WorldWideScience

Sample records for classification yards

  1. Yard Sale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    In America,people always make a yard sale in order to get rid of something they don’t like.If the family wants to move to another place,they will sell away their old things.In some parts of the country,such a sale might be called a

  2. Optimization of Classification Track Assignment Based on the Railcar Connection Plan in Hump Yard%基于阶段配流计划的编组站分类线运用优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英群; 宋瑞; 黎浩东

    2016-01-01

    在阶段配流计划给定的条件下,合理安排不同去向的车流到分类线上,对阶段计划和调车作业计划之间的协调、提升编组站作业效率具有重大意义。本文在分析分类线不同运用方式的基础上,以最小化整理线数量和出发列车编组连挂次数为目标,考虑分类线的能力、出发列车占用分类线数量等约束,构建了分类线运用的0-1整数规划模型;考虑到分类线运用计划编制对时效性的要求,设计禁忌算法求解模型,并与IBM ILOG CPLEX进行对比分析。最后,算例验证了模型与算法的有效性,并分析了分类线的数量、长度及站存车等因素对分类线运用方案制定的影响。%Classification track assignment decides how to build each outbound train on different classification tracks in hump yard based on the railcar connection plan and plays an important role in rail yard. In this paper, an optimization model for classification track assignment is proposed, which aims to minimize the number of mixed tracks and pullback operations. The constraints of this model mainly include track capacity constraint, and track number constraint for each outbound train. Tabu Search algorithm is proposed to solve the model and the result is compared with IBM ILOG CEPLEX. As last, a numerical example is presented to valid the proposed model and algorithm. The result shows that the classification track assignment is influenced by the number and the length of classification tracks, the railcar connection plan and the layout of rail yard.

  3. The Yard and Korean Shakespeare

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Hyon-u

    2013-01-01

    Since the New Globe Theatre opened in 1996, they have used the yard as an acting area or entrances. Even though the authenticity of using the yard is disputable, nobody denies that the yard must be a very effective tool for performing Shakespeare at the Globe Theatre. The yard is an essential part of traditional Korean theatre, called “talchum (mask dance)” or “talnori (mask play).” The yard is its stage as well as the auditorium. Therefore, the players are surrounded by the audience, and the...

  4. AS/RS based yard and yard planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-hong HU; Zheng-dong ZHU; Wen-jing HSU

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we apply the split-platform automated storage/retrieval systems (SP-AS/RSs) (Hu et al.,2005) to store containers in the yard to improve the yard performance and to increase the utilization of the yard space.The layout of an SP-AS/RS based yard is described in detail.To achieve an efficient operation,we present a novel yard space allocation policy called the 'second-carrier-based allocation policy',which can help to alleviate the out-of-sequence problem of containers and the congestion of vehicles at the AS/RS racks.Different allocation policies are compared by an integrated container terminal simulation system.The simulation results show that the second-carrier-based policy is very efficient and has the potential to offer high terminal performance.

  5. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train...

  6. Integrated Yard Space Allocation and Yard Crane Deployment Problem in Resource-Limited Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yard storage space and yard crane equipment are the core resources in the container terminal yard area. This paper studies the integrated yard space allocation (outbound container space and yard crane deployment problem in resource-limited container terminals where yard space and yard cranes are extremely scarce. Two corresponding counterstrategies are introduced, respectively, and the integrated problem is solved as mixed integer programming. The model this paper formulated considers the container volume fluctuation of the service line, and the objective is a trade-off between yard sharing space and terminal operation cost. In numerical experiments, this paper tries to reveal the management meaning in practical operation of container terminal and provides decision support for terminal managers; therefore a series of scenarios are presented to analyze the relations among the yard sharing space, the number of yard cranes, the size of yard subblock, and the cost of terminal operation.

  7. Animals on the Washington Environmental Yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robin; Wong, Herb

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various animal-related activities that took place in the natural resource area of the Washington Elementary School's (Berkeley, CA) environmental yard. The "yard" is open 24 hours a day and is freely accessible to informal users. (JN)

  8. The newest trends in marshalling yards automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří ŽILKA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshalling yards are one of the most important parts of every railway infrastructure. Means of mechanization and automation are being built to achieve as efficient forming of freight trains as possible. Modern, fully automatic systems based on extensive utilization of computers are being implemented. Their main function is to make freight trains into unit trains and divided according to their destinations. One part of these systems is responsible for automatic routing of coupled or isolated cars through the ladder. The other part automatically regulates by retarders the speed of the cars on their way into the destination tracks in the classification bowl. The state-of-the-art marshalling systems provide not only these basic automation functions. They offer also setting interlocked routes with a level of safety integrity SIL3. This article is focused on both above mentioned parts of marshalling systems – automation and safety one.

  9. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass,...

  11. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  12. Simulation model for port shunting yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusca, A.; Popa, M.; Rosca, E.; Rosca, M.; Dragu, V.; Rusca, F.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ports are important nodes in the supply chain, joining two high capacity transport modes: rail and maritime transport. The huge cargo flows transiting port requires high capacity construction and installation such as berths, large capacity cranes, respectively shunting yards. However, the port shunting yards specificity raises several problems such as: limited access since these are terminus stations for rail network, the in-output of large transit flows of cargo relatively to the scarcity of the departure/arrival of a ship, as well as limited land availability for implementing solutions to serve these flows. It is necessary to identify technological solutions that lead to an answer to these problems. The paper proposed a simulation model developed with ARENA computer simulation software suitable for shunting yards which serve sea ports with access to the rail network. Are investigates the principal aspects of shunting yards and adequate measures to increase their transit capacity. The operation capacity for shunting yards sub-system is assessed taking in consideration the required operating standards and the measure of performance (e.g. waiting time for freight wagons, number of railway line in station, storage area, etc.) of the railway station are computed. The conclusion and results, drawn from simulation, help transports and logistics specialists to test the proposals for improving the port management.

  13. Scotland Yard gotov nazvat ubiits Litvinenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Scotland Yard on lähedal sellele, et öelda Aleksandr Litvinenko mõrvas kahtlustatavate nimed. Samas ei kavatse Vene võimud kahtlustatavaid kohtuprotsessist osavõtuks välja anda. Vene uurija väitel tahtis A. Litvinenko šantažeerida tuntud vene oligarhi ja Briti kompaniid

  14. Optimizing yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the container positioning problem (CPP) is to minimise the total handling time in the block, i.e. the time required for storage and reshuffling of containers. One...

  15. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  16. 29 CFR 552.107 - Yard maintenance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yard maintenance workers. 552.107 Section 552.107 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.107 Yard maintenance workers. Persons who mow lawns and perform other yard work in a neighborhood community generally...

  17. 32 CFR 707.3 - Yard arm signaling lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yard arm signaling lights. 707.3 Section 707.3... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.3 Yard arm signaling lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of visual signaling, white all round lights at the ends of the yard arms. These...

  18. Linking foraging decisions to residential yard bird composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah B Lerman

    Full Text Available Urban bird communities have higher densities but lower diversity compared with wildlands. However, recent studies show that residential urban yards with native plantings have higher native bird diversity compared with yards with exotic vegetation. Here we tested whether landscape designs also affect bird foraging behavior. We estimated foraging decisions by measuring the giving-up densities (GUD; amount of food resources remaining when the final forager quits foraging on an artificial food patch, i.e seed trays in residential yards in Phoenix, AZ, USA. We assessed how two yard designs (mesic: lush, exotic vegetation; xeric: drought-tolerant and native vegetation differed in foraging costs. Further, we developed a statistical model to calculate GUDs for every species visiting the seed tray. Birds foraging in mesic yards depleted seed trays to a lower level (i.e. had lower GUDs compared to birds foraging in xeric yards. After accounting for bird densities, the lower GUDs in mesic yards appeared largely driven by invasive and synanthropic species. Furthermore, behavioral responses of individual species were affected by yard design. Species visiting trays in both yard designs had lower GUDs in mesic yards. Differences in resource abundance (i.e., alternative resources more abundant and of higher quality in xeric yards contributed to our results, while predation costs associated with foraging did not. By enhancing the GUD, a common method for assessing the costs associated with foraging, our statistical model provided insights into how individual species and bird densities influenced the GUD. These differences we found in foraging behavior were indicative of differences in habitat quality, and thus our study lends additional support for native landscapes to help reverse the loss of urban bird diversity.

  19. Linking foraging decisions to residential yard bird composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B; Warren, Paige S; Gan, Hilary; Shochat, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Urban bird communities have higher densities but lower diversity compared with wildlands. However, recent studies show that residential urban yards with native plantings have higher native bird diversity compared with yards with exotic vegetation. Here we tested whether landscape designs also affect bird foraging behavior. We estimated foraging decisions by measuring the giving-up densities (GUD; amount of food resources remaining when the final forager quits foraging on an artificial food patch, i.e seed trays) in residential yards in Phoenix, AZ, USA. We assessed how two yard designs (mesic: lush, exotic vegetation; xeric: drought-tolerant and native vegetation) differed in foraging costs. Further, we developed a statistical model to calculate GUDs for every species visiting the seed tray. Birds foraging in mesic yards depleted seed trays to a lower level (i.e. had lower GUDs) compared to birds foraging in xeric yards. After accounting for bird densities, the lower GUDs in mesic yards appeared largely driven by invasive and synanthropic species. Furthermore, behavioral responses of individual species were affected by yard design. Species visiting trays in both yard designs had lower GUDs in mesic yards. Differences in resource abundance (i.e., alternative resources more abundant and of higher quality in xeric yards) contributed to our results, while predation costs associated with foraging did not. By enhancing the GUD, a common method for assessing the costs associated with foraging, our statistical model provided insights into how individual species and bird densities influenced the GUD. These differences we found in foraging behavior were indicative of differences in habitat quality, and thus our study lends additional support for native landscapes to help reverse the loss of urban bird diversity.

  20. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste §...

  1. 77 FR 52272 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... F406-12a, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards.'' The draft... ``a supported sleep surface that attaches to a non-full-size crib or play yard designed to convert the... hazard that resulted in the death of the infant. The requirement and test method apply only to...

  2. DATA OF A HUMP YARDS AND FACTORS AFFECTING ON THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhuravel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A kind of regression equations, which adequately describe the correlation between the error of braking of cuts, the slope of hump-yard tracks and the indices of hump yard work taking into account the influence of parameters of wagon stream processed, is determined.

  3. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard o

  4. Assessing Rail Yard Impact on Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a technical presentation at the Air and Waste Management Association Measurements Symposium occurring in Durham, NC in April, 2012. The presentation describes preliminary results from air pollution measurements collected surrounding a rail yard in Chicago, IL.

  5. Recording and Analysis of the Rec Yard at Alcatraz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, R.; Toz, T. K.; Everett, M.; DeSmet, T.; Billingsley, A.; Hagin, J.

    2013-07-01

    In the summer of 2012 students and professors from the Concrete Industry Management (CIM ) program at California State University Chico, along with their partners at National Park Service, invited Texas A&M students and professors to join forces and perform a condition assessment of the Recreation Yard at Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. The Recreation Yard is a heavily visited area by tourists who are drawn to the island because of its history as a maximum security prison in the 20th c. Because of its history, first as a military fort in the 19thc., later as a military prison, and finally as a federal prison, many difficult historical and preservation related questions exist. This team was formed to begin research on the historical and preservation questions with respect to the Recreation Yard. This paper and presentation will focus on the integration of documentation technologies employed to aid the research necessary for answering preservation and historical questions regarding the recreations yard. Since that yard was constructed on top of the historic 19th c masonry fort it was requested that we also seek the location of tunnels below the Recreation Yard and their relationship with the walls. Teams were formed to perform Non-destructive testing of concrete walls to determine the size and location of rebar, Ground Penetrating Radar for determining the location of the masonry tunnels and photogrammetry and laser scanning to provide both overall and detailed dimensional information of the current state of material decay.

  6. Method Comparison of Extraction of Gangue Yard Based on Remote Sensing%煤矸石堆场信息遥感提取方法对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 刘庆生; 刘高焕; 申文明; 李岩; 张朝忙; 董金发

    2013-01-01

    Gangue, as one of the industry-specific solid waste produced from coal mining and coal washing, ef-fects on around environment significantly. Therefore, monitoring of coal yard is essential for the management and protection of ecological environment. Before gangue yard detailed investigation, obtaining preliminary data of the location and area of gangue yard by remote sensing image is needed and good for subsequent investiga-tions. This article took the image of Landsat5 TM, received in September, 2011 as data source and did the radio-metric and geometric correction to the images. According to the composition and formation characteristics of gangue, we extracted the gangue yard with following two steps:firstly, got land classification information that is confused with gangue through spectral analysis and unsupervised classification;secondly, combined spectral in-formation and terrain, temperature and other ancillary information of the study region, and used four methods, i. e., unsupervised classification, supervised classification, spectrum-photometric method and hierarchical classifi-cation respectively to extract the gangue yard of the study area. By comparison of the above methods, we found that the unsupervised classification and supervised classification methods had a faster data extraction but with low extraction accuracy. The accuracy of spectrum-photometric method is a little higher than the former two methods. The hierarchical classification method has the highest accuracy in preliminary data extraction, and the identification accuracy of the gangue yard is up to 78%after post-processing. The result basically meets the re-quirement on dynamic supervision of gangue yard. Thus, these methods are also useful, as guidance, to continu-ing extract data of the area and location of the gangue yard under high resolution remote sensing images. Espe-cially, the hierarchical classification method is more suitable for gangue yard information extraction.%煤矸石作

  7. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  8. Socioeconomic drivers of yard sustainable practices in a tropical city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work has emphasized the importance of residential areas to the overall green infrastructure of cities and recognizes that outcomes related to these areas are best studied using a social-ecological approach. We conducted vegetation surveys to evaluate yard practices that relate to the state of the yard vegetation, including species diversity and abundance, vegetation structure, and the percent of green area of yards versus paved areas, at the Río Piedras watershed within the San Juan metropolitan area. We used concomitant social household surveys to evaluate the association of social-economic and demographic factors at the household scale with these vegetation characteristics, as well as with landscape-level characteristics related to urban morphology and elevation. Our results for this tropical site were consistent with studies elsewhere in that a greater number of social factors at the household scale were more important in explaining the traits related to how green the yards were. On the other hand, we failed to detect the so-called luxury effect on urban vegetation encountered at many sites. Instead, we found consistent vegetation associations with the age of the residents, housing ownership, and, most importantly, with yard size. We have discussed the potential reasons for these discrepancies and the potential consequences of the human-natural links at the household scale to the future dynamics of this portion of the green infrastructure within this urban watershed.

  9. 77 FR 52220 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... not speak or read English. (Response 24)--We are not opposed to the use of multilingual labels. Many... 2008 (CPSIA), also known as the ``Danny Keysar Child Product Safety Notification Act,'' requires the... that may be reasonably expected to be used, by children under the age of 5 years. Play yards are one...

  10. Eratosthenes' Teachings with a Globe in a School Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-01-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of…

  11. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  12. Experiences of a rail yard community: life is hard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Montgomery, Susanne; Dougherty, Molly; Valladares, Johanny; Rangel, Sany; Gleason, Peter; Soret, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Community groups and local air pollution control agencies have identified the San Bernardino Railyard (SBR) as a significant public health and environmental justice issue. In response, the authors conducted a comprehensive study with community members living in close proximity to the rail yard. The purpose of this article is to share the community's perceptions about the rail yard and ideas on sustainable change. A qualitative study using key informant interviews and focus group discussions was conducted and resulted in four emerging themes. Themes emerged as follows: "health as an unattainable value," "air quality challenges," "rail yard pros and cons," and "violence and unemployment ripple effect." Community participants expressed concern for poor air quality, but other challenges took priority. The authors' findings suggest that future mitigation work to reduce air pollution exposure should not only focus on reducing risk from air pollution but address significant co-occurring community challenges. A "Health in All Policies" approach is warranted in addressing impacted communities in close proximity to the goods movement industry.

  13. Analiza preiskovalnih metod na primeru igre Scotland Yard

    OpenAIRE

    BELEJ, NEŽA

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu se seznanimo s področjem umetne inteligence, ki se ukvarja z raziskovanjem namiznih iger in iskanjem njihovih programskih rešitev. Preučimo algoritem drevesnega preiskovanja Monte-Carlo in ga poskušamo čim bolj spretno prenesti na znano namizno igro Scotland Yard, pri čemer upoštevamo nasvete Nijssena in Winandsa. Osredotočimo se predvsem na tretjo fazo algoritma, simulacijo, katero se odločimo implementirati na tri različne načine (od manj naprednih do bolj naprednih), te n...

  14. Wealth distribution under Yard-Sale exchange with proportional taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent analysis of a Yard-Sale (YS) exchange model supplemented with redistributive proportional taxation suggested an asymptotic behavior P(w)˜1/wμ for the wealth distribution, with a parameter-dependent exponent μ. Revisiting this problem, it is here shown analytically, and confirmed by extensive numerical simulation, that the asymptotic behavior of P(w) is not power-law but rather a Gaussian. When taxation is weak, we furthermore show that a restricted-range power-law behavior appears for wealths around the mean value. The corresponding power-law exponent equals 3/2 when the return distribution has zero mean.

  15. 78 FR 20169 - Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Project in New York, New York AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Assessment for the Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Construction. SUMMARY: This notice advises the public that... coordination with Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) for the construction of an underground concrete...

  16. A model for optimization of yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Louise K Sibbesen

    This report deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the Container Positioning Problem (CPP) is to minimize the total cost of handling containers in the terminal yard. This is done by reducing the number of reshuffles in each...

  17. 78 FR 57781 - Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy at the Washington Navy Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-23015 Filed 9-18-13; 11:15... Washington Navy Yard By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As a mark of respect for... Navy Yard, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and...

  18. A raw material storage yard allocation problem for a large-scale steelworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.I.; Koo, J.; Park, B.S. [POSTECH, Pohang (Republic of Korea). Department of Industrial and Management Engineering

    2009-04-15

    This paper addresses a raw material storage yard allocation problem at a large-scale steelworks. At the steelworks, raw materials such as coal and iron ore are imported by ships from overseas, discharged from the ships by unloading equipment, and transported into and stored in the yards. The stored materials then are transported and used in the production equipment such as steel mills. The yard allocation decision, i.e., where to store the materials, determines the travel distance of the materials as well as the storage efficiency of the yards. Here, the yard allocation problem is solved using a mixed integer programming model. The solution compares favorably with the current practice of the steelworks.

  19. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dan; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Food and yard wastes are available year round at low cost and have the potential to complement each other for SS-AD. The goal of this study was to determine optimal feedstock/effluent (F/E) and food waste/yard waste mixing ratios for optimal biogas production. Co-digestion of yard and food waste was carried out at F/E ratios of 1, 2, and 3. For each F/E ratio, food waste percentages of 0%, 10%, and 20%, based on dry volatile solids, were evaluated. Results showed increased methane yields and volumetric productivities as the percentage of food waste was increased to 10% and 20% of the substrate at F/E ratios of 2 and 1, respectively. This study showed that co-digestion of food waste with yard waste at specific ratios can improve digester operating characteristics and end performance metrics over SS-AD of yard waste alone.

  20. Near-source air quality in rail yard environments – an overview of recent EPA measurement and modeling findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will providing a summary of field measurements conducted in areas surrounding two major rail yards as well as modeling simulations of rail yard emissions dispersion. The Cicero Rail Yard Study (CIRYS) was recently released to the public and includes mobile and ...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  5. 78 FR 36545 - Notice of Ability To Pay-Cash-out Settlement Agreement for the Jefferson City Residential Yards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... AGENCY Notice of Ability To Pay--Cash-out Settlement Agreement for the Jefferson City Residential Yards... Jefferson City Residential Yards Site in Jefferson City, Jefferson County, Montana (Site). The Site consists of 19 residential yards, a portion of a U.S. Postal Service property, and sections of Spring...

  6. Plant species richness and abundance in residential yards across a tropical watershed: implications for urban sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina P. Vila-Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green spaces within residential areas provide important contributions to the sustainability of urban systems. Therefore, studying the characteristics of these areas has become a research priority in cities worldwide. This project evaluated various aspects of the plant biodiversity of residential yards (i.e., front yards and back yards within the Río Piedras watershed in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. Our work included gathering information on vegetation composition and abundance of woody species (i.e., trees, shrubs, palms, ferns and large herbs (>2 m height, species origin (native vs. introduced, and species uses (ornamental, food, and medicinal plants. A total of 424 yards were surveyed within an area of 187,191 m². We found 383 woody species, with shrubs being the most abundant plant habitat. As expected, residential yards hosted a disproportionate amount of introduced species (69.5%. The most common shrub species were all non-native ornamentals, whereas the most common tree species included food trees as well as ornamental plants and two native species. Front yards hosted more ornamental species per unit area than backyards, while the latter had more food plants. The high amount of introduced species may present a challenge in terms of implementation of plant conservation initiatives if there is no clear definition of urban conservation goals. On the other hand, the high frequency of yards containing food plants may facilitate the development of residential initiatives that could provide future adaptive capacity to food shortages.

  7. Financial planning for district heating: The Brooklyn Navy Yard project: A project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Financial planning for the Brooklyn Navy Cogeneration and District Heating Project involved the establishment of three distinct potential markets, a determination of economic feasibility and the development of a financial structure that could accommodate the diverse social objectives of the project and the nature of the markets to be served. The Brooklyn Navy Yard (BNY) is owned by the City of New York (City) and managed by the non-profit Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation for operation as an industrial park. Development of a cogeneration/district heating facility at the Navy Yard was undertaken to meet multiple community and economic development objectives.

  8. Hart Mountain - Work Yard Invasives Control and Implementation of Prevention Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hart Mountain Refuge maintenance yard and borrow pits are currently heavily infested with numerous invasive weeds, the most problematic being Russian thistle...

  9. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling.

  10. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  11. Characterization of storm runoff from selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Kevin J.; Reinhart, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to collect sufficient stormwater water-quality and flow data to document the type, concentration, and event load of selected constituents transported from South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) maintenance yards by stormwater runoff.

  12. Ammonia emissions from outdoor concrete yards used by livestock—quantification and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Webb, J.; Gilhespy, S. L.

    Outdoor concrete yards are commonly found on UK livestock farms, and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in Europe, and represent a potentially significant source of ammonia (NH 3) emissions to the atmosphere. This study provided further measurements from a larger sample than previously made, to improve the robustness of the estimate of total NH 3 emission for inclusion in the UK NH 3 emission inventory. In addition, an assessment was made of a number of potential mitigation strategies. Measurements were made using the equilibrium concentration technique, employing small dynamic chambers and passive diffusion samplers, from 20 yards used by livestock on commercial farms. Mean emission rates (±standard error) were 0.31±0.07, 0.23±0.12, 0.19±0.05 and 0.18±0.09 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1 (0.70±0.21, 0.53±0.34, 0.76±0.22 and 0.18±0.14 g NH 3-N animal -1 h -1) for dairy cow-collecting yards, dairy cow-feeding yards, beef-feeding yards and sheep-feeding/handling areas, respectively, with mean respective livestock densities of 0.3, 0.5, 0.2 and 1.1 animals per m 2. There was a significant effect of season, with lower emission rates in the winter. There was a significant, albeit poor, positive linear relationship between emission rate and ambient air temperature ( r2=0.22) and between emission rate and total ammoniacal N content on the yard surface ( r2=0.14), but not with ambient wind speed. Pooling data from the present study with that from previous studies gave mean emission factors of 0.47±0.09, 0.98±0.39 and 0.13±0.09 g NH 3-N animal -1 h -1 for yards used by dairy cattle, beef cattle and sheep, respectively. Inclusion of these values, together with survey data on yard use, gave a total annual UK emission of approximately 25 kt NH 3 (95% confidence interval of 12-40 kt NH 3), representing almost 10% of total NH 3 emission from UK agriculture. In controlled studies, pressure washing and the use of a urease inhibitor in addition to yard scraping were found to be

  13. Electric utility pole yard training facility: Designing an effective learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Robert P.

