test, it was found that air permeability was A4, water tightness was RA9 and wind resistance test was W5. As can be seen from the given results, PVC has proved to show best performance among all, whereas Scots pine samples has shown the the best performance among all the other wood products followed by European Larch and Sapele. The reasons for that are the woodworking and workmanship quality rather than changeable physical, mechanical and technical properties of the wood species.

  13. Zero-emission wood chip drier with terpene recovery. Project 2: Condensate treatment and terpene production. Final report; Emissonsfreier Holzspaenetrockner mit Rueckgewinnung von Terpenen. Teilvorhaben 2: Kondensataufbereitung und Terpengewinnung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, H.; Sievers, M.

    2002-07-01

    The wood drying process releases volatile constituents, of which terpene compounds are the most important as they can be used as feedstocks for the chemical industry (odorants and aromatic substances). Closed-cycle steam drying of wood chips (pinewood) with vapour condensation and integrated production of terpenes was investigated on a pilot scale and semi-industrial scale. The project was successful. An economic assessment of the pilot experiments showed that integrated terpene production may be economically interesting, especially if the condensates are used as process fluids and the process heat is recycled at least partly. (orig.) [German] Bei der Trocknung von Holz werden fluechtige orginaere Holzinhaltsstoffe freigesetzt. Besondere Bedeutung kommt den Terpenverbindungen zu, da diese als Rohstoffe in der chemischen Industrie (Duft- und Aromastoffherstellung) eingesetzt werden. Mit der Dampftrocknung im geschlossenen Gaskreislauf bietet sich erstmals die Moeglichkeit einer wirtschaftlichen produktionsintegrierten Gewinnung von Terpenverbindungen ueber eine Kondensation der angereicherten Brueden. Im Rahmen eines Verbundvorhabens wurde deshalb a) die technische Umsetzung eines Spaenetrockners (hier: Kiefernholz) wissenschaftlich und messtechnisch begleitet (Teilvorhaben 1, Bearbeitung: Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institut (FhG), Braunschweig) und b) die integrierte Gewinnung von Terpenen im Pilot- und halbtechnischen Massstab untersucht (Teilvorhaben 2, CUTEC-Institut). Mit Hilfe einer zweistufigen Abluftbehandlung aus Absorption und Kondensation im halbtechnischen Massstab konnte eine Vorfraktionierung der Holzinhaltsstoffe dahingehend erreicht werden, dass sich Staub, Harze und Wachse im Waschwasser anreichern, waehrend die fuer die Duftstoffindustrie interessanten Holzoele (Terpene) mit dem Kondensat abgeschieden werden. Die Abtrennung der Holzoele aus dem Kondensat wurde mit einem Leichtstoffabscheider realisiert. Bei Kondensatmengen von 200 bis 500 L/h wurden

  14. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Robin A; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-11-01

    Woody plants convert the energy of the sun into lignocellulosic biomass, which is an abundant substrate for bioenergy production. Fungi, especially wood decayers from the class Agaricomycetes, have evolved ways to degrade lignocellulose into its monomeric constituents, and understanding this process may facilitate the development of biofuels. Over the past decade genomics has become a powerful tool to study the Agaricomycetes. In 2004 the first sequenced genome of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed a rich catalog of lignocellulolytic enzymes. In the decade that followed the number of genomes of Agaricomycetes grew to more than 75 and revealed a diversity of wood-decaying strategies. New technologies for high-throughput functional genomics are now needed to further study these organisms.

  15. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems; Holzenergie Teil 2b: Holzpellets und Pelletheizungen / Energie du bois Partie 2b: Granules de bois et installations de chauffage a granules de bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  16. 75 FR 707 - Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... National Security Information Memorandum of December 29, 2009--Implementation of the Executive Order ``Classified National Security Information'' Order of December 29, 2009--Original Classification Authority #0... 13526 of December 29, 2009 Classified National Security Information This order prescribes a...

  17. Malignancy and Abnormality Detection of Mammograms using Classifier Ensembling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawazish Naveed

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The breast cancer detection and diagnosis is a critical and complex procedure that demands high degree of accuracy. In computer aided diagnostic systems, the breast cancer detection is a two stage procedure. First, to classify the malignant and benign mammograms, while in second stage, the type of abnormality is detected. In this paper, we have developed a novel architecture to enhance the classification of malignant and benign mammograms using multi-classification of malignant mammograms into six abnormality classes. DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transformation features are extracted from preprocessed images and passed through different classifiers. To improve accuracy, results generated by various classifiers are ensembled. The genetic algorithm is used to find optimal weights rather than assigning weights to the results of classifiers on the basis of heuristics. The mammograms declared as malignant by ensemble classifiers are divided into six classes. The ensemble classifiers are further used for multiclassification using one-against-all technique for classification. The output of all ensemble classifiers is combined by product, median and mean rule. It has been observed that the accuracy of classification of abnormalities is more than 97% in case of mean rule. The Mammographic Image Analysis Society dataset is used for experimentation.

