Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring body kinematics has fundamental relevance in several biological and technical disciplines. In particular the possibility to exactly know the posture may furnish a main aid in rehabilitation topics. In the present work an innovative and unobtrusive garment able to detect the posture and the movement of the upper limb has been introduced, with particular care to its application in post stroke rehabilitation field by describing the integration of the prototype in a healthcare service. Methods This paper deals with the design, the development and implementation of a sensing garment, from the characterization of innovative comfortable and diffuse sensors we used to the methodologies employed to gather information on the posture and movement which derive from the entire garments. Several new algorithms devoted to the signal acquisition, the treatment and posture and gesture reconstruction are introduced and tested. Results Data obtained by means of the sensing garment are analyzed and compared with the ones recorded using a traditional movement tracking system. Conclusion The main results treated in this work are summarized and remarked. The system was compared with a commercial movement tracking system (a set of electrogoniometers and it performed the same accuracy in detecting upper limb postures and movements.
This article presents and discusses a model for describing and evaluating the principal risk factors characterizing occupational exposure: frequency and repetitiveness of movements; use of force; type of posture and movements; distribution of recovery periods; and presence of other influential (additional) factors. For each risk factor, the author proposes a method of practical detection in the field, as well as criteria for classifying and interpreting the results based on a critical review of the available literature on the subject. Numerous examples are supplied to better illustrate the concepts presented. The various factors considered are classified using numbers or indexes, so that they can be integrated into a concise exposure index.
Rusak, Z.; Luijten, J.; Kooijman, A.
The present invention relates a wearable exoskeleton for a user having a torso with an upper limb to support motion of the said upper limb. The wearable exoskeleton comprises a first fixed frame mountable to the torso, an upper arm brace and a first group of actuators for moving the upper arm brace
Łukasz Jaworski; Robert Karpiński; Angelika Dobrowolska
The article presents basics of the human upper limb’s anatomy, including skeletal system, joints and basic division of muscles in the limb. The biomechanics of the upper limb is introduced. The range of performed motions is depicted. The possible applications of anatomy and biomechanics of the upper limb are shown.
Dovern, A.; Fink, G. R.; Weiss, P. H.
Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients’ everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients’ prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed...
Full Text Available State of the art upper limb prostheses offer up to six active DoFs (degrees of freedom and are controlled using different grip patterns. This low number of DoFs combined with a machine-human-interface which does not provide control over all DoFs separately result in a lack of usability for the patient. The aim of this novel upper limb prosthesis is both offering simplified control possibilities for changing grip patterns depending on the patients’ priorities and the improvement of grasp capability. Design development followed the design process requirements given by the European Medical Device Directive 93/42 ECC and was structured into the topics mechanics, software and drive technology. First user needs were identified by literature research and by patient feedback. Consequently, concepts were evaluated against technical and usability requirements. A first evaluation prototype with one active DoF per finger was manufactured. In a second step a test setup with two active DoF per finger was designed. The prototype is connected to an Android based smartphone application. Two main grip patterns can be preselected in the software application and afterwards changed and used by the EMG signal. Three different control algorithms can be selected: “all-day”, “fine” and “tired muscle”. Further parameters can be adjusted to customize the prosthesis to the patients’ needs. First patient feedback certified the prosthesis an improved level of handling compared to the existing devices. Using the two DoF test setup, the possibilities of finger control with a neural network are evaluated at the moment. In a first user feedback test, the smartphone based software application increased the device usability, e.g. the change within preselected grip patterns and the “tired muscle” algorithm. Although the overall software application was positively rated, the handling of the prosthesis itself needs to be proven within a patient study to be
Miranda, Eduardo Foschini; Malaguti, Carla; Corso, Simone Dal
In patients with COPD, the degree of functional impairment appears to differ between the upper and lower limbs. Significant dyspnea and fatigue have been reported by these patients when performing tasks with unsupported upper limbs and two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this fact: neuromechanical dysfunction of respiratory muscles; and changes in lung volume during such activities. The neuromechanical dysfunction seen in COPD patients during this type of exercise is related to changes in the breathing pattern, as well as to the simultaneity of afferent and efferent muscle stimuli, resulting in respiratory muscle asynchrony. In addition, the increased ventilation during upper limb exercise in patients with COPD leads to dynamic hyperinflation at different workloads. During lower limb exercises, the strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle is lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects. This could by explained by abnormal muscle metabolism (decreased aerobic capacity), dependence on glycolytic metabolism, and rapid accumulation of lactate during exercise. In comparison with lower limb exercises, upper limb exercises result in higher metabolic and ventilatory demands, as well as in a more intense sensation of dyspnea and greater fatigue. Because there are differences between the upper and lower limb muscles in terms of the morphological and functional adaptations in COPD patients, specific protocols for strength training and endurance should be developed and tested for the corresponding muscle groups.
Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Kozin, Scott H
Current concepts in the steps of upper limb development and the way the limb is patterned along its 3 spatial axes are reviewed. Finally, the embryogenesis of various congenital hand anomalies is delineated with an emphasis on the pathogenetic basis for each anomaly. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dovern, A; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H
Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients' everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients' prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed and ill-treated entity. Based on a systematic literature search, this review summarizes the current tools of diagnosis and treatment strategies for upper limb apraxia. It furthermore provides clinicians with graded recommendations. In particular, a short screening test for apraxia, and a more comprehensive diagnostic apraxia test for clinical use are recommended. Although currently only a few randomized controlled studies investigate the efficacy of different apraxia treatments, the gesture training suggested by Smania and colleagues can be recommended for the therapy of apraxia, the effects of which were shown to extend to activities of daily living and to persist for at least 2 months after completion of the training. This review aims at directing the reader's attention to the ecological relevance of apraxia. Moreover, it provides clinicians with appropriate tools for the reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of apraxia. Nevertheless, this review also highlights the need for further research into how to improve diagnosis of apraxia based on neuropsychological models and to develop new therapeutic strategies.
Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook
The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…
Noor Ayuni binti Che Zakaria
Full Text Available Robotics not only contributes to the invention of rehabilitation devices, it can also enhance the quality of medical education. In recent years, the use of patient simulators and part-task trainers in the medical education field has brought meaningful improvements in the training of medical practitioners. Nevertheless, in the context of therapy training for upper limb disorders, trainee therapists still have to engage directly with the patients to gain experience of the rehabilitation of physical diseases. In this work, a high-fidelity part-task trainer that is able to reproduce the stiffness of spasticity and rigidity symptoms of the upper limb, such as those observed in post-stroke patients and Parkinson's disease patients, has been developed. Based on the evaluation carried out by two experienced therapists, the developed part-task trainer is able to simulate different patient cases and help trainee therapists gain pre-clinical experience in a safe and intuitive learning environment.
Leduc, O; Leduc, A
Edema of the upper limb is, frequently, very invalidating. The physical treatment for edema of the upper limb consists on a combination of different therapies: manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), intermittent sequential pressotherapy (IPP) with a very low intensity, multilayer bandages (MLB), and compression sleeves. Patients are not hospitalized. In the first step of physical treatment, the patients are treated daily during 2 or 3 weeks with different therapies (MLD, IPP and MLB). During the second step, bandages are no more used. The compression garments are applied after this 2 or 3 weeks period. The physical treatment consist now in: manual lynphatic drainage and intermittent sequential pressotherapy (with low intensity). The frequency of the physical treatment is progressively decreased.
Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole
The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bachelor thesis give an overview of possible solutions in upper limbs prosthetic fitting which is suitable for cycling. And provide enough information on modifications that should be performed on a bicycle so that it can be used by humans with upper extremity prostheses. It can be an essential guide for anyone looking for a solution that would allow a person with an amputated upper limb again sit on the bike. Keywords: amputation, upper limb prosthesis, prosthetic fitting, cycling
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In this paper, a novel robot‐assisted rehabilitation system based on motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG is developed for regular training of neurological rehabilitation for upper limb stroke patients. Firstly, three‐dimensional animation was used to guide the patient image the upper limb movement and EEG signals were acquired by EEG amplifier. Secondly, eigenvectors were extracted by harmonic wavelet transform (HWT and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier was utilized to classify the pattern of the left and right upper limb motor imagery EEG signals. Finally, PC triggered the upper limb rehabilitation robot to perform motor therapy and gave the virtual feedback. Using this robot‐assisted upper limb rehabilitation system, the patientʹs EEG of upper limb movement imagination is translated to control rehabilitation robot directly. Consequently, the proposed rehabilitation system can fully explore the patientʹs motivation and attention and directly facilitate upper limb post‐stroke rehabilitation therapy. Experimental results on unimpaired participants were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the rehabilitation system. Combining robot‐assisted training with motor imagery‐ based BCI will make future rehabilitation therapy more effective. Clinical testing is still required for further proving this assumption.
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In this paper, a novel robot-assisted rehabilitation system based on motor imagery electroencephalography (EEG is developed for regular training of neurological rehabilitation for upper limb stroke patients. Firstly, three-dimensional animation was used to guide the patient image the upper limb movement and EEG signals were acquired by EEG amplifier. Secondly, eigenvectors were extracted by harmonic wavelet transform (HWT and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier was utilized to classify the pattern of the left and right upper limb motor imagery EEG signals. Finally, PC triggered the upper limb rehabilitation robot to perform motor therapy and gave the virtual feedback. Using this robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation system, the patient's EEG of upper limb movement imagination is translated to control rehabilitation robot directly. Consequently, the proposed rehabilitation system can fully explore the patient's motivation and attention and directly facilitate upper limb post-stroke rehabilitation therapy. Experimental results on unimpaired participants were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the rehabilitation system. Combining robot-assisted training with motor imagery-based BCI will make future rehabilitation therapy more effective. Clinical testing is still required for further proving this assumption.
Ben Salah, H.; Bahri, M.; Jbali, B.; Daoud, J.; Guermazi, M.; Frikha, M.
Purpose. - To study the frequency and risk factors for upper limb lymphedema through a series of patients treated for breast cancer. Patients and methods. - It is a retrospective study about 222 patients treated for breast cancer during the period between February 1993 and December 2003 in Sfax hospitals. Average age was 51 years (27-92 years). Tumour was T2 in 59% of cases. All patients had surgery with lymph node dissection. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (80% of cases), with predominant SBR II grade (62%). The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 12 (2-33). Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in 124 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered in 200 patients, including axillary irradiation in 30 cases. The mean follow-up was 68 months (12-120). Results. - Lymphedema appeared in 23% of cases (51 patients), 14 months after surgery (mean period). Lymphedema affected the brachium in 17% of cases, the forearm in 12% of cases and all upper limb in 71% of cases. Fifty percent of patients had rehabilitation. However, improvement of lymphedema was obtained in 18 cases. Parameters predicting lymphedema were studied. Significant risk factors were obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. The type of surgery, axillary irradiation and shoulder abduction deficit did not predict lymphedema. Conclusion. - Lymphedema of the arm is a frequent consequence of breast cancer treatment. The risk of lymphedema is correlated with obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. (authors)
Biddiss, Elaine; Beaton, Dorcas; Chau, Tom
To measure consumer satisfaction with upper limb prosthetics and provide an enumerated list of design priorities for future developments. A self-administered, anonymous survey collected information on participant demographics, history of and goals for prosthesis use, satisfaction, and design priorities. The questionnaire was available online and in paper format and was distributed through healthcare providers, community support groups, and one prosthesis manufacturer; 242 participants of all ages and levels of upper limb absence completed the survey. Rates of rejection for myoelectric hands, passive hands, and body-powered hooks were 39%, 53%, and 50%, respectively. Prosthesis wearers were generally satisfied with their devices while prosthesis rejecters were dissatisfied. Reduced prosthesis weight emerged as the highest priority design concern of consumers. Lower cost ranked within the top five design priorities for adult wearers of all device types. Life-like appearance is a priority for passive/cosmetic prostheses, while improved harness comfort, wrist movement, grip control and strength are required for body-powered devices. Glove durability, lack of sensory feedback, and poor dexterity were also identified as design priorities for electric devices. Design priorities reflect consumer goals for prosthesis use and vary depending on the type of prosthesis used and age. Future design efforts should focus on the development of more light-weight, comfortable prostheses.
Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm
This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…
Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.
Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian
One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.
van Delden, AL; Peper, CE; Nienhuys, KN; Zijp, NI; Beek, PJ; Kwakkel, G
This article is available open access through the publisher’s website at the link below. Copyright © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Background and Purpose — Unilateral and bilateral training protocols for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke represent conceptually contrasting approaches with the same ultimate goal. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the merits of modified constraint-induced movement therapy, modified bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing,...
This paper describes the current status, general content, and application of the standards EN 1005, ISO 11226, and ISO 11228-3 concerning upper limb risk assessment. The upper limb risk assessment according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/CEN standards is discussed. Risk
Forghani, Ali; Milner, Theodore E.
Unpredictable forces which perturb balance are frequently applied to the body through interaction between the upper limb and the environment. Lower limb muscles respond rapidly to these postural disturbances in a highly specific manner. We have shown that the muscle activation patterns of lower limb muscles are organized in a direction specific manner which changes with lower limb stability. Ankle muscles change their activity within 80 ms of the onset of a force perturbation applied to the h...
Hsiao, Steven S; Fettiplace, Michael; Darbandi, Bejan
In this chapter, we discuss the neurophysiological basis of how to provide sensory feedback to users with an upper limb prosthesis and discuss some of the theoretical issues that need to be considered when directly stimulating neurons in the somatosensory system. We focus on technologies that are currently available and discuss approaches that are most likely to succeed in providing natural perception from the artificial hand to the user. First, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing feedback by stimulating directly the remaining afferents that originally innervated the arm and hand. In particular, we pay close attention to the normal functional roles that the peripheral afferents play in perception. What are the consequences and implications of stimulating these afferents? We then discuss whether it is reasonable to stimulate neurons in the ascending pathways that carry the information from the afferents to the cortex or directly in neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. We show that for some modalities there are advantages for stimulating in the spinal cord, while for others it is advantageous to stimulate directly in the somatosensory cortex. Finally, we discuss results from a current experiment in which we used electrical stimuli in primary somatosensory cortex to restore the percept of the intensity of a mechanical probe indented into the hand. The results suggest that the simple percept of stimulus intensity can be provided to the animal from a single finger using four electrodes. We propose that significantly more electrodes will be needed to reproduce more complex aspects of tactile perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Helen J; Ferris, Daniel P
There are neural connections between the upper and lower limbs of humans that enable muscle activation in one limb pair (upper or lower) to modulate muscle activation in the other limb pair (lower or upper, respectively). The aims of this study were to extend previous findings regarding submaximal exercise to maximal effort exercise and determine whether there is an ipsilateral or contralateral bias to the neural coupling during a rhythmic locomotor-like task. We measured upper and lower limb muscle activity, joint kinematics, and limb forces in neurologically intact subjects (n = 16) as they performed recumbent stepping using different combinations of upper and lower limb efforts. We found increased muscle activation in passive lower limbs during active upper limb effort compared with passive upper limb effort. Likewise, increased muscle activation in passive upper limbs occurred during active lower limb effort compared with passive lower limb effort, suggesting a bidirectional effect. Maximal muscle activation in the active lower limbs was not different between conditions with active upper limb effort and conditions with passive upper limb movement. Similarly, maximal muscle activation in the active upper limbs was not different between conditions with active lower limb effort and conditions with passive lower limb movement. Further comparisons revealed that neural coupling was primarily from active upper limb muscles to passive ipsilateral lower limb muscles. These findings indicate that interlimb neural coupling affects muscle recruitment during maximal effort upper and lower limb rhythmic exercise and provides insight into the architecture of the neural coupling.
Major lower limb amputations following snake bite gangrene have been reported from the savannah belt of Nigeria. In bites delivered to the upper limb, amputations are often of the digits (minor amputations). We report the case of a male farmer who had an above elbow amputation after a snake bite to the hand. Explanation ...
Bazzini, G; Orlandini, D; Moscato, T A; Nicita, D; Panigazzi, M
The need for standardized instruments for clinical measurements has become pressing in the fields of occupational rehabilitation and ergonomics. This is particularly the case for instruments that allow a quantitative evaluation of upper limb function, and especially hand function in patients who have undergone an amputation and then application of an upper limb prosthesis. This study presents a review of the main tests used to evaluate hand function, with a critical analysis of their use in subjects with an upper limb prosthesis. The tests are divided into: tests to evaluate strength, tests to evaluate co-ordination and dexterity, tests of global or overall function, and tests proposed specifically for subjects with an upper limb prosthesis. Of the various tests presented, the authors give their preference to the Bimanual Functional Assessment, Abilhand and/or the ADL Questionnaire, because of the practical usefulness, clinimetric features, simplicity and ease of administration of these tests.
Amiri, Masoud; Casolo, Federico
While the number of people requiring help for the activities of daily living are increasing, several studies have been shown the effectiveness of robot training for upper limb functionality recovery. The robotic system described in this paper is an active end-effector based robot which can be used for assisting and rehabilitating of human upper limb. The robot is able to take into account desire of the patient for the support that patient needs to complete the task.
Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.
OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core grou...
Full Text Available The main aim is to create a computational three-body segment model of an upper limb of a human body for determination of muscle forces generated to keep a given loaded upper limb position. The model consists of three segments representing arm, forearm, hand and of all major muscles connected to the segments. Muscle origins and insertions determination corresponds to a real anatomy. Muscle behaviour is defined according to the Hill-type muscle model consisting of contractile and viscoelastic element. The upper limb is presented by a system of three rigid bars connected by rotational joints. The whole limb is fixed to the frame in the shoulder joint. A static balance problem is solved by principle of virtual work. The system of equation describing the musculoskeletal system is overdetermined because more muscles than necessary contribute to get the concrete upper limb position. Hence the mathematical problem is solved by an optimization method searching the least energetically-consuming solution. The upper limb computational model is verified by electromyography of the biceps brachii muscle.
Work as a librarian involves exposure to potential risk factors for developing upper limb disorders. The prevalence of upper limb symptoms has, however, not previously been assessed in this occupational group. To estimate the 7-day and annual prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb symptoms in librarians and to examine associations with specific tasks and ergonomic risk factors. A cross-sectional study using components of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. The study population consisted of librarians employed by a large local authority, and data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire. from studies on keyboard workers and on the general population were used as comparators. The 7-day prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb pain in female librarians was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.7-50.5) and the annual prevalence was 65% (95% CI 56.6-72.8). The prevalence of reported wrist and hand pain increased with increased working involving a wide thumb-index span (P < 0.05) with a significant linear trend in prevalence with increasing exposure (P < 0.01). There was a strong association between reporting hand and/or wrist pain and awareness of work-related upper limb disorder (P < 0.05). The annual prevalence of self-reported upper limb symptoms among female librarians was high, but there was insufficient evidence to confirm whether the prevalence was higher than in the general population or among keyboard workers. Working with a wide thumb-index span was associated with reporting upper limb symptoms.
Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo
After stroke, spasticity is often the main problem that prevents functional recovery. Pain occurs in up to 70% of patients during the first year post-stroke. A total of 70 patients (30 female and 45 male) mean age (65.67) participated in prospective, controlled study. ischaemic stroke, developed spasticity of upper limb, post-stroke interval cryotherapy. The outcome was evaluated using Modified Ashworth scale for spasticity and VAS scale for pain. The significance value was sat at pspasticity and pain in affected upper limb. Reduction in tone of affected upper limb muscles was significant in Ex group (pspasticity and pain significantly and can help in treatment of post-stroke patients.
Talakoub, Omid; Popovic, Milos R; Navaro, Jessie; Hamani, Clement; Fonoff, Erich T; Wong, Willy
The detection of movement-related components of the brain activity is useful in the design of brain-machine interfaces. A common approach is to classify the brain activity into a number of templates or states. To find these templates, the neural responses are averaged over each movement task. For averaging to be effective, one must assume that the neural components occur at identical times over repeated trials. However, complex arm movements such as reaching and grasping are prone to cross-trial variability due to the way movements are performed. Typically initiation time, duration of movement and movement speed are variable even as a subject tries to reproduce the same task identically across trials. Therefore, movement-related neural activity will tend to occur at different times across the trials. Due to this mismatch, the averaging of neural activity will not bring into salience movement-related components. To address this problem, we present a method of alignment that accounts for the variabilities in the way the movements are conducted. In this study, arm speed was used to align neural activity. Four subjects had electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrodes implanted over their primary motor cortex and were asked to perform reaching and retrieving tasks using the upper limb contralateral to the site of electrode implantation. The arm speeds were aligned using a non-linear transformation of the temporal axes resulting in average spectrograms with superior visualization of movement-related neural activity when compared to averaging without alignment.
Full Text Available The detection of movement-related components of the brain activity is useful in the design of brain machine interfaces. A common approach is to classify the brain activity into a number of templates or states. To find these templates, the neural responses are averaged over each movement task. For averaging to be effective, one must assume that the neural components occur at identical times over repeated trials. However, complex arm movements such as reaching and grasping are prone to cross-trial variability due to the way movements are performed. Typically initiation time, duration of movement and movement speed are variable even as a subject tries to reproduce the same task identically across trials. Therefore, movement-related neural activity will tend to occur at different times across each trial. Due to this mismatch, the averaging of neural activity will not bring into salience movement-related components. To address this problem, we present a method of alignment that accounts for the variabilities in the way the movements are conducted. In this study, arm speed was used to align neural activity. Four subjects had electrocorticographic (ECoG electrodes implanted over their primary motor cortex and were asked to perform reaching and retrieving tasks using the upper limb contralateral to the site of electrode implantation. The arm speeds were aligned using a nonlinear transformation of the temporal axes resulting in averaged spectrograms with superior visualization of movement-related neural activity when compared to averaging without alignment.
Mukhamedzhanov, I.Kh.; Drozdovskij, B.Ya.; Dergachev, A.I.
64 female patients with a secondary edema of the upper limb due to radical m mastoectomy with the removal of lymphatic nodes of the armpit region and radiation therapy were examined. Pathological changes in the vessels of the pos sterolateral and anteromedial collectors with the domination of a complete lymph flow blocking are noted. It is shown that, in patients with postmastoectomic sy yndrome, the upper limb edema is determined by combined violations of the lympha tic and venous outflow in 55% of cases; lent in 45% soley by the violation of th he passability of lymphatic collectors
McDonnell, J G
We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.
Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
A previous review of historical descriptions and theories about the character and pathogenesis of writer’s cramp and other comparable chronic upper limb “overuse” work-related pain syndromes has indicated that somatic dysfunctions explain symptoms and findings. The first case studies and case...... disorders remain diagnostically challenging to clinicians and there is still a tendency to see many patients’ pain as a psychiatric problem when a standard physical examination does not explain the condition. This article describes reports of writer’s cramp and comparable occupational upper limb “overuse...
Zlatka Borisova Stoyneva
Full Text Available In this study the complex interrelationship between physical factors, job stress, lifestyle and genetic factors on symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs is demonstrated by a case report and discussion of the literature. A 58 year old woman with long lasting complaints of the upper limbs with increasing intensity and duration, generalisation, combined with skin thickness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint disorders, arterial and pulmonary hypertension, metabolic lipid dysfunctions is presented. Occupational history proves continuous duration of service at a job with occupational physical static load with numerous repetitive monotonous systematic motions of fingers and hands as a weaver of Persian rugs followed by work at an automated loom and variable labour activities. Though the complaints dated since the time she was a manual weaver, the manifestations of generalized joint degenerative changes, system sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon with similar upper extremities signs and symptoms discount upper limbs musculoskeletal disorder as caused only or mainly by occupational risk factors. The main principles and criteria for occupational diagnosis of musculoskeletal upper limb disorders and legislative requirements for their reglamentation are discussed.
Ofner, Patrick; Schwarz, Andreas; Pereira, Joana; Müller-Putz, Gernot R
How neural correlates of movements are represented in the human brain is of ongoing interest and has been researched with invasive and non-invasive methods. In this study, we analyzed the encoding of single upper limb movements in the time-domain of low-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Fifteen healthy subjects executed and imagined six different sustained upper limb movements. We classified these six movements and a rest class and obtained significant average classification accuracies of 55% (movement vs movement) and 87% (movement vs rest) for executed movements, and 27% and 73%, respectively, for imagined movements. Furthermore, we analyzed the classifier patterns in the source space and located the brain areas conveying discriminative movement information. The classifier patterns indicate that mainly premotor areas, primary motor cortex, somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal cortex convey discriminative movement information. The decoding of single upper limb movements is specially interesting in the context of a more natural non-invasive control of e.g., a motor neuroprosthesis or a robotic arm in highly motor disabled persons.
Tarnanen, Sami P; Siekkinen, Kirsti M; Häkkinen, Arja H; Mälkiä, Esko A; Kautiainen, Hannu J; Ylinen, Jari J
Although several everyday functions and sporting activities demand controlled use of the abdominal and back muscles while working with the upper limbs, the activity of core muscles during dynamic upper limb exercises in the standing position has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine abdominal and back muscle activity during dynamic upper limb exercises while standing and to evaluate whether dynamic exercises are appropriate for strengthening muscles. The activation of the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles during dynamic bilateral or unilateral shoulder exercises with or without fixation of the pelvis was measured in 20 healthy women using surface electromyography. Trunk muscle activation during isometric maximum contraction was used as a comparative reference. With bilateral shoulder extension and unilateral shoulder horizontal adduction, abdominal muscle activity was >60% of activity during reference exercises. With unilateral shoulder horizontal abduction and shoulder extension exercises, back muscle activity was >60% of the activity level reference exercise. Muscle activation levels were 35-64% lower during shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction without fixation compared with exercises with fixation. The results indicate that upper limb exercises performed in the standing position are effective for activating core muscles. Bilateral and unilateral shoulder extension and unilateral shoulder horizontal abduction and adduction with the pelvis fixed elicited the greatest activity of the core muscles.
Variations of arterial patterns in the upper limb have represented the most common subject of vascular anatomy. Different types of artery branching pattern of the upper limb are very important for orthopedists in angiographic and microvascular surgical practice. The brachial artery (BA) is the most important vessel in the normal vascular anatomy of the upper limb. The classical pattern of the palmar hand region distribution shows the superficial palmar arch. Normally this arch is formed by the superficial branch of the ulnar artery and completed on the lateral side by one of these arteries: the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, the princeps pollicis artery, the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery or the median artery. After the routine dissection of the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver, we found a very rare variant of the superficial arch artery – a division in a higher level brachial artery. We found this division at 10.4 cm from the beginning of the brachial artery. This superficial brachial artery became a radial artery and was not involved in the formation of the palm arch. In the forearm region, the artery variant was present with the median artery and the ulnar artery, which form the superficial palm arch. PMID:26733754
Macovei, S.; Doroftei, I.
As some studies show, the number of people over 65 years old increases constantly, leading to the need of solution to provide services regarding patient mobility. Diseases, accidents and neurologic problems affect hundreds of people every day, causing pain and lost of motor functions. The ability of using the upper limb is indispensable for a human being in everyday activities, making easy tasks like drinking a glass of water a real challenge. We can agree that physiotherapy promotes recovery, but not at an optimal level, due to limited financial and human resources. Hence, the need of robot-assisted rehabilitation emerges. A robot for upper-limb exercises should have a design that can accurately control interaction forces and progressively adapt assistance to the patients’ abilities and also to record the patient's motion and evolution. In this paper a short overview of upper limb rehabilitation devices is presented. Our goal is to find the shortcomings of the current developed devices in terms of utility, ease of use and costs, for future development of a mechatronic system for upper limb rehabilitation.
Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo
Introduction: After stroke, spasticity is often the main problem that prevents functional recovery. Pain occurs in up to 70% of patients during the first year post-stroke. Materials and methods: A total of 70 patients (30 female and 45 male) mean age (65.67) participated in prospective, controlled study. Inclusion criteria: ischaemic stroke, developed spasticity of upper limb, post-stroke interval
Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stephane; Assal, Frederic; Lalive, Patrice; Allali, Gilles
Gait disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are well studied; however, no previous study has described upper limb movements during gait. However, upper limb movements have an important role during locomotion and can be altered in MS patients due to direct MS lesions or mechanisms of compensation. The aim of this study was to describe the arm movements during gait in a population of MS patients with low disability compared with a healthy control group. In this observational study we analyzed the arm movements during gait in 52 outpatients (mean age: 39.7±9.6years, female: 40%) with relapsing-remitting MS with low disability (mean EDSS: 2±1) and 25 healthy age-matched controls using a 3-dimension gait analysis. MS patients walked slower, with increased mean elbow flexion and decreased amplitude of elbow flexion (ROM) compared to the control group, whereas shoulder and hand movements were similar to controls. These differences were not explained by age or disability. Upper limb alterations in movement during gait in MS patients with low disability can be characterized by an increase in mean elbow flexion and a decrease in amplitude (ROM) for elbow flexion/extension. This upper limb movement pattern should be considered as a new component of gait disorders in MS and may reflect subtle motor deficits or the use of compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse sports participation of individuals with upper limb deficiency (ULD) and associated factors. METHODS: Individuals with ULD originating from the Netherlands were invited, via their attending physiatrist or prosthetist, to answer a digital or paper
vanderSluis, CK; Kucey, DS; Brenneman, FD; Hunter, GA; Maggisano, R; tenDuis, HJ
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes in multisystem trauma victims who have arterial injuries to upper limbs. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care regional trauma centre in a university hospital. PATIENTS: All consecutive severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score
Laursen, Lise H; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Hagert, C G
BACKGROUND: Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are common, and so are the difficulties in specific diagnoses of these disorders. Prior studies have shed light on the nerves in the diagnostic approach beside disorders related to muscles, tendons and joints (MCDs). OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to compare th...
Reinkingh, Marianne; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
Objectives: To compare stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency with sensibility of the unaffected arm and hand. In addition, to evaluate the associations between stump sensibility, stump length and activity level. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Children and young
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and ...
Introduction: Essential hyperhidrosis is an idiopathic condition characterized by markedly excessive sweating especially in the hands. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the functional results of radiofrequency thermocoagulation of T2 ganglion in 10 patients suffered from essential hyperhidrosis of both upper limbs.
Full Text Available The loss of all or part of the arm is a catastrophic event for a patient and a significant challenge to rehabilitation professionals and prosthetic engineers. The large, upper extremity amputee population in India has, historically, been poorly served, with most having no access to support or being provided with ineffective prostheses. In recent years, the arrival of organisations like Otto Bock has made high quality service standards and devices accessible to more amputees. This review attempts to provide surgeons and other medical professionals with an overview of the multidisciplinary, multistage rehabilitation process and the solution options available. With worldwide upper extremity prosthesis rejection rates at significant levels, the review also describes some of the factors which influence the outcome. This is particularly relevant in the Indian context where the service can involve high cost investments. It is the responsibility of all contributing professionals to guide vulnerable patients through the process and try to maximise the benefit that can be obtained within the resources available.
Full Text Available Vascular anomalies of the upper extremity are a surgical challenge to the hand surgeons. The treatment modality varies with respect to the presentation, extent of the lesion, progression and their complications. Based on our experience in treating patients with vascular malformations, a protocol has been formulated for their management, which we have found to be very useful and successful. With the use of the tumescent technique and good planning, haemangiomas are best excised in infancy or early childhood. Investigations like contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been found to be a useful tool in the diagnosis and planning of surgery for venous malformations. Embolisation seems to be a safe option in arteriovenous malformations.
Aasef G Shaikh
Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia is known for cerebellar degeneration, but clinical descriptions of abnormal tone, posture, and movements suggest involvement of the network between cerebellum and basal ganglia. We quantitatively assessed the nature of upper-limb movement disorders in ataxia-telangiectasia. We used a three-axis accelerometer to assess the natural history and severity of abnormal upper-limb movements in 80 ataxia-telangiectasia and 19 healthy subjects. Recordings were made during goal-directed movements of upper limb (kinetic task, while arms were outstretched (postural task, and at rest. Almost all ataxia-telangiectasia subjects (79/80 had abnormal involuntary movements, such as rhythmic oscillations (tremor, slow drifts (dystonia or athetosis, and isolated rapid movements (dystonic jerks or myoclonus. All patients with involuntary movements had both kinetic and postural tremor, while 48 (61% also had resting tremor. The tremor was present in transient episodes lasting several seconds during two-minute recording sessions of all three conditions. Percent time during which episodic tremor was present was greater for postural and kinetic tasks compared to rest. Resting tremor had higher frequency but smaller amplitude than postural and kinetic tremor. Rapid non-rhythmic movements were minimal during rest, but were triggered during sustained arm postures and goal directed arm movements suggesting they are best considered a form of dystonic jerks or action myoclonus. Advancing age did not correlate with the severity of involuntary limb movements. Abnormal upper-limb movements in ataxia-telangiectasia feature classic cerebellar impairment, but also suggest involvement of the network between the cerebellum and basal ganglia.
Houwink, A.; Nijland, R.H.; Geurts, A.C.; Kwakkel, G.
Objective: To describe recovery of upper limb capacity after stroke during inpatient rehabilitation based on the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale (SULCS). Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Inpatient department of a rehabilitation center. Participants: Patients with stroke (N=299)
Houwink, A.; Nijland, R.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Kwakkel, G.
OBJECTIVE: To describe recovery of upper limb capacity after stroke during inpatient rehabilitation based on the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale (SULCS). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Inpatient department of a rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with stroke (N=299)
Caballero, Beatriz; Rubio-González, Adrián; Potes, Yaiza; Martínez-Reig, Marta; Sánchez-Jurado, Pedro Manuel; Romero, Luis; Solano, Juan José; Abizanda, Pedro; Coto-Montes, Ana
Herein we considered the role of oxidative stress on deficiencies of functional physical performance that could affect a future pre-frailty condition. Using principal component analyses (PCA), we created new variables to better describe the functionality regarding the physical performance of the upper and lower body limbs. Gait speed and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score were classified by PCA to describe functional performance of the lower body limbs. Variables describing t...
Reinkingh, Marianne; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Maathuis, Karel G B; van der Sluis, Corry K
To compare stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency with sensibility of the unaffected arm and hand. In addition, to evaluate the associations between stump sensibility, stump length and activity level. Cross-sectional study. Children and young adults aged 6-25 years with upper limb reduction deficiency. Threshold of touch was measured with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, stereognosis was measured with the Shape-Texture Identification test and kinaesthesia and activity level was measured with the Child Amputee Prosthetics Project - Functional Status Inventory and the Prosthetic Upper Extremity Functional Index. A total of 31 children with upper limb reduction deficiency (mean age 15 years, 3 prosthesis wearers) were investigated. The threshold of touch of the stump circumference was lower (indicating higher sensibility) than of the unaffected arm (p = 0.006), hand (p = 0.004) and stump end-point (p = sensibility) than short stumps (p = 0.046). Twenty-nine children recognized 1 or more shapes or textures with the stump. Kinaesthesia in the affected and unaffected sides was comparable. Sensibility was not correlated with activity level. Threshold of touch, stereognosis and kinaesthesia of the affected sides were excellent. Threshold of touch of the stump circumference was lower (indicating higher sensibility) than of the unaffected arm and hand. High stump sensibility may clarify good functioning in the children without prostheses and contribute to prosthesis rejection.
Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew
There is limited research on responsiveness of prosthetic rehabilitation outcome measures. To examine responsiveness of the Box and Block test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function tests, Upper Extremity Functional Scale, University of New Brunswick skill and spontaneity tests, Activity Measure for Upper Limb Amputation, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale. This was a quasi-experimental study with repeated measurements in a convenience sample of upper limb amputees. Measures were collected before, during, and after training with the DEKA Arm. Largest effect sizes were observed for Patient-Specific Functional Scale (effect size: 1.59, confidence interval: 1.00, 2.14), Activity Measure for Upper Limb Amputation (effect size: 1.33, confidence interval: 0.73, 1.90), and University of New Brunswick skill test (effect size: 1.18, confidence interval: 0.61, 1.73). Other measures that were responsive to change were Box and Block test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function light and heavy can tests, and University of New Brunswick spontaneity test. Responsiveness and pattern of responsiveness varied by prosthetic level. The Box and Block test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function light and heavy can tests, University of New Brunswick skill and spontaneity tests, Activities Measure for Upper Limb Amputation, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale were responsive to change during prosthetic training. These findings have implications for choice of measures for research and practice and inform clinicians about the amount of training necessary to maximize outcomes with the DEKA Arm. Findings on responsiveness of outcome measures have implications for the choice of measures for clinical trials and practice. Findings regarding the responsiveness to change over the course of training can inform clinicians about the amount of training that may be necessary to maximize specific outcomes with the DEKA Arm. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Dhillon Mandeep S
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and is gaining in importance in all south-east Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence, nature, and site of acute upper limb injuries sustained by professional cricketers of north India over a period of one year. Material & methods 95 cricket players (mean age 18.9 years were prospectively evaluated for nature and incidence of upper limb injuries from 1st November 2008 to 31st October 2009. For the purpose of comparison the calculated injury incidence included injuries sustained during match as well as practice. Injuries were also grouped according to the type of cricket activities such as batting or fielding. Results Out of 95 players evaluated, 24 were bowlers, 19 were batsmen, 8 were wicket keepers and the other 44 cricketers declared themselves as all rounders. There were a total of 16 upper limb injuries in 16 (16.8% players. The majority of injuries (10/16 occurred while fielding. Out of 16 injuries, 11 were seen in hand, 3 were observed in elbow, while 2 patients suffered from shoulder problem. Twelve were acute injuries while 4 were classified as repetitive stress injuries (RSI. Conclusion The incidence of upper limb injuries in cricketers at the professional and semi-professional level is significant, causing them to miss matches or practice for a significant number of days. This is the first study of Indian cricketers which documents the high incidence of upper limb injuries. The study highlights the importance of injury surveillance for Indian cricket. It is a concern which needs to be addressed by the players, coaches, teachers, administrators and medical personnel involved with cricket.
Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Carballeira, Alexo; Dominguez, Pablo Caro
Lymphatic vasculature is known to spontaneously reconnect after hand replantation. Nonetheless, lymphatic outflow has not been specifically studied in hand transplantation.Lymphedema was studied clinically and scintigraphically in 3 bilateral upper limb transplants performed in Valencia, Spain, since 2006. Case 1 was a radiocarpal level, case 2 midforearm and proximal forearm, and case 3 was a transhumeral transplantation. Follow-up was 5, 4, and 3 years, respectively. Clinically, in case 1, there was a left-sided moderate lymphedema, case 2 was normal, and a right-sided moderate lymphedema was present in case 3. Lymphoscintigraphy results were consistent with the clinical findings. It was normal in the 4 nonedematous limbs. In the 2 affected limbs, there were scintigraphic findings of lymphatic block and lymphangiectasia.The study demonstrates objectively that lymphatic circulation can reconnect spontaneously in hand transplantations, although not in a homogeneously efficient way.
Yoneda, Masahiro; Kazuki, Kenichi; Uemura, Takuya; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Takaoka, Kunio
Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of computer-assisted preoperative simulation of malunited fractures in the upper limb. Ten patients with malunited fractures underwent multislice computed tomography of both upper limbs with reconstruction of three-dimensional bone models using three-dimensional (3D) software. Preoperative simulation was comprised of four main procedures: performance of virtual corrective osteotomy, matching of reposition with a mirror-image model of the unaffected side, creating new data for the bone defect, and machining of an hydroxyapatite block as bone graft. In addition, we used full-sized three-dimensional virtual reality modeling with a rapid prototyping molding device, and performed preoperative rehearsals of osteotomies using plaster models. All patients tolerated the surgical procedure well. This technique permits the surgeon to recognize and correct three-dimensional deformities of malunited fracture with both accuracy and precision. (author)
Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Marques, Mário C
This study aimed at quantifying upper limb kinetic asymmetries in maximal front crawl swimming and to examine if these asymmetries would affect the contribution of force exertion to swimming performance. Eighteen high level male swimmers with unilateral breathing patterns and sprint or middle distance specialists, volunteered as participants. A load-cell was used to quantify the forces exerted in water by completing a 30s maximal front crawl tethered swimming test and a maximal 50 m free swimming was considered as a performance criterion. Individual force-time curves were obtained to calculate the mean and maximum forces per cycle, for each upper limb. Following, symmetry index was estimated and breathing laterality identified by questionnaire. Lastly, the pattern of asymmetries along the test was estimated for each upper limb using linear regression of peak forces per cycle. Asymmetrical force exertion was observed in the majority of the swimmers (66.7%), with a total correspondence of breathing laterality opposite to the side of the force asymmetry. Forces exerted by the dominant upper limb presented a higher decrease than from the non-dominant. Very strong associations were found between exerted forces and swimming performance, when controlling the isolated effect of symmetry index. Results point that force asymmetries occur in the majority of the swimmers, and that these asymmetries are most evident in the first cycles of a maximum bout. Symmetry index stood up as an influencing factor on the contribution of tethered forces over swimming performance. Thus, to some extent, a certain degree of asymmetry is not critical for short swimming performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gebouský, Petr; Kárný, Miroslav; Křížová, H.; Wald, M.
Roč. 39, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 0010-4825 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MŠk 2C06001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy * Secondary lymphedema of upper limbs * Staging * Bayesian evaluation * Probabilistic mixtures Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/karny-0320214.pdf
Deaconescu dr. eng. habil., Andrea, Prof.
Rehabilitation equipment of the upper limb joints holds a key role in passive physical therapy. Within this framework, the paper presents two such pieces of equipment developed for the rehabilitation of elbow and of wrist and knuckles, respectively. The presented and discussed equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, its benefits being a low cost, simple and robust construction, as well as short response time to commands.
Posteraro, Federico; Crea, Simona; Mazzoleni, Stefano
BACKGROUND: Spasticity is a muscle disorder associated with upper motor neuron syndrome occurring in neurological disorders, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and others. It influences the patient's rehabilitation, interfering with function, limiting independence, causing pain...... post stroke patients. METHODS: A new robotic device able to automatically assess upper-limb spasticity during passive and active mobilization has been developed. The elbow spasticity of five post stroke patients has been assessed by using the new device and by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS...
Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K
To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops. Individuals (n=207) with unilateral transverse upper limb reduction deficiency (RD) or acquired amputation (AA), at or proximal to the carpal level, between the ages of 18 and 65 years, and a convenience sample of control subjects (n=90) matched on age and sex. Not applicable. Employment status, self-reported work productivity measured with the Quality-Quantity method, and self-reported upper extremity work demands measured with the Upper Extremity Work Demands scale. Seventy-four percent of the individuals with RD and 57% of the individuals with AA were employed (vs 82% of the control group and 66% of the general population). Male sex, younger age, a medium or higher level of education, prosthesis use, and good general health were predictors of work participation. Work productivity was similar to that of the control group. Higher work productivity was inversely related to musculoskeletal complaint-related pain. When having predominantly mentally demanding work, individuals with ULA perceived higher upper extremity work demands compared with controls. Work participation of individuals with RD was slightly higher compared with that of the general population, whereas employment rates of individuals with AA were slightly lower. Furthermore, work productivity did not differ between individuals with RD, AA, and controls. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yee Mon Aung
Full Text Available In the development of robot-assisted rehabilitation systems for upper limb rehabilitation therapy, human electromyogram (EMG is widely used due to its ability to detect the user intended motion. EMG is one kind of biological signal that can be recorded to evaluate the performance of skeletal muscles by means of a sensor electrode. Based on recorded EMG signals, user intended motion could be extracted via estimation of joint torque, force or angle. Therefore, this estimation becomes one of the most important factors to achieve accurate user intended motion. In this paper, an upper limb joint angle estimation methodology is proposed. A back propagation neural network (BPNN is developed to estimate the shoulder and elbow joint angles from the recorded EMG signals. A Virtual Human Model (VHM is also developed and integrated with BPNN to perform the simulation of the estimated angle. The relationships between sEMG signals and upper limb movements are observed in this paper. The effectiveness of our developments is evaluated with four healthy subjects and a VHM simulation. The results show that the methodology can be used in the estimation of joint angles based on EMG.
Lauer, Jessy; Rouard, Annie Hélène; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo
Sound inverse dynamics modeling is lacking in aquatic locomotion research because of the difficulty in measuring hydrodynamic forces in dynamic conditions. Here we report the successful implementation and validation of an innovative methodology crossing new computational fluid dynamics and inverse dynamics techniques to quantify upper limb joint forces and moments while moving in water. Upper limb kinematics of seven male swimmers sculling while ballasted with 4kg was recorded through underwater motion capture. Together with body scans, segment inertial properties, and hydrodynamic resistances computed from a unique dynamic mesh algorithm capable to handle large body deformations, these data were fed into an inverse dynamics model to solve for joint kinetics. Simulation validity was assessed by comparing the impulse produced by the arms, calculated by integrating vertical forces over a stroke period, to the net theoretical impulse of buoyancy and ballast forces. A resulting gap of 1.2±3.5% provided confidence in the results. Upper limb joint load was within 5% of swimmer׳s body weight, which tends to supports the use of low-load aquatic exercises to reduce joint stress. We expect this significant methodological improvement to pave the way towards deeper insights into the mechanics of aquatic movement and the establishment of practice guidelines in rehabilitation, fitness or swimming performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caballero, Beatriz; Rubio-González, Adrián; Potes, Yaiza; Martínez-Reig, Marta; Sánchez-Jurado, Pedro Manuel; Romero, Luis; Solano, Juan José; Abizanda, Pedro; Coto-Montes, Ana
Herein we considered the role of oxidative stress on deficiencies of functional physical performance that could affect a future pre-frailty condition. Using principal component analyses (PCA), we created new variables to better describe the functionality regarding the physical performance of the upper and lower body limbs. Gait speed and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score were classified by PCA to describe functional performance of the lower body limbs. Variables describing the general physical status, including weekly consumption of kilocalories and the musculoskeletal index, were classified together with grip strength of the dominant hand as indicators of functional performance of the upper body limbs. An intimate association between the functional physical performance of the upper body limbs and the total antioxidant capacity was observed in older subjects. Low levels of total antioxidant capacity were found in women 76 years or younger with deficiencies in the physical performance of both upper and lower body limbs. Similarly, we observed a close association between the functional physical performance of the lower body limbs and the levels of hemoglobin. In particular, low levels of hemoglobin were mostly found in men older than 76 years of age, showing impaired functional physical performance. In addition, the physical performance of the lower body limbs was shown to be more important than that of the upper body limbs in the statistical association with pre-frailty in the elderly. Therefore, specific low levels of hemoglobin and deficient oxidative defense in the elderly could significantly affect the functional physical performance and future outcomes of pre-frailty.
Klingels, K; Mayhew, A G; Mazzone, E S; Duong, T; Decostre, V; Werlauff, U; Vroom, E; Mercuri, E; Goemans, N M
To develop a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) assessing upper limb function related to activities of daily living (ADL) that cannot be observed in a clinical setting, specifically for patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) across a wide age range, applicable in the different stages of the disease. The developmental process was based on US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. This included item generation from a systematic review of existing tools and expert opinion on task difficulty and relevance, involving individuals with DMD. Cultural aspects affecting ADL were taken into consideration to make this tool applicable to the broad DMD community. Items were selected in relation to a conceptual framework reflecting disease progression covering the full range of upper limb function across different ADL domains. After pilot testing and iterative Rasch analyses, redundant or clinically irrelevant items were removed. The final questionnaire consists of 32 items covering four domains of ADL (food, self-care, household and environment, leisure and communication). Test-retest reliability was excellent. A DMD-specific upper limb PROM was developed on the basis of clinical relevance and psychometric robustness. Its main purpose is to document the patient self-reported natural history of DMD and assess the efficacy of interventions. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.
Fernando Max Lima
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify useful electronic grip dynamometry parameters to track differences between trained (TR and untrained (UT participants, and between dominant (DO and non-dominant (ND limbs as a consequence of upper limbs muscle fatigue following 10 RM tests of the brachial biceps. This experimental study with transversal design involved 18 young adult males, of whom 9 were untrained and 9 were experienced in resistance training.Isometric grip force was evaluated (30 seconds long previous and after 10RM tests by means of a G200 Model grip dynamometer with precision load cell (Biometrics(r. Significant differences between initial and final measurements were found only for trained participants: Peak force for TR-DO (67.1 vs 55.5 kgf, p = .0277; Raw average for TR-DO (46.96 vs 42.22 kgf, p = .0464, and for TR-ND (40.34 vs 36.13 kgf, p = .0277. Electronic grip dynamometry efficiently identified upper limbs fatigue in trained participants, being raw average measurements the best parameter.
Jabeen, T.; Kazmi, S. F.; Rehman, A. U.; Ahmed, S.
Background: It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. Methods: This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. Results: The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, p<.05 was observed. Conclusion: Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: Prostheses for upper-limb amputees are currently controlled by either myoelectric or peripheral neural signals. Performance and dexterity of these devices is still limited, particularly when it comes to controlling hand function. Movement-related brain activity might serve as a complementary bio-signal for motor control of hand prosthesis. Methods: We introduced a methodology to implant a cortical interface without direct exposure of the brain surface in an upper-limb amputee. This bi-directional interface enabled us to explore the cortical physiology following long-term transhumeral amputation. In addition, we investigated neurofeedback of electrocorticographic brain activity related to the patient’s motor imagery to open his missing hand, i.e. phantom hand movement, for real-time control of a virtual hand prosthesis.Results: Both event-related brain potentials and cortical stimulation revealed mutually overlapping cortical representations of the phantom hand. Phantom hand movements could be robustly classified and the patient required only three training sessions to gain reliable control of the virtual hand prosthesis in an online closed-loop paradigm that discriminated between hand opening and rest. Conclusion: Epidural implants may constitute a powerful and safe alternative communication pathway between the brain and external devices for upper-limb amputees, thereby facilitating the integrated use of different signal sources for more intuitive and specific control of multi-functional devices in clinical use.
In the light of data and speculation contained in the literature, and based on procedures illustrated in a previous research project in which the author described and evaluated occupational risk factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs (WMSDs), this paper proposes a method for calculating a concise index of exposure to repetitive movements of the upper limbs. The proposal, which still has to be substantiated and validated by further studies and applications, is conceptually based on the procedure recommended by the NIOSH for calculating the Lifting Index in manual load handling activities. The concise exposure index (OCRA index) in this case is based on the relationship between the daily number of actions actually performed by the upper limbs in repetitive tasks, and the corresponding number of recommended actions. The latter are calculated on the basis of a constant (30 actions per minute), which represents the action frequency factor; it is valid--hypothetically--under so-called optimal conditions; the constant is diminished case by case (using appropriate factors) as a function of the presence and characteristics of the other risk factors (force, posture, additional elements, recovery periods). Although still experimental, the exposure index can be used to obtain an integrated and concise assessment of the various risk factors analysed and to classify occupational scenarios featuring significant and diversified exposure to such risk factors.
Background: Central and peripheral neural blockade techniques are popular for lower and upper limb surgeries respectively. Lower limb surgery is amenable to central neural blockade techniques, anatomical and physiological imperatives makes peripheral neural blockade more suited for upper limb surgeries. We looked ...
Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Cancio, Jill
Case series. A salvaged limb is one that has undergone a major traumatic injury, followed by repeated surgical attempts in order to avoid amputation. Psychological recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been examined in a number of studies. However, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage are understudied in the literature. The purpose of this study was to explore the process of psychosocial adaptation for 3 trauma cases after UE limb salvage. The Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory was used to assess psychosocial adaptation. Physical function outcomes (pain, range of motion, edema, sensation, and dexterity) are presented. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand measure was used to assess perceived disability. Medical and rehabilitation history are discussed for each case, in order to provide in-depth understanding of the impact of these injuries. Reactions to injury varied across the cases; however, outcomes suggest that psychosocial adaptation may be influenced by the experience of pain, the ability to participate in valued roles and activities, and having a supportive social network. For this population, therapists may consider emphasizing pain management, focusing on client-centered goals and interventions, and facilitating peer support. Providers should closely monitor patients for signs of poor adaptation, such as hand-hiding behaviors. This study is among the first to examine psychological outcomes for the UE limb salvage population. Future research would be beneficial to provide deeper understanding of the psychosocial challenges for these individuals. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meadmore, Katie L; Exell, Timothy A; Burridge, Jane H; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Freeman, Christopher T; Benson, Valerie
To enhance understanding of the relationship between upper limb and eye movements during reaching tasks in people with stroke. Eye movements were recorded from 10 control participants and 8 chronic stroke participants during a visual orienting task (Experiment 1) and a series of reaching tasks (Experiment 2). Stroke participants completed the reaching tasks using (i) their less impaired upper limb, (ii) their more impaired upper limb without support, and (iii) their more impaired upper limb, with support (SaeboMAS gravitational support and/or electrical stimulation). Participants were tested individually and completed both experiments in the same session. Oculomotor control and the coordination between the upper limb and the oculomotor system were found to be intact in stroke participants when no limb movements were required, or when the less impaired upper limb was used. However, when the more impaired upper limb was used, success and accuracy in reaching decreased and patterns of eye movements changed, with an observed increase in eye movements to the limb itself. With upper limb support, patterns of hand-eye coordination were found to more closely resemble those of the control group. Deficits in upper limb motor systems result in changes in patterns of eye movement behavior during reaching tasks. These changes in eye movement behavior can be modulated by providing upper limb support. Implications for Rehabilitation Deficits in upper limb motor systems can result in changes in patterns of eye movement behavior during reaching tasks. Upper limb support can reduce deficits in hand-eye coordination. Stroke rehabilitation outcomes should consider motor and oculomotor performance.
Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
The historical descriptions of chronic upper limb “overuse” pain syndromes reflect contemporary work-related conditions. Therefore, the former theories about the character and pathogenesis of these conditions are still of interest. The first case studies and case series related these conditions...... to abnormalities in the nervous system or muscles. The general opinion gradually changed and a dysfunction of the central nervous system, a “neurosis” was assumed, because no underlying lesion of the nervous system could be identified and many patients appeared to be mentally ill. This narrative review discusses...
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a survey on the state of the art of elements and parts for the upper limb rehabilitation. As a matter of fact, the use of technological, and specifically of robotic, devices is entering in the habits of clinical approaches, due to their ability to work efficiently and to be able to obtain, at least, the same rehabilitation results of manual therapy. At the same time, the therapists can change his/her role in rehabilitation activity from a physical contribution to an intellectual/motivational one.
Capodaglio, P; Nigrelli, M P; Malaguti, S; Panigazzi, M; Pierobon, A
In this paper we describe a patient with mor-sensory loss in the right forearm and hand, which persisted more than 2 years after work-related crush trauma of the left hand. Radiographic and electromyographic investigations, somatosensory evoked potentials, CT scans of the encephalus as well as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Roarschach test have been performed. On the basis of these investigations, we think this represents a case of conversion disorder with somatic features. Included is a brief overview of other psychological illness with physical findings involving the upper limb.
Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart
There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of play, season (years) and playing position. Prospective cohort study across five rugby seasons from 2004 to 2008. Formal rugby competitions-suburban, provincial and international. 1475 adult male rugby players in Colts, Grade and Elite competitions. An upper limb injury resulting in a missed game and its characteristics. A total of 61 598 athletic exposures (AE) and 606 upper limb injuries were recorded. About 66% of the injuries were to the shoulder. The overall upper limb injury incidence rate (IIR) was 9.84 injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.06 to 10.62). Statistically significant associations were found between upper limb injuries and level of play; and between shoulder injuries and playing position (p<0.05). No association was found between upper limb and shoulder injuries and study year. The overall upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased; 10.74 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.93 to 11.56) in Colts to 6.07 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 5.46 to 6.69) in Elite. The upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased indicating that age, level of skill and playing experience may be risk factors for upper limb injury.
Full Text Available Unpredictable forces which perturb balance are frequently applied to the body through interaction between the upper limb and the environment. Lower limb muscles respond rapidly to these postural disturbances in a highly specific manner. We have shown that the muscle activation patterns of lower limb muscles are organized in a direction specific manner which changes with lower limb stability. Ankle muscles change their activity within 80 ms of the onset of a force perturbation applied to the hand which is earlier than the onset of changes in ground reaction force, ankle angle or head motion. The latency of the response is sensitive to the perturbation direction. However, neither the latency nor the magnitude of the response is affected by stiffening the arm even though this alters the magnitude and timing of motion of the body segments. Based on the short latency, insensitivity of the change in ankle muscle activation to motion of the body segments but sensitivity to perturbation direction we reason that changes in ankle muscle activation are most likely triggered by sensory signals originating from cutaneous receptors in the hand. Furthermore, evidence that the latency of changes in ankle muscle activation depends on the number of perturbation directions suggests that the neural pathway is not confined to the spinal cord.
Forghani, Ali; Milner, Theodore E
Unpredictable forces which perturb balance are frequently applied to the body through interaction between the upper limb and the environment. Lower limb muscles respond rapidly to these postural disturbances in a highly specific manner. We have shown that the muscle activation patterns of lower limb muscles are organized in a direction specific manner which changes with lower limb stability. Ankle muscles change their activity within 80 ms of the onset of a force perturbation applied to the hand which is earlier than the onset of changes in ground reaction force, ankle angle or head motion. The latency of the response is sensitive to the perturbation direction. However, neither the latency nor the magnitude of the response is affected by stiffening the arm even though this alters the magnitude and timing of motion of the body segments. Based on the short latency, insensitivity of the change in ankle muscle activation to motion of the body segments but sensitivity to perturbation direction we reason that changes in ankle muscle activation are most likely triggered by sensory signals originating from cutaneous receptors in the hand. Furthermore, evidence that the latency of changes in ankle muscle activation depends on the number of perturbation directions suggests that the neural pathway is not confined to the spinal cord.
Forghani, Ali; Milner, Theodore E.
Unpredictable forces which perturb balance are frequently applied to the body through interaction between the upper limb and the environment. Lower limb muscles respond rapidly to these postural disturbances in a highly specific manner. We have shown that the muscle activation patterns of lower limb muscles are organized in a direction specific manner which changes with lower limb stability. Ankle muscles change their activity within 80 ms of the onset of a force perturbation applied to the hand which is earlier than the onset of changes in ground reaction force, ankle angle or head motion. The latency of the response is sensitive to the perturbation direction. However, neither the latency nor the magnitude of the response is affected by stiffening the arm even though this alters the magnitude and timing of motion of the body segments. Based on the short latency, insensitivity of the change in ankle muscle activation to motion of the body segments but sensitivity to perturbation direction we reason that changes in ankle muscle activation are most likely triggered by sensory signals originating from cutaneous receptors in the hand. Furthermore, evidence that the latency of changes in ankle muscle activation depends on the number of perturbation directions suggests that the neural pathway is not confined to the spinal cord. PMID:29095888
Lindo, Fiona M; Chung, Christopher P; Yandell, Paul M
The use of dyes during cystoscopy to visualize the ureters adequately is prevalent in gynecologic surgery. Observing ureteral patency after procedures such as a hysterectomy or pelvic reconstruction is important for identifying injury to the upper urinary tract. Indigo carmine is commonly used. Knowing the possible adverse effects and being aware of unusual presentations with the use of indigo carmine are important in managing and counseling patients. We present a case in which a patient developed indigo carmine extravasation to her upper limb after pelvic reconstructive surgery. The blue discoloration disappeared after 1 day. Indigo carmine extravasation to other parts of the body can occur without long-term complications. It takes 24-48 hours for the dye to clear subcutaneously.
Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana
The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (β=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (β=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation.
Nadas, I.; Vaida, C.; Gherman, B.; Pisla, D.; Carbone, G.
The present study highlights the advantages of robotic systems for post-stroke rehabilitation of the upper limb. The latest demographic studies illustrate a continuous increase of the average life span, which leads to a continuous increase of stroke incidents and patients requiring rehabilitation. Some studies estimate that by 2030 the number of physical therapists will be insufficient for the patients requiring physical rehabilitation, imposing a shift in the current methodologies. A viable option is the implementation of robotic systems that assist the patient in performing rehabilitation exercises, the physical therapist role being to establish the therapeutic program for each patient and monitor their individual progress. Using a set of clinical measurements for the upper limb motions, the analysis of rehabilitation robotic systems provides a comparative study between the motions required by clinicians and the ones that robotic systems perform for different therapeutic exercises. A critical analysis of existing robots is performed using several classifications: mechanical design, assistance type, actuation and power transmission, control systems and human robot interaction (HRI) strategies. This classification will determine a set of pre-requirements for the definition of new concepts and efficient solutions for robotic assisted rehabilitation therapy.
Zhou, Qianxiang; Chen, Yuhong; Ma, Chao; Zheng, Xiaohui
Fatigue is believed to be a major contributory factor to occupational injuries in machine operators. The development of accurate and usable techniques to measure operator fatigue is therefore important. In this study, we used a novel method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) of the biceps brachii and the Borg scale to evaluate local muscle fatigue in the upper limb after isometric muscle action. Thirteen young males performed isometric actions with the upper limb at different force levels. sEMG activities of the biceps brachii were recorded during the actions. Borg scales were used to evaluate the subjective sensation of local fatigue of the biceps brachii after the actions. sEMG activities were analyzed using the one-third band octave method, and an equation to determine the degree of fatigue was derived based on the relationship between the variable and the Borg scale. The results showed that the relationship could be expressed by a conic curve, and could be used to evaluate muscle fatigue during machine operation.
Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana
Proença, João Pedro; Quaresma, Cláudia; Vieira, Pedro
The aim of this research is to carry out a systematic review of the use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders. Through a systematic review, the first two authors defined the inclusion criteria and extracted the data, resulting in 38 studies collected from B-On, PubMed and Medline. Ninety-two per cent of the selected articles were published since 2010. This review documents 35 different gaming platforms types. Twenty-one of the 38 articles included in this review conducted a clinical trial and of those only eight report improvements in the target population following the use of the games and platforms. This review concludes that a new paradigm is emerging in the rehabilitation field, characterized by the systematic use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in/for rehabilitation. The use of this approach seems to be beneficial. However, to facilitate the full integration of these platforms, it is necessary to conduct more research in this area, explore new approaches and carry out in-depth clinical studies into the benefits of these platforms. Implications for rehabilitation This review states that the use serious games and gaming platforms for upper limb rehabilitation are starting a new paradigm in the rehabilitation. For a full integration of this technologies in the rehabilitation field more studies are needed.
Kong, Keng H; Lee, Jeanette; Chua, Karen S
To document the temporal development and evolution of upper limb spasticity, and to establish clinical correlates and predictors of upper limb spasticity in a cohort of stroke patients. Prospective cohort study. A rehabilitation unit. Patients (N=163) with a first-ever ischemic stroke. Not applicable. Ashworth Scale for measuring upper limb spasticity, Motor Assessment Scale for upper limb activity, Motricity Index for upper limb strength, and Modified Barthel Index for self-care. Upper limb spasticity was defined as an Ashworth Scale score of 1 or greater. Upper limb spasticity occurred in 54 patients (33%) at 3 months after stroke. Development of spasticity at later stages of the stroke was infrequent, occurring in only 28 patients (17%). In patients with mild spasticity (Ashworth Scale score 1) at 3 months after stroke, worsening of spasticity occurred in only 1 patient. On the other hand, almost half of the patients with moderate spasticity (Ashworth Scale score 2) at 3 months progressed to severe spasticity (Ashworth Scale score 3). Poor upper limb activity was the most important correlate of "moderate to severe spasticity" (Ashworth Scale score ≥2) (PAshworth Scale score of 2 or greater at 3 months after stroke, and in patients with severe upper limb weakness on admission to rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Angio-osteohypotrophic syndrome is also known as Servelle-Martorell angiodysplasia. It is characterized by venous or, rarely, arterial malformations, which may result in limb hypertrophy and bony hypoplasia. Extensive involvement of the upper limb is a rare feature of Servelle-Martorell syndrome. Cases with minimal upper limb involvement have been described in the literature. Case presentation A young man presented with multiple separate swollen areas over the right upper limb and functional difficulty since birth. The arm muscles and muscles of the limb girdle were atrophic. The forearm and hand bones were hypoplastic and tender. Conclusion We report a case of Servelle-Martorell syndrome with extensive involvement of the entire upper limb and periscapular region. Servelle-Martorell syndrome is highlighted as one of the causes of angiodysplastic limb hypertrophy.
Whibley, Daniel; MacDonald, Ross; Macfarlane, Gary J; Jones, Gareth T
Musculoskeletal pain in the distal upper limb is common and is a cause of disability and healthcare consultation. At the time of presentation individuals reporting similar pain severities may report different levels of related disability. The biopsychosocial model proposes that health beliefs may help explain this difference. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify underlying constructs of health belief in those referred to physiotherapy with pain in the distal upper limb and investigate whether these constructs moderated the relationship between pain severity and extent of disability. Health beliefs were assessed using an instrument included in a questionnaire completed before randomisation to the Arm Pain Trial (ISRCTN79085082). Ordinal responses to statements about health beliefs were used to generate a polychoric correlation matrix. The output from this matrix was then used for Exploratory Factor Analysis to determine underlying constructs. The moderating influence of the identified health belief constructs was then tested using interaction terms in linear regression models. 476 trial participants contributed data, age range 18-85 (mean 48.8, SD 13.7), 54% female. Five health belief constructs were identified: beliefs about hereditary factors, beliefs about movement and pain, beliefs about locus of control, beliefs about the role of lifecourse/lifestyle factors, and beliefs about prognosis. The only health belief construct found to moderate the pain-disability relationship was beliefs about prognosis, with greater pessimism resulting in higher levels of disability at mild-to-moderate levels of pain severity (B -0.17, 95% CI -0.30, -0.036). This exploratory cross-sectional study identified five constructs of health belief from responses to a previously used set of statements investigating fear avoidance and illness beliefs in a clinical population with pain in the distal upper limb. Of these constructs, beliefs about prognosis were found to
Kachlik, David; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav
The aim of this article is to revise and extend the existing sections of Terminologia Anatomica dealing with the upper limb structures, which nomenclature belongs to its most neglected and not developing parts, and to justify the use of the proposed anatomical terms in the clinical practice, research, and education. A sample collected from own educational and research experience was matched in the main anatomical textbooks as well as old and recent anatomical journals and compared with four versions of the official Latin anatomical nomenclatures. The authors summarize here 145 terms, completed with their definitions or explanations, concerning both constant and variable (inconstant) morphological structures (bones, joints, muscles, vessels, and nerves) of the pectoral girdle, arm, cubital region, forearm, wrist, and hand, completed with some grammar remarks and several general terms. After a broad discussion on this topic, the Terminologia Anatomica should be revised and extend with the listed terms (or their equivalents).
Al-Ghawi, Eman; Al-Harbi, Talal; Al-Sarawi, Adnan; Binfalah, Mohamed
Monomelic amyotrophy is an uncommon, benign, unilateral disorder of the lower motor neurons, affecting predominantly the hand and forearm muscles. Proximal involvement of the arm and shoulder muscles is an unusual presentation that has been rarely reported in the literature. A 28-year-old white man presented with insidious-onset, slowly progressive, unilateral weakness and atrophy of his left shoulder girdle and deltoid muscles. A neurological examination revealed weakness and atrophy in his left deltoid, infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles. Electromyography demonstrated an active and chronic neurogenic pattern affecting his left C5 and C6 myotomes; magnetic resonance imaging of his cervical spine was normal. He did well with conservative treatment. Upper limb proximal form of monomelic amyotrophy is a rare clinical entity with a wide differential diagnosis. Physicians, especially neurologists, should be familiar with this benign condition to avoid inappropriately labeling patients as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders with less favorable outcomes.
Tokarski, Tomasz; Roman-Liu, Danuta
This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of physical disability (paraplegia) and sensory disability (deafness) on motor skills of the upper limbs. Studies were distinguished by two parameters: the nature of the control curve (sine or random) and the magnitude of the isometric force exerted on the lever (10 N, 20 N, 40 N, 80 N). A comparison of the quality of manual force control in a visual detection task among groups of people with sensory disability (deaf), people with physical disability (paraplegic) and people without disability showed differences among those groups. Values of force above 20 N create conditions of lower quality of control and of direction of force exertion outside the body. At the same time, the study proved that people with some types of disability can perform certain work tasks as effectively as people without disability.
Schultz, Aimee E; Baade, Susan P; Kuiken, Todd A
The goal of this study was to gather the opinions of prosthetics experts on the most important factors for the successful use of upper-limb (UL) prostheses, compare them with those of prosthesis users, and ultimately direct research efforts in this field. UL prosthetics experts were asked to compare the importance of the comfort, function, and cosmesis of a prosthetic device for a transhumeral amputee. Categories were subdivided into weight, socket-interface comfort, power, agility, color, and shape. The majority of those who responded viewed comfort as the most important factor for a unilateral amputee and considered socket-interface comfort to be more important than weight. Function was considered to be the most important factor for a bilateral amputee, with agility considered more important than power. Cosmesis was consistently reported as being less important than comfort and function, and shape was considered more important than color.
Wangdell, Johanna; Fridén, Jan
To describe the early active rehabilitation concept developed for spasticity-correcting surgery in tetraplegia and to report the outcomes in grip ability and change of performance and satisfaction in patients' prioritized activities 1 year postoperatively. Retrospective case-control study. Nonprofit rehabilitation unit. All patients who underwent surgeries for correction of spasticity in tetraplegic hands between 2009 and 2013 in the studied unit (N=37). Spasticity-correcting upper limb surgery with early active rehabilitation to restore grip ability in tetraplegia. Grasp and release test (GRT) and modified Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). All patients could accomplish the early active rehabilitation concept. The complication rate related to the treatment was low. Compared with preoperatively, all evaluated individuals experienced improvements in grasp ability and activity performance and satisfaction at 1-year follow-up. The performance in prioritized activities, as measured by the COPM, improved by 2.6 scale steps. Satisfaction with performance improved 3.0 scale steps postoperatively (n=21). The grasp ability, measured by the GRT, improved significantly, from 80 preoperatively to 111 (n=10). The surgery, combined with the early active rehabilitation protocol, is a reliable and safe procedure. The ability to use the hand improved, and gains were maintained at least 1 year after surgery in all patients with respect to both the objective grasp ability and patients' subjective rating of their performance and satisfaction in their prioritized activities. The procedure should therefore be considered as an adjunct to other treatments of upper limb spasticity in spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A graphics system displaying both upper limb posture and opening-closing of a prosthetic hand was developed for realtime operation of our biomimetic myoelectric hand simulator, Posture of the upper...
Mazzone, Elena S; Mayhew, Anna; Montes, Jacqueline; Ramsey, Danielle; Fanelli, Lavinia; Young, Sally Dunaway; Salazar, Rachel; De Sanctis, Roberto; Pasternak, Amy; Glanzman, Allan; Coratti, Giorgia; Civitello, Matthew; Forcina, Nicola; Gee, Richard; Duong, Tina; Pane, Marika; Scoto, Mariacristina; Pera, Maria Carmela; Messina, Sonia; Tennekoon, Gihan; Day, John W; Darras, Basil T; De Vivo, Darryl C; Finkel, Richard; Muntoni, Francesco; Mercuri, Eugenio
There is a growing need for a robust clinical measure to assess upper limb motor function in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), as the available scales lack sensitivity at the extremes of the clinical spectrum. We report the development of the Revised Upper Limb Module (RULM), an assessment specifically designed for upper limb function in SMA patients. An international panel with specific neuromuscular expertise performed a thorough review of scales currently available to assess upper limb function in SMA. This review facilitated a revision of the existing upper limb function scales to make a more robust clinical scale. Multiple revisions of the scale included statistical analysis and captured clinically relevant changes to fulfill requirements by regulators and advocacy groups. The resulting RULM scale shows good reliability and validity, making it a suitable tool to assess upper extremity function in the SMA population for multi-center clinical research. Muscle Nerve 55: 869-874, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Beek, P.J.; Kwakkel, G.
Objective: To compare the effects of unilateral and bilateral training on upper limb function after stroke with regard to two key factors: severity of upper limb paresis and time of intervention post-stroke. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods: Two
Full Text Available The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1. Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients.
van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Kwakkel, G.; Beek, P.J.
Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the capacity of the robotic device REAplan to measure overall upper limb peak resistance force, as a reflection of upper limb spasticity. Methods: Twelve patients with chronic stroke presenting upper limb spasticity were recruited to the study. Patients underwent musculocutaneous motor nerve block to reduce the spasticity of elbow flexor muscles. Each patient was assessed before and after the motor nerve block. Overall the REAplan measured upper limb resistance force. The robot passively mobilized the patient’s upper limb at various velocities (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm/s in a back-and-forth trajectory (30 cm. The peak resistance force was analysed for each forward movement. Ten movements were performed and averaged at each velocity condition. Results: The overall upper limb resistance force increased proportionally to the mobilization velocity (p 0.6. Conclusion: This study proposes a new, valid, reliable and sensitive protocol to quantify upper limb resistance force using the REAplan, as a reflection of upper limb spasticity.
Pollock, Alex; Farmer, Sybil E; Brady, Marian C; Langhorne, Peter; Mead, Gillian E; Mehrholz, Jan; van Wijck, Frederike
Improving upper limb function is a core element of stroke rehabilitation needed to maximise patient outcomes and reduce disability. Evidence about effects of individual treatment techniques and modalities is synthesised within many reviews. For selection of effective rehabilitation treatment, the relative effectiveness of interventions must be known. However, a comprehensive overview of systematic reviews in this area is currently lacking. To carry out a Cochrane overview by synthesising systematic reviews of interventions provided to improve upper limb function after stroke. We comprehensively searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; the Database of Reviews of Effects; and PROSPERO (an international prospective register of systematic reviews) (June 2013). We also contacted review authors in an effort to identify further relevant reviews. We included Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of patients with stroke comparing upper limb interventions with no treatment, usual care or alternative treatments. Our primary outcome of interest was upper limb function; secondary outcomes included motor impairment and performance of activities of daily living. When we identified overlapping reviews, we systematically identified the most up-to-date and comprehensive review and excluded reviews that overlapped with this. Two overview authors independently applied the selection criteria, excluding reviews that were superseded by more up-to-date reviews including the same (or similar) studies. Two overview authors independently assessed the methodological quality of reviews (using a modified version of the AMSTAR tool) and extracted data. Quality of evidence within each comparison in each review was determined using objective criteria (based on numbers of participants, risk of bias, heterogeneity and review quality) to apply GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) levels of evidence. We resolved
Roberts, Angela; Nguyen, Peter; Orange, Joseph B; Jog, Mandar; Nisbet, Kelly A; McRae, Ken
Theories of grounded cognition emphasize the role of the motor system in the processing of action concepts. The present study investigated whether persons with Parkinson disease (PD) who have greater upper versus greater lower limb motor impairments show different patterns of performance when processing action verbs. PD patients and controls made action decisions on upper-limb (reach), lower-limb (kick), and psych verbs (think). The primary result was an interaction between PD motor dominance (PD upper vs lower limb motor impairments) and verb type (upper- vs lower-limb verbs). PD patients with greater upper limb impairments took longer to respond to upper-limb than to lower-limb verbs, whereas those with greater lower limb impairments performed similarly on the two verb types. Our results add to recent studies and theories that highlight the complexity of verb impairments in PD, semantic task effects, effector-specific sensorimotor cortex engagement, and fine-grained semantic features and their possible interactions with effector-specific impairments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gimeno, Hortensia; Lumsden, Daniel; Gordon, Anne; Tustin, Kylee; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre
Childhood dystonia can severely impact upper limb function. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be effective in reducing dystonic symptoms in childhood. Functional recovery following DBS is however not well understood. To explore changes in upper limb function following DBS in paediatric dystonia. Upper limb outcomes, using the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, are reported in 20 cases of childhood dystonia (unilateral n = 1, four limb n = 19) at 6 and 12 months following DBS. Improvement in at least in one upper limb was seen in the majority of cases (n = 17, 85%) at 12 months following DBS. Deterioration of scores in both upper limbs was seen in 3 children with progressive disorders. Grouping the children aetiologically, a significant improvement in the dominant hand was obtained for the primary dystonia/dystonia-plus group at both six (p = 0.018) and twelve months (p = 0.012). In secondary dystonia due to a static disorder, improvement was also seen at 6 (p = 0.043) and 12 months (p = 0.046) in the non-dominant hand. No significant change was found in the group of children with progressive disorders. DBS has the potential to alter upper limb function in children with primary and secondary dystonia. The dominant hand improved most in children with primary dystonias, with greater improvement in the non-dominant hand in secondary-static cases. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mumford, Nick; Wilson, Peter H
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is associated with significant cognitive, behavioural, psychological and physical impairment. Hence, it has been important to leverage assessment approaches in rehabilitation by using current and emerging technologies, including virtual reality (VR). A number of VR rehabilitation programmes have been designed in recent years, mainly to improve upper limb function. However, before this technology gains widespread use, evaluation of the scientific evidence supporting VR-assisted rehabilitation is needed. The present review aimed to assess the rationale, design and methodology of research investigating the clinical impact of VR on ABI upper-limb rehabilitation. A total of 22 studies were surveyed using a Cochrane-style review. Studies were classified on a number of key criteria: theoretical bases and aims, sample populations and recruitment procedures, characteristics of the VR systems, evaluation design including control procedures and statistical analysis of results. Studies were rated using the Downs and Black (DB) scale. The review demonstrated that few studies used a conventional randomized controlled study design. Moderate support was shown for both teacher-animation and game-like systems. While VR-assisted rehabilitation shows early promise, clinicians are advised to be cautious about adopting these technologies before adequate data is available.
Desroches, Guillaume; Dumas, Raphaël; Pradon, Didier; Vaslin, Philippe; Lepoutre, François-Xavier; Chèze, Laurence
Inverse dynamic methods have been widely used to estimate joint loads during manual wheelchair propulsion. However, the interpretation of 3D net joint moments and powers is not always straightforward. It has been suggested to use joint coordinate systems (expression of joint moment on anatomical axes) and the 3D angle between joint moment and angular velocity vectors (propulsion, resistance or stabilization joint configuration) for a better understanding of joint dynamics. Nine spinal cord injured subjects equipped with reflective markers propelled in a wheelchair with an instrumented wheel. Inverse dynamic results were interpreted using joint coordinate systems, 3D joint power and the 3D angle between the joint moment and joint angular velocity vectors at the three upper limb joints. The 3D angle was used to determine if the joints were predominantly driven (angle close to 0 or 180 degrees) or stabilized (angle close to 90 degrees ). The wrist and elbow joints are mainly in a stabilization configuration (angle close to 90 degrees ) with a combination of extension and ulnar deviation moments and an adduction moment respectively. The shoulder is in a propulsion configuration, but close to stabilization (angle hardly below 60 degrees ) with a combination of flexion and internal rotation moments. Stabilization configuration at the joints could partly explain the low mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion and could give insight about injury risk at the wrist, elbow and shoulder joints. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shalev, S.A.; Dar, H.; Barel, H.; Borochowitz, Z. [Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa (Israel)
We read with interest the report of Cormier-Daire et al. in a recent issue of the journal, describing upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. We observed a family with this group of rare clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. The proposita was examined in our clinic when she was 4 years old. She was mildly mentally retarded. Clinical evaluation showed normal growth, long thin nose with squared tip, nasal speech, and abundant scalp hair and no cardiac anomalies. The girl was accompanied by her mother. Facial similarities were noted between the two. The mother reported to be treated with oral calcium due to hypoparathyroidism, diagnosed several years ago. Clinical evaluation showed wide flat face, short stature, mild mental retardation, slight hypertelorism, peculiar nose similar to her daughter`s, and nasal speech. No cardiac anomalies were found. Recently, a brother was born. Clinical examination documented large ventriculo-septal defect, retrognathia, narrow palpebral fissures, and long thin nose with squared tip. 1 ref.
Fallahian, Nader; Saeedi, Hassan; Mokhtarinia, Hamidreza; Tabatabai Ghomshe, Farhad
Sensory feedback systems have been of great interest in upper-limb prosthetics. Despite tremendous research, there are no commercial modality-matched feedback systems. This article aims to introduce the first detachable and feedback add-on option that can be attached to in-use prostheses. A sensory feedback system was tested on a below-elbow myoelectric prosthesis. The aim was to have the amputee grasp fragile objects without crushing while other accidental feedback sources were blocked. A total of 8 successful trials (out of 10) showed that sensory feedback system decreased the amputee's visual dependency by improving awareness of his prosthesis. Sensory feedback system can be used either as post-fabrication (prosthetic add-on option) or para-fabrication (incorporated into prosthetic design). The use of these direct feedback systems can be explored with a current prosthesis before ordering new high-tech prosthesis. Clinical relevance This technical note introduces the first attach/detach-able sensory feedback system that can simply be added to in-use (myo)electric prosthesis, with no obligation to change prosthesis design or components.
Premalatha, G D; Noor Hassim, I
A total of 323 workers from 5 different occupational groups in the telecommunication industry were studied in this cross sectional study, which sought to determine the prevalence of Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULD) in 5 occupational groups; operators using the Video Display Terminals, switchboard operators, clerks, data entry processors and the supervisors. WRULD was also studied with regard to factors such as sex, race, height, age, stress and the discomfort perceived due to the work station design. The possibility of WRULD was determined from a self-administered questionnaire and confirmed by history and physical examination. Psychological stress and the discomfort due to the workstation were measured from the questionnaire. The overall prevalence was found to be 31.2% and the prevalence among the various occupations differed with it being the highest in the switchboard operators and data processors and the lowest in the supervisors. The older workers and the female workers were found to have higher prevalences of WRULD. It was also found that a higher stress score and a higher score of discomfort perceived at the work station were associated with higher prevalences of WRULD.
Moscato, T A; Orlandini, D
Since pre-history until modern times, the ever more refined use of the hand has been fundamental to the progress of mankind. The list of functions of this incredible part of the body would fill several pages and show its fundamental importance in all our actions; in fact, there is very little that humans do that does not involve the use of the hands. The hand offers points for unlimited dissertation and is the executive organ par excellence, carrying out directly or participating in almost all our actions; it is an organ for communication and an instrument of well-being as well as being the main site of one of the five senses: touch. On this background, attention will be focused on the importance that the hand plays in daily life and, particularly, on the difficulties inevitably faced by people who are forced to live without a hand, even if replaced by an orthopaedic prosthesis. This is the sense of occupational therapy in the context of upper limb amputees.
Pan, Shujuan; Kairy, Dahlia; Corriveau, Hélène; Tousignant, Michel
Background: Tai chi (TC) has been reported as being beneficial for improving balance post stroke, yet its utility in upper limb rehabilitation remains unknown. Methods: Twelve chronic stroke survivors with persistent paresis of an upper limb underwent 60 minutes of adapted TC twice a week for eight weeks, with a 4-week follow up. A 10-min TC home program was recommended for the days without sessions. TC level of performance, attendance to the sessions, duration of self-practice at home, and adapted TC movements used were recorded. Results: Eleven participants completed the study. A clinical reasoning algorithm underlying the adaptation of TC was elaborated throughout the trial. Participants with varying profiles including a severely impaired upper limb, poor balance, shoulder pain, and severe spasticity were not only capable of practicing the adapted TC, but attended all 16 sessions and practiced TC at home for a total of 16.51 ± 9.21 h. The degree of self-practice for subgroups with low upper limb function, shoulder pain, or moderate-to-severe spasticity was similar to that of subgroups with greater upper limb function, no shoulder pain, and minimal-to-no spasticity. Conclusion: Adapted TC seems feasible for upper limb rehabilitation post stroke. Although the study was based on a small sample size and requires confirmation, low upper limb function, insufficient balance, spasticity, and shoulder pain do not appear to hinder the practice of TC.
Chen, Chih-Chen; Liu, Chun-Yen; Ciou, Shih-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Ching; Chen, Yu-Luen
Abnormal upper limb function seriously impacts a patient's daily life. After receiving emergency treatment patient should receive function-rebuilding and recovery training. The objective of this study is to integrate IR-camera, an infrared emitter, with a conventional passive hand skateboard training device for conventional upper limb training and the training process is comprehensively recorded and analyzed. Patients participating in the occupational therapy have a binding band attached to hand skateboard on the table to guide the patient in moving the hand skateboard along the designated path to train the patient's upper limbs. Six people with normal upper limb function participated in the stability test. The device repeatability and test results were verified acceptable. Eight patients with abnormal upper limb function (their upper limb function was damaged due to stroke, MMSE > =27) were trained for 4 weeks. The patient scores in finishing rate and finishing time showed significant improvement. The paired T test results (satisfy p hand skateboard for upper limb training. The experiments show that the hardware of the proposed device no longer delays in response and can result in obvious clinical advances. The proposed device is verified worthy of promotion.
Wall, Lindley B; Shen, Tony; Roberts, Summer; Goldfarb, Charles A
To determine the range of the Pediatric Outcomes Collection Instrument (PODCI) scores for children with a wide variety of congenital upper limb differences and to examine the scoring effect of the patient's surgical history, family history, severity of involvement, and syndromic associations. We reviewed the PODCI scores for 109 patients, aged 2-18 years, treated for nontraumatic upper extremity conditions. Charts were reviewed for sex, age, extent of limb involvement, laterality, family history, surgical history, and syndrome association. All patients were classified based on the Oberg, Manske, Tonkin classification with general categories of malformation, deformation, or dysplasia. Of 109 patients, 80 (73%) had a malformation, 12 (11%) had a deformation, and 17 (16%) had a dysplasia. The cohort as a whole had a happiness PODCI score that was similar to the normal population, yet a lower (worse) PODCI score for upper extremity and global function. Patients with a dysplasia had a higher upper extremity function scores than those with malformations or deformations, but they had similar happiness and global function scores. Complete upper limb involvement and lower extremity involvement statistically lowered the PODCI score within our study cohort, whereas a positive family history and syndromic association increased PODCI scores. This study showed that there was a similar level of perceived happiness between children/adolescents with congenital upper extremity conditions compared with the normal pediatric population based on PODCI scores. In contrast, the perceived upper extremity and global function was significantly decreased in patients with congenital differences compared with normal individuals. This investigation also revealed that the extent of upper extremity involvement, lower extremity involvement, family history, and syndromic association may affect PODCI scores as independent variables and should be taken into consideration in studies of upper extremity
Abd Razak Noor Syafiqa
Full Text Available It is important to design ergonomic methods or assessment with a high usability and good ergonomic features, so the method is easily adaptable to the task and the workplace environment. Usability is a measurement on how well the user can use that functionality. The study converged on testing the usability of the new tools for assessing ULDs namely as Upper Limb Risk Assessment (UPLIRA. The UPLIRA method was evaluated by 6 students (3 undergraduate students and 3 postgraduates students from University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM who are conducting research in ergonomic. From the feedback survey of UPLIRA method, the observers agree that the prototype of UPLIRA tool was applicable to workplace assessment for the wide range of jobs/task (mean 4.00, SD:0.632 with 83% percentage of agreement . They also indicate that UPLIRA method is quick to use (mean 3.67, SD:1.033 with percentage agreement of 67%. The scoring system and action level was rated as easy to understand (mean 3.67, SD:1.211 and (mean 4.17, SD:0.408. Conclusively, the UPLIRA method was rated as straightforward to use, applicable to wide range of tasks, and time saving as assessment can be completed within 10 minutes. In addition, the UPLIRA assessment covers an extensive range of physical, psychosocial, work organizational, and individual risk factors.
Chik, Yuen-Man; Ip, Wan-Yim; Choi, Kai-Chow
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of upper limb massage on relieving pain among infants undergoing venipuncture in Hong Kong. This study was a crossover, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Eighty infants at the neonatal intensive care unit were randomly assigned to 2 groups in different order to receive interventions. The massage first group (N = 40) received 2-minute massage before venipuncture on the first occasion then received usual care (control) on the second occasion, and vice versa in the massage second group (N = 40). The infants' behavior and physiological responses were recorded on two occasions: (1) right after the intervention and (2) during the first 30 seconds of venipuncture procedure. The mean pain scores (Premature Infant Pain Profile) were significantly lower in infants who received massage (massage first: 6.0 [standard deviation = 3.3]; massage second: 7.30 [standard deviation = 4.4]) versus control (massage first: 12.0 [standard deviation = 4.3]; massage second: 12.7 [standard deviation = 3.1]). The crude and adjusted generalized estimating equations model showed that the infants had significantly lower pain score when receiving massage as compared to receiving the control treatment, and there were no significant time and carryover effects: -6.03 (95% confidence interval: -7.67 to -4.38), p pain perception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mirbagheri Mehdi M
Full Text Available Abstract Background While upper-extremity movement in individuals with neurological disorders such as stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI has been studied for many years, the effects of spasticity on arm movement have been poorly quantified. The present study is designed to characterize the nature of impaired arm movements associated with spasticity in these two clinical populations. By comparing impaired voluntary movements between these two groups, we will gain a greater understanding of the effects of the type of spasticity on these movements and, potentially a better understanding of the underlying impairment mechanisms. Methods We characterized the kinematics and kinetics of rapid arm movement in SCI and neurologically intact subjects and in both the paretic and non-paretic limbs in stroke subjects. The kinematics of rapid elbow extension over the entire range of motion were quantified by measuring movement trajectory and its derivatives; i.e. movement velocity and acceleration. The kinetics were quantified by measuring maximum isometric voluntary contractions of elbow flexors and extensors. The movement smoothness was estimated using two different computational techniques. Results Most kinematic and kinetic and movement smoothness parameters changed significantly in paretic as compared to normal arms in stroke subjects (p Conclusion The findings suggest that although the cause and location of injury are different in spastic stroke and SCI subjects, the impairments in arm voluntary movement were similar in the two spastic groups. Our results also suggest that the non-paretic arm in stroke subjects was not distinguishable from the normal, and might therefore be used as an appropriate control for studying movement of the paretic arm.
Ailime Perito Feiber Heck
Full Text Available Introduction It is expected that a child will acquire control of posture (CP of the head and upper limbs in a gradual, sequential and organized way. However, there is still no consensus regarding the best position to achieve this; the evidence suggests that it is prone. Objective To investigate whether age and inclination of the supporting surface in the prone position influence the alignment of the head and upper limbs of children with typical motor development (TMD and atypical motor development (AMD. Methods The study included 29 children aged between one and three months divided according to the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS into groups with TMD (n = 18 and AMD (n = 11. The children were placed in the prone position with three angles of the support surface (0°, 25° and 45°. Kinematic analysis was conducted to evaluate the alignment angles of the head and upper limbs. Results Children with TMD had higher head alignment. There was no difference in the upper limbs’ alignment between the group with TMD and the group with AMD. In the third month of age compared with the first, increased head alignment and decreased upper limb alignment were found in both groups. The inclination of the supporting surface did not influence the alignment of the head and upper limbs. Conclusions Among the positions evaluated, the prone position without inclination of the supporting surface was more appropriate for weight discharge in the upper limbs, favoring the development of postural control of the child.
van der Sluis, Corry K.; Hartman, Paul P.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Dijkstra, Pieter U.
Objectives: To explore job adjustments, job satisfaction, and health experience among employees with an upper limb amputation and to compare the results with those of lower limb amputees and control subjects. Methods: Amputees were recruited from data files of a large European University Medical
...) activity in the upper limb in humans, This system was designed around AMLAB analog modules and software objects called ICAMs, The system consists of a nerve stimulator block, a time domain EMG block...
van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Nienhuys, K.; Zijp, N.I.; Beek, P.J.; Kwakkel, G.
Background and Purpose - Unilateral and bilateral training protocols for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke represent conceptually contrasting approaches with the same ultimate goal. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the merits of modified constraint-induced movement therapy,
Entrapment neuropathies, particularly those affecting upper limbs, are common reasons for referral for nerve conduction studies (NCS). However, concordance between clinical findings and NCS findings, especially in patients being considered for intervention including decompressive surgery, has not been assessed.
Radmand, Ashkan; Scheme, Erik; Englehart, Kevin
Several multiple degree-of-freedom upper-limb prostheses that have the promise of highly dexterous control have recently been developed. Inadequate controllability, however, has limited adoption of these devices. Introducing more robust control methods will likely result in higher acceptance rates. This work investigates the suitability of using high-density force myography (HD-FMG) for prosthetic control. HD-FMG uses a high-density array of pressure sensors to detect changes in the pressure patterns between the residual limb and socket caused by the contraction of the forearm muscles. In this work, HD-FMG outperforms the standard electromyography (EMG)-based system in detecting different wrist and hand gestures. With the arm in a fixed, static position, eight hand and wrist motions were classified with 0.33% error using the HD-FMG technique. Comparatively, classification errors in the range of 2.2%-11.3% have been reported in the literature for multichannel EMG-based approaches. As with EMG, position variation in HD-FMG can introduce classification error, but incorporating position variation into the training protocol reduces this effect. Channel reduction was also applied to the HD-FMG technique to decrease the dimensionality of the problem as well as the size of the sensorized area. We found that with informed, symmetric channel reduction, classification error could be decreased to 0.02%.
Neumann, M V; Zwingmann, J; Jaeger, M; Hammer, T O; Südkamp, N P
Although non-unions in the upper limb are rare different treatment options of this challenging situation are still affected with up to 20% of failure rate due to current literature. Risk factors for delayed and non-union of fractures are mainly the size of the fracture gap and bone loss of open fractures or in primary surgery followed by other relevant internal and external factors. In the upper limb non-unions of long bones are described with up to 30% after operative intervention. Especially in the upper limb range of motion is limited in non-union cases and disables adjacent joints like the shoulder, elbow and wrist hence reducing the total activity level of affected patients. Beside careful investigation of the causes leading to the non-union a comprehensive treatment plan should be defined to achieve successful results. Treatment can be non-operative in several, selected cases, but in the majority of cases revision surgery is necessary to achieve osseous healing. Our own experience showed that non-union in the upper limb are rare and account for only 1.7% of all surgical managed upper limb fractures. Non-union of upper limb fractures occur most frequently in clavicle fractures followed by humeral fractures. Atrophic non-union is the most frequent reason for osseous non-union (57%) and osseous healing after revision surgery in non-unions is completed after a mean of 6.45 months. This article will give a brief overview of the genesis, clinical evaluation, treatment options and recommendations in upper limb non-unions according to the current literature. Key words: fracture, upper-limb, non-union, osteosynthesis, cancellous bone-graft.
Crosbie, Jacqueline; McDonough, Suzanne; Lennon, Sheila; McNeill, Michael
Virtual reality (VR) provides a three-dimensional computer representation of a real world or imaginary space through which a person can navigate and interact with objects to carry out specific tasks. One novel application of VR technology is in rehabilitation following stroke, particularly of the upper limb. This paper describes the development of a VR system for use in this field. This system gives the user the ability to interact with objects by touching, grasping and moving their upper limb.
P?rez-M?rmol, Jose Manuel; Garc?a-R?os, M? Carmen; Barrero-Hernandez, Francisco J.; Molina-Torres, Guadalupe; Brown, Ted; Aguilar-Ferr?ndiz, Mar?a Encarnaci?n
Background Upper limb apraxia is a common disorder associated with stroke that can reduce patients? independence levels in activities of daily living and increase levels of disability. Traditional rehabilitation programs designed to promote the recovery of upper limb function have mainly focused on restorative or compensatory approaches. However, no previous studies have been completed that evaluate a combined intervention method approach, where patients concurrently receive cognitive trainin...
Puligopu, Aneel Kumar; Purohit, Anirudh Kumar
Objective: The objective was to assess the outcome of selective motor fasciculotomy in relieving upper limb harmful resistant spasticity and thereby to improve motor functions in persons with cerebral palsy. Materials and Methods: Twenty people having cerebral palsy (12 females and 8 males) with age ranging from 5 to 35 (mean 12.85) years with upper limb resistant spasticity due to spastic hemiplegia (n=7), triplegia (n=6), and quadriplegia (n=7) were assessed using Modified Ashworth Scale, S...
Noguchi, Takanori; Demura, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kenji; Demura, Gou; Mori, Yasunori
We examined the differences in muscle power between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs of 33 healthy, right-handed, university baseball players (mean age, 20.4 ± 1.1 years) with an average baseball experience >11 years. After measuring maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of hand grip, elbow flexion, and shoulder internal rotation in both upper limbs, the muscle power of each joint was measured at 40%, 50%, and 60% MVC. No significant differences were observed in the main factors affecting MVC and elbow flexion power loads between dominant and nondominant upper limbs. For handgrip power, load factors at 40% MVC in the dominant hand were lower than those at 60% MVC in the same hand and those at 50% and 60% MVC in the nondominant hand. Significant differences were observed in shoulder internal rotation power between dominant and nondominant upper limbs, with the dominant limb having greater power at all loads. Correlations between muscle power of both upper limbs for handgrip and elbow flexion were significant and moderately high at all loads. For shoulder internal rotation power, the degree of correlation was significant and moderately high at 40% MVC but low to moderate at 50% and 60% MVC. Therefore, baseball players have marked lateral dominance in shoulder internal rotation power unlike handgrip and elbow flexion power, although the relationship between shoulder internal rotation muscle powers of both upper limbs becomes lower with increasing load. The dominance of muscle power of each joint varied even in the same upper limb. It is thus beneficial for baseball players to train with even loads on both arms or adopt simultaneous workout of both arms after adjusting for strength differences.
Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A; Gandikota, Girish; Brandon, Catherine; Morag, Yoav; Fessell, David P; Kim, Sung-Moon
Peripheral nerve entrapment occurs at specific anatomic locations. Familiarity with the anatomy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of nerve entrapment syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of entrapment neuropathies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the normal anatomy of peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs and to review the MRI features of common disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, both compressive/entrapment and noncompressive, involving the suprascapular nerve, the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median verve in the upper limb and the sciatic nerve, the common peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the interdigital nerves in the lower limb.
Isidoro, Naerton JoséXavier; Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; Valenti, Vitor E; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos
Introduction Strength exercises influence the cardiovascular system by promoting autonomic adjustments induced by the increased metabolic demand and consequent increase in local blood flow. However, it is unclear whether there are differences between upper and lower limbs. We aimedto evaluate recovery of cardiac autonomic modulation afterstrengthexercise in upper and lower limbs. Methods We analysed 29 healthy male subjects physically active but not professional athletes aged between 20 and 35 years old. We analysed heart rate variability (HRV) in the time and frequency domain 0-10 minutes before exercise (T1), 0-10 minutes after exercise (T2), 10-20 minutes after exercise (T3) and 20-30 minutes after exercise (T4). Results Regarding the time domain we observed that the SDNN, pNN50 and RMSSD were reduced (P lower limbs. In the frequency domain analysis, we observed stronger significancefor the increased values of LF (nu) (P = 0.0008) and LF/HF ratio (P = 0.0008) and for reduction in HF (nu) (P = 0.0008) in the lower limbs compared to upper limbs (LF (nu) - P = 0.0015, LF/HF ratio - P = 0.0028 and HF (nu) - P = 0.0028). Conclusion Strength exercise acutely induced more pronounced cardiac autonomic responses in lower limbs compared to upper limbs.
Poltawski, Leon; Allison, Rhoda; Briscoe, Simon; Freeman, Jennifer; Kilbride, Cherry; Neal, Debbie; Turton, Ailie J.; Dean, Sarah
Abstract Purpose: Upper limb disability following stroke may have multiple effects on the individual. Existing assessment instruments tend to focus on impairment and function and may miss other changes that are personally important. This study aimed to identify personally significant impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Methods: Accounts by stroke survivors, in the form of web-based diaries (blogs) and stories, were sought using a blog search engine and in stroke-related web-sites. Thematic analysis using the World Health Organisation’s International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) was used to identify personal impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Results: Ninety-nine sources from at least four countries were analysed. Many impacts were classifiable using the ICF, but a number of additional themes emerged, including emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes. Blogs and other web-based accounts were easily accessible and rich sources of data, although using them raised several methodological issues, including potential sample bias. Conclusions: A range of impacts was identified, some of which (such as use of information technology and alienation from the upper limb) are not addressed in current assessment instruments. They should be considered in post-stroke assessments. Blogs may help in the development of more comprehensive assessments.Implications for RehabilitationA comprehensive assessment of the upper limb following stroke should include the impact of upper limb problems on social participation, as well as associated emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes.Using personalised assessment instruments alongside standardised measures may help ensure that these broader domains are considered in discussions between clinicians and patients.Rehabilitation researchers should investigate whether and how these domains could be addressed and operationalised in standard upper limb assessment instruments. PMID
Pietrzak, Eva; Cotea, Cristina; Pullman, Stephen
The increasing number of people living with poststroke sequelae has stimulated the search for novel ways of providing poststroke rehabilitation without putting additional stress on overburdened health care systems. One of them is the use of commercially available technology and off-the-shelf video games for hemiparetic upper limb rehabilitation. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using key word synonyms for stroke, upper limb, and video games. Included studies investigated upper limb stroke rehabilitation using commercially available consoles and video games, reported outcomes that included measures of upper limb functionality, and were published in a peer-reviewed journal written in English. Thirteen studies were identified - 6 published as full articles and 7 as abstracts. Studies were generally small and only 3 were randomized. The gaming systems investigated were the Nintendo Wii (n = 10), EyeToy PlayStation (n = 2), and CyWee Z (n = 1). The Nintendo Wii appears to provide the greatest benefits to patients, with improvements seen in upper extremity function measures such as joint range of motion, hand motor function, grip strength, and dexterity. Three studies indicate that video therapy appears to be safe and that long-term improvements continue at follow-up. At present, the evidence that the use of commercial video games in rehabilitation improves upper limb functionality after stroke is very limited. However, this approach has the potential to provide easily available and affordable stroke rehabilitation therapy in settings where access to therapy is limited by geographical or financial constraints.
Hossein Ali Ebrahimi
Full Text Available Introduction The phakomatoses are a group of clinical disorders that are linked. Overlap between Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS and Klippel-Trenaunay Weber syndrome (KTWS is very rarely. We presented a case of SWS with KTWS that involved upper limb. Case Presentation A 24- year-old male with extensive port-wine staining over left side of his face, extending to lower eyelids, cheeks, neck and left upper extremity. The size of mid arm circle in left side was 34 cm and in right side was 27 cm. Conclusions This is a case of overlap SWS and KTWS that involved upper limb.
Enrique J. Gómez
Full Text Available Here an inertial sensor-based monitoring system for measuring and analyzing upper limb movements is presented. The final goal is the integration of this motion-tracking device within a portable rehabilitation system for brain injury patients. A set of four inertial sensors mounted on a special garment worn by the patient provides the quaternions representing the patient upper limb’s orientation in space. A kinematic model is built to estimate 3D upper limb motion for accurate therapeutic evaluation. The human upper limb is represented as a kinematic chain of rigid bodies with three joints and six degrees of freedom. Validation of the system has been performed by co-registration of movements with a commercial optoelectronic tracking system. Successful results are shown that exhibit a high correlation among signals provided by both devices and obtained at the Institut Guttmann Neurorehabilitation Hospital.
Tumit, N. P.; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh, Y. M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail, I. A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.