    The primary responsibility of electric utilities is to supply consistent, dependable, and affordable energy to private customers, businesses, and industries. As with many businesses, electric utilities are experiencing the effects of an aging workforce and expending considerable resources to train their current and replacement workers. Community colleges can partner with electric utilities to provide effective learning environments for these workers, and gain access to new sources of revenue and community support for the colleges. The purpose of this study was to describe the functions, features, and major design issues of an effective learning environment for training electric utility industry workers, the electric utility line-worker pole yard. Case studies of three "state of the art" line-worker pole yard training environments provide the basis for the study's findings and implications. The study was guided by the following research questions: (1) What is the function of a line-worker pole yard in supporting effective training? (2) What are the features of present day ("state of the art") line-worker pole yard learning environments? and (3) What are the major issues that need to be addressed in designing a line-worker pole yard learning environment for the future? The study participants included industry representatives, training coordinators, instructors, and students from the three selected "state of the art" line-worker pole yard sites. The overall findings from the study resulted in composites of the desired features of learning outcomes, learning process, and learning environment for a line-worker pole yard training program and major issues that are affecting the future design of these training programs. Composite findings of a pole-yard training environment included unique features associated with: (a) outdoor, (b) indoor, (c) underground, (d) classroom, (e) gathering places, and (f) work-based learning components. Composite findings with regard to major

  14. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  15. Large bulk-yard 3D measurement based on videogrammetry and projected contour aiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jianliang; Zhang, Xiaohu; Yuan, Yun; Zhu, Xianwei

    2011-07-01

    Fast and accurate 3D measurement of large stack-yard is important job in bulk load-and-unload and logistics management. Stack-yard holds its special characteristics as: complex and irregular shape, single surface texture and low material reflectivity, thus its 3D measurement is quite difficult to be realized by traditional non-contacting methods, such as LiDAR(LIght Detecting And Ranging) and photogrammetry. Light-section is good at the measurement of small bulk-flow but not suitable for large-scale bulk-yard yet. In the paper, an improved method based on stereo cameras and laser-line projector is proposed. The due theoretical model is composed from such three key points: corresponding point of contour edge matching in stereo imagery based on gradient and epipolar-line constraint, 3D point-set calculating for stereo imagery projected-contour edge with least square adjustment and forward intersection, then the projected 3D-contour reconstructed by RANSAC(RANdom SAmpling Consensus) and contour spatial features from 3D point-set of single contour edge. In this way, stack-yard surface can be scanned easily by the laser-line projector, and certain region's 3D shape can be reconstructed automatically by stereo cameras on an observing position. Experiment proved the proposed method is effective for bulk-yard 3D measurement in fast, automatic, reliable and accurate way.

  16. İnsani yardım ve lojistik yönetimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Çağlar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available İnsanların ve toplumların başa çıkmakta zorlandığı ya da başa çıkamadıkları, çevreyi olumsuz etkileyen olağanüstü durumlara afet denilmektedir. İnsani yardım lojistiği; acil durum ve afetlerden etkilenmiş ihtiyaç sahiplerine yardım etmek üzere gerekli malzeme, bilgi ve hizmetlerle ilgili lojistik faaliyetlerin etkin ve verimli bir şekilde yönetimidir. Bu çalışmada ilk bölümde; afet yönetimi kavramı üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu kavramla ilişkili insani yardım lojistiği tanımlarına, işlevleri ve süreçlerine yer verilmiştir. Bir sonraki bölümde; etkin insani yardım lojistiği faaliyetleri için işletmelerin sahip olması gereken yeteneklerden ve performans yönetiminden bahsedilmiştir. Sonuç bölümünde ise; insani yardım lojistiği konusunda genel bir derlemeye gidilmiştir.

  17. Fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings for enhanced methane production by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Ge, Xumeng; Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Li, Yebo

    2014-04-01

    Fungal pretreatment is an environmentally friendly process that has been widely studied to improve the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, sterilization of feedstocks, a costly process, is generally required prior to the fungal pretreatment. In this study, fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings using yard trimmings pre-colonized with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as an inoculum was investigated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in yard trimmings during 30 days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum/substrate ratios (1:19, 1:9 and 1:4) was 14.8-20.2%, 8.1-15.4%, 20.7-27.8%, and 9.8-16.2%, respectively. Methane yields of 34.9-44.6L/kg volatile solids were achieved during solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of the pretreated yard trimmings, which were comparable to those obtained by using the traditional method requiring feedstock sterilization. The technology developed in this study can save about 501-789 kJ/kg of dry yard trimmings processed, which is about half of the total biogas energy produced by SS-AD.

  18. Modification and upgrade of AzRISE/TEP solar photovoltaic test yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Whit; Fishgold, Asher; Lai, Teh; Elwood, Teri; Potter, Barrett G.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly

    2016-09-01

    The University of Arizona AzRISE (Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy) and Tucson Electric Power solar test yard is currently undergoing renovations to upgrade and standardize the data acquisition capabilities throughout the yard. Test yard improvements have enabled increased data collection reliability through state-of-the-art and environmentallyrobust data logging and real-time analysis. Enhanced capabilities include 10 msec max. data resolution, precision PV backside temperature monitoring of both individual and strings of modules, measurement of both AC and DC outputs as well as GHI and POA irradiance, active data backup to eliminate data intermittency, and robust Ethernet connectivity for data collection. An on-site weather station, provides wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and air temperature data. The information collected is accessed remotely via web server and includes raw performance and environmental conditions as well as extracted figures of performance for systems under test. Complementing the UA's existing accelerated environmental-testing chamber, the new test yard acquisition capabilities have enabled high fidelity system and sub-system-level operational testing under a range of field-level test conditions. The combined facilities, thus, provide a full-spectrum testing resource for photovoltaic performance and degradation analysis. Specific measurement characteristics and sample data collected from a polysilicon module test string are utilized to illustrate test yard capabilities.

  19. Investigating transportation system in container terminals and developing a yard crane scheduling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trade has tremendous growth in marine transportation. This paper studies yard crane scheduling problem between different blocks in container terminal. Its purpose is to minimize total travel time of cranes between blocks and total delayed workload in blocks at different periods. In this way the problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP model. The block pairs between which yard cranes will be transferred, during the various periods, is determined by this model. Afterwards the model is coded in LINGO software, which benefits from branch and bound algorithm to solve. Computational results determine the yard cranes movement sequence among blocks to achieve minimum total travel time for cranes and minimum total delayed workload in blocks at different planning periods. Also the results show capability and adequacy of the developed model.

  20. Impact of pretreatment on solid state anaerobic digestion of yard waste for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikai; Li, Wangliang; Zhang, Guangyi; Xu, Guangwen

    2014-02-01

    Solid state anaerobic digestion, as a safe and environment-friendly technology to dispose municipal solid wastes, can produce methane and reduce the volume of wastes. In order to raise the digestion efficiency, this study investigated the pretreatment of yard waste by thermal or chemical method to break down the complex lignocellulosic structure. The composition and structure of pretreated yard waste were analyzed and characterized. The results showed that the pretreatment decreased the content of cellulose and hemicelluloses in yard waste and in turn improved the hydrolysis and methanogenic processes. The thermal pretreatment sample (P1) had the highest methane yield, by increasing 88% in comparison with digesting the raw material. The maximum biogas production reached 253 mL/g volatile solids (VS). The largest substrate mass reduction was obtained by the alkaline pretreatment (P5). The VS of the alkaline-treated sample decreased about 60% in comparison with the raw material.

  1. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn

    2010-07-01

    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  2. Students Grow Their Own Vegetables in School Yards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Kommu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Environment Education (CEE, Andhra Pradesh State Cell, implemented the project ‘Student Amateurs in School Yard Agriculture (SASYA’ with support from UNICEF Hyderabad and the Department of Education (Sarva Siksha Abhiyan in 150 schools in the Medak district of Andhra Pradesh, India.  The Medak district is a semi-arid district with an average annual rainfall of 80 cm. Agricultural activities are dependent mainly on rainfall. The aim of the project was to provide chemical-free, nutrient-rich vegetables to the children and to provide an opportunity to learn by doing. Schools were selected based on the available space, water, fence.  A small start-up kit was provided with a manual with guidelines, vegetable seeds and other requirements like sample bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides and equipment like hand sprayers. A resource group was formed for every 10 schools with a teacher, the Mandal Educational Officer, and a field coordinator from a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO. The resource group was trained at the district level that acted as trainers for the other 9 schools of their mandal (administrative district and provided continuous support.The gardens were initiated with support from the village community who were part of the garden lay out plan, and operations like land preparation, and sowing.  Contributions from the villagers also came in the form of implements, farm yard manure and seeds. Gardens were maintained by the student committees formed for the purpose under guidance of teachers. Suggestions regarding the cultural operations were provided by the community, field coordinators and CEE. The produce was utilised for the mid-day meals served in the school. At times they were also shared by the community and teachers. Preparations (collection of seed from the garden and community were under progress for the next season. This project was implemented successfully in 136 schools where the students had benefited through

  3. Optimising the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a two-stage heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem...... tests are run on a generic setup with simulated data. The test results are very promising. The production delays are reduced significantly in the new solutions compared with the corresponding delays observed in a simulation of manual planning....

  4. 76 FR 4988 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Potomac Yard Metrorail Station in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of the Potomac Yard... Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Potomac Yard... intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA)...

  5. Technical Report: Optimizing the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a Two-Stage Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present The Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem c...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  7. Prevention of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles : Experimental results in coal storage yard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The spontaneous ignition of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This paper deals with oxidation and spontaneous combustion of coal piles laid in coal storage yard and the measures to avoid the heat losses produced. Investigations on self heating were carried out with five test

  8. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  9. Research of Mechanical Properties of Piping Yards in the Assessment of their Safe Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trebuňa, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Working life of piping yards of compressor stations is mainly influenced by material parameters of particular structural members. In the paper are given the results of static and dynamic tests of basic as well as welded joint material of pipe of compressor station for which were determined conditions for safe operation.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  11. Us and Them--Children's Identity Work and Social Geography in a Swedish School Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    The article focusses on constructions of social identities in school and how children in their identity work (re-)construct common and segregated places in the school yard. Data were drawn from an ethnographic research in the daily lives of children aged 11-13. The fieldwork consisted of traditional ethnographic field work as well as children's…

  12. Exploring Homeowner Diffusion of Yard Care Knowledge as One Step Toward Improving Urban Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Nicholas F.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Dahmus, Maria E.

    2014-11-01

    Urban ecosystems are increasingly influenced by residential yard care decisions. This had led researchers to focus on homeowner education programs when it comes to yard care. Typically, the success of programs designed to influence yard care is based on whether the target subject changes his or her behavior in a more environmentally conscious manner. This threshold, however, fails to consider if individuals share this information with their friends and neighbors, thus having a possible spillover effect. In this paper, we focus on the transmission of new lawn management information among neighbors and consider (1) if individuals discuss information they learned in a short-term educational program, (2) what factors are associated with diffusion, (3) what information individuals share, and (4) what barriers to transmission exist. In the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, we used data from a mailed survey, group discussions, and mailed information exchanges. Results indicate that best management practices for yards can diffuse through the neighborhood (approximately 34 % shared information with their neighbors in a one-month period). In addition, factors such as (1) attending a group discussion, 2) individual social connectedness, (3) length of home ownership, and (4) the presence of children in the household were found to be positively related to increased sharing of information. Also, for lawns, the content of information shared tended to be about increasing grass height and reducing fertilizer applications. Finally, we find barriers to sharing ideas based on spatial, temporal, or perception factors but overcoming some of these barriers is possible.

  13. Implementation of Central Bar Bending Yard: A Case Study on 6 × 660 MW Sasan UMPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Potnoor

    2014-12-01

    Central bar bending yard is implemented for the first time in India in power plant construction by Reliance at Sasan ultra mega power project by use of fully automatic Computer Numerical Control (CNC) based machines for improved project quality, automated precise rebar processing, low wastage of material and less labor dependency.

  14. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  15. Effect of competitiveness on forty-yard dash performance in college men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashley N; Decker, Aaron J; Baarts, Jennifer N; Dupont, Andrea M; Epema, John S; Reuther, Michael C; Houser, Jeremy J; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine performance differences between individual and competitive trials of the 40-yard dash. Physically active college men (n = 25) and women (n = 29) performed an individual 40-yard dash, followed by completion of the Sports Competition Trait Inventory (SCTI) before performing a paired 40-yard dash against a time-matched competitor. All sprints were performed on an indoor rubberized track using photoelectric gates to start and stop a digital timer. In addition, 3 timers used hand-held stopwatches to record the individual sprint time. There was no significant difference (p = 0.10) between men (120.3 +/- 16.6) and women (111.7 +/- 20.3) on the SCTI. There was no significant difference between individual and competitive 40-yard dash times for either men (5.21 +/- 0.24 and 5.19 +/- 0.23 seconds, respectively) or women (6.12 +/- 0.31 and 6.11 +/- 0.32 seconds, respectively). The correlation between SCTI and both individual and competitive 40-yard dashes was significant (p women (r = -0.45 and -0.44, respectively) but not for men (r = -0.10 and 0.10, respectively). Electronic times (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) were not significantly different from 1 hand-timer (5.71 +/- 0.56 seconds) but were significantly faster than the other 2 timers (5.80 +/- 0.58 and 5.82 +/- 0.57 seconds). Averaging the 3 hand times (5.78 +/- 0.56 seconds) for comparison with the electronic timing (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) produced a high correlation (r = 0.96) but a significantly slower time (p sprint times in either men or women. In addition, hand timing may not always produce faster times compared to electronic timing.

  16. STUDY OF CAR TRAFFIC FLOW STRUCTURE ON ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE AT THE MARSHALLING YARD X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Nesterenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to analyse the existing car traffic organization at the marshalling yard aimed to reduce downtime of cars. Methodology. The methods of mathematical statistics allowed building the histogram of car traffic flow distribution at the marshalling yard and assessment of their parameters. The key quantitative and qualitative indicators of the station operation were analyzed. In order to analyze the effect of rehandling volume on the rehandled transit car downtime elements at the station we plotted the dependence graph of the car downtime elements on the rehandling volume. The curve variation on the graph clearly shows the effect of rehandling volume on two downtime elements: during formation and in expectation of operations. Findings. The question of reducing the average downtime of all car categories at the station should be solved by reducing unproductive downtime was proved. The correct determination of the average time spent by a rehandled transit car at the station is essential, especially in the conditions of new system of economic incentives. But still there is no separate methodology for determining the car downtime, which would allow to objectively consider the equipment and operation technology and exclude the possibility for subjective decisions. Originality. One of the main kinds of unproductive downtime during the carriage of goods by rail is a downtime on the marshalling yards in expectation of technological operations because of the system congestion. Reduction of this indicator is possible due to rational use of the marshalling yard capacity provided the rational distribution and car – and train flows between the major marshalling yards of Ukrzaliznytsia. Practical value. The analysis of changes in downtime elements, depending on the rehandling volume allows not only to identify the car downtime reduction methods, but also to make a correct assessment of station staff work, as well as to adjust the rate of

  17. Modelling of Freight Trains Classification Using Queueing System Subject to Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Dorda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model and a simulation model of the freight trains classification process. We model the process as a queueing system with a server which is represented by a hump at a marshalling yard. We distinguish two types of shunting over the hump; primary shunting represents the classification of inbound freight trains over the hump (it is the primary function of marshalling yards, and secondary shunting is, for example, represented by the classification of trains of wagons entering the yard via industrial sidings. Inbound freight trains are considered to be customers in the system, and all needs of secondary shunting are failures of the hump because performing secondary shunting occupies the hump, and therefore inbound freight trains cannot be sorted. All random variables of the model are considered to be exponentially distributed with the exception of customer service times which are Erlang distributed. The mathematical model was created using method of stages and can be solved numerically employing a suitable software tool. The simulation model was created using coloured Petri nets. Both models are tested in conditions of a marshalling yard.

  18. Yard Sales: A Book and an Exhibition: From Selling Off Objects to Redeeming Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octave Debary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of everyday objects, when they reach the end of their lives - worn out, and sometimes even broken - varies a great deal. In some cases, their remains are exhibited in museums as instances of our heritage; in others, they end up in garages and attics, or are simply disposed of. This paper focuses on the social operations surrounding the redefinition of their status as second-hand objects. We pay special attention to what happens when they are requalified as objects of memory in yard sales. Over the past thirty years, such markets - where personal stories change hands - have become favoured destinations for Sunday outings in France. They are open-air museums, where new memories are cobbled together from old objects. We attempt to show what is at stake in these transactions and transitions through a presentation of a book and an exhibition (2011-2012 devoted to French yard sales.

  19. [Relationship among soil enzyme activities, vegetation state, and soil chemical properties of coal cinder yard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youbao; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dengyi

    2003-01-01

    From field investigation and laboratory analysis, the relationships among soil enzyme activities, vegetation state and soil chemical properties of coal cinder yard in thermal power station were studied. The results showed that vegetation on coal cinder yard was distributed in scattered patch mainly with single species of plant, and herbs were the dominant species. At the same time, the activity of three soil enzymes had a stronger relativity to environment conditions, such as vegetation state and soil chemical properties. The sensitivity of three soil enzymes to environmental stress was in order of urease > sucrase > catalase. The relativity of three soil enzymes to environmental factor was in order of sucrase > urease > catalase. Because of urease being the most susceptible enzyme to environmental conditions, and it was marked or utmost marked interrelated with vegetation state and soil chemical properties, urease activity could be used as an indicator for the reclamation of wasteland.

  20. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  1. Disease-Causing Fungi in Homes and Yards in the Midwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgardner, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct ino...

  2. [Vegetation distribution in coal cinder yard of Wuhu thermal power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youbao; Zhang, Li; Liu, Dengyi

    2002-12-01

    There are 30 species of natural colonized plants in the coal cinder yard of Wuhu thermal power station, and they are subordinate to 14 families and 29 genera. The main families are Compositae (7 species), Gramineae (6 species) and Leguminesae, among which, 18 species are annual plant, 9 species are perennial plant, and 2 species are woody plants. The chief factors limiting the vegetation distribution are extreme infertility and high concentration of heavy metals.

  3. Yard flooding by irrigation canals increased the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Victor M.; Jaime, Javier; Ford, Paula B.; Gonzalez, Fernando J.; Carrillo, Irma; Gallegos, Jorge E.; Watts, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of use of water from irrigation canals to flood residential yards on the risk of West Nile disease in El Paso, Texas. Methods West Nile disease confirmed cases in 2009–2010 were compared with a random sample of 50 residents of the county according to access to and use of water from irrigation canals by subjects or their neighbors, as well as geo-referenced closest distance between their home address and the nearest irrigation canal. A windshield survey of 600 meters around the study subjects’ home address recorded the presence of irrigation canals. The distance from the residence of 182 confirmed cases of West Nile disease reported in 2003–2010 to canals was compared to that of the centroids of 182 blocks selected at random. Results Cases were more likely than controls to report their neighbors flooded their yards with water from canals. Irrigation canals were more often observed in neighborhoods of cases than of controls. Using the set of addresses of 182 confirmed cases and 182 hypothetic controls the authors found a statistically significant inverse relation with risk of West Nile disease. Conclusions Flooding of yards with water from canals increased the risk of West Nile disease. PMID:21943648

  4. Fungal pretreatment of yard trimmings for enhancement of methane yield from solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Zheng, Yi; Li, Yebo

    2014-03-01

    Yard trimmings were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, a white-rot fungus that selectively degrades lignin, to enhance methane production via solid-state anaerobic digestion. Effects of moisture content (MC), at 45%, 60%, and 75%, on the degradation of holocellulose and lignin in the fungal pretreatment step and on methane production in the digestion step were studied with comparison to the control group (autoclaved without inoculation) and raw yard trimmings. It was found that C. subvermispora had a high lignin degradation of 20.9% but limited cellulose degradation of 7.4% at 60% MC. Consequently, samples pretreated at 60% MC achieved the highest methane yield of 44.6L/kg volatile solid (VS) in the digestion step, which was 106% and 154% higher than the control group (21.6L/kg VS) and the raw yard trimmings (17.6L/kg VS), respectively. The increase in methane production was probably caused by the degradation of lignin during the pretreatment.

  5. Severe Outbreak of a Yellow Mosaic Disease on the Yard Long Bean in Bogor, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 crop season, an outbreak of severe yellow mosaic disease on yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis occurred in several farmers’ fields in West Java. Yard long bean var. Parade inoculated manually with extracts from symptomatic leaves showed the symptoms indicating the presence of virus. Symptomatic leaf samples tested positive in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with antibodies to group specific Potyvirus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Total RNA derived from symptomatic leaves was subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers specific to the cylindrical inclusion (CI protein of potyviruses and CMV coat protein (CP specific primers. Pair wise comparison of sequences obtained from cloned RT-PCR products with corresponding nucleotide sequences in the GenBank confirmed the presence of Bean common mosaic virus strain Blackeye (BCMV-BlC and CMV in the symptomatic beans. Sequences of BCMV and CMV isolates from the beans showed maximum nucleotide sequence identities (92-97% and (90%, respectively with BCMV-BIC and CMV isolates from Taiwan. Each virus isolate also clustered closely with corresponding isolates from Taiwan in a phylogenetic analyses. These results provide first evidence of the occurrence of multiple infection of BCMV-BIC and CMV in the yard long been from Bogor, West Java.

  6. Treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Maria [Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: maria.jonsson@spm.slu.se; Dimitriou, Ioannis [Department of Short Rotation Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7016, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Short Rotation Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7016, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Elowson, Torbjoern [Department of Forest Products and Markets, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    Log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. This study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (Elymus repens) and willows (Salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. The purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-L lysimeters (couchgrass and willows). Groundwater in the field and drainage water from the lysimeters were analysed for Total Organic Carbon (TOC), distillable phenols, total P, and total N. Retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred but no difference between couchgrass and willows was observed. The system had better purification capacity at the field scale than in the lysimeters. -- By irrigating willow and couchgrass soil-plant systems with log yard run-off water, TOC, phenols, and phosphorus were reduced with 35% to 96% in the water.

  7. Analyzing the Efficiency of a Start-Up Cable Yarding Crew in Southern China under New Forest Management Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study analyzed the performance of a start-up cable yarding crew in southern China through operational monitoring by consecutive time studies, long-term log book recordings and efficiency evaluation by stochastic frontier analysis (SFA. The crew, which used a KOLLER K303 H mobile tower yarder, was monitored for two years. During this period, detailed data recordings of 687 yarding cycles of 12 yarding corridors as well as log book recordings of an additional 1122 scheduled system hours (SSH, including all delays were generated. Mean extraction productivity of the system ranged between 5.23 and 6.40 m3 per productive system hour (PSH0, excluding all delays, mostly depending on slope yarding distance and lateral distance. Corresponding gross-productivity ranged from 1.91 to 2.24 m3/SSH, with an overall mean machine utilization rate of 31%. Unproductive yarding times and delays associated with the relative low utilization rate were mainly caused by lengthy rigging processes, as well as organizational deficiencies and not yet fully developed skill sets of the operating crew. The latter was reflected in a mean efficiency effect frontier value of 0.62 based on evaluation of data sets of individual yarding cycles recorded during detailed assessments, suggesting a mean improvement potential of 38% based on the SFA, translating in a potentially achievable gross-productivity of 2.64 to 3.09 m3/SSH. We conclude that current local operating conditions including insufficient planning, implementation and logistics and in particular, frequent discontinuations of system operations of up to three months all resulting in generally low operation hours per shift and per year, inhibit efficient operations and rapid skill development. These circumstances also inhibit an economic utilization of the equipment. Nevertheless, from a technical perspective, yarding systems have a promising potential in southern China.