  18. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  19. Wood and foliar respiration of tropical wet forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, S.; Bedoya Arrieta, R.; Ryan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Wood and foliar respiration from tropical forests constitute major components of ecosystem respiration that may control their productivity and carbon storage. However, few estimates on tropical forests vary greatly. Furthermore, the trees in these forests respire great amounts of carbon, but impacts of individual tree species on respiration is not well known. We examined wood and foliar respiration in this environment in relation to individual tree species. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify how respiration rates relate to scaling variables for wood and foliage, 2) examine the effects of individual tree species on these relationships, 3) extrapolate the rates to the annual fluxes of the whole stands, and 4) determine if tree species differed in these fluxes. Established on an abandoned pasture in 1988 at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, the monodominant stands contained four native species in a complete randomized block design. Respiration rates based on tissue surface area ranged among dominant tree species from 0.6 to 1.0 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for small diameter wood (<10cm), 1.0 to 1.8 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for large diameter wood, and 0.7 to 0.8 μg C m^-2 s^-1 for foliage. Understory species had similar wood respiration rates, but foliage respiration rates were about half of those for canopy leaves. Among surface area, volume, or biomass, respiration rates scaled best with surface area for wood with small diameter, volume or biomass for large diameter wood, and leaf area for foliage. These relationships differed slightly among tree species and between canopy trees and understory species. Foliar respiration rate was generally related to leaf nitrogen content, and this relationship differed among dominant tree species. Temperature response of foliar respiration also differed among tree species and canopy class. However, daily and annual temperature fluctuations had less than 3% effect on annual flux. Annual respiratory fluxes from wood and foliage

  20. Molecular Dissection of Xylan Biosynthesis during Wood Formation in Poplar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chanhui Lee; Quincy Teng; Ruiqin Zhong; Zheng-Hua Ye

    2011-01-01

    Xylan, being the second most abundant polysaccharide in dicot wood, is considered to be one of the factors contributing to wood biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. To better utilize wood as biofuel feedstock, it is crucial to functionally characterize all the genes involved in xylan biosynthesis during wood formation. In this report, we inves-tigated roles of poplar families GT43 and GT8 glycosyltransferases in xylan biosynthesis during wood formation. There exist seven GT43 genes in the genome of poplar (Populus trichocarpa), five of which, namely PtrGT43A, PtrGT43B,PtrGT43C, PtrGT43D, and PtrGT43E, were shown to be highly expressed in the developing wood and their encoded proteins were localized in the Golgi. Comprehensive genetic complementation coupled with chemical analyses demonstrated that overexpression of PtrGT43A/B/E but not PtrGT43C/D was able to rescue the xylan defects conferred by the Arabidopsis irx9mutant, whereas overexpression of PtrGT43C/D but not PtrGT43A/B/E led to a complementation of the xyian defects in the Arabidopsis irx14 mutant. The essential roles of poplar GT43 members in xylan biosynthesis was further substantiated by RNAi down-regulation of GT43B in the hybrid poplar (Populus alba x tremula)leading to reductions in wall thickness and xylan content in wood, and an elevation in the abundance of the xylan reducing end sequence. Wood digestibility analysis revealed that cellulase digestion released more glucose from the wood of poplar GT43B RNAi lines than the control wood, indicating a decrease in wood biomass recalcitrance. Furthermore, RNAi down-regulation of another poplar wood-associated glycosyltransferase, PoGT8D, was shown to cause decreases in wall thickness and xylan content as well as in the abundance of the xylan reducing end sequence. Together, these findings demonstrate that the poplar GT43 mem-bers form two functionally non-redundant groups, namely PtrGT43A/B/E as functional orthologs of Arabidopsis IRX9 and Ptr

  1. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  2. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  4. Aggregation Operator Based Fuzzy Pattern Classifier Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönks, Uwe; Larsen, Henrik Legind

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable. The perfor....... The performances of novel classifiers using substitutes of MFPC's geometric mean aggregator are benchmarked in the scope of an image processing application against the MFPC to reveal classification improvement potentials for obtaining higher classification rates....