The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. In this paper, a 2-D closed-kinematic biomechanical model that represents a harvesting movement is developed. The model of six segments consisted of upper right arm, right forearm, harvesting equipment, left forearm, upper left arm, and upper part of trunk. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in matrix form.
Williams, Laura; Pirouz, Nikta; Mizelle, J.C.; Cusack, William; Kistenberg, Rob; Wheaton, Lewis A.
Objective Upper extremity loss presents immediate and lasting challenges for motor control. While sensory and motor representations of the amputated limb undergo plasticity to adjacent areas of the sensorimotor homunculus, it remains unclear whether laterality of motor-related activity is affected by neural reorganization following amputation. Methods Using electroencephalography, we evaluated neural activation patterns of formerly right hand dominant persons with upper limb loss (amputees) performing a motor task with their residual right limb, then their sound left limb. We compared activation patterns with left- and right-handed persons performing the same task. Results Amputees have involvement of contralateral motor areas when using their sound limb and atypically increased activation of posterior parietal regions when using the affected limb. When using the non-amputated left arm, patterns of activation remains similar to right handed persons using their left arm. Conclusions A remodeling of activations from traditionally motor areas into posterior parietal areas occurs for motor planning and execution when using the amputated limb. This may reflect an amputation-specific adaptation of heightened visuospatial feedback for motor control involving the amputated limb. Significance These results identify a neuroplastic mechanism for motor control in amputees, which may have great relevance to development of motor rehabilitation paradigms and prosthesis adaptation. PMID:27472549
Karen T Reilly
Full Text Available The body schema is an action-related representation of the body that arises from activity in a network of multiple brain areas. While it was initially thought that the body schema developed with experience, the existence of phantom limbs in individuals born without a limb (amelics led to the suggestion that it was innate. The problem with this idea, however, is that the vast majority of amelics do not report the presence of a phantom limb. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 of traumatic amputees can evoke movement sensations in the phantom, suggesting that traumatic amputation does not delete movement representations of the missing hand. Given this, we asked whether the absence of a phantom limb in the majority of amelics means that the motor cortex does not contain a cortical representation of the missing limb, or whether it is present but has been deactivated by the lack of sensorimotor experience. In four upper-limb amelic subjects we directly stimulated the arm/hand region of M1 to see 1 whether we could evoke phantom sensations, and 2 whether muscle representations in the two cortices were organised asymmetrically. TMS applied over the motor cortex contralateral to the missing limb evoked contractions in stump muscles but did not evoke phantom movement sensations. The location and extent of muscle maps varied between hemispheres but did not reveal any systematic asymmetries. In contrast, forearm muscle thresholds were always higher for the missing limb side. We suggest that phantom movement sensations reported by some upper limb amelics are mostly driven by vision and not by the persistence of motor commands to the missing limb within the sensorimotor cortex. We propose that prewired movement representations of a limb need the experience of movement to be expressed within the primary motor cortex.
Full Text Available Objective: To describe stroke survivors’ experiences of sensory impairment in the upper limb, the influence of such impairment on daily life, coping strategies used, and sensory training for the affected hand. Design: A qualitative study with a content analysis approach. Subjects: Fifteen post-stroke patients interviewed individually. Results: Five categories emerged from the data: “Changed and varied perception of the sensation”; “Affected movement control”; “Problems using the hand in daily life”; “Various strategies to cope with upper limb disability”; and “Lack of sensory training”. Numbness and tingling, changes in temperature sensitivity, and increased sensitivity to touch and pain were reported. Many subjects had difficulty adjusting their grip force and performing movements with precision. It was problematic and mentally fatiguing managing personal care and carrying out household and leisure activities. Practical adaptations, compensation with vision, increased concentration, and use of the less affected hand were strategies used to overcome difficulties. Despite their problems very few subjects had received any specific sensory training for the hand. Conclusion: Stroke survivors perceive that sensory impairment of the upper limb has a highly negative impact on daily life, but specific rehabilitation for the upper limb is lacking. These findings imply that the clinical management of upper limb sensory impairment after stroke requires more attention.
Full Text Available Background: More than 77% of stroke survivors have upper limb dysfunction. The scientific evidence for interventions in upper limb rehabilitation in stroke has shown variable results. To improve health care treatments in this domain it is needed to know what modalities are actually being used by physiotherapists. Methods: A national web-based survey focused in characterizing the profile of Portuguese physiotherapists working in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation was conducted in 237 health institutions (n= 462 physiotherapists. The recruitment was conducted from August to December 2014. Analytic and descriptive analysis were used. Results: A total of 179 physiotherapists from 64 different locations from Portugal answered the survey, with a rate of response of 38.7%. The average age of respondents was 29.25±6.4 years old and predominantly finished the graduation or bachelor degree between 2001 and 2010. More than half hadn´t carried out any specialization in neurologic rehabilitation area. The top 5 modalities most used in the rehabilitation of upper limb in acute stroke are Goal Oriented Tasks (93.4% n=141, Motor Learning (89.4% n=135, Passive Mobilization (88.7% n=134, Task Repetition (87.4% n=132 and Bobath/Neurodevelopmental Therapy (86.9% n=131. Conclusions: The main modalities used for physiotherapists in upper limb rehabilitation in acute stroke have sparse levels of evidence. It is important to alert teachers, formers, physiotherapists and students for interventions with supported scientific results.
Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen
Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.
A. (Lex E. Q. van Delden
Full Text Available Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics. Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required.
Banjai, Renata Morales; Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira de; Silva, Flavia Paiva da; Alouche, Sandra Regina
Background Stroke can compromise upper limb performance and influence the individual's participation in real life situations. Objective To investigate how components of body function and activity affect the individuals' self-perception of their participation after stroke. Methods In this observational study, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as model. Body function was assessed by palmar grip and pinch strength; Ashworth modified scale; Fugl-Meyer scale; and Motor-Free Visual Perception Test. The Purdue Pegboard Test and the aiming movement performance measured the activity. Upper limb participation was analyzed by the Hand Function domain of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS). Thirty-four individuals after chronic stroke were divided into two groups, according to their Hand function SIS scores (severe and non-severe). Differences between groups were analyzed. Relationships between individual variables and the SIS score were verified. A regression model was proposed. Results Strength and the Fugl-Meyer scale score were greater for the non-severe group. Muscle tone was greater for the severe group only in the wrist flexors. None of the activity variables differed between groups. The upper limb Fugl-Meyer score was able to predict 79% of the individuals in SIS Hand Function groups. Conclusion Sensory-motor impairment, as measured by the upper limb Fugl-Meyer scale, can explain the influence of the upper limbs on participation in the individuals' perception.
Meadmore, Katie; Exell, Timothy; Freeman, Christopher; Kutlu, Mustafa; Rogers, Eric; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Hallewell, Emma; Burridge, Jane
Therapies using functional electrical stimulation (FES) in conjunction with practice of everyday tasks have proven effective in facilitating recovery of upper limb function following stroke. The aim of the current study is to develop a multi-channel electrical stimulation system that precisely controls the assistance provided in goal-orientated tasks through use of advanced model-based 'iterative learning control' (ILC) algorithms to facilitate functional motor recovery of the upper limb post-stroke. FES was applied to three muscle groups in the upper limb (the anterior deltoid, triceps and wrist extensors) to assist hemiparetic, chronic stroke participants to perform a series of functional tasks with real objects, including closing a drawer, turning on a light switch and repositioning an object. Position data from the participants' impaired upper limb was collected using a Microsoft Kinect® and was compared to an ideal reference. ILC used data from previous attempts at the task to moderate the FES signals applied to each muscle group on a trial by trial basis to reduce performance error whilst supporting voluntary effort by the participant. The clinical trial is on-going. Preliminary results show improvements in performance accuracy for each muscle group, as well as improvements in clinical outcome measures pre and post 18 training sessions. Thus, the feasibility of applying precisely controlled FES to three muscle groups in the upper limb to facilitate functional reach and grasp movements post stroke has been demonstrated.
Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F; Cuesta-Gómez, A; Unzueta, Luis; Epelde, Gorka; Ruiz, Oscar E; De Mauro, Alessandro; Florez, Julian
New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation.
Full Text Available New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1 provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2 assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation.
Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F.; Cuesta-Gómez, A.; Ruiz, Oscar E.
New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation. PMID:25110698
Chadwell, AE; Kenney, LPJ; Granat, MH; Thies, SBA; Head, JS; Galpin, AJ
BACKGROUND: Current outcome measures used in upper limb myoelectric prosthesis studies include clinical tests of function and self-report questionnaires on real world prosthesis use. Research in other cohorts has questioned both the validity of self-report as an activity assessment tool and the relationship between clinical functionality and real-world upper limb activity. Previously1 we reported the first results of monitoring upper-limb prosthesis use. \\ud However, the data visualisation te...
Gijbels, Domien; Lamers, Ilse; Kerkhofs, Lore; Alders, Geert; Knippenberg, Els; Feys, Peter
Abstract Background Few research in multiple sclerosis (MS) has focused on physical rehabilitation of upper limb dysfunction, though the latter strongly influences independent performance of activities of daily living. Upper limb rehabilitation technology could hold promise for complementing traditional MS therapy. Consequently, this pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of an 8-week mechanical-assisted training program for improving upper limb muscle strength and functional capacity i...
Mota,Dreyzialle Vila Nova; Meireles,André Luís Ferreira de; Viana,Marcelo Tavares; Almeida,Rita de Cássia de Albuquerque
Abstract Introduction: Individuals with stroke sequelae present changes in the postural alignment and muscle strength associated with hemiplegia or hemiparesis. Mirror therapy is a technique that aims to improve the motor function of the paretic limb. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mirror therapy, associated with conventional physiotherapy, for range of motion (ROM), degree of spasticity of the affected upper limb, and the level of independence in the activ...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain is a very common issue after amputations. In recent years there has been accumulating data implicating 'mirror visual feedback' or 'mirror therapy' as helpful in the treatment of phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain. Case presentation We present the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian man, a left upper limb amputee, treated with mirror visual feedback combined with auditory feedback with improved pain relief. Conclusion This case may suggest that auditory feedback might enhance the effectiveness of mirror visual feedback and serve as a valuable addition to the complex multi-sensory processing of body perception in patients who are amputees.
Lauer, Jessy; Rouard, Annie Hélène; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo
The human musculoskeletal system must modulate work and power output in response to substantial alterations in mechanical demands associated with different tasks. In particular, in water, upper limb muscles must perform net positive work to replace the energy lost against the dissipative fluid load. Where in the upper limb are work and power developed? Is mechanical output modulated similarly at all joints, or are certain muscle groups favored? This study examined, for the first time, how work and power per stroke are distributed at the upper limb joints in seven male participants sculling while ballasted with 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kg. Upper limb kinematics was captured and used to animate body virtual geometry. Net wrist, elbow and shoulder joint work and power were subsequently computed through a novel approach integrating unsteady numerical fluid flow simulations and inverse dynamics modeling. Across a threefold increase in load, total work and power significantly increased from 0.38±0.09 to 0.67±0.13 J kg -1 , and 0.47±0.06 to 1.14±0.16 W kg -1 , respectively. Shoulder and elbow equally supplied >97% of the upper limb total work and power, coherent with the proximo-distal gradient of work performance in the limbs of terrestrial animals. Individual joint relative contributions remained constant, as observed on land during tasks necessitating no net work. The apportionment of higher work and power simultaneously at all joints in water suggests a general motor strategy of power modulation consistent across physical environments, limbs and tasks, regardless of whether or not they demand positive net work. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth [Department of Radiology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Delmas, Vincent [Department of Urology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise [Department of Nephrology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France)
Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)
Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Delmas, Vincent; Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise
Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)
Full Text Available Purpose: In order to estimate clinical effects of acupotomy and venesection in a patient with peripheral neuropathy and upper limb lymphedema following breast cancer surgery. Methods: From 17th August, 2009 to 29th August 2009, 1 female patient with peripheral neuropathy and upper limb lymphedema following breast cancer surgery was treated with general oriental medicine therapy(acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, physical therapy, herbal medication and acupotomy with venesection. Results: The patient's chief complaints- Lt hand numbness, Lt arm edema, Lt. wrist flexion limitation - were notably improved. Conclusions : This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acupotomy and venesection therapy has significant effect in improving symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and upper limb lymphedema following breast cancer surgery, as though we had not wide experience in this treatment, more research is needed.
Bulboacă, Adriana E; Bolboacă, Sorana D; Bulboacă, Angelo C
The health care system needs to face new and advanced medical technologies that can improve the patients' quality of life by replacing lost or decreased functions. In stroke patients, the disabilities that follow cerebral lesions may impair the mandatory daily activities of an independent life. These activities are dependent mostly on the patient's upper limb function so that they can carry out most of the common activities associated with a normal life. Therefore, an upper limb exoskeleton device for stroke patients can contribute a real improvement of quality of their life. The ethical problems that need to be considered are linked to the correct adjustment of the upper limb skills in order to satisfy the patient's expectations, but within physiological limits. The debate regarding the medical devices dedicated to neurorehabilitation is focused on their ability to be beneficial to the patient's life, keeping away damages, injustice, and risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The contradiction between self-weight and load capacity of a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton for material hanging is unresolved. In this paper, a non-anthropomorphic 3-degree of freedom (DOF upper-limb exoskeleton with an internally rotated elbow joint is proposed based on an anthropomorphic 5-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton for power-assisted activity. The proposed 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton contains a 2-DOF shoulder joint and a 1-DOF internally rotated elbow joint. The structural parameters of the 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton were determined, and the differences and singularities of the two exoskeletons were analyzed. The workspace, the joint torques and the power consumption of two exoskeletons were analyzed by kinematics and dynamics, and an exoskeleton prototype experiment was performed. The results showed that, compared with a typical anthropomorphic upper-limb exoskeleton, the non-anthropomorphic 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton had the same actual workspace; eliminated singularities within the workspace; improved the elbow joint force situation; and the maximum elbow joint torque, elbow external-flexion/internal-extension and shoulder flexion/extension power consumption were significantly reduced. The proposed non-anthropomorphic 3-DOF upper-limb exoskeleton can be applied to a power-assisted upper-limb exoskeleton in industrial settings.
Bae, Donald S; Canizares, Maria F; Miller, Patricia E; Roberts, Summer; Vuillermin, Carley; Wall, Lindley B; Waters, Peter M; Goldfarb, Charles A
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the reliability of the Oberg-Manske-Tonkin (OMT) classification system applied to patients enrolled in a prospective, multicenter cohort study of congenital upper limb differences. Our hypothesis was that the OMT classification would exhibit high intraobserver and interobserver reliability and thus would be an appropriate tool for the new Congenital Upper Limb Differences registry. Four pediatric hand surgeons independently reviewed the medical records, clinical photographs, and radiographs of 60 randomly selected patients previously enrolled in the Congenital Upper Limb Differences registry. Patient's information was summarized and shared electronically (PowerPoint). Each rater classified each congenital anomaly according to the OMT classification system. Responses were recorded using a web-based data capture tool (REDCap). Three weeks later, the surgeons repeated the process. Intraobserver reliability for each rater was assessed using Fleiss' κ. Interobserver reliability was assessed using percent exact agreement (when all 4 raters were in agreement) as well as Fleiss' κ. Using the OMT classification, intraobserver reliability for the 4 pediatric hand surgeons showed almost perfect agreement, with κ values in the range of 0.89 to 0.93. Interobserver reliability demonstrated substantial agreement, with κ value of 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.82) in the first reading and 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.83) in the second reading. The highest possible agreement (κ=1) was seen for the following diagnoses: congenital dislocation of radial head (OMT I.A.2.v), Madelung deformity (I.A.2.vii), radial polydactyly (I.B.2.iii), triphalangeal thumb (I.B.2.iv), Kirner deformity (I.B.4.vi), and osteochondromatosis (3.B.4.i). The OMT classification of congenital upper limb differences exhibits substantial to almost perfect intraobserver and interobserver reliability among pediatric hand surgeons at different
Choi, Yoon Sik; Lee, Kyeong Woo; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sang Beom; Park, Gyu Tae; Lee, Sook Joung
To investigate the effectiveness of an upper limb rehabilitation robot therapy on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. Patients were randomly divided into an upper limb rehabilitation robot treatment group (robot group) and a control group. The patients in the robot group received left upper limb training using an upper limb rehabilitation robot. The patients sat on the right side of the robot, so that the monitor of the robot was located on the patients' left side. In this position, patients could focus continuously on the left side. The control group received conventional neglect treatment, such as visual scanning training and range of motion exercises, administered by occupational therapists. Both groups received their respective therapies for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Several tests were used to evaluate treatment effects before and after the 3-week treatment. In total, 38 patients (20 in the robot group and 18 in the control group) completed the study. After completion of the treatment sessions, both groups showed significant improvements in the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 3rd edition (MVPT-3), the line bisection test, the star cancellation test, the Albert's test, the Catherine Bergego scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index. The changes in all measurements showed no significant differences between the two groups. This present study showed that the upper limb robot treatment had benefits for hemispatial neglect in stroke patients that were similar to conventional neglect treatment. The upper limb robot treatment could be a therapeutic option in the treatment of hemispatial neglect after stroke.
Wu, Wen; Fong, Justin; Crocher, Vincent; Lee, Peter V S; Oetomo, Denny; Tan, Ying; Ackland, David C
Robotic-assistive exoskeletons can enable frequent repetitive movements without the presence of a full-time therapist; however, human-machine interaction and the capacity of powered exoskeletons to attenuate shoulder muscle and joint loading is poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify shoulder muscle and joint force during assisted activities of daily living using a powered robotic upper limb exoskeleton (ArmeoPower, Hocoma). Six healthy male subjects performed abduction, flexion, horizontal flexion, reaching and nose touching activities. These tasks were repeated under two conditions: (i) the exoskeleton compensating only for its own weight, and (ii) the exoskeleton providing full upper limb gravity compensation (i.e., weightlessness). Muscle EMG, joint kinematics and joint torques were simultaneously recorded, and shoulder muscle and joint forces calculated using personalized musculoskeletal models of each subject's upper limb. The exoskeleton reduced peak joint torques, muscle forces and joint loading by up to 74.8% (0.113 Nm/kg), 88.8% (5.8%BW) and 68.4% (75.6%BW), respectively, with the degree of load attenuation strongly task dependent. The peak compressive, anterior and superior glenohumeral joint force during assisted nose touching was 36.4% (24.6%BW), 72.4% (13.1%BW) and 85.0% (17.2%BW) lower than that during unassisted nose touching, respectively. The present study showed that upper limb weight compensation using an assistive exoskeleton may increase glenohumeral joint stability, since deltoid muscle force, which is the primary contributor to superior glenohumeral joint shear, is attenuated; however, prominent exoskeleton interaction moments are required to position and control the upper limb in space, even under full gravity compensation conditions. The modeling framework and results may be useful in planning targeted upper limb robotic rehabilitation tasks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luke, Carolyn; Dodd, Karen J; Brock, Kim
To determine the effectiveness of the Bobath concept at reducing upper limb impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions after stroke. Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials published between 1966 and 2003. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for the following inclusion criteria: population of adults with upper limb disability after stroke; stated use of the Bobath concept aimed at improving upper limb disability in isolation from other approaches; outcomes reflecting changes in upper limb impairment, activity limitation or participation restriction. Of the 688 articles initially identified, eight met the inclusion criteria. Five were randomized controlled trials, one used a single-group crossover design and two were single-case design studies. Five studies measured impairments including shoulder pain, tone, muscle strength and motor control. The Bobath concept was found to reduce shoulder pain better than cryotherapy, and to reduce tone compared to no intervention and compared to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). However, no difference was detected for changes in tone between the Bobath concept and a functional approach. Differences did not reach significance for measures of muscle strength and motor control. Six studies measured activity limitations, none of these found the Bobath concept was superior to other therapy approaches. Two studies measured changes in participation restriction and both found equivocal results. Comparisons of the Bobath concept with other approaches do not demonstrate superiority of one approach over the other at improving upper limb impairment, activity or participation. However, study limitations relating to methodological quality, the outcome measures used and contextual factors investigated limit the ability to draw conclusions. Future research should use sensitive upper limb measures, trained Bobath therapists and homogeneous samples to identify the influence of
Thompson-Butel, Angelica G; Lin, Gaven; Shiner, Christine T; McNulty, Penelope A
Functional ability is regularly monitored poststroke to assess improvement and the efficacy of clinical trials. The balance between implementation times and sensitivity has led to multidomain tools that aim to assess upper-limb function comprehensively. This study implemented 3 common multidomain tools to investigate their suitability across a broad spectrum of movement ability after stroke. Forty-nine hemiparetic patients (18 females), aged 22 to 83 years and 24.7 ± 39.2 months poststroke, were assessed before and after a 14-day upper-limb rehabilitation program of Wii-based Movement Therapy. Assessments included the upper-limb motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (F-M), the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), and the Motor Assessment Scale (MAS) upper-limb sections 6 to 8. The MAS was analyzed both with and without the hierarchical system. Patients were stratified with low, moderate, or high motor-function. Upper-limb function improved significantly for the pooled cohort for all assessments (P < .001), although ceiling effects were evident for the F-M, floor effects for the WMFT, and both floor and ceiling effects for MAS. When analyzed by stratified subgroup these improvements were significant for all groups with the F-M, for the moderate and high motor-function groups with both the WMFT and the MAS scored without hierarchical system, but only for the high motor-function group with the hierarchically scored MAS. These results suggest that no single test is suitable for measuring function and improvement across the spectrum of poststroke upper-limb dysfunction and that assessment tool selection should be based on the level of residual motor-function of individual patients. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The rise in popularity of the Paralympics in recent years has created a need for effective, low-cost sports-prosthetic devices for upper-limb amputees. There are various opportunities for lower-limb amputees to participate in cycling; however, there are only few options for those with upper-limb amputations. If the individual previously participated in cycling, a cycling-specific prosthesis could allow these activities to be integrated into rehabilitation methods. This article describes the processes involved with designing, developing and manufacturing such a prosthesis. The fundamental needs of people with upper-limb amputation were assessed and realised in the prototype of a transradial terminal device with two release mechanisms, including a sliding mechanism (for falls and minor collisions and clamping mechanism (for head-on collisions. The sliding mechanism requires the rider to exert approximately 200 N, while the clamping mechanism requires about 700 N. The force ranges can be customised to match rider requirements. Experiments were conducted in a controlled environment to demonstrate stability of the device during normal cycling. Moreover, a volunteer test-rider was able to successfully activate the release mechanism during a simulated emergency scenario. The development of this prosthesis has the potential to enable traumatic upper-limb amputees to participate in cycling for rehabilitation or recreation.
Tiele, Akira; Soni-Sadar, Shivam; Rowbottom, Jack; Patel, Shilen; Mathewson, Edward; Pearson, Samuel; Hutchins, David; Head, John; Hutchins, Stephen
The rise in popularity of the Paralympics in recent years has created a need for effective, low-cost sports-prosthetic devices for upper-limb amputees. There are various opportunities for lower-limb amputees to participate in cycling; however, there are only few options for those with upper-limb amputations. If the individual previously participated in cycling, a cycling-specific prosthesis could allow these activities to be integrated into rehabilitation methods. This article describes the processes involved with designing, developing and manufacturing such a prosthesis. The fundamental needs of people with upper-limb amputation were assessed and realised in the prototype of a transradial terminal device with two release mechanisms, including a sliding mechanism (for falls and minor collisions) and clamping mechanism (for head-on collisions). The sliding mechanism requires the rider to exert approximately 200 N, while the clamping mechanism requires about 700 N. The force ranges can be customised to match rider requirements. Experiments were conducted in a controlled environment to demonstrate stability of the device during normal cycling. Moreover, a volunteer test-rider was able to successfully activate the release mechanism during a simulated emergency scenario. The development of this prosthesis has the potential to enable traumatic upper-limb amputees to participate in cycling for rehabilitation or recreation.
Lynsay R. Whelan
Full Text Available While over 1.5 million individuals are living with limb loss in the United States (Ziegler-Graham et al., 2008, only 10% of these individuals have a loss that affects an upper limb. Coincident with the relatively low incidence of upper limb loss, is a shortage of the community-based prosthetic rehabilitation experts that can help prosthetic users to more fully integrate their devices into their daily routines. This article describes how expert prosthetists and occupational therapists at Touch Bionics, a manufacturer of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices, employ Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP videoconferencing software telehealth technologies to engage in remote consultation with users of prosthetic devices and/or their local practitioners. The Touch Bionics staff provide follow-up expertise to local prosthetists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. Contrasted with prior telephone-based consultations, the video-enabled approach provides enhanced capabilities to benefit persons with upper limb loss. Currently, the opportunities for Touch Bionics occupational therapists to fully engage in patient-based services delivered through telehealth technologies are significantly reduced by their need to obtain and maintain professional licenses in multiple states.
Lee, Dong Jin; Bae, Sung Jin; Jang, Sung Ho; Chang, Pyung Hun
The purpose of this research is to propose a design of a clinically relevant upper-limb (hand, wrist, and elbow) exoskeleton that meets the clinical requirements. At first, the proposed robot was designed to have sufficient torque for passive exercise therapy and spasticity measurement of post-stroke patients with spasticity (grade 3 or lower in Modified Ashworth Scale). Because the therapy of patients with high level spasticity could be laborious for therapists by increased muscle tone, and the patients tend not to get enough rehabilitation treatment. Secondly, this robot was designed to have user friendly features like as modularity, so that users have easy approach to assemble and disassemble for practical use. Thirdly, this robot system was designed to guarantee the safety for robot-aided passive training of patients with spasticity. As a result, we were able to see the usability of the robot system, even though it was a pilot test. This shows the possibility of measuring and classifying the spasticity.
Masiero, Stefano; Carraro, Elena; Ferraro, Claudio; Gallina, Paolo; Rossi, Aldo; Rosati, Giulio
Rehabilitation robotics is an emerging research field that aims to employ leading-edge robotic technology and virtual reality systems in the rehabilitation treatment of neuro-logical patients. In post-stroke patients with upper limb impairment, clinical trials have so far shown positive results in terms of motor recovery, but poor efficacy in terms of functional outcome. Much work is needed to develop a new generation of rehabilitation robots and clinical protocols that will be more effective in helping patients to regain their abilities in activities of daily living. This paper presents some key issues in the future perspective of upper limb robotic rehabilitation after stroke.
Flögel, Mareike; Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Christ, Oliver; Vogt, Joachim
The "rubber hand illusion (RHI)" is a perceptual illusion, which allows the integration of artificial limbs into the body representation of a person by means of combined visual and tactile stimulation. The illusion has been frequently replicated but always concerning the upper limbs. The present study verified an analog illusion that can be called the "rubber foot illusion" (RFI). In a conjoint experiment using both a rubber hand and a rubber foot, brushstrokes were applied to the respective real and rubber limb placed alongside the real one. However, only the artificial limb's handling was visible. The brushstrokes were given either synchronously, with a delay of ±0.5 s, or without tactile stimulation of the real limb. Questionnaire data and the proprioceptive drift towards the rubber limb (determined by calling on the subjects to show where they locate their unseen limb) defined the illusion strength. Results revealed that the illusion was induced in both limbs with comparable strength, but only in the synchronous condition.
Runnalls, Keith D; Anson, Greg; Byblow, Winston D
The use of arm weight support (WS) to optimize movement quality may be an avenue for improved upper limb stroke rehabilitation; however, the underlying neurophysiological effects of WS are not well understood. Rehabilitation exercises may be performed when sitting or standing, but the interaction of posture with WS has not been examined until now. We explored the effect of posture with WS on corticomotor excitability (CME) in healthy adults. Thirteen participants performed static shoulder abduction in two postures (sitting and standing) at three levels of WS (0, 45, and 90 % of full support). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of primary motor cortex was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in eight upper limb muscles. Stimulus-response (SR) curves were fitted to the MEP data using nonlinear regression. Whole-body posture interacted with WS to influence tonic activity and CME in all muscles examined. SR curve parameters revealed greater CME when standing compared to sitting for upper arm muscles, but lower CME to the shoulder, forearm, and hand. Distal to the shoulder, tonic activity and CME were modulated independent of any explicit differences in task requirements. Overall, these results support a model of integrated upper limb control influenced by whole-body posture and WS. These findings have implications for the application of WS in settings such as upper limb rehabilitation after stroke.
Full Text Available Background: Even though inertial measurement units (IMU are already being used experimentally for evaluating movements of segment of the axial skeleton, no studies have been found which have used IMUs to measure the behavior of the segments of upper limbs during quiet stance. Objective: The objective is to design a suitable application of IMUs to measure movements of the upper extremities in Romberg's test and analyze spontaneous arm movements. Second aim is to identify possible discrepancies between the dominant and non-dominant arm movements. Methods: The dominant and non-dominant upper limb of each participant was identified. Then, the movements of both upper limbs were measured by the Xsens system equipped with MTx motion trackers during the quiet stance on a firm surface with eyes open (EO and eyes closed (EC. The measured data was used to calculate the medians and maximums of the superior-inferior, medio-lateral and anterior-posterior acceleration. Also, tremor intensity was calculated to quantitatively evaluate the measured data. Results: The comparison of values of maximal accelerations of the dominant and non-dominant arms showed significant difference between the arms during EC conditions. The comparison of values of median accelerations of the dominant and non-dominant arms showed significant differences between the acceleration of arms in medio-lateral direction during EO and EC conditions. In all cases, values of maximal and median accelerations and values of tremor intensity of the dominant limb strongly correlated with values on the non-dominant limb. Conclusions: Findings suggest possible usefulness of the designed application of IMUs and evaluation methods for their use in Romberg's test in clinical practice for evaluation of upper limb movements.
Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; de Oliveira, Roberta; Ortolan, Rodrigo L.; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto
The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and functional evaluations with kinematic variables of upper limp reach-to-grasp movement in patients with tetraplegia. Twenty chronic patients were selected to perform reach-to-grasp kinematic assessment using a target placed at a distance equal to the arm's length. Kinematic variables (hand peak…
Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy
This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.
Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Beaton, Dorcas; Curt, Armin; Duff, Susan; Jiang, Depeng; Popovic, Milos R; Rudhe, Claudia; Fehlings, Michael G; Verrier, Mary C
Upper limb function plays a significant role in enhancing independence for individuals with tetraplegia. However, there is limited knowledge about the specific input of sensorimotor deficits on upper limb function. Thus the theoretical framework designed to develop the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP) was used as a hypothetical model to analyze the impact of impairment on function. To define the association of impairment (sensation, strength, and prehension measured by the GRASSP) to upper limb function as defined by functional measures (Capabilities of Upper Extremity Questionnaire, Spinal Cord Independence Measure). A hypothetical model representing relationships by applying structural equation modeling was used to estimate the effect of the impairment domains in GRASSP on upper limb function. Data collected on 72 chronic individuals with tetraplegia was used to test the hypothetical model. Structural equation modeling confirmed strong associations between sensation, strength, and prehension with upper limb function, and determined 72% of the variance in "sensorimotor upper limb function" was explained by the model. Statistics of fit showed the data did fit the hypothesized model. Sensation and strength influence upper limb function directly and indirectly with prehension as the mediator. The GRASSP is a sensitive diagnostic tool in distinguishing the relative contribution of strength, sensation and prehension to function. Thus, the impact of interventions on specific domains of impairment and related contribution on clinical recovery of the upper limb can be detailed to optimize rehabilitation programs.
Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Krebs, Jörg; Rietman, Johan S; Curt, Armin
To determine which single or combined upper limb muscles as defined by the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI); upper extremity motor score (UEMS) and the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP), best predict upper limb function and independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) and to assess the predictive value of qualitative grasp movements (QlG) on upper limb function in individuals with acute tetraplegia. As part of a Europe-wide, prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study ISNCSCI, GRASSP, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III) scores were recorded at 1 and 6 months after SCI. For prediction of upper limb function and ADLs, a logistic regression model and unbiased recursive partitioning conditional inference tree (URP-CTREE) were used. Results: Logistic regression and URP-CTREE revealed that a combination of ISNCSCI and GRASSP muscles (to a maximum of 4) demonstrated the best prediction (specificity and sensitivity ranged from 81.8% to 96.0%) of upper limb function and identified homogenous outcome cohorts at 6 months. The URP-CTREE model with the QlG predictors for upper limb function showed similar results. Prediction of upper limb function can be achieved through a combination of defined, specific upper limb muscles assessed in the ISNCSCI and GRASSP. A combination of a limited number of proximal and distal muscles along with an assessment of grasping movements can be applied for clinical decision making for rehabilitation interventions and clinical trials. © The Author(s) 2015.
Adamo, Diane E; Scotland, Samantha; Martin, Bernard J
Proprioceptive and motor information contribute to movement representation; however, the equivalence of homologous contralateral sensorimotor processes as a function of gender and handedness has received little attention. The present work investigated asymmetry in contralateral reproductions of movements elicited by tendon vibration in right and left handed young adults of both genders. With eyes closed, illusions of elbow flexion movement elicited by a 100 Hz vibration applied to the distal tendon of the right or left triceps muscle were matched concurrently with the opposite limb. Overall, movement velocity was larger for females than males, asymmetric and handedness dependent in males. Conversely, consistent symmetry was found between left and right-handed females. These findings lead us to suggest that hand preference and gender contribute to differences in movement representation that may result from the combination of cortical structural differences and information processing specific to each hemisphere and gender. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ashford, Stephen; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Jacinto, Jorge; Turner-Stokes, Lynne
We aimed to develop a goal classification of individualised goals for spasticity treatment incorporating botulinum toxin intervention for upper limb spasticity to under-pin a more structured approach to future goal setting. Individualised goals for spasticity treatment incorporating botulinum toxin intervention for upper limb spasticity (n=696) were analysed initially from four studies published in 2008-2012, spanning a total of 18 centres (12 in the UK and 6 in Australia). Goals were categorised and mapped onto the closest matching domains of the WHO International Classification of Functioning. Confirmatory analysis included a further 927 goals from a large international cohort study spanning 22 countries published in 2013. Goal categories could be assigned into two domains, each subdivided into three key goal areas: Domain 1: symptoms/impairment n=322 (46%): a. pain/discomfort n=78 (11%), b. involuntary movements n=75 (11%), c. range of movement/contracture prevention n=162 (23%). Domain 2: Activities/function n=374 (54%): a. passive function (ease of caring for the affected limb) n=242 (35%), b active function (using the affected limb in active tasks) n=84 (12%), c. mobility n=11 (2%).Over 99% of the goals from the large international cohort fell into the same six areas, confirming the international applicability of the classification. Goals for management of upper limb spasticity, in worldwide clinical practice, fall into six main goal areas. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kahraman, Turhan; Göz, Evrim; Genç, Arzu
To investigate the association between self-reported low back pain (LBP) and lower limb disability as well as the association between neck pain and upper limb disability. A hundred twenty-six participants registered as a healthcare staff member were included in this cross-sectional study. The presence of neck and LBP were determined using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Neck and LBP/disability were measured with the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. Upper and lower limb disability were measured with the Quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick-DASH) and Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), respectively. Participants reporting LBP had more musculoskeletal complaints in the lower limbs (pupper limbs (pupper limb disability.
Full Text Available Peripheral nerve entrapment occurs at specific anatomic locations. Familiarity with the anatomy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of nerve entrapment syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of entrapment neuropathies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the normal anatomy of peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs and to review the MRI features of common disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, both compressive/entrapment and noncompressive, involving the suprascapular nerve, the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median verve in the upper limb and the sciatic nerve, the common peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the interdigital nerves in the lower limb.
Veerbeek, Janne M.; Langbroek-Amersfoort, Anneli C.; Van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Meskers, Carel G.M.; Kwakkel, Gert
Background. Robot technology for poststroke rehabilitation is developing rapidly. A number of new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the effects of robot-assisted therapy for the paretic upper limb (RT-UL). Objective. To systematically review the effects of poststroke RT-UL on
Full Text Available Advances in our understanding of the neural plasticity that occurs after hemiparetic stroke have contributed to the formulation of theories of poststroke motor recovery. These theories, in turn, have underpinned contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies for treating motor deficits after stroke, such as upper limb hemiparesis. However, a relative drawback has been that, in general, these strategies are most compatible with the recovery profiles of relatively high-functioning stroke survivors and therefore do not easily translate into benefit to those individuals sustaining low-functioning upper limb hemiparesis, who otherwise have poorer residual function. For these individuals, alternative motor rehabilitation strategies are currently needed. In this paper, we will review upper limb immobilisation studies that have been conducted with healthy adult humans and animals. Then, we will discuss how the findings from these studies could inspire the creation of a neural plasticity model that is likely to be of particular relevance to the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke. For instance, as will be elaborated, such model could contribute to the development of alternative motor rehabilitation strategies for treating poststroke upper limb hemiparesis. The implications of the findings from those immobilisation studies for contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies will also be discussed and perspectives for future research in this arena will be provided as well.
Gasparutto, X.; van der Graaff, E; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Helm, FCT; Jansen, AJ
In baseball, pitchers are the players that are most prone to injury. Most injuries occur at the elbow and shoulder of the throwing upper limb. It is widely accepted that understanding the loading in the joints during pitching is a key factor to prevent injuries. To deepen the understanding of the
Marcia R. Assis
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Brazilian women. In recent years, there has been great progress in and an increasing number of breast-conserving surgical techniques; however, immediate or late morbidity after surgery, in the form of functional impairment and pain, remains a significant clinical problem. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between late upper limb functional impairment and the quality of life in women subjected to breast cancer surgery. METHOD: A total of 81 women participated in the study, with the length of time since surgery ranging from one to five years. A survey of upper limb complaints reported by patients was conducted, and the questionnaires Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQC-30 and BR23 were applied. RESULTS: The correlation between the DASH score and the length of time since surgery determined that the longer the time since surgery, the greater the difficulties in functionality of the upper limb (r=0.459; p<0.0001. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the DASH score and health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION: Late functional impairment had a significant impact on upper limb function in everyday life and health-related quality of life for women who underwent breast cancer surgery.
Full Text Available Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP typically present with largely divergent upper limb sensorimotor deficits and individual differences in response to upper limb rehabilitation. This review summarizes how early brain damage can cause dramatic deviations from the normal anatomy of sensory and motor tracts, resulting in unique wiring patterns of the sensorimotor system in CP. Based on the existing literature we suggest that corticospinal tract (CST anatomy and integrity constrains sensorimotor function of the upper limb and potentially also the response to treatment. However, it is not possible to infer CST (reorganization from clinical presentation alone and conventional biomarkers like time of the insult, location and extent of the lesion seem to have limited clinical utility. Here we propose a theoretical framework based on a detailed examination of the motor system using behavioral, neurophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging measures, akin to those used to predict potential for upper limb recovery of adults after stroke. This theoretical framework might prove useful because it provides testable hypotheses for future research with the goal to develop and validate a clinical assessment flowchart to categorize children with unilateral CP.
Bouwsema, Hanneke; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.
Objective: To determine which Order of presentation of practice tasks had the highest effect oil using an upper-limb prosthetic simulator. Design: A cohort analytic Study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Healthy, able-bodied participants (N=72) randomly assigned to I Of 8 groups, each
Andres F. Ruiz
Full Text Available One of the approaches to study the human motor system, and specifically the motor strategies implied during postural tasks of the upper limbs, is to manipulate the mechanical conditions of each joint of the upper limbs independently. At the same time, it is essential to pick up biomechanical signals and bio-potentials generated while the human motor system adapts to the new condition. The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to describe the design, development and validation of an experimental platform designed to modify or perturb the mechanics of human movement, and simultaneously acquire, process, display and quantify bioelectric and biomechanical signals; second, to characterise the dynamics of the elbow joint during postural control. A main goal of the study was to determine the feasibility of estimating human elbow joint dynamics using EMG-data during maintained posture. In particular, the experimental robotic platform provides data to correlate electromyographic (EMG activity, kinetics and kinematics information from the upper limb motion. The platform aims consists of an upper limb powered exoskeleton, an EMG acquisition module, a control unit and a software system. Important concerns of the platform such as dependability and safety were addressed in the development. The platform was evaluated with 4 subjects to identify, using system identification methods, the human joint dynamics, i.e. visco-elasticity. Results obtained in simulations and experimental phase are introduced.
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Heinrich, J.; Jans, M.P.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.
Background. Little is known of the preventive effects of physical activity in leisure time on neck and upper limb symptoms. Methods. A cohort of 1742 employees was selected from a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 3 years. Independent variables were sporting activities and
Kochetova, O A; Mal'kova, N Yu
Pain syndrome accompanies various diseases of central and peripheral nervous system--that is one of the most important problems in contemporary neurology. Many scientists are in search for effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The article covers characteristics of the pain syndrome and its mechanisms in patients with upper limbs occupational polyneuropathies.
Pollard Henry P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Golf is a popular past time that provides exercise with social interaction. However, as with all sports and activities, injury may occur. Many golf-related injuries occur in the upper limb, yet little research on the potential mechanisms of these injuries has been conducted. Objective To review the current literature on golf-related upper limb injuries and report on potential causes of injury as it relates to the golf swing. Discussion An overview of the golf swing is described in terms of its potential to cause the frequently noted injuries. Most injuries occur at impact when the golf club hits the ball. This paper concludes that more research into golf-related upper limb injuries is required to develop a thorough understanding of how injuries occur. Types of research include epidemiology studies, kinematic swing analysis and electromyographic studies of the upper limb during golf. By conducting such research, preventative measures maybe developed to reduce golf related injury.
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Bongers, P.M.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and neck and upper limb symptoms and to examine to what extent this relationship could be explained by other risk factors. Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population, with
Eliane Cristina Coelho de Oliveira Correia
Full Text Available To assess the frequency of upper limb injuries in the only emergency medical service inParanaiba, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Methods: Retrospective study with data collection from medical recordsof patients assisted with upper limb injuries in “Santa Casa de Misericordia” Hospital, the only hospital in the cityto provide emergency care, in 2008. Variables of interest such as gender and type of injury were collected basedon the International Code of Diseases (ICD 10. Results: There were 314 cases of upper limb injury in 2008and men were the most affected with 211 cases (67.2%. The wrist was the most affected segment with 64 cases(20.4%, followed by the shoulder with 55 cases (17.5% and the hand with 50 cases (15.9%. Interventions andsurgeries involving bone portion were the most frequent - 225 (71.7%, followed by tendon - 19 (6.1% and neural - 16 (5.1%; 35 patients (11.1% underwent multiple operations. Osteosyntheses - 94 (29.9%, fractures- 48 (15.3%, and reduction - 46 (14.6% were the most frequent interventions, followed by 26 dislocations(8.3% and 14 tenorrhaphies (4.5%. Conclusion: The involvement of the upper limbs, especially bone lesions,is frequent. The segments most affected by injuries are men’s wrists and shoulders.
Full Text Available Association between the site of brain injury and poststroke spasticity is poorly understood. The present study investigated whether lesion analysis could document brain regions associated with the development of severe upper limb poststroke spasticity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 39 chronic stroke patients. Spasticity was assessed at the affected upper limb with the modified Ashworth scale (shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers. Brain lesions were traced from magnetic resonance imaging performed within the first 7 days after stroke and region of interest images were generated. The association between severe upper limb spasticity (modified Ashworth scale ≥2 and lesion location was determined with the voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping method implemented in MRIcro software. Colored maps representing the z statistics were generated and overlaid onto the automated anatomical labeling and the Johns Hopkins University white matter templates provided with MRIcron. Thalamic nuclei were identified with the Talairach Daemon software. Injuries to the insula, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and white matter tracts (internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus were significantly associated with severe upper limb poststroke spasticity. Further advances in our understanding of the neural correlates of spasticity may lead to early targeted rehabilitation when key regions are damaged.
Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Meugnot, Aurore; Beauprez, Sophie-Anne; Gimenes, Manuel; Toussaint, Lucette
The present study aimed to investigate whether well-established associations between action and language can be altered by short-term upper limb immobilization. The dominant arm of right-handed participants was immobilized for 24 hours with a rigid splint fixed on the hand and an immobilization vest restraining the shoulder, arm, and forearm. The…
Furlan, Leonardo; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Sterr, Annette
Advances in our understanding of the neural plasticity that occurs after hemiparetic stroke have contributed to the formulation of theories of poststroke motor recovery. These theories, in turn, have underpinned contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies for treating motor deficits after stroke, such as upper limb hemiparesis. However, a relative drawback has been that, in general, these strategies are most compatible with the recovery profiles of relatively high-functioning stroke survivors and therefore do not easily translate into benefit to those individuals sustaining low-functioning upper limb hemiparesis, who otherwise have poorer residual function. For these individuals, alternative motor rehabilitation strategies are currently needed. In this paper, we will review upper limb immobilisation studies that have been conducted with healthy adult humans and animals. Then, we will discuss how the findings from these studies could inspire the creation of a neural plasticity model that is likely to be of particular relevance to the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke. For instance, as will be elaborated, such model could contribute to the development of alternative motor rehabilitation strategies for treating poststroke upper limb hemiparesis. The implications of the findings from those immobilisation studies for contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies will also be discussed and perspectives for future research in this arena will be provided as well. PMID:26843992
Oud, Tanja; Beelen, Anita; Eijffinger, Elianne; Nollet, Frans
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the available evidence for the effectiveness of sensory re-education to improve the sensibility of the hand in patients with a peripheral nerve injury of the upper limb. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by an electronic search in the databases MEDLINE,
An important criterion for a clinical outcome measure, such as the Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP), is its sensitivity to detect changes in upper limb function over time. This facilitates the evaluation of recovery patterns and treatment efficacy of
Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Sjøgaard, Gisela
BACKGROUND: Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are common, and so are the difficulties with regard to their specific diagnoses. According to diagnostic consensus criteria, specific diagnoses include neuropathy and muscular- and connective-tissue disorders (MCDs). There is a need for valid objective diag...
Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Simons, M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.
Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based interactive work style intervention in improving work style behavior. Methods: Computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, N = 152), the work style and physical
Verschuren, J.E.A.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Enzlin, P.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Dekker, R.; Van Der Sluis, C.K.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether professionals who work with people with an upper limb deficiency (ULD) received questions about sexuality from their patients and whether they addressed sexuality themselves, and to analyze their knowledge and comfort level, approach and attitudes
Theurel, Jean; Desbrosses, Kevin; Roux, Terence; Savescu, Adriana
This study aimed to assess the physiological consequences of using an upper limb exoskeleton during manual handling task, as muscle activity, upper limb kinematics, postural balance and cardiac cost. Participants performed three tasks (load lifting (LIFT), carrying (WALK) and stacking-unstacking (STACK)) with (EXOS) and without (FREE) an exoskeleton. During LIFT and STACK, the activity of the deltoid anterior muscle was significantly lower for EXOS than for FREE. During LIFT, the activity of the triceps brachii (TB) and tibialis anterior muscles significantly increased for EXO. The TB muscle activity significantly decreased for EXOS during WALK. The cardiac cost tended to increase with the use of the exoskeleton during LIFT, compared to FREE. The upper limb kinematics significantly differed between the EXOS and FREE conditions for all tasks. The benefits of the upper limb exoskeleton to reduce shoulder flexor muscle activity has been demonstrated, while broader physiological consequences have also been evidenced as increased antagonist muscle activity, postural strains, cardiovascular demand, and modified kinematics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bernaards, C.M.; Ariens, G.A.; Simons, M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.
Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based interactive work style intervention in improving work style behavior. Methods: Computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, N = 152), the work style and physical
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Bonger, P.M.
Examination of the influence of physical exposure at work on neck and upper limb symptoms in office workers. Data were used from a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 3 years. Independent variables were physical exposure at work, observed and self-reported. Outcome measures were
Connell, Louise A; McMahon, Naoimh E; Eng, Janice J; Watkins, Caroline L
To investigate the current practice of physiotherapists and occupational therapists in prescribing upper limb exercises to people after stroke and to explore differences between professions and work settings. A cross-sectional survey design. Occupational therapists and physiotherapists working in UK stroke rehabilitation. The survey's response rate was 21.0% (n = 322); with 295 valid responses. Almost two thirds of therapists (64.7%, n = 191) agreed that they always prescribe upper limb exercises to a person with stroke if they can actively elevate their scapula and have grade 1 finger/wrist extension. Most therapists (98.6%, n = 278) prescribed exercises to be completed outside of therapy time, with exercises verbally communicated to family. Standardised upper limb specific outcome measures were used to evaluate the prescribed exercises by 21.9% (n = 62) OF THERAPISTS. DIFFERENCES WERE FOUND BETWEEN PROFESSIONS AND ACROSS WORK SETTINGS. The majority of prescribed upper limb exercises were of low intensity (range of motion or stretching exercises) rather than repetitive practice or strengthening exercises. The use of standardised outcome measures was low. Progression of exercises and the provision of written instructions on discharge occur less frequently in inpatient settings than outpatient and community settings.
Peter, Orsolya; Fazekas, Gabor; Zsiga, Katalin; Denes, Zoltan
Robot-mediated physiotherapy provides a new possibility for improving the outcome of rehabilitation of patients who are recovering from stroke. This study is a review of robot-supported upper limb physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, OVID, and EBSCO for clinical trials with robots…
Baniqued, Paul Dominick E.; Dungao, Jade R.; Manguerra, Michael V.; Baldovino, Renann G.; Abad, Alexander C.; Bugtai, Nilo T.
Current methodologies in designing robotic exoskeletons for upper limb therapy simplify the complex requirements of the human anatomy. As a result, such devices tend to compromise safety and biocompatibility with the intended user. However, a new design methodology uses biological analogues as inspiration to address these technical issues. This approach follows that of biomimetics, a design principle that uses the extraction and transfer of useful information from natural morphologies and processes to solve technical design issues. In this study, a biomimetic approach in the design of a 5-degree-of-freedom robotic exoskeleton for upper limb therapy was performed. A review of biomimetics was first discussed along with its current contribution to the design of rehabilitation robots. With a proposed methodological framework, the design for an upper limb robotic exoskeleton was generated using CATIA software. The design was inspired by the morphology of the bones and the muscle force transmission of the upper limbs. Finally, a full design assembly presented had integrated features extracted from the biological analogue. The successful execution of a biomimetic design methodology made a case in providing safer and more biocompatible robots for rehabilitation.
Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill
Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Postema, Sietke G.; Bongers, Raoul M.; Brouwers, Michael A.; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
Objective: (1) To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) in individuals with upper limb absence in The Netherlands, (2) to assess the health status of individuals with upper limb absence in general and in relation to the presence of MSCs, and (3) to explore the predictors of
Proud, Elizabeth L; Miller, Kimberly J; Bilney, Belinda; Balachandran, Sulakshana; McGinley, Jennifer L; Morris, Meg E
To identify measurement tools used for upper limb evaluation in people with Parkinson disease (PD), to summarize the content of each tool using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and to examine the reliability, validity, clinical utility, and responsiveness of the measurement tools specific to this clinical group. Two systematic searches of online databases included articles published from inception to November 2013. Search 1 identified upper limb measures. Search 2 retrieved studies investigating the measurement properties of these tools in people with PD. Independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data, classified measurement tool content on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health content domains, and applied both the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments checklist to evaluate the study's methodological quality and a second checklist by Terwee et al to assess the measurement tool's quality. A third reviewer adjudicated differences between reviewers. Information on clinical utility was also compiled. The 18 identified measures included PD-specific scales, generic measures, and tools developed for other clinical populations; most measures evaluated impairments and/or activity limitations. Measurement properties of 10 of the 18 identified measures were evaluated in people with PD. No high-quality studies investigated validity or responsiveness. High-quality evidence supported the interrater reliability of some Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale subtests, and lower quality studies provided limited evidence for the test-retest reliability of measures evaluating fine hand function and bradykinesia. There are relatively few high-quality studies to support the measurement properties, particularly the validity and responsiveness, of tools currently used to evaluate upper limb disability and function in people with PD. Further
Madaric, Juraj, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NUSCH) and Slovak Medical University, Department of Cardiology and Angiology (Slovakia); Klepanec, Andrej [National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Slovakia); Mistrik, Martin [Clinic of Hematology and Transfusiology, Faculty Hospital (Slovakia); Altaner, Cestmir [Slovak Academy of Science, Institute of Experimental Oncology (Slovakia); Vulev, Ivan [National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Slovakia)
Induction of therapeutic angiogenesis by autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation has been identified as a potential new option in patients with advanced lower-limb ischemia. There is little evidence of the benefit of intra-arterial cell application in upper-limb critical ischemia. We describe a patient with upper-extremity critical limb ischemia with digital gangrene resulting from hypothenar hammer syndrome successfully treated by intra-arterial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation.