  8. The influence of outdoor school yard experiences on elementary students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah Carrier

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of outdoor school yard activities on elementary students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. In addition, the interaction of students' gender with each of these variables was examined. Data were collected on 105 students in 4th- and 5th-grade public school classes in Gainesville, Florida. Two intact classes were used, one treatment and one control group at each grade level. The treatment group students participated in 14 weeks of weekly outdoor school yard activities exploring environmental science knowledge and attitude topics in a systems context. Pearson correlation coefficients and Cronbach coefficient alpha were used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANCOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < 05) revealed that 5th-grade students' who participated in the outdoor school yard activities showed significant differences in environmental knowledge when compared with the 5th-grade control group students who had no outdoor school yard experiences. Although the results of the study indicated that outdoor school yard experiences do not impact students' environmental attitudes, behaviors, or comfort levels in the outdoors, significant gender differences were found in 5th-grade females' environmental attitudes and behaviors when compared with 5th-grade males. The results of this study indicate the potential for effective use of the school yard for helping students learn firsthand about environmental knowledge and issues. Because the school yard offers teachers and students a readily available and convenient outdoor learning setting, its use in environmental education merits further research.

  9. 全封闭条形煤场与全封闭圆形煤场的比较%Comparision of Enclosed Strip Coal Yard and Enclosed Circular Coal Yard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢佰淼

    2014-01-01

    介绍了目前大型燃煤电厂贮煤场的设计形式以及条形煤场和全封闭圆形煤场常用堆取料设备,即悬臂式斗轮堆取料机和圆形煤场堆取料机。结合北方某大型燃煤电厂的工程设计实例,对该工程贮煤场采用全封闭条形煤场及采用同容量的全封闭圆形煤场的2种贮煤形式进行了技术性能和经济性比较,给出了2种贮煤形式的适用情况,即在地质条件较好情况下,2种贮煤方案总投资相当,但在地质条件较差情况下全封闭圆形煤场总投资要高于全封闭条形煤场。结合该电厂的实际情况,最终选用全封闭条形煤场。%The design forms of coal yard in large-scale coal-fired power plant is introduced, and the operation way is described about the common stacking and reclaiming equipment applying on the strip coal yard and enclosed circular coal yard, i.e. cantilever-type bucket wheel stacker-reclaimer and circular stacker-reclaimer. According to the design of a power plant in North China, compared the enclosed strip coal yard with the enclosed circular coal yard from technical and economical, applicability of two kinds of coal yard is analyzed. In the case of the geological conditions are better, the investment of two kinds of schemes is equivalent. But in the poor geological conditions, the total investment of the enclosed circular coal yard is higher than the total investment of enclosed strip coal yard. According to the actual situation of the power plant, the enclosed strip coal yard is adopted.

  10. 基于作业均衡的集装箱堆场箱区场桥作业调度%Container Yard Crane Scheduling for Operations Balance Between Yard Cranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 胡志华; 李淑琴

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the balance degree of container yard crane operations and operators, and then to increase the utilization rate of operation resources, a yard crane scheduling problem was proposed to balance yard cranes for blocks. According to the characteristics of operations and relationship among them, a container yard crane scheduling model was built to balance the quantities of yard cranes and operational time between blocks. A genetic algorithm was designed to solve the model. Through the design of assessment criteria of balance degree, the balance degree that was the most improved was obtained by analyzing the relationship between equilibrium goal and its solutions. Finally, through changing the input of yard crane quantity, the relationship between the quantity of yard cranes and balance degree was found, which provided theoretical basis for determining the quantities of container yard cranes and scheduling container yard cranes.%为了提高集装箱堆场场桥作业量分布的均衡性,进而提高作业人员任务分配的均衡性和作业资源的利用率,提出集装箱堆场箱区场桥均衡作业的调度问题.根据集装箱场桥作业特点及其关联性,以集装箱堆场箱区作业箱量均衡和作业时间均衡两个均衡调度为目标,建立了集装箱堆场箱区场桥均衡调度模型,并设计遗传算法求解.通过设计均衡度评价指标,对不同均衡目标与所得方案效果之间的关系进行分析,得到均衡度改善的比率.最后通过输入场桥数量参数的变化得出场桥数量与均衡性之间的关系,为场桥配置与调度工作提供理论依据.

  11. 75 FR 72952 - Safety Zone; 1000-yard radius from position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W, Charenton Drainage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 1000-yard radius from position 29 48.77' N... to a 1000-yard radius from position 29 48.77' N 091 33.02' W, Charenton Drainage and Navigation Canal... Drainage Canal will be closed to all marine traffic within a 1000-yard radius of position 29 48.77' N...

  12. Ground Penetrating Radar at Alcatraz Island: Imaging Civil-War Era Fortifications Beneath the Recreation Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; de Smet, T. S.; Warden, R.; Komas, T.; Hagin, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a cultural resources assessment and historical preservation project supported by the U.S. National Park Service, GPR surveys using 200 MHz antennas, with ~3.0 m depth of penetration and ~0.1 m lateral and vertical resolution, were conducted by our team in June 2012 over the recreation yard and parade ground at historic Alcatraz Island in order to image the underlying buried Civil War-era fortifications. The recreation yard at the Alcatraz high-security federal penitentiary served as a secure outdoor facility where the prisoners could take exercise. The facility, enclosed by a high perimeter wall and sentry walk, included basketball courts, a baseball diamond, and bleacher-style seating. The site previously consisted of coastal batteries built by the U.S. Army in the early to mid 1850's. As the need for harbor defense diminished, the island was converted into a military prison during the 1860's. In 1933, the military prison was transferred to federal control leading to the establishment of the high-security penitentiary. The rec yard was constructed in 1908-1913 directly over existing earthen fortifications, namely a trio of embankments known as 'traverses I, J, and K.' These mounds of earth, connected by tunnels, were in turn built over concrete and brick magazines. The processed GPR sections show good correlations between radar reflection events and the locations of the buried fortification structures derived from historical map analysis. A 3-D data cube was constructed and two of the cut-away perspective views show that traverse K, in particular, has a strong radar signature.

  13. Investigation of the potential impacts from tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hysong, R. J.

    1998-12-21

    Based on a review of available data, significant contributions to low-level tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard have been made by airborne tritium fallout and rainout from the CP-5 ventilation system stack. Based on the distribution of tritium in the yard, it is also likely that leaks in secondary system piping which lead to the cooling towers were a significant contributor to tritium in CP-5 yard subsurface soil. Based on the foregoing analysis, low-level tritium contamination will not prohibit the release of the yard for unrestricted use in the future. Worst case dose estimates based on very conservative assumptions indicate that a 25 rmem annual effective dose equivalent limit will not be exceeded under the most restrictive residential-use family farm scenario. Given the impermeable nature of the glacial till under CP-5, low-level concentrations of tritium may be occasionally detected in the deep well (3300 12D), but the peak concentration will not approach the levels calculated by RESRAD; however, continued monitoring of the deep well is recommended. To ensure that all sources of potential tritium release have been removed from the CP-5 complex, removal of tritiated water from each rod-out hole and an evaluation of the physical integrity of the rod-out holes is recommended. This will also allow for an evaluation of tritium concentrations in shallow groundwater under CP-5 by sampling groundwater that is currently being forced into the drain tile system. Additional surface and subsurface soil sampling and analysis will be required to determine the final release status of soils around the Building 330 complex relative to elevated concentrations of CS-137, CO-60,Co-57, and Eu-152 identified during the 1993 IT Corporation characterization. The potential radiological impact from isolated elevations of the latter radionuclides is relatively low and can be evaluated as part of the final status survey of outdoor areas surrounding the Building 330 complex. In

  14. Planning and scheduling for maritime container yards supporting and facilitating the global supply network

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenkai; Goh, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the challenges facing maritime supply chains and container port logistics service providers in Asia, this book highlights their innovative responses to these challenges through real-world case studies. With a focus on mathematical modeling, simulation and heuristics approaches, this book provides academics, engineers, container terminal operators, students in logistics and supply chain management with the latest approaches that can be used to address the planning and scheduling problem in large container terminal yards. This book can be used on a self-contained basis as teaching cases in an undergraduate or specialist class setting, or on techniques applied to maritime container operations for port operations.

  15. Monte-Carlo tree search method for the board game Scotland Yard

    OpenAIRE

    BELEJ, NEŽA

    2015-01-01

    In the thesis we learn about the field of artificial intelligence that investigates board games and their program-based solutions. We examine Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm and transfer it to well-known board game Scotland Yard, considering advices from Nijssen and Winands. We focus mainly on the third phase of the algorithm, playout, and decide to implement it in three different ways (from less to more advanced techniques). We compare these three aproaches. We compare the win rates and co...

  16. An H Theorem for Boltzmann's Equation for the Yard-Sale Model of Asset Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, Bruce M.; Johnson, Merek; Marcq, Jeremy A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent work (Boghosian, Phys Rev E 89:042804-042825, 2014; Boghosian, Int J Mod Phys 25:1441008-1441015, 2014), Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations were derived for the "Yard-Sale Model" of asset exchange. For the version of the model without redistribution, it was conjectured, based on numerical evidence, that the time-asymptotic state of the model was oligarchy—complete concentration of wealth by a single individual. In this work, we prove that conjecture by demonstrating that the Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality commonly used by economists, is an H function of both the Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations for the model.

  17. A Matheuristic Approach for Solving the Railroad Hump Yard Block-to-Track Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    This paper presents a novel matheuristic for solving the Hump Yard Block-to-Track Assignment Problem. This is an important problem rising in the railway freight industry and involves scheduling the transitions of a set of rail cars from a set of inbound trains to a set of outbound trains over...... a certain planning horizon. It was also the topic of the 2014 challenge organised by the Railway Applications Section of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences for which the proposed matheuristic was awarded first prize. Our approach decomposes the problem into three highly...

  18. Yard Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    17 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a bright plain west of Schiaparelli Crater, Mars, which is host to several features, some of them long-lived and others that are transient. The circular features scattered somewhat randomly throughout the scene are impact craters, all of which are in a variety of states of degradation. In the lower left (southwest) corner of the image, there is a small hill surrounded by ripples of windblown sediment, and near the center of the image, there is an active dust devil casting a shadow to the east as it makes its way across the plain. Location near: 5.9oS, 348.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  19. Yard Sales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2004-01-01

    “Everybody loves a bargain” is a wellknown saying. A bargain is a good deal. It is something you get for less than its value. One person's useless, ugly, or broken object can be another person's bargain. That is why so many Americans do not throw things away. They put

  20. 圆形煤场自燃解决方案%Solutions for Spontaneous Combustion in Round Coal Yards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宏生

    2014-01-01

    近年环保要求严苛,圆形煤场因其突出优点成为趋势,但煤场管理问题也逐渐显现,煤炭自燃问题时有发生。根据多年生产经验对圆形煤场自燃控制方法进行阐述。%In recent years, the requirement for environmental protection is stringent, so the round coal yards are becoming the trend for their outstanding advantages. However, the problems in coal yard management are becoming increasingly apparent, and spontaneous combustion of coal occurs from time to time. The control methods of spontaneous combustion of round coal yards are elaborated based on years of production experience.

  1. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from college school yards in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaofei; WANG Dianzhong; QIN Xiaofei; XU Xiaobai

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been a major environmental issue, attracting much scientific concern because of their nature of toxicity, persistence, and endocrine disrupting effects. Soil samples were collected from ten college school yards in Beijing in 2006 and analyzed to determine fifteen OCPs. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found to be the main pollutants, accounting for 93.70% of total OCPs, followed by hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) (2.25%) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.82%). Content of chlordanes (CHLs), heptachlors (HEPTs), and endosulfans comprised 0.51%, 1.05%, and 0.79% of fifteen OCPs, respectively. The preliminary pollution assessment indicated that DDTs have caused high OCPs levels in some schools. Source identification showed that HCHs in soils were originated from an old mixed source of technical HCHs and lindsne. And DDTs were mainly from mixed use of technical DDTs and dicofol containing DDT impurities. According to GB 15618-1995 (guidelines of Chinese environmental quality standards for soils), HCHs and DDTs levels might be categorized as little and low polluting pesticides. This study indicated that the environmental quality of college school yards with large green land were not as good as was expected and there existed potential exposure risk of college population to OCPs.

  2. Behavioral changes in female Asian elephants when given access to an outdoor yard overnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M; Vitale, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted at the Bronx Zoo to determine whether providing elephants with access to an outdoor corral at night had any significant effects on behavior, use of space, and use of a sand corral. Activity budgets for three female Asian elephants were compared when the subjects were housed indoors overnight and when they were given access to an outdoor yard overnight. Observations were recorded via infrared video cameras between the hours of 1900 and 0700 during the months of July-September. Two of the three elephants showed a significant preference for spending time outdoors, whereas, the third elephant spent most of her time indoors. Standing and play behavior increased when the elephants had outdoor access while lying down and feeding behavior decreased. Swaying behavior decreased significantly when the elephants had access to the outdoor yard. The elephants made very little use of a sand-floor stall regardless of whether or not they had access to outdoors. The results of this study, suggest that having access to alternate areas overnight can promote well-being by reducing repetitive behavior and allowing animals to express their preferences for different locations. The relative importance of choice alone vs. the behavioral opportunities provided by choice options for zoo animals is discussed. Zoo Biol. 35:298-303, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  4. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  6. Optimizing the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem Using a Two Stage Planning/Scheduling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    This paper presents the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem. The task is to generate a schedule for two gantry cranes sharing tracks. The schedule must comply with a number of constraints and at the same time be cost efficient. We propose some ideas for a two stage planning...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in Appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 to determine compliance with the opacity limit. (b) Conduct an initial test for opacity as specified in § 60.8 of subpart A of 40 CFR part... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of...

  8. AMERICAN CREOSOTE SITE CASE STUDY: SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF DIOXINS, PCP, AND CREOSOTE FOR $64 PER CUBIC YARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study describes the development of solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulas and their application to rededicate the American Creosote site in Jackson, Tennessee. During 1998 and 1999, 45,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with Creosote, PCP, and Dioxins were treat...

  9. Synthesis of Household Yard Area Dynamics in the City of San Juan Using Multi-Scalar Social-Ecological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban sustainability discourse promotes the increased use of green infrastructure (GI because of its contribution of important ecosystem services to city dwellers. Under this vision, all urban green spaces, including those at the household scale, are valued for their potential contributions to a city’s social-ecological functioning and associated benefits for human well-being. Understanding how urban residential green spaces have evolved can help improve sustainable urban planning and design, but it requires examining urban processes occurring at multiple scales. The interaction between social structures and ecological structures within the subtropical city of San Juan, the capital and the largest city of Puerto Rico, has been an important focus of study of the San Juan ULTRA (Urban Long-Term Research Area network, advancing understanding of the city’s vulnerabilities and potential adaptive capacity. Here we provide a synthesis of several social-ecological processes driving residential yard dynamics in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, through the evaluation of empirical findings related to yard management decisions, yard area, and yard services. We emphasize the role of factors occurring at the household scale. Results are discussed within the context of shrinking cities using an integrated, multi-scalar, social-ecological systems framework, and consider the implications of household green infrastructure for advancing urban sustainability theory.

  10. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  11. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches signals, retarders, and humps; and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-52-64, XX-52-65, XX-52-66, XX-52-59...; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive...

  12. Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of spent mushroom substrate with yard trimmings and wheat straw for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunqin; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a biomass waste generated from mushroom production. About 5 kg of SMS is generated for every kg of mushroom produced. In this study, solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of SMS, wheat straw, yard trimmings, and their mixtures was investigated at different feedstock to effluent ratios. SMS was found to be highly degradable, which resulted in inhibition of SS-AD due to volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and a decrease in pH. This issue was addressed by co-digestion of SMS with either yard trimmings or wheat straw. SS-AD of SMS/yard trimmings achieved a cumulative methane yield of 194 L/kg VS, which was 16 and 2 times higher than that from SMS and yard trimmings, respectively. SS-AD of SMS/wheat straw obtained a cumulative methane yield of 269 L/kg VS, which was 23 times as high as that from SMS and comparable to that from wheat straw.

  13. A Matheuristic Approach to Integrate Humping and Pullout Sequencing Operations at Railroad Hump Yards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel matheuristic for solving the hump yard block-to-track assignment problem. This is an important problem arising in the railway freight industry and involves scheduling the transitions of a set of rail cars from a set of inbound trains to a set of outbound trains over...... a certain planning horizon. It was also the topic of the 2014 challenge organized by the Railway Applications Section of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences for which the proposed matheuristic was awarded first prize. Our approach decomposes the problem into three highly...... dependent subproblems. Optimization-based strategies are adopted for two of these, while the third is solved using a greedy heuristic. We demonstrate the efficiency of the complete framework on the official datasets, where solutions within 4–14% of a known lower bound (to a relaxed problem) are found. We...

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and

  15. Optimization and Operation Scheduling for a Steel Plate yard Based on Greedy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The inbound and outbound operation of plate yards in shipyards lacks effective scheduling with high operation costs. Based on the analysis of steel-in and steel-out operation process, an optimization model aiming to minimize the operation cost was established. The model was formulated as a multi-level combinatorial optimization model, which is finding proper storage locations during the steel-in stage to minimize the cost during the steel-out stage. Furthermore, greedy algorithm was implemented to solve this problem. Finally, application data obtained from a shipyard was used to validate the model, and the result shows that the proposed algorithm is effective to solve the steel stockyards scheduling problem.

  16. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  17. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  18. Bee Fauna and Floral Abundance Within Lawn-Dominated Suburban Yards in Springfield, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, S.B.; Milam, J.

    2016-01-01

    Private yards comprise a significant component of urban lands, with managed lawns representing the dominant land cover. Lawns blanket > 163,000 km2 of the United States, and 50% of urban and suburban areas. When not treated with herbicides, lawns have the capacity to support a diversity of spontaneous (e.g., not planted) flowers, with the potential to provide nectar and pollen resources for pollinators such as native bees. In order to determine the extent to which suburban lawns support these important species, we surveyed lawns in 17 suburban yards in Springfield, MA, between May and September 2013 and 2014. Householders participating in the study did not apply chemical pesticides or herbicides to lawns for the duration of the study. We collected 5,331 individual bees, representing 111 species, and 29% of bee species reported for the state. The majority of species were native to North America (94.6%), nested in soil (73%), and solitary (48.6%). Species richness was lower for oligolectic (specialists on a single plant; 9.9%) and parasitic species (12.6%). Abundance percentages for number of individuals were similar. We documented 63 plant species in the lawns, the majority of which were not intentionally planted. The most abundant lawn flowers were dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and clover (Trifolium sp.). Nearly 30% of the spontaneous plant species growing in the lawns were native to North America. Our study suggests that the spontaneous lawn flowers could be viewed as supplemental floral resources and support pollinators, thereby enhancing the value of urban green spaces. PMID:27651546

  19. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work.

  20. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  1. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  2. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  3. 太原西站货场物流转型发展浅析%Taiyuan West Station Yard Restructuring and Development of Logistics Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利华

    2014-01-01

    以太原西站货场为例,分析了货运改革前货场经营模式的劣势和货运改革以来货场在转型发展中所采取的相关措施,并展望了太原西站货场物流转型发展的前景。%Taiyuan West Station Yard, for example, analyze the weaknesses and freight-related reform measures since the reform front yard freight yard in the transformation of the business model adopted by the development, and the prospect of Taiyuan West Station Yard logistics transformation and development.

  4. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  5. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj; Waenlor Weerachit

    2004-01-01

    Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, T...

  6. Stylistic Analysis to Mule in the Yard--On the Level of Lexical Ctegories and Figure of Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁虎; 李钰漪

    2013-01-01

    Mule in the Yard, first published in 1934, is the short story by William Faulkner that deals with comedic animal chases. It provides entertaining examples of Faulkner's work m lexis, figure of speech, and settings etc. Through the depicting of three main characters, Faulkner weaves the sense of tragedy and humor into the story by the distinct dialogues and ironic situations. The essay, on the level of Lexical Categories and Figure of speech in stylistics, go into the depth of the story.

  7. Phytostabilization Potential of Yard long bean in Removing Cadmium from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanai S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cadmium (Cd on growth, physiology, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot and leaves of yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L.. The seeds were grown in pot culture under laboratory conditions for 60 days in Ferriera and Davis nutrient solution with three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM of cadmium. Cd toxicity was evident from chlorosis in young leaves and increased concentrations of Cd brought significant negative effects on plant growth, photosynthetic rate and protein biosynthesis. Translocation of Cd was found to be more in roots than the above ground parts and the accumulation was in the order of root > shoot > leaf. Low root to shoot translocation of Cd makes the crop ideal for phytostabilization. Relatively high metal tolerance index obtained in the study indicated that the crop has greater tolerance to increase Cd exposure, though accumulation of Cd had altered thickness of root and root biomass. Owing to the crop’s adaptability to high temperature, drought conditions and ability to retain Cd in roots makes it a promising candidate for phytostabilization of soil contaminated by Cd.

  8. Requirement of a Ship Breaking Yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Yousefi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author is going to investigate the concept of ship recycling which implies to the materials and equipment including end of ships life. The scraped steel is melted down and is commonly used in the construction industries of ship recycling countries, and some equipment might be re-used in other industries too. A segment of this paper is dedicated to describe about the strategic position of Arvand River and the location of Arvand Free Zone area at the Persian Gulf. It should be noted that ship recycling commonly takes place in developing countries which tend to have a competitive advantage due to the low cost labor, may have weaker environmental protection / worker health and safety regulations, and have national demand for the outputs of the activity. The International Maritime Organization (IMO adopted the Hong Kong International Convention related to the safety and environmental sound recycling of ships to address the growing about the environment, job health and safety risks related to ship recycling. A part of this paper dedicated to review the role of the Hong Kong Convention in order to ensure the process of ship recycling without risks to human health and to the environment. The main part of this paper is designated to evaluate the role of establishment of a ship scraping yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area, its market at the Persian Gulf and improving the safety of navigation at the Arvand River. The research methodology of this paper will be designated to consider the qualitative part of this research by using interview with the experts in order to find out and select the key factors for further consideration; as a result of that a model will be created which can be tested by a questioner. In addition to the above explanation, relationship between the variables and testing hypothesizes of this research will be analyzed by using SPSS and Lisrel software as quantitative part of this research.