  5. Progênies de Segunda Geração de Grevilea: Produção de Madeira na Região de Londrina, PR Second Generation of Grevillea: Wood Production in Londrina-PR Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Gonçalves Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O uso da grevílea (Grevillea robusta Cunn não se restringe somente ao sombreamento de cafezais, ornamentação e quebra-ventos, é também usada pela apicultura e na produção de madeira para usos diversos. O presente trabalho objetivou estimar a produção de madeira e estabelecer fontes de sementes melhoradas para plantios comerciais na região de Londrina, PR. Para tal, um experimento com 37 progênies de segunda geração foi instalado no Distrito de Maravilha, Município de Londrina, PR, com coordenadas geográficas 23°23’30"S e 51°11’05"W. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas lineares de cinco plantas distribuídas aleatoriamente com oito repetições, num espaçamento de 3 m x 3 m. A partir das medições das alturas e dos diâmetros na altura do peito (DAP, a variável estimada (volume cilíndrico foi analisada para comparar as médias entre as progênies. Concluiu-se que em Londrina, a família mais produtiva em volume e com maior sobrevivência é da procedência australiana Duck Creek (NSW. 
    Grevillea robusta Cunn is not only utilized for coffee plantation shading, ornamentation and wind breaks. It is also used in apiculture and different wood utilities. The purpose of this study was to identify genetically superior individuals for wood volume production in order to select material for future seed orchards in the Londrina region of Northern Paraná State, Brazil. The genetic material tested was 37 second generation half-sib progenies from a provenance trial located on Presidente Castelo Branco county, also in the State of Paraná. The experiment was planted in EMBRAPA’s Maravilha farm with the following geographic coordinates: 23°23’30"S and 51°11’05"W. Progenies were evaluated in a experimental design in the form of eight replications and five plants per plot. Height, diameter and volume were statistically analysed in order

  6. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  7. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  8. Uses and commercialization of Borassus akeassii Bayton, Ouédraogo, Guinko non-wood timber products in South-Western Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin Ouédraogo M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Borassus akeassii called" rônier " in French marks the South-Western landscape of Burkina Faso and plays an important role in local people livelihood. The present article is about this species uses and its socio-economic roles. Investigations have been made in three villages and in Banfora markets. The interviewed people were the villagers, extractors and retailers of sap, the outfitters and retailers of handicraft products. Some quantifications of sap and handicraft objects produced and sold have been conducted with the actors of the sector. Financial fallout has been also studied taking into account the high and low production periods. The results revealed that five parts of the tree were used as food, six as medicine and three in handicraft. Product prices varied with the period of production, the category of the seller and the object dimension. In dry cold period, from November to February, sap trading yielded net incomes of 277347 ± 94 653 FCFA for the extractors whereas the incomes amounted to 319 368 ± 163 969 FCFA from March to October. A craftsman could get a net income of 277 933 ± 2 787 FCFA during the high production period and 110 383 ± 25 371 FCFA during the low production period. Due to such an importance, there is a need for research program on the resource base, the improvement and management of the species. A better organization of the actors of the sector will improve their access to market information, to know the requirements of the market and to be aware of the impacts of product quality on the profit of the actors of the sector.

  9. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information..., the information shall be reviewed to determine whether it should remain classified. Ordinarily...

  10. Wood-Based Paneling as Thermal Barriers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Forest Panelingi as Products Laboratory Research Thermal Barriers Paper ’> FPL 408 10 C-D Li-J _ LzstZibutio iOse flh SQe.it s V 82 1012 048 |stract...this paper, a small scale horizontal exposure furnace test for testing thermal barriers over a calcium silicate board was added to the Uniform Building...Results," by Robert H. White. United States Department of - a eArclueWood-Based Agriculture Forest Paneling as Products Laboratory, Par Thermal Barriers PaperFPL

  11. Identification of putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density in Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Southerton, Simon G