Rifai, R; el Yazidi, A; Ameziane, L; Berrada, M S; el Bardouni, A; el Yaacoubi, M; el Manouar, M
This article is based on the retrospective study of 4 cases of necrotic fasciitis of the upper extremity, in adult patients with a mean age of 57 years (range: 36 to 78 years) and with a male predominance (3 M/1 F). Presenting signs were variable: pain, febrile and inflammatory oedema, ecchymoses with inflammatory masses containing clear or haemorrhagic fluid. Treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs did not prevent progression to painless, necrotic ulcers. Rapid medical and surgical treatment constitutes an element essential of the prognosis and must include wide large debridement, antibiotics and intensive care.
Full Text Available Background & objectives : The surgery of breast cancer like any other surgeries may bring about some problems and complications, which the knowledge of these problems may be an effective way for prevention or dealing with the complications. The motor and sensory impairments in the upper limb of the surgery side necessitate the utilization of the rehabilitation methods. The main purpose of this research was to show the effect of Pilates exercise on range of motion and edema of upper limb in females suffering from breast cancer after going through surgery. Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted on 25 patients randomly chosen among the patients referring to Cancer Institute. The designed exercise included five "Mat Pilates" moves which were done for 15 sessions until the patient reached fatigue borderlines. Meantime, the control group was doing routine active exercises in physiotherapy center. The range of motion and edema of upper limb was measured before and after applying the designed exercise. For describing the data, the mean and standard deviation, and for inferential analysis, the correlated T-tests and one way analysis of variance were used in level of significance of 5%, to compare the variants before and after applying the designed exercise. Results: The results showed a significant difference between the flexion, extension, and internal, external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, flexion, extension, supination deviation and pronation deviation of the wrist and forearm before and after experiment in Pilates group. While in the control group, flexion, extension, internal and external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, and flexion of wrist showed a significant difference before and after the experiment. Conclusion: The use of Pilates exercise after mastectomy surgery can increase the range of motion of the upper limb in the involved side of the patients, and decrease the edema
Resnik, Linda; Klinger, Shana Lieberman; Etter, Katherine; Fantini, Christopher
The DEKA Arm, a pre-commercial upper limb prosthesis, funded by the DARPA Revolutionizing Prosthetics Program, offers increased degrees of freedom while requiring a large number of user control inputs to operate. To address this challenge, DEKA developed prototype foot controls. Although the concept of utilizing foot controls to operate an upper limb prosthesis has been discussed for decades, only small-sized studies have been performed and no commercial product exists. The purpose of this paper is to report amputee user perspectives on using three different iterations of foot controls to operate the DEKA Arm. Qualitative data was collected from 36 subjects as part of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Study to Optimize the DEKA Arm through surveys, interviews, audio memos, and videotaped sessions. Three major, interrelated themes were identified using the constant comparative method: attitudes towards foot controls, psychomotor learning and physical experience of using foot controls. Feedback about foot controls was generally positive for all iterations. The final version of foot controls was viewed most favorably. Our findings indicate that foot controls are a viable control option that can enable control of a multifunction upper limb prosthesis (the DEKA Arm). Multifunction upper limb prostheses require many user control inputs to operate. Foot controls offer additional control input options for such advanced devices, yet have had minimal study. This study found that foot controls were a viable option for controlling multifunction upper limb prostheses. Most of the 36 subjects in this study were willing to adopt foot controls to control the multiple degrees of freedom of the DEKA Arm. With training and practice, all users were able to develop the psychomotor skills needed to successfully operate food controls. Some had initial difficulty, but acclimated over time.
Full Text Available Acquired brain injuries (ABIs can lead to a wide range of impairments, including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body known as hemiplegia. In hemiplegic patients, the rehabilitation of the upper limb skills is crucial, because the recovery has an immediate impact on patient quality of life. For this reason, several treatments were developed to flank physical therapy (PT and improve functional recovery of the upper limbs. Among them, Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT and robot-aided therapy have shown interesting potentialities in the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic upper limb. Nevertheless, there is a lack of quantitative evaluations of effectiveness in a standard clinical setting, especially in children, as well as a lack of direct comparative studies between these therapeutic techniques. In this study, a group of 18 children and adolescents with hemiplegia was enrolled and underwent intensive rehabilitation treatment including PT and CIMT or Armeo®Spring therapy. The effects of the treatments were assessed using clinical functional scales and upper limb kinematic analysis during horizontal and vertical motor tasks. Results showed CIMT to be the most effective in terms of improved functional scales, while PT seemed to be the most significant in terms of kinematic variations. Specifically, PT resulted to have positive influence on distal movements while CIMT conveyed more changes in the proximal kinematics. Armeo treatment delivered improvements mainly in the vertical motor task, showing trends of progresses of the movement efficiency and reduction of compensatory movements of the shoulder with respect to other treatments. Therefore, every treatment gave advantages in a specific and different upper limb district. Therefore, results of this preliminary study may be of help to define the best rehabilitation treatment for each patient, depending on the goal, and may thus support clinical decision.
Full Text Available Introduction: Children with cerebral palsy (CP in the form of spastic hemiplegia experience numerous difficulties concerning an affected upper limb such as reaching for objects, gripping or manipulating them. These limitations affect their everyday activity. Conducting an effective and simultaneously an interesting therapy aimed at meeting the child’s individual needs and improving upper limb function is a challenge for a physiotherapist. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of upper limb therapy carried out within the project titled “The Pirate Group” based on Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT and Bimanual Training (BIT conducted in a specially arranged environment. Material and methods: The research included 16 children with CP in the form of spastic hemiplegia. Mean age of the study participants was 4.23 years. The children underwent a two-week Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT combined with Bimanual Training (BIT. In order to evaluate the effects of the therapy, each child underwent the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA prior to the therapy and after its completion. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (p<0.05 between the results of AHA prior to and after the therapy (t(14=9.12, p<0.0001. An improvement in the affected upper limb function was noted in all the children participating in the research. Conclusions: The project titled “The Pirate Group”, based on CIMT and BIT is an effective therapeutic intervention which improves spontaneous activity of the affected upper limb in children with hemiplegia.
Meyer, Sarah; De Bruyn, Nele; Lafosse, Christophe; Van Dijk, Margaretha; Michielsen, Marc; Thijs, Liselot; Truyens, Veronik; Oostra, Kristine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Peeters, Andre; Thijs, Vincent; Feys, Hilde; Verheyden, Geert
A thorough understanding of the presence of different upper-limb somatosensory deficits poststroke and the relation with motor performance remains unclear. Additionally, knowledge about the relation between somatosensory deficits and visuospatial neglect is limited. To investigate the distribution of upper-limb somatosensory impairments and the association with unimanual and bimanual motor outcomes and visuospatial neglect. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 122 patients within 6 months after stroke (median = 82 days; interquartile range = 57-133 days). Somatosensory measurement included the Erasmus MC modification of the (revised) Nottingham Sensory Assessment (Em-NSA), Perceptual Threshold of Touch (PTT), thumb finding test, 2-point discrimination, and stereognosis subscale of the NSA. Upper-limb motor assessment comprised the Fugl-Meyer assessment, motricity index, Action Research Arm Test, and Adult-Assisting Hand Assessment Stroke. Screening for visuospatial neglect was performed using the Star Cancellation Test. Upper-limb somatosensory impairments were common, with prevalence rates ranging from 21% to 54%. Low to moderate Spearman ρ correlations were found between somatosensory and motor deficits (r = 0.22-0.61), with the strongest associations for PTT (r = 0.56-0.61) and stereognosis (r = 0.51-0.60). Visuospatial neglect was present in 27 patients (22%). Between-group analysis revealed somatosensory deficits that occurred significantly more often and more severely in patients with visuospatial neglect (P visuospatial neglect (r = 0.44-0.78) compared with patients without neglect (r = 0.08-0.59). Somatosensory impairments are common in subacute patients poststroke and are related to motor outcome. Visuospatial neglect was associated with more severe upper-limb somatosensory impairments. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.
Full Text Available Questions: Does constraint-induced movement therapy improve activity and participation in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy? Does it improve activity and participation more than the same dose of upper limb therapy without restraint? Is the effect of constraint-induced movement therapy related to the duration of intervention or the age of the children? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Participants: Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy with any level of motor disability. Intervention: The experimental group received constraint-induced movement therapy (defined as restraint of the less affected upper limb during supervised activity practice of the more affected upper limb. The control group received no intervention, sham intervention, or the same dose of upper limb therapy. Outcome measures: Measures of upper limb activity and participation were used in the analysis. Results: Constraint-induced movement therapy was more effective than no/sham intervention in terms of upper limb activity (SMD 0.63, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.06 and participation (SMD 1.21, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.02. However, constraint-induced movement therapy was no better than the same dose of upper limb therapy without restraint either in terms of upper limb activity (SMD 0.05, 95% CI –0.21 to 0.32 or participation (SMD –0.02, 95% CI –0.34 to 0.31. The effect of constraint-induced movement therapy was not related to the duration of intervention or the age of the children. Conclusions: This review suggests that constraint-induced movement therapy is more effective than no intervention, but no more effective than the same dose of upper limb practice without restraint. Registration: PROSPERO CRD42015024665. [Chiu H-C, Ada L (2016 Constraint-induced movement therapy improves upper limb activity and participation in hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 130–137
Aung, Yee Mon; Al-Jumaily, Adel; Anam, Khairul
This paper proposes a novel upper extremity rehabilitation system with virtual arm illusion. It aims for fast recovery from lost functions of the upper limb as a result of stroke to provide a novel rehabilitation system for paralyzed patients. The system is integrated with a number of technologies that include Augmented Reality (AR) technology to develop game like exercise, computer vision technology to create the illusion scene, 3D modeling and model simulation, and signal processing to detect user intention via EMG signal. The effectiveness of the developed system has evaluated via usability study and questionnaires which is represented by graphical and analytical methods. The evaluation provides with positive results and this indicates the developed system has potential as an effective rehabilitation system for upper limb impairment.
Reeser, Jonathan C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Bolt, Becky; Ruan, Mianfang
The shoulder is the third-most commonly injured body part in volleyball, with the majority of shoulder problems resulting from chronic overuse. Significant kinetic differences exist among specific types of volleyball serves and spikes. Controlled laboratory study. Fourteen healthy female collegiate volleyball players performed 5 successful trials of 4 skills: 2 directional spikes, an off-speed roll shot, and the float serve. Volunteers who were competent in jump serves (n, 5) performed 5 trials of that skill. A 240-Hz 3-dimensional automatic digitizing system captured each trial. Multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc paired t tests were used to compare kinetic parameters for the shoulder and elbow across all the skills (except the jump serve). A similar statistical analysis was performed for upper extremity kinematics. Forces, torques, and angular velocities at the shoulder and elbow were lowest for the roll shot and second-lowest for the float serve. No differences were detected between the cross-body and straight-ahead spikes. Although there was an insufficient number of participants to statistically analyze the jump serve, the data for it appear similar to those of the cross-body and straight-ahead spikes. Shoulder abduction at the instant of ball contact was approximately 130° for all skills, which is substantially greater than that previously reported for female athletes performing tennis serves or baseball pitches. Because shoulder kinetics were greatest during spiking, the volleyball player with symptoms of shoulder overuse may wish to reduce the number of repetitions performed during practice. Limiting the number of jump serves may also reduce the athlete's risk of overuse-related shoulder dysfunction. Volleyball-specific overhead skills, such as the spike and serve, produce considerable upper extremity force and torque, which may contribute to the risk of shoulder injury.
Tazoe, Toshiki; Endoh, Takashi; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Masanori; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi
It is well known that monosynaptic spinal reflexes and motor evoked potentials following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are reinforced during phasic and intensive voluntary contraction in the remote segment (remote effect). However, the remote effect on the cortical silent period (CSP) is less known. The purpose of the present study is to determine to what extent the CSP in the intrinsic hand muscle following TMS is modified by voluntary ankle dorsiflexion and to elucidate the origin of the modulation of CSP by the remote effect. CSP was recorded in the right first dorsal interosseous while subjects performed phasic dorsiflexion in the ipsilateral side under self-paced and reaction-time conditions. Modulation of the peripherally-induced silent period (PSP) induced by electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve was also investigated under the same conditions. In addition, modulation of the CSP was investigated during ischemic nerve block of the lower limb and during application of vibration to the tibialis anterior tendon. The duration of CSP was significantly shortened by phasic dorsiflexion, and the extent of shortening was proportional to dorsiflexion force. Shortening of the CSP duration was also observed during tonic dorsiflexion. In contrast, the PSP duration following ulnar nerve stimulation was not altered during phasic dorsiflexion. Furthermore, the remote effect on the CSP duration was seen during ischemic nerve block of the lower limb and the pre-movement period in the reaction-time paradigm, but shortening of the CSP was not observed during tendon vibration. These findings suggest that phasic muscle contraction in the remote segment results in a decrease in intracortical inhibitory pathways to the corticospinal tract innervating the muscle involved in reflex testing and that the remote effect on the CSP is predominantly cortical in origin.
Merad, Manelle; de Montalivet, Étienne; Touillet, Amélie; Martinet, Noël; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Jarrassé, Nathanaël
Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals' coordination models can
Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals
Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Krupička, Radim; Zárubová, Kateřina; Novotný, Michal; Jech, Robert; Szabó, Zoltán; Růžička, Evžen
It is currently unknown whether speech and limb motor effectors in Parkinson's disease (PD) are controlled by similar underlying brain processes. Based on computerized objective analysis, the aim of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between speech and mechanical tests of upper limb motor function. Speech and upper limb motor tests were performed in 22 PD patients and 22 healthy controls. Quantitative acoustic analyses of eight key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria, including quality of voice, sequential motion rates, consonant articulation, vowel articulation, average loudness, loudness variability, pitch variability, and number of pauses, were performed. Upper limb movements were assessed using the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, contactless three-dimensional motion capture system, blinded expert evaluation, and the Purdue Pegboard Test. Significant relationships were observed between the quality of voice assessed by jitter and amplitude decrement of finger tapping (r = 0.61, p = 0.003), consonant articulation evaluated using voice onset time and expert rating of finger tapping (r = 0.60, p = 0.003), and number of pauses and Purdue Pegboard Test score (r = 0.60, p = 0.004). The current study supports the hypothesis that speech impairment in PD shares, at least partially, similar pathophysiological processes with limb motor dysfunction. Vocal fold vibration irregularities appeared to be influenced by mechanisms similar to amplitude decrement during repetitive limb movements. Consonant articulation deficits were associated with decreased manual dexterity and movement speed, likely reflecting fine motor control involvement in PD.
Levine, Adrian B; Parrent, Andrew G; MacDougall, Keith W
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a well-established treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in the lower limbs. Upper limb pain comprises a significant proportion of neuropathic pain patients, but is often difficult to target specifically and consistently with paresthesias. We hypothesized that the use of dorsal nerve root stimulation (DNRS), as an option along with SCS, would help us better relieve pain in these patients. All 35 patients trialed with spinal stimulation for upper limb pain between July 1, 2011, and October 31, 2013, were included. We performed permanent implantation in 23/35 patients based on a visual analogue scale pain score decrease of ≥50% during trial stimulation. Both the SCS and DNRS groups had significant improvements in average visual analogue scale pain scores at 12 months compared with baseline, and the majority of patients in both groups obtained ≥50% pain relief. The majority of patients in both groups were able to reduce their opioid use, and on average had improvements in Short Form-36 quality of life scores. Complication rates did not differ significantly between the two groups. Treatment with SCS or DNRS provides meaningful long-term relief of chronic neuropathic pain in the upper limbs.
Newman, Christopher J; Bruchez, Roselyn; Roches, Sylvie; Jequier Gygax, Marine; Duc, Cyntia; Dadashi, Farzin; Massé, Fabien; Aminian, Kamiar
Upper limb assessments in children with hemiparesis rely on clinical measurements, which despite standardization are prone to error. Recently, 3D movement analysis using optoelectronic setups has been used to measure upper limb movement, but generalization is hindered by time and cost. Body worn inertial sensors may provide a simple, cost-effective alternative. We instrumented a subset of 30 participants in a mirror therapy clinical trial at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up clinical assessments, with wireless inertial sensors positioned on the arms and trunk to monitor motion during reaching tasks. Inertial sensor measurements distinguished paretic and non-paretic limbs with significant differences (P < 0.01) in movement duration, power, range of angular velocity, elevation, and smoothness (normalized jerk index and spectral arc length). Inertial sensor measurements correlated with functional clinical tests (Melbourne Assessment 2); movement duration and complexity (Higuchi fractal dimension) showed moderate to strong negative correlations with clinical measures of amplitude, accuracy, and fluency. Inertial sensor measurements reliably identify paresis and correlate with clinical measurements; they can therefore provide a complementary dimension of assessment in clinical practice and during clinical trials aimed at improving upper limb function.
Dreyzialle Vila Nova Mota
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with stroke sequelae present changes in the postural alignment and muscle strength associated with hemiplegia or hemiparesis. Mirror therapy is a technique that aims to improve the motor function of the paretic limb. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mirror therapy, associated with conventional physiotherapy, for range of motion (ROM, degree of spasticity of the affected upper limb, and the level of independence in the activities of daily living (ADL of chronic patients after stroke. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental (before and after study. The study included ten stroke survivors undertaking physiotherapy and presenting with upper limb paresis. The following gauges were used for the present study: goniometry, the Modified Ashworth Scale, Fugl-Meyer and Barthel Index. Fifteen sessions were performed, each lasting 30 minutes, consisting of stretching of the flexor and extensor muscles of the wrist and elbow, pronators and supinators, followed by mirror therapy with gradual functional exercises. Results: Improvement was observed in all aspects studied, however with significant differences for ROM wrist extension (p = 0.04 and forearm supination (p = 0.03 Conclusion: It can be concluded that mirror therapy contributed to the participants' good performance in the aspects studied, mainly in relation to ROM of the affected upper limb.
Smith, Craig P; Allsop, Jonathan E; Mistry, Michael; Reynolds, Raymond F
When standing and holding an earth-fixed object, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) can evoke upper limb responses to maintain balance. In the present study, we determined how these responses are affected by grip context (no contact, light grip and firm grip), as well as how they are co-ordinated with the lower limbs to maintain balance. When GVS was applied during firm grip, hand and ground reaction forces were generated. The directions of these force vectors were co-ordinated such that the overall body sway response was always aligned with the inter-aural axis (i.e. craniocentric). When GVS was applied during light grip (balance control and also that the upper and lower limbs co-ordinate for an appropriate whole-body sway response. Vestibular stimulation can evoke responses in the arm when it is used for balance. In the present study, we determined how these responses are affected by grip context, as well as how they are co-ordinated with the rest of the body. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was used to evoke balance responses under three conditions of manual contact with an earth-fixed object: no contact, light grip (vestibular-evoked balance responses. Furthermore, they demonstrate that upper and lower-limb forces are co-ordinated to produce an appropriate whole-body sway response. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.
Riani, Akram; Madani, Tarek; Hadri, Abdelhafid El; Benallegue, Abdelaziz
This paper presents an adaptive control strategy for an upper-limb exoskeleton based on an on-line dynamic parameter estimator. The objective is to improve the control performance of this system that plays a critical role in assisting patients for shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements. In general, the dynamic parameters of the human limb are unknown and differ from a person to another, which degrade the performances of the exoskeleton-human control system. For this reason, the proposed control scheme contains a supplementary loop based on a new efficient on-line estimator of the dynamic parameters. Indeed, the latter is acting upon the parameter adaptation of the controller to ensure the performances of the system in the presence of parameter uncertainties and perturbations. The exoskeleton used in this work is presented and a physical model of the exoskeleton interacting with a 7 Degree of Freedom (DoF) upper limb model is generated using the SimMechanics library of MatLab/Simulink. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an example of passive rehabilitation movements is performed using multi-body dynamic simulation. The aims is to maneuver the exoskeleton that drive the upper limb to track desired trajectories in the case of the passive arm movements.
Malik, Sajid; Afzal, Muhammad
Congenital transverse limb anomalies are rare, which affect upper and/or lower limbs and may accompany several syndromic malformations. We present a sporadic male subject with congenital, unilateral transverse arrest of the left hand. The affected arm was observed to be short with reduced zeugopod and truncated palm. Fingers were represented by five bead-like nubbins. Roentgenographic examination revealed short radius and ulna with hypoplastic distal heads, absent carpals/metacarpals, and a hypoplastic bony island in each nubbin. Consanguinity was denied, and the subject had no symptoms in the orofacial, neurological and skeletal systems. Detailed clinical data with literature survey is presented.
Resnik, Linda; Adams, Laurel; Borgia, Matthew; Delikat, Jemy; Disla, Roxanne; Ebner, Christopher; Walters, Lisa Smurr
(1) To develop a measure of activities for adults with upper limb amputation: the Activities Measure for Upper Limb Amputees (AM-ULA); and (2) to conduct initial psychometric evaluation of the measure. This was a cohort study where the prototype measure was administered twice within 1 week. Tests were videotaped and graded by 2 independent raters. Interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and minimal detectable change were estimated. Known group validity was examined using analyses of variance comparing scores of transradial, transhumeral, and shoulder level amputees. Convergent validity was examined by correlating AM-ULA scores with dexterity tests and self-reported function. Hospital outpatient. Subjects (N=52) with upper limb amputation. Not applicable. Not applicable. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were .88 to .91. ICCs for interrater reliability were .84 to .89. Cronbach alphas were .89 to .91. The minimal detectable change at the 90% confidence interval was 3.7 points. Subjects with more distal levels of limb loss had better scores than those with more proximal levels (P<.01). The AM-ULA was moderately correlated with most dexterity tests and self-reported function. The AM-ULA is a new measure of activity performance for adults with upper limb amputation that considers task completion, speed, movement quality, skillfulness of prosthetic use, and independence in its rating system. It has good interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and demonstrated known group validity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lang, Catherine E.; Waddell, Kimberly J.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Bland, Marghuretta D.
A key reason for referral to rehabilitation services after stroke and other neurological conditions is to improve one's ability to function in daily life. It has become important to measure a person's activities in daily life, and not just measure their capacity for activity in the structured environment of a clinic or laboratory. A wearable sensor that is now enabling measurement of daily movement is the accelerometer. Accelerometers are commercially-available devices resembling large wrist watches that can be worn throughout the day. Data from accelerometers can quantify how the limbs are engaged to perform activities in peoples' homes and communities. This report describes a methodology to collect accelerometry data and turn it into clinically-relevant information. First, data are collected by having the participant wear two accelerometers (one on each wrist) for 24 h or longer. The accelerometry data are then downloaded and processed to produce four different variables that describe key aspects of upper limb activity in daily life: hours of use, use ratio, magnitude ratio, and the bilateral magnitude. Density plots can be constructed that visually represent the data from the 24 h wearing period. The variables and their resultant density plots are highly consistent in neurologically-intact, community-dwelling adults. This striking consistency makes them a useful tool for determining if upper limb daily performance is different from normal. This methodology is appropriate for research studies investigating upper limb dysfunction and interventions designed to improve upper limb performance in daily life in people with stroke and other patient populations. Because of its relative simplicity, it may not be long before it is also incorporated in clinical neurorehabilitation practice. PMID:28518079
Hadid, Amir; Katz, Inbar; Haker, Tal; Zeilig, Gabi; Defrin, Ruth; Epstein, Yoram; Gefen, Amit
Carrying heavy backpacks are often associated with shoulder discomfort or pain, loss of sensorimotor functions, and brachial plexus injuries that might hamper performance. On the basis of previous research, the cause of these symptoms could be tissue deformations of the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery caused by the shoulder straps. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the upper extremity hemodynamic and neural function and to assess how they are associated with brachial plexus tissue deformation during heavy load carriage. Ten young healthy adults carried for 45 min a backpack load (40% of their body weight) while standing freely, followed by 15 min of recovery (unloaded). Index-finger microvascular flow and sensorimotor function were measured before and after carrying the load, and after recovery. The following sensorimotor functions were measured: light touch thresholds by the index finger and little finger, forearm thermal sensation thresholds, and gross motor function. In addition, marksmanship accuracy, as an indication for fine motor function, was tested. Load carriage resulted in an average decrease of ~40% in microvascular flow and a significant decrement in light touch sensation (P load carriage resulted in impaired light touch sensitivity and fine motor function, which were associated with reduced finger microvascular blood flow.
Ferris Daniel P
Full Text Available Abstract Background When humans perform rhythmic upper and lower limb locomotor-like movements, there is an excitatory effect of upper limb exertion on lower limb muscle recruitment. To investigate potential neural mechanisms for this behavioral observation, we developed computer simulations modeling interlimb neural pathways among central pattern generators. We hypothesized that enhancement of muscle recruitment from interlimb spinal mechanisms was not sufficient to explain muscle enhancement levels observed in experimental data. Methods We used Matsuoka oscillators for the central pattern generators (CPG and determined parameters that enhanced amplitudes of rhythmic steady state bursts. Potential mechanisms for output enhancement were excitatory and inhibitory sensory feedback gains, excitatory and inhibitory interlimb coupling gains, and coupling geometry. We first simulated the simplest case, a single CPG, and then expanded the model to have two CPGs and lastly four CPGs. In the two and four CPG models, the lower limb CPGs did not receive supraspinal input such that the only mechanisms available for enhancing output were interlimb coupling gains and sensory feedback gains. Results In a two-CPG model with inhibitory sensory feedback gains, only excitatory gains of ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 26%. In a two-CPG model with excitatory sensory feedback gains, excitatory gains of contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling produced reciprocal upper-lower limb bursts and enhanced output up to 100%. However, within a given excitatory sensory feedback gain, enhancement due to excitatory interlimb gains could only reach levels up to 20%. Interconnecting four CPGs to have ipsilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling, contralateral flexor-flexor/extensor-extensor coupling, and bilateral flexor-extensor/extensor-flexor coupling could enhance
Rabuffetti, M; Meriggi, P; Pagliari, C; Bartolomeo, P; Ferrarin, M
Most applications of accelerometry-based actigraphy require a single sensor, properly located onto the body, to estimate, for example, the level of activity or the energy expenditure. Some approaches adopt a multi-sensor setup to improve those analyses or to classify different types of activity. The specific case of two symmetrically placed actigraphs allowing, by some kind of differential analysis, for the assessment of asymmetric motor behaviors, has been considered in relatively few studies. This article presents a novel method for differential actigraphy, which requires the synchronized measurements of two triaxial accelerometers (programmable eZ430-Chronos, Texas Instruments, USA) placed symmetrically on both wrists. The method involved the definition of a robust epoch-related activity index and its implementation on-board the adopted programmable platform. Finally, the activity recordings from both sensors allowed us to define a novel asymmetry index AR 24 h ranging from -100% (only the left arm moves) to +100% (only the right arm moves) with null value marking a perfect symmetrical behavior. The accuracy of the AR 24 h index was 1.3%. Round-the-clock monitoring on 31 healthy participants (20-79 years old, 10 left handed) provided for the AR 24 h reference data (range -5% to 21%) and a fairly good correlation to the clinical handedness index (r = 0.66, p < 0.001). A subset of 20 participants repeated the monitoring one week apart evidencing an excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.70, p < 0.001). Such figures support future applications of the methodology for the study of pathologies involving motor asymmetries, such as in patients with motor hemisyndromes and, in general, for those subjects for whom a quantification of the asymmetry in daily motor performances is required to complement laboratory tests.
Background Compensating for the effect of gravity by providing arm-weight support (WS) is a technique often utilized in the rehabilitation of patients with neurological conditions such as stroke to facilitate the performance of arm movements during therapy. Although it has been shown that, in healthy subjects as well as in stroke survivors, the use of arm WS during the performance of reaching movements leads to a general reduction, as expected, in the level of activation of upper limb muscles, the effects of different levels of WS on the characteristics of the kinematics of motion and of the activity of upper limb muscles have not been thoroughly investigated before. Methods In this study, we systematically assessed the characteristics of the kinematics of motion and of the activity of 14 upper limb muscles in a group of 9 healthy subjects who performed 3-D arm reaching movements while provided with different levels of arm WS. We studied the hand trajectory and the trunk, shoulder, and elbow joint angular displacement trajectories for different levels of arm WS. Besides, we analyzed the amplitude of the surface electromyographic (EMG) data collected from upper limb muscles and investigated patterns of coordination via the analysis of muscle synergies. Results The characteristics of the kinematics of motion varied across WS conditions but did not show distinct trends with the level of arm WS. The level of activation of upper limb muscles generally decreased, as expected, with the increase in arm WS. The same eight muscle synergies were identified in all WS conditions. Their level of activation depended on the provided level of arm WS. Conclusions The analysis of muscle synergies allowed us to identify a modular organization underlying the generation of arm reaching movements that appears to be invariant to the level of arm WS. The results of this study provide a normative dataset for the assessment of the effects of the level of arm WS on muscle synergies in stroke
Barredo, Jennifer; Acluche, Frantzy; Disla, Roxanne; Fantini, Christopher; Fishelis, Leah; Sasson, Nicole; Resnik, Linda
To describe a participant with scapulo-thoracic amputation and cognitive impairment trained to use the DEKA Arm and discuss factors relevant to the determination that he was not an appropriate candidate for independent home use of the device. The participant underwent 40 h of in-laboratory training with the DEKA Arm Advanced Upper Limb Prosthesis. Pre-training neuropsychological measures of cognition were collected. Qualitative and quantitative data related to functional performance, quality of life and pain were collected after 10 h of training, and at the conclusion of training. Using a constant comparative approach, data were binned into major themes; elements within each theme were identified. Six themes were relevant to the determination that the participant was inappropriate for home use of the DEKA Arm: physical and mental health; learning, memory and cognition; adult role function; functional performance; user safety and judgement and capacity for independent device use. Issues contraindicating unsupervised device use included: uncontrolled health symptoms, poor knowledge application, safety concerns, absenteeism and performance degradation under stress. The findings have implications for training with and prescription of the DEKA Arm and other complex upper limb prostheses. Further research is needed to develop a model to guide prescription of technologically complex upper limb prostheses. Implications for Rehabilitation Advanced upper limb prostheses, like the DEKA Arm, promise greater functionality, but also may be cognitively demanding, raising questions of when, and if, prescription is appropriate for patients with cognitive impairment. At this time, no formal criteria exist to guide prescription of advanced upper limb prostheses. Each clinical team applies their own informal standards in decision-making. In this case report, we described six factors that were considered in determining whether or not a research participant, with scapulo
Pérez-Mármol, Jose Manuel; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Barrero-Hernandez, Francisco J; Molina-Torres, Guadalupe; Brown, Ted; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación
Upper limb apraxia is a common disorder associated with stroke that can reduce patients' independence levels in activities of daily living and increase levels of disability. Traditional rehabilitation programs designed to promote the recovery of upper limb function have mainly focused on restorative or compensatory approaches. However, no previous studies have been completed that evaluate a combined intervention method approach, where patients concurrently receive cognitive training and learn compensatory strategies for enhancing daily living activities. This study will use a two-arm, assessor-blinded, parallel, randomized controlled trial design, involving 40 patients who present a left- or right-sided unilateral vascular lesion poststroke and a clinical diagnosis of upper limb apraxia. Participants will be randomized to either a combined functional rehabilitation or a traditional health education group. The experimental group will receive an 8-week combined functional program at home, including physical and occupational therapy focused on restorative and compensatory techniques for upper limb apraxia, 3 days per week in 30-min intervention periods. The control group will receive a conventional health education program once a month over 8 weeks, based on improving awareness of physical and functional limitations and facilitating the adaptation of patients to the home. Study outcomes will be assessed immediately postintervention and at the 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure will be basic activities of daily living skills as assessed with the Barthel Index. Secondary outcome measures will include the following: 1) the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, 2) the Observation and Scoring of ADL-Activities, 3) the De Renzi Test for Ideational Apraxia, 4) the De Renzi Test for Ideomotor Apraxia, 5) Recognition of Gestures, 6) the Test of Upper Limb Apraxia (TULIA), and 7) the Quality of Life Scale For Stroke (ECVI-38). This trial is
Jaramillo, Jeffrey P; Johanson, M Elise; Kiratli, B Jenny
Video gaming as a therapeutic tool has largely been studied within the stroke population with some benefits reported in upper limb motor performance, balance, coordination, and cardiovascular status. To date, muscle activation of upper limb muscles in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has not been studied during video game play. In this paper, we provide descriptive and comparative data for muscle activation and strength during gaming for players with tetraplegia and paraplegia, as well as, compare these results with data from traditional arm exercises (ie, biceps curl and shoulder press) with light weights which are commonly prescribed for a home program. Fourteen individuals with chronic SCI (9 tetraplegia, 5 paraplegia). We measured upper limb muscle activation with surface electromyography (EMG) during Wii Sports video game play. Muscle activation was recorded from the playing arm during 4 selected games and normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Heart rate and upper limb motion were recorded simultaneously with EMG. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze differences in muscle activation between participants with paraplegia versus tetraplegia and compare gaming with traditional arm exercises with light weights. A Friedman 2-way analysis of variance identified key muscle groups active during game play. Overall muscle activation across the games was not different between those with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Heart rate during video game play for tennis and boxing were on average 10 to 20 beats/minute above resting heart rate. The magnitude of EMG was relatively greater for traditional arm exercises with light weights compared with game play. The selected Wii games were able to elicit upper extremity muscle activation and elevated heart rates for individuals with SCI that may be used to target therapeutic outcomes.
Gane, Elise M; O'Leary, Shaun P; Hatton, Anna L; Panizza, Benedict J; McPhail, Steven M
Objective To measure patient-perceived upper limb and neck function following neck dissection and to investigate potential associations between clinical factors, symptoms, and function. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Subjects and Methods Inclusion criteria: patients treated with neck dissection (2009-2014). aged Index). Secondary outcomes included demographics, oncological management, self-efficacy, and pain. Generalized linear models were prepared to examine relationships between explanatory variables and self-reported function. Results Eighty-nine participants (male n = 63, 71%; median age, 62 years; median 3 years since surgery) reported mild upper limb and neck dysfunction (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] scores of 11 [3, 32] and 12 [4, 28], respectively). Significant associations were found between worse upper limb function and longer time since surgery (coefficient, 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-3.51), having disease within the thyroid (17.40; 2.37-32.44), postoperative radiation therapy (vs surgery only) (13.90; 6.67-21.14), and shoulder pain (0.65; 0.44-0.85). Worse neck function was associated with metastatic cervical lymph nodes (coefficient, 6.61; 95% CI, 1.14-12.08), shoulder pain (0.19; 0.04-0.34), neck pain (0.34; 0.21-0.47), and symptoms of neuropathic pain (0.61; 0.25-0.98). Conclusion Patients can experience upper limb and neck dysfunction following nerve-preserving neck dissection. The upper quadrant as a whole should be considered when assessing rehabilitation priorities after neck dissection.
Susannah M Engdahl
Full Text Available Surgically invasive interfaces for upper limb prosthesis control may allow users to operate advanced, multi-articulated devices. Given the potential medical risks of these invasive interfaces, it is important to understand what factors influence an individual's decision to try one.We conducted an anonymous online survey of individuals with upper limb loss. A total of 232 participants provided personal information (such as age, amputation level, etc. and rated how likely they would be to try noninvasive (myoelectric and invasive (targeted muscle reinnervation, peripheral nerve interfaces, cortical interfaces interfaces for prosthesis control. Bivariate relationships between interest in each interface and 16 personal descriptors were examined. Significant variables from the bivariate analyses were then entered into multiple logistic regression models to predict interest in each interface.While many of the bivariate relationships were significant, only a few variables remained significant in the regression models. The regression models showed that participants were more likely to be interested in all interfaces if they had unilateral limb loss (p ≤ 0.001, odds ratio ≥ 2.799. Participants were more likely to be interested in the three invasive interfaces if they were younger (p < 0.001, odds ratio ≤ 0.959 and had acquired limb loss (p ≤ 0.012, odds ratio ≥ 3.287. Participants who used a myoelectric device were more likely to be interested in myoelectric control than those who did not (p = 0.003, odds ratio = 24.958.Novel prosthesis control interfaces may be accepted most readily by individuals who are young, have unilateral limb loss, and/or have acquired limb loss However, this analysis did not include all possible factors that may have influenced participant's opinions on the interfaces, so additional exploration is warranted.
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one’s physical body, and alters the stroke survivors’ sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement, and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships. In this proof-of-concept study, we designed a group music-making intervention, Music Upper Limb Therapy-Integrated (MULT-I, to address the physical, psychological and social domains of rehabilitation simultaneously, and investigated its effects on long-term post-stroke upper limb recovery. The study used a mixed-method pre-post design with one-year follow up. Thirteen subjects completed the 45-minute intervention twice a week for six weeks. The primary outcome was reduced upper limb motor impairment on the Fugl-Meyer Scale. Secondary outcomes included sensory impairment (two-point discrimination test, activity limitation (Modified Rankin scale, well-being (WHO well-being index, and participation (Stroke Impact Scale. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences between pre- and post-intervention, and one-year follow up scores. Significant improvement was found in upper limb motor impairment, sensory impairment, activity limitation, and well-being immediately post-intervention that persisted at 1 year. Activities of daily living and social participation improved only from post-intervention to one-year follow up. The improvement in upper limb motor impairment was more pronounced in a subset of lower functioning individuals as determined by their pre-intervention wrist range of motion. Qualitatively, subjects reported new feelings of ownership of their impaired limb, more
Raghavan, Preeti; Geller, Daniel; Guerrero, Nina; Aluru, Viswanath; Eimicke, Joseph P; Teresi, Jeanne A; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Palumbo, Anna; Turry, Alan
Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one's physical body, and alters the stroke survivors' sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships. In this proof-of-concept study, we designed a group music-making intervention, Music Upper Limb Therapy-Integrated (MULT-I), to address the physical, psychological and social domains of rehabilitation simultaneously, and investigated its effects on long-term post-stroke upper limb recovery. The study used a mixed-method pre-post design with 1-year follow up. Thirteen subjects completed the 45-min intervention twice a week for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was reduced upper limb motor impairment on the Fugl-Meyer Scale (FMS). Secondary outcomes included sensory impairment (two-point discrimination test), activity limitation (Modified Rankin Scale, MRS), well-being (WHO well-being index), and participation (Stroke Impact Scale, SIS). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between pre- and post-intervention, and 1-year follow up scores. Significant improvement was found in upper limb motor impairment, sensory impairment, activity limitation and well-being immediately post-intervention that persisted at 1 year. Activities of daily living and social participation improved only from post-intervention to 1-year follow up. The improvement in upper limb motor impairment was more pronounced in a subset of lower functioning individuals as determined by their pre-intervention wrist range of motion. Qualitatively, subjects reported new feelings of ownership of their impaired limb, more
Raghavan, Preeti; Geller, Daniel; Guerrero, Nina; Aluru, Viswanath; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Palumbo, Anna; Turry, Alan
Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one’s physical body, and alters the stroke survivors’ sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships. In this proof-of-concept study, we designed a group music-making intervention, Music Upper Limb Therapy-Integrated (MULT-I), to address the physical, psychological and social domains of rehabilitation simultaneously, and investigated its effects on long-term post-stroke upper limb recovery. The study used a mixed-method pre-post design with 1-year follow up. Thirteen subjects completed the 45-min intervention twice a week for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was reduced upper limb motor impairment on the Fugl-Meyer Scale (FMS). Secondary outcomes included sensory impairment (two-point discrimination test), activity limitation (Modified Rankin Scale, MRS), well-being (WHO well-being index), and participation (Stroke Impact Scale, SIS). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between pre- and post-intervention, and 1-year follow up scores. Significant improvement was found in upper limb motor impairment, sensory impairment, activity limitation and well-being immediately post-intervention that persisted at 1 year. Activities of daily living and social participation improved only from post-intervention to 1-year follow up. The improvement in upper limb motor impairment was more pronounced in a subset of lower functioning individuals as determined by their pre-intervention wrist range of motion. Qualitatively, subjects reported new feelings of ownership of their impaired limb, more
Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied whether the twelve-month use of a standard computer would induce complaints of upper limb pain or functional limitations in older novice computer users. Methods Participants between 64 and 76 of age were randomly assigned to an Intervention group (n = 62, whose members received a personal computer and fast Internet access at their homes, or a No Intervention control group (n = 61, whose members refrained from computer use during the twelve month study period. Results Difference scores between baseline and twelve months assessments on both complaint (SFS and functional health scales (SF-36 did not differ between groups (all p > .05. Conclusion Prolonged, self-paced use of a standard computer interface does not put older persons at a risk of upper limb complaints or reduce functional health in older adults.
Full Text Available Movement disorders are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson’s disease and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with movement disorders and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using task intrinsic or augmented feedback. This perspective article reviews the available evidences on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with movement disorders and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception.
Vernillo, Gianluca; Temesi, John; Martin, Matthieu; Millet, Guillaume Y
To compare the mechanisms of fatigue and recovery between upper and lower limbs in the same subjects. Twelve healthy young men performed a 2-min sustained maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and on another day a 2-min MVC of the elbow flexors (EF). Neuromuscular function evaluations were performed with both transcranial magnetic and peripheral stimulations before (PRE), at the end of the 2-min MVC, and five more times within 8 min of recovery. Decreases in MVC and cortical voluntary activation were approximately 12% (P 0.05), whereas the increase in silent period duration was approximately 30% greater in EF than KE (P < 0.05). Upper and lower limbs presented different magnitudes of total, central and peripheral fatigue. Total neuromuscular fatigue and central fatigue were greater in KE than EF. Conversely, peripheral fatigue and corticospinal inhibition were greater in EF than KE.
The epidemiology of work-related musculo-skeletal pathologies of the upper limbs has become significantly relevant in the last years, and a sharp increasing trend can be observed. This paper mainly focuses on the chronic inflammatory and degenerative conditions, which are more complex and difficult to accurately diagnose and treat. A synthesis of the diagnostic picture of the different types, involving the joints, muscles and tendons, and peripheral nerves is provided, with mention of the sensitivity and specificity of the main diagnostic tests. The possible entrapments of the radial, median and ulnar nerves are described in detail. Finally, a brief critical review on the principal movements of the upper limbs which are responsible of the onset of such conditions is presented.
Thais Botossi Scalha
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the somatosensory function of the affected upper limb of hemiparetic stroke patients and investigate the correlations between measurements of motor and sensory functions in tasks with and without visual deprivation. METHOD: We applied the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Nottingham Sensory Assessment (NSA, and several motor and sensory tests: Paper manipulation (PM, Motor Sequences (MS, Reaching and grasping (RG Tests Functional (TF, Tactile Discrimination (TD, Weight Discrimination (WD and Tactile Recognition of Objects (RO. RESULTS: We found moderate correlations between the FMA motor subscale and the tactile sensation score of the NSA. Additionally, the FMA sensitivity was correlated with the NSA total; and performance on the WD test items correlated with the NSA. CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between the sensory and motor functions of the upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients. Additionally, there was a greater reliance on visual information to compensate for lost sensory-motor skills.
Full Text Available A better understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor recovery after stroke has led to the development of innovative rehabilitation strategies and tools that incorporate key elements of motor skill relearning, that is, intensive motor training involving goal-oriented repeated movements. Robotic devices for the upper limb are increasingly used in rehabilitation. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices in reducing motor impairments, but less so for the improvement of upper limb function. Other studies have begun to investigate the benefits of combined approaches that target muscle function (functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injections, modulate neural activity (noninvasive brain stimulation, and enhance motivation (virtual reality in an attempt to potentialize the benefits of robot-mediated training. The aim of this paper is to overview the current status of such combined treatments and to analyze the rationale behind them.
Pallesen, Hanne; Andersen, Mette Brændstrup; Hansen, Gunhild Mo
Background. In recent years, virtual reality (VR) therapy systems for upper limb training after stroke have been increasingly used in clinical practice.Therapy systems employing VR technology can enhance the intensity of training and can also boost patients’ motivation by adding a playful element...... to therapy. However, reports on user experiences are still scarce. Methods. A qualitative investigation of patients’ and therapists’ perspectives on VR upper limb training. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with six patients in the final week of the VR intervention.Therapists participated...... character of VR training. The playful nature of the training appeared to have a significant influence on the patients’ moods and engagement and seemed to promote a “gung-ho” spirit, so they felt that they could perform more repetitions....
Andre, A; Rongieres, M; Laffosse, J-M; Pailhe, R; Lauwers, F; Grolleau, J-L
Bilateral amputations of upper limbs are excessively rare clinical situations. We report an exceptional clinical case of bilateral amputation of upper limbs at different levels: destruction of the right hand and left transhumeral amputation in a patient after an attempted suicide on train lines. This special situation led us to perform a cross-hand replantation of the left hand to the right forearm. Only 4 other similar cases have been published in the literature. Once the surgical indication had been formulated collectively, and taking into account all the ethical issues surrounding such a decision, we had to solve the issue of inverting anatomical structures in emergency. We have provided a detailed description of our surgical technique. The aim was to save at least one organ used for grasping. The result obtained is presented and reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Xin; Shi, Ping
The present paper proposed a central-driven structure of upper limb rehabilitation robot in order to reduce the volume of the robotic arm in the structure, and also to reduce the influence of motor noise, radiation and other adverse factors on upper limb dysfunction patient. The forward and inverse kinematics equations have been obtained with using the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameter method. The motion simulation has been done to obtain the angle-time curve of each joint and the position-time curve of handle under setting rehabilitation path by using Solid Works software. Experimental results showed that the rationality with the central-driven structure design had been verified by the fact that the handle could move under setting rehabilitation path. The effectiveness of kinematics equations had been proved, and the error was less than 3° by comparing the angle-time curves obtained from calculation with those from motion simulation.
Full Text Available This paper proposed a bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation device (BULReD with two degrees of freedom (DOFs. The BULReD is portable for both hospital and home environment, easy to use for therapists and patients, and safer with respect to upper-limb robotic exoskeletons. It was implemented to be able to conduct both passive and interactive training, based on system kinematics and dynamics, as well as the identification of real-time movement intention of human users. Preliminary results demonstrate the potential of the BULReD for clinical applications, with satisfactory position and interaction force tracking performance. Future work will focus on the clinical evaluation of the BULReD on a large sample of poststroke patients.
Full Text Available Scapulo-thoracic dissociation is an infrequent injury resulting from high energy trauma which is often associated with severe neurological and vascular injuries which may be unrecognised at the time of presentation. A 24 year-old female presented with bilateral rib fractures, pneumothorax, liver and kidney injuries following a road traffic accident. She also sustained fractures of her right scapula, odontoid, right transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and a closed fracture of her right femur. Her right upper limb was later noted to be flail and pulseless, due to complete right brachial plexus injury, scapula-thoracic dissociation and subclavian artery avulsion. We managed the upper limb injuries non-operatively, and focused on resuscitation of the patient. Early exploration of the complete brachial plexus injury was not undertaken in spite of the possible associated poor functional outcome as there was no life-threatening indication.
Berlit, Sebastian; Brade, Joachim; Tuschy, Benjamin; Földi, Etelka; Walz-Eschenlohr, Ulrike; Leweling, Hans; Sütterlin, Marc
The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body (50 kHz alternating current) and segmental (5 kHz alternating current) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in the assessment of manifested edema of the upper limbs. Whole-body and segmental BIA were performed in 30 patients with edema of the upper limb following breast cancer treatment. Pearson correlation coefficient comparing both measurements was 0.8891 (p-value <0.0001) with corresponding least squares (r(2)) of 0.7904. Whole-body BIA seems to be a suitable method in the assessment of manifested edema of the upper limbs.
Sensinger, Jonathon W.; Schultz, Aimee E.; Kuiken, Todd A.
Artificial limbs allow amputees to manipulate objects, but the loss of a limb severs the sensory link between a subject and objects they touch. A novel surgical technique we term targeted reinnervation (TR) allows severed cutaneous nerves to reinnervate skin on a different portion of the body. This technique provides a physiologically appropriate portal to the sensory pathways of the missing limb through the reinnervated skin. This study quantified the ability of three amputee subjects who had undergone TR surgery on the chest (two subjects) and upper arm (one subject) to discriminate changes in graded force on their reinnervated skin over a range of 1–4 N using a stochastic staircase approach. These values were compared to those from sites on their intact contralateral skin and index fingers, and from the chests and index fingers of a control population (n = 10). Weber’s ratio (WR) was used to examine the subjects’ abilities to discriminate between a baseline force and subsequent forces of different magnitudes. WRs of 0.22, 0.25, and 0.12 were measured on the reinnervated skin of the three TR subjects, whereas WRs of 0.25,0.23, and 0.12 were measured on their contralateral skin. TR subjects did not have substantially different WRs on their reinnervated versus their contralateral normal side and did not appear to exhibit a trend towards impaired sensation. No significant difference was found between the WR of the chest and index finger of the control subjects, which ranged between 0.09 and 0.21. WR of reinnervated skin for TR subjects were within the 95% confidence interval of the control group. These data suggest that subjects with targeted reinnervation have unimpaired ability to discriminate gradations in force. PMID:19775983
Furlan, Leonardo; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Sterr, Annette
Advances in our understanding of the neural plasticity that occurs after hemiparetic stroke have contributed to the formulation of theories of poststroke motor recovery. These theories, in turn, have underpinned contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies for treating motor deficits after stroke, such as upper limb hemiparesis. However, a relative drawback has been that, in general, these strategies are most compatible with the recovery profiles of relatively high-functioning stroke survivor...
Honnannavar, Kiran Abhayakumar; Mudakanagoudar, Mahantesh Shivangouda
Introduction: Brachial plexus blockade is a time-tested technique for upper limb surgeries. The classical approach using paresthesia technique is a blind technique and may be associated with a higher failure rate and injury to the nerves and surrounding structures. To avoid some of these problems, use of peripheral nerve stimulator and ultrasound techniques were started which allowed better localization of the nerve/plexus. Ultrasound for supraclavicular brachial plexus block has improved the...