  9. Batangas Heavy Fabrication Yard Multi-Purpose Cooperative: Basis for Business Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER D. MASICAT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the proposed business initiatives to enhance the operation of Batangas Heavy Fabrication Yard Multi-Purpose Cooperative for the long survival and growth. More specifically, it shall answer the following objectives to describe the profile of the respondents in terms of their age, gender, type of membership and shared capital; to assess the business operation of the cooperative in the aspects of its management, marketing, finances, facilities and technology and their delivery of services; to identify the problems encountered by the cooperative in its business operation; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment to its business operation; and to propose an action plan and to assess the business operation of BHFY Multi-Purpose Cooperative. The researcher used the descriptive correlation design in the study to obtain information concerning the current status of the BHFY-MPC cooperative; to describe what exists with respect to the variables or conditions in a situation. Based on the result, majority of the members are aged 51 to 55 years old, holding the regular type of membership and have a shared capital ranging from 51,001 to 100,000.The finding of the study states that the BHFY Multi-purpose cooperative performs well in terms of its management, marketing, finances, facilities and technology and delivery of services. Also, there are problems seldom encountered in the operation of the cooperative but the cooperative never encountered problems like overinvestment, ineffective leadership of management team and board of directors, inadequate source of fund, income of cooperative affected by negative issues and mismanagement of funds by the officers. Also, the type of membership influences the members’ assessment on the type of delivery of services; moreover, age contributes to the assessment of the business operation in terms of management and delivery of

  10. Discussion on the Design for Control Circuit of Connecting Turnout between Yards%场间衔接道岔控制电路设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永州

    2012-01-01

    一站多场且在各场设置独立联锁设备的情况下,两个车场的股道间用交叉渡线形式的场间衔接道岔在实际工程中较为少见,为了解决场间进路办理、道岔控制和信号显示的问题,以集包线包头站包头Ⅰ场和包头Ⅱ场为实例,对场间衔接道岔的控制电路设计和特殊需求虚拟信号机的设置方案进行分析,并简要介绍两场间进路办理的过程和两场控显终端上控显表示及按钮设置的方案,上述设置方案和控制电路设计方案的可行性在实际工程中得到了充分验证.%When multiple yards are arranged within one station and each yard is equipped with independent interlocking device, it is rarely seen in actual project that the inter-yard connecting turnout of scissors crossover mode is used for track connection between two yards. In order to solve the problem of route handling, turnout controlling and signal displaying between two yards, the article takes Baotou Yard I and Baotou Yard II within Baotou Station of Jining-Baotou Railway as the examples and analyzes the control circuit design of inter-yard connecting turnout. The article also analyzes the allocation scheme of virtual signals for special needs, and briefly introduces the route handling process between two yards, the indication and button allocation scheme for controlling and displaying on the control desks of two yards. The feasibility of allocation schemes above-mentioned and control circuit design scheme have been verified in the actual project.

  11. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  12. Measurements of occupational ultraviolet exposure and the implications of timetabled yard duty for school teachers in Queensland, Australia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Parisi, A V; Igoe, D

    2014-02-05

    Simultaneous personal measurements of the occupational ultraviolet exposure weighted to the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection hazard sensitivity spectrum (UVICNIRP) were made over a five week period (44 person-days) in the second half of the summer school term of 2012 in Queensland, Australia for individual high school teachers located at latitudes of 27.5°S and 23.5°S. These teachers were employed for the duration of the study in a predominately indoor classroom teaching role, excluding mandatory periods of lunch time yard duty and school sport supervisions. Data is presented from personal measurements made to the shirt collar using polyphenylene oxide (PPO) film UV dosimeters. UVICNIRP exposure data is presented for each week of the study period for the shirt collar measurement site and are further expressed relative to the measured ambient horizontal plane exposure. Personal exposures were correlated with time outdoors, showing a higher exposure trend on days when teachers were required to supervise outdoor areas for more than 2h per week (mean daily exposure: 168Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±5Jm(-2) (1σ)) compared to the study average (mean daily exposure: 115Jm(-2)UVICNIRP±91Jm(-2) (1σ)). Time spent in an open playground environment was found to be the most critical factor influencing the occupational UVICNIRP exposure. A linear model was developed showing a correlation (R(2)=0.77) between the time teachers spent on yard duty and UVICNIRP exposure, expressed relative to ambient. The research findings indicate a greater reduction in personal exposure can be achieved by timetabling for yard duty periods in playground areas which offer more shade from trees and surrounding buildings. All mean daily personal exposures measured at the shirt collar site were higher than the ICNIRP occupational daily exposure limit of 30Jm(-2) for outdoor workers.

  13. Air quality impacts and health-benefit valuation of a low-emission technology for rail yard locomotives in Atlanta Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Michael; Boylan, James; Huang, Yan; Bergin, Michelle; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-11-15

    One of the largest rail yard facilities in the Southeastern US, the Inman and Tilford yards, is located in the northwestern section of Atlanta, Georgia alongside other industries, schools, businesses, and dwellings. It is a significant source of fine particulate (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) (Galvis, Bergin, & Russell, 2013). We calculate 2011 PM2.5 and BC emissions from the rail yards and primary industrial and on-road mobile sources in the area and determine their impact on local air quality using Gaussian dispersion modeling. We determine the change in PM2.5 and BC concentrations that could be accomplished by upgrading traditional switcher locomotives used in these rail yards to a lower emitting technology and evaluate the health benefits for comparison with upgrade costs. Emissions from the rail yards were estimated using reported fuel consumption data (GAEPD, 2012b) and emission factors previously measured in the rail yards (Galvis et al., 2013). Model evaluation against 2011 monitoring data found agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. Model outputs indicate that the line-haul and switcher activities are responsible for increments in annual average concentrations of approximately 0.5±0.03 μg/m(3) (39%) and 0.7±0.04 μg/m(3) (56%) of BC, and for 1.0±0.1 μg/m(3) (7%) and 1.6±0.2 μg/m(3) (14%) of PM2.5 at two monitoring sites located north and south of the rail yards respectively. Upgrading the switcher locomotives at the yards with a lower emitting technology in this case "mother slug" units could decrease PM2.5 and BC emissions by about 9 and 3 t/year respectively. This will lower annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 0.3±0.1 μg/m(3) and 0.6±0.1 μg/m(3) and BC concentrations between 0.1±0.02 μg/m(3) and 0.2±0.03 μg/m(3) at monitoring sites north and south of the rail yards respectively, and would facilitate PM2.5 NAAQS attainment in the area. We estimate that health benefits of approximately 20 million dollars per year

  14. The Growth of Oligarchy in a Yard-Sale Model of Asset Exchange: A Logistic Equation for Wealth Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Boghosian, Bruce M; Wang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The addition of wealth-attained advantage (WAA) to the Yard-Sale Model (YSM) of asset exchange has been demonstrated to induce wealth condensation. In a model of WAA for which the bias is a continuous function of the wealth difference of the transacting agents, the condensation was shown to arise from a second-order phase transition to a coexistence regime. In this paper, we present the first analytic time-dependent results for this model, by showing that the condensed wealth obeys a logistic equation in time.

  15. Reliability and criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test in competitive junior tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Eriksson,1 Fredrik R Johansson,2 Maria Bäck3–5 1Rehab City Östermalm, Primary Health Care, 2Department of Environmental Medicine, Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 3Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, 4Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Purpose: This study adds to the previous work in the field of sport-specific fitness testing by evaluating a tennis-specific agility test called “the 20-yard shuttle test”. The aim of the study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability, the inter-rater reliability, and the criterion-related validity of the 20-yard shuttle test on competitive junior tennis players. Participants and methods: Totally, 34 Swedish tennis players (13 girls, mean age 14±1.6 years, participated in the study. To examine test–retest reliability, the subjects performed the 20-yard shuttle test three times on the same day and then the same procedure was repeated after 3 days. To test the inter-rater reliability, the time was measured with a stopwatch simultaneously by two different raters. The time recorded manually was compared to the gold standard of digital timing to evaluate the criterion-related validity. Results: Excellent test–retest reliability was found both within the same day (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.95 and between days (ICC 0.91. Furthermore, the results showed excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.99 and criterion-related validity on both test occasions (ICC 0.99. Conclusion: We have provided introductory support for the 20-yard shuttle test as a reliable and valid test for use in competitive junior tennis players. The ease of administration makes this test a practical alternative to evaluate physical fitness in order to

  16. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Paritosh C; Tilwankar, Atit K; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2012-11-01

    The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang-Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 μg/Nm(3) and 428 μg/Nm(3) (at 4m/s and 1m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 μg/Nm(3). These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 μg/Nm(3)). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling yards in India.

  17. 贮木场空间管理系统的初步研究%Preliminary Study of Log Yard Spatial Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学春; 张项楠

    2012-01-01

    传统的贮木场木材信息管理仅限于产、销、存等基本的功能,本文研究的贮木场空间管理系统是在传统的贮木场管理系统基础上,通过对贮木场平面图道路、楞区的划分以及合理地划分楞位大小。采用可视化图形方式对楞位和楞位中存放的木材进行管理,以提高贮木场楞区空间利用率,简化仓储业务操作,实现高效直观的贮木场仓储管理。%Traditional log yard timber information management is only limited to the basic functions of production, marketing, and storage. The log yard spatial management system in this paper is developed based on the traditional management system. By way of road design in the log yard, the division of the storage area, and reasonable size division of the location, the visualization graphic was used to manage the location and the timber in the location, so as to improve the space utilization of storage area in the log yard, simplify storage operation, and achieve efficient and intuitive storage management of log yard.

  18. The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L.; Krapac, I.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that hydraulic retention time was the major factor to determine the extent of nitrate removal, although the amount of compost packed could also contribute to the nitrate removal efficiency. The effluent nitrate concentration increased as the flow rate decreased, and the compost column reduced nitrate concentrations from 20 mg/L to less than 5 mg/L within 1.5 h. The solution pH increased at the onset of experiment because of denitrification, but stabilized at a pH of about 7.8, suggesting that the compost had a buffering capacity to maintain a suitable pH for denitrification. Storing compost under air-dried conditions may diminish the extent nitrate removed initially, but the effects were not apparent after longer applications. It appeared that immature yard-waste compost may be a suitable material to remove nitrate from tile drainage water because of its relatively large organic carbon content, high microbial activity, and buffering capacity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stormwater run-off from an industrial log yard: characterization, contaminant correlation and first-flush phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Marques, Marcia; Vinrot, Eva; Hogland, William

    2012-01-01

    The stormwater run-off generated in an industrial log yard during eight run-off events was studied with the main focus on the transport of toxic metals. Associations between water quality constituents and potential surrogates were evaluated by correlation analysis. The first-flush phenomenon was verified by normalized M(V) curves. The results have shown that, whereas some metals such as Zn, Ba, Cd, As and Fe were always detected in these waters, others (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, V, Co) were not. Large variations in the water constituents' concentrations were observed, with Fe, Pb and V being the most variable ones. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in the run-off waters exceeded the values established by the Swedish environmental authorities in 100% and 97% of samples, respectively. The correlation analyses indicated TSS as a potential surrogate of Pb, V, Co, Ni, As, Ba, Cr and COD (0.949 > R > 0.808), making it reasonable to state that a treatment system with focus on TSS removal would also reduce toxic metals from these waters. The first-flush phenomenon was evident for most of the constituents. Significant differences (p yard were mainly composed ofZn, Cu and Ba. Knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics, discharge dynamics and the storm variables involved in the process is a crucial step for the proposal and implementation of a stormwater management programme.

  20. Minimization of Delay and Travel Time of Yard Trucks in Container Terminals Using an Improved GA with Guidance Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. X. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yard truck scheduling and storage allocation problems (YTS-SAP are two important issues that influence the efficiency of a container terminal. These two problems aim to determine the routing of trucks and proper storage locations for discharging containers from incoming vessels. This paper integrates YTS and SAP as a whole and tries to minimize the weighted summation of total delay and total yard trucks travel time. A genetic algorithm (GA is proposed to deal with the problem. In the proposed GA, guidance mutation approach and exhaustive heuristic for local searching are used in order to force the GA to converge faster and be steadier. To test the performance of the proposed GA, both small scale and large scale cases are studied. The results of these cases are compared with CPLEX for the small scale cases. Since this problem is an NP-hard problem, which CPLEX cannot solve, a simple GA is studied for comparison in large scale cases. The comparison demonstrates that the proposed GA can obtain near optimal solutions in much shorter computational time for small scale cases. In addition, the proposed GA can obtain better results than other methods in reasonable time for large scale cases.

  1. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...

  2. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases...

  3. 一种新型集装箱堆场起重机--堆场吊%CTC - a New Type Yard Container Stacking Crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫昌

    2015-01-01

    分析集装箱专用起重机和自动化码头堆场起重机的现状和缺陷,阐述一种颠覆性的堆场起重机———堆场吊,介绍其基本参数和性能。%By analyzing the situation and disadvantage of the container crane and yard crane on automatic wharf, this paper expounds a subversive yard container stacking crane-CTC and introduces its parameters and properties.

  4. 集装箱码头集卡动态调度模型优化%A Model Optimization of Yard Truck Dynamic Scheduling in Container Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐远琴; 韩晓龙

    2013-01-01

    集卡调度问题是影响集装箱码头操作效率的重要决策问题.在同一时段对集装箱进行装卸作业的情况下,考虑到集卡调度优化问题,为此建立了以集卡运作时间最小的动态调度优化模型,该模型为码头装卸作业调度提供了决策支持.算例结果表明了该模型的有效性和实用性.%Yard truck scheduling is an important decision factor which influences the container terminal operation efficiency.Under the condition of synchronously handling operations both loading and unloading,an optimization problem of yard truck scheduling was studied.The problem was formulated as a yard truck dynamic scheduling model.The objective was to minimize the time of yard truck operation.The model was useful for the loading and unloading operation decision of scheduling in container terminals.The effectiveness and usefulness of the model were verified by a case.

  5. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  6. The Pilot Restoration Yard of the Church of San Frediano in Pisa: Results of a Multidisciplinary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchini, C.; Pini, R.; Fabiani, F.; Ciafaloni, M.; Siano, S.; Salimbeni, R.; Sabatini, G.; Giamello, M.; Franzini, M.; Lezzerini, M.; Spampinato, M.; Gravina, F.; Andreazzoli, F.

    In the frame of the EC Project "RIS+ Tuscany: Transfer of innovative technologies for Cultural Heritage" we carried out a pilot restoration yard to apply and evaluate laser cleaning procedures in the conservation of stones and decorations on the façade of the church of S. Frediano (XI-XII Cent.) in Pisa. A multidisciplinary scientific committee was established, formed by art historians, architects, physicists, geologists, and conservators. Italian firms involved in conservation services and in laser technology participated in the project. The conservation has been recently completed after two years of work, providing a critical evaluation on the effectiveness and safety of optimized laser cleaning operations, the definition of an integrated conservation protocol which included the laser technique, as well as other conventional cleaning techniques, and the evaluation of time productivity and operative costs of laser operations.

  7. A branch-and-price algorithm to solve the integrated berth allocation and yard assignment problem in bulk ports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robenek, Tomáš; Umang, Nitish; Bierlaire, Michel

    2014-01-01

    the integrated problem. In the proposed model, the master problem is formulated as a set-partitioning problem, and subproblems to identify columns with negative reduced costs are solved using mixed integer programming. To obtain sub-optimal solutions quickly, a metaheuristic approach based on critical......In this research, two crucial optimization problems of berth allocation and yard assignment in the context of bulk ports are studied. We discuss how these problems are interrelated and can be combined and solved as a single large scale optimization problem. More importantly we highlight...... the differences in operations between bulk ports and container terminals which highlights the need to devise specific solutions for bulk ports. The objective is to minimize the total service time of vessels berthing at the port. We propose an exact solution algorithm based on a branch and price framework to solve...

  8. Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Soret, Sam; Ghamsary, Mark; Rizzo, Nico; Baum, Marti; Juma, David; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors' research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools. Compared to females, males were at significantly greater odds of exhibiting elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) but less likely to exhibit reduced lung volume. Even in an area of overall poor air quality, the authors found that male children were a vulnerable subpopulation for greater elevated FeNO, while females were at increased risk for reduced lung capacity. Understanding differential burdens in vulnerable subpopulations is critical to providing timely and responsive strategies targeted towards health-based prevention and intervention activities.

  9. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Waenlor, Weerachit

    2004-01-01

    Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, Toxocara eggs were detected from 10 (5.71%) of 175 soil samples. The high rate of contamination in this study implies the importance of the control of this possible zoonotic disease: control of abandon of dogs and cats, is still necessary.

  10. The frequency rate of Toxocara species contamination in soil samples from public yards in a urban area "Payathai", Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara species are most common roundworms of Canidae and Felidae. Human toxocariasis develops by ingesting of embryonated eggs in contaminated soil. There is no previous report of Toxocara contamination in the soil samples from the public areas in Bangkok. For this reason our study have been carried out to examine the frequency of Toxocara eggs in public yards in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 175 sand and clay samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs. According to this study, Toxocara eggs were detected from 10 (5.71% of 175 soil samples. The high rate of contamination in this study implies the importance of the control of this possible zoonotic disease: control of abandon of dogs and cats, is still necessary.

  11. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  12. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  13. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1989-09-01

    Certain governmental information must be classified for national security reasons. However, the national security benefits from classifying information are usually accompanied by significant costs -- those due to a citizenry not fully informed on governmental activities, the extra costs of operating classified programs and procuring classified materials (e.g., weapons), the losses to our nation when advances made in classified programs cannot be utilized in unclassified programs. The goal of a classification system should be to clearly identify that information which must be protected for national security reasons and to ensure that information not needing such protection is not classified. This document was prepared to help attain that goal. This document is the first of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. Volume 1 broadly describes the need for classification, the basis for classification, and the history of classification in the United States from colonial times until World War 2. Classification of information since World War 2, under Executive Orders and the Atomic Energy Acts of 1946 and 1954, is discussed in more detail, with particular emphasis on the classification of atomic energy information. Adverse impacts of classification are also described. Subsequent volumes will discuss classification principles, classification management, and the control of certain unclassified scientific and technical information. 340 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  15. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  16. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta d...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies.......What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...

  17. Information gathering for CLP classification

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Marcello; Felice Giordano; Francesca Marina Costamagna

    2011-01-01

    Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP). If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requireme...

  18. Classification of Spreadsheet Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalingham, Kamalasen; Chadwick, David R.; Knight, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for a systematic classification of spreadsheet errors. This classification or taxonomy of errors is aimed at facilitating analysis and comprehension of the different types of spreadsheet errors. The taxonomy is an outcome of an investigation of the widespread problem of spreadsheet errors and an analysis of specific types of these errors. This paper contains a description of the various elements and categories of the classification and is supported by appropri...

  19. 国内首个地下地铁停车场消防设计%First Firefighting Design of Underground Metro Parking Yard in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昱

    2013-01-01

    以深圳市地铁龙岗线西延段中心公园停车场为例,对国内首个地下地铁停车场的消防设计进行深入研究.重点讨论消防防火分区与水消防系统设计,其中水幕系统应用到防火分区划分并作为防火分隔在地铁行业中尚属首次.%The paper takes the underground parking yard of Shenzhen metro as an example and discusses in detail the first firefighting design for an underground parking yard in China. It focuses on the design of firefighting compartment and water firefighting system, among which, the water curtain system is applied to the firefighting compartment and the firefighting separation in metro industry for the first time.

  20. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Bisgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily elders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp, multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and Hha...... difference between the outbreak clone and some of these strains concerned the size of one fragment. These results indicate a possible exchange of P. multocida ssp, multocida between populations of wild birds and back-yard poultry. Among the DNA fingerprinting methods used, restriction enzyme analysis offered...... the highest discrimination among thirty strains obtained from back-yard poultry, The restriction enzymes HpaII and HhaI generated almost the same number of profile types, 17 and 15 respectively, but only HpaII differentiated the outbreak clone from the group of closely related strains isolated from back...

  2. The casting yard design of steep longitudinal gradient small radius bridgehead connection%大纵坡小半径桥头接线预制场设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学青

    2009-01-01

    Combining with the construction practice of some bridge 50 m pretressed T beam, based on the characteristic of bridgehead connection of steep longitudinal gradient small radius, the problems need to be solved in casting yard design were summarized, and the corresponding solution methods were provided, so as to determine the position of casting yard intuitively, conveniently, accuratdy and quickly.%结合某大桥50m预应力T梁施工实例,根据桥头接线纵坡大、半径小等特点,归纳出预制场设计时要解决的问题,同时提出了相应的解决办法,从而直观、方便、准确、快速地确定了预制场的位置.

  3. Response of bacterial community structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial community structure was analyzed from coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (coastal water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine coastal water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial community in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial community structure from coastal water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial community structure.

  4. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative investigation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation to characterize water-quality constituents that are transported in stormwater from representative maintenance yard and section shed facilities in South Carolina. At a section shed in Ballentine, S.C., stormwater discharges to a retention pond outfall (Ballentine). At the Conway maintenance yard, stormwater in the southernmost section discharges to a pipe outfall (Conway1), and stormwater in the remaining area discharges to a grass-lined ditch (Conway2). At the North Charleston maintenance yard, stormwater discharges from the yard to Turkey Creek through a combination of pipes, ditches, and overland flow; therefore, samples were collected from the main channel of Turkey Creek at the upstream (North Charleston1) and downstream (North Charleston2) limits of the North Charleston maintenance yard facility. The storms sampled during this study had a wide range of rainfall amounts, durations, and intensities at each of the facilities and, therefore, were considered to be reasonably representative of the potential for contaminant transport. At all facilities, stormwater discharge was significantly correlated to rainfall amount and intensity. Event-mean unit-area stormwater discharge increased with increasing impervious surface at the Conway and North Charleston maintenance yards. The Ballentine facility with 79 percent impervious surface had a mean unit-area discharge similar to that of the North Charleston maintenance yard (62 percent impervious surface). That similarity may be attributed, in part, to the effects of the retention pond on the stormwater runoff at the Ballentine facility and to the greater rainfall intensities and amounts at the North Charleston facility. Stormwater samples from the facilities were analyzed for multiple

  5. Bus Yards and Repair Facilities, Local Buildings - Bus shop is included in local buildings layer, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Yards and Repair Facilities dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is...

  6. Yard crane scheduling model and algorithm in mixture storage block%混堆集装箱箱区内场桥调度模型与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红星; 于凯

    2015-01-01

    在混堆模式下的集装箱港口中,场桥(YC)调度是否合理直接影响着堆场的作业效率。考虑到混堆箱区内各任务对应的内集卡或外集卡到达时刻的不同,以及内外集卡优先级别的差异,构建了一个以所有集卡的等待成本和场桥的总移动成本最小为目标的场桥调度(YCS)模型,并设计了对应的遗传算法,给出了相应遗传算子的操作规则,通过算例的求解验证了模型与算法的有效性。%In the mixture storage mode of container port, Yard Crane(YC)scheduling that is reasonable or not will directly affect the yard operation efficiency. The arrival time of container truck corresponding to each task is different, but internal and external container truck have different priority levels. Considering all the above situations, this paper establishes a Yard Cranes Scheduling(YCS)model to minimize the waiting cost of trucks and moving cost of yard cranes. Then it designs a Genetic Algorithm(GA)and gives the corresponding operators. A numerical experiment is used to validate the efficiency of the model and the algorithm.

  7. 原料堆场地基加固设计%Foundation Strengthening Design Of Raw Material Storage Yard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣杰; 彭国萍

    2012-01-01

    The raw material storage yard located in the intermediate zone between plain and mountains and kop and its foundation need to be strengthened to avoid large -area sliding unstability and settlement. The foundation deep strengthening scheme ineluding the methods of plastic drainage board and surcharge preloading, dynamic gravel pile replacement, sand gravel pile replacement; CFG pile, plain concrete pile and cement mixing pile.%某原料堆场建设场地地貌属海积平原及残山孤丘山前过渡带,需进行地基加固处理,处理后地基要求不发生大面积滑动失稳,并适当控制沉降。地基深层加固方案一般有插塑板堆载预压法、强夯碎石桩置换法、砂桩置换法、CFG桩法、素砼桩法、水泥搅拌桩法等。

  8. Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, David M; Faber, Ben; Downer, A James; Daugovish, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14 d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100 cm depths. No survivors were found after 14 d in any of the treatments at any depth. Neither of the pests survived 100 cm after 2d. A mathematical model for describing pest survival probabilities is described. The model modifies time according to the Arrhenius equation in order to include heat effects on pest survival and can be used to determine exposure times necessary to eliminate these pests with a determined statistical probability. Model projections suggest that for conditions similar to this study, there is 99% confidence that all glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs would be eliminated from 1000 infected leaves in 6.1d at 15 cm depth and in 4.8d at 30 cm or below. Olive fruit fly larvae at these depths would require 4.8 and 4.1d, respectively, for 1000 infected olive fruits. Projected elimination times at the surface were longer, 6.5d for sharpshooter eggs and 14.3d for fruit fly larvae.