    2012-08-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process driven by the annual activity of the vascular cambium. Conifers usually produce juvenile wood at young ages followed by mature wood for the rest of their lifetime. Juvenile wood exhibits poorer wood quality (i.e., lower density) compared with mature wood and can account for up to 50% of short-rotation harvested logs, thus representing a major challenge for commercial forestry globally. Wood density is an important quality trait for many timber-related products. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of juvenile wood density is critical for the improvement of juvenile wood quality via marker-aided selection. A previous study has identified several candidate genes affecting mature wood density in Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.; however, genes associated with juvenile wood density in conifers remain poorly characterized. Here, cDNA microarrays containing 3320 xylem unigenes were used to investigate genes differentially transcribed in juvenile wood with high (HD) and low density (LD) in Pinus radiata D.Don. In total, 814 xylem unigenes with differential transcription were identified in at least one of two microarray experiments and 73 genes (45 for HD, 28 for LD) were identified in both experiments, thus representing putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density. Interestingly, cellulose synthases (PrCesA3, PrCesA11) and sucrose synthase (SuSy), which are involved in secondary cell wall formation, had stronger transcription in juvenile wood with HD, while genes functioning in primary wall formation (pectin synthesis, cell expansion and other modifications) were more transcribed in LD wood. Cell wall genes encoding monolignol biosynthesis enzymes, arabinogalactan proteins, actins and tubulins were differentially transcribed in either HD or LD juvenile wood; however, the latter had exclusively greater transcription of genes involved in monolignol polymerization (laccase and peroxidase). The

  12. Hygienic aspects of the use of pressed-wood products in residential buildings. Part I. The effect of particleboards ageing on release of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiglusz, R; Jarnuszkiewicz, I; Sitko, E; Wolska, L

    1990-01-01

    Urea-formaldehyde-resins bounded particleboards (100 x 40 mm plates) each from a different manufactory plant, were stored at room temperature, with free access of air. In selected time intervals plates were placed in the climatic chamber for five days, and formaldehyde (CH2O) emission were determined. The conditions were as follows: loading factor 1 m2/m3, one air exchange per hour, air temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity (RH) 45%. During the 3 months following the production, CH2O emission decreased by more than 50%. During the next months of storing the emission decrease was slight. In the period of 1-3 years since the production, CH2O emission was 0.13-0.06 mg/m2/h, regardless of the amount of formaldehyde released in the first period after the production.

  13. Evaluation of energy efficient techniques in the wood working and wood processing industry. Final report THERMIE - Action no. DIS-0059-95-DE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Digutsch, O.; Frey, G. v. [and others

    1997-05-01

    With the entrance of Austria, Finland and Sweden in the European Union beginning of 1995 the pattern of industrial energy consumption has changed considerably in some branches which are large energy consumers in the Northern countries. The wood working and wood processing industry is one of those branches. It comprises the preparation of wood from primary processing in sawmills up to the production of finished products, and is highly energy-intensive although to a somewhat smaller extent than the large energy consumers such as the iron and steel production or glass manufacturing. It can further be assumed that official statistics underestimate the real importance of the energy consumption in the wood sector because most official statistics do not indicate waste wood as a fuel. Waste wood is a renewable fuel and has as such not the same impact in terms of CO{sub 2}-emissions as fossil fuels. Nevertheless, renewable energy sources should be also used efficiently because they can replace fossil fuels for other purposes. The objective of this study on the wood sector were to analyse and summarise the present status of energy consumption in the fifteen countries of the EU and the two EFTA countries Norway and Switzerland, to evaluate present day energy technology in the wood industry, and to investigate existing application barriers to these techniques in order to inform, support and to motivate small and medium-sized companies in particular, thus simulating the wide spread use of such techniques. (orig./SR)

  14. An Empirical Analysis of Effects of Economic Development and Forest Product Trade on Wood Consumption in China%中国经济发展、林产品贸易对木材消耗影响的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明华; 史莹赫; 黄雨; 于豪谅; 秦国伟; 柴梅

    2016-01-01

    给因素仍是影响中国人均木材消耗最为显著、最为重要的正向作用因素;林业相关行业的技术进步对于减少人均木材消耗有着一定的积极作用,中国人口因素很大程度上降低了中国人均木材消耗,但由于中国人口基数太大,导致中国木材消耗总量仍处于世界前列。据此,本文提出了保持目前“大进大出”林产品贸易模式、积极推进林产品贸易自由化、保持木材供应适度偏紧、促进产业技术创新等相关建议。%Objective] At present,China has become the second largest country of wood consumption and the largest country of wood importing in world,but for the reason that the total amount of forest resources in China is relatively inadequate,it’s very difficult to satisfy the tremendous demand for wood and ecological environment. Due to consumption of a large number of timber,economic development and forest product trade have become a focus for solving forest problems. However,research on the effects of economic development and forest product trade on forest resources has not reached a definite conclusion. To confirm the impact of China’s economic development and forest products trade on wood consumption,it would be helpful to respond to the criticism that China is“the black hole”of the world ’s forest resources,to examine China’s forest products trade mode which shows as“large number of imports and a large number of export at the same time”,to evaluation the rising forest products trade protection in the world,and finally to provide scientific basis for the development of China’s forestry industry. [Method]This paper used wood consumption per capita as the environmental pressure index of forest resources,and used multiple linear regression models based on the time series data of China from 1993 to 2013,to analyze the factors that affect wood consumption per capita,such as economic development,forest products trade