Labbafinejad, Yasser; Danesh, Hossein; Imanizade, Zahra
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are defined as the disabling or painful injury to the muscles, nerves or tendons that are caused by work or aggravated by it. Some studies confirm the association between working in packaging units in various industries and the pain in the upper limb, but also there are controversies about the possible risk factors among different working populations. The present study aims to define the potential ergonomic risk factors for musculoskeletal pain in the upper limb. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used for assessment of the musculoskeletal pain. Some other questions about the possible risk factors were included in the questionnaire. In order to assess posture, rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) test was performed by trained ergonomists. The findings of the study reveals that shoulder pain is associated with work history (P-value = 0.01), smoking (P-value = 0.02), the level of education (P-value = 0.04) and age more than 40 years old (P-value = 0.01). Wrist pain was associated with shiftwork (P-value = 0.04) and especially fixed shiftwork (P-value = 0.04) and also age more than 40(P-value = 0.03) and missed days from work with a cut point of 7 days (P-value = 0.03). After regression, only the work history (OR = 14.4 for 10 to 20 years and OR = 32.2 for more than 20 years) and shiftwork (OR = 2.35) remained statistically significant. In this study, RULA was not associated with symptoms in the upper limb in non-heavy working industries so we do not recommend it for screening purposes. The use of decades of working history and shiftwork can be considered for this purpose in the shoulder and wrist pain respectively.
Essers, Bea; Meyer, Sarah; De Bruyn, Nele; Van Gils, Annick; Boccuni, Leonardo; Tedesco Triccas, Lisa; Peeters, André; Thijs, Vincent; Feys, Hilde; Verheyden, Geert
To investigate the relation between observed and perceived upper limb motor function in patients with chronic stroke. We investigated 32 patients at six months after stroke with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (observed function) and hand subscale of the Stroke Impact Scale (perceived function). Spearman correlation was calculated to relate observed and perceived function. Through cut-off scores, we divided our sample in low (Fugl-Meyer Assessment low (hand subscale of Stroke Impact Scale low match group" of patients with low observed and low perceived function (n = 11, 34%), a "good match group" containing patients with good observed and good perceived function (n = 15, 47%), and a "mismatch group" comprising patients with good observed but low perceived function (n = 6, 19%). In our chronic sample, one in five patients showed good upper limb observed but low perceived function. Measuring both observed and perceived arm and hand function seems warranted together with considering a differential therapy approach for the distinct groups. Implications for rehabilitation A considerable group of patients in the chronic phase post-stroke have good motor function in their affected upper limb, but nevertheless perceive a restricted ability. In order to identify a mismatch in people with chronic stroke, both observed and perceived upper limb motor function should be assessed. Besides common measurement tools for observed function like the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, perceived function can be evaluated by means of the hand function section of the Stroke Impact Scale. For patients with good observed but low perceived function, an additional rehabilitation strategy should be considered, potentially including awareness of ability and a self-efficacy approach.
Thomson, Katie; Pollock, Alex; Bugge, Carol; Brady, Marian
Rehabilitation using commercial gaming devices is a new concept for stroke care. Commercial gaming devices such as Nintendo Wii or Sony PlayStation encourage high repetition of arm movements and are being introduced into some clinical settings. The evidence base for gaming use in rehabilitation is growing rapidly and there is a need to systematically synthesise research. Our review aims to integrate evidence on how gaming is being used, explore patient/therapist experience and synthesise evidence of effectiveness. An integrative systematic review was undertaken searching Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2013), Medline (2013), Embase (2013) and twelve additional databases. Two review authors independently selected studies based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Nineteen studies including 215 patients met inclusion criteria. Studies were typically small scale feasibility studies using a range of research designs, limiting the ability to reach generalised conclusions. Results have been tabulated (activities of daily living, upper limb function/ movement) and qualitative themes identified. Findings suggest that most patients enjoy using commercial gaming and can tolerate 180 mins per week without significant adverse effects. A trend towards improvement was noted for upper limb function/ movement. Few studies recorded outcomes related to activities of daily living or focused on understanding patients' experiences of this intervention. Commercial gaming can provide high intensity upper limb practice however there is insufficient high quality evidence to reach generalisable conclusions about risks or benefits on activities of daily living or upper limb function/movement. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2014 World Stroke Organization.
Full Text Available Following a week after a jellyfish sting, a young man presented with regional cyanosis and threat of distal gangrene secondary to vascular spasm in the forearm. The patient also suffered from transient paresis and numbness of the affected upper limb. Contrasted imaging revealed unopacified vessels in the distal forearm and worsening swelling warranted emergency surgical fasciotomy for impending compartment syndrome. This case highlights the occurrence of jellyfish envenomation and the need for early treatment.
Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun
The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60?...
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR rehabilitation technology is a kind of integrated technology which simulates the real world via computer. It has three characteristics: immersion, interaction and imagination. It is widely used in the field of stroke rehabilitation. This review briefly describes the application of virtual reality rehabilitation technology in upper limb dysfunction after stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.002
Engdahl, Susannah M; Christie, Breanne P; Kelly, Brian; Davis, Alicia; Chestek, Cynthia A; Gates, Deanna H
Novel techniques for the control of upper limb prostheses may allow users to operate more complex prostheses than those that are currently available. Because many of these techniques are surgically invasive, it is important to understand whether individuals with upper limb loss would accept the associated risks in order to use a prosthesis. An online survey of individuals with upper limb loss was conducted. Participants read descriptions of four prosthetic control techniques. One technique was noninvasive (myoelectric) and three were invasive (targeted muscle reinnervation, peripheral nerve interfaces, cortical interfaces). Participants rated how likely they were to try each technique if it offered each of six different functional features. They also rated their general interest in each of the six features. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with Greenhouse-Geisser corrections was used to examine the effect of the technique type and feature on participants' interest in each technique. Responses from 104 individuals were analyzed. Many participants were interested in trying the techniques - 83 % responded positively toward myoelectric control, 63 % toward targeted muscle reinnervation, 68 % toward peripheral nerve interfaces, and 39 % toward cortical interfaces. Common concerns about myoelectric control were weight, cost, durability, and difficulty of use, while the most common concern about the invasive techniques was surgical risk. Participants expressed greatest interest in basic prosthesis features (e.g., opening and closing the hand slowly), as opposed to advanced features like fine motor control and touch sensation. The results of these investigations may be used to inform the development of future prosthetic technologies that are appealing to individuals with upper limb loss.
Heřmanská, J.; Gebouský, Petr; Křížová, H.; Kárný, Miroslav; Wald, M.
Roč. 32, Suppl. 1 (2005), s. 50 ISSN 1619-7070 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7601; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : quantitative lymphoscintigraphy * secondary lymphedema of upper limbs * dynamic modeling * staging * Bayesian evaluation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.883, year: 2005
comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to...Myoelectric Control Symposium, (MEC) Website(s) or other Internet site(s) Recruitment Page 11 https://www.facebook.com/YaleGrabLab/ Technologies...prosthesis use during daily living by upper-limb amputees • Develop task-related prosthesis usage /non- usage statistics • Examine compensatory motions
Full Text Available Establishing which upper limb outcome measures are most commonly used in stroke studies may help in improving consensus among scientists and clinicians.In this study we aimed to identify the most commonly used upper limb outcome measures in intervention studies after stroke and to describe domains covered according to ICF, how measures are combined, and how their use varies geographically and over time.Pubmed, CinHAL, and PeDRO databases were searched for upper limb intervention studies in stroke according to PRISMA guidelines and477 studies were included.In studies 48different outcome measures were found. Only 15 of these outcome measures were used in more than 5% of the studies. The Fugl-Meyer Test (FMTwas the most commonly used measure (in 36% of studies. Commonly used measures covered ICF domains of body function and activity to varying extents. Most studies (72% combined multiple outcome measures: the FMT was often combined with the Motor Activity Log (MAL, the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Action Research Arm Test, but infrequently combined with the Motor Assessment Scale or the Nine Hole Peg Test. Key components of manual dexterity such as selective finger movements were rarely measured. Frequency of use increased over a twelve-year period for the FMT and for assessments of kinematics, whereas other measures, such as the MAL and the Jebsen Taylor Hand Test showed decreased use over time. Use varied largely between countries showing low international consensus.The results showed a large diversity of outcome measures used across studies. However, a growing number of studies used the FMT, a neurological test with good psychometric properties. For thorough assessment the FMT needs to be combined with functional measures. These findings illustrate the need for strategies to build international consensus on appropriate outcome measures for upper limb function after stroke.
Santisteban, Leire; Térémetz, Maxime; Bleton, Jean-Pierre; Baron, Jean-Claude; Maier, Marc A.; Lindberg, Påvel G.
Background Establishing which upper limb outcome measures are most commonly used in stroke studies may help in improving consensus among scientists and clinicians. Objective In this study we aimed to identify the most commonly used upper limb outcome measures in intervention studies after stroke and to describe domains covered according to ICF, how measures are combined, and how their use varies geographically and over time. Methods Pubmed, CinHAL, and PeDRO databases were searched for upper limb intervention studies in stroke according to PRISMA guidelines and477 studies were included. Results In studies 48different outcome measures were found. Only 15 of these outcome measures were used in more than 5% of the studies. The Fugl-Meyer Test (FMT)was the most commonly used measure (in 36% of studies). Commonly used measures covered ICF domains of body function and activity to varying extents. Most studies (72%) combined multiple outcome measures: the FMT was often combined with the Motor Activity Log (MAL), the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Action Research Arm Test, but infrequently combined with the Motor Assessment Scale or the Nine Hole Peg Test. Key components of manual dexterity such as selective finger movements were rarely measured. Frequency of use increased over a twelve-year period for the FMT and for assessments of kinematics, whereas other measures, such as the MAL and the Jebsen Taylor Hand Test showed decreased use over time. Use varied largely between countries showing low international consensus. Conclusions The results showed a large diversity of outcome measures used across studies. However, a growing number of studies used the FMT, a neurological test with good psychometric properties. For thorough assessment the FMT needs to be combined with functional measures. These findings illustrate the need for strategies to build international consensus on appropriate outcome measures for upper limb function after stroke. PMID:27152853
The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.
electromyography, (5 th edn). William & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1985.  S. J. Coakes and L. G. S. Steed, SPSS Analysis without anguish , John Wiley & Sons...test. Keywords: Mechanically Evoked EMG; Neural Tension testing; Upper Limb Tension Test (ULLT); Pain; Median nerve; Human motion analysis ; Neuromuscular...mechanosensitivity of the median nerve in both neutral position of the arm and the tensioned position of median nerve in the ULTT. Statistical analysis Differences
Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha
Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.
Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo
It is well known that deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities is linked to high morbidity/mortality, resulting in 12-20% of all documented pulmonary embolism; however, there are few data about thromboembolism originating from a vein and/or a branch of a superficial vein of the upper extremities. Pulmonary embolism secondary to upper limb superficial vein thrombosis (not combined with upper extremities deep vein thrombosis) is a very rare clinical manifestation with few cases reported in the literature. We report a rare case of thrombophlebitis in departure from a superficial branch of the cephalic vein of the right arm, complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient who underwent major surgery for ovarian cancer. We discuss on the numerous thrombotic risk factors, triggering a cascade of reactions and resulting in a potential fatal clinical manifestation.
Mansoor, Awais; Ahmed, Wamiq M; Samarapungavan, Ala; Cirillo, John; Schwarte, David; Robinson, J Paul; Duerstock, Bradley S
A web-based application was developed to remotely view slide specimens and control all functions of a research-level light microscopy workstation, called AccessScope. Students and scientists with upper limb mobility and visual impairments are often unable to use a light microscope by themselves and must depend on others in its operation. Users with upper limb mobility impairments and low vision were recruited to assist in the design process of the AccessScope personal computer (PC) user interface. Participants with these disabilities were evaluated in their ability to use AccessScope to perform microscopical tasks. AccessScope usage was compared with inspecting prescanned slide images by grading participants' identification and understanding of histological features and knowledge of microscope operation. With AccessScope subjects were able to independently perform common light microscopy functions through an Internet browser by employing different PC pointing devices or accessibility software according to individual abilities. Subjects answered more histology and microscope usage questions correctly after first participating in an AccessScope test session. AccessScope allowed users with upper limb or visual impairments to successfully perform light microscopy without assistance. This unprecedented capability is crucial for students and scientists with disabilities to perform laboratory coursework or microscope-based research and pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.
Kidwai Saera Suhail
Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes in the upper limb are well recognized. No data has been available in this regard from Pakistan. Our aim was to find out the frequency of upper limb musculoskeletal abnormalities in diabetic patients. Methods This was an observational study in which type 2 diabetes patients attending our diabetic clinic were enrolled along with age and gender matched controls. Data was analyzed on SPSS 16. Results In total, 210 Type 2 diabetics (male 34.3%, female 65.7% and 203 controls (male 35%, female 65% were recruited. The mean age was 50.7± 10.2 years in diabetic group as compared to 49.5±10.6 years in the control group. The frequencies of hand region abnormalities were significantly higher in the diabetic subjects as compared to the controls (20.4%, p-value Conclusion A higher frequency of upper limb musculoskeletal abnormalities was observed in Type 2 diabetic patients as compared to control group.
Duret, Christophe; Mazzoleni, Stefano
During the last two decades, extensive interaction between clinicians and engineers has led to the development of systems that stimulate neural plasticity to optimize motor recovery after neurological lesions. This has resulted in the expansion of the field of robotics for rehabilitation. Studies in patients with stroke-related upper-limb paresis have shown that robotic rehabilitation can improve motor capacity. However, few other applications have been evaluated (e.g. tremor, peripheral nerve injuries or other neurological diseases). This paper presents an overview of the current use of upper limb robotic systems for neurorehabilitation, and highlights the rationale behind their use for the assessment and treatment of common neurological disorders. Rehabilitation robots are little integrated in clinical practice, except after stroke. Although few studies have been carried out to evaluate their effectiveness, evidence from the neurosciences and indications from pilot studies suggests that upper limb robotic rehabilitation can be applied safely in various other neurological conditions. Rehabilitation robots provide an intensity, quality and dose of treatment that exceeds therapist-mediated rehabilitation. Moreover, the use of force fields, multi-sensory environments, feedback etc. renders such rehabilitation engaging and motivating. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation robots in neurological pathologies other than stroke.
Bai, Lu; Pepper, Matthew G; Yan, Yong; Spurgeon, Sarah K; Sakel, Mohamed; Phillips, Malcolm
Two inertial sensor systems were developed for 3-D tracking of upper limb movement. One utilizes four sensors and a kinematic model to track the positions of all four upper limb segments/joints and the other uses one sensor and a dead reckoning algorithm to track a single upper limb segment/joint. Initial evaluation indicates that the system using the kinematic model is able to track orientation to 1 degree and position to within 0.1 cm over a distance of 10 cm. The dead reckoning system combined with the "zero velocity update" correction can reduce errors introduced through double integration of errors in the estimate in offsets of the acceleration from several meters to 0.8% of the total movement distance. Preliminary evaluation of the systems has been carried out on ten healthy volunteers and the kinematic system has also been evaluated on one patient undergoing neurorehabilitation over a period of ten weeks. The initial evaluation of the two systems also shows that they can monitor dynamic information of joint rotation and position and assess rehabilitation process in an objective way, providing additional clinical insight into the rehabilitation process.
Sims, Tara; Cranny, Andy; Metcalf, Cheryl; Chappell, Paul; Donovan-Hall, Maggie
The study aims to develop an understanding of the views of children and adolescents, parents, and professionals on upper limb prosthetic devices to develop and improve device design. Previous research has found that children are dissatisfied with prostheses but has relied heavily on parent proxy reports and quantitative measures (such as questionnaires) to explore their views. Thirty-four participants (eight children aged 8-15 years with upper limb difference, nine parents, eight prosthetists, and nine occupational therapists) contributed to the development of new devices through the BRIDGE methodology of participatory design, using focus groups and interviews. The study identified areas for improving prostheses from the perspective of children and adolescents, developed prototypes based on these and gained feedback on the prototypes from the children and other stakeholders (parents and professionals) of paediatric upper limb prostheses. Future device development needs to focus on ease of use, versatility, appearance, and safety. This study has demonstrated that children and adolescents can and should be involved as equal partners in the development of daily living equipment and that rapid prototyping (three-dimensional printing or additive manufacturing), used within a participatory design framework, can be a useful tool for facilitating this.
Oliveira, Valéria M A de; Pitangui, Ana C R; Gomes, Mayra R A; Silva, Hítalo A da; Passos, Muana H P Dos; Araújo, Rodrigo C de
Sports that require the constant use of an upper limb demand the maximum kinetic chain efficiency in this segment. Immaturity of the musculoskeletal system, followed by failure in motor skills can expose adolescents to major reports of pain complaints, particularly for the shoulder. To evaluate the prevalence of shoulder pain in adolescent athletes and identify possible factors associated with the complaint. A total of 310 athletes, of both sexes and aged between 10 and 19 years old participated on this study. The subjects filled out a questionnaire with personal, sports and upper limb function (Quick-DASH) questions. We evaluated the height, body mass, shoulder rotation range and stability of the upper limb using the CKCUES-test. The association between pain and the variables was analyzed using multilevel modeling logistic regression. We used the Mann-Whitney test for comparing between pain and function. The prevalence of shoulder pain was 43.5%. Athletes between 15 and 19 years, handball and judo practitioners, are 1.86, 2.14 and 3.07 more likely to report shoulder pain, respectively, when compared with other sports and ages. Shoulder pain reduced function scores (pShoulder pain is highly prevalent and is associated especially with older adolescent athletes of handball and judo, and affects the levels of function and the range of the shoulder. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Motor deficit, especially in the upper limb, is the primary contributor in post-stroke disability. Recovery of motor function relies on neural plasticity – cortical plastic reorganization – a spontaneous process, which could be enhanced from early phases by rehabilitative strategies. The subacute stage after stroke is the critical period during which the brain is most receptive to rehabilitation strategies. Based on the recent results of 2 trials in stroke rehabilitation using pharmacological intervention with Cerebrolysin in combination with standardized kinesitherapy, we conducted a pilot study of 4 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, treated with Cerebrolysin for 28 days after stroke, and with intensive task-specific kinesitherapy from day 7 to day 28 after stroke. We assessed stroke severity with NIHSS score, upper limb function with ARAT (Action Research Arm Test score, disability with modified Rankin scale and patient’s autonomy with Barthel Index, at day 0 and day 30 after stroke. After 28 days of combined therapy all 4 patients improved, most significant improvement was seen in upper limb function, measured by ARAT score and in autonomy measured by Barthel Index.
Antonio Vinicius Soares
Full Text Available Introduction The Stroke is a neurologic disturbs that leads to a serious impact to the functionality and the quality of life of the survivors. It is necessary to develop new tools with rehabilitation objectives, where the Virtual Reality (VR is introduced as a useful therapeutic resource to the motor recovery, in an attractive and efficient way, restoring functions through adapted games. Objective Analyzing the therapeutic effects of the Virtual Reality (Serious Game in the recovery of the upper limb in hemiparetic Stroke patients. Methods Quasi-experimental research type time series, there are three pre and three post-tests already accomplished around 20 VR sessions. In the assessments the following measurement instruments were used: Fugl-Meyer Scale – session of the upper limb (FMS - UL; Range of Motion (ROM for flexion and abduction shoulder; Box and Block Test (BBT; Nine Holes and Peg Test (9HPT; the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP; and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS. Results Significant gains were observed in the FMS-UL tests, with increase of 25.6%; increase ROM of shoulder with 34.0% for abduction and 19% for flexion; BBT 25.0%; also reported improvement in quality of life by NHP; it did not occurred significant alterations for 9HPT nor in MAS. Conclusion Although the results found in this research are preliminary, they are indicative that the VR can contribute for the recovery of the upper limb in hemiparetic Stroke patients.
Pigeon, P; Yahia, L; Feldman, A G
Modeling of musculoskeletal structures requires accurate data on anatomical parameters such as muscle lengths (MLs), moment arms (MAs) and those describing the upper limb position. Using a geometrical model of planar arm movements with three degrees of freedom, we present, in an analytical form, the available information on the relationship between MAs and MLs and joint angles for thirteen human upper limb muscles. The degrees of freedom included are shoulder flexion/extension, elbow flexion/extension, and either wrist flexion/extension (the forearm in supination) or radial/ulnar deviation (the forearm in mid-pronation). Previously published MA/angle curves were approximated by polynomials. ML/angle curves were obtained by combining the constant values of MLs (defined by the distance between the origin and insertion points for a specific upper limb position) with a variable part obtained by multiplying the MA (joint radius) and the joint angle. The MAs of the prime wrist movers in radial/ulnar deviation were linear functions of the joint angle (R2 > or = 0.9954), while quadratic polynomials accurately described their MAs during wrist flexion/extensions. The relationship between MAs and the elbow angle was described by 2nd, 3rd or 5th-order polynomials (R2 > or = 0.9904), with a lesser quality of fit for the anconeus (R2 = 0.9349). In the full range of angular displacements, the length of wrist, elbow and shoulder muscles can change by 8.5, 55 and 200%, respectively.
Kiguchi, Kazuo; Hayashi, Yoshiaki
A tremor which is one of the involuntary motions is somewhat rhythmic motion that may occur in various body parts. Although there are several kinds of the tremor, an essential tremor is the most common tremor disorder of the arm. The essential tremor is a disorder of unknown cause, and it is common in the elderly. The essential tremor interferes with a patient's daily living activity, because it may occur during a voluntary motion. If a patient of an essential tremor uses an EMG-based controlled power-assist robot, the robot might misunderstand the user's motion intention because of the effect of the essential tremor. In that case, upper-limb power-assist robots must carry out tremor suppression as well as power-assist, since a person performs various precise tasks with certain tools by the upper-limb in daily living. Therefore, it is important to suppress the tremor at the hand and grasped tool. However, in the case of the tremor suppression control method which suppressed the vibrations of the hand and the tip of the tool, vibration of other part such as elbow might occur. In this paper, the tremor suppression control method for upper-limb power-assist robot is proposed. In the proposed method, the vibration of the elbow is suppressed in addition to the hand and the tip of the tool. The validity of the proposed method was verified by the experiments.
Nordin, Nurdiana; Xie, Sheng Quan; Wünsche, Burkhard
: Studies of stroke patients undergoing robot-assisted rehabilitation have revealed various kinematic parameters describing movement quality of the upper limb. However, due to the different level of stroke impairment and different assessment criteria and interventions, the evaluation of the effectiveness of rehabilitation program is undermined. This paper presents a systematic review of kinematic assessments of movement quality of the upper limb and identifies the suitable parameters describing impairments in stroke patients. A total of 41 different clinical and pilot studies on different phases of stroke recovery utilizing kinematic parameters are evaluated. Kinematic parameters describing movement accuracy are mostly reported for chronic patients with statistically significant outcomes and correlate strongly with clinical assessments. Meanwhile, parameters describing feed-forward sensorimotor control are the most frequently reported in studies on sub-acute patients with significant outcomes albeit without correlation to any clinical assessments. However, lack of measures in coordinated movement and proximal component of upper limb enunciate the difficulties to distinguish the exploitation of joint redundancies exhibited by stroke patients in completing the movement. A further study on overall measures of coordinated movement is recommended.
Full Text Available Standard upper-limb motor function impairment assessments, such as the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, are a critical aspect of rehabilitation after neurological disorders. These assessments typically take a long time (about 30 min for the FMA for a clinician to perform on a patient, which is a severe burden in a clinical environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for automating upper-limb motor assessments that uses low-cost sensors to collect movement data. The sensor data is then processed through a machine learning algorithm to determine a score for a patient’s upper-limb functionality. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, we implemented a system based on the proposed framework that can automate most of the FMA. Our experiment shows that the system provides similar FMA scores to clinician scores, and reduces the time spent evaluating each patient by 82%. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to implement customized tests or tests specified in other existing standard assessment methods.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Main claims of the literature are that functional recovery of the paretic upper limb is mainly defined within the first month post stroke and that rehabilitation services should preferably be applied intensively and in a task-oriented way within this particular time window. EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke (acronym EXPLICIT-stroke aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of post stroke upper limb recovery. Two randomized single blinded trials form the core of the programme, investigating the effects of early modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (modified CIMT and EMG-triggered Neuro-Muscular Stimulation (EMG-NMS in patients with respectively a favourable or poor probability for recovery of dexterity. Methods/design 180 participants suffering from an acute, first-ever ischemic stroke will be recruited. Functional prognosis at the end of the first week post stroke is used to stratify patient into a poor prognosis group for upper limb recovery (N = 120, A2 project and a group with a favourable prognosis (N = 60, A1 project. Both groups will be randomized to an experimental arm receiving respectively modified CIMT (favourable prognosis or EMG-NMS (poor prognosis for 3 weeks or to a control arm receiving usual care. Primary outcome variable will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, assessed at 1,2,3,4,5, 8, 12 and 26 weeks post stroke. To study the impact of modified CIMT or EMG-NMS on stroke recovery mechanisms i.e. neuroplasticity, compensatory movements and upper limb neuromechanics, 60 patients randomly selected from projects A1 and A2 will undergo TMS, kinematical and haptic robotic measurements within a repeated measurement design. Additionally, 30 patients from the A1 project will undergo fMRI at baseline, 5 and 26 weeks post stroke. Conclusion EXPLICIT stroke is a 5 year translational research programme which main aim is to investigate the effects of early applied intensive intervention for regaining dexterity
Darling, W G; Hondzinski, J M; Harper, J G
The effects of varying gaze direction on perceptions of the upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes and of the median plane location were studied in nine subjects with no history of neuromuscular disorders. In two experiments, six subjects aligned the unseen forearm to the trunk-fixed anterior-posterior (a/p) axis and earth-fixed vertical while gazing at different visual targets using either head or eye motion to vary gaze direction in different conditions. Effects of support of the upper limb on perceptual errors were also tested in different conditions. Absolute constant errors and variable errors associated with forearm alignment to the trunk-fixed a/p axis and earth-fixed vertical were similar for different gaze directions whether the head or eyes were moved to control gaze direction. Such errors were decreased by support of the upper limb when aligning to the vertical but not when aligning to the a/p axis. Regression analysis showed that single trial errors in individual subjects were poorly correlated with gaze direction, but showed a dependence on shoulder angles for alignment to both axes. Thus, changes in position of the head and eyes do not influence perceptions of upper limb kinesthetic coordinate system axes. However, dependence of the errors on arm configuration suggests that such perceptions are generated from sensations of shoulder and elbow joint angle information. In a third experiment, perceptions of median plane location were tested by instructing four subjects to place the unseen right index fingertip directly in front of the sternum either by motion of the straight arm at the shoulder or by elbow flexion/extension with shoulder angle varied. Gaze angles were varied to the right and left by 0.5 radians to determine effects of gaze direction on such perceptions. These tasks were also carried out with subjects blind-folded and head orientation varied to test for effects of head orientation on perceptions of median plane location. Constant
Lauretti, Clemente; Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Trigili, Emilio; Catalan, Jose Maria; Badesa, Francisco Javier; Crea, Simona; Pagliara, Silvio Marcello; Sterzi, Silvia; Vitiello, Nicola; Garcia Aracil, Nicolas; Zollo, Loredana
The reference joint position of upper-limb exoskeletons is typically obtained by means of Cartesian motion planners and inverse kinematics algorithms with the inverse Jacobian; this approach allows exploiting the available Degrees of Freedom (i.e. DoFs) of the robot kinematic chain to achieve the desired end-effector pose; however, if used to operate non-redundant exoskeletons, it does not ensure that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. This paper proposes a motion planning system, based on Learning by Demonstration, for upper-limb exoskeletons that allow successfully assisting patients during Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) in unstructured environment, while ensuring that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. The motion planning system combines Learning by Demonstration with the computation of Dynamic Motion Primitives and machine learning techniques to construct task- and patient-specific joint trajectories based on the learnt trajectories. System validation was carried out in simulation and in a real setting with a 4-DoF upper-limb exoskeleton, a 5-DoF wrist-hand exoskeleton and four patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. Validation was addressed to (i) compare the performance of the proposed motion planning with traditional methods; (ii) assess the generalization capabilities of the proposed method with respect to the environment variability. Three ADLs were chosen to validate the system: drinking, pouring and lifting a light sphere. The achieved results showed a 100% success rate in the task fulfillment, with a high level of generalization with respect to the environment variability. Moreover, an anthropomorphic configuration of the exoskeleton is always ensured. PMID:29527161
Full Text Available The reference joint position of upper-limb exoskeletons is typically obtained by means of Cartesian motion planners and inverse kinematics algorithms with the inverse Jacobian; this approach allows exploiting the available Degrees of Freedom (i.e. DoFs of the robot kinematic chain to achieve the desired end-effector pose; however, if used to operate non-redundant exoskeletons, it does not ensure that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. This paper proposes a motion planning system, based on Learning by Demonstration, for upper-limb exoskeletons that allow successfully assisting patients during Activities of Daily Living (ADLs in unstructured environment, while ensuring that anthropomorphic criteria are satisfied in the whole human-robot workspace. The motion planning system combines Learning by Demonstration with the computation of Dynamic Motion Primitives and machine learning techniques to construct task- and patient-specific joint trajectories based on the learnt trajectories. System validation was carried out in simulation and in a real setting with a 4-DoF upper-limb exoskeleton, a 5-DoF wrist-hand exoskeleton and four patients with Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy. Validation was addressed to (i compare the performance of the proposed motion planning with traditional methods; (ii assess the generalization capabilities of the proposed method with respect to the environment variability. Three ADLs were chosen to validate the system: drinking, pouring and lifting a light sphere. The achieved results showed a 100% success rate in the task fulfillment, with a high level of generalization with respect to the environment variability. Moreover, an anthropomorphic configuration of the exoskeleton is always ensured.
Moura, Renata Calhes Franco; Santos, Cibele Almeida; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Duarte, Natalia Carvalho de Almeida; Braun, Luiz Alfredo; Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Santos, Ligia Abram Dos; Rodrigues, Eliane Lopes Souza; Albertini, Giorgio; Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Oliveira, Claudia Santos
The aim of the proposed study is to perform a comparative analysis of functional training effects for the paretic upper limb with and without transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary motor cortex in children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy. The sample will comprise 34 individuals with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy, 6 to 16 years old, classified at level I, II, or III of the Manual Ability Classification System. Participants will be randomly allocated to two groups: (1) functional training of the paretic upper limb combined with anodic transcranial stimulation; (2) functional training of the paretic upper limb combined with sham transcranial stimulation. Evaluation will involve three-dimensional movement analysis and electromyography using the SMART-D 140® system (BTS Engineering) and the FREEEMG® system (BTS Engineering), the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, to assess functional mobility, the Portable Device and Ashworth Scale, to measure movement resistance and spasticity, and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, to evaluate performance. Functional reach training of the paretic upper limb will include a range of manual activities using educational toys associated with an induced constraint of the non-paretic limb during the training. Training will be performed in five weekly 20-minute sessions for two weeks. Transcranial stimulation over the primary motor cortex will be performed during the training sessions at an intensity of 1 mA. Findings will be analyzed statistically considering a 5 % significance level (P ≤ 0.05). This paper presents a detailed description of a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial designed to demonstrate the effects of combining transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary motor cortex and functional training of the paretic limb in children with cerebral palsy classified at level I, II, or III of the Manual Ability Classification System. The
Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime
The purpose of this study was to identify differences in maximum strength after an intense strength training program, contrasting muscle groups from upper limbs versus lower limbs. The sample consisted of 10 healthy elderly males (age 73±6 years) with independent living. The training program lasted 12 weeks (3 × week, 50 to 80% of 1RM, 2-3 sets, 6 to 12 repetitions). Two muscle groups were analyzed: LOWER (sum of average values of three exercises for the lower limbs) and UPPER (sum of average values of four exercises for the upper limbs). Measurement of 1RM was performed at intervals of 4 weeks by direct methods. Repeated measures ANOVA identified significant differences in muscle groups (F=8.1, p=0.006), time (F=730.0 p=0.000) and also their interaction (F=4.4, p=0.014). The gains in 1RM values were higher for upper limbs. These results may suggest that the muscles of the lower limbs are elicited more frequently and therefore, have a smaller potential to gain strength at older age. The muscles of the upper limbs are in accelerated muscle atrophy and their trainability is probably higher.
Objectives To investigate if typing speed is proportional to the severity of pain in keyboard workers with work-related upper limb disorder (WRULD). Design Standardized functional typing test with participants scoring pain before and after typing; calculation of typing speed. Participants Fifty-nine patients and six controls. Setting Tertiary hospital centre for hand and upper limb pain. Main outcome measures Pain (VAS 0?10) and calculation of typing speed as words per minute. Results Three s...
Ahmad Zuhaidi Muhammad Fareez; Abdol Rahman Mohd Nasrull
This paper provides an overview of the various methods that have been developed for the assessment of risk factors for upper limb disorders among cashiers in grocery retail industries. This paper is essential as upper limb disorders have been known as one of the prime cause of work-related disability in various countries. The methods used for the assessment were the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, the Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART), the Job Strain Index ...
Villán-Villán, Mailin A; Pérez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Gómez, Cristina; Opisso, Eloy; Tormos, Jose; Medina, Josep; Gómez, Enrique J
This paper proposes a first approach for the automation of the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale used in physical neurorehabilitation. The main goal of this research is to automatically estimate an objective measurement for five Fugl-Meyer scale items related to the assessment of the upper limb motion. An objective score has been calculated for 7 patients. Obtained results indicate that the automation of the scale can be a useful tool for the objective assessment of upper limb motion of stroke survivors.
Yang, Eun Joo; Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Sung-Won; Lim, Jae-Young
To explore upper-limb disability with respect to health outcomes, operationalized by Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand, and to identify factors associated with each element of upper-limb disability over a 2-year period in breast cancer survivors. Prospective cohort study. University hospital cancer center. Individuals (N=191) recruited from all the patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer before cancer surgery at a university hospital between April 2006 and March 2007. Not applicable. We evaluated demographics, social variables, and upper-limb disability in a baseline assessment preoperatively. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in outpatient clinics 3 months after surgery and at 12 and 24 months after surgery. Linear regression models with the generalized estimating equations of the compound symmetry covariance structure were used. Time since surgery was inversely associated with the impairment items score (β=-.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.49 to -.08) and positively associated with the activity limitation items score (β=.59; 95% CI, .29-.88). The impact of upper-limb disability preoperatively on the items involving both the activity limitation and participation restrictions scores was positive (β=2.89; 95% CI, .76-5.02) after adjusting for demographic, treatment type, and socioeconomic factors. Our study revealed that upper-limb impairment recovered with time after breast cancer surgery; however, upper-limb function-related activity and participation were reduced through 2 years after surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Silvia Elizate Monteiro
Full Text Available Introduction Low-level lasers have been suggested as a complement to lymphedema treatment. However, this therapy’s mechanism of action and its effects are poorly understood up to the present. Objective To conduct a systematic literature review to analyze the effects of low-level laser in the treatment of upper-limb lymphedema in women submitted to breast cancer surgery. Material and methods Randomized clinical trials were included, in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from January 1990 to July 2013. The article search was carried out in the Pubmed, Lilacs and PEDro electronic databases, with the following descriptors:Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade, Linfedema, Câncer de Mama, Low-level laser therapy, Lymphedema, Breast Neoplasms and also through a manual search. Results and discussion Low-level lasers have been used for treating several acute and chronic conditions. However, its application for managing post breast cancer surgery is still recent, often based on empirical evidence. Treating upper-limb lymphedema with low-level laser presented positive results, with reduction in the circumference or volume of the affected limb. Conclusion More studies of high methodological quality are needed in order to better understand the mechanism of action of low-level laser on the lymphatic system and its effects on lymphedema treatement.
Rivera, J C; Glebus, G P; Cho, M S
Injuries to the limb are the most frequent cause of permanent disability following combat wounds. We reviewed the medical records of 450 soldiers to determine the type of upper limb nerve injuries sustained, the rate of remaining motor and sensory deficits at final follow-up, and the type of Army disability ratings granted. Of 189 soldiers with an injury of the upper limb, 70 had nerve-related trauma. There were 62 men and eight women with a mean age of 25 years (18 to 49). Disabilities due to nerve injuries were associated with loss of function, neuropathic pain or both. The mean nerve-related disability was 26% (0% to 70%), accounting for over one-half of this cohort's cumulative disability. Patients injured in an explosion had higher disability ratings than those injured by gunshot. The ulnar nerve was most commonly injured, but most disability was associated with radial nerve trauma. In terms of the final outcome, at military discharge 59 subjects (84%) experienced persistent weakness, 48 (69%) had a persistent sensory deficit and 17 (24%) experienced chronic pain from scar-related or neuropathic pain. Nerve injury was the cause of frequent and substantial disability in our cohort of wounded soldiers.
Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime
The purpose of this study was to identify differences in maximum strength after an intense strength training program, contrasting muscle groups from upper limbs versus lower limbs. The sample consisted of 10 healthy elderly males (age 73?6 years) with independent living. The training program lasted 12 weeks (3 ? week, 50 to 80% of 1RM, 2?3 sets, 6 to 12 repetitions). Two muscle groups were analyzed: LOWER (sum of average values of three exercises for the lower limbs) and UPPER (sum of average...
BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP, remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. Methods/Design Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. Discussion The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying
Full Text Available Rehabilitation is the main therapeutic approach for reducing poststroke functional deficits in the affected upper limb; however, significant between-patient variability in rehabilitation efficacy indicates the need to target patients who are likely to have clinically significant improvement after treatment. Many studies have determined robust predictors of recovery and treatment gains and yielded many great results using linear approachs. Evidence has emerged that the nonlinearity is a crucial aspect to study the inter-areal communication in human brains and abnormality of oscillatory activities in the motor system is linked to the pathological states. In this study, we hypothesized that combinations of linear and nonlinear (cross-frequency network connectivity parameters are favourable biomarkers for stratifying patients for upper limb rehabilitation with increased accuracy. We identified the biomarkers by using 37 prerehabilitation electroencephalogram (EEG datasets during a movement task through effective connectivity and logistic regression analyses. The predictive power of these biomarkers was then tested by using 16 independent datasets (i.e. construct validation. In addition, 14 right handed healthy subjects were also enrolled for comparisons. The result shows that the beta plus gamma or theta network features provided the best classification accuracy of 92%. The predictive value and the sensitivity of these biomarkers were 81.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Subcortical lesion, the time poststroke and initial Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT score were identified as the most significant clinical variables affecting the classification accuracy of this predictive model. Moreover, 12 of 14 normal controls were classified as having favourable recovery. In conclusion, EEG-based linear and nonlinear motor network biomarkers are robust and can help clinical decision making.
Moosa, Shahida; Lambie, Lindsay Ann; Krause, Amanda
Sirenomelia, also known as the 'mermaid malformation/syndrome', is a rare, serious congenital anomaly characterized by variable degrees of fusion of the lower limbs and associated severe malformations of the lower vertebral and genitourinary systems. In this report, we describe a series of African patients with sirenomelia. We present the clinical and radiological features of four black South African patients and illustrate some of the rarer associated abnormalities, which include asymmetrical upper limb defects, not confined to the radial ray. The clinical phenotypic overlap between caudal dysgenesis, VACTERL association and sirenomelia in our patients is highlighted, lending support to the theory that these entities may be different manifestations of a single pathogenic process.
Khairuddin, I. M.; Sidek, S. N.; Yusof, H. Md; Baarath, K.; Majeed, A. P. P. A.
Stroke is amongst the leading causes of deprivation of one’s ability in carrying out activities of daily living. It has been reported from literature that, the functional recovery of stroke patients are rather poor, unless frequent rehabilitative therapy is assumed on the affected limb. Recent trends of rehabilitation therapy have also shifted towards allowing more participation of the patient in the therapy session rather than simple passive treatments as it has been demonstrated to be non-trivial in promoting neural plasticity to expedite motor recovery process. Therefore, the employment of rehabilitation robotics is seen as a means of mitigating the limitations of conventional rehabilitation therapy. It enables unique methods for promoting patient engagement by providing patients assistance only as needed basis. This paper attempts on reviewing assist-as-needed control strategy applied on upper-limb robotic rehabilitation devices.
Ali, E; Raghuvanshi, M
Open upper limb injuries requiring soft reconstruction can pose a dilemma for trauma surgeons when considering the treatment options. The British Orthopaedic Association and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Standard for Trauma (BOAST) have addressed the management of severe open lower limb fractures with the creation of the BOAST 4 guidelines. However, no such gold standard exists for the treatment of open injuries of the upper limb. Furthermore, treatment of these injuries is often more difficult and requires complicated strategies. Since the advent of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), there has been an improvement in wound care, though a focused review of its use in wound closure and infection prevention in the upper limb has not been published. We examine wound care management for open upper limb injuries with regard to the dressings applied, NPWT, wound closure and infection prevention. A systematic search of Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar was performed using the key words. The key word searches were performed by two independent reviewers and 8,792 papers were found. Manuscripts between 1990 and 2010 were included, with the addition of key manuscripts before this date. Each manuscript was assessed by the two authors independently for methodology and validity Results: Approximately 120 manuscripts fulfilled selection criteria examining the influence of NPWT on open upper and lower limb injuries, and those examining infection risk in the same injuries. Of these 120 manuscripts, 28 were suitable for inclusion in the review. The systematic review is presented, allied to the BOAST 4 principles, examining the use of NPWT and the tools available for infection prevention for wounds of the upper and lower limb. The use of NPWT in conjunction with antibiotic-bead therapy improved the way in which open fractures of both the upper and lower limb are treated. Production of guidelines is warranted for the treatment of upper
Naito, Eiichi; Nakashima, Tokuro; Kito, Tomonori; Aramaki, Yu; Okada, Tomohisa; Sadato, Norihiro
Sensing movements of the upper and lower extremities is important in controlling whole-body movements. We have shown that kinesthetic illusory hand movements activate motor areas and right-sided fronto-parietal cortices. We investigated whether illusions for the upper and lower extremities, i.e. right or left hand or foot, activate the somatotopical sections of motor areas, and if an illusion for each limb engages the right-sided cortices. We scanned the brain activity of 19 blindfolded right-handed participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they experienced an illusion for each limb elicited by vibrating its tendon at 110 Hz (ILLUSION). As a control, we applied identical stimuli to the skin over a nearby bone, which does not elicit illusions (VIBRATION). The illusory movement (ILLUSION vs. VIBRATION) of each immobile limb activated limb-specific sections of the contralateral motor cortex (along with somatosensory area 3a), dorsal premotor cortex (PMD), supplementary motor area (SMA), cingulate motor area (CMA), and the ipsilateral cerebellum, which normally participate in execution of movements of the corresponding limb. We found complex non-limb-specific representations in rostral parts of the bilateral SMA and CMA, and illusions for all limbs consistently engaged concentrated regions in right-sided fronto-parietal cortices and basal ganglia. This study demonstrated complete sets of brain representations related to kinesthetic processing of single-joint movements of the four human extremities. The kinesthetic function of motor areas suggests their importance in somatic perception of limb movement, and the non-limb-specific representations indicate high-order kinesthetic processing related to human somatic perception of one's own body.
Koontz, Alicia M; Kankipati, Padmaja; Lin, Yen-Sheng; Cooper, Rory A; Boninger, Michael L
The objective of this study was to investigate differences in shoulder, elbow and hand kinetics while performing three different SPTs that varied in terms of hand and trunk positioning. Fourteen unimpaired individuals (8 male and 6 female) performed three variations of sitting pivot transfers in a random order from a wheelchair to a level tub bench. Two transfers involved a forward flexed trunk (head-hips technique) and the third with the trunk remaining upright. The two transfers involving a head hips technique were performed with two different leading hand initial positions. Motion analysis equipment recorded upper body movements and force sensors recorded hand reaction forces. Shoulder and elbow joint and hand kinetics were computed for the lift phase of the transfer. Transferring using either of the head hips techniques compared to the trunk upright style of transferring resulted in reduced superior forces at the shoulder (Pforces in the leading elbow (P=0.049) for both head hip transfers and the trailing hand for the head hip technique with the arm further away from the body (P<0.028). The head hip techniques resulted in higher shoulder external rotation, flexion and extension moments compared to the trunk upright technique (P<0.021). Varying the hand placement and trunk positioning during transfers changes the load distribution across all upper limb joints. The results of this study may be useful for determining a technique that helps preserve upper limb function overtime. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
da Silva, Fernanda C; da Silva, Daniela F T; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel A; Fernandes, Kristianne P S; Bussadori, Sandra K
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between upper limb impairment and oral health impact in individuals with hemiparesis stemming from a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were conducted with a sample of 27 stroke survivors with complete or partial hemiparesis with brachial or crural predominance. The 14-item short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile was used to evaluate perceptions of oral health. The Brazilian version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale was used to evaluate perceptions regarding quality of life. [Results] A statistically significant association was found between the upper extremity function subscale of the SSQOL-Brazil and the impact of oral health evaluated using the OHIP-14, with a strong correlation found for the physical pain subscale, moderate correlations with the functional limitation, psychological discomfort, physical disability, social disability and social handicap subscales as well as a weak correlation with the psychological disability subscale. Analyzing the OHIP-14 scores with regard to the impact of oral health on quality of life, the most frequent classification was weak impact, with small rates of moderate and strong impact. [Conclusion] Compromised upper limb function and self-perceived poor oral health, whether due to cultural resignation or functional disability, exert a negative impact on the quality of life of individuals with hemiparesis stemming from a stroke.
Furusho, Junji; Koyanagi, Ken'ichi; Nakanishi, Kazuhiko; Ryu, Ushio; Takenaka, Shigekazu; Inoue, Akio; Domen, Kazuhisa; Miyakoshi, Koichi
New training methods and exercises for upper limbs rehabilitation are made possible by application of robotics and virtual reality technology. The technologies can also make quantitative evaluations and enhance the qualitative effect of training. We have joined a project managed by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization as a semi-governmental organization under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan) 5-year Project, "Rehabilitation System for the Upper Limbs and Lower Limbs", and developed a 3-DOF exercise machine for upper limbs (EMUL) using ER actuators. In this paper, we also present the development of software for motion exercise trainings and some results of clinical evaluation. Moreover, it is discussed how ER actuators ensure the mechanical safety.
Pérez-Mármol, Jose Manuel; Ortega-Valdivieso, María Azucena; Cano-Deltell, Enrique Elías; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación
Descriptive, cross-sectional. The impact of upper limb (UL) disability, dexterity and fine motor skill on self-efficacy in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) is not well known yet. To evaluate the self-efficacy and its relationship with UL function/disability in institutionalized OA. Institutionalized adults (n = 45) over the age of 65 years with OA were evaluated in a single session, to determine pinch strength, active range of motion of the hand and UL disability and functionality. They were classified as self-efficacious or not based on their general self-efficacy level. The influence on self-efficacy on upper limb function was statistically analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Self-effective older adults showed significantly lower scores in disability and higher scores in pinch strength, dexterity and motion of thumb than those who were classified as non-self-effective. Self-efficacy was associated with pinch strength (p ≤ 0.038), disability (p self-efficacy. Older adults classified as non-self-effective have higher UL disability and less pinch strength, manual dexterity and thumb motion than those who are self-effective, suggesting a relationship between impairment and perceived ability. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sanson, H; Gautier, V; Stansal, A; Sfeir, D; Franceschi, C; Priollet, P
Exercise-induced thrombosis is a rare cause of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the upper limb and usually affects young subjects without comorbid conditions. The diagnosis may be challenging. A 23-year-old female right-handed French teacher and amateur violin player presented with edema of the root of the right arm associated with erythrocyanosis of the extremity and collateral circulation of the shoulder. History taking revealed oral contraception and recent change in violin playing habits. D-dimers were negative. A second duplex-Doppler was required before visualization of a DVT in the right subclavian vein. The patient was given low-molecular-weight heparin alone, followed by rivaroxaban. The outcome was very favorable at 48h. The patient was seen at 4 months and had not had a recurrent episode. The diagnosis of DVT of the upper limb is basically clinical. There is a clinical probability score for the introduction of anticoagulation even if the duplex-Doppler fails to visualize DVT, a situation that can occur due to the clavicular superposition in this region. Exercise-induced DVT should be suspected in patients with minimally intense but repeated exercise (hyper-abduction), e.g. as here playing the violin. Anticoagulation is the treatment of choice. The role for surgery and pharmacomechanical strategies remains to be defined. Exercise-induced thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome) should be suspected in young patients free of any comorbidity who develop a thrombosis of the upper limb. Studies comparing different therapeutic options would be useful to achieve more homogeneous management practices despite the heterogeneous clinical presentations. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Gómez-Álvarez, J; González-Escobar, S; Gil-Garay, E
Some patients with a hip fracture also present a concomitant upper limb fracture. We want to know whether these patients have a worse functional level and whether they have any differences in various clinical parameters compared with patients with an isolated hip fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 1061 discharge reports from the Orthogeriatrics Unit. We collected information on several clinical parameters of the fractures. Subsequently, we performed a statistical analysis of the data by comparing the associated fracture group with the isolated fracture group. We detected 44 patients with associated upper limb fracture, 90.9% were women (40) and the average age was 84.45years. Eighty-one point eight percent of the upper limb fractures were distal radius or proximal humerus. Pertrochanteric fractures were the most common (none of them were subtrochanteric fractures). Surgical delay was 2.60days and the average hospital stay was 12.30days. Sixty-four point three percent were nail surgery and 31% arthroplasty. The mean Barthel index score was 84.88 (P=.021). Fifty-two point 5 percent of the patients in the study group were referred to a functional support unit (P=.03). The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.2%, with no differences between groups. Patients with an associated fracture have a higher previous functional capacity and they are more independent. Nevertheless, after the fracture they need more help from the healthcare system for optimal functional recovery. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Close interaction can be observed between an exoskeleton robot and its wearer. Therefore, appropriate physical human-robot interaction (pHRI should be considered when designing an exoskeleton robot to provide safe and comfortable motion assistance. Different features have been used in recent studies to enhance the pHRI in upper-limb exoskeleton robots. However, less attention has been given to integrating kinematic redundancy into upper-limb exoskeleton robots to improve the pHRI. In this context, this paper proposes a six-degrees-of-freedom (DoF upper-limb exoskeleton robot (6-REXOS for the motion assistance of physically weak individuals. The 6-REXOS uses a kinematically different structure to that of the human lower arm, where the exoskeleton robot is worn. The 6-REXOS has four active DoFs to generate the motion of the human lower arm. Furthermore, two flexible bellow couplings are attached to the wrist and elbow joints to generate two passive DoFs. These couplings not only allow translational motion in wrist and elbow joints but also a redundancy in the robot. Furthermore, the compliance of the flexible coupling contributes to avoiding misalignments between human and robot joint axes. The redundancy in the 6-REXOS is verified based on manipulability index, minimum singular value, condition number and manipulability ellipsoids. The 6-REXOS and a four-DoF exoskeleton robot are compared to verify the manipulation advantage due to the redundancy. The four-DoF exoskeleton robot is designed by excluding the two passive DoFs of the 6-REXOS. In addition, a kinematic model is proposed for the human lower arm to validate the performance of the 6-REXOS. Kinematic analysis and simulations are carried out to validate the 6-REXOS and human-lower-arm model.