  9. Comparison of solid-state anaerobic digestion and composting of yard trimmings with effluent from liquid anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Long; Yang, Liangcheng; Xu, Fuqing; Michel, Frederick C; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) and composting of yard trimmings with effluent from liquid AD were compared under thermophilic condition. Total solids (TS) contents of 22%, 25%, and 30% were studied for SS-AD, and 35%, 45%, and 55% for composting. Feedstock/effluent (F/E) ratios of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were tested. In composting, the greatest carbon loss was obtained at 35% TS, which was 2-3 times of that at 55% TS and was up to 50% higher than that in SS-AD. In SS-AD, over half of the degraded carbon was converted to methane with the greatest methane yield of 121 L/kg VS(feedstock). Methane production from SS-AD was low at F/E ratios of 2 and 3, likely due to the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (up to 5.6g/kg). The N-P-K values were similar for SS-AD digestate and compost with different dominant nitrogen forms.

  10. Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-03-01

    Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

  11. Taxonomic profiling of bacterial community structure from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard near Bhavnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shah, Varun; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-12-30

    The Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard (ASSBY) is considered the largest of its kind in the world, and a major source of anthropogenic pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of shipbreaking activities on the bacterial community structure with a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. In the culture-dependent approach, 200 bacterial cultures were isolated and analyzed by molecular fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) gene sequencing, as well as being studied for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the culture-independent approach, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were related to eight major phyla, of which Betaproteobacteria (especially Acidovorax) was predominantly found in the polluted sediments of ASSBY and Gammaproteobacteria in the pristine sediment sample. The statistical approaches showed a significant difference in the bacterial community structure between the pristine and polluted sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the effect of shipbreaking activity on the bacterial community structure of the coastal sediment at ASSBY.

  12. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in bioaugmented microcosm by consortium ASP developed from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Janki; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-09-15

    A phenanthrene-degrading bacterial consortium (ASP) was developed using sediment from the Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard at Gujarat, India. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analyses revealed that the bacterial consortium consisted of six bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. ASP1, Pseudomonas sp. ASP2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ASP3, Staphylococcus sp. ASP4, Geobacillus sp. ASP5 and Alcaligenes sp. ASP6. The consortium was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene and 1000 ppm of naphthalene within 120 h and 48 h, respectively. Tween 80 showed a positive effect on phenanthrene degradation. The consortium was able to consume maximum phenanthrene at the rate of 46 mg/h/l and degrade phenanthrene in the presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. A microcosm study was conducted to test the consortium's bioremediation potential. Phenanthrene degradation increased from 61% to 94% in sediment bioaugmented with the consortium. Simultaneously, bacterial counts and dehydrogenase activities also increased in the bioaugmented sediment. These results suggest that microbial consortium bioaugmentation may be a promising technology for bioremediation.

  13. Wet oxidation pre-treatment of woody yard waste: Parameter optimization and enzymatic digestibility for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.

    2004-01-01

    Woody yard waste with high lignin content (22% of dry matter (DM)) was subjected to wet oxidation pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation. The effects of temperature (185-200 degreesC), oxygen pressure (3-12 bar) and addition of sodium carbonate (0-3.3 g per 100 g DM...... biomass) on enzymatic cellulose and hemicellulose (xylan) convertibility were studied. The enzymatic cellulose conversion was highest after wet oxidation for 15 min at 185 degreesC with addition of 12 bars of oxygen and 3.3 g Na2CO3 per 100g waste. At 25 FPU (filter paper unit) cellulase g(-1) DM added......% conversion efficiency was still reached at 15 FPU g(-1) DM. Total carbohydrate recoveries were high (91-100% for cellulose and 72-100% for hemicellulose) and up to 49% of the original lignin and 79% of the hemicellulose could be solubilized during wet oxidation treatment and converted into carboxylic acids...

  14. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy. Phylogenetic Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works. 1 Why phylogenetic tools in astrophysics? 1.1 History of classification The need for classifying living organisms is very ancient, and the first classification system can be dated back to the Greeks. The goal was very practical since it was intended to distinguish between eatable and toxic aliments, or kind and dangerous animals. Simple resemblance was used and has been used for centuries. Basically, until the XVIIIth...

  15. Storage space allocation based on regional workload balance planning of multiple yard cranes in container terminal yard%多场桥分区域平衡策划下的集装箱堆场箱位分配问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范厚明; 姚茜; 马梦知

    2016-01-01

    集装箱码头堆场出口箱箱位分配和场桥调度对码头运营效率有重要影响。为了合理分配箱位和调度场桥,采用分区域平衡策划方法,在给定批量任务下,考虑场桥实际作业中的安全距离,以均衡各场桥作业任务量和减少场桥的非装卸时间为目标,建立混合整数规划模型,并设计遗传算法求解,通过不同批量任务的实验分析验证所提出方法的有效性。研究表明,分区域平衡策划方法可以更好地解决箱位分配和箱区多场桥联合作业的优化问题。%The storage space allocation and yard crane scheduling in a container terminal are vital to the efficiency of terminal operation. In order to reasonably allocate the storage space and make the yard crane schedule, the regional workload balance method is adopted. When the tasks of one block are given, a mixed integer programming model is established to balance the workload of yard cranes and reduce the unproductive time, taking the safety distance between the yard cranes during the operation process into account. A genetic algorithm is used to solve the model. Numerical experiments with different scale of tasks verify the effectiveness of the adopted method. The results show that the regional workload balance planning method can better solve the optimization problem of storage space allocation and yard crane joint scheduling.

  16. Multiple sparse representations classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Plenge (Esben); S.K. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); E. Meijering (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In t

  17. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  18. Classifier in Age classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Face is the important feature of the human beings. We can derive various properties of a human by analyzing the face. The objective of the study is to design a classifier for age using facial images. Age classification is essential in many applications like crime detection, employment and face detection. The proposed algorithm contains four phases: preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The classification employs two class labels namely child and Old. This study addresses the limitations in the existing classifiers, as it uses the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM for feature extraction and Support Vector Machine (SVM for classification. This improves the accuracy of the classification as it outperforms the existing methods.

  19. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.

    2016-01-01

    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa coefficie

  20. Growth and yield components of wheat genotypes as influenced by potassium and farm yard manure on a saline sodic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Afzal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The adequate supply of mineral nutrients through chemical fertilizers and manure may help to sustain the crop productivity and ensure plant survival under salinity stress. A field study was conducted on saline sodic soil (ECe = 13 dS m-1, SAR 23.3 (mmol L-11/2, pH = 8.6 of surface 15 cm layer to quantify the effects of potassium (K and farm yard manure (FYM on two wheat genotypes differing in salinity tolerance. Three K levels (0, 80, 120 kg ha-1 and two FYM levels (0, 10 t ha-1 were tested using randomized compete block design (RCBD with three replications. The application of K along with FYM reduced Na+ uptake and accumulation in plant tissue. The K concentration and K+/ Na+ ratio were significantly improved in both wheat genotypes with the supplementation of K and FYM. The grain yield was improved by 40-156% in salt tolerant genotype and 46-206% in salt sensitive genotype with added K and FYM. Similar trend was observed in yield components. Ameliorative effects of added K and FYM were more marked in salt sensitive genotype (Auqab-2000 than in salt tolerant (Inqlab-91. Grain yield of salt sensitive and salt tolerant wheat genotypes was positively correlated with leaf K+ concentration determined at various treatments. Addition of K along with FYM decreased sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and electrical conductivity (EC of soil particularly in upper layers. Therefore, it is concluded that K along with FYM could help to alleviate deleterious effects of salts and thus improve the productivity of salt affected soils.

  1. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative investigation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation to characterize water-quality constituents that are transported in stormwater from representative maintenance yard and section shed facilities in South Carolina. At a section shed in Ballentine, S.C., stormwater discharges to a retention pond outfall (Ballentine). At the Conway maintenance yard, stormwater in the southernmost section discharges to a pipe outfall (Conway1), and stormwater in the remaining area discharges to a grass-lined ditch (Conway2). At the North Charleston maintenance yard, stormwater discharges from the yard to Turkey Creek through a combination of pipes, ditches, and overland flow; therefore, samples were collected from the main channel of Turkey Creek at the upstream (North Charleston1) and downstream (North Charleston2) limits of the North Charleston maintenance yard facility. The storms sampled during this study had a wide range of rainfall amounts, durations, and intensities at each of the facilities and, therefore, were considered to be reasonably representative of the potential for contaminant transport. At all facilities, stormwater discharge was significantly correlated to rainfall amount and intensity. Event-mean unit-area stormwater discharge increased with increasing impervious surface at the Conway and North Charleston maintenance yards. The Ballentine facility with 79 percent impervious surface had a mean unit-area discharge similar to that of the North Charleston maintenance yard (62 percent impervious surface). That similarity may be attributed, in part, to the effects of the retention pond on the stormwater runoff at the Ballentine facility and to the greater rainfall intensities and amounts at the North Charleston facility. Stormwater samples from the facilities were analyzed for multiple

  2. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... process in March 2012 (77 FR 5379). When verified by a futures classification, Smith-Doxey data serves as... Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known...

  3. Update on diabetes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal.

  4. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  5. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  6. Completion of the classification

    CERN Document Server

    Strade, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    This is the last of three volumes about ""Simple Lie Algebras over Fields of Positive Characteristic""by Helmut Strade, presenting the state of the art of the structure and classification of Lie algebras over fields of positive characteristic. In this monograph the proof of the Classification Theorem presented in the first volumeis concluded.Itcollects all the important results on the topic whichcan be found only in scatteredscientific literaturso far.

  7. Twitter content classification

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper delivers a new Twitter content classification framework based sixteen existing Twitter studies and a grounded theory analysis of a personal Twitter history. It expands the existing understanding of Twitter as a multifunction tool for personal, profession, commercial and phatic communications with a split level classification scheme that offers broad categorization and specific sub categories for deeper insight into the real world application of the service.

  8. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  9. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment

  10. Defense Scrap Yard Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Draw a sharp knife along ing metal. an edge of the sample. Aluminum is a soft metal (3) Place one drop of nitric acid on the and will peel into a...silver alloys and 35 Maize . the range of nickel content to be specified, free of chrome or any other plating material. Leaded nickel silver clippings... peelings , baskets, and/or turnings. Particu- lars regarding physical description, assay, and packaging to be agreed on between buyer and seller. (99

  11. Junk Yard Treasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Len

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a project that she developed as a challenge for her students and ended up with some fantastic student paintings. The author told her group of reluctant art students they must first research on the Internet for old, junky cars. The older and more junky the cars, the better. Once a vehicle is selected, it is driven into Adobe…

  12. The Yard Sale Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students are not always aware of how much consumer goods actually cost. But, in light of recent financial difficulties in the community and around the country, it has been hard to miss the fact that most people have been cutting back and/or bargain hunting. In this article, the author describes a lesson wherein students draw and…

  13. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  14. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on soun...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...

  15. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were...... HE, protein contact dermatitis/contact urticaria, hyperkeratotic endogenous eczema and vesicular endogenous eczema, respectively. An additional diagnosis was given if symptoms indicated that factors additional to the main diagnosis were of importance for the disease. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty......%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. CONCLUSION: We find that the classification...

  16. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  17. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between....... Descriptors, range of quality levels, number of quality classes, class intervals, denotations and descriptions vary across Europe. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of experience about constructions fulfilling different classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  18. Classification problem in CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Jaworska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present a great deal of research is being done in different aspects of Content-Based Im-age Retrieval (CBIR. Image classification is one of the most important tasks in image re-trieval that must be dealt with. The primary issue we have addressed is: how can the fuzzy set theory be used to handle crisp image data. We propose fuzzy rule-based classification of image objects. To achieve this goal we have built fuzzy rule-based classifiers for crisp data. In this paper we present the results of fuzzy rule-based classification in our CBIR. Further-more, these results are used to construct a search engine taking into account data mining.

  19. Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Richard; Jha, Saurabh; Kuhlmann, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    We have publicly released a blinded mix of simulated SNe, with types (Ia, Ib, Ic, II) selected in proportion to their expected rate. The simulation is realized in the griz filters of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with realistic observing conditions (sky noise, point spread function and atmospheric transparency) based on years of recorded conditions at the DES site. Simulations of non-Ia type SNe are based on spectroscopically confirmed light curves that include unpublished non-Ia samples donated from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP), the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II). We challenge scientists to run their classification algorithms and report a type for each SN. A spectroscopically confirmed subset is provided for training. The goals of this challenge are to (1) learn the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different classification algorithms, (2) use the results to improve classification algorithms, and (3) understand what spectroscopically confirmed sub-...

  20. Information gathering for CLP classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello, Ida; Giordano, Felice; Costamagna, Francesca Marina

    2011-01-01

    Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP). If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances) and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  1. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... support for the view that a natural classification should be based on a theory (and, of course, that the most fruitful theory provides the most fruitful classification). Nevertheless, atheoretical (or “descriptive”) classifications are often produced. Paradoxically, atheoretical classifications may...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...

  2. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  3. The reclamation plan for uranium mine facilities in Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC. Mainly concerning waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ningyo Toge Environmental Engineering Center, Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The JNC conducted R and D projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-Toge after the projects ended. Thus, JNC's Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. Although the plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, it also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first such case in Japan. This plan was evaluated and validated from the technological viewpoint by the Technological Advisory Board on the Reclamation of the Ningyo-Toge uranium mining and milling facilities, in the 4th Meeting on April 11, 2002. The Board was established on January 29, 2001 and composes 10 experts regarding nuclear energy, radiology, mining, civil engineering, etc.; its chairperson is Dr. M. Nakano, a professor emeritus of Univ. of Tokyo. This report illustrates the reclamation plan mainly concerning waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond. (author)

  4. Simulation Research on Road Planning of Container Terminal Yard%集装箱码头堆场的道路规划仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦天保

    2011-01-01

    Based on Flexsim simulation platform, a 3D virtual reality simulation model of a large container terminal yard in China is created to assist its road planning. Combining the model with the road capacity theory, the appropriate width of the road in the yard is determined. The architecture, components and processes of the model are discussed. Through simulation experiments, the peak traffic flow data are obtained.Comparing the data with the road traffic capacity, it can judge the reasonableness of the road planning and make recommendations for improvement.%利用Flexsim仿真软件建立规划中的中国某大型集装箱码头堆场3D虚拟现实仿真模型,结合道路通行能力理论,辅助该码头堆场的道路规划,确定合理的上千道路宽度.给出模型的体系结构、组成和流程.通过仿真实验,获取高峰期主干道路交通流量数据,与道路通行能力进行比对,判断道路设计的合理性并提出改进建议.

  5. Comparison of digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters as inocula for solid state anaerobic digestion of yard trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuqing; Wang, Feng; Lin, Long; Li, Yebo

    2016-01-01

    To select a proper inoculum for the solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of yard trimmings, digestate from solid anaerobic digesters and dewatered effluent from liquid anaerobic digesters were compared at substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratios from 0.2 to 2 (dry basis), and total solids (TS) contents from 20% to 35%. The highest methane yield of around 244L/kg VSfeed was obtained at an S/I ratio of 0.2 and TS content of 20% for both types of inoculum. The highest volumetric methane productivity was obtained with dewatered effluent at an S/I ratio of 0.6 and TS content of 24%. The two types of inoculum were found comparable regarding methane yields and volumetric methane productivities at each S/I ratio, while using dewatered effluent as inoculum reduced the startup time. An S/I ratio of 1 was determined to be a critical level and should be set as the upper limit for mesophilic SS-AD of yard trimmings.

  6. Analysis of TPL Development Opportunities of Railway Freight Yard in Guizhou%贵州铁路货场发展TPL的机会分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟

    2013-01-01

    Timing,reforming the current railway freight transportation in guizhou province,introduced a concept of third-party logistics(TPL)development of railway freight yard can help rail companies to build their core competitive power as soon as possible,according to the actual situation in guizhou province,this article has analyzed the Guizhou railway freight yard development of third-party logistics advantages according to the actual situation of Guizhou Province,summarized the current development opportunities of Guizhou railway logistics facing,combing the Guizhou railway logistics problems place,put forward the development of the third-party logistics.%当前贵州省铁路货运面临改革时机,引入第三方物流(TPL)概念发展铁路货场能够帮助铁路企业尽快构建自己核心竞争力,文中根据贵州省的实际情况分析了贵州铁路货场发展第三方物流的优势,总结了当前贵州铁路物流面临的发展机会,梳理了贵州铁路物流的问题所在,提出了发展第三方物流的可行性。

  7. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  8. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing setof classifiers is the \\NB models. These models rely on twoassumptions: $(i)$ All the attributes used to describe an instanceare conditionally independent given the class of that instance,and $(ii)$ all attributes follow a specific...... parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  9. Bosniak Classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    . Purpose: To investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement among experienced uroradiologists when categorizing complex renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. Material and Methods: The original categories of 100 cystic renal masses were chosen as “Gold Standard” (GS), established...... to the calculated weighted κ all readers performed “very good” for both inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Most variation was seen in cysts catagorized as Bosniak II, IIF, and III. These results show that radiologists who evaluate complex renal cysts routinely may apply the Bosniak classification...

  10. Classification problem in CBIR

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Jaworska

    2013-01-01

    At present a great deal of research is being done in different aspects of Content-Based Im-age Retrieval (CBIR). Image classification is one of the most important tasks in image re-trieval that must be dealt with. The primary issue we have addressed is: how can the fuzzy set theory be used to handle crisp image data. We propose fuzzy rule-based classification of image objects. To achieve this goal we have built fuzzy rule-based classifiers for crisp data. In this paper we present the results ...

  11. Classification of iconic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zrianina, Mariia; Kopf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Iconic images represent an abstract topic and use a presentation that is intuitively understood within a certain cultural context. For example, the abstract topic “global warming” may be represented by a polar bear standing alone on an ice floe. Such images are widely used in media and their automatic classification can help to identify high-level semantic concepts. This paper presents a system for the classification of iconic images. It uses a variation of the Bag of Visual Words approach wi...

  12. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  13. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  14. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW mod

  15. Nearest convex hull classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); J.C. Bioch (Cor)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractConsider the classification task of assigning a test object to one of two or more possible groups, or classes. An intuitive way to proceed is to assign the object to that class, to which the distance is minimal. As a distance measure to a class, we propose here to use the distance to the

  16. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth;

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand and...

  17. Recurrent neural collective classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monner, Derek D; Reggia, James A

    2013-12-01

    With the recent surge in availability of data sets containing not only individual attributes but also relationships, classification techniques that take advantage of predictive relationship information have gained in popularity. The most popular existing collective classification techniques have a number of limitations-some of them generate arbitrary and potentially lossy summaries of the relationship data, whereas others ignore directionality and strength of relationships. Popular existing techniques make use of only direct neighbor relationships when classifying a given entity, ignoring potentially useful information contained in expanded neighborhoods of radius greater than one. We present a new technique that we call recurrent neural collective classification (RNCC), which avoids arbitrary summarization, uses information about relationship directionality and strength, and through recursive encoding, learns to leverage larger relational neighborhoods around each entity. Experiments with synthetic data sets show that RNCC can make effective use of relationship data for both direct and expanded neighborhoods. Further experiments demonstrate that our technique outperforms previously published results of several collective classification methods on a number of real-world data sets.

  18. Sandwich classification theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Stepanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present note arises from the author's talk at the conference ``Ischia Group Theory 2014''. For subgroups FleN of a group G denote by Lat(F,N the set of all subgroups of N , containing F . Let D be a subgroup of G . In this note we study the lattice LL=Lat(D,G and the lattice LL ′ of subgroups of G , normalized by D . We say that LL satisfies sandwich classification theorem if LL splits into a disjoint union of sandwiches Lat(F,N G (F over all subgroups F such that the normal closure of D in F coincides with F . Here N G (F denotes the normalizer of F in G . A similar notion of sandwich classification is introduced for the lattice LL ′ . If D is perfect, i.,e. coincides with its commutator subgroup, then it turns out that sandwich classification theorem for LL and LL ′ are equivalent. We also show how to find basic subroup F of sandwiches for LL ′ and review sandwich classification theorems in algebraic groups over rings.

  19. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....

  20. Classifications in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four questio

  1. Shark Teeth Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1853 (coleoptera, cerambycidae POPULATION BEHAVIOR RELATED TO CERAMBICIDEOS FAUNA IN CITRIC YARD COMPORTAMENTO DA POPULAÇÃO DE Compsocerus violaceus (WHITE, 1853 (COLEOPTERA, CERAMBYCIDAE EM RELAÇÃO À FAUNA DE CERAMBICÍDEOS COLETADOS EM POMARES DE CITROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gomes da Cunha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The present work analyses the population behavior of Compsocerus violaceus (White, 1853 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, related to the fauna of cerambicideos, collected in conserved and rio tangerine, baianinha and natal orange, tangor sabará and cravo lemon. The collections were carried out fortnightly, using a plastic bait trap with 20% molasses. The baits were replaced every two weeks. The collection period ranged from August/1983 to JuIy/1985. The ecological parameters studied included the relative abundance, constancy, frequency and dominance. The influence of some meteorological factors over the species population was also investigated. In the abandoned yard 405 adults were collected, comprising 180 males and 225 females, and in the conserved yard, 253 adults were collected, comprising 96 males and 163 females. From the total insects collected, 39% were from the conserved yard, while 61% came from the abandoned yard. The period showing the highest occurrence was the one comprising the months of November and December, in both yards. No correlation between meteorological factors and species fluctuation could be detected. Among the ecological parameters analyzed, C. violaceus was classified as “common and very abundant”, “accidental and constant”. C. violaceus showed a frequency of 10,31% among the collected species, and was considered “dominant” in both yards, obtaining the classification of Dorcacerus barbatus, Macropophora accentifer, Acathoderes jaspidea, Chlorida festiva and Trachyderes spp., all recognized as dangerous species with a remarkable economic importance for the Brazilian fruit-bearing plants.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; pest; Citrus.

  3. Corrales de piedra, campos abiertos y pampas de camaruco: Memorias de relacionalidad en la meseta central de Chubut Stone yards, open fields and sacred places: Memories of relatedness in the Chubut´s central plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La "cuestión indígena" como política de estado en Argentina ha estado acompañada por la elaboración académica de mapas étnicos. Las definiciones hegemónicas de estas entidades han presupuesto generalmente algún elemento "esencial" como, por ejemplo, fenotipos, uso de una lengua, o la aglutinación en torno a linajes consanguíneos. A partir de las reformulaciones de las teorías del parentesco desde el modelo heurístico de las sociedades de casas y las teorías sobre la relacionalidad proponemos una aproximación a la memoria social como marco alternativo de interpretación histórica. Esta contempla las prácticas sociales del parentesco y la objetivación de la continuidad de los grupos de pertenencia en las políticas y lugares de la memoria -corrales de piedra, actividades productivas y pampas de camaruco- en la región de la "meseta" de Chubut. Dichas relaciones con el espacio físico cuestionan tanto las definiciones académicas tradicionales de parentesco y de cacicazgo como las clasificaciones étnicas-nacionales.The "Indigenous issue" as a state policy in Argentina has been accompanied by an academic production of ethnic maps. Hegemonic definitions of these entities used to presume some "essential" elements like the phenotype, the use of language or consanguineous lineage membership. Based on the reformulation of kinship theory, which came from the heuristic model of houses and relatedness theory, we propose an approach to social memory as an alternative framework for historical interpretation. This includes kinship social practices as well as the materialization of group membership's continuity in policies and places of memory -such as stone yards, productive activities, open fields and sacred places- in the Chubut central plateau. Finally, we argue that regarding a physical space, these relations question not only the ethnic-national classifications but also the traditional academic definitions of kinship and chieftaincy.