  15. Loss of diversity in wood-inhabiting fungal communities affects decomposition activity in Norway spruce wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eValentin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of wood-inhabiting fungal species are now threatened, principally due to a lack of dead wood in intensively managed forests, but the consequences of reduced fungal diversity on ecosystem functioning are not known. Several experiments have shown that primary productivity is negatively affected by a loss of species, but the effects of microbial diversity on decomposition are less studied. We studied the relationship between fungal diversity and the in vitro decomposition rate of slightly, moderately and heavily decayed Picea abies wood with indigenous fungal communities that were diluted to examine the influence of diversity. Respiration rate, wood-degrading hydrolytic enzymes and fungal community structure were assessed during a 16-week incubation. Respiration rate increased between early- and late-decay stages. Reduced fungal diversity was associated with lower respiration rates during intermediate stages of decay, but no effects were detected at later stages. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes varied among decay stages and fungal dilutions. Our results suggest that functioning of highly diverse communities of the late-decay stage were more resistant to the loss of diversity than less diverse communities of early decomposers. This indicates the accumulation of functional redundancy during the succession of the fungal community in decomposing substrates.

  16. A model of supplying poplar wood for Iranian paper & wood factories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Azizi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design a method for an appropriate alternative to supply poplar wood as raw material for wood and paper factories in Iran.Due to the destruction of the forests and lack of proper plantation,replacement of the forest wood by the fast growing wood is vital to satisfy all requirements of these factories.A hierarchy was used to prioritize benefits,opportunities,costs and risks (BOCR) using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) ratings approach.To evaluate the "control criteria" of the system,a control hierarchy was also created and prioritized by applying the Analytic Network Process (ANP).A total of four major control criteria in the system are prioritized where each one controls a network structure evaluated by using ANP.The final synthesis results of the system showed that internal poplar tree farming supplied by the forest product factories was the best choice among three potential alternatives (factory procurement,external procurement and mix procurement).

  17. A Study of Export Structure Risks of China' s Wood Forest Products during the Period 1995-2009%中国木质林产品出口贸易结构风险测算——基于1995年-2009年数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓燕

    2011-01-01

    本文基于1995年-2009年数据,选取出口商品结构指数、劳伦斯指数、出口产品反应度、出口产品分散度、产业内贸易指数、出口市场匹配性指数、出口市场反应度、出口市场分散度,构建中国木质林产品出口贸易结构评价指标体系,用功效系数法和主成分分析法测算综合功效系数,分析结果表明,出口结构风险加大趋势明显,2009年出口贸易结构处于高度风险状态,进而从出口商品结构、出口市场结构、出口模式结构三方面提出了出口结构优化的对策%The export of China’s wood forest products is highly reliant on labor-intensive products, such as wooden furniture, and concentrates in a small market. This situation would lead to trade frictions such as anti-dumping and technical barriers to trade. At the same time, the forest products processing industry is facing the threat of resource security because of its residual trade characteristics. Due to the financial crisis, labor-intensive and capital and technology-intensive exports of wood forest products decreased greatly in 2009. In the current situation, investigating the risk of the export trade structure and proposing the countermeasures to optimize the export structure are of important practical significance. Based on data during the period 1995-2009, we constructed an evaluation index system of the export structure of China’s wood forest products, including export commodities structure index, Lawrence index, reaction index of export products, dispersion index of export products, intra-industry trade index, matching index of export markets, reaction index of export market, and dispersion index of export market. We used the efficiency coefficient method and principal component analysis method to estimate comprehensive efficacy coefficient. Results show that the trend of the risk of the export structure was clearly increasing and the structure of export trade in 2009 was in a high risk

  18. Development of wood fuel delivery logistics; Puupolttoaineiden hankintalogistiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, H.