Hancock, Laura; Correia, Stephen; Ahern, David; Barredo, Jennifer; Resnik, Linda
Purpose The objectives were to 1) identify major cognitive domains involved in learning to use the DEKA Arm; 2) specify cognitive domain-specific skills associated with basic versus advanced users; and 3) examine whether baseline memory and executive function predicted learning. Method Sample included 35 persons with upper limb amputation. Subjects were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery prior to start of DEKA Arm training, as well as physical performance measures at the onset of, and following training. Multiple regression models controlling for age and including neuropsychological tests were developed to predict physical performance scores. Prosthetic performance scores were divided into quartiles and independent samples t-tests compared neuropsychological test scores of advanced scorers and basic scorers. Baseline neuropsychological test scores were used to predict change in scores on physical performance measures across time. Results Cognitive domains of attention and processing speed were statistically significantly related to proficiency of DEKA Arm use and predicted level of proficiency. Conclusions Results support use of neuropsychological tests to predict learning and use of a multifunctional prosthesis. Assessment of cognitive status at the outset of training may help set expectations for the duration and outcomes of treatment. Implications for Rehabilitation Cognitive domains of attention and processing speed were significantly related to level of proficiencyof an advanced multifunctional prosthesis (the DEKA Arm) after training. Results provide initial support for the use of neuropsychological tests to predict advanced learningand use of a multifunctional prosthesis in upper-limb amputees. Results suggest that assessment of patients' cognitive status at the outset of upper limb prosthetictraining may, in the future, help patients, their families and therapists set expectations for theduration and intensity of training and may help set
Silva, Cláudia C; Silva, Augusta; Sousa, Andreia; Pinheiro, Ana Rita; Bourlinova, Catarina; Silva, Ana; Salazar, António; Borges, Carla; Crasto, Carlos; Correia, Miguel Velhote; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Santos, Rubim
The purpose of this study was to analyze the change in antagonist co-activation ratio of upper-limb muscle pairs, during the reaching movement, of both ipsilesional and contralesional limbs of post-stroke subjects. Nine healthy and nine post-stroke subjects were instructed to reach and grasp a target, placed in the sagittal and scapular planes of movement. Surface EMG was recorded from postural control and movement related muscles. Reaching movement was divided in two sub-phases, according to proximal postural control versus movement control demands, during which antagonist co-activation ratios were calculated for the muscle pairs LD/PM, PD/AD, TRIlat/BB and TRIlat/BR. Post-stroke's ipsilesional limb presented lower co-activation in muscles with an important role in postural control (LD/PM), comparing to the healthy subjects during the first sub-phase, when the movement was performed in the sagittal plane (plimb showed in general an increased co-activation ratio in muscles related to movement control, comparing to the healthy subjects. Our findings demonstrate that, in post-stroke subjects, the reaching movement performed with the ipsilesional upper limb seems to show co-activation impairments in muscle pairs associated to postural control, whereas the contralesional upper limb seems to have signs of impairment of muscle pairs related to movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article proposes a system for Telerehabilitation of people with motor disorders of the upper limb, by making a literature review about works related with the provision of the physical therapy service with ICT’s use. Likewise, there is a brief description of the modules integrating the system: motion capture system based on inertial sensors and motion capture with camera; joint angle estimator was implemented through Kalman filter; IT app which registers the electronic medical record and finally, the active videogames module.
Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The damage or death of brain cells caused by a stroke affects brain function and leads to deficits in sensory and/or motor function. As a consequence, a stroke can have a significantly negative impact on the patient’s ability to perform...... function training in stroke patients (Study I), delivering visual feedback to stroke patients during upper limb training (Study II), and automatization of a validated motor function test (Study III). The systems described in the three studies could be developed further in many possible ways, e.g. new...
Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Jin, Ying; Fukushima, Kazuki; Akai, Hiroki
Many kinds of actuator-based (active type) haptic device have developed and utilized as rehabilitation robots. These systems have great advantages for rehabilitative activities, for example assistive forces and so on. However, from the view point of safety, we have room to consider utilizing brake-based (passive type) haptic devices as rehabilitation-tools. The effects and roles of active / passive force feedback for rehabilitative trainings have not been clarified yet. In this study, we have developed an active / passive switchable rehabilitation system for upper limbs (Hybrid-PLEMO) to address these questions. In this paper, we describe the force-feedback mechanism of the Hybrid-PLEMO.
Yizhou Jiang; Yajie Qin; IkHwan Kim; Yuanyuan Wang
Rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been increasing in importance in recent years with increase in the occurrence of stroke. However, current clinical classification assessment is time-consuming while the result is not accurate and varies across physicians. This paper introduces an IoT-based upper limb rehabilitation assessment system for stroke survivors based on wireless sensing sub-system, data cloud, computing cloud and software based on Android platform. The system can automatically perform objective assessment. It is designed for home rehabilitation as well as for the concept of graded rehabilitation therapy.
Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew
To examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire in persons with upper limb amputation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal. Three sites participating in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Home Study of the DEKA Arm. A convenience sample of upper limb amputees (N=44). Training with a multifunction upper limb prosthesis. Multiple outcome measures including the QuickDASH were administered twice within 1 week, and for a subset of 20 persons, after completion of in-laboratory training with the DEKA Arm. Scale alphas and intraclass correlation coefficient type 3,1 (ICC3,1) were used to examine reliability. Minimum detectable change (MDC) scores were calculated. Analyses of variance, comparing QuickDASH scores by the amount of prosthetic use and amputation level, were used for known-group validity analyses with alpha set at .05. Pairwise correlations between QuickDASH and other measures were used to examine concurrent validity. Responsiveness was measured by effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM). QuickDASH alpha was .83, and ICC was .87 (95% confidence interval, .77-.93). MDC at the 95% confidence level (MDC95%) was 17.4. Full- or part-time prosthesis users had better QuickDASH scores compared with nonprosthesis users (P=.021), as did those with more distal amputations at both baseline (P=.042) and with the DEKA Arm (P=.024). The QuickDASH was correlated with concurrent measures of activity limitation as expected. The ES and SRM after training with the DEKA Arm were 0.6. This study provides evidence of reliability and validity of the QuickDASH in persons with upper limb amputation. Results provide preliminary evidence of responsiveness to prosthetic device type/training. Further research with a larger sample is needed to confirm results. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by
Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego
How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues
Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, M.; Krebs, J.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Curt, A.
Objective: To determine which single or combined upper limb muscles as defined by the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI); upper extremity motor score (UEMS) and the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP),
Alreni, Ahmad Salah Eldin; Harrop, Deborah; Gumber, Anil; McLean, Sionnadh
Upper limb disability is a common musculoskeletal condition frequently associated with neck pain. Recent literature has reported the need to utilise validated upper limb outcome measures in the assessment and management of patients with neck pain. However, there is a lack of clear guidance about the suitability of available measures, which may impede utilisation. This review will identify all available measures of upper limb function developed for use in neck pain patients and evaluate their measurement and practical properties in order to identify those measures that are most appropriate for use in clinical practice and research. This review will be performed in two phases. Phase one will identify all measures used to assess upper limb function for patients with neck pain. Phase two will identify all available studies of the measurement and practical properties of identified instrument. The COnsensus-based Standards for selection of health Measurement INstrument (COSMIN) will be used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. To ensure methodological rigour, the findings of this review will be reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. Optimal management of patients with neck pain should incorporate upper limb rehabilitation. The findings of this study will assist clinicians who seek to utilise suitable and accurate measures to assess upper limb function for a patient with neck pain. In addition, the findings of this study may suggest new research directions to support the development of upper limb outcome measures for patients with neck pain. PROSPERO CRD42015016624.
Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Kubsik, Anna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta
Rehabilitation of upper limb in patients after ischemic stroke is a major challenge for modern neurorehabilitation. Function of upper limb of patients after ischemic stroke returns on the end of the rehabilitation comparing with another parts of the body. Below presents two groups of patients after ischemic stroke who were rehabilitated with use of the following methods: kinesiotherapy combined with NDT- Bobath method and kinesiotherapy only. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of kinesiotherapy only and NDT- Bobath method combined with kinesiotherapy on the functional state and muscle tone of upper limb in patients after ischemic stroke. The study involved a group of 40 patients after ischemic stroke with motor control and muscle tone problems of upper limb. Patients were divided into two groups, each of them included 20 people. Upper limb in group I was rehabilitated with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise however group II with the use of kinesiotherapy exercise combined with NDT- Bobath method (Neurodevelopmental Treatment Bobath). To evaluate the patients before and after rehabilitation muscle tone Asworth scale was used and to assess functional status Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMAIII) scale was used. After 5 weeks of rehabilitation in group II in majority patients were observed decrease of muscle tone and improvement in upper limb functional status. In group I the muscle tone were also decreased and functional status were better but in smaller impact than in II group. Classical kinesiotherapy combined with the NDT-Bobath method gives better results in neurorehabilitation of upper limb than the use of kinesiotherapy exercises only in patients after ischemic stroke.
Johanson, M Elise
Upper limb reconstructive surgical procedures for individuals with tetraplegia are performed in many centers internationally. Most recipients of surgery return to local communities and nonsurgical centers for postoperative rehabilitation and long-term follow-up. This supplement focuses on the clinical significance of upper extremity reconstruction, addressing issues related to the availability and choice for surgery, preoperative assessments, postoperative training paradigms, and appropriate outcome measures. Comprehensive intervention protocols are described in terms of dose, timing, specific activities, modalities, and related outcomes. Shared knowledge of current rehabilitation practice, as it relates to reconstructive surgery, can expand treatment options communicated to patients, increase the availability of postoperative muscle reeducation programs, and motivate long-term follow-up assessments. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larissa Louise Campanholi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of lymphedema can be obtained objectively by measurement methods, and also by subjective methods, based on the patient's complaint. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate inter-rater reliability of objective and subjective criteria used for diagnosis of lymphedema and to propose a lymphedema cut-off for differences in volume between affected and control limbs. METHODS: We studied 84 patients who had undergone lymphadenectomy for treatment of cutaneous melanoma. Physical measures were obtained by manual perimetry (MP. The subjective criteria analyzed were clinical diagnosis of lymphedema in patients' medical records and self-report of feelings of heaviness and/or increase in volume in the affected limb. RESULTS: For upper limbs, the subjective criteria clinical observation (k 0.754, P<0.001 and heaviness and swelling (k 0.689, P<0.001 both exhibited strong agreement with MP results and there was moderate agreement between MP results and swelling (k 0.483 P<0.001, heaviness (k 0.576, P<0.001 and heaviness or swelling (k 0.412, P=0.001. For lower limbs there was moderate agreement between MP results and clinical observation (k 0.423, P=0.003 and regular agreement between MP and self-report of swelling (k 0.383, P=0.003. Cut-off values for diagnosing lymphedema were defined as a 9.7% difference between an affected upper limb and control upper limb and a 5.7% difference between lower limbs. CONCLUSION: Manual perimetry, medical criteria, and self-report of heaviness and/or swelling exhibited better agreement for upper limbs than for lower limbs for diagnosis of lymphedema.
Antuvan, Chris Wilson; Bisio, Federica; Marini, Francesca; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Cambria, Erik; Masia, Lorenzo
Myoelectric signals offer significant insights in interpreting the motion intention and extent of effort involved in performing a movement, with application in prostheses, orthosis and exoskeletons. Feature extraction plays a vital role, and follows two approaches: EMG and synergy features. More recently, muscle synergy based features are being increasingly explored, since it simplifies dimensionality of control, and are considered to be more robust to signal variations. Another important aspect in a myoelectrically controlled devices is the learning capability and speed of performance for online decoding. Extreme learning machine (ELM) is a relatively new neural-network based learning algorithm: its performance hasn't been explored in the context of online control, which is a more reliable measure compared to offline analysis. To this purpose we aim at focusing our investigation on a myoelectric-based interface which is able to identify and online classify, upper limb motions involving shoulder and elbow. The main objective is to compare the performance of the decoder trained using ELM, for two different features: EMG and synergy features. The experiments are broadly divided in two phases training/calibration and testing respectively. ELM is used to train the decoder using data acquired during the calibration phase. The performance of the decoder is then tested in online motion control by using a simulated graphical user interface replicating the human limb: subjects are requested to control a virtual arm by using their muscular activity. The decoder performance is quantified using ad-hoc metrics based on the following indicators: motion selection time, motion completion time, and classification accuracy. Performance has been evaluated for both offline and online contexts. The offline classification results indicated better performance in the case of EMG features, whereas a better classification accuracy for synergy feature was observed for online decoding. Also
Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran Khan; Jochumsen, Mads; Sherwin, Diane; Flavel, Stanley; Türker, Kemal S.
This study investigates whether spinal manipulation leads to changes in motor control by measuring the recruitment pattern of motor units in both an upper and lower limb muscle and to see whether such changes may at least in part occur at the cortical level by recording movement related cortical potential (MRCP) amplitudes. In experiment one, transcranial magnetic stimulation input–output (TMS I/O) curves for an upper limb muscle (abductor pollicus brevis; APB) were recorded, along with F waves before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention for the same subjects on two different days. During two separate days, lower limb TMS I/O curves and MRCPs were recorded from tibialis anterior muscle (TA) pre and post spinal manipulation. Dependent measures were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance, with p set at 0.05. Spinal manipulation resulted in a 54.5% ± 93.1% increase in maximum motor evoked potential (MEPmax) for APB and a 44.6% ± 69.6% increase in MEPmax for TA. For the MRCP data following spinal manipulation there were significant difference for amplitude of early bereitschafts-potential (EBP), late bereitschafts potential (LBP) and also for peak negativity (PN). The results of this study show that spinal manipulation leads to changes in cortical excitability, as measured by significantly larger MEPmax for TMS induced input–output curves for both an upper and lower limb muscle, and with larger amplitudes of MRCP component post manipulation. No changes in spinal measures (i.e., F wave amplitudes or persistence) were observed, and no changes were shown following the control condition. These results are consistent with previous findings that have suggested increases in strength following spinal manipulation were due to descending cortical drive and could not be explained by changes at the level of the spinal cord. Spinal manipulation may therefore be indicated for the patients who have lost tonus of their muscle and/or are
Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran Khan; Jochumsen, Mads; Sherwin, Diane; Flavel, Stanley; Türker, Kemal S
This study investigates whether spinal manipulation leads to changes in motor control by measuring the recruitment pattern of motor units in both an upper and lower limb muscle and to see whether such changes may at least in part occur at the cortical level by recording movement related cortical potential (MRCP) amplitudes. In experiment one, transcranial magnetic stimulation input-output (TMS I/O) curves for an upper limb muscle (abductor pollicus brevis; APB) were recorded, along with F waves before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention for the same subjects on two different days. During two separate days, lower limb TMS I/O curves and MRCPs were recorded from tibialis anterior muscle (TA) pre and post spinal manipulation. Dependent measures were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance, with p set at 0.05. Spinal manipulation resulted in a 54.5% ± 93.1% increase in maximum motor evoked potential (MEPmax) for APB and a 44.6% ± 69.6% increase in MEPmax for TA. For the MRCP data following spinal manipulation there were significant difference for amplitude of early bereitschafts-potential (EBP), late bereitschafts potential (LBP) and also for peak negativity (PN). The results of this study show that spinal manipulation leads to changes in cortical excitability, as measured by significantly larger MEPmax for TMS induced input-output curves for both an upper and lower limb muscle, and with larger amplitudes of MRCP component post manipulation. No changes in spinal measures (i.e., F wave amplitudes or persistence) were observed, and no changes were shown following the control condition. These results are consistent with previous findings that have suggested increases in strength following spinal manipulation were due to descending cortical drive and could not be explained by changes at the level of the spinal cord. Spinal manipulation may therefore be indicated for the patients who have lost tonus of their muscle and/or are
Full Text Available This study investigates whether spinal manipulation leads to changes in motor control by measuring the recruitment pattern of motor units in both an upper and lower limb muscle and to see whether such changes may at least in part occur at the cortical level by recording movement related cortical potential (MRCP amplitudes. In experiment one, transcranial magnetic stimulation input–output (TMS I/O curves for an upper limb muscle (abductor pollicus brevis; APB were recorded, along with F waves before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention for the same subjects on two different days. During two separate days, lower limb TMS I/O curves and MRCPs were recorded from tibialis anterior muscle (TA pre and post spinal manipulation. Dependent measures were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance, with p set at 0.05. Spinal manipulation resulted in a 54.5% ± 93.1% increase in maximum motor evoked potential (MEPmax for APB and a 44.6% ± 69.6% increase in MEPmax for TA. For the MRCP data following spinal manipulation there were significant difference for amplitude of early bereitschafts-potential (EBP, late bereitschafts potential (LBP and also for peak negativity (PN. The results of this study show that spinal manipulation leads to changes in cortical excitability, as measured by significantly larger MEPmax for TMS induced input–output curves for both an upper and lower limb muscle, and with larger amplitudes of MRCP component post manipulation. No changes in spinal measures (i.e., F wave amplitudes or persistence were observed, and no changes were shown following the control condition. These results are consistent with previous findings that have suggested increases in strength following spinal manipulation were due to descending cortical drive and could not be explained by changes at the level of the spinal cord. Spinal manipulation may therefore be indicated for the patients who have lost tonus of their muscle
Renato Oliveira de Almeida
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the behavior of systemic blood pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing incremental test of upper and lower limbs. Methods: This is an exploratory, descriptive and prospective study conducted with a sample of 38 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from the outpatient clinic of Centro de Reabilitação Pulmonar ‘Lar Escola São Francisco’ at Escola Paulista de Medicina of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, where in two visits and after a random assignment, a group of patients underwent an evaluation and progressive effort test. The results were collected and compiled in spreadsheets, and subsequently submitted to statistical analysis. Rresults: It was evaluated 38 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease classified as severe or very severe according to the Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification, after presenting FEV1 ≤ 50% of the predicted value after the use of bronchodilators. Systolic blood pressure measurements immediately after the tests showed higher values for this variable in the group that underwent tests for lower limbs (192.0 ± 27.82 mmHg when compared to the group for upper limbs (166.09 ± 22.56 mmHg, p = 0.0032. The same finding was seen for diastolic blood pressure and the group of lower limbs presented a mean pressure of 107.33 ± 14.37 mmHg, while in the group of upper limbs the mean pressure was 89.35 ± 12.64 mmHg (p = 0.0003. The variations in blood pressure during the upper limb exercises were analyzed, showing a mean of 36 ± 19.7 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 7.7 ± 10.8 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The group undergoing lower limb exercises presen ted a mean of 62 ± 20.9 mmHg and 24.7 ± 11.3 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures, respectively. The difference between values was statistically significant (p = 0.0016 and p = 0.0006. Cconclusions
Lisova, Katerina; Hromadkova, Jaroslava; Pavelková, Katerina; Zauška, Vladimir; Havlin, Jan; Charvat, Jiri
The evaluation of the incidence of symptomatic upper limb venous thrombosis (ULVT) associated with midline catheters in patients admitted to the hospital. The frequency of symptomatic ULVT diagnosed in a group of patients with midline catheters confirmed by sonographic examination in hospitalised patients at Faculty Hospital over the period of 1 year. Four hundred thirty-nine midline catheters were inserted in 430 patients (250 women and 180 men) during year 2015. Nine patients had two midline catheters. The average age of the patient was 68 years (range: 19-96 years). The median time of midline catheter introduction into a vein was 10 days (range: 1-112 days). Symptomatic thrombosis was diagnosed in 20 patients (4.5%), 3.3/1000 catheter days. It was associated with gender (male) and midline insertion in the cephalic vein. The risk of upper limb symptomatic thrombosis associated with midline catheters during a stay in the hospital should be taken into consideration when indicating optimal venous access.
Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun
All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.
Rahimi, Fariborz; Bee, Carina; Debicki, Derek; Roberts, Angela C; Bapat, Priya; Jog, Mandar
One the greatest challenges of BoNT A therapy for tremor lies in the complexity and variation of components involved in tremor movement, and the lack of objective measures to determine these components. This 3 month open-label single injection study aims to couple clinician best judgment with kinematics to improve effect of BoNT A (incobotulinumtoxinA) injection in 7 patients with upper limb Parkinson's disease (PD) tremor. Injection was guided with clinical and kinematic assessment of tremor using angular wrist position in 3 degrees of freedom: flexion/extension, pronation/supination, and radial/ulnar deviation. Overall tremor severity and change were measured by linear finger acceleration. Kinematic data from static and functional tasks demonstrate no improvement at one month post-injection, but significant improvement at two and three months. Clinical scales across UPDRS Items 20 (1, 2, 3 months post) and 21 (2 months), and spiral drawings (3 months) showed significant improvement from baseline, while line drawings did not. This study suggests injection of BoNT A as a viable focal management option for upper limb PD tremor. In addition to clinical judgment, objective quantification of tremor dynamics by kinematics may be a feasible assessment and guidance tool which can be used to optimize injection conditions for focal tremor therapy. Kinematic analysis of tremor across a variety of joints in all degrees of movement may provide important insight into tremor dynamics, allowing optimized, targeted focal therapy.
Mumford, Nick; Duckworth, Jonathan; Thomas, Patrick R; Shum, David; Williams, Gavin; Wilson, Peter H
To evaluate the effectiveness of a tabletop virtual-reality (VR) based upper-limb rehabilitation system (called Elements) for promoting movement skill in patients with TBI. An ABA case study design with multiple baselines was employed. Baseline performance in this design is contrasted against the results during the treatment phase. Three patients with TBI participated in 12 1-hour sessions of VR-based training. The VR system consisted of a 42-inch tabletop LCD, camera tracking system and tangible user interface. The system requires participants to move an object to cued locations while receiving augmented movement feedback to reinforce speed, trajectory and placement. Upper limb performance was assessed using these three system-measured variables and standardized tests. Trends in the time-sequence plots for each patient were assessed by sight inspection of smoothed data and then by statistical analyses. Participants demonstrated improvements on movement accuracy, efficiency and bimanual dexterity and mixed improvement on speed and other measures of movement skill. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the Elements system shows promise in facilitating motor learning in these TBI patients. Larger scale trials are now deemed a viable step in further validating the system.
Nickel, Renato; Lange, Marcos; Stoffel, Diane Priscila; Navarro, Elaine Janeczko; Zetola, Viviane F
To examine the frequency of shoulder pain following stroke. Stroke patient function was evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Scale for Upper Limb Function in Stroke (SULFS). Function scores were examined and compared between the shoulder pain group (SPG) and the no shoulder pain group (No-SPG). A total of 58 patients, 22 women (37.9%), were included in this study. The mean patient age was 49.2±10.8 years and study evaluations were done 3.52±2.26 months after stroke. A total of 16 patients (27.6%) were in the SPG and 42 patients (72.4%) were in the No-SPG. The SPG scored significantly lower on the FIM (SPG: 91.06±14.65 vs. No-SPG 114.62 ± 2.27; p Shoulder pain commonly occurs after stroke and is related to the affected upper limb function and functional independence in stroke patients.
Pila, Ophélie; Duret, Christophe; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Francisco, Gerard E; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Émilie
To assess functional status and robot-based kinematic measures four years after subacute robot-assisted rehabilitation in hemiparesis. Twenty-two patients with stroke-induced hemiparesis underwent a ≥3-month upper limb combined program of robot-assisted and occupational therapy from two months post-stroke, and received community-based therapy after discharge. Four years later, 19 (86%) participated in this follow-up study. Assessments 2, 5 and 54 months post-stroke included Fugl-Meyer (FM), Modified Frenchay Scale (MFS, at Month 54) and robot-based kinematic measures of targeting tasks in three directions, north, paretic and non-paretic: distance covered, velocity, accuracy (root mean square (RMS) error from straight line) and smoothness (number of velocity peaks; upward changes in accuracy and smoothness represent worsening). Analysis was stratified by FM score at two months: ≥17 (Group 1) or vs. Group 1 (p four years after robot-assisted upper limb training during subacute post-stroke phase, movement kinematics deteriorated despite community-based therapy, especially in more severely impaired patients. EudraCT 2016-005121-36. Registration: 2016-12-20. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 2009-11-24.
Rassafiani, Mehdi; Ziviani, Jenny; Rodger, Sylvia; Dalgleish, Lenard
This study applied social judgement theory to the exploration of factors influencing occupational therapists' decision-making when they manage upper limb hypertonicity in clients with cerebral palsy. To achieve this goal, both objective and stated policies were investigated. This quantitative study drew information from a literature review and a survey with experienced occupational therapists to identify 12 factors that could influence decision-making. Based on these 12 factors 110 case vignettes of individuals with cerebral palsy and upper limb hypertonicity were generated. Intervention decisions were elicited from 18 experienced occupational therapists for each of the 110 case vignettes. Therapists were also asked to rank the factors in order of perceived importance. Occupational therapists generally used severity of spasticity, wrist and finger posture, and client and family background information to guide their clinical intervention choices. However, therapists demonstrated poor insight into the nature of their decision-making processes. This was highlighted in the disparity between their stated and objective policies. These findings have implications for both the professional development of therapists and the training of students.
Sheng, Bo; Zhang, Yanxin; Meng, Wei; Deng, Chao; Xie, Shengquan
Robot-assisted bilateral upper-limb training grows abundantly for stroke rehabilitation in recent years and an increasing number of devices and robots have been developed. This paper aims to provide a systematic overview and evaluation of existing bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation devices and robots based on their mechanisms and clinical-outcomes. Most of the articles studied here were searched from nine online databases and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from year 1993 to 2015. Devices and robots were categorized as end-effectors, exoskeletons and industrial robots. Totally ten end-effectors, one exoskeleton and one industrial robot were evaluated in terms of their mechanical characteristics, degrees of freedom (DOF), supported control modes, clinical applicability and outcomes. Preliminary clinical results of these studies showed that all participants could gain certain improvements in terms of range of motion, strength or physical function after training. Only four studies supported that bilateral training was better than unilateral training. However, most of clinical results cannot definitely verify the effectiveness of mechanisms and clinical protocols used in robotic therapies. To explore the actual value of these robots and devices, further research on ingenious mechanisms, dose-matched clinical protocols and universal evaluation criteria should be conducted in the future. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elovic, Elie Paul; Munin, Michael C; Kaňovský, Petr; Hanschmann, Angelika; Hiersemenzel, Reinhard; Marciniak, Christina
Efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA in post-stroke upper-limb spasticity were studied. Subjects randomized 2:1 to incobotulinumtoxinA (fixed dose 400 U) or placebo, with fixed doses for the primary target clinical pattern (PTCP; flexed elbow, 200 U; flexed wrist, 150 U; clenched fist, 100 U). Doses for non-primary patterns were flexible within predefined ranges. At week 4, incobotulinumtoxinA led to larger improvements in PTCP Ashworth scale (AS) scores than placebo [least-squares mean change ± standard error: -0.9 ± 0.06 (n = 171) vs. -0.5 ± 0.08 (n = 88); P Scale principal target at week 4 (P = 0.007). Adverse events were mainly mild/moderate, and were reported by 22.4% (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 16.8% (placebo) of subjects. IncobotulinumtoxinA significantly improved upper-limb spasticity and associated disability, and was well-tolerated. © 2015 The Authors. Muscle and Nerve published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ueda, Naohisa; Hakii, Yasuhito; Koyano, Shigeru; Higashiyama, Yuichi; Joki, Hideto; Baba, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Yume; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Fumiaki
Spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which cerebellar ataxia causes motor disability. There are no widely applicable methods for objective evaluation of ataxia in SCD. An objective system to evaluate ataxia is necessary for use in clinical trials of newly developed medication and rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the degree of upper-limb ataxia. Forty-nine patients with SCD participated in this study. Patients were instructed to trace an Archimedean spiral template, and the gap between the template spiral and the drawn spiral (gap area; GA) was measured using Image J software. Ataxia was rated using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and cerebellar volume was evaluated in 37 patients using an axial cross-section of magnetic resonance images that were obtained within 6 months of clinical evaluation. Regression analysis was performed to assess the relation between GA and patient age, disease duration, SARA score, and cerebellar volume. GA was significantly related to total SARA score (r = 0.660, p ataxia, especially upper-limb ataxia, and can be widely adopted in various settings, including clinical trials.
Esperon Percovich, A.; Lopez Chapuis, D.; Velverdu, M.; Curi, J.; Sciuto, F.; Velverdu, M.; Curi, J.
When clinical evaluation is not enough,the evaluation of the venous condition of the upper limbs for the realization of angio access for hemodialysis is classically based on phlebography,an invasive,risky method.the appear rance of non invasive techniques such as eco Doppler(duplex) makes it necessary to do research in order to determine the utility of the method and define its indications.The authors analyse 35 venous mappings of the upper limbs by phlebography and duplex and compare its results for the different venous regions.They come to the conclusion that duplex presented the best performance for the hum ero axillary subclavian region,detecting thrombosis with a sensitivity of 100% a specificity of 97% positive predictive value of 50% and negative predictive value of 100%.For superficial axis (radial and superficial ulnar,basilic and cephalic)there is low sensitivity for the determination of presence and permeability of the axis but 100% specificity.Duplex was not useful for the description of veins in order to determine utility for Avf.Finally,the authors make recommendations as regards indications of these para clinical tests [es
Cargnin, Diego João; Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia
Upper limb stroke rehabilitation requires early, intensive and repetitive practice to be effective. Consequently, it is often difficult to keep patients committed to their rehabilitation regimen. In addition to direct measures of rehabilitation achievable through targeted assessments, other factors can indirectly lead to rehabilitation. Current levels of integration between commodity graphics software, hardware, and body-tracking devices have provided a reliable tool to build what are referred to as serious games, focusing on the rehabilitation paradigm. More specifically, serious games can captivate and engage players for a specific purpose such as developing new knowledge or skills. This paper discusses a serious game application with a focus on upper limb rehabilitation in patients with hemiplegia or hemiparesis. The game makes use of biofeedback and mirror-neurons to enhance the patient's engagement. Results from the application of a quantitative self-report instrument to assess in-game engagement suggest that the serious game is a viable instructional approach rather than an entertaining novelty and, furthermore, demonstrates the future potential for dual action therapy-focused games.
Santago, Anthony C; Vidt, Meghan E; Li, Xiaotong; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Saul, Katherine R
Understanding upper limb strength requirements for daily tasks is imperative for early detection of strength loss that may progress to disability due to age or rotator cuff tear. We quantified shoulder strength requirements for 5 upper limb tasks performed by 3 groups: uninjured young adults and older adults, and older adults with a degenerative supraspinatus tear prior to repair. Musculoskeletal models were developed for each group representing age, sex, and tear-related strength losses. Percentage of available strength used was quantified for the subset of tasks requiring the largest amount of shoulder strength. Significant differences in strength requirements existed across tasks: upward reach 105° required the largest average strength; axilla wash required the largest peak strength. However, there were limited differences across participant groups. Older adults with and without a tear used a larger percentage of their shoulder elevation (p tasks indicate the need for evaluating a diversity of functional tasks to effectively detect early strength loss, which may lead to disability.
Draicchio, F; Silvetti, A; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S
We analyzed the coordination patterns between elbow, shoulder and trunk in a motor task consisting of reaching out, picking up a cylinder, and transporting it back by using the Dynamical Systems Theory and calculating the continuous relative phase (CRP), a continuous measure of the coupling between two interacting joints. We used an optoelectronic motion analysis system consisting of eight infra-red ray cameras to detect the movements of nine skin-mounted markers. We calculated the root square of the adjusted coefficient of determination, the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC), in order to investigate the repeatability of the joints coordination. The data confirm that the CNS establishes both synergic (i.e. coupling between shoulder and trunk on the frontal plane) and hierarchical (i.e. coupling between elbow-shoulder-trunk on the horizontal plane) relationships among the available degrees of freedom to overcome the complexity due to motor redundancy. The present study describes a method to investigate the organization of the kinematic degrees of freedom during upper limb multi-joint motor tasks that can be useful to assess upper limb repetitive movements.
Puligopu, Aneel Kumar; Purohit, Anirudh Kumar
The objective was to assess the outcome of selective motor fasciculotomy in relieving upper limb harmful resistant spasticity and thereby to improve motor functions in persons with cerebral palsy. Twenty people having cerebral palsy (12 females and 8 males) with age ranging from 5 to 35 (mean 12.85) years with upper limb resistant spasticity due to spastic hemiplegia (n=7), triplegia (n=6), and quadriplegia (n=7) were assessed using Modified Ashworth Scale, Selective Voluntary Control Grade, Wee FIM Scale and hand function evaluation. Selective motor fasciculotomy was performed on the musculocutaneous nerve (n=13) for elbow flexors spasticity, median nerve (n=24) for pronators and radial wrist flexors spasticity and ulnar nerve (n=3) for ulnar wrist flexors spasticity. Pre- and post-op therapeutic exercises were performed. Statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed significant reduction in spasticity and improvement in selective voluntary control, hand functions (grasp to hold a 2 inch rod), and Wee FIM (self-care domain in particular). There was no recurrence in spasticity and complications following surgery. The selective motor fasciculotomy of musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves significantly reduces spasticity in the affected muscle groups and thereby improves the self-care (motor) functions in selected people with cerebral palsy who have harmful resistant spasticity without any organic shortening of the muscles. The procedure is safe and the spasticity does not recur.
Hamasaki, Tokiko; Demers, Louise; Filiatrault, Johanne; Aubin, Ginette
Clinical measurement. The Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) is a self-report questionnaire assessing activity limitations/participation restrictions resulting from an upper limb musculoskeletal disorder (UL-MSD). It is suitable for use in a rehabilitation context where clinicians have important time constraints due to a heavy caseload. However, no French version was available until now. To perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the ULFI in French Canadian and examine the psychometric properties and clinical applicability of the adapted version (ULFI-FC) among 50 bilingual patients. The ULFI-FC showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.93), good convergent validity with the original ULFI (r = 0.85) and with the French Canadian version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (r = -0.85) and good applicability. This study supports the suitability of the ULFI-FC for use in a busy rehabilitation setting for French-speaking patients with UL-MSD. N/A. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rota, Samuel; Morel, Baptiste; Saboul, Damien; Rogowski, Isabelle; Hautier, Christophe
The study examined the fatigue effect on tennis performance and upper limb muscle activity. Ten players were tested before and after a strenuous tennis exercise. Velocity and accuracy of serve and forehand drives, as well as corresponding surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of eight upper limb muscles were measured. EMG and force were also evaluated during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVC). Significant decreases were observed after exercise in serve accuracy (-11.7%) and velocity (-4.5%), forehand accuracy (-25.6%) and consistency (-15.6%), as well as pectoralis major (PM) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) IMVC strength (-13.0% and -8.2%, respectively). EMG amplitude decreased for PM and FCR in serve, forehand and IMVC, and for extensor carpi radialis in forehand. No modification was observed in EMG activation timing during strokes or in EMG frequency content during IMVC. Several hypotheses can be put forward to explain these results. First, muscle fatigue may induce a reduction in activation level of PM and forearm muscles, which could decrease performance. Second, conscious or subconscious strategies could lead to a redistribution of muscle activity to non-fatigued muscles in order to protect the organism and/or limit performance losses. Otherwise, the modifications of EMG activity could also illustrate the strategies adopted to manage the speed-accuracy trade-off in such a complex task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Resquín, Francisco; Cuesta Gómez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Brunetti, Fernando; Torricelli, Diego; Molina Rueda, Francisco; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Miangolarra, Juan Carlos; Pons, José Luis
In recent years the combined use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and robotic devices, called hybrid robotic rehabilitation systems, has emerged as a promising approach for rehabilitation of lower and upper limb motor functions. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of current hybrid robotic solutions for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. For this aim, studies have been selected through a search using web databases: IEEE-Xplore, Scopus and PubMed. A total of 10 different hybrid robotic systems were identified, and they are presented in this paper. Selected systems are critically compared considering their technological components and aspects that form part of the hybrid robotic solution, the proposed control strategies that have been implemented, as well as the current technological challenges in this topic. Additionally, we will present and discuss the corresponding evidences on the effectiveness of these hybrid robotic therapies. The review also discusses the future trends in this field. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Shephard, Roy J
This study aimed to investigate relationships between peak power (PP) as measured by upper limb (PPUL) and lower limb (PPLL) force-velocity tests, maximal upper limb force assessed by 1 repetition maximum bench press (1RMBP), and pullover (1RMPO) exercises, estimates of local muscle volume and 3-step running handball throwing velocity (T3-Steps). Fourteen male handball players volunteered for the investigation (age: 19.6+/-0.6 years; body mass: 86.7+/-12.9 kg; and height 1.87+/-0.07 m). Lower and upper limb force-velocity tests were performed on appropriately modified forms of a Monark cycle ergometer, with measurement of PPUL and PPLL, and the corresponding respective maximal forces (F0UL and F0LL) and velocities (V0UL and V0LL). T3-Steps was assessed using a radar Stalker ATS system. Muscle volumes of the upper and lower limbs were estimated with a standard anthropometric kit. T3-Steps was closely related to absolute PPUL and to F0UL (r=0.69, plimb muscle volume, the relationship with T3-Steps disappeared. This suggests the importance of muscle volume to performance in throwing events. Force-velocity data may prove useful in regulating conditioning and rehabilitation programs for handball players. Our results also highlight the contribution of both the lower and the upper limbs to handball throwing velocity, suggesting the need for coaches to include upper and lower limb strength and power programs when improving the throwing velocity of handball players.
Thijssen, Dick H J; Rowley, Nicola; Padilla, Jaume; Simmons, Grant H; Laughlin, M Harold; Whyte, Greg; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J
Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a strong predictor of future cardiovascular disease and is believed to represent a "barometer" of systemic endothelial health. Although a recent study [Padilla et al. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 235: 1287-1291, 2010] in pigs confirmed a strong correlation between brachial and femoral artery endothelial function, it is unclear to what extent brachial artery FMD represents a systemic index of endothelial function in humans. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from our laboratory to evaluate relationships between the upper (i.e., brachial artery) vs. lower limb (superficial femoral n = 75; popliteal artery n = 32) endothelium-dependent FMD and endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-mediated dilation in young, healthy individuals. We also examined the relationship between FMD assessed in both brachial arteries (n = 42). There was no correlation between brachial and superficial femoral artery FMD (r(2) = 0.008; P = 0.46) or between brachial and popliteal artery FMD (r(2) = 0.003; P = 0.78). However, a correlation was observed in FMD between both brachial arteries (r(2) = 0.34; P < 0.001). Brachial and superficial femoral artery GTN were modestly correlated (r(2) = 0.13; P = 0.007), but brachial and popliteal artery GTN responses were not (r(2) = 0.08; P = 0.11). Collectively, these data indicate that conduit artery vasodilator function in the upper limbs (of healthy humans) is not predictive of that in the lower limbs, whereas measurement of FMD in one arm appears to be predictive of FMD in the other. These data do not support the hypothesis that brachial artery FMD in healthy humans represents a systemic index of endothelial function.
Zariffa, J; Kapadia, N; Kramer, J L K; Taylor, P; Alizadeh-Meghrazi, M; Zivanovic, V; Willms, R; Townson, A; Curt, A; Popovic, M R; Steeves, J D
Multi-center pilot study. To investigate the use of an upper limb robotic rehabilitation device (Armeo Spring, Hocoma AG, Switzerland) in a subacute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Two Canadian inpatient rehabilitation centers. Twelve subjects (motor level C4-C6, ASIA Impairment Scale A-D) completed the training, which consisted of 16.1±4.6 sessions over 5.2±1.4 weeks. Two types of outcomes were recorded: (1) feasibility of incorporating the device into an inpatient rehabilitation program (compliance with training schedule, reduction in therapist time required and subject questionnaires) and (2) efficacy of the robotic rehabilitation for improving functional outcomes (Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP), action research arm test, grip dynamometry and range of motion). By the end of the training period, the robot-assisted training was shown to require active therapist involvement for 25±11% (mean±s.d.) of the total session time. In the group of all subjects and in a subgroup composed of motor-incomplete subjects, no statistically significant differences were found between intervention and control limbs for any of the outcome measures. In a subgroup of subjects with partial hand function at baseline, the GRASSP-Sensibility component showed a statistically significant increase (6.0±1.6 (mean±s.e.m.) point increase between baseline and discharge for the intervention limbs versus 1.9±0.9 points for the control limbs). The pilot results suggest that individuals with some preserved hand function after SCI may be better candidates for rehabilitation training using the Armeo Spring device.
Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Ito, Hiroshi; Umemori, Takuma
To assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with occupational therapy (OT) in a hemiparetic patient who had undergone brain tumour resection. A 39-year-old right-handed woman underwent brain tumour resection and presented 5 years later with right upper limb hemiparesis. At admission, she was considered to have reached a probable plateau state of motor functional recovery of the affected upper limb in spite of conventional occupational therapy. Low-frequency rTMS with 1 Hz applied to the right primary motor cortex followed by intensive occupational therapy (one-on-one training and self-training) was provided daily during the 15-day hospitalization. Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test were conducted serially to evaluate motor function on the affected upper limb. Neither adverse effect nor deterioration of neurological symptoms was recognized during the treatment period. The 15-day combination protocol improved motor function of the right upper limb and further improvement was noted 4 weeks after discharge. The proposed protocol of low-frequency rTMS with intensive occupational therapy is a potentially useful rehabilitative programme for upper limb hemiparesis after brain tumour resection.
Barden, Hannah L; Baguley, Ian J; Nott, Melissa T; Chapparo, Chrisine
Evaluate upper limb performance in adults receiving botulinum toxin-A injections for upper limb spasticity using Dynamic Computerised Hand Dynamometry and current clinical measures. Pre-test/post-test clinical intervention study. Twenty-eight participants with spasticity following acquired brain injury. Botulinum toxin-A effects were measured 4 weeks post-injection using Dynamic Computerised Dynamometry. Current clinical upper limb performance measures spanning the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains were also conducted at the Body Function and Structure (Modified Ashworth Scale; Tardieu Scale) and Activity (Action Research Arm Test; Goal Attainment Scaling; patient disability and carer burden scales) domains. Dynamic Computerised Dynamometry hand performance measures were correlated with performance on current clinical measures. Significant post botulinum toxin-A changes were identified on current clinical measures and the Dynamic Computerised Dynamometry. Dynamic Computerised Dynamometry results correlated with current clinical measures demonstrating functional upper limb change across the Body Function and Structure and Activity domains. Dynamic Computerised Dynamometry sensitively assesses the effects of botulinum toxin-A on upper limb spasticity during a simple, functionally based, grasp and release task. Unlike current measures, the Dynamic Computerised Dynamometry provides information across the Body Function and Structure and Activity domains of the International Classification of Function.
Park, Sun Kyung; Sung, Min Ha; Suh, Hae Jin; Choi, Yun Suk
The interscalene brachial plexus block is widely used for pain control and anesthetic purposes during shoulder arthroscopic surgeries and surgeries of the upper extremities. However, it is known that interscalene brachial plexus block is not appropriate for upper limb surgeries because it does not affect the lower trunk (C8-T1, ulnar nerve) of the brachial plexus. A low approach, ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (LISB) was performed on twenty-eight patients undergoing surgery of the upper extremities. The patients were assessed five minutes and fifteen minutes after the block for the degree of block in each nerve and muscle as well as for any complications. At five minutes and fifteen minutes after the performance of the block, the degree of the block in the ulnar nerve was found to be 2.8 ± 2.6 and 1.1 ± 1.8, respectively, based on a ten-point scale. Motor block occurred in the median nerve after fifteen minutes in 26 of the 28 patients (92.8%), and in all of the other three nerves in all 28 patients. None of the patients received additional analgesics, and none experienced complications. The present study confirmed the achievement of an appropriate sensory and motor block in the upper extremities, including the ulnar nerve, fifteen minutes after LISB, with no complications.
Iino, Yoichi; Kojima, Takeji
The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of mechanical energy generation and transfer in the upper limb in generating the racket speed during table tennis topspin forehands. Nine advanced and eight intermediate table tennis players performed the forehand stroke at maximum effort against light and heavy backspin balls. Five high-speed video cameras operating at 200 fps were used to record the motions of the upper body of the players. The joint forces and torques of the racket arm were determined with inverse dynamics, and the amount of mechanical energy generated and transferred in the arm was determined. The shoulder internal rotation torque exerted by advanced players was significantly larger than that exerted by the intermediate players. Owing to a larger shoulder internal rotation torque, the advanced players transferred mechanical energy from the trunk of the body to the upper arm at a higher rate than the intermediate players could. Regression of the racket speed at ball impact on the energy transfer to the upper arm suggests that increase in the energy transfer may be an important factor for enabling intermediate players to generate a higher racket speed at impact in topspin forehands.
Hellman, Randall B.; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I.; Santos, Veronica J.
Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation “phantom limb pain” and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual fe...
Randall B. Hellman; Randall B. Hellman; Eric eChang; Justin eTanner; Stephen I. Helms Tillery; Veronica J. Santos
Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation phantom limb pain and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feed...
Jun Yao; Albert Chen; Todd Kuiken; Carolina Carmona; Julius Dewald
This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via th...
S. A. Moussavi-Najarkola A. Khavanin
Full Text Available For high occurrences of upper extremity disorders in working populations and in order to compare the occurrence of musculoskeletal alterations due to ergonomic risk factors such as highly force exertion, repetition, awkward posture between exposed and non-exposed groups, the research was carried out in Tabarestan steel industry. All 526 male workers (316 as exposed group : 132 aged 20-35 years, 184 aged >35 years; 210 as Non-exposed group: 89 aged 20-35 years, 121 aged > 35 years performing tasks exposed / not exposed to risk factors for WMSDS of the upper limbs underwent a clinical examinations as well as completing standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaires. The anamnestic cases were defined on the basis of pain, paraesthesia, hyposthenia, and vegetative disorders during previous months. Mean age of exposed and non- exposed groups were obtained 36.3 years (SD= 5.9 and 37.9 years (SD = 7.3 respectively. There were distinguished differences in occurrences of WMSDS of upper limbs between two mentioned groups. The major occurrence was found for the right and left hands. Nocturnal and diurnal paraesthesia obtained an occurrence of about 54% and 53% respectively. Data bears witness to the greater occurrence of affected individuals in exposed group, with a non- exposed / exposed ratio of 1:7.2. The greater occurrences of affected individuals in exposed group (P = 0.006 and in subjects>35 years (P = 0.002 were significant. Structural, organizational and educational measures can be applied to prevent WMSDS or diminish the relative effects to acceptable limit.
Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho
Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Restoration of upper limb movements in subjects recovering from stroke is an essential keystone in rehabilitative practices. Rehabilitation of arm movements, in fact, is usually a far more difficult one as compared to that of lower extremities. For these reasons, researchers are developing new methods and technologies so that the rehabilitative process could be more accurate, rapid and easily accepted by the patient. This paper introduces the proof of concept for a new non-invasive FES-assisted rehabilitation system for the upper limb, called smartFES (sFES, where the electrical stimulation is controlled by a biologically inspired neural inverse dynamics model, fed by the kinematic information associated with the execution of a planar goal-oriented movement. More specifically, this work details two steps of the proposed system: an ad hoc markerless motion analysis algorithm for the estimation of kinematics, and a neural controller that drives a synthetic arm. The vision of the entire system is to acquire kinematics from the analysis of video sequences during planar arm movements and to use it together with a neural inverse dynamics model able to provide the patient with the electrical stimulation patterns needed to perform the movement with the assisted limb. Methods The markerless motion tracking system aims at localizing and monitoring the arm movement by tracking its silhouette. It uses a specifically designed motion estimation method, that we named Neural Snakes, which predicts the arm contour deformation as a first step for a silhouette extraction algorithm. The starting and ending points of the arm movement feed an Artificial Neural Controller, enclosing the muscular Hill's model, which solves the inverse dynamics to obtain the FES patterns needed to move a simulated arm from the starting point to the desired point. Both position error with respect to the requested arm trajectory and comparison between curvature factors
Full Text Available A 47-yrs-female patient presented with carcinoma right breast, swelling and allodynia of right upper limb. radical mastectomy with axillary clearance and skin grafting was done under cervical epidural anaesthesia through 18G epidural catheter placed at C6/C7 level. Postoperative analgesia and rehabilitation of affected right upper limb was managed by continuous epidural infusion of 0.125% bupivacaine and 2.5 µg/ml -1 clonidine solution through epidu-ral catheter for 5 days and physiotherapy. This case report highlights the usefulness of cervical epidural analgesia in managing a complex situation of carcinoma breast with associated periarthitis of shoulder joint and chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS of right upper limb.
Hamasaki, Tokiko; Demers, Louise; Filiatrault, Johanne
The Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) is a self-report questionnaire assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions resulting from an upper limb musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). A French Canadian version of the ULFI (ULFI-FC) has recently demonstrated good internal consistency, and convergent validity, as well as clinical applicability in a rehabilitation context where clinicians have important time constraints. This study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the ULFI-FC. In order to study the ULFI-FC's responsiveness, 60 participants completed the ULFI-FC and a French Canadian version of the DASH (DASH-FC) twice at an interval of two to six weeks, based on the evolution of their upper limb MSD. Half of the sample also completed the ULFI-FC three days after the second assessment for the test-retest reliability analysis. The ULFI-FC demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.92-0.97) and good internal responsiveness (Cohen's d = 0.49-0.62; standardized responsive means = 0.60-0.88). External responsiveness was further supported by moderate correlations of change scores with the DASH-FC (r = 0.42-0.64). Study findings support the use of the ULFI-FC in rehabilitation as an outcome measure to monitor activity limitations and participation restrictions among French-speaking patients presenting with upper limb MSD. The ULFI-FC is a reliable and valid tool with good responsiveness to change for assessing activity limitations and participation restrictions in adults presenting with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. This tool can thus be useful in clinical and research settings. By exploring meaningful activities that are affected by patients' upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, the tool's Patient Specific Index is particularly relevant for clinicians adhering to a patient-centered approach.
Zhang, Di; Sessa, Salvatore; Kong, Weisheng; Cosentino, Sarah; Magistro, Daniele; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Zecca, Massimiliano; Takanishi, Atsuo
Current training for laparoscopy focuses only on the enhancement of manual skill and does not give advice on improving trainees' posture. However, a poor posture can result in increased static muscle loading, faster fatigue, and impaired psychomotor task performance. In this paper, the authors propose a method, named subliminal persuasion, which gives the trainee real-time advice for correcting the upper limb posture during laparoscopic training like the expert but leads to a lower increment in the workload. A 9-axis inertial measurement unit was used to compute the upper limb posture, and a Detection Reaction Time device was developed and used to measure the workload. A monitor displayed not only images from laparoscope, but also a visual stimulus, a transparent red cross superimposed to the laparoscopic images, when the trainee had incorrect upper limb posture. One group was exposed, when their posture was not correct during training, to a short (about 33 ms) subliminal visual stimulus. The control group instead was exposed to longer (about 660 ms) supraliminal visual stimuli. We found that subliminal visual stimulation is a valid method to improve trainees' upper limb posture during laparoscopic training. Moreover, the additional workload required for subconscious processing of subliminal visual stimuli is less than the one required for supraliminal visual stimuli, which is processed instead at the conscious level. We propose subliminal persuasion as a method to give subconscious real-time stimuli to improve upper limb posture during laparoscopic training. Its effectiveness and efficiency were confirmed against supraliminal stimuli transmitted at the conscious level: Subliminal persuasion improved upper limb posture of trainees, with a smaller increase on the overall workload.
Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Chevalley, Odile; Schmidlin, Thomas; Garipelli, Gangadhar; Serino, Andrea; Vuadens, Philippe; Tadi, Tej; Blanke, Olaf; Millán, José D R
Technology-mediated neurorehabilitation is suggested to enhance training intensity and therefore functional gains. Here, we used a novel virtual reality (VR) system for task-specific upper extremity training after stroke. The system offers interactive exercises integrating motor priming techniques and embodied visuomotor feedback. In this pilot study, we examined (i) rehabilitation dose and training intensity, (ii) functional improvements, and (iii) safety and tolerance when exposed to intensive VR rehabilitation. Ten outpatient stroke survivors with chronic (>6 months) upper extremity paresis participated in a ten-session VR-based upper limb rehabilitation program (2 sessions/week). All participants completed all sessions of the treatment. In total, they received a median of 403 min of upper limb therapy, with 290 min of effective training. Within that time, participants performed a median of 4713 goal-directed movements. Importantly, training intensity increased progressively across sessions from 13.2 to 17.3 movements per minute. Clinical measures show that despite being in the chronic phase, where recovery potential is thought to be limited, participants showed a median improvement rate of 5.3% in motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity; FMA-UE) post intervention compared to baseline, and of 15.4% at one-month follow-up. For three of them, this improvement was clinically significant. A significant improvement in shoulder active range of motion (AROM) was also observed at follow-up. Participants reported very low levels of pain, stress and fatigue following each session of training, indicating that the intensive VR intervention was well tolerated. No severe adverse events were reported. All participants expressed their interest in continuing the intervention at the hospital or even at home, suggesting high levels of adherence and motivation for the provided intervention. This pilot study showed how a dedicated VR system could deliver high
Full Text Available Ana LLinares, Francisco Javier Badesa, Ricardo Morales, Nicolas Garcia-Aracil, JM Sabater, Eduardo Fernandez Biomedical Neuroengineering, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Elche, Spain Purpose: This paper examines the influence of age on several attributes of sensorimotor performance while performing a reaching task. Our hypothesis, based on previous studies, is that aged persons will show differences in one or more of the attributes of sensorimotor performance. Patients and methods: Fifty-one subjects (aged 20–80 years with no known neuromotor disorders of the upper limbs participated in the study. Subjects were asked to grasp the end-effector of a pneumatic robotic device with two degrees of freedom in order to reach peripheral targets (1.0 cm radius, "quickly and accurately", from a centrally located target (1.0 cm radius. Subjects began each trial by holding the hand within the central target for 2000 milliseconds. Afterwards, a peripheral target was illuminated. Then participants were given 3000 milliseconds to complete the movement. When a target was reached, the participant had to return to the central target in order to start a new trial. A total of 64 trials were completed and each peripheral target was illuminated in a random block design. Results: Subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1 (age 20–40 years, group 2 (age 41–60 years, and group 3 (age 61–80 years. The Kruskal–Wallis test showed significant differences (P < 0.05 between groups, except for the variables postural speed in the dominant arm, and postural speed and initial deviation in the non-dominant arm (P > 0.05. These results suggest that age introduces significant differences in upper-limb motor function. Conclusion: Our findings show that there are objective differences in sensorimotor function due to age, and that these differences are greater for the dominant arm. Therefore for the assessment of upper-limb function, we should
Full Text Available Abstract Background About 80% of all stroke survivors have an upper limb paresis immediately after stroke, only about a third of whom (30 to 40% regain some dexterity within six months following conventional treatment programs. Of late, however, two recently developed interventions - constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT and bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing (BATRAC - have shown promising results in the treatment of upper limb paresis in chronic stroke patients. The ULTRA-stroke (acronym for Upper Limb TRaining After stroke program was conceived to assess the effectiveness of these interventions in subacute stroke patients and to examine how the observed changes in sensori-motor functioning relate to changes in stroke recovery mechanisms associated with peripheral stiffness, interlimb interactions, and cortical inter- and intrahemispheric networks. The present paper describes the design of this single-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT, which has recently started and will take several years to complete. Methods/Design Sixty patients with a first ever stroke will be recruited. Patients will be stratified in terms of their remaining motor ability at the distal part of the arm (i.e., wrist and finger movements and randomized over three intervention groups receiving modified CIMT, modified BATRAC, or an equally intensive (i.e., dose-matched conventional treatment program for 6 weeks. Primary outcome variable is the score on the Action Research Arm test (ARAT, which will be assessed before, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. During those test sessions all patients will also undergo measurements aimed at investigating the associated recovery mechanisms using haptic robots and magneto-encephalography (MEG. Discussion ULTRA-stroke is a 3-year translational research program which aims (1 to assess the relative effectiveness of the three interventions, on a group level but also as a function of patient
Ogata, Kunihiro; Hirabayashi, Yuto; Kubota, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Yuri; Tsuji, Toshiaki
Hemiplegia patients have complete paralysis of half their body, and encounter many challenges in living an independent life. Rehabilitation of the lower body is more important than that of the upper body for independent living; thus, recovering upper body functions of their paralyzed side is not enough. Rehabilitation robots may be used to assist training without therapists. In this study, a small portable rehabilitation robot was developed for use at home, and a new training method was proposed. This robot consists on an omni wheel mechanism and a force sensor, and is capable of deciding the motion based on the force value. Voluntary movement of a hemiplegia patient is recovered by the rehabilitation robot and proposed training method. Thus, verification experiments were performed using participants with hemiplegia. The CCI (Co-Contraction Index) from after training were smaller than ones of before training, thus the movement skills of the participants improved with respect to controlling force direction and magnitude. Moreover, manual function test (MFT) scores increased as reflected by improvements in the motor function of the upper limb using the proposed training method.
Tonev, I.; Zechirov, B.; Stanoev, D.; Velikov, C.; Smilkova, D.
Full text: Diseases of the upper limb arteries are significantly rarer than those of the lower limbs but they are not causes and due to the lack of diagnostic algorithms are often missed. the symptoms are not typical except for those in acute thrombosis. The complaints in acute thrombosis is strong, sudden pain in the limb or part of it, bruising or paleness of the ischemic area and a lack of pulsation. Diagnosis is fairly easy – clinical events, difference in blood pressure or a lack of blood pressure in the affected limb, a total lack of blood pressure or a difference in the pressure in the left and right arm. Then complaints in stenosis and chronic occlusions is significantly less pronounced and is expressed as weakness in the affected limb, heaviness, bluish or paleness. If the proximal segments are affected Still’s syndrome is often observed. The complaints is not decisive for diagnosis. A difference in blood pressure of more than 20 mm Hg and an echodoppler examination of the arteries are the main criteria for directing the patients for angiography. Contrast CT and MRT are not used often. treatment is vascular surgery and endovascular. In acute thrombosis priority takes vascular surgery through extraction of the thrombi with Fogerty catheters, and in chronical stenosis and occlusions – dilation and stenting. Clinical cases: Case 1 – Revascularization of artery brachialis, radialis and ulnaris after acute occlusion L.Y., 77 years old. Complains of sharp pain and bruising of right forearm since two hours before hospitalization. A lack of blood flow was identified using palpation and echodoppler. After a diagnostic angiography , thrombaspiration was undertaken, through a leading catheter, recovering blood flow in both arteries and stenting of the proximal segment of artery radialis. Case 2: Revascularization of Trunkus brachiocefalicus K.P., 65 years old. Suffering from bradypsychia for several months. Bradypsychia becomes worse after manual labor
Janssen, Mariska M H P; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M
Duchenne muscular dystrophy can lead to upper extremity limitations, pain and stiffness. In a previous study, these domains have been investigated using extensive questionnaires, which are too time-consuming for clinical practice. This study aimed at gaining insight into the underlying dimensions of these questionnaires, and to construct a short questionnaire that can be used for clinical assessment. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on the responses of 213 participants to a web-based survey to find the underlying dimensions in the Capabilities of Upper Extremity questionnaire, the ABILHAND questionnaire, and questionnaires regarding pain and stiffness. Based on these underlying dimensions, a stepwise approach was formulated. In addition, construct validity of the factors was investigated. In total, 14 factors were identified. All had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.89) and explained 80-88% of the variance of the original questionnaires. Construct validity was supported, because participants in the early ambulatory stage performed significantly better (pDuchenne muscular dystrophy. Based on the factor commonalities, the Upper Limb Short Questionnaire was formulated. Implications for Rehabilitation New insights into the underlying dimensions of upper extremity function, pain and stiffness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy are gained. Fourteen factors, with good internal consistency and construct validity, are identified regarding upper extremity function, pain and stiffness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Based on these factors, the Upper Limb Short Questionnaire is presented. The Upper Limb Short Questionnaire can be used as an identifier of arm-hand limitations and the start of more thorough clinical investigation.
Lee, So Young; Jeon, Young Tae; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young
Spasticity is a major complication after stroke, and botulinumtoxin A (BoNT-A) injection is commonly used to manage focal spasticity. However, it is uncertain whether BoNT-A can improve voluntary motor control or activities of daily living function of paretic upper limbs. This study investigated whether BoNT-A injection combined with robot-assisted upper limb therapy improves voluntary motor control or functions of upper limbs after stroke. Two subacute stroke patients were transferred to the Department of Rehabilitation. Patients demonstrated spasticity in the upper extremity on the affected side. BoNT-A was injected into the paretic muscles of the shoulder, arm, and forearm of the 2 patients at the subacute stage. Conventional rehabilitation therapy and robot-assisted upper limb training were performed during the rehabilitation period. Manual dexterity, grip strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living function were improved after multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment. BoNT-A injection in combination with multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment, including robot-assisted arm training, should be recommended for subacute spastic stroke patients to enhance appropriate motor recovery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gilmour, Rebecca J; Gowland, Rebecca; Roberts, Charlotte; Bernert, Zsolt; Kiss, Katalin Klára; Lassányi, Gabor
It was hypothesized that men and women living in the border provinces of the Roman Empire may have encountered different risks associated with their different occupations and activities. Limb bone trauma data were used to assess sex-based differences in physical hazards and evidence for fracture healing and treatment. Two hundred and ten skeletons were examined from a late 1st to early 4th century AD cemetery at Aquincum (Budapest, Hungary). Upper and lower limb bone fracture types, frequencies, distributions, and associated complications were recorded, and gendered patterns in injury risks were explored. Of the 23 fractures identified, both sexes had injuries indicative of falls; males exhibited the only injuries suggestive of higher-energy and more direct forces. Most fractures were well-healed with few complications. The extremity trauma at Aquincum suggests that people buried here experienced less hazardous physical activities than at other Roman provincial sites. The patterns of trauma indicate the occurrence of "traditional" gender roles, whereby male civilians participated in more physically dangerous activities than females. Additionally, treatment may have been equally accessible to men and women, but certain fracture types proved more challenging to reduce using the techniques available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Zyl, Natasha; Hahn, Jodie B; Cooper, Catherine A; Weymouth, Michael D; Flood, Stephen J; Galea, Mary P
Restoration of elbow extension, grasp, key pinch, and release are major goals in low-level tetraplegia. Traditionally, these functions are achieved using tendon transfers. In this case these goals were achieved using nerve transfers. We present a 21-year-old man with a C6 level of tetraplegia. The left upper limb was treated 6 months after injury with a triple nerve transfer. A teres minor nerve branch to long head of triceps nerve branch, brachialis nerve branch to anterior interosseous nerve, and supinator nerve branch to posterior interosseous nerve transfer were used successfully to reconstruct elbow extension, key pinch, grasp, and release simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roberto Luiz Souza Monteiro
Full Text Available The practice in the use of electrostimulators: inappropriately, can lead to physical damage to the subject beyond the use of inappropriately. The use of computer simulation can help with the technical training of those who will operate this type of equipment. This paper presents a conceptual model applied to human upper limb muscle groups modeled in 3D, connected to an electronic device that sends signals to simulate the operation of electrostimulation practices, with the aim of proposing this model as a tool for teaching and learning in the area of electrotherapy. The conceptual model is presented as a proposal for the practice of electrotherapy area, with the qualitative aspects: security, configurability and a model of reading at the time of your execution.
Yu, Wen; Rosen, Jacob
In order to minimize steady-state error with respect to uncertainties in robot control, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control needs a big integral gain, or a neural compensator is added to the classical proportional-derivative (PD) control with a large derivative gain. Both of them deteriorate transient performances of the robot control. In this paper, we extend the popular neural PD control into neural PID control. This novel control is a natural combination of industrial linear PID control and neural compensation. The main contributions of this paper are semiglobal asymptotic stability of the neural PID control and local asymptotic stability of the neural PID control with a velocity observer which are proved with standard weight training algorithms. These conditions give explicit selection methods for the gains of the linear PID control. An experimental study on an upper limb exoskeleton with this neural PID control is addressed.
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Brandt, Mikkel
threshold (PPT) was measured in muscles of the arm, shoulder, and lower leg. Cross-sectional associations were determined using general linear models controlled for age, smoking, and job position. The number of indoor climate complaints was twice as high among workers with chronic pain compared with pain......Monitoring of indoor climate is an essential part of occupational health and safety. While questionnaires are commonly used for surveillance, not all workers may perceive an identical indoor climate similarly. The aim of this study was to evaluate perceived indoor climate among workers with chronic...... pain compared with pain-free colleagues and to determine the influence of central sensitization on this perception. Eighty-two male slaughterhouse workers, 49 with upper-limb chronic pain and 33 pain-free controls, replied to a questionnaire with 13 items of indoor climate complaints. Pressure pain...
Obregon Baez, Luis Rafael
A guideline to follow is offered to radiologists and residents of radiology service of medical imaging, when evaluating by ultrasound the shoulder joints, elbow, wrist. The importance to performing of musculoskeletal ultrasound by its pathology variable is established. The use of appropriate equipment and effective application of the techniques exposed of echography exploration have made enable the valuation of many pathologies with high sensitivity and specificity. The echography has been the musculoskeletal imaging technique that more rapidly has evolved. Currently, this technique has been replaced by magnetic resonance imaging in various clinical fields and also serves as a complement to other techniques. Exposed techniques have been of great benefit for radiologists medical and residents, obtaining with its use a quick guide for the realization of upper limb musculoskeletal ultrasounds. The appropriate and easy techniques are better known for the evaluation of these structures, and so document both sports injuries, as joint and rheumatic diseases [es
Masiero, Stefano; Carraro, Elena
Rehabilitative interventions for the plegic/paretic upper limb of stroke survivors are more effective if they are early, intensive, and provide multisensory stimulation. Various rehabilitative approaches have been proposed to date, but little has been published on clinical efficacy. The mechanism underlying recovery of neurological injury after stroke is still incompletely understood, but more than one process is probably involved and cerebral plasticity undoubtedly plays a key role. The goal of this review was to identify which movements and type of therapeutic arm exercises may influence cerebral plasticity in plegic/paretic stroke survivors. Evidence suggests that plasticity is stimulated more by the arm's movement trajectory than by its final position in space. Rehabilitation should be based on simple, repetitive, unidirectional or, better still, complex and multidirectional movements in all spatial planes, such as circular or spiral movements. It should also incorporate a feedback system, since this seems to bring about earlier and better motor and functional outcomes.
Full Text Available Hypertonicity is the most common type of cerebral palsy consists of 85% of the affected children. It has a very complex nature making intervention and management very difficult. This article tries to make reader familiar with various types of intervention and introduce a new intervention process to help clinicians decide better. Literature was reviewed with two criteria including: identifying various interventions and their effects on upper limb hypertonicity and level ofinvasiveness of each intervention. This paper suggested a new way of looking at hypertonicitybased on its two components (i.e., neural and biomechanical and effectiveness of each intervention on these components. In the treatment and management of hypertonicity, clinicians are required tolook at all aspects of hypertonicity and then based on the provided decision tree, decide which kind of treatment to be used for the child.
Stefano, Masiero; Patrizia, Poli; Mario, Armani; Ferlini, Gregorio; Rizzello, Roberto; Rosati, Giulio
Stroke is the first cause of disability. Several robotic devices have been developed for stroke rehabilitation. Robot therapy by NeReBot is demonstrated to be an effective tool for the treatment of poststroke paretic upper limbs, able to improve the activities of daily living of stroke survivors when used both as additional treatment and in partial substitution of conventional rehabilitation therapy in the acute and subacute phases poststroke. This study presents the evaluation of the costs related to delivering such therapy, in comparison with conventional rehabilitation treatment. By comparing several NeReBot treatment protocols, made of different combinations of robotic and nonrobotic exercises, we show that robotic technology can be a valuable and economically sustainable aid in the management of poststroke patient rehabilitation.
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Brandt, Mikkel
. METHODS: Eighty-two male slaughterhouse workers, 49 with chronic upper limb pain and 33 pain-free controls participated in the study. Maximal muscle strength, RFD, and muscle activity was determined from fast and forceful maximal voluntary contractions for the shoulder and hand. Participants filled out...... a questionnaire on work ability (work ability index), work disability (Work module of DASH questionnaire), fear avoidance, and self-rated health. Additionally, pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured in muscles of the arm, shoulder and lower leg. RESULTS: Muscle strength and RFD (determined within time...... intervals of 30, 50, 100, and 200 ms relative to onset of contraction) was 28 % and 58-78 % lower, respectively, in workers with chronic pain compared with pain-free controls, and paralleled by reduced muscle activity (all p lower PPT of the arm, shoulder and lower...
Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun
The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60°/sec. As a result, extension strength (ES) was significantly higher than flexion strength (FS) (Pprogram in nondominant shoulder joint, extensor strengthening program in both elbow joint, and flexor strengthening program in non-dominant elbow joint should be introduced for male wheelchair tennis players.
De Jesus, Karla; De Jesus, Kelly; Medeiros, Alexandre I A; Gonçalves, Pedro; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo
A proficient start is decisive in sprint competitive swimming events and requires swimmers' to exert maximal forces in a short period to complete the task successfully. The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity in-between the backstroke start with feet positioned parallel and partially emerged performed with the hands on the highest horizontal and on the vertical handgrip at hands-off, take-off, flight and entry start phases. EMG comparisons between starting variants were supported by upper and lower limb joint angles at starting position and 15 m start time data. Following a four-week start training to familiarize participants with each start variant, 10 male competitive backstroke swimmers performed randomly six 15 m maximal trials, being three of each start variant. Surface EMG of Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris, Gastrocnemius Medialis and Tibialis Anterior was recorded and processed using the time integral EMG (iEMG). Eight video cameras (four surface and four underwater) were used to determine backstroke start phases and joint angles at starting position. EMG, joint angles and temporal parameters have not evidenced changes due to the different handgrips. Nevertheless, clear differences were observed in both variants for upper and lower limb muscles activity among starting phases (e.g. Biceps Brachii at take-off vs. flight phase, 15.17% ± 2.76% and 22.38% ± 4.25%; 14.24% ± 7.11% and 25.90% ± 8.65%, for variant with hands horizontal and vertically positioned, respectively). It was concluded that different handgrips did not affect EMG, kinematics and temporal profile in backstroke start. Despite coaches might plan similar strength training for both start variants, further attention should be given on the selection of proper exercises to maximize the contribution of relevant muscles at different starting phases. Key pointsAn effective swim start component (from the starting signal until the
This book presents a comprehensive framework for model-based electrical stimulation (ES) controller design, covering the whole process needed to develop a system for helping people with physical impairments perform functional upper limb tasks such as eating, grasping and manipulating objects. The book first demonstrates procedures for modelling and identifying biomechanical models of the response of ES, covering a wide variety of aspects including mechanical support structures, kinematics, electrode placement, tasks, and sensor locations. It then goes on to demonstrate how complex functional activities of daily living can be captured in the form of optimisation problems, and extends ES control design to address this case. It then lays out a design methodology, stability conditions, and robust performance criteria that enable control schemes to be developed systematically and transparently, ensuring that they can operate effectively in the presence of realistic modelling uncertainty, physiological variation an...
Xiao, Feiyun; Gao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yong; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie
Many countries, including Japan, Italy, and China are experiencing demographic shifts as their populations age. Some basic activities of daily living (ADLs) are difficult for elderly people to complete independently due to declines in motor function. In this paper, a 6-DOF wearable cable-driven upper limb exoskeleton (CABexo) based on epicyclic gear trains structure is proposed. The main structure of the exoskeleton system is composed of three epicyclic gear train sections. This new exoskeleton has a parallel mechanical structure to the traditional serial structure, but is stiffer and has a stronger carrying capacity. The traditional gear transmission structure is replaced with a cable transmission system, which is quieter, and has higher accuracy and smoother transmission. The static workspace of the exoskeleton is large enough to meet the demand of assisting aged and disabled individuals in completing most of their activities of daily living (ADLs).
Kikuchi, T.; Fukushima, K.; Furusho, J.; Ozawa, T.
In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.
Salazard, B; Philandrianos, C; Tekpa, B
"Palsy of the upper limb" in children includes various diseases which leads to hypomobility of the member: cerebral palsy, arthrogryposis and obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. These pathologies which differ on brain damage or not, have the same consequences due to the early achievement: negligence, stiffness and deformities. Regular entire clinical examination of the member, an assessment of needs in daily life, knowledge of the social and family environment, are key points for management. In these pathologies, the rehabilitation is an emergency, which began at birth and intensively. Splints and physiotherapy are part of the treatment. Surgery may have a functional goal, hygienic or aesthetic in different situations. The main goals of surgery are to treat: joints stiffness, bones deformities, muscles contractures and spasticity, paresis, ligamentous laxity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Clifford, Merci S; Hamer, Peter; Phillips, Michael; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W
Upper limb (UL) burns can result in significant loss of strength and physical function. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of grip strength dynamometry (GSD) for measuring burn-affected UL strength over time. A retrospective sample of adult participants (n=89) with UL burns was obtained from Royal Perth Hospital. Data were compiled from assessments conducted at discharge, one, three, six and 12 months afer burn. Within-session reliability and validity was examined through multivariable analyses. GSD demonstrated within-session reliability for all investigated timepoints (ICC's≥0.87, pdynamometry is a reliable and valid outcome measure for measuring burn-affected UL strength from one month to one year after burn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel
. METHODS: Eighty-two male slaughterhouse workers, 49 with chronic upper limb pain and 33 pain-free controls participated in the study. Maximal muscle strength, RFD, and muscle activity was determined from fast and forceful maximal voluntary contractions for the shoulder and hand. Participants filled out...... a questionnaire on work ability (work ability index), work disability (Work module of DASH questionnaire), fear avoidance, and self-rated health. Additionally, pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured in muscles of the arm, shoulder and lower leg. RESULTS: Muscle strength and RFD (determined within time...... intervals of 30, 50, 100, and 200 ms relative to onset of contraction) was 28 % and 58-78 % lower, respectively, in workers with chronic pain compared with pain-free controls, and paralleled by reduced muscle activity (all p shoulder and lower...
Riis Jepsen, Jørgen; Thomsen, Gert
at least three times during workdays in a six month period. Subjects from the other division served as controls. At the end of the intervention both groups were invited to a second identical evaluation by questionnaire and physical examination. Symptoms and findings were studied in the right upper limb....... Perceived changes of pain were recorded and individual and patterns of physical findings assessed for both groups at baseline and at follow-up. In subjects with no or minimal preceding pain we additionally studied the relation of incident pain to the summarized findings for parameters contained...... in the definition of nerve affliction at the three locations. RESULTS: Summarized pain was significantly reduced in the intervention group but unchanged in controls. After the intervention, fewer neurological abnormalities in accordance with nerve affliction were recorded for the whole material but no conclusion...
dos Santos, Christian Mariani Lucas; da Cunha, Fransergio Leite; Dynnikov, Vladimir Ivanovitch
In recent years, single crystal Cu-Al-Ni alloys with shape memory behavior (SMB) became generally commercialized. They achieved the level of extended application, including upper limb human prosthesis with anthropomorphic characteristics. An actuator based in single crystal Cu-Al-Ni alloy was tested as a prototype for prosthetic actuators. Their thermal cycle times remarkably define the actuator dynamics and the idea of preheating to reduce its response time was tested. To elaborate the heating conditions, the chemical composition of martensitic and austenitic single crystals, Cu-Al-Ni alloy samples were examined. The dynamic response of a martensitic actuator made with SMB and the power consumed with preheating was analyzed. It demonstrates that the presence of more elements in alloys may be fundamental to displace the heating diagram and to reduce the power consumed.
John E. Muñoz-Cardona
Full Text Available This paper shows the design of work-station for work-related inclusion people upper-limb disability. The system involves the use of novel brain computer interface used to bridge the user-computer interaction. Our hope objective is elucidating functional, technological, ergonomic and procedural aspects to runaway operation station; with propose to scratch barrier to impossibility access to TIC’s tools and work done for individual disability person. We found access facility ergonomics, adaptability and portable issue of workstation are most important design criteria. Prototype implementations in workplace environment have TIR estimate of 43% for retrieve. Finally we list a typology of services that could be the most appropriate for the process of labor including: telemarketing, telesales, telephone surveys, order taking, social assistance in disasters, general information and inquiries, reservations at tourist sites, technical support, emergency, online support and after-sales services.
Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T
In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.
Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: email@example.com
In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.
Sidhu, Simranjit K; Weavil, Joshua C; Venturelli, Massimo; Garten, Ryan S; Rossman, Matthew J; Richardson, Russell S; Gmelch, Benjamin S; Morgan, David E; Amann, Markus
We investigated the influence of group III/IV lower limb muscle afferents on the development of supraspinal fatigue and the responsiveness of corticospinal projections to an arm muscle. Eight males performed constant-load leg cycling exercise (80% peak power output) for 30 s (non-fatiguing) and to exhaustion (∼9 min; fatiguing) both under control conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing feedback from μ-opioid receptor-sensitive lower limb muscle afferents. Voluntary activation (VA) of elbow flexors was assessed via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and corticospinal responsiveness was monitored via TMS-evoked potentials (MEPs) during a 25% MVC. Accompanied by a significant 5 ± 1% reduction in VA from pre- to post-exercise, elbow flexor MVC progressively decreased during the fatiguing trial (P muscle afferents, MVC and VA remained unchanged during fatiguing exercise (P > 0.3). MEPs decreased by 36 ± 6% (P lower corticospinal responsiveness during this short bout (P muscle fatigue, group III/IV-mediated leg muscle afferents facilitate responsiveness of the motor pathway to upper limb flexor muscles. By contrast, in the presence of cycling-induced leg fatigue, group III/IV locomotor muscle afferents facilitate supraspinal fatigue in remote muscle not involved in the exercise and disfacilitate, or inhibit, the responsiveness of corticospinal projections to upper limb muscles.
Assis, Gilda Aparecida de; Corrêa, Ana Grasielle Dionísio; Martins, Maria Bernardete Rodrigues; Pedrozo, Wendel Goes; Lopes, Roseli de Deus
To determine the clinical feasibility of a system based on augmented reality for upper-limb (UL) motor rehabilitation of stroke participants. A physiotherapist instructed the participants to accomplish tasks in augmented reality environment, where they could see themselves and their surroundings, as in a mirror. Two case studies were conducted. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. The first study evaluated the UL motor function using Fugl-Meyer scale. Data were compared using non-parametric sign tests and effect size. The second study used the gain of motion range of shoulder flexion and abduction assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry. At a significance level of 5%, Fugl-Meyer scores suggested a trend for greater UL motor improvement in the augmented reality group than in the other. Moreover, effect size value 0.86 suggested high practical significance for UL motor rehabilitation using the augmented reality system. System provided promising results for UL motor rehabilitation, since enhancements have been observed in the shoulder range of motion and speed. Implications for Rehabilitation Gain of range of motion of flexion and abduction of the shoulder of post-stroke patients can be achieved through an augmented reality system containing exercises to promote the mental practice. NeuroR system provides a mental practice method combined with visual feedback for motor rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients, giving the illusion of injured upper-limb (UL) movements while the affected UL is resting. Its application is feasible and safe. This system can be used to improve UL rehabilitation, an additional treatment past the traditional period of the stroke patient hospitalization and rehabilitation.
Kim, Hyeong Gyun; Yoon, Jae Ho; Choi, Seong Dae
There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination
Full Text Available Abstract This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points, Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space. These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved
Oud, Tanja; Beelen, Anita; Eijffinger, Elianne; Nollet, Frans
To systematically review the available evidence for the effectiveness of sensory re-education to improve the sensibility of the hand in patients with a peripheral nerve injury of the upper limb. Studies were identified by an electronic search in the databases MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the database of the Dutch National Institute of Allied Health Professions (Doconline) and by screening the reference lists of relevant articles. Two reviewers selected studies that met the following inclusion criteria: all designs except case reports, adults with impaired sensibility of the hand due to a peripheral nerve injury of the upper limb, and sensibility and functional sensibility as outcome measures. The methodological quality of the included studies was independently assessed by two reviewers. A best-evidence synthesis was performed, based on design, methodological quality and significant findings on outcome measures. Seven studies, with sample sizes ranging from 11 to 49, were included in the systematic review and appraised for content. Five of these studies were of poor methodological quality. One uncontrolled study (N = 1 3 ) was considered to be of sufficient methodological quality, and one randomized controlled trial (N = 49) was of high methodological quality. Best-evidence synthesis showed that there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of sensory re-education, provided by a statistically significant improvement in sensibility found in one high-quality randomized controlled trial. There is a need for further well-defined clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of sensory re-education of patients with impaired sensibility of the hand due to a peripheral nerve injury.
Karla De Jesus, Kelly De Jesus, Alexandre I. A. Medeiros, Pedro Gonçalves, Pedro Figueiredo, Ricardo J. Fernandes, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Full Text Available A proficient start is decisive in sprint competitive swimming events and requires swimmers’ to exert maximal forces in a short period to complete the task successfully. The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG activity in-between the backstroke start with feet positioned parallel and partially emerged performed with the hands on the highest horizontal and on the vertical handgrip at hands-off, take-off, flight and entry start phases. EMG comparisons between starting variants were supported by upper and lower limb joint angles at starting position and 15 m start time data. Following a four-week start training to familiarize participants with each start variant, 10 male competitive backstroke swimmers performed randomly six 15 m maximal trials, being three of each start variant. Surface EMG of Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris, Gastrocnemius Medialis and Tibialis Anterior was recorded and processed using the time integral EMG (iEMG. Eight video cameras (four surface and four underwater were used to determine backstroke start phases and joint angles at starting position. EMG, joint angles and temporal parameters have not evidenced changes due to the different handgrips. Nevertheless, clear differences were observed in both variants for upper and lower limb muscles activity among starting phases (e.g. Biceps Brachii at take-off vs. flight phase, 15.17% ± 2.76% and 22.38% ± 4.25%; 14.24% ± 7.11% and 25.90% ± 8.65%, for variant with hands horizontal and vertically positioned, respectively. It was concluded that different handgrips did not affect EMG, kinematics and temporal profile in backstroke start. Despite coaches might plan similar strength training for both start variants, further attention should be given on the selection of proper exercises to maximize the contribution of relevant muscles at different starting phases.
Paulo H. Marchetti
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10 in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF and surface electromyography (sEMG of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and vastus lateralis (VL were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD. ANOVA (2x2 (group x condition was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM, vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001. A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control for peak force for control group (p = 0.045. Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL. In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation.
Kim, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumsung (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jae Ho [Jukwang Precision Co., Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Dae [Dept. of Mechanical system engineering, Kumoh Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)
There is a progressive development in the medical imaging technology, especially of descriptive capability for anatomical structure of human body thanks to advancement of information technology and medical devices. But however maintenance of correct posture is essential for the medical imaging checkup on the shoulder joint requiring rotation of the upper limb due to the complexity of human body. In the cases of MRI examination, long duration and fixed posture are critical, as failure to comply with them leads to minimal possibility of reproducibility only with the efforts of the examiner and will of the patient. Thus, this study aimed to develop an auxiliary device that enables rotation of the upper limb as well as fixing it at quantitative angles for medical imaging examination capable of providing diagnostic values. An auxiliary device has been developed based on the results of precedent studies, by designing a 3D model with the CATIA software, an engineering application, and producing it with the 3D printer. The printer is Objet350 Connex from Stratasys, and acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene(ABS) is used as the material of the device. Dimensions are 120 X 150 X 190 mm, with the inner diameter of the handle being 125.9 mm. The auxiliary device has 4 components including the body (outside), handle (inside), fixture terminal and the connection part. The body and handle have the gap of 2.1 mm for smooth rotation, while the 360 degree of scales have been etched on the handle so that the angle required for observation may be recorded per patient for traceability and dual examination.
Meyer, Sarah; De Bruyn, Nele; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Peeters, Andre; Feys, Hilde; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert
Longitudinal information regarding the prevalence of upper limb somatosensory deficits and the association with motor impairment and activity limitations is scarce. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to map the extent and distribution of somatosensory deficits, and to determine associations over time between somatosensory deficits and motor impairment and activity limitations. We recruited 32 participants who were assessed 4 to 7 days after stroke, and reassessed at 6 months. Somatosensory measurements included the Erasmus-modified Nottingham sensory assessment (Em-NSA), perceptual threshold of touch, thumb finding test, 2-point discrimination, and stereognosis subscale of the NSA. Evaluation of motor impairment comprised the Fugl-Meyer assessment, Motricity Index, and Action Research Arm Test. In addition, at 6 months, activity limitation was determined using the adult assisting hand assessment stroke, the ABILHAND, and hand subscale of the Stroke Impact Scale. Somatosensory impairments were common, with 41% to 63% experiencing a deficit in one of the modalities within the first week and 3% to 50% at 6 months. In the acute phase, there were only very low associations between somatosensory and motor impairments (r = 0.03-0.20), whereas at 6 months, low to moderate associations (r = 0.32-0.69) were found for perceptual threshold of touch, thumb finding test, and stereognosis with motor impairment and activity limitations. Low associations (r = 0.01-0.29) were found between somatosensory impairments in the acute phase and motor impairments and activity limitations at 6 months. This study showed that somatosensory impairments are common and suggests that the association with upper limb motor and functional performance increases with time after stroke.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A138).
Rogerio Teixeira da Silva
Full Text Available As lesões esportivas do membro superior são muito comuns da prática de atividades físicas e, por isso, devem ser estudadas detalhadamente, levando-se em consideração aspectos específicos da modalidades esportiva praticada. Especial atenção deve ser dada à dinâmica da articulação do ombro e toda cintura escapular, pois somente assim poderemos tratar de forma mais adequada os atletas, atuando também na prevenção das recidivas, que podem ocorrer em alguns casos devido ao fato de o atleta procurar sempre o retorno ao mesmo nível esportivo anterior à lesão. Este artigo vai focar principalmente o manejo das lesões tendíneas do membro superior, da fisiopatologia até os novos métodos de tratamento das lesões de maior prevalência na prática esportiva em nosso país.Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities, and need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and scapular belt, as this will enable us to treat athletes more adequately, also helping prevent recurrences that can occur in some cases, due to the fact that the athlete always attempts to return to their pre-injury level of sport. This review focuses primarily on the management of upper limb tendon sports injuries, from the physiopathology through to the more common new methods of treatment in sports practice in our country.
Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Kelsall, Helen L; Sim, Malcolm R
Work-related upper limb and neck musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common occupational disorders around the world. Although ergonomic design and training are likely to reduce the risk of workers developing work-related upper limb and neck MSDs, the evidence is unclear. To assess the effects of workplace ergonomic design or training interventions, or both, for the prevention of work-related upper limb and neck MSDs in adults. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science (Science Citation Index), SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Database and Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register to July 2010, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health database, and International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre database to November 2010. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ergonomic workplace interventions for preventing work-related upper limb and neck MSDs. We included only studies with a baseline prevalence of MSDs of the upper limb or neck, or both, of less than 25%. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We included studies with relevant data that we judged to be sufficiently homogeneous regarding the intervention and outcome in the meta-analysis. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for each comparison using the GRADE approach. We included 13 RCTs (2397 workers). Eleven studies were conducted in an office environment and two in a healthcare setting. We judged one study to have a low risk of bias. The 13 studies evaluated effectiveness of ergonomic equipment, supplementary breaks or reduced work hours, ergonomic training, a combination of ergonomic training and equipment, and patient lifting interventions for preventing work-related MSDs of the upper
Choi, Yoon-Hee; Ku, Jeonghun; Lim, Hyunmi; Kim, Yeo Hyung; Paik, Nam-Jong
Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to provide intensive, repetitive, and task-oriented training, and game-based therapy can enhance patients' motivation and enjoyment. The objective of the present study was to develop a mobile game-based upper extremity VR program for patients who have experienced stroke, and to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the program. This randomized, double-blind, controlled trial included 24 patients with ischemic stroke. The intervention group (n = 12) received 30 min of conventional occupational therapy (OT) and 30 min of the mobile upper extremity rehabilitation program using a smartphone and a tablet PC (MoU-Rehab). The controls (n = 12) received conventional OT alone for 1 h per day. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 sessions of therapy, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks. The outcome measures (Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity [FMA-UE], Brunnström stage [B-stage] for the arm and the hand, manual muscle testing [MMT], modified Barthel index [MBI], EuroQol-5 Dimension [EQ-5D], and Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) were assessed at the beginning and end of treatment, and at 1 month. User satisfaction was evaluated by a questionnaire. A greater improvement in the FMA-UE, B-stage, and MMT was found after treatment with the MoU-Rehab than with conventional therapy. The extent of improvements in the MBI, EQ-5D, and BDI was not significantly different between the two groups. Patients in the experimental group completed the 2-weeks treatment without adverse effects, and they were generally satisfied with MoU-Rehab. This mobile game-based VR rehabilitation program appears to be feasible and effective for promoting upper limb recovery after ischemic stroke.
Holt, Brigitte M
A growing body of archeological evidence suggests that the dramatic climatic events of the Last Glacial Maximum in Europe triggered important changes in foraging behavior, involving a significant decrease in mobility. In general, changes in mobility alter patterns of bending of the midshaft femur and tibia, resulting in changes in diaphyseal robusticity and shape. This relationship between levels of mobility and lower limb diaphyseal structure was used to test the hypothesized decrease in mobility. Cross-sectional geometric data were obtained for 81 Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic European femora and tibiae. The sample was divided into three time periods: Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP), Late Upper Paleolithic (LUP), and Mesolithic (Meso). In addition, because decreased mobility often results in changes in sex roles, males and females were analyzed separately. All indicators of bending strength decrease steadily through time, although few of the changes reach statistical significance. There is, however, a highly significant change in midshaft femur shape, with LUP and Meso groups more circular in cross-section than the EUP sample, supporting archeologically based predictions of decreased mobility. Sexual dimorphism levels in diaphyseal strength remain low throughout the three time periods, suggesting a departure in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic foragers away from the pattern of division of labor by sex observed in modern hunter-gatherers. Results confirm that the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum represents a crucial stage in Late Pleistocene human evolution, and signals the appearance of some of the behavioral adaptations that are usually associated with the Neolithic, such as sedentism. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dunne, Jonathan A
The Bob Huffstadt course is a 2-day upper and lower limb flap dissection course held in Groningen, the Netherlands. The course is in English, with an international faculty of senior consultants from the Netherlands, Belgium, and United Kingdom. Faculty to participant ratio is 2:1, with 2 participants at each dissection table. The course is aimed at trainees in plastic surgery of all levels, and a comprehensive DVD is provided before the course, which demonstrates dissection of 35 flaps, ensuring those with little experience to have an understanding before dissection.This course offered a comprehensive overview with plenty of practical application. The course can greatly develop operative and theoretical knowledge, while also demonstrating a commitment for those wishing to pursue a career in plastic surgery. Longer courses are available; however, the 2-day course can already provide an excellent introduction for junior trainees. There are few flap courses in the United Kingdom and senior trainees may have difficulty acquiring a place as they book up well in advance. With reductions in operating time, trainees may welcome further experience and development of techniques in the dissection room.Most of both days were spent in the dissection room, raising flaps and receiving teaching from the faculty. Dissections included Foucher, Moberg, Becker, radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, and fibula flaps. Dissection specimens were fresh-frozen preparation, and 9 upper limb flaps were raised on the first day and 5 lower limb flaps on the second day. The faculty provided live demonstrations of perforator dissection, use of the hand-held Doppler, and tips and tricks. The last 2 hours of each day were spent with 2 lectures, including topics from the history of flaps and developments to challenging cases and reconstructive options.The course fee was 1000 euros, including a 5-course dinner, lunch on both days, and a drinks reception on the final evening. I would recommend this
Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40 and Yanglingquan (GB34 points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P=0.03 in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P=0.036. Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle.
Brookham, Rebecca L; Cudlip, Alan C; Dickerson, Clark R
Upper limb morbidities within the breast cancer population can interfere with completing daily life activities. Current knowledge of upper limb capabilities is limited; previous increases in muscle activation on the affected cancer side suggest this population works at a higher fraction of their capability. The purposes of this study were to describe upper limb capabilities and dysfunction of breast cancer survivors through muscle activation monitoring via surface electromyography and muscle-specific strength tests during functional tasks. Fifty survivors performed 88 dynamic tasks (divided into range of motion-reach or rotate, activities of daily life and work tasks). Muscle activation was examined for functional and strength testing tasks. Total muscle effort (summation of integrated electromyography across measured muscles) was up to 5.1% greater on the affected side during work tasks (p=0.0258). Increased activations existed in posterior deltoid, supraspinatus, upper trapezius and serratus anterior (ptasks, including daily living tasks. Reduced activation occurred in affected pectoralis major sternal during all tasks (ptasks (p=0.0002-0.0328). The affected side infraspinatus, supraspinatus and upper trapezius muscles demonstrated significant reductions in targeted strength testing (p=0.0001-0.0057). Both primary and secondary muscles (outside surgery and radiation fields) were affected. In general, this population works at higher levels of muscle effort for the affected side yet demonstrates weakness in strength testing, which may reflect tissue damage. Strengthening exercises for the posterior rotator cuff and upper trapezius may be the most beneficial. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Molier, B.I.; Prange, Grada Berendina; Krabben, T.; Stienen, Arno; van der Kooij, Herman; Buurke, Jaap; Jannink, M.J.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Feedback is an important element in motor learning during rehabilitation therapy following stroke. The objective of this pilot study was to better understand the effect of position feedback during task-oriented reach training of the upper limb in people with chronic stroke. Five subjects
Shimohira, Masashi; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Mori, Yuji; Shibamoto, Yuta (Dept. of Radiology, Nagoya City Univ. Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)); Omiya, Hiroko; Suzuki, Hirochika (Dept. of Radiology, Tsushima City Hospital, Tsushima (Japan))
Background: The prolonged bed-rest required achieving hemostasis after splanchnic angiography and interventional procedures can be avoided if the upper limb arteries are used. In such procedures, the use of long sheaths capable of reaching the descending aorta may be advantageous. Purpose: To analyze the results of procedures that utilizes an upper-limb-artery approach and long sheaths. Material and Methods: Two hundred forty-two patients with a mean age of 64 years underwent splanchnic angiography and interventional procedures via an upper limb artery using a long sheath (85 cm, 4-French). Repeat examinations were performed on 48 patients and the total number of examinations was 296. The records of these 296 examinations were reviewed and the success rate and complications were evaluated. Results: Overall, 295 of 296 (99.7%) examinations were successful, and one (0.3%) failed. Complications and side effects occurred in six cases (2.0%), a painful sheath manipulation occurred in two examinations (0.7%), and arterial occlusion (including temporary occlusion), hematoma of the puncture site, and pseudoaneurysm occurred in two (0.7%), one (0.3%), and one (0.3%) patient, respectively. Conclusion: The use of a long sheath capable of reaching the descending aorta enables the performance of splanchnic angiography and interventional procedures via the upper limb arteries
Verso, Melina; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Ageno, Walter; Bazzan, Mario; Lazzaro, Antonio; Paoletti, Francesco; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Mosca, Stefano; Bertoglio, Sergio
Deep vein thrombosis of upper limb is a common complication of CVC in patients with cancer. In these patients the risk factors for CVC-related thrombosis are not completely defined. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for CVC-related thrombosis in patients included in a
Levin, Mindy F; Weiss, Patrice L; Keshner, Emily A
The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality-based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback-based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.
Nunes, João Pedro; Ribeiro, Alex S; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Avelar, Ademar; Trindade, Michele Cc; Nabuco, Hellen Cg; Cavalcante, Edilaine F; Junior, Paulo Sugihara; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Carvalho, Ferdinando O; Cyrino, Edilson S
Creatine (Cr) supplementation associated with resistance training produces greater muscular strength improvements in the upper compared with the lower body; however, no study has investigated if such region-specific results are seen with gains in muscle mass. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Cr supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean soft tissue changes in the upper and lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained young adult men. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled design, 43 resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.0 years, 72.9 ± 8.7 kg, 177.9 ± 5.7 cm, 23.0 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) received either creatine (Cr, n = 22) or placebo (PLA, n = 21) over an 8-week study period. The supplementation protocol included a loading phase (7 days, four doses of 0.3 g/kg per day) and a maintenance phase (7 weeks, single dose of 0.03 g/kg per day). During the same period, subjects performed resistance training four times per week using the following two-way split routine: Monday and Thursday = pectoral, shoulders, triceps, and abdomen, Tuesday and Friday = back, biceps, thighs, and calves. Lean soft tissue of the upper limbs (ULLST), lower limbs (LLLST), and trunk (TLST) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Both groups showed significant ( p trained young adult men, particularly in the upper limbs.
Nijland, Rinske; Kwakkel, Gert; Bakers, Japie; van Wegen, Erwin
Constraint-induced movement therapy is a commonly used intervention to improve upper limb function after stroke. However, the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy and its optimal dosage during acute or sub-acute stroke is still under debate. To examine the literature on the effects
Pons, Roser; Vanezis, Athanasios; Skouteli, Helen; Papavasiliou, Antigoni; Tziomaki, Magda; Syrengelas, Dimitris; Darras, Nikolaos
Assessment of upper limb function, kinematic analysis, and dystonia in patients with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy and periventricular leukomalacia. Seven children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy and 8 controls underwent upper limb kinematics. Movement duration, average and maximum linear velocity, index of curvature, index of dystonia, and target accuracy and stability were analyzed. In the patients with spastic diplegia, Gross Motor Function and Manual Ability Classification Systems were determined, and spasticity and dystonia were rated using the Modified Ashworth and the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia scales respectively. Children with spastic diplegia demonstrated a tendency toward higher index of dystonia reflecting overflow, higher index of curvature, lower velocities, and poor target accuracy and stability. All patients showed clinical evidence of dystonia in the upper limbs. Dystonia scores correlated with the Manual Ability Classification System (r = 0.86, P = .01) and with the index of dystonia (r = 0.82, P = .02). Children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy present dystonia in the upper limbs. This is functionally relevant and can be measured with kinematic analysis.
Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.
The objectives of this study were to examine the association between work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) and duration of computer and mouse use, to investigate differences in these associations between men and women, and to examine whether a possible relationship between duration of computer
Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mashayekhi, Masoud; Hasson, Scott; Fakhari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh
The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) in the upper limb of patients with hemiparesis and to determine the effect of pain and contracture presence on the reliability of the MMAS. For this test-retest study 30 patients with hemiparesis were included. One physiotherapist using the MMAS, randomly rated the spasticity of shoulder adductors, elbow flexors, and wrist flexors in the affected upper limb of each patient with hemiparesis twice with at least a 1 week interval between testing sessions. The presence of pain and contracture during passive stretch was recorded. The magnitude of the contracture was measured by a goniometer. The quadratic weighted kappa statistics was very good for the upper limb spasticity (κw= 0.84). Intra-rater reliability was good for shoulder adductors (κw=0.75), and very good for elbow flexors and wrist flexors (κw 0.86 and 0.90, respectively). There were no differences between the weighted kappa values for muscle groups (p>0.05). The intra-rater reliability was also good in the presence of pain or contracture. The MMAS had very good intra-rater reliability in the assessment of upper limb spasticity in patients with hemiparesis. The presence of pain during shoulder abduction or contracture of the shoulder adductors had no influence on the reliability of the MMAS (κ w=0.75, 0.77, respectively).
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H. B.
Background: Sport prostheses are used by both upper- and lower-limb amputees while participating in sports and other physical activities. Although the number of these devices has increased over the past decade, no overview of the peer reviewed literature describing them has been published
Hale, Leigh A.; Satherley, Jessica A.; McMillan, Nicole J.; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Hijmans, Juha M.; King, Marcus J.
This article reports on the perceptions of 14 adults with chronic stroke who participated in a pilot study to determine the utility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of using an adapted CyWee Z handheld game controller to play a variety of computer games aimed at improving upper-limb function.
Lankhorst, Ilse M. F.; Baars, Erwin C. T.; van Wijk, Iris; Janssen, Wim G. M.; Poelma, Margriet J.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
Introduction: During transition to adulthood young adults with disabilities are at risk of experiencing limitations due to changing physical and social requirements. Purpose: To determine whether young adults with transversal upper limb reduction deficiency (tULRD) have experienced limitations in
Meurs, M.; Maathuis, C. G. B.; Lucas, C.; Hadders-Algra, M.; van der Sluis, C. K.
The prosthetic rejection rates in children with an upper limb transversal reduction deficiency are considerable. It is unclear whether the timing of the first prescription of the prosthesis contributes to the rejection rates. To reveal whether scientific evidence is available in literature to
Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
Background. Intermanual transfer may improve prosthetic handling and acceptance if used in training soon after an amputation. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intermanual transfer effects can be detected after training with a myoelectric upper-limb prosthesis simulator.
Meurs, M.; Maathuis, C. G. B.; Lucas, C.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Van der Sluis, C. K.
Background: The prosthetic rejection rates in children with an upper limb transversal reduction deficiency are considerable. It is unclear whether the timing of the first prescription of the prosthesis contributes to the rejection rates. Objective: To reveal whether scientific evidence is available
Full Text Available Study aim: the aim of this study was to assess the relationship between classical sport massage of the hand and the forearm and the surface temperature of upper limb muscles, and between hand grip strength and the range of motion in the radiocarpal joint.
The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…
Emad, Y.; Al-Sherbeni, H.; Ragab, Y.; Abo-El-Youn, I.; El-Shaarawy, N.; Nassar, D.Y.; Fathy, A.; Al-Hanafi, H.; Rasker, Johannes J.
Objective To describe the CT angiographic findings of arterial vasculopathy in the major vessels as well as medium and micro vascular affection of the whole upper limbs arterial tree in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with and without digital ulceration. Methods Twenty-two cases with systemic
Videler, Annemieke; Eijffinger, Elianne; Nollet, Frans; Beelen, Anita
Objective: To assess initial efficacy and tolerability of a thumb opposition splint on manual dexterity, perceived upper limb functioning and occupational performance in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Design: One group pre-post design. Patients and methods: Thirteen patients were
Full Text Available Objectives: Stroke, is one of the major causes of disability in adults. So, the patient may prefer to use the non-involved limb to perfom selfcare & named this phenomen learned non used. Constraint induced therapy is one of the rehabilitative interventions that can be effective in restoration of the function of the involved limb in some hemiparetic post stroke patients. purpose of this study was to investigate effect of time constraind induced therapy on function, coordination and movements of upper limb on hemiplegic adults. Methods: In an interventional design, 15 hemiplegic patients attended in stracture exrcises for 2 hours a day, 5 days a week for 12 weeks in during while for 5 hours a day, 5 days a week for 12 weeks, the sound limb was restricted within an arm sling for movement & dextrity assessment were used Fugl-Meyer & Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test. Results: the results of Fugl-Meyer & Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test were significantly improved in patients, after the intervention (P<0.05. Discussion: Our study shows that using CIT in involved limb encouraged the patients to use their involved limb and improved function by conquering learned non-use of the limb. more research is necessary to define baselines or golden times for rehabilitation of the patients using CIT method.
Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.
This study assessed the effectiveness of a single intervention targeting work style and a combined intervention targeting work style and physical activity on the recovery from neck and upper limb symptoms. Computer workers with frequent or long-term neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into
Rietman, J.S.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Geertzen, J.H.; Baas, P.; de Vries, J; Dolsma, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Eisma, W.H.; Hoekstra, H.J.