  4. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  5. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M;

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Hand eczema is a long-lasting disease with a high prevalence in the background population. The disease has severe, negative effects on quality of life and sometimes on social status. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for onset and prognosis, but treatment...... of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... for hand eczema is needed. Objectives The present study attempts to characterize subdiagnoses of hand eczema with respect to basic demographics, medical history and morphology. Methods Clinical data from 416 patients with hand eczema from 10 European patch test clinics were assessed. Results...

  6. Multilingual documentation and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Health care providers around the world have used classification systems for decades as a basis for documentation, communications, statistical reporting, reimbursement and research. In more recent years machine-readable medical terminologies have taken on greater importance with the adoption of electronic health records and the need for greater granularity of data in clinical systems. Use of a clinical terminology harmonised with classifications, implemented within a clinical information system, will enable the delivery of many patient health benefits including electronic clinical decision support, disease screening and enhanced patient safety. In order to be usable these systems must be translated into the language of use, without losing meaning. It is evident that today one system cannot meet all requirements which call for collaboration and harmonisation in order to achieve true interoperability on a multilingual basis.

  7. [New classification of vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anić, Branimir

    2014-01-01

    Vasculitis syndrome comprises a heterogenic group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases whose common feature is inflammation in the blood vessel wall. Establishing the diagnosis of vasculitis is one of the greatest challenges in medicine. Clinical presentation of vasculitis depends on the extent of an organ system affection, as well as on the total number of affected organs. A great range of clinical presentations of vasculitis and the low incidence of the disease impede systematic clinical investigation of vasculitis. The needs of clinical routine and the need for conducting systemic clinical investigations require a clear distinction of individual clinical entities. Different classifications of vasculitis syndrome have been proposed: according to etiology, pathogenesis, histological finding in the affected vessels, affection of individual organs and organ systems. This paper presents and comments news and recent classifications and nomenclature of vasculitic entities proposed at the second conference in Chapel Hill.

  8. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...... one category lower. Pathologic correlation in six lesions revealed four malignant and two benign lesions. CONCLUSION: CEUS and MR both up- and downgraded renal cysts compared to CT, and until these non-radiation modalities have been refined and adjusted, CT should remain the gold standard...

  9. Semiparametric Gaussian copula classification

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yue; Wegkamp, Marten

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the binary classification of two distributions with the same Gaussian copula in high dimensions. Under this semiparametric Gaussian copula setting, we derive an accurate semiparametric estimator of the log density ratio, which leads to our empirical decision rule and a bound on its associated excess risk. Our estimation procedure takes advantage of the potential sparsity as well as the low noise condition in the problem, which allows us to achieve faster convergence rate of...

  10. Classification of nanopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larena, A; Tur, A [Department of Chemical Industrial Engineering and Environment, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain); Baranauskas, V [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, 13 083-852 Campinas SP Brasil (Brazil)], E-mail: alarena@etsii.upm.es

    2008-03-15

    Nanopolymers with different structures, shapes, and functional forms have recently been prepared using several techniques. Nanopolymers are the most promising basic building blocks for mounting complex and simple hierarchical nanosystems. The applications of nanopolymers are extremely broad and polymer-based nanotechnologies are fast emerging. We propose a nanopolymer classification scheme based on self-assembled structures, non self-assembled structures, and on the number of dimensions in the nanometer range (nD)

  11. Evolvement of Classification Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hua

    2011-01-01

    As an independent industry, the emergence of the classification society was perhaps the demand of beneficial interests between shipowners, cargo owners and insurers at the earliest time. Today, as an indispensable link of the international maritime industry, class role has changed fundamentally. Start off from the demand of the insurersSeaborne trade, transport and insurance industries began to emerge successively in the 17th century. The massive risk and benefit brought by seaborne transport provided a difficult problem to insurers.

  12. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  13. Classification of Meteorological Drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiang; Zou Xukai; Xiao Fengjin; Lu Houquan; Liu Haibo; Zhu Changhan; An Shunqing

    2011-01-01

    Background The national standard of the Classification of Meteorological Drought (GB/T 20481-2006) was developed by the National Climate Center in cooperation with Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences,National Meteorological Centre and Department of Forecasting and Disaster Mitigation under the China Meteorological Administration (CMA),and was formally released and implemented in November 2006.In 2008,this Standard won the second prize of the China Standard Innovation and Contribution Awards issued by SAC.Developed through independent innovation,it is the first national standard published to monitor meteorological drought disaster and the first standard in China and around the world specifying the classification of drought.Since its release in 2006,the national standard of Classification of Meteorological Drought has been used by CMA as the operational index to monitor and drought assess,and gradually used by provincial meteorological sureaus,and applied to the drought early warning release standard in the Methods of Release and Propagation of Meteorological Disaster Early Warning Signal.

  14. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  15. 车辆段/停车场增设全自动运行功能的分析%Analysis of Automatic Train Operation Function of Depot and Parking Yard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志红

    2015-01-01

    基于目前车辆段/停车场的联锁控制方案,对车辆段/停车场作业的需求分析,通过在车辆段/停车场配置全自动运行区域,列车在该区域具备CBTC级别下的ATP/ATO功能以及ATS监控功能,并能够以ATO自动完成进出段/场的运行功能。%Based on the current interlocking control scheme for depot and parking yard, the paper makes analysis of the train operation requirements in depot and parking yard. With the arrangement of automatic train operation area in depot and parking yard, and trains acquire ATP/ATO function of CBTC level and ATS function, the trains with ATO can automatically running in and out depot and parking yard.

  16. Short Text Classification: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosive growth of e-commerce and online communication, a new genre of text, short text, has been extensively applied in many areas. So many researches focus on short text mining. It is a challenge to classify the short text owing to its natural characters, such as sparseness, large-scale, immediacy, non-standardization. It is difficult for traditional methods to deal with short text classification mainly because too limited words in short text cannot represent the feature space and the relationship between words and documents. Several researches and reviews on text classification are shown in recent times. However, only a few of researches focus on short text classification. This paper discusses the characters of short text and the difficulty of short text classification. Then we introduce the existing popular works on short text classifiers and models, including short text classification using sematic analysis, semi-supervised short text classification, ensemble short text classification, and real-time classification. The evaluations of short text classification are analyzed in our paper. Finally we summarize the existing classification technology and prospect for development trend of short text classification

  17. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  18. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H

    2011-12-01

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  19. Evaluation of the surface erosion from different timber yarding methods in Honduras Avaliação da erosão superficial de diferentes métodos do carregamento da madeira em Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rivera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff and sediment production from different timber yarding practices, some using Best Management Practices (BMPs recommended for Honduras, were monitored in experimental plots during the rainy seasons of two consecutive years in pine forest highlands of central Honduras. Different timber yarding systems were applied to pseudo-replicated plots during the rainy seasons of 1999 and 2000. In 1999, two treatments were studied: tractor yarding and skyline cable (a recommended BMP. In 2000, four treatments were evaluated: tractor skidding, skyline cable, animal skidding (another recommended BMP, and undisturbed forest (reference. During the rainy seasons of these years, surface runoff volumes and sediment yield were measured at five 1.5m x 10m erosion plots in each treated area. The results showed significant differences between traditional tractor yarding and the recommended skyline cable and animal skidding methods. Tractor yarding produced six to ten times more erosion during the rainy seasons than cable and animal yarding. The improved soil retention of cable and animal yarding was especially important during September when the highest rainfall occurred in this climate.A produção do escorrimento de superfície e do sedimento das práticas diferentes do carregamento da madeira, algumas das melhores práticas de gestão de utilização (BMPs recomendadas para Honduras, foi monitorada em lotes experimentais durante as estações das chuvas de dois anos consecutivos em montanhas da Floresta do Pinho de Honduras. Os diferentes sistemas do carregamento da madeira foram aplicados aos lotes pseudorreplicados durante as estações das chuvas de 1999 e de 2000. Em 1999, dois tratamentos foram estudados: cabo do carregamento e do trator (um BMP recomendado. Em 2000, quatro tratamentos foram avaliados: sistemas do carregamento da madeira do trator, cabo, animal e floresta imperturbada (referência. Durante as estações das chuvas desses anos, os

  20. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition...... to segment breast tissue and pectoral muscle area from the background in mammogram. The second focus is the choices of metric and its influence to the feasibility of a classifier, especially on k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) algorithm, with medical applications on breast cancer prediction and calcification...

  1. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  2. [Classification of headache disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, A; Heinze-Kuhn, K; Göbel, H

    2007-06-01

    In 2003 the International Headache Society (IHS) published the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Diagnostic criteria for no less than 206 separate headache diagnoses are presented in the parts (I) primary headaches, (II) secondary headaches and (III) cranial neuralgia, central and primary facial pain. The headaches are classified according to the etiology in case of the secondary headaches and according to the phenomenology in case of the primary headaches. It is the task of the headache specialist to identify the correct headache diagnose with the smallest effort possible. Both, the differentiation between secondary and primary headaches and the differentiation between the various primary headaches are of equal importance.

  3. Classification of smooth Fano polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Mikkel

    Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for .......A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...

  4. Combinatorial Approach of Associative Classification

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Pal; R.C. Jain

    2010-01-01

    Association rule mining and classification are two important techniques of data mining in knowledge discovery process. Integration of these two has produced class association rule mining or associative classification techniques, which in many cases have shown better classification accuracy than conventional classifiers. Motivated by this study we have explored and applied the combinatorial mathematics in class association rule mining in this paper. Our algorithm is based on producing co...

  5. The future of general classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Discusses problems related to accessing multiple collections using a single retrieval language. Surveys the concepts of interoperability and switching language. Finds that mapping between more indexing languages always will be an approximation. Surveys the issues related to general classification...... and contrasts that to special classifications. Argues for the use of general classifications to provide access to collections nationally and internationally. © 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved....

  6. A Classification Leveraged Object Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Miao; Han, Tony X.; He, Zhihai

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the state-of-the-art image classification algorithms outperform the best available object detector by a big margin in terms of average precision. We, therefore, propose a simple yet principled approach that allows us to leverage object detection through image classification on supporting regions specified by a preliminary object detector. Using a simple bag-of- words model based image classification algorithm, we leveraged the performance of the deformable model objector from 35.9%...

  7. A new classification of glaucomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeianu CD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Constantin-Dan Bordeianu Private Practice, Ploiesti, Prahova, Romania Purpose: To suggest a new glaucoma classification that is pathogenic, etiologic, and clinical.Methods: After discussing the logical pathway used in criteria selection, the paper presents the new classification and compares it with the classification currently in use, that is, the one issued by the European Glaucoma Society in 2008.Results: The paper proves that the new classification is clear (being based on a coherent and consistently followed set of criteria, is comprehensive (framing all forms of glaucoma, and helps in understanding the sickness understanding (in that it uses a logical framing system. The great advantage is that it facilitates therapeutic decision making in that it offers direct therapeutic suggestions and avoids errors leading to disasters. Moreover, the scheme remains open to any new development.Conclusion: The suggested classification is a pathogenic, etiologic, and clinical classification that fulfills the conditions of an ideal classification. The suggested classification is the first classification in which the main criterion is consistently used for the first 5 to 7 crossings until its differentiation capabilities are exhausted. Then, secondary criteria (etiologic and clinical pick up the relay until each form finds its logical place in the scheme. In order to avoid unclear aspects, the genetic criterion is no longer used, being replaced by age, one of the clinical criteria. The suggested classification brings only benefits to all categories of ophthalmologists: the beginners will have a tool to better understand the sickness and to ease their decision making, whereas the experienced doctors will have their practice simplified. For all doctors, errors leading to therapeutic disasters will be less likely to happen. Finally, researchers will have the object of their work gathered in the group of glaucoma with unknown or uncertain pathogenesis, whereas

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case, method of conversations with themembers of the criminal group, method of testing the members of the criminal group and method of observation. As a result of the conducted research, we have created a new classification of criminal groups. The first type is a lawful group in its form and criminal according to its content (i.e., its target is criminal enrichment. The second type is a criminal organization which is run by so-called "white-collars" that "remain in the shadow". The third type is traditional criminal groups.  The fourth type is the criminal group, which openly demonstrates its criminal activity.

  9. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  10. PSC: protein surface classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yan Yuan; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2012-07-01

    We recently proposed to classify proteins by their functional surfaces. Using the structural attributes of functional surfaces, we inferred the pairwise relationships of proteins and constructed an expandable database of protein surface classification (PSC). As the functional surface(s) of a protein is the local region where the protein performs its function, our classification may reflect the functional relationships among proteins. Currently, PSC contains a library of 1974 surface types that include 25,857 functional surfaces identified from 24,170 bound structures. The search tool in PSC empowers users to explore related surfaces that share similar local structures and core functions. Each functional surface is characterized by structural attributes, which are geometric, physicochemical or evolutionary features. The attributes have been normalized as descriptors and integrated to produce a profile for each functional surface in PSC. In addition, binding ligands are recorded for comparisons among homologs. PSC allows users to exploit related binding surfaces to reveal the changes in functionally important residues on homologs that have led to functional divergence during evolution. The substitutions at the key residues of a spatial pattern may determine the functional evolution of a protein. In PSC (http://pocket.uchicago.edu/psc/), a pool of changes in residues on similar functional surfaces is provided.

  11. Holistic facial expression classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  12. Homotopy Classification of Multiaxial Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Yan, Min

    2011-01-01

    A U(n)-manifold is multiaxial if the isotropy groups are always conjugate to unitary subgroups. The classification and the concordance of such manifolds have been studied by Davis, Hsiang and Morgan under much more strict conditions. We show that in general, without much extra condition, the homotopy classification of multiaxial manifolds can be split into a direct sum of the classification of pairs of adjacent strata, which can be computed by the classical surgery theory. Moreover, we also compute the homotopy classification for the case of the standard representation sphere. We also present the result for the similar multiaxial Sp(n)-manifolds.

  13. 15 CFR 2008.9 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification guides. 2008.9 Section... REPRESENTATIVE Derivative Classification § 2008.9 Classification guides. Classification guides shall be issued by... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and...

  14. 32 CFR 2400.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2400.15 Section 2400.15... Derivative Classification § 2400.15 Classification guides. (a) OSTP shall issue and maintain classification guides to facilitate the proper and uniform derivative classification of information. These guides...

  15. 14 CFR 1203.412 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification guides. 1203.412 Section... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.412 Classification guides. (a) General. A classification guide, based upon classification determinations made by appropriate program and...

  16. 7 CFR 27.34 - Classification procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification procedure. 27.34 Section 27.34... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.34 Classification procedure. Classification shall proceed as rapidly as possible, but...

  17. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 2001.22. (c) Department of State Classification Guide. The Department of State Classification... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating...

  18. Transient Detection and Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Andrew C

    2008-01-01

    I provide an incomplete inventory of the astronomical variability that will be found by next-generation time-domain astronomical surveys. These phenomena span the distance range from near-Earth satellites to the farthest Gamma Ray Bursts. The surveys that detect these transients will issue alerts to the greater astronomical community; this decision process must be extremely robust to avoid a slew of ``false'' alerts, and to maintain the community's trust in the surveys. I review the functionality required of both the surveys and the telescope networks that will be following them up, and the role of VOEvents in this process. Finally, I offer some ideas about object and event classification, which will be explored more thoroughly by other articles in these proceedings.

  19. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  20. Spectral Classification Beyond M

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, S K; Burgasser, A J; Jones, H R A; Marley, M S; Tsuji, T

    2004-01-01

    Significant populations of field L and T dwarfs are now known, and we anticipate the discovery of even cooler dwarfs by Spitzer and ground-based infrared surveys. However, as the number of known L and T dwarfs increases so does the range in their observational properties, and difficulties have arisen in interpreting the observations. Although modellers have made significant advances, the complexity of the very low temperature, high pressure, photospheres means that problems remain such as the treatment of grain condensation as well as incomplete and non-equilibrium molecular chemistry. Also, there are several parameters which control the observed spectral energy distribution - effective temperature, grain sedimentation efficiency, metallicity and gravity - and their effects are not well understood. In this paper, based on a splinter session, we discuss classification schemes for L and T dwarfs, their dependency on wavelength, and the effects of the parameters T_eff, f_sed, [m/H] and log g on optical and infra...

  1. Estuary Classification Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    The governing equations of a tidally averaged, width averaged, rectangular estuary has been investigated. It's theoretically shown that the dynamics of an estuary is entirely controlled by three parameters: (i) the Estuarine Froude number, (ii) the Tidal Froude number and (iii) the Estuarine Aspect ratio. The momentum, salinity and integral salt balance equations can be completely expressed in terms of these control variables. The estuary classification problem has also been reinvestigated. It's found that these three control variables can completely specify the estuary type. Comparison with real estuary data shows very good match. Additionally, we show that the well accepted leading order estuarine integral salt balance equation is inconsitent with the leading order salinity equation in an order of magnitude sense.

  2. Application of wireless scheduling system in scrap yard%无线调度系统在废钢料场中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史飞; 韩幼玲; 徐羊

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In view of the current backward production scheduling in steel enterprises, the authors de- veloped a wireless batch scheduling system based on computer control, which is composed of control center equipment, ear terminal and related software. By using two-way communication between car terminal and scheduling center, data processing, logistics tracking, work scheduling and equipment state monitor of the whole process are realized, and ingredients data can be provided for L2 and ERP. Meanwhile, by data communication between L1 and L2, it makes the graphic and sound of batehing process complementary, and makes ingredients more precise and system traceable. Practical applica- tion shows that the system realizes the computer management and yard dispatching management, makes equipment of yard operating efficiently and orderly, reduces the personnel, reduces the operation and management personnel labor intensity, improves work efficiency, and ensures the production safety.%摘要:针对目前钢铁企业料场配料落后的生产调度模式,开发了一种基于计算机控制的无线配料调度系统,系统包含调度中心控制系统、车载终端及配套软件。利用车载终端与调度中心的双阳通价,实现对整个工艺流程的数据处理、物流跟踪、作业调度、设备状态监视以及为12和ERP提供配料数据,同时通过与L1和L2系统的数据通信,使配料过程的图文与声音互补,从而使配料更加精确,系统具备可追溯性。该系统在具体工程项目中得到应用,投入后实现了配料过程的计算机管理和料场的全面调度管理,料场设备运行高效、有序,减少了人员配备,降低了调度和管理人员劳动强度,提高了工作效率,保障了生产安全。

  3. 铁路集装箱中心站堆场混堆优化模型%Optimization Model of Mixed Storage in Railway Container Terminal Yard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 朱晓宁; 闫伟; 谢征宇; 李秋波

    2013-01-01

    Railway container yard is a buffer area of loading and unloading freights between train and truck. The storage efficiency thus significantly impacts the performance ability and productivity of railway container terminal. This paper examines the optimization problem of mixed storage in railway container terminal and proposes a two-stage optimization model considering the description of mixed storage operation in container yard. In the first stage, output and input container volumes are balanced among various blocks. To reduce the container overlapping amounts, the relative optimal slots are allocated in the second stage. The algorithm to solve the problem is presented based on heuristic algorithm. The field data from certain railway container terminal is used to test the proposed method and the result shows its effectiveness and efficiencies.%铁路集装箱中心站堆场作为集装箱列车装卸作业与集卡提交箱作业的缓冲区,堆存策略直接影响整个中心站的作业能力和效率,本文对铁路集装箱中心站堆场混堆优化问题进行了研究.根据中心站堆场混堆作业问题的描述,建立了两阶段优化模型,第一阶段平衡中心站堆场各箱区进口箱和出口箱的箱量,第二阶段为分配到箱区的集装箱指派较优箱位,使堆存所产生的压箱数最小,并设计了启发式算法对模型进行求解.最后利用某集装箱中心站的实际数据对模型和算法进行了验证,验证结果表明,该优化模型比中心站现有的堆存策略有较大改进.

  4. Classification of Noncommutative Domain Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Noncommutative domain algebras are noncommutative analogues of the algebras of holomorphic functions on domains of $\\C^n$ defined by holomorphic polynomials, and they generalize the noncommutative Hardy algebras. We present here a complete classification of these algebras based upon techniques inspired by multivariate complex analysis, and more specifically the classification of domains in hermitian spaces up to biholomorphic equivalence.

  5. Classification of subtrochanteric femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, C L; McNamara, I; Ahmed, K; Pryor, G A; Parker, M J

    2010-07-01

    A review of the literature identified 15 different classification methods for subtrochanteric femoral fractures. Only eight of those classifications defined the area of bone, which constituted a subtrochanteric fracture. The actual length of femur defined as the subtrochanteric zone varied from 3 cm up to the level of the femoral isthmus. There was no agreement between the different classifications regarding the proximal and distal border or for those fractures, which traverse anatomical boundaries. In the various classifications, fractures were subdivided into 2-15 subgroups. The majority of the identified studies were unable to find the classifications useful in either determining treatment or predicting the outcome after treatment. We subdivided subtrochanteric fractures into three types based on the degree of fracture comminution. We examined the inter- and intra-observer agreement of our recommended classification. One orthopaedic consultant, one specialist hip fracture surgeon, two trainee registrar orthopaedic surgeons and one specialty trainee in orthopaedics, on two different occasions, 8 weeks apart, independently classified the radiographs of 20 patients with a subtrochanteric fracture. The mean kappa value for inter- and intra-observer variation was 0.71 and 0.79, respectively, with both showing substantial agreement and, therefore, this simpler classification is recommended. Based on the review of previous classification methods, we also recommend that the subtrochanteric zone be defined as the one in which the fracture line crossing the femur is predominantly within the area of bone extending 5 cm below the lower border of the lesser trochanter.

  6. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically diff...... classification accuracy obscures the aim of MGR: to select labels indistinguishable from those a person would choose....

  7. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  8. [Classification of viruses by computer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, O N; Andzhaparidze, O G; Kibardin, V M; Nazarova, G M; Pleteneva, E A

    1982-01-01

    The study used the information mass containing information on 83 viruses characterized by 41 markers. The suitability of one of the variants of cluster analysis for virus classification was demonstrated. It was established that certain stages of automatic allotment of viruses into groups by the degree of similarity of their properties end the formation of groups which consist of viruses sufficiently close to each other by their properties and are sufficiently isolated. Comparison of these groups with the classification proposed by the ICVT established their correspondence to individual families. Analysis of the obtained classification system permits sufficiently grounded conclusions to be drawn with regard to the classification position of certain viruses, the classification of which has not yet been completed by the ICVT.

  9. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information...... classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting, and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...... information and their ability to navigate the websites. The results of the study indicate group differences in user classification and related taskperformance differences. The main implications of the study are that (a) the edit distance appears a useful measure in cross-country HCI research and practice...

  10. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information...... classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...... information and their ability to navigate the websites. The results of the study indicated group differences in user classification and related task performances differences. The main implications of the study were that (a) the edit distance appears a useful measure in cross-country HCI research and practice...

  11. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Websites are increasingly used as a medium for providing information to university students. The quality of a university website depends on how well the students’ information classification fits with the structure of the information on the website. This paper investigates the information...... classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting, and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...... information and their ability to navigate the websites. The results of the study indicate group differences in user classification and related task-performance differences. The main implications of the study are that (a) the edit distance appears a useful measure in cross-country HCI research and practice...