    1996-12-31

    The main aim of the project is to model the energy wood business and total logistics in a certain large region. First, wood utilisation locations inside this area are examined; the most important ones are the wood processing factories, and the heating- and power plants. After that, wood potentials in the forests of the area are evaluated in sub-areas suitable in size and sufficiently detailed for further evaluations. For that purpose, the most valuable source data are forest management plans, up to ten years forward, on which basis the wood fuel potentials can be evaluated following sustainable development. In Finland there are extensive and detailed data bases storing forest information and it is possible to collect necessary data for a data base applicable to our calculations. In logistical sense it is important to know, by which delivery chains the economically best and desired results are achieved. The software prototype based on data base is modelled and developed at VTT Energy, for facilitating these planning activities. The starting point of the planning system in delivery logistics is the implementation of an easy tool for versatile planning so that with this tool model different delivery chains can be flexiblyed, create usage scenarios, make alternative examinations, and calculate impacts of different factors on energy wood amounts yielded and delivery costs. With planning system in delivery logistics we calculate production costs and amounts delivered to different utilisation locations. The system offers tools for definitions of utilisation locations, calculation parameters, and delivery chains

  19. The drying of wood chips with surplus heat in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhagen, E. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., As (Norway). Dept. of Forest Resources, Forest Operations and Economics

    2010-07-01

    The study evaluated a wood chip drying procedure that used surplus heat from 2 hydroelectric power plants in western Norway. The wood was chipped and then loaded into the dryer using a tractor-trailer and a container. Warm air from the plants was funnelled into the dryer from perforated floors in the plants and an electric fan. Trials of the procedure were conducted to determine the drying capacity of the trailer and container. The study showed that the temperature and the moisture content of the wood chips varied over the course of the drying period. The chips located at the bottom dried first. The moisture content in the chip ranged between 66.1 to 52.1 before drying and between 9.6 and 6.9 per cent after drying. No substantial difference in moisture content between wood chips located at the top and bottom of the piles was noted. The net calorific values of the wood chips ranged from 1340 to 2170 kWh per tonne before drying, and between 4710 to 4860 after drying. The study showed that the cheapest option for the production of wood chips is natural drying and chipping at the roadside.

  20. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  1. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  2. Effect of Tool and Milling Parameters on the Size Distribution of Splinters of Planed Native and Thermally Modified Beech Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Barcík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with splinter size analysis of beech wood, considering the angular tool of the cutter and also the physical and mechanical wood properties substantially influencing wood processing technology. Particle size analysis was conducted by sieving the samples using a set of laboratory sieves, with subsequent determination of the individual fraction shares. The results have been compared with respect to the possibility of wood waste separation and filtration, and its subsequent utilization, above all, in the production of agglomerated materials and production of wood briquettes and pellets. The most frequently occurring fractions in native beech samples range between 5 and 8 mm and between 2 and 5 mm, while powder fractions below 125 μm were found in less than 1% of investigated samples. The most frequently occurring fractions in thermally modified beech wood ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and the share of powder wood particles below 125 μm was less than 4%.

  3. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  4. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  5. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the phy

  6. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  7. The research of some physical properties of wood Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortuneii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Borislav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The density, shrinkage and swelling of Paulownia elongata and P. fortuneii wood were researched. The study material was provided by Boda Vukovojac, B. Sc., who established the Paulownia plantation and sample plots on the territory of the Municipality Bela Crkva. The study results show the differences between the analyzed properties of these two species. The study results were also compared with the results of the similar species of wood. The data shows that the study wood can be used in wood products that are not subject to great loads during exploitation. Further study should investigate the liability of these wood species to form tension wood and deformations in the conditions of variable hygroscopic moisture.

  8. Changes in mechanical and chemical wood properties by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schnabel@fh-salzburg.ac.at [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); Huber, Hermann [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); Grünewald, Tilman A. [BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Physics and Materials Science, Peter Jordan Straße 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Petutschnigg, Alexander [Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Products Technology and Wood Constructions, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl (Austria); BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Konrad Lorenzstraße 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Changes in wood due to electron beam irradiations (EBI) were evaluated. • Wood components undergo different altering mechanisms due to the irradiation. • Chemical reactions in wood lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood. - Abstract: This study deals with the influence of various electron beam irradiation (EBI) dosages on the Brinell hardness of Norway spruce. The results of the hardness measurements and the FT-IR spectroscopic analysis show different effects of the EBI at dosages of 25, 50, 100 and 200 kGy. It was assumed that the lignin and carbohydrates undergo different altering mechanisms due to the EBI treatment. New cleavage products and condensation reactions of lignin and carbohydrates lead to better surface hardness of low irradiated wood samples. These results provide a useful basis for further investigations on the changes in wood chemistry and material properties due to electron beam irradiations.