BACKGROUND. The goals of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) are to improve axillary staging and reduce unnecessary axillary lymph node dissections (ALND), thereby reducing treatment-related upper-limb morbidity. In the current prospective study, short-term upper-limb morbidity was assessed after SLNB
Rodgers, Helen; Shaw, Lisa; Bosomworth, Helen; Aird, Lydia; Alvarado, Natasha; Andole, Sreeman; Cohen, David L; Dawson, Jesse; Eyre, Janet; Finch, Tracy; Ford, Gary A; Hislop, Jennifer; Hogg, Steven; Howel, Denise; Hughes, Niall; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Price, Christopher; Rochester, Lynn; Stamp, Elaine; Ternent, Laura; Turner, Duncan; Vale, Luke; Warburton, Elizabeth; van Wijck, Frederike; Wilkes, Scott
Loss of arm function is a common and distressing consequence of stroke. We describe the protocol for a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial to determine whether robot-assisted training improves upper limb function following stroke. Study design: a pragmatic, three-arm, multicentre randomised controlled trial, economic analysis and process evaluation. NHS stroke services. adults with acute or chronic first-ever stroke (1 week to 5 years post stroke) causing moderate to severe upper limb functional limitation. Randomisation groups: 1. Robot-assisted training using the InMotion robotic gym system for 45 min, three times/week for 12 weeks 2. Enhanced upper limb therapy for 45 min, three times/week for 12 weeks 3. Usual NHS care in accordance with local clinical practice Randomisation: individual participant randomisation stratified by centre, time since stroke, and severity of upper limb impairment. upper limb function measured by the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 3 months post randomisation. upper limb impairment (Fugl-Meyer Test), activities of daily living (Barthel ADL Index), quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale, EQ-5D-5L), resource use, cost per quality-adjusted life year and adverse events, at 3 and 6 months. Blinding: outcomes are undertaken by blinded assessors. Economic analysis: micro-costing and economic evaluation of interventions compared to usual NHS care. A within-trial analysis, with an economic model will be used to extrapolate longer-term costs and outcomes. Process evaluation: semi-structured interviews with participants and professionals to seek their views and experiences of the rehabilitation that they have received or provided, and factors affecting the implementation of the trial. allowing for 10% attrition, 720 participants provide 80% power to detect a 15% difference in successful outcome between each of the treatment pairs. Successful outcome definition: baseline ARAT 0-7 must improve by 3 or more points; baseline
Eraifej, John; Clark, William; France, Benjamin; Desando, Sebastian; Moore, David
Background Stroke can lead to significant impairment of upper limb function which affects performance of activities of daily living (ADL). Functional electrical stimulation (FES) involves electrical stimulation of motor neurons such that muscle groups contract and create or augment a moment about a joint. Whilst lower limb FES was established in post-stroke rehabilitation, there is a lack of clarity on the effectiveness of upper limb FES. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiven...
De Groef, An; Van Kampen, Marijke; Verlvoesem, Nele; Dieltjens, Evi; Vos, Lore; De Vrieze, Tessa; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Neven, Patrick; Geraerts, Inge; Devoogdt, Nele
Besides pain, myofascial dysfunctions may contribute to the presence of upper limb impairments such as impaired range of motion, decreased strength, lymphedema, and altered postures and kinematics. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of myofascial therapy in addition to a standard physical therapy program for treatment of upper limb dysfunctions in breast cancer survivors. Fifty women treated for a unilateral breast cancer with pain and myofascial dysfunctions at the upper limb region. The intervention group received 12 sessions of myofascial therapy consisting of release techniques on myofascial trigger points and adhesions in addition to a standard physical therapy program for 3 months. The control group received 12 sessions of a placebo intervention in addition to the same standard physical therapy program during the 3 months. Outcome parameters are active shoulder range of motion (inclinometer); arm lymphedema (perimeter); upper limb strength (handheld dynamometer); scapular statics and dynamics (acromion-table and pectoralis minor index, inclinometer); shoulder function (Disability of Shoulder, Arm and Hand questionnaire); and quality of life (Short Form 36). Measures were taken before and after the intervention at 6 and 12 months follow-up. No differences between groups were found for all outcome parameters over the course of 1 year. However, overall beneficial effects of the standard physical therapy program for active shoulder range of motion and shoulder function were found in both groups up to 1 year follow-up. Myofascial therapy has no additional beneficial effect for improvement of upper limb function in breast cancer survivors.
Full Text Available Abstract Study Design A retrospective study was conducted to study the post operative upper limb palsy after laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy. Objective To identify a reliable and simple preoperative radiological parameter in predicting the risk of post operative upper limb palsy. Background Post operative upper limb palsy is one of the causes of patient dissatisfaction after surgery. There had been no simple, standard preoperative radiological parameters reliably predict the occurrence of this problem. Materials and methods Seventy-four patients received posterior cervical decompression from 1998 to 2008. Medical record and preoperative radiological information were evaluated. Clinical presentations of the palsy were described. The relationship between the occurrence of palsy and different preoperative radiological information is analyzed. Results Eighteen patients (24.3% presented with post operative upper limb palsy. Majority of patients presented with dysesthesia (17/18 and with deficit of the C5 segment (17/18. Ten patients presented with pure dysesthesia and 8 patients presented with mixed motor-sensory deficit and dysesthesia. Multilevel involvement was exclusively presented in patients with motor weakness. A longer duration of symptom (16.7 Vs 57.2 days was noticed in patients in the motor deficit group. Average Pavlov ratio less then 0.65 (P = 0.027, Odds Ratio = 3.68 and compression at the C3/4 in preoperative MRI image (P = 0.025, Odds Ratio = 6 were significant risk factors for development of this problem. Conclusion Post operative upper limb palsy is not uncommon and thorough preoperative explanation is important. There is a spectrum of clinical presentation and patients with multi-level involvement and motor deficit are associated with poorer prognosis. Average Pavlov ratio
Grant, Virginia Marie; Gibson, Alison; Shields, Nora
Background Somatosensory stimulation may have a positive impact on recovery of motor function by maintaining cortical representation of the hand and acting to prime the motor system for movement. Objective Determine the efficacy of somatosensory stimulation on upper limb motor function after stroke. Methods Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PEDro and OT Seeker) were searched from inception to October 2016. Included studies were English-language randomized controlled trials where a sensory intervention was applied below the elbow to improve upper limb motor control of adults after stroke. One outcome needed to measure arm function at an impairment or activity level. Study selection and quality assessment (using the PEDro scale) were independently conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was completed where there was sufficient homogeneity between trials. Results Fifteen articles were included reporting data from 14 randomized controlled trials (627 participants). There was low-quality evidence from four trials that sensory electrical stimulation did not improve upper limb activity compared to placebo (SMD 0.4, 95%CI -0.07 to 0.87, I 2 38%) and moderate-quality evidence from three trials that it did not improve motor impairment (MD 3.45 units, 95%CI -1.47 to 8.36, I 2 35%). Low-quality evidence from two trials demonstrated that therapist-delivered sensory stimulation did not improve upper limb activity (SMD 0.25, 95%CI -0.20 to 0.69, I 2 0%) compared to usual care. Conclusion Current low- to moderate-quality evidence suggests somatosensory stimulation is not effective in improving upper limb motor impairment or activity after stroke.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few research in multiple sclerosis (MS has focused on physical rehabilitation of upper limb dysfunction, though the latter strongly influences independent performance of activities of daily living. Upper limb rehabilitation technology could hold promise for complementing traditional MS therapy. Consequently, this pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of an 8-week mechanical-assisted training program for improving upper limb muscle strength and functional capacity in MS patients with evident paresis. Methods A case series was applied, with provision of a training program (3×/week, 30 minutes/session, supplementary on the customary maintaining care, by employing a gravity-supporting exoskeleton apparatus (Armeo Spring. Ten high-level disability MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale 7.0-8.5 actively performed task-oriented movements in a virtual real-life-like learning environment with the affected upper limb. Tests were administered before and after training, and at 2-month follow-up. Muscle strength was determined through the Motricity Index and Jamar hand-held dynamometer. Functional capacity was assessed using the TEMPA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT. Results Muscle strength did not change significantly. Significant gains were particularly found in functional capacity tests. After training completion, TEMPA scores improved (p = 0.02, while a trend towards significance was found for the 9HPT (p = 0.05. At follow-up, the TEMPA as well as ARAT showed greater improvement relative to baseline than after the 8-week intervention period (p = 0.01, p = 0.02 respectively. Conclusions The results of present pilot study suggest that upper limb functionality of high-level disability MS patients can be positively influenced by means of a technology-enhanced physical rehabilitation program.
Kong, Keng-He; Loh, Yong-Joo; Thia, Ernest; Chai, Audrey; Ng, Chwee-Yin; Soh, Yan-Ming; Toh, Shirlene; Tjan, Soon-Yin
To compare the efficacy of a virtual reality commercial gaming device, Nintendo wii (NW) with conventional therapy and customary care in facilitating upper limb recovery after stroke. Randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Tertiary rehabilitation center. 105 subjects admitted to in inpatient rehabilitation program within 6 weeks of stroke onset. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups of upper limb exercises: (1) NW gaming; (2) conventional therapy; (3) control. NW gaming and conventional therapy were provided fourtimes a week for 3 weeks. The main outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) of upper limb function. Secondary outcome measures included Action Research Arm Test, Functional Independence Measure, and Stroke Impact Scale. These measures were assessed at baseline, completion of intervention (week 3) and at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after completion of intervention. The primary outcome measure was the change in FMA scores at completion of intervention. The mean age was 57.5±9.8 years, and subjects were enrolled at a mean of 13.7±8.9 days after stroke. The mean baseline FMA score was 16.4±14.2. There was no difference in FMA scores between all 3 groups at the end of intervention, and at 4 and 8 weeks after completion of intervention. Similar findings were also noted for the secondary outcome measures. Twelve sessions of augmented upper limb exercises via NW gaming or conventional therapy over a 3-week period was not effective in enhancing upper limb motor recovery compared to control.
van der Laan, Tallie M J; Postema, Sietke G; Reneman, Michiel F; Bongers, Raoul M; van der Sluis, Corry K
Reliability study. Quantifying compensatory movements during work-related tasks may help to prevent musculoskeletal complaints in individuals with upper limb absence. (1) To develop a qualitative scoring system for rating compensatory shoulder and trunk movements in upper limb prosthesis wearers during the performance of functional capacity evaluation tests adjusted for use by 1-handed individuals (functional capacity evaluation-one handed [FCE-OH]); (2) to examine the interrater and intrarater reliability of the scoring system; and (3) to assess its feasibility. Movement patterns of 12 videotaped upper limb prosthesis wearers and 20 controls were analyzed. Compensatory movements were defined for each FCE-OH test, and a scoring system was developed, pilot tested, and adjusted. During reliability testing, 18 raters (12 FCE experts and 6 physiotherapists/gait analysts) scored videotapes of upper limb prosthesis wearers performing 4 FCE-OH tests 2 times (2 weeks apart). Agreement was expressed in % and kappa value. Feasibility (focus area's "acceptability", "demand," and "implementation") was determined by using a questionnaire. After 2 rounds of pilot testing and adjusting, reliability of a third version was tested. The interrater reliability for the first and second rating sessions were к = 0.54 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.57) and к = 0.64 (CI: 0.61-0.66), respectively. The intrarater reliability was к = 0.77 (CI: 0.72-0.82). The feasibility was good but could be improved by a training program. It seems possible to identify compensatory movements in upper limb prosthesis wearers during the performance of FCE-OH tests reliably by observation using the developed observational scoring system. Interrater reliability was satisfactory in most instances; intrarater reliability was good. Feasibility was established. Copyright © 2018 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Kwan; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyoung Ho; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous aspiration thromboembolectomy (PAT) via a transbrachial approach in patients with acute upper limb ischemia. From July 2004 to March 2008, eleven patients with acute upper limb ischemia were enrolled in this study. They were initially treated with thrombolysis (n = 1), PAT (n = 6), or both (n = 4) via a femoral artery approach. However, all of the patients had residual thrombus in the brachial artery, which was subsequently managed by PAT via the transbrachial approach for removal of residual emboli. Successful re-canalization after PAT via a transbrachial approach was achieved in all patients. Two patients experienced early complications: one experienced a massive hematoma of the upper arm due to incomplete compression and was treated by stent deployment. The other patient experienced a re-occlusion of the brachial artery the day after the procedure due to excessive manual compression of the puncture site, but did not show recurrence of ischemic symptoms in the artery of the upper arm. Clinical success with complete resolution of ischemic symptoms was achieved in all patients. PAT via a transbrachial approach is a safe and effective treatment for patients with acute upper limb ischemia.
Samotus, Olivia; Kumar, Niraj; Rizek, Philippe; Jog, Mandar
There is a significant need for a targeted therapy for essential tremor (ET), as medications have not been developed specifically for ET, and the ones prescribed are often not well-tolerated, so that many patients remain untreated. Recent work has shown that, unlike previous experience, kinematically guided individualized botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections provide benefit along with minimal weakness. Ours is the first long-term (96-week) safety and efficacy study of BoNT-A as monotherapy for ET using kinematically driven injection parameters. Ten ET patients were administered six serial BoNT-A treatments every 16 weeks and were assessed at 6 weeks following treatment. During each study visit, the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM) scale, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and the Quality of Life for Essential Tremor Questionnaire (QUEST) were administered along with kinematic assessment of the treated limb. Participants performed scripted tasks with motion sensors placed over each arm joint. Dosing patterns were determined using the movement disorder neurologist's interpretation of muscles contributing to the kinematically analyzed upper limb tremor biomechanics. There was a 33.8% (pfunctional improvement (FTM part C) and a 39.8% (ptremor score was reduced by 62.9% (p=0.001) in the treated and by 44.4% (p=0.03) in the untreated arm at week 96 compared to week 48. Individualized BoNT-A dosing patterns to each individual's tremor biomechanics provided an effective monotherapy for ET as function improved without functionally limiting muscle weakness.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to verify the infl uence of training through generalized and supervised physical activities, on the general agility (GA and upper-limb agility (ULA of elderly women, in addition to verifying whether a relationship exists between these types of agility. Sixty women (59.7 ±5.9 years were divided into two groups: a trained group (TG – participants of a supervised program of generalized physical activities, for at least one year, three weekly sessions of one hour each; b an untrained group (UG – with no practice of regular and supervised physical activities, besides every-day life activities. For GA evaluation, the agility and dynamic balance test designated by AAHPERD were applied and, for ULA, the plate tapping test designed by EUROFIT. The TG mean AAHPERD test time was 19.9 ± 2.7 seconds, and their EUROFIT Test TG score was 149 ± 23.2, while the UG achieved 21.7 ± 3.4 seconds on the AAHPERD test and scored 157 ± 24 points on the EUROFIT test. The difference between TG and UG was statistically signifi cant for the GA test, but the same was not true of the ULA test. The correlation between GA and ULA results was r=0.51. It is concluded that for elderly women: a regular practice of general physical activities under supervision improves general agility level, but not upper-limb agility; b general agility scores are poor predictors of upper-limb agility. RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivos verifi car a infl uência do treinamento com atividades físicas generalizadas e supervisionadas, na agilidade geral (AG e agilidade de membros superiores (AMS em mulheres na terceira idade; bem como verifi car se existe relação entre esses dois tipos de agilidade. Participaram 60 mulheres (59,7 ± 5,9 anos divididas em dois grupos: a grupo treinado (GT – participantes de um programa supervisionado de atividades físicas generalizadas, há pelo menos 1 ano, três sessões semanais de 1 hora; b grupo não treinado
VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, cardiac defects, renal and limb anomalies) association: disease spectrum in 25 patients ascertained for their upper limb involvement.
Carli, Diana; Garagnani, Lorenzo; Lando, Mario; Fairplay, Tracy; Bernasconi, Sergio; Landi, Antonio; Percesepe, Antonio
To review the clinical characteristics in a series of 25 patients with VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, cardiac defects, renal and limb anomalies) association who were ascertained for upper limb involvement. The study involved a review of clinical and radiologic data from patients with VACTERL association collected by a hand surgery clinic between 2004 and 2013. Radial axis involvement was found in all 25 patients (100%), with severe thumb function impairment in 79% and complete absence of the radius in roughly 33%. Costovertebral anomalies were the most frequent feature, found in 23 patients (92%). All 3 core features (anal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, and costovertebral anomalies) were present in only 12% of the patients. Twelve patients (48%) had abnormalities not part of the VACTERL spectrum, showing a specific pattern of non-VACTERL-type malformations, including genitourinary abnormalities (12%), single umbilical artery (8%), and tethered cord (8%). Previously unreported clinical findings were concurrent hypoplasia of both the odontoid process and the coccyx in 2 patients and an isolated sacral dimple in 2 patients. Upper limb involvement in VACTERL association is a specific feature of the radial axis that occurs in monolateral form in approximately 75% of cases and, when bilateral, always occurs in a nonsymmetrical fashion. Odontoid and coccygeal hypoplasia and sacral dimple are newly reported malformations of the VACTERL phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Spiers, Adam J; Resnik, Linda; Dollar, Aaron M
New upper limb prosthetic devices are continuously being developed by a variety of industrial, academic, and hobbyist groups. Yet, little research has evaluated the long term use of currently available prostheses in daily life activities, beyond laboratory or survey studies. We seek to objectively measure how experienced unilateral upper limb prosthesis-users employ their prosthetic devices and unaffected limb for manipulation during everyday activities. In particular, our goal is to create a method for evaluating all types of amputee manipulation, including non-prehensile actions beyond conventional grasp functions, as well as to examine the relative use of both limbs in unilateral and bilateral cases. This study employs a head-mounted video camera to record participant's hands and arms as they complete unstructured domestic tasks within their own homes. A new 'Unilateral Prosthesis-User Manipulation Taxonomy' is presented based observations from 10 hours of recorded videos. The taxonomy addresses manipulation actions of the intact hand, prostheses, bilateral activities, and environmental feature-use (aiïordances). Our preliminary results involved tagging 23 minute segments of the full videos from 3 amputee participants using the taxonomy. This resulted in over 2,300 tag instances. Observations included that non-prehensile interactions outnumbered prehensile interactions in the affected limb for users with more distal amputation that allowed arm mobility.
Lathers, Steven M.
Presented below is the design and fabrication of prosthetic components consisting of an attachment, tactile sensing, and actuator systems with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique. The attachment system is a thermoplastic osseointegrated upper limb prosthesis for average adult trans-humeral amputation with mechanical properties greater than upper limb skeletal bone. The prosthetic designed has: a one-step surgical process, large cavities for bone tissue ingrowth, uses a material that has an elastic modulus less than skeletal bone, and can be fabricated on one system. FFF osseointegration screw is an improvement upon the current two-part osseointegrated prosthetics that are composed of a fixture and abutment. The current prosthetic design requires two invasive surgeries for implantation and are made of titanium, which has an elastic modulus greater than bone. An elastic modulus greater than bone causes stress shielding and overtime can cause loosening of the prosthetic. The tactile sensor is a thermoplastic piezo-resistive sensor for daily activities for a prosthetic's feedback system. The tactile sensor is manufactured from a low elastic modulus composite comprising of a compressible thermoplastic elastomer and conductive carbon. Carbon is in graphite form and added in high filler ratios. The printed sensors were compared to sensors that were fabricated in a gravity mold to highlight the difference in FFF sensors to molded sensors. The 3D printed tactile sensor has a thickness and feel similar to human skin, has a simple fabrication technique, can detect forces needed for daily activities, and can be manufactured in to user specific geometries. Lastly, a biomimicking skeletal muscle actuator for prosthetics was developed. The actuator developed is manufactured with Fuse Filament Fabrication using a shape memory polymer composite that has non-linear contractile and passive forces, contractile forces and strains comparable to mammalian skeletal muscle, reaction
Kiewiet, H; Bulsink, V E; Beugels, F; Koopman, H F J M
Bicycling is a popular and convenient means of transportation amongst the elderly in the Netherlands. However, the uptake of the electric bicycle resulted in an increase of single-sided bicycle accidents amongst the elderly (Veiligheid, 2010). Since elderly are prone to severe injuries, bicycle stability is currently a popular research topic. Three main balance strategies have been proposed in former studies: steering as the primary balance strategy and trunk -and lateral knee movement as secondary balance strategies (Moore et al., 2011; Cain, 2013). Since steering is the primary strategy for bicycle stability, the stiffness of the arms plays an important role in active stability during cycling. It has been shown that the arm stiffness of a passive rider is an important factor on the stability of a bicycle (Doria and Tognazzo, 2014). In the study presented here, the co-contraction index (CCI) of the upper limb for young and old adult cyclist is studied. Data is collected during experiments based on the setup described in (Kiewiet et al., 2014), wherein contact forces, muscle activities and motions of the rider and bicycle are measured for 15 young adult (mean±sd: 25.3±2.8 yrs) and 15 old adult (mean±sd: 58.1±2.1 yrs) subjects during unperturbed and perturbed cycling. The arm stiffness is defined as a co-contraction ratio between muscle activity of the m. Biceps Brachii and m. Triceps Lateralis. Results suggest that older adult cyclists use more co-contraction of their arm muscles during cycling, compared to young cyclists. The inter-subject variability of the found CCI was higher for the old adult subject group, compared to the young group. The results support the initial hypothesis that the increase in co-contraction of the upper limb for older cyclists is higher during perturbed cycling compared to unperturbed cycling than for younger cyclists. The findings might give direction towards solutions for increasing the safety and stability for elderly cyclists
Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Gonzalez, David; Nouredanesh, Mina; Tung, James
Kinematic analysis of upper limb reaching provides insight into the central nervous system control of movements. Until recently, kinematic examination of motor control has been limited to studies conducted in traditional research laboratories because motion capture equipment used for data collection is not easily portable and expensive. A recently developed markerless system, the Leap Motion Controller (LMC), is a portable and inexpensive tracking device that allows recording of 3D hand and finger position. The main goal of this study was to assess the concurrent reliability and validity of the LMC as compared to the Optotrak, a criterion-standard motion capture system, for measures of temporal accuracy and peak velocity during the performance of upper limb, visually-guided movements. In experiment 1, 14 participants executed aiming movements to visual targets presented on a computer monitor. Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to assess the validity and limits of agreement for measures of temporal accuracy (movement time, duration of deceleration interval), peak velocity, and spatial accuracy (endpoint accuracy). In addition, a one-sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis that the error difference between measures obtained from Optotrak and LMC is zero. In experiment 2, 15 participants performed a Fitts' type aiming task in order to assess whether the LMC is capable of assessing a well-known speed-accuracy trade-off relationship. Experiment 3 assessed the temporal coordination pattern during the performance of a sequence consisting of a reaching, grasping, and placement task in 15 participants. Results from the t-test showed that the error difference in temporal measures was significantly different from zero. Based on the results from the 3 experiments, the average temporal error in movement time was 40±44 ms, and the error in peak velocity was 0.024±0.103 m/s. The limits of agreement between the LMC and Optotrak for spatial accuracy measures ranged between
Diane E. Adamo
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetries in upper limb sensorimotor function are dependent on the source of sensory and motor information, hand preference and differences in hand strength. Further, the utilization of sensory and motor information and the mode of control of force may differ between the right hand/left hemisphere and left hand/right hemisphere systems. To more clearly understand the unique contribution of hand strength and intrinsic differences to the control of grasp force, we investigated hand/hemisphere differences when the source of force information was encoded at two different force levels corresponding to a 20 and 70% maximum voluntary contraction or the right and left hand of each participant. Eleven, adult males who demonstrated a stronger right than left maximum grasp force were requested to match a right or left hand 20 or 70% maximal voluntary contraction reference force with the opposite hand. During the matching task, visual feedback corresponding to the production of the reference force was available and then removed when the contralateral hand performed the match. The matching relative force error was significantly different between hands for the 70% MVC reference force but not for the 20% MVC reference force. Directional asymmetries, quantified as the matching force constant error, showed right hand overshoots and left undershoots were force dependent and primarily due to greater undershoots when matching with the left hand the right hand reference force. Findings further suggest that the interaction between internal sources of information, such as efferent copy and proprioception, as well as hand strength differences appear to be hand/hemisphere system dependent. Investigations of force matching tasks under conditions whereby force level is varied and visual feedback of the reference force is available provides critical baseline information for building effective interventions for asymmetric (stroke
Full Text Available Introduction. Since delay in recognition and effective treatment of necrotizing fasciitis (NF caused by invasive group A streptococcus increases the mortality and disability, the early diagnosis and management of this disease are essential for a better outcome. We presented a patient with a severe form of streptococcal NF of the left upper limb in whom amputation was performed as a life saving procedure. Case report. A 65-year-old man, previously healthy, suffered an injury to his left hand by sting on a fish bone. Two days after that the patient got fever, redness, swelling and pain in his left hand. Clinical examination of the patient after admission indicated NF that spread quickly to the entire left upper limb, left armpit, and the left side of the chest and abdomen. Despite the use of aggressive antibiotic and surgical therapy severe destruction of the skin and subcutaneous tissues developed with the development of gangrene of the left upper limb. In this situation, the team of specialists decided that the patient must be operated on submited to amputation of the left arm, at the shoulder. After amputation and aggressive debridement of soft tissue on the left side of the trunk, the patient completely recovered. β-hemolytic streptococcus group A was isolated from the skin and tissue obtained during the surgery. Conclusion. In the most severe forms of streptococcal NF of the extremities, adequate multidisciplinary treatment, including limb amputation, can save the life of a patient.
Kurzynski, Marek; Jaskolska, Anna; Marusiak, Jaroslaw; Wolczowski, Andrzej; Bierut, Przemyslaw; Szumowski, Lukasz; Witkowski, Jerzy; Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna
One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation. The basis for the concept of computer-aided training system is a virtual hand whose reaching and grasping movements the trained patient can observe on the VR headset screen (visual feedback) and whose contact with virtual objects the patient can feel as a touch (sensory feedback). The computer training system is composed of three main components: (1) the system generating 3D virtual world in which the patient sees the virtual limb from the perspective as if it were his/her own hand; (2) sensory feedback transforming information about the interaction of the virtual hand with the grasped object into mechanical vibration; (3) the therapist's panel for controlling the training course. Results of the case study demonstrate that mental training supported with visual and sensory stimuli generated by the computer system leads to a beneficial change of the brain activity related to motor control of the reaching in the patient with bilateral upper limb congenital transverse deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Xiangxin; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Hui; Fang, Peng; Li, Guanglin
Most of the modern motorized prostheses are controlled with the surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded on the residual muscles of amputated limbs. However, the residual muscles are usually limited, especially after above-elbow amputations, which would not provide enough sEMG for the control of prostheses with multiple degrees of freedom. Signal fusion is a possible approach to solve the problem of insufficient control commands, where some non-EMG signals are combined with sEMG signals to provide sufficient information for motion intension decoding. In this study, a motion-classification method that combines sEMG and electroencephalography (EEG) signals were proposed and investigated, in order to improve the control performance of upper-limb prostheses. Four transhumeral amputees without any form of neurological disease were recruited in the experiments. Five motion classes including hand-open, hand-close, wrist-pronation, wrist-supination, and no-movement were specified. During the motion performances, sEMG and EEG signals were simultaneously acquired from the skin surface and scalp of the amputees, respectively. The two types of signals were independently preprocessed and then combined as a parallel control input. Four time-domain features were extracted and fed into a classifier trained by the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) algorithm for motion recognition. In addition, channel selections were performed by using the Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) algorithm to optimize the performance of the proposed method. The classification performance achieved by the fusion of sEMG and EEG signals was significantly better than that obtained by single signal source of either sEMG or EEG. An increment of more than 14% in classification accuracy was achieved when using a combination of 32-channel sEMG and 64-channel EEG. Furthermore, based on the SFS algorithm, two optimized electrode arrangements (10-channel sEMG + 10-channel EEG, 10-channel sEMG + 20-channel
Eduardo Foschini Miranda
Full Text Available O prejuízo funcional parece diferir entre membros superiores e membros inferiores de pacientes com DPOC. Dois possíveis mecanismos explicam os sintomas importantes de dispneia e fadiga relatados pelos pacientes ao executar tarefas com membros superiores não sustentados: a disfunção neuromecânica dos músculos respiratórios e a alteração dos volumes pulmonares durante as atividades realizadas com membros superiores. A disfunção neuromecânica está relacionada à alteração do padrão respiratório e à simultaneidade de estímulos aferentes e eferentes musculares, o que causaria a dissincronia na ação dos músculos respiratórios em pacientes com DPOC durante esse tipo de exercício. Adicionalmente, o aumento da ventilação durante os exercícios com membros superiores em pacientes com DPOC induz à hiperinsuflação dinâmica em diferentes cargas de trabalho. Nos membros inferiores, há redução da força e da endurance muscular do quadríceps femoral nos pacientes com DPOC comparados a indivíduos saudáveis. Uma explicação para essas reduções é a anormalidade no metabolismo muscular (diminuição da capacidade aeróbia, a dependência do metabolismo glicolítico e o acúmulo rápido de lactato durante o exercício. Quando contrastadas as atividades de membros superiores e membros inferiores, os exercícios com membros superiores resultam em maior demanda metabólica e ventilatória com mais intensa sensação de dispneia e fadiga. Devido às diferenças nas adaptações morfofuncionais dos músculos dos membros superiores e membros inferiores em pacientes com DPOC, protocolos específicos de treinamento de força e/ou endurance devem ser desenvolvidos e testados para os grupos musculares desses segmentos corporaisIn patients with COPD, the degree of functional impairment appears to differ between the upper and lower limbs. Significant dyspnea and fatigue have been reported by these patients when performing tasks with
Resnik, Linda; Klinger, Shana
(1) Describe study attrition; (2) identify reasons for attrition, and (3) discuss implications for prosthetic prescription and design of future device studies. Design and methodological procedures used: Completion phase (during in-laboratory training, after training, or home use) was identified for 42 participants. Qualitative data were analyzed to identify attrition reasons. Reasons were classified as related to the DEKA arm, or not. Study attrition was 57%, with 43% completing the full study. Attrition during the in-laboratory portion was 21%. Reasons for attrition were related to the DEKA arm entirely or in-part for 42%, 25%, respectively. Most common reasons were scheduling/personal (54%); device weight (29%); and dissatisfaction with device (25%). About 21% withdrew because of concerns about compliance with study protocol. This study had a high attrition rate with evidence of selective attrition due to device characteristics. Strategies to minimize attrition and the importance of tracking reasons for withdrawal are discussed. Given that retention could be an indicator of willingness to adopt the DEKA arm, findings suggest that it would be prudent to provide patients with the opportunity to train with the DEKA arm before a decision is made regarding the appropriateness of the device for the patient. Implications for Rehabilitation This study of a new upper limb prosthesis, the DEKA arm, had a 57% attrition rate with evidence of selective attrition due to characteristics of the DEKA arm. Findings point to the need for strategies to minimize attrition in future studies. Findings also illustrate the importance of tracking reasons for subject withdrawal in longitudinal prosthesis device studies. Because participant retention in longitudinal device studies may be an indicator of future willingness to adopt a device, our findings suggest that it would be prudent to provide patients with the opportunity to train with the DEKA arm before a final decision is made
Philbois, Stella V; Martins, Jaqueline; Souza, Cesário S; Sampaio, Rosana F; Oliveira, Anamaria S
Several Brazilian studies have addressed the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), but few have analyzed the knowledge of the health professionals with regards to the ICF. To verify whether the classification of the items in the Brazilian-Portuguese versions of The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and The Disabilities Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires, obtained from health professionals who worked with patients having upper limb injuries, could be related to ICF components as defined by others studies. There were 4 participants for the group "professionals with high familiarity of the ICF (PHF)" and 19 for the group of "professionals with some or no familiarity of the ICF (PSNF)". The participants judged whether the items on the two questionnaires belonged to the ICF body function, body structure or activity-participation component, and marked a confidence level for each trial using a numerical scale ranging from zero to 10. The items were classified by the discriminant content validity method using the Student'st-test and the Hochberg correction. The ratings were compared to the literature by the percentage of agreement and Kappa coefficient. The percentage of agreement of the rating from the PSNF and the PHF groups with the literature was equal to or greater than 77%. For the DASH, the agreement of the PSNF and PHF groups with the literature were, respectively, moderate (Kappa=0.46 to 0.48) and substantial (Kappa=0.62 to 0.70). Health professionals were able to correlate the three components of the ICF for most items on the 2 questionnaires, demonstrating some ease of understanding the ICF components. However, the relation of concept of pain with body function component is not clear for professional and deserves a more attentive approach.
Philbois, Stella V.; Martins, Jaqueline; Souza, Cesário S.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Oliveira, Anamaria S.
BACKGROUND: Several Brazilian studies have addressed the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), but few have analyzed the knowledge of the health professionals with regards to the ICF. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the classification of the items in the Brazilian-Portuguese versions of The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and The Disabilities Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires, obtained from health professionals who worked with patients having upper limb injuries, could be related to ICF components as defined by others studies. METHOD: There were 4 participants for the group "professionals with high familiarity of the ICF (PHF)" and 19 for the group of "professionals with some or no familiarity of the ICF (PSNF)". The participants judged whether the items on the two questionnaires belonged to the ICF body function, body structure or activity-participation component, and marked a confidence level for each trial using a numerical scale ranging from zero to 10. The items were classified by the discriminant content validity method using the Student'st-test and the Hochberg correction. The ratings were compared to the literature by the percentage of agreement and Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: The percentage of agreement of the rating from the PSNF and the PHF groups with the literature was equal to or greater than 77%. For the DASH, the agreement of the PSNF and PHF groups with the literature were, respectively, moderate (Kappa=0.46 to 0.48) and substantial (Kappa=0.62 to 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals were able to correlate the three components of the ICF for most items on the 2 questionnaires, demonstrating some ease of understanding the ICF components. However, the relation of concept of pain with body function component is not clear for professional and deserves a more attentive approach. PMID:26786076
Sacha B. Finn
Full Text Available ObjectivePhantom limb pain (PLP is prevalent in patients post-amputation and is difficult to treat. We assessed the efficacy of mirror therapy in relieving PLP in unilateral, upper extremity male amputees.MethodsFifteen participants from Walter Reed and Brooke Army Medical Centers were randomly assigned to one of two groups: mirror therapy (n = 9 or control (n = 6, covered mirror or mental visualization therapy. Participants were asked to perform 15 min of their assigned therapy daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was pain as measured using a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale.ResultsSubjects in the mirror therapy group had a significant decrease in pain scores, from a mean of 44.1 (SD = 17.0 to 27.5 (SD = 17.2 mm (p = 0.002. In addition, there was a significant decrease in daily time experiencing pain, from a mean of 1,022 (SD = 673 to 448 (SD = 565 minutes (p = 0.003. By contrast, the control group had neither diminished pain (p = 0.65 nor decreased overall time experiencing pain (p = 0.49. A pain decrement response seen by the 10th treatment session was predictive of final efficacy.ConclusionThese results confirm that mirror therapy is an effective therapy for PLP in unilateral, upper extremity male amputees, reducing both severity and duration of daily episodes.RegistrationNCT0030144 ClinicalTrials.gov.
Papaleo, E; Zollo, L; Garcia-Aracil, N; Badesa, F J; Morales, R; Mazzoleni, S; Sterzi, S; Guglielmelli, E
The paper proposes a novel method for an accurate and unobtrusive reconstruction of the upper-limb kinematics of stroke patients during robot-aided rehabilitation tasks with end-effector machines. The method is based on a robust analytic procedure for inverse kinematics that simply uses, in addition to hand pose data provided by the robot, upper arm acceleration measurements for computing a constraint on elbow position; it is exploited for task space augmentation. The proposed method can enable in-depth comprehension of planning strategy of stroke patients in the joint space and, consequently, allow developing therapies tailored for their residual motor capabilities. The experimental validation has a twofold purpose: (1) a comparative analysis with an optoelectronic motion capturing system is used to assess the method capability to reconstruct joint motion; (2) the application of the method to healthy and stroke subjects during circle-drawing tasks with InMotion2 robot is used to evaluate its efficacy in discriminating stroke from healthy behavior. The experimental results have shown that arm angles are reconstructed with a RMSE of 8.3 × 10(-3) rad. Moreover, the comparison between healthy and stroke subjects has revealed different features in the joint space in terms of mean values and standard deviations, which also allow assessing inter- and intra-subject variability. The findings of this study contribute to the investigation of motor performance in the joint space and Cartesian space of stroke patients undergoing robot-aided therapy, thus allowing: (1) evaluating the outcomes of the therapeutic approach, (2) re-planning the robotic treatment based on patient needs, and (3) understanding pathology-related motor strategies.
McFarland, Lynne V; Hubbard Winkler, Sandra L; Heinemann, Allen W; Jones, Melissa; Esquenazi, Alberto
Prosthetic use and satisfaction in wounded servicemembers and veterans with unilateral upper-limb loss has not been thoroughly explored. Through a national survey, we enrolled 47 participants from the Vietnam conflict and 50 from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) with combat-associated major unilateral upper-limb loss. Upper-limb prosthetic devices were used by 70% of the Vietnam group and 76% of the OIF/OEF group. Mechanical/body-powered upper-limb devices were favored by the Vietnam group, while a combination of myoelectric/hybrid and mechanical/body-powered devices were favored by the OIF/OEF group. Upper-limb devices were completely abandoned in 30% of the Vietnam and 22% of the OIF/OEF groups. Abandonment was more frequent for transhumeral and more proximal levels (42% of Vietnam and 40% of OIF/OEF) than more distal limb-loss levels. Upper-limb prostheses were rejected because of dissatisfaction with the device by significantly fewer (23%) members of the Vietnam group than the OIF/OEF group (45%) (p limb prostheses than the Vietnam group.
Do, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae Yean
Hemiplegic cerebral palsy is a neurological symptom appearing on the unilateral arm and leg of the body that causes affected upper/lower limb muscle weakening and dysesthesia and accompanies tetany and difficulties in postural control due to abnormal muscle tone, and difficulties in body coordination. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of virtual reality-based bilateral arm training on the motor skills of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, in terms of their upper limb motor skills on the affected side, as well as their bilateral coordination ability. The research subjects were three children who were diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. The research followed an ABA design, which was a single-subject experimental design. The procedure consisted of a total of 20 sessions, including four during the baseline period (A1), 12 during the intervention period (B), and four during the baseline regression period (A2), For the independent variable bilateral arm training based on virtual reality, Nintendo Wii game was played for 30 minutes in each of the 12 sessions. For the dependent variables of upper limb motor skills on the affected side and bilateral coordination ability, a Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) was carried out for each session and the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) was measured before and after the intervention, as well as after the baseline regression period. To test bilateral coordination ability, shooting baskets in basketball with both hands and moving large light boxes were carried out under operational definitions, with the number of shots and time needed to move boxes measured. The results were presented using visual graphs and bar graphs. The study's results indicated that after virtual reality-based bilateral arm training, improvement occurred in upper limb motor skills on the affected sides, and in bilateral coordination ability, for all of the research subjects. Measurements of the effects of sustained therapy after
Ольга Евгеньевна Агранович
Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a rare hereditary disease. Its main feature is vesication and weeping sores (erosions of the skin and mucous membranes, resulting from a minor injury. Clinical manifestations of the disease may vary from localized vesicles on the hands and feet to a generalized rash of the skin as well as lesions of the mucosa of the inner organs. At present, there are four main groups of EB: simple, intermediate, dystrophic, and Kindler syndrome. Mutations cause changes in the structure of the proteins responsible for the adhesion between layers of the dermis, leading to vesication. Treatment of EB is a challenge because of the lack of opportunities for the direct influence on the disease process, and its main purpose is to correct the existing cutaneous manifestations and prevent the occurrence of new elements. This article describes the main types of EB, methods of current diagnosis, and treatment of the disease as well as a clinical case of a rare combination of two severe disorders: 1 dystrophic EB and 2 arthrogryposis with upper and lower limb involvement.
Hashim, Nur Afiqah; Abd Razak, Nasrul Anuar Bin; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu
There are a number of prosthetic terminal devices which offer functional restoration to individuals with upper limb deficiencies. Hosmer and Ottobock are major commercial hook providers for prosthetic terminal devices. The concern of this paper is to analyse the voluntary opening (VO) Ottobock model 10A18 and Hosmer model 99P hooks (one band) during opening operation and to find out favourable features in the design. Two tests were conducted to analyse the performance of both hooks. The first test used a simple bench tool to investigate cable excursion and hook opening angle and the second test used force sensor to find out the force supplied at a different hook opening angle. The study found that the average cable excursion for both hooks is approximately 30% less than the hook's opening span with the force at the hook's tip section being inversely proportional to the force at the lateral section. Ottobock 10A18 has a better control for grasping larger objects, while Hosmer 99P has the highest average force at the tip section but yet less efficient in generating adequate force for activities of daily living. Favourable features identified are low cable excursion per hook opening span and balance lateral to hook tip pinch force.
Pundik, Svetlana; Falchook, Adam D.; McCabe, Jessica; Daly, Janis J.
Background. Arm spasticity is a challenge in the care of chronic stroke survivors with motor deficits. In order to advance spasticity treatments, a better understanding of the mechanism of spasticity-related neuroplasticity is needed. Objective. To investigate brain function correlates of spasticity in chronic stroke and to identify specific regional functional brain changes related to rehabilitation-induced mitigation of spasticity. Methods. 23 stroke survivors (>6 months) were treated with an arm motor learning and spasticity therapy (5 d/wk for 12 weeks). Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth scale, sensory tests, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for wrist and hand movement. Results. First, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with poorer motor function (P = 0.001) and greater sensory deficits (P = 0.003). Second, rehabilitation produced improvement in upper limb spasticity and motor function (P spasticity correlated with higher fMRI activation in the ipsilesional thalamus (rho = 0.49, P = 0.03). Fourth, following rehabilitation, greater mitigation of spasticity correlated with enhanced fMRI activation in the contralesional primary motor (r = −0.755, P = 0.003), premotor (r = −0.565, P = 0.04), primary sensory (r = −0.614, P = 0.03), and associative sensory (r = −0.597, P = 0.03) regions while controlling for changes in motor function. Conclusions. Contralesional motor regions may contribute to restoring control of muscle tone in chronic stroke. PMID:25101190
Østlie, Kristin; Lesjø, Ingrid Marie; Franklin, Rosemary Joy; Garfelt, Beate; Skjeldal, Ola Hunsbeth; Magnus, Per
To estimate the rates of primary and secondary prosthesis rejection in acquired major upper-limb amputees (ULAs), to describe the most frequently reported reasons for rejection and to estimate the influence of background factors on the risk of rejection. Cross-sectional study analysing population-based questionnaire data (n = 224). Effects were analysed by logistic regression analyses and Cox regression analyses. Primary prosthesis rejection was found in 4.5% whereas 13.4% had discontinued prosthesis use. The main reasons reported for primary non-wear were a perceived lack of need and discrepancies between perceived need and the prostheses available. The main reasons reported for secondary prosthesis rejection were dissatisfaction with prosthetic comfort, function and control. Primary prosthesis rejection was more likely in ULAs amputated at high age and in ULAs with proximal amputations. Secondary prosthesis rejection was more likely in proximal ULAs and in women. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of rejection in proximal ULAs, elderly ULAs and in women. Emphasising individual needs will probably facilitate successful prosthetic fitting. Improved prosthesis quality and individualised prosthetic training may increase long-term prosthesis use. Further studies of the effect of prosthetic training and of the reasons for rejection of different prosthetic types are suggested.
Lopez Celani, Natalia M; Soria, Carlos M; Orosco, Eugenio C; Di Sciascio, Fernando A; Valentinuzzi, Max E
Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry
To compare results of typing endurance and pain before and after a standardized functional test. A standardized previously published typing test on a standard QWERTY keyboard. An outpatient hospital environment. Sixty-one keyboard and mouse operating patients with WRULD and six normal controls. Pain severity before and after the test, typing endurance and speed were recorded. Thirty-two patients could not complete the test before pain reached VAS 5 and this group only typed a mean of 11 minutes. The control group and the remaining group of 29 patients completed the test. Two-tailed student T test was used for evaluation. The endurance was significantly shorter in the patient group that could not complete the test (P typing. Low typing endurance correlates statistically with more resting pain in keyboard and mouse operators with work-related upper limb disorder and statistically more pain after a standardized typing test. As the right hands had higher pain levels, typing alone may not be the cause of the pain as the left hand on a QWERTY keyboard does relative more keystrokes than the right hand.
Full Text Available Amputation is a traumatic and life-changing event that can take years to adjust to. The present study (a examines psychological adjustment in a specific trauma-exposed sample, (b compares the phenomenology (e.g., vividness of amputation-related memories to more recent memories, and (c tests whether memory phenomenology is associated with psychological distress. A total of 24 upper-limb amputees recalled two autobiographical memories--an amputation-related memory and a recent memory--and rated the phenomenological qualities of each memory, including Vividness, Coherence, Emotional Intensity, Visual Perspective, and Distancing. Participants also completed self-rated measures of psychological distress and personality. The sample was generally well adjusted; participants showed no relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression, and personality scores were similar to the general population. There were no significant differences in phenomenology between the two types of memories recalled. Even though amputation-related memories were, on average, almost 20 years older than the recent memories, they retained their intense phenomenology. Despite the intensity of the memory, none of the phenomenological dimensions were associated with psychological distress. It is worth to further define which dimensions of phenomenology characterize memories of traumatic events, and their association with individuals' psychological reactions.
Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok
The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply. PMID:26151204
Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang
We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:24727501
Luis Manuel Vaca Benitez
Full Text Available The rehabilitation of patients should not only be limited to the first phases during intense hospital care but also support and therapy should be guaranteed in later stages, especially during daily life activities if the patient’s state requires this. However, aid should only be given to the patient if needed and as much as it is required. To allow this, automatic self-initiated movement support and patient-cooperative control strategies have to be developed and integrated into assistive systems. In this work, we first give an overview of different kinds of neuromuscular diseases, review different forms of therapy, and explain possible fields of rehabilitation and benefits of robotic aided rehabilitation. Next, the mechanical design and control scheme of an upper limb orthosis for rehabilitation are presented. Two control models for the orthosis are explained which compute the triggering function and the level of assistance provided by the device. As input to the model fused sensor data from the orthosis and physiology data in terms of electromyography (EMG signals are used.
Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-chollet, Claire
The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (pmuscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patel, Gauravkumar K.; Hahne, Janne M.; Castellini, Claudio; Farina, Dario; Dosen, Strahinja
Objective. Dexterous upper-limb prostheses are available today to restore grasping, but an effective and reliable feed-forward control is still missing. The aim of this work was to improve the robustness and reliability of myoelectric control by using context information from sensors embedded within the prosthesis. Approach. We developed a context-driven myoelectric control scheme (cxMYO) that incorporates the inference of context information from proprioception (inertial measurement unit) and exteroception (force and grip aperture) sensors to modulate the outputs of myoelectric control. Further, a realistic evaluation of the cxMYO was performed online in able-bodied subjects using three functional tasks, during which the cxMYO was compared to a purely machine-learning-based myoelectric control (MYO). Main results. The results demonstrated that utilizing context information decreased the number of unwanted commands, improving the performance (success rate and dropped objects) in all three functional tasks. Specifically, the median number of objects dropped per round with cxMYO was zero in all three tasks and a significant increase in the number of successful transfers was seen in two out of three functional tasks. Additionally, the subjects reported better user experience. Significance. This is the first online evaluation of a method integrating information from multiple on-board prosthesis sensors to modulate the output of a machine-learning-based myoelectric controller. The proposed scheme is general and presents a simple, non-invasive and cost-effective approach for improving the robustness of myoelectric control.
Full Text Available The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.
Full Text Available This paper presents dynamic characterization and control of an upper-limb rehabilitation machine aimed at improving robot performance in the interaction with the patient. An integrated approach between mechanics and control is the key issue of the paper for the development of a robotic machine with desirable dynamic properties. Robot inertial and acceleration properties are studied in the workspace via a graphical representation based on ellipses. Robot friction is experimentally retrieved by means of a parametric identification procedure. A current-based impedance control is developed in order to compensate for friction and enhance control performance in the interaction with the patient by means of force feedback, without increasing system inertia. To this end, servo-amplifier motor currents are monitored to provide force feedback in the interaction, thus avoiding the need for force sensors mounted at the robot end-effector. Current-based impedance control is implemented on the robot; experimental results in free space as well as in constrained space are provided.
Cristóbal Ochoa Luna
Full Text Available This paper presents two rehabilitation schemes for patients with upper limb impairments. The first is an active-assistive scheme based on the trajectory tracking of predefined paths in Cartesian space. In it, the system allows for an adjustable degree of variation with respect to ideal tracking. The amount of variation is determined through an admittance function that depends on the opposition forces exerted on the system by the user, due to possible impairments. The coefficients of the function allow the adjustment of the degree of assistance the robot will provide in order to complete the target trajectory. The second scheme corresponds to active movements in a constrained space. Here, the same admittance function is applied; however, in this case, it is unattached to a predefined trajectory and instead connected to one generated in real time, according to the user's intended movements. This allows the user to move freely with the robot in order to track a given path. The free movement is bounded through the use of virtual walls that do not allow users to exceed certain limits. A human-machine interface was developed to guide the robot's user.
Svensson, Pamela; Wijk, Ulrika; Björkman, Anders; Antfolk, Christian
The constant challenge to restore sensory feedback in prosthetic hands has provided several research solutions, but virtually none has reached clinical fruition. A prosthetic hand with sensory feedback that closely imitates an intact hand and provides a natural feeling may induce the prosthetic hand to be included in the body image and also reinforces the control of the prosthesis. Areas covered: This review presents non-invasive sensory feedback systems such as mechanotactile, vibrotactile, electrotactile and combinational systems which combine the modalities; multi-haptic feedback. Invasive sensory feedback has been tried less, because of the inherent risk, but it has successfully shown to restore some afferent channels. In this review, invasive methods are also discussed, both extraneural and intraneural electrodes, such as cuff electrodes and transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes. The focus of the review is on non-invasive methods of providing sensory feedback to upper-limb amputees. Expert commentary: Invoking embodiment has shown to be of importance for the control of prosthesis and acceptance by the prosthetic wearers. It is a challenge to provide conscious feedback to cover the lost sensibility of a hand, not be overwhelming and confusing for the user, and to integrate technology within the constraint of a wearable prosthesis.
López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.
Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.
Full Text Available Objective: Mental Practice (MP can be defined as the symbolic, covert, mental rehearsal of a task in the absence, overt physical rehearsal. Elements such as similar time between actual execution and mental performance of a task, the increase of regional cerebral blood flow, vegetative activation, and enhancement in muscle electromyographic (EMG activity during mental practice suggests that mental practice imitates physical performance of a task. Since physical practice (PP can, to some extent, improve movement coordination in stroke patients, it is assumed that the application of MP would be beneficial to enhance movement coordination in such patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MP on coordination of upper limb movements in hemiplegic patients. Materials & Methods: Fifteen hemiplegic patients (age range 20-70 yrs were participated in this study. All patients were selected of the following criteria: absence of aphasic, apraxia and cognitive problem. The patients were randomly assigned to three groups, MP, PP, and PP+MP. Results: l. PP and MP Significantly improved movement coordination. 2. PP did not give different results when compared to MP. 3. PP Combined with MP Produced Significantly higher scores than each one alone. Conclusion: In spite of the small size in this study, the efficacy of MP shown here. Therefore MP Similar to PP should he used in physiotherapy.
Lopez Celani, Natalia M [Gabinete de Tecnologia Medica (Argentina); Soria, Carlos M [Instituto de Automatica (INAUT), Universidad Nacional de San Juan (UNSJ), San Juan (Argentina); Orosco, Eugenio C [Gabinete de Tecnologia Medica (Argentina); Di Sciascio, Fernando A [Instituto de Automatica (INAUT), Universidad Nacional de San Juan (UNSJ), San Juan (Argentina); Valentinuzzi, Max E [Gabinete de Tecnologia Medica (Argentina)
Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.