  12. Classification of seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviello, James J

    2003-07-01

    The management of seizures and epilepsy begins with forming a differential diagnosis, making the diagnosis, and then classifying seizure type and epileptic syndrome. Classification guides treatment, including ancillary testing, management, prognosis, and if needed, selection of the appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED). Many AEDs are available, and certain seizure types or epilepsy syndromes respond to specific AEDs. The identification of the genetics, molecular basis, and pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy has resulted from classification of specific epileptic syndromes. The classification system used by the International League Against Epilepsy is periodically revised. The proposed revision changes the classification emphasis from the anatomic origin of seizures (focal vs generalized) to seizure semiology (ie, the signs or clinical manifestations). Modified systems have been developed for specific circumstances (eg, neonatal seizures, infantile seizures, status epilepticus, and epilepsy surgery). This article reviews seizure and epilepsy classification, emphasizing new data.

  13. Overview on the pavement design of the railway container yard in northeast region%东北地区某铁路集装箱货场铺面设计概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兆刚

    2016-01-01

    Taking the pavement design of the railway container yard in northeast region as an example,the paper introduces pavement functions division and their load distribution conditions in the storage yard,describes common pavement types and pavement selecting principles,and ex-plores design methods of structural composition,pavement blocks and joints,which has provided some guidance for similar engineering design.%以东北某铁路集装箱货场铺面设计为例,介绍了堆场内铺面功能分区及各分区内荷载的分布情况,阐述了常见的铺面类型与铺面的选择原则,探讨了结构组合、铺面板块、接缝等设计方法,为类似工程设计提供了参考.

  14. 从“一卡通”运营模式谈现代化煤场运输销售管理%Brief Discussion on Sales Management of Modern Coal Yard Transportation Based on“one-card-through”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯俊明; 韩继军; 杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    从“一卡通”运营模式谈起,研究消除或控制运输过程中客户管理混乱、销售数据统计不准确等现象,以现代化的运销管理模式促进煤场运输销售有序经营,为确保煤场运输管理健康发展奠定坚实的基础。%Based on operation mode of“one-card-through”, the paper was researched factors of removing and controlling client management confusion and inaccuracy of sales data. Promoting well-organized operation of sales of coal yard trans-portation through modern transportation and sale management ensured healthy development of coal yard transportation.

  15. 75 FR 10529 - Mail Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Mail Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Classification Schedule. The change affects a change in terminology. This notice addresses procedural steps....90 et seq. concerning a change in classification which reflects a change in terminology from...

  16. 75 FR 70754 - Postal Classification Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Postal Classification Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request announcing a classification change affecting... Notice with the Commission announcing a classification change ] established by the Governors.\\1\\...

  17. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  18. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  19. 76 FR 4532 - Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Position 29 48.77' N 091 33.02' W, Charenton Drainage and Navigation Canal, St. Mary Parish, LA AGENCY... safety zone extending 500 yards North and South, bank to bank, of position 29 48.77' N 091 33.02' W... from a sunken vessel and associated hazards in position 29 48.77' N 091 33.02' W, in the...

  20. The Automatic Recognition Algorithm of Main Elements In Railway Yard Plan%铁路站场平面图中主要元素的自动识别算法*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天祖; 吕兴寿

    2013-01-01

    为了实现异构铁路站场平面图的标准化,本文通过对铁路站场平面图的深入分析与研究,利用 AutoCAD软件的二次开发工具Visual LISP,给出了铁路站场平面图中的股道线、道岔、绝缘节和信号机等主要元素的自动识别算法。详细的分析了各种识别算法的实现步骤,并给出了部分算法的核心代码。研究结果表明,各元素的识别算法可操作性大,可支撑异构铁路站场平面图间的标准化。%In order to standardize the heterogeneous railway yard plan,based on in-depth analysis and re-search on the railway yard plan,with the system which have been programmed in the AutoLISP language and integrated into the AutoCAD software,we have programmed the automatic recognition algorithm of the main elements of the railway yard plan,like tracks,switchs,insulation sections and signals.It describes each step of every algorithm in detail,and gives some of the core code.The results show that the algorithm of each element can be operated flexibly and can also support the standardization among different rail yard plans.

  1. 安哥拉某EPC堆场建设管理体会%Construction and management experience of a container yard in Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈迪州

    2009-01-01

    安哥拉某堆场的建设,遇到地质变化引起软基处理方案变更、施工初期人员设备投入不足导致施工工序不紧凑、当地开山料的选择余地大、设计标准调整等特殊情况.在解决这些问题的过程中,提出现场问题的处理原则、合理选择设计指标、确定检验验收标准的优先顺序、设计服务等问题,供类似项目参考.%During construction of a container yard in Angola, a lot of problems were encountered, such as scheme alteration of ground improvement caused by changed geological condition, loose working procedure because of insufficient manpower and equipment at the beginning, many alternatives of local backfilling materials, and adjustment in design standard, etc. For dealing with the problems, we put forward the handling principles for the problems on site, reasonable selection of design indices, determination of the priority of acceptance standard, as well as the design service, etc.

  2. Effect of Pre-emergence Herbicides on Microbial Biomass and Biochemical Processes in a Typic Fluvaquent Soil Amended with Farm Yard Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amal Chandra; Barman, Saurav; Das, Ritwika

    2015-09-01

    Application of thiobencarb, pendimethalin and pretilachlor at rates of 7.5, 10.0 and 2.5 kg a.i. ha(-1), respectively, under laboratory conditions, significantly increased microbial biomass C, N and P, resulting in greater availability of C, N and P in soil amended with farm yard manure. Application of thiobencarb highly induced microbial biomass C (46.3 %) and N (40.6 %), while pretilachlor and thiobencarb augmented microbial biomass P to the extent of 14.9 % and 14.1 %, respectively. Application of pendimethalin retained the highest amount of total N (19.9 %), soluble NO3 (-) (56 %) and available P (69.5 %) in soil. A similar trend was recorded with thiobencarb for oxidizable organic C (18.1 %) and with pretilachlor for exchangeable NH4 (+) (65.8 %). At the end of the experiment, the highest stimulation of bacteria was recorded with thiobencarb (29.6 %), while pretilachlor harboured the maximum number of actinomycetes (37.2 %) and fungi (40 %) in soil compared to the untreated control.

  3. 集装箱堆场出口箱箱位分配的多策略集成优化%Integral optimization with multi-strategies for storage allocation for export containers at container yard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶莎; 胡志华

    2012-01-01

    以集装箱港口效率和顾客满意度两个指标以及出口箱堆场箱位分配的4个原则为主要依据,建立出口箱堆场分配的数学模型,在降低装船时内集卡水平运输距离基础上,进一步增加约束平衡各箱区作业量,均衡龙门吊的作业任务,提高作业效率.结果表明,该模型能够从整体上实现对出口箱箱位分配的优化.%In order to maximize the efficiency and customer satisfaction of container handling services at container port,a mathematical model was established based on 4 fundamental principles of storage allocation for export containers in yard.The model reduces transport distance for container trucks,and balances the workloads of yard blocks as well as to improve the operating efficiency.Moreover,the workloads of yard cranes are further balanced by incorporating new constraints.Results show that the model can optimize the allocation of storage for export containers.

  4. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Development of the existing classification systems has been very difficult and time consuming tasks, where many considerations have been taken and many compromises have been made. The results reveal that, although the theoretical foundation was clarified, many deviations and shortcuts have been...... made. This is certainly the case in the Danish development. Based on the theories about these abstraction mechanisms, the basic principles for classification systems are presented and the observed misconceptions are analyses and explained. Furthermore, it is argued that the purpose of classification...

  5. Music classification with MPEG-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crysandt, Holger; Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Driven by increasing amount of music available electronically the need and possibility of automatic classification systems for music becomes more and more important. Currently most search engines for music are based on textual descriptions like artist or/and title. This paper presents a system for automatic music description, classification and visualization for a set of songs. The system is designed to extract significant features of a piece of music in order to find songs of similar genre or a similar sound characteristics. The description is done with the help of MPEG-7 only. The classification and visualization is done with the self organizing map algorithm.

  6. Classification of Rainbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter; Ricard, Jean; Barckicke, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Rainbows are the most beautiful and most spectacular optical atmospheric phenomenon. Humphreys (1964) pointedly noted that "the "explanations" generally given of the rainbow [ in textbooks] may well be said to explain beautifully that which does not occur, and to leave unexplained which does" . . . "The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same". Textbooks stress that the main factor affecting the aspect of the rainbow is the radius of the water droplets. In his well-known textbook entitled "the nature of light & colour in the open air", Minnaert (1954) gives the chief features of the rainbow depending on the diameter of the drops producing it. For this study, we have gathered hundreds of pictures of primary bows. We sort out the pictures into classes. The classes are defined in a such way that rainbows belonging to the same class look similar. Our results are surprising and do not confirm Minnaert's classification. In practice, the size of the water droplets is only a minor factor controlling the overall aspect of the rainbow. The main factor appears to be the height of the sun above the horizon. At sunset, the width of the red band increases, while the width of the other bands of colours decreases. The orange, the violet, the blue and the green bands disappear completely in this order. At the end, the primary bow is mainly red and slightly yellow. Picture = taken from the CNRM in Toulouse after a summer storm (Jean Ricard)

  7. Radar clutter classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehwien, Wolfgang

    1989-11-01

    The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density. Separable clutter classes are most likely to arise from the analysis of the Doppler spectrum. Specifically, a feature set based on the complex reflection coefficients of the lattice prediction error filter is proposed. The classifier is tested using data recorded from L-band air traffic control radars. The Doppler spectra of these data are examined; the properties of the feature set computed using these data are studied in terms of both the marginal and multivariate statistics. Several strategies involving different numbers of features, class assignments, and data set pretesting according to Doppler frequency and signal to noise ratio were evaluated before settling on a workable algorithm. Final results are presented in terms of experimental misclassification rates and simulated and classified plane position indicator displays.

  8. Molecular Classification of Medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIJIMA, Noriyuki; KANEMURA, Yonehiro

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most frequent malignant brain tumors in children. The current standard treatment regimen consists of surgical resection, craniospinal irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Although these treatments have the potential to increase the survival of 70–80% of patients with MB, they are also associated with serious treatment-induced morbidity. The current risk stratification of MB is based on clinical factors, including age at presentation, metastatic status, and the presence of residual tumor following resection. In addition, recent genomic studies indicate that MB consists of at least four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, sonic hedgehog (SHH), Group 3, and Group 4. WNT and SHH MBs are characterized by aberrations in the WNT and SHH signaling pathways, respectively. WNT MB has the best prognosis compared to the other MBs, while SHH MB has an intermediate prognosis. The underlying signaling pathways associated with Group 3 and 4 MBs have not been identified. Group 3 MB is frequently associated with metastasis, resulting in a poor prognosis, while Group 4 is sometimes associated with metastasis and has an intermediate prognosis. Group 4 is the most frequent MB and represents 35% of all MBs. These findings suggest that MB is a heterogeneous disease, and that MB subgroups have distinct molecular, demographic, and clinical characteristics. The molecular classification of MBs is redefining the risk stratification of patients with MB, and has the potential to identify new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of MB. PMID:27238212

  9. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  10. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...... and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough...... be a poor substitute for a proper risk assessment as low potency substances can constitute a risk if the exposure is high enough and vice versa. Examples illustrating the strength and limitations of hazard classification, risk assessment and toxicological potency will be presented with focus on reproductive...

  11. [Definition and classification of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiki, Itsuki

    2014-05-01

    The concept or definition of epilepsy was mentioned as a chronic disease of the brain consisting of repetitions of EEG paroxysm and clinical seizures caused by excessive discharges of the cerebral neurons, in reference with Gastaut's opinion and the other statements. Further, we referred to diseases to be excluded from epilepsy such as isolated, occasional and subclinical seizures and so on. Next, new classifications of seizures and epilepsies were explained on the basis of revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies in Report of the ILAE Communication in Classification and Terminology, 2005-09, in comparison with the Classification of Epileptic Seizures in 1981 and the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes in 1989.

  12. Text Classification using Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. It is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Existing supervised learning algorithms for classifying text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification using artificial intelligence technique that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of na\\"ive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of genetic algorithm has been added for final classification. A syste...

  13. Text Classification using Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Hasan, Ahmed Ryadh

    2010-01-01

    Text classification is the process of classifying documents into predefined categories based on their content. It is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Existing supervised learning algorithms to automatically classify text need sufficient documents to learn accurately. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification using data mining that requires fewer documents for training. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules from these words is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of Naive Bayes classifier is then used on derived features and finally only a single concept of Genetic Algorithm has been added for final classification. A system based on the...

  14. Biogeography based Satellite Image Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Panchal, V K; Kaur, Navdeep; Kundra, Harish

    2009-01-01

    Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. Biogeography Based Optimization is a burgeoning nature inspired technique to find the optimal solution of the problem. Satellite image classification is an important task because it is the only way we can know about the land cover map of inaccessible areas. Though satellite images have been classified in past by using various techniques, the researchers are always finding alternative strategies for satellite image classification so that they may be prepared to select the most appropriate technique for the feature extraction task in hand. This paper is focused on classification of the satellite image of a particular land cover using the theory of Biogeography based Optimization. The original BBO algorithm does not have the inbuilt property of clustering which is required during image classification. Hence modifications have been proposed to the original algorithm and...

  15. The classification on short message

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the classification of short message, and details some key technologies related. Through implementing a fundamental prototype, some basic models and technical references are provided.

  16. Integrated classification of inflammatory myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenbach, Y; Benveniste, O; Goebel, H-H; Stenzel, W

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory myopathies comprise a multitude of diverse diseases, most often occurring in complex clinical settings. To ensure accurate diagnosis, multidisciplinary expertise is required. Here, we propose a comprehensive myositis classification that incorporates clinical, morphological and molecular data as well as autoantibody profile. This review focuses on recent advances in myositis research, in particular, the correlation between autoantibodies and morphological or clinical phenotypes that can be used as the basis for an 'integrated' classification system.

  17. Personality: Description, Classification and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Taymur; M. Hakan TURKCAPAR

    2012-01-01

    Many descriptions and classifications of personality have been made to understand and acknowledge human being through out the history. During the developmental process of psychiatry, almost every school defined and assessed personality regarding to their own perspective. As DSM (Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and ICD (International Classification of Diseases) being available to common usage, scientists conducted studies to set a common terminology for personality. Ca...

  18. Map Classification In Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-25

    trained on 1,000 classes, and provides an immense learning capacity. The BOW method uses a visual vocabulary , con- structed by clustering higher-level...this thesis , BOW, was originally developed for text classification problems. By counting the occurrence of words in a document, the resulting vocabulary ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS MAP CLASSIFICATION IN IMAGE DATA by Frank Fiebiger September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Mathias N

  19. Product Work Classification and Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    detail is much more useful in planning steel welding processes. In this regard remember that mild steel , HSLA steel , and high-yield steel (e.g. HY80 ...manufacturing facility. In Figure 2.3-2, a classification and coding system for steel parts is shown. This classification and coding system sorts steel parts...system would provide a shop which produced steel parts with a means of organizing parts. Rather than attempting to manage all of its parts as a single

  20. Classification and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least nine classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (PsA that have been proposed and used in clinical studies. With the exception of the ESSG and Bennett rules, all of the other criteria sets have a good performance in identifying PsA patients. As the CASPAR criteria are based on a robust study methodology, they are considered the current reference standard. However, if there seems to be no doubt that they are very good to classify PsA patients (very high specificity, they might be not sensitive enough to diagnose patients with unknown early PsA. The vast clinical heterogeneity of PsA makes its assessment very challenging. Peripheral joint involvement is measured by 78/76 joint counts, spine involvement by the instruments used for ankylosing spondylitis (AS, dactylitis by involved digit count or by the Leeds dactylitis index, enthesitis by the number of affected entheses (several indices available and psoriasis by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Peripheral joint damage can be assessed by a modified van der Heijde-Sharp scoring system and axial damage by the methods used for AS or by the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI. As in other arthritides, global evaluation of disease activity and severity by patient and physician and assessment of disability and quality of life are widely used. Finally, composite indices that capture several clinical manifestations of PsA have been proposed and a new instrument, the Psoriatic ARthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS, is currently being developed.

  1. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new...

  2. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides. (a) Preparation of classification guides. Originators of...

  4. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one...

  5. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2700.22 Section 2700.22... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall issue classification guides pursuant to section 2-2 of E.O. 12065. These guides, which shall be used...

  6. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2284 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.2284 Section 51.2284... Size classification. The following classifications are provided to describe the size of any lot... shall conform to the requirements of the specified classification as defined below: (a) Halves....

  8. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification challenges. 9.8 Section 9.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.8 Classification... classification status is improper are expected and encouraged to challenge the classification status of...

  9. 49 CFR 8.17 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification challenges. 8.17 Section 8.17 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.17 Classification challenges. (a)...

  10. 10 CFR 61.55 - Waste classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste classification. 61.55 Section 61.55 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.55 Waste classification. (a) Classification of waste for near surface disposal—(1) Considerations. Determination of the classification of radioactive waste involves...

  11. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same...

  12. Current terminology and diagnostic classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, J P

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the current terminology and classification schemes available for temporomandibular disorders. The origin of each term is presented, and the classification schemes that have been offered for temporomandibular disorders are briefly reviewed. Several important classifications are presented in more detail, with mention of advantages and disadvantages. Final recommendations are provided for future direction in the area of classification schemes.

  13. The new trend in psychological support practices: Online therapiesPsikolojik yardım uygulamalarında yeni trend: Online terapiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Bozkurt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, thanks to the fast-growing internet technologies, it is obvious that some of the practices in psychological science started to be transferred to the Internet environment. Internet based psychotherapy and counseling practices have reached to considerable dimensions while these practices have been continuing in traditional therapy environments. This study has emphasized the historical progress in the world and in our country and different kinds of current internet based distance psychological support practices which is becoming widespread and is estimated to have an important effect on psychological science. Also, the advantageous and disadvantageous aspects of this practice and the studies that can be done to create structures that will improve and supervise this practice are searched. According to the results of the study, internet based distance psychological support practices are seen to be appropriate for the treatment of some diseases however it isn’t seen appropriate for some other diseases. This practice is preferred for being cost-efficient, having flexible work hours, and wishing to express people’s problems in an anonymous way. However, it is also necessary to determine the practice standards and ethics code. ÖzetGünümüzde hızla gelişen internet teknolojileri sayesinde psikoloji bilimindeki bazı uygulamaların internet ortamına aktarılmaya başlandığı görülmektedir. Geleneksel ortamlarda uygulanan psikoterapi ve psikolojik danışmanlık hizmetleri devam ederken bu hizmetleri internet tabanlı olarak verenlerin sayısı da azımsanamayacak boyutlara ulaşmıştır. Bu çalışmada hızla yaygınlaşan ve  psikoloji bilimi üzerinde büyük bir etkiye sahip olacağı tahmin edilen internet tabanlı uzaktan psikolojik yardım uygulamalarının dünyadaki ve ülkemizdeki tarihi gelişimi ile günümüzde yaygın olarak kullanılan türleri üzerinde durulmuştur. Ayrıca bu uygulamanın avantajlı ve dezavantajl

  14. Effect of farm yard manure on chemical fractionation of cadmium and its bio-availability to maize crop grown on sewage irrigated coarse textured soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, M P S; Kansal, B D

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium is a potentially toxic heavy metal that enters food chain from the soil through various anthropogenic sources. Availability of metal ions in contaminated soils can be reduced by the addition of organic amendments. In this study, effect of organic matter -farm yard manure (FYM) amendment on fractionation and availability of Cd to maize was evaluated. A green house experiment was conducted to determine the toxicity and uptake of Cd by maize in sandy loam soil with and without organic matter. Four levels of Cd (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) soil) and two levels of FYM (0 and 20 tonnes ha(-1)) with three replication in a completely randomized factorial design. Concentration of Cd in maize increased with increasing rate of Cd application. Application of organic matter increased the dry matter yield of maize while reduced the uptake of metal. All the fractions exhibited increase with Cd rates. The addition of organic amendment declined significantly the concentration of water soluble and exchangeable Cd, but increased the amounts of these metals into less mobile fractions (Fe/Mn oxide, organic matter and residual). Dominance of insoluble forms of Cd after the application of organic amendments may be ascribed to the increases of soil OM, pH, EC and available P contents which caused transformation or redistribution of the sorbed phases. This resulted in increasing Cd retention in the more persistent fractions with application of FYM at the expense of reductions in the loosely bound fractions. Thus FYM appears to be agronomically feasible way to off set the adverse effect of Cd toxicity.

  15. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  16. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  17. Is classification necessary after Google?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    believe that the activity of “classification” is not worth the effort, as search engines can be improved without the heavy cost of providing metadata. Design/methodology/approach – The basic issue in classification is seen as providing criteria for deciding whether A should be classified as X......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine challenges facing bibliographic classification at both the practical and theoretical levels. At the practical level, libraries are increasingly dispensing with classifying books. At the theoretical level, many researchers, managers, and users....... Such decisions are considered to be dependent on the purpose and values inherent in the specific classification process. These decisions are not independent of theories and values in the document being classified, but are dependent on an interpretation of the discourses within those documents. Findings...

  18. Classification of Medical Brain Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Haiwei(潘海为); Li Jianzhong; Zhang Wei

    2003-01-01

    Since brain tumors endanger people's living quality and even their lives, the accuracy of classification becomes more important. Conventional classifying techniques are used to deal with those datasets with characters and numbers. It is difficult, however, to apply them to datasets that include brain images and medical history (alphanumeric data), especially to guarantee the accuracy. For these datasets, this paper combines the knowledge of medical field and improves the traditional decision tree. The new classification algorithm with the direction of the medical knowledge not only adds the interaction with the doctors, but also enhances the quality of classification. The algorithm has been used on real brain CT images and a precious rule has been gained from the experiments. This paper shows that the algorithm works well for real CT data.

  19. Automated Periodontal Diseases Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa A. A. Youssif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and innovative system for automated classification of periodontal diseases, The strength of our technique lies in the fact that it incorporates knowledge from the patients' clinical data, along with the features automatically extracted from the Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E stained microscopic images. Our system uses image processing techniques based on color deconvolution, morphological operations, and watershed transforms for epithelium & connective tissue segmentation, nuclear segmentation, and extraction of the microscopic immunohistochemical features for the nuclei, dilated blood vessels & collagen fibers. Also, Feedforward Backpropagation Artificial Neural Networks are used for the classification process. We report 100% classification accuracy in correctly identifying the different periodontal diseases observed in our 30 samples dataset.

  20. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  1. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  2. Facial aging: A clinical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiffman Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

  3. SHIP CLASSIFICATION FROM MULTISPECTRAL VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Robert-Inacio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of a seaport can be achieved by different means: radar, sonar, cameras, radio communications and so on. Such a surveillance aims, on the one hand, to manage cargo and tanker traffic, and, on the other hand, to prevent terrorist attacks in sensitive areas. In this paper an application to video-surveillance of a seaport entrance is presented, and more particularly, the different steps enabling to classify mobile shapes. This classification is based on a parameter measuring the similarity degree between the shape under study and a set of reference shapes. The classification result describes the considered mobile in terms of shape and speed.

  4. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N;

    1999-01-01

    of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were....... This change was substantial in three countries (P maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... and consequently affect maternal mortality rates. Differences in classification of death must be taken into account when comparing maternal mortality rates, as well as differences in obstetric care, underreporting of maternal deaths and other factors such as the age distribution of mothers....

  5. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    . While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...... requirements and provided little information about why these requirements were considered relevant. This stands in contrast to the discussions at the project meetings where the software engineers made frequent use of both abstract goal descriptions and concrete examples to make sense of the requirements....... This difference between the written requirements specification and the oral discussions at the meetings may help explain software engineers’ general preference for people, rather than documents, as their information sources....