  9. Time consumption and productivity of skidding Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. round wood in reduced accessibility conditions: a case study in windthrow salvage logging form Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alexandru Borz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural calamities (especially windthrows may generate difficult work conditions in timber harvesting operations. When associated with the reduced accessibility conditions, the work conditions become even harder. This study investigates the time consumptions on specific work elements in timber skidding, develops time prediction models for timber skidding work elements and assesses the production rates for timber skidding in reduced accessibility stands where windthrow salvage cuttings were applied. Following a time study done for two skidders (TAF 690 OP and TAF 657 operating simultaneously in the same felling area, it has been found that, in average, in a delay free skidding cycle time, lateral winching accounted for a share of 26-33%, on-trail skidding accounted for a share of 64-71% and landing operations accounted for a share of 3%.Total delays accounted for 51% and 43% of the total work time in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder and TAF 657skidder respectively. Regression models for lateral winching (both skidders revealed that the winching distance and the number of logs were the relevant predictors for the time consumption estimation (p<0.01, whereas in the case of on-trail skidding only the skidding distance was relevant (p<0.01. For the overall skidding operation (excluding landing operations winching and skidding distances were found as relevant predictors (p<0.01 in case of TAF 690 OP, whereas the number of logs became an additional relevant predictor in case of TAF 657.In conditions of an average winching distance of 19.90 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 980.32 m, the time study yielded a net production rate of 7.70 m3h-1 and a gross production rate of 3.75 m3h-1 in the case of TAF 690 OP skidder. By comparison, in the case of TAF 657 skidder, for an average winching distance of 22.86 m and an average on-trail skidding distance of 871.00 m, the net and gross production rates were of 5.61 m3h-1 and 3.20 m3h-1 respectively.

  10. Development of wood pellets market in South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood pellets market in nine countries in South East Europe and Slovakia. Objective of the research was to observe the actual situation regarding the number of producers, size of installed capacities, production volume, foreign trade flows and existing problems and obstacles which significantly limit the sustainable development of wood pellets market in the selected countries. Selection of such an objective results from the fact that according to the stated elements there are no sufficiently reliable data, wherefore this region is a huge gap in numerous reports of international and national organizations and institutions. Results of the conducted research show that in the middle of 2014, 245 producers were engaged in wood pellets production in South East Europe and Slovakia, 116 of which were located in Bulgaria and Serbia. Most of the producers of wood pellets has installed capacities of 1,000-5,000 tons annually, while only 18 factories in the entire region have the installed capacity over 30,000 tons/year. Observed collectively in all stated countries, the total installed capacities for wood pellets production were 2.2 million tons in 2013 and the realized production was 1.36 million tons. The largest part of the produced amounts of wood pellets in this region is exported. 1.06 million tons were exported from the region in 2013, which is 77.9% of the realized production. Such high export is the result of the underdevelopment of the local market (Slovenia is the only exception and the problems which exist and limit its faster development in most countries.

  11. 22 CFR 125.3 - Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports of classified technical data and... IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF TECHNICAL DATA AND CLASSIFIED DEFENSE ARTICLES § 125.3 Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles. (a) A request for authority...

  12. Forest certification in Calabria (Italy: attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paletto A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification was born in the early 90s of the twentieth century in order to protect tropical and sub-tropical forests against a progressive deforestation and degradation. Forest certification is a valuable instrument for environmental protection and a useful tool of green marketing for forest-wood chain enterprises. In the last decades, in developed countries there has been increased consumer awareness of environmental protection and environmentally friendly wood products. This consumers’ attitude is related to the consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for environmentally friendly wood products. In the international literature, some studies have investigated the consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for several certified wood products with different prices, while few studies have analyzed the willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain for certified wood products. In addition, in the international literature there is a knowledge gap concerning the manufactures or consumers’ willingness to pay for local wood products compared to equivalent products from other geographical areas. Starting from these considerations, the main aims of this study are: (1 to analyze the wood manufactures’ willingness to pay a premium price for certified wood products; (2 to investigate the wood manufactures’ attitudes and willingness to pay for regional/local wood products. The study was conducted as part of the “Ambi.Tec.Fil.Legno” project involving 127 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain located in Calabria region. At the end of the questionnaire survey, the information provided by 40 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain were processed and analyzed (response rate 31.5%. The results show that the main factors that influence the purchase decisions of enterprises are the trust in the seller and the durability of the product. Concerning the manufactures’ willingness to pay for certified

  13. Biochemical modification of wood components

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of cellulose found in wood is one of the most important degradation processes for the carbon flux on earth. The degradation is performed by microorganisms that typically use enzymes. Since the cellulose in wood is crystalline and embedded in other polymers, making it inaccessible and durable, the enzymatic methods of cellulose degradation is also complex. In this thesis, the action of some of these enzymes, called cellulases, have been studied both fundamentally and for indust...

  14. 40 CFR 429.80 - Applicability; description of the wood preserving-steam subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Preserving Steam Subcategory § 429.80 Applicability; description of the wood preserving—steam subcategory... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the...

  15. Crossword Puzzle Makes It Fun: Introduce Green Manufacturing in Wood Technology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iley, John L.; Hague, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable, or "green," manufacturing and its practices are becoming more and more a part of today's industry, including wood product manufacturing. This article provides introductory information on green manufacturing in wood technology and a crossword puzzle based on green manufacturing terms. The authors use the puzzle at the college level to…

  16. Adhesive properties of water washed cottonseed meal on four types of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in natural product-based wood adhesives has been steadily increasing due to the environmental and sustainable concerns of petroleum-based adhesives. In this work, we reported our research on the utilization of water washed cottonseed meal (WCM) as wood adhesives. The adhesive strength a...

  17. DISTINCTION OF MECHANICALLY PROCESSED WOOD SURFACES WITH SIMILAR QUALITIES USING SUNSET LASER TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina de Almeida Andrade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ASTM D 1666-11 (2011 norm classifies the quality of wood surface pieces after its mechanical processing. Although this classification is difficult to achieve visually, the use of some tools, such as solid state laser, can facilitate this classification. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of sunset laser to qualify mechanically processed surfaces with similar visual qualities. We used a log from the base of a Khaya ivorensis tree and one from a K. senegalensis tree, both 11 years old. 22 specimens of dimensions 600x140x30 mm (CxLxE were made of each species. The specimens were flattened with speeds of 2400, 3600 and 4000 min-1 and advanced speeds were predetermined in 6 and 15 m.min-1. Then the samples were illuminated with sunset laser and photographed at high resolution, the images were transferred to the software Image J. To evaluate the sunset laser, areas of defects in wood that are classified as regular and bad by ASTM D 1666-11 (2011 were used. There was a difference in classification of wood defects between the two methods used, from the 31 specimens classified as regularly by visual analysis, 8 of them were classified as bad by the laser method. The use of solid-state laser in the sunset laser technique was more efficient in evaluating small differences in mechanically processed wood defects compared to visual evaluation.

  18. Use of Non Wood Forest Products by local people bordering the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi”, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gausset, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    In the French-speaking countries of Africa, strategies of conservation, inherited from the colonial time, exclude the bordering people in the management of the national parks plant resources. Today, policies and legislation try to reconcile forest conservation and development by associating local...... this issue in the case of the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi” in Burkina Faso, by proposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products......, analyse the park vegetation structure and assess the degree of regeneration of the main useful species. The surveys reveal that bordering people consider the park as their granary, their pharmacy, their pasture, their place of religious worship, and the source of the strength of their territory...

  19. Reducing leaching of boron-based wood preservatives - a review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Shupe, Todd F; Barnes, H Michael

    2008-10-01

    Inorganic borates offer good protection to timber in most non-ground contact applications. The effective use of low solubility borates has not yet been achieved in the treatment of solid lumber. Interest in reducing the leaching of borates stems from their favorable environmental characteristics and broad spectrum efficacy. The key to extending the use of borates to cover the entire spectrum of wood preservation is improving their permanence in wood while retaining efficacy by retaining limited mobility of the borate. We review research over the last two decades in laboratories around the world and classify all strategies employed into fifteen categories. For each strategy, resistance of the treated wood to wood destroying organisms, resistance to leaching, and potential applications are discussed.

  20. Comparing different classifiers for automatic age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanitis, Andreas; Draganova, Chrisina; Christodoulou, Chris

    2004-02-01

    We describe a quantitative evaluation of the performance of different classifiers in the task of automatic age estimation. In this context, we generate a statistical model of facial appearance, which is subsequently used as the basis for obtaining a compact parametric description of face images. The aim of our work is to design classifiers that accept the model-based representation of unseen images and produce an estimate of the age of the person in the corresponding face image. For this application, we have tested different classifiers: a classifier based on the use of quadratic functions for modeling the relationship between face model parameters and age, a shortest distance classifier, and artificial neural network based classifiers. We also describe variations to the basic method where we use age-specific and/or appearance specific age estimation methods. In this context, we use age estimation classifiers for each age group and/or classifiers for different clusters of subjects within our training set. In those cases, part of the classification procedure is devoted to choosing the most appropriate classifier for the subject/age range in question, so that more accurate age estimates can be obtained. We also present comparative results concerning the performance of humans and computers in the task of age estimation. Our results indicate that machines can estimate the age of a person almost as reliably as humans.