  6. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... intended to have retroactive effect. There are no administrative procedures that must be exhausted prior to... classification services, $3.50 per bale, is less than one percent of the average value of a bale of cotton; (4) The fee for this service will not affect competition in the marketplace; (5) The...

  7. Research on Multi-Agent system of container reception and distribution management of container yard%集装箱堆场收发箱管理 Multi-Agent 系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏飞; 方金灿

    2013-01-01

    Considering dynamic characteristics ,complexity and distributed characteristics of container storage yard management ,a Multi-Agent system (MAS) model of container reception and distribution management of container yard is established based on the analyses of container yard operation process . Then ,the basic structure and function of the agents are analyzed systematically . And the slot allocation optimization agent is implemented with two optimization methods , one of which is for outbound containers and based on the two-levels scheduling strategy ,and the other is for inbound containers and based on minimal reshuffling expectation . Afterwards , the mechanism of communication and coordination among agents are proposed .Finally ,simulation examples show that the proposed MAS can improve the performance of container reception and distribution management effectively .%  考虑集装箱码头堆场管理的动态性、复杂性和分布式特点,在对集装箱堆场作业工艺分析的基础上,建立了堆场收发箱管理Multi-Agent系统模型,系统地分析了 Agent基本结构和功能,分别基于两级调度策略和翻箱期望最小设计了收、发箱箱位优化 Agent ,提出了Agent间的通信和协作机制。算例仿真表明该系统能有效改进收发箱管理性能。

  8. Supervised Ensemble Classification of Kepler Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analyzing variable stars in the {\\em Kepler} field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150,000 stars observed by {\\em Kepler} are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  9. Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This report on the BCV OU 2 at the Y-12 Plant, was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Field activities included collection of subsurface soil samples, groundwater and surface water samples, and sediments and seep at the Rust Spoil Area (RSA), SY-200 Yard, and SA-1.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  11. Chinese private yards catch up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese shipbuilding industry was dominated by state-owned companies for a long time. In 2005, when a global shipbuilding summit was held in China for the first time, no Chinese private shipyards appeared except two national shipbuilders, namely COSCO and CSIC. However, in the same year, Rongsheng,Mingde and Hantong began their first step.

  12. Classification using Bayesian neural nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); O. van der Meer; R. Potharst (Rob)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRecently, Bayesian methods have been proposed for neural networks to solve regression and classification problems. These methods claim to overcome some difficulties encountered in the standard approach such as overfitting. However, an implementation of the full Bayesian approach to neura

  13. Aphasia Classification Using Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, H.; Jantzen, Jan; Berks, G.

    2000-01-01

    A web-based software model (http://fuzzy.iau.dtu.dk/aphasia.nsf) was developed as an example for classification of aphasia using neural networks. Two multilayer perceptrons were used to classify the type of aphasia (Broca, Wernicke, anomic, global) according to the results in some subtests...

  14. Is classification necessary after Google?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine challenges facing bibliographic classification at both the practical and theoretical levels. At the practical level, libraries are increasingly dispensing with classifying books. At the theoretical level, many researchers, managers, and users beli...

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of information technologies and, in particular, learning management systems, increases opportunities of teachers and students in reaching their goals in education. Such systems provide learning content, help organize and monitor training, collect progress statistics and take into account the individual characteristics of each user. Currently, there is a huge inventory of both paid and free systems are physically located both on college servers and in the cloud, offering different features sets of different licensing scheme and the cost. This creates the problem of choosing the best system. This problem is partly due to the lack of comprehensive classification of such systems. Analysis of more than 30 of the most common now automated learning management systems has shown that a classification of such systems should be carried out according to certain criteria, under which the same type of system can be considered. As classification features offered by the author are: cost, functionality, modularity, keeping the customer’s requirements, the integration of content, the physical location of a system, adaptability training. Considering the learning management system within these classifications and taking into account the current trends of their development, it is possible to identify the main requirements to them: functionality, reliability, ease of use, low cost, support for SCORM standard or Tin Can API, modularity and adaptability. According to the requirements at the Software Department of FITR BNTU under the guidance of the author since 2009 take place the development, the use and continuous improvement of their own learning management system.

  16. Handbook for Preparing Job Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C.

    To assist local governments in their responsibility for eliminating and preventing discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin as specified by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, the handbook provides guidelines for analyzing jobs and preparing job classifications (defining; listing duties…

  17. A new classification of Chelicerata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in classification of Chelicerata has been thwarted especially by two factors, viz., the concept of mites as one monophyletic group, and the opinion that this group consists of species with a highly modified plan of construction and without any trace of true segmentation. The only characters

  18. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  19. Contextualizing Object Detection and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Song, Zheng; Dong, Jian; Huang, Zhongyang; Hua, Yang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how to iteratively and mutually boost object classification and detection performance by taking the outputs from one task as the context of the other one. While context models have been quite popular, previous works mainly concentrate on co-occurrence relationship within classes and few of them focus on contextualization from a top-down perspective, i.e. high-level task context. In this paper, our system adopts a new method for adaptive context modeling and iterative boosting. First, the contextualized support vector machine (Context-SVM) is proposed, where the context takes the role of dynamically adjusting the classification score based on the sample ambiguity, and thus the context-adaptive classifier is achieved. Then, an iterative training procedure is presented. In each step, Context-SVM, associated with the output context from one task (object classification or detection), is instantiated to boost the performance for the other task, whose augmented outputs are then further used to improve the former task by Context-SVM. The proposed solution is evaluated on the object classification and detection tasks of PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge (VOC) 2007, 2010 and SUN09 data sets, and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

  20. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den Egon L.; Putten, van der Peter; Uyl, den Marten J.; Verbrugge, R.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  1. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  2. Crop Classification by Polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Svendsen, Morten Thougaard; Nielsen, Flemming;

    1999-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR-data of agricultural fields have been acquired by the Danish polarimetric L- and C-band SAR (EMISAR) during a number of missions at the Danish agricultural test site Foulum during 1995. The data are used to study the classification potential of polarimetric SAR data using...

  3. Classification of Global Illumination Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Lesev, Hristo

    2010-01-01

    This article describes and classifies various approaches for solving the global illumination problem. The classification aims to show the similarities between different types of algorithms. We introduce the concept of Light Manager, as a central element and mediator between illumination algorithms in a heterogeneous environment of a graphical system. We present results and analysis of the implementation of the described ideas.

  4. The CHAT classification of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, E F; Browse, N L

    1989-02-01

    Current terminology for clinical episodes relating to stroke is inconsistent and unclear, does not permit inclusion of data regarding the location and magnitude of extracranial and intracerebral arterial disease, does not coincide with existing classifications in Europe, and characterizes a hemispheric entity only, as opposed to a global description including prior symptoms in both hemispheres. A new classification system (CHAT) has been designed to deal with these problems, including the current clinical presentation, historical clinical episodes, the site and pathologic type of arterial disease, and information regarding abnormalities of the brain. Using this system, a retrospective review of 480 consecutive carotid endarterectomies is presented, demonstrating the advantages of the CHAT classification. Data include a significant difference in the probability of survival after carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis in patients with prior symptoms on the opposite side, as well as a significant difference in the probability of stroke-free survival between patients with amaurosis fugax and those with prior carotid cortical symptoms (TIAs) as the presenting clinical condition. The CHAT classification is suggested as a significant advance in the reporting of all surgical cerebrovascular disease experience, and has particular implications for the current randomized trials between medical and surgical therapy for carotid artery disease.

  5. The classification of orofacial pains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Jeffrey P

    2008-05-01

    This article highlights the process of making the proper orofacial pain diagnosis. A classification is presented based on the clinical characteristics of the pain complaint and the structure by which it emanates. It is meant to serve as a road map for the clinician, which will help him or her establish the correct diagnosis, thereby allowing the selection of the proper treatment.

  6. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengsheng Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion. Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1 the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2 an (unsurprising bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less

  7. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 CFR 7.31. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of...

  8. Classification of eight dimensional perfect forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutour Sikiric, M.; Schuermann, A.; Vallentin, F.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we classify the perfect lattices in dimension 8. There are 10916 of them. Our classification heavily relies on exploiting symmetry in polyhedral computations. Here we describe algorithms making the classification possible.

  9. Audio Classification from Time-Frequency Texture

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Guoshen

    2008-01-01

    Time-frequency representations of audio signals often resemble texture images. This paper derives a simple audio classification algorithm based on treating sound spectrograms as texture images. The algorithm is inspired by an earlier visual classification scheme particularly efficient at classifying textures. While solely based on time-frequency texture features, the algorithm achieves surprisingly good performance in musical instrument classification experiments.

  10. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the re

  11. Fuzzy classification for farm household characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.D.S.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Most household classifications use hard classification procedures that limit a household to only one cluster. In this paper, fuzzy classification, in which individuals can belong totally, partially or not at all to a particular cluster, with membership showing how well they fit in each cluster, was

  12. 46 CFR 503.54 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original classification. 503.54 Section 503.54 Shipping... Program § 503.54 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has the authority to... require classification, or receives any foreign government information as defined in section 1.1(d)...

  13. 14 CFR 298.3 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 298.3 Section 298.3... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.3 Classification. (a) There is hereby established a classification of air carriers, designated as “air taxi operators,”...

  14. 10 CFR 1045.37 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification guides. 1045.37 Section 1045.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.37 Classification...

  15. 32 CFR 1602.7 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 1602.7 Section 1602.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.7 Classification. Classification is the exercise of the power to determine claims or questions with respect...

  16. 32 CFR 644.426 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Classification. 644.426 Section 644.426 National... HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.426 Classification... required by the special acts, classification will be coordinated with the interested Federal agency....

  17. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  18. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted...

  19. 17 CFR 200.505 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.505 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has...

  20. 14 CFR 1203.701 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1203.701 Section 1203.701... Government Information § 1203.701 Classification. (a) Foreign government information that is classified by a foreign entity shall either retain its original classification designation or be marked with a...

  1. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  2. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1903 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1903 Section 51.1903... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1903 Size classification. The following terms may be used for describing the size of the tomatoes in any...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1402 - Size classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size classification. 51.1402 Section 51.1402... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell 1 Size Classification § 51.1402 Size classification. Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of...

  5. 12 CFR 560.160 - Asset classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Asset classification. 560.160 Section 560.160... Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.160 Asset classification... consistent with, or reconcilable to, the asset classification system used by OTS in its Thrift...

  6. 46 CFR 95.50-5 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 95.50-5 Section 95.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 95.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing... extinguishing systems are set forth in Table 95.50-5(c). Table 95.50-5(c) Classification Type Size Soda-acid...

  7. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in...

  8. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.3 Classification levels. Information...

  9. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  10. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 18 - Group classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group classification. Sec. 18 Section 18 Shipping... Sec. 18 Group classification. In the preparation of specifications, Job Orders, Supplemental Job... inserted thereon: Number Classification 41 Maintenance Repairs (deck, engine and stewards...

  12. 46 CFR 76.50-5 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 76.50-5 Section 76.50-5 Shipping COAST... Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be... extinguishing systems are set forth in table 76.50-5(c). Table 76.50-5(c) Classification Type Size Soda acid...

  13. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original classification. 2500.3 Section... SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information....

  14. 5 CFR 1312.7 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 1312.7 Section 1312.7 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION, DOWNGRADING, DECLASSIFICATION AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively on the basis of source documents or classification guides shall bear all markings prescribed...

  16. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of...

  17. 46 CFR 193.50-5 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 193.50-5 Section 193.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 193.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire...) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and water, gals. Foam, gals. Carbon dioxide, lbs. Dry chemical, lbs. A II...

  18. 46 CFR 132.210 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 132.210 Section 132.210 Shipping COAST... Portable and Semiportable Fire Extinguishers § 132.210 Classification. (a) Each portable fire extinguisher... Classification Type Size Halon 1211, 1301, and 1211-1301 mixtures kgs. (lbs.) Foam, liters (gallons)...

  19. 28 CFR 17.30 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... submit classification challenges in writing to the DRC, through the Office of Information and Privacy... DRC shall redact the identity of an individual challenging a classification under paragraph (a) of... 30 days, provide a written response to the DRC. The original classification authority may classify...

  20. 75 FR 39710 - Postal Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Postal Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request concerning two classification changes to... filed a notice pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning two classification changes to...

  1. 76 FR 46856 - Mail Classification Schedule Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Mail Classification Schedule Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request regarding classification changes to Priority... classification changes pursuant to 39 CFR 3020.90 and 3020.91 concerning Priority Mail packaging.\\1\\ \\1\\...

  2. How To Survive a Classification Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Shelley

    1998-01-01

    Examines job classification studies in public libraries, focusing on point-factor classification systems. Discusses job descriptions, job auditing biases, preparedness, what not to say to auditors, and the appeals process. Outlines typical factors in a job classification: decision-making, guidelines, education, experience, complexity, supervision,…

  3. 7 CFR 51.1436 - Color classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.1436 Section 51.1436... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Color Classifications § 51.1436 Color classifications. (a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2281 - Color classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classifications. 51.2281 Section 51.2281... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2281 Color classifications. The following classifications are provided to describe the color of any...

  5. Design of landslide treatment for left bank soil material yard of Yiche Reservoir%迤车水库左岸土料场滑坡治理设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国香; 夏至青云

    2016-01-01

    迤车水库土料场毗临大坝左岸,料场在开挖中出现边坡变形和滑坡现象,滑坡体顺河向长95 m,岸坡向长102 m,面积9770 m2,体积约5.7万m3。为确保大坝安全及水库效益的发挥,设计上采用削坡减载,设置截排水沟、抗滑桩、混凝土挡墙及草皮护坡等综合治理措施,实施后,有效地防止了边坡的滑塌。%The soil material yard of Yiche Reservoir is adjacent to the main dam left bank. Slope deformation and landslide occurred during excavation of material yard. The landslide mass was 95m-long along river, 102m-long to⁃ward bank, with an area of 9770m2 and volume of 57x103m3 approximately. In order to ensure main dam safety and reservoir benefits, the design scheme incorporates cutting slope and reducing loads with comprehensive treatment measures such as drainage ditch, anti-sliding piles, concrete earth-retaining wall and sod revetment etc., which ef⁃fectively prevents slope sliding after construction was completed.

  6. [Classification of Diabetic Nephropathy 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Masakazu; Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Koya, Daisuke; Babazono, Tetsuya; Moriya, Tatsumi; Makino, Hirofumi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Wada, Takashi; Ogawa, Susumu; Inaba, Masaaki; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Shigematsu, Takashi; Masakane, Ikuto; Tsuchiya, Ken; Honda, Keiko; Ichikawa, Kazuko; Shide, Kenichiro

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on Diabetic Nephropathy revised the classification of diabetic nephropathy in view of the current status of eGFR and CKD in Japan. To make revisions for the classification of diabetic nephropathy 2014, the Committee carefully evaluated the report of the Research Group on Diabetic Nephropathy, Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. The major revisions made were as follows: 1. eGFR can be used for the evaluation of GFR; 2. In stage 3 (overt nephropathy), A and B were combined; 3. Stage 4 (renal failure) was defined as GFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, regardless of albuminuria; and 4. The importance of differential diagnosis was stressed in all stages.

  7. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  8. Meta Classification for Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pichara, Karim; León, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The need for the development of automatic tools to explore astronomical databases has been recognized since the inception of CCDs and modern computers. Astronomers already have developed solutions to tackle several science problems, such as automatic classification of stellar objects, outlier detection, and globular clusters identification, among others. New science problems emerge and it is critical to be able to re-use the models learned before, without rebuilding everything from the beginning when the science problem changes. In this paper, we propose a new meta-model that automatically integrates existing classification models of variable stars. The proposed meta-model incorporates existing models that are trained in a different context, answering different questions and using different representations of data. Conventional mixture of experts algorithms in machine learning literature can not be used since each expert (model) uses different inputs. We also consider computational complexity of the model by ...

  9. Featureless Classification of Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kügler, Sven Dennis; Polsterer, Kai Lars

    2015-01-01

    In the era of rapidly increasing amounts of time series data, classification of variable objects has become the main objective of time-domain astronomy. Classification of irregularly sampled time series is particularly difficult because the data can not be represented naturally as a plain vector which directly can be fed into a classifier. In the literature, various statistical features derived from time series serve as a representation. Typically, the usefulness of the derived features is judged in an empirical fashion according to their predictive power. In this work, an alternative to the feature-based approach is investigated. In this new representation the time series is described by a density model. Similarity between each pair of time series is quantified by the distance between their respective models. The density model captures all the information available, also including measurement errors. Hence, we view this model as a generalisation to the static features which directly can be derived, e.g., as ...

  10. Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.

  11. Modulation classification based on spectrogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The aim of modulation classification (MC) is to identify the modulation type of a communication signal. It plays an important role in many cooperative or noncooperative communication applications. Three spectrogram-based modulation classification methods are proposed. Their reccgnition scope and performance are investigated or evaluated by theoretical analysis and extensive simulation studies. The method taking moment-like features is robust to frequency offset while the other two, which make use of principal component analysis (PCA) with different transformation inputs,can achieve satisfactory accuracy even at low SNR (as low as 2 dB). Due to the properties of spectrogram, the statistical pattern recognition techniques, and the image preprocessing steps, all of our methods are insensitive to unknown phase and frequency offsets, timing errors, and the arriving sequence of symbols.

  12. A clinical classification of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hypertension is a common cardiovascular problem worldwide. As with any other disease it is important to assess the severity of the disease. However the present classification of hypertension by the Joint National Committee in its seventh report (JNC 7) with numerical values staging the severity of hypertension is theoretically correct but difficult to apply in practice (Table 1).1 Admittedly this is a step in the right direction with lesser number of stages compared to the sixth report.2 The World Health Organization- International Society of Hypertension (WHO-ISH)-1999 3 and the European Society of Hypertension - European Society of Cardiology (ESH-ESC)4 guidelines follow similar numerical classifications (Table 2). All these papers are referred to as 'guidelines' in this article.

  13. Introduction to Relational Networks for Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marivate, Vukosi

    2008-01-01

    The use of computational intelligence techniques for classification has been used in numerous applications. This paper compares the use of a Multi Layer Perceptron Neural Network and a new Relational Network on classifying the HIV status of women at ante-natal clinics. The paper discusses the architecture of the relational network and its merits compared to a neural network and most other computational intelligence classifiers. Results gathered from the study indicate comparable classification accuracies as well as revealed relationships between data features in the classification data. Much higher classification accuracies are recommended for future research in the area of HIV classification as well as missing data estimation.

  14. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Kakehashi A; Takezawa M; Akiba J

    2013-01-01

    Akihiro Kakehashi,1 Mikiko Takezawa,1 Jun Akiba21Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, 2Kanjodori Eye Clinic, Asahikawa, JapanAbstract: Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography...

  15. Chemical Classification of Space Debris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunlai; ZUO Wei; LIU Jianjun; OUYANG Ziyuan

    2004-01-01

    Space debris, here referring to all non-operating orbital objects, has steadily increased in number so that it has become a potential barrier to the exploration of space. The ever-increasing number of space debris pieces in space has created an increasingly threatening hazard to all on-the-orbit spacecraft, and all future space exploration activities have to be designed and operated with respect to the increasing threat posed by space debris. Generally, space debris is classified as large, medium and small debris pieces based on their sizes. The large debris piece is easily catalogued, but medium to small debris pieces are very difficult to track and also quite different in damage mechanisms from the large ones. In this paper, a scheme of chemical classification of space debris is developed. In our scheme, the first-order classification is employed to divide space debris into two groups: natural micrometeoroids and artificial space debris.The second-order classification is based on their chemical patterns and compositions. The natural micrometeoroids are further divided into three types, namely maric, metal and phyllosilicate micrometeorites, while the artificial space debris is divided into seven types, which are polymers, non-metal debris, metals and their alloys, oxides, sulphides and their analogs, halides and carbides. Of the latter seven types, some can also be further divided into several sub-types. Chemical classification of space debris is very useful for the study of the chemical damage mechanism of small debris pieces, and also is of great significance in constraining the origin and source of space debris and assessing their impact on spacecraft and human space activities.

  16. Classification of simple current invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1992-01-01

    We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)

  17. Integrated Quay Crane and Yard Truck Scheduling Based on Constraint Programming%基于约束规划的岸桥与集卡集成调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦天保; 彭嘉瑶; 沙梅

    2014-01-01

    A Mixed Integer Programming(MIP) model and a Constraint Programming(CP) model to tackle the integrated quay crane and yard truck scheduling problem for inbound containers are proposed, which aims to minimize the makespan of unloading process. The CP model is developed with OPL modeling language and employs OPL’s special constructs designed for scheduling problems, e.g., interval variables sequence variable etc. To improve solving efficiency, a special concept called extended operation task is proposed which is used to define interval variables. Besides, a new lower bound is given to evaluate the quality of solutions. Computational experiments on varied scales of instances are carried out to test the CP model and the MIP model. The results indicate that the CP model does not outperform the MIP model for small instances. For medium and large instances, the MIP model can not be solved within time limit, whereas the CP model is effective for finding high-quality solutions and can efficiently solve large problems with fast convergence rate. On average, the gap between the objective values of the CP model and the lower bounds is 2.19%~8.28%.%针对进口集装箱卸船的岸桥与集卡集成调度问题,分别提出混合整数规划(MIP)模型和约束规划(CP)模型,目标是使得卸船完工时间最短,该问题是NP难题。通过OPL语言设计约束规划模型,利用其为调度问题提供的特殊构造,如区间变量、序列变量等进行建模,并采用“扩展操作任务”的概念来定义区间变量以提升求解效率。为评价解的质量,设计一个新的下界求解方法。使用不同规模的实例对约束规划模型和MIP模型进行测试,结果表明,在小规模实例中,CP模型求解性能略差于MIP模型,但对于中大规模实例,MIP模型无法在设定时限内找到解,而CP模型则能以较快的收敛速度得到高质量的解,目标距离下界的差距控制在2.19%~8.28%。

  18. Classification of anemia for gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Chulilla, Jose Antonio; Romero Colás, Maria Soledad; Gutiérrez Martín, Martín

    2009-10-07

    Most anemia is related to the digestive system by dietary deficiency, malabsorption, or chronic bleeding. We review the World Health Organization definition of anemia, its morphological classification (microcytic, macrocytic and normocytic) and pathogenic classification (regenerative and hypo regenerative), and integration of these classifications. Interpretation of laboratory tests is included, from the simplest (blood count, routine biochemistry) to the more specific (iron metabolism, vitamin B12, folic acid, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, bone marrow examination and Schilling test). In the text and various algorithms, we propose a hierarchical and logical way to reach a diagnosis as quickly as possible, by properly managing the medical interview, physical examination, appropriate laboratory tests, bone marrow examination, and other complementary tests. The prevalence is emphasized in all sections so that the gastroenterologist can direct the diagnosis to the most common diseases, although the tables also include rare diseases. Digestive diseases potentially causing anemia have been studied in preference, but other causes of anemia have been included in the text and tables. Primitive hematological diseases that cause anemia are only listed, but are not discussed in depth. The last section is dedicated to simplifying all items discussed above, using practical rules to guide diagnosis and medical care with the greatest economy of resources and time.

  19. Neuronal Classification of Atria Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed BEN MESSAOUD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. In medical field, particularly the cardiology, the diagnosis systems constitute the essential domain of research. In some applications, the traditional methods of classification present some limitations. The neuronal technique is considered as one of the promising algorithms to resolve such problem.Method. In this paper, two approaches of the Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN technique are investigated to classify the heart beats which are Multi Layer Perception (MLP and Radial Basis Function (RBF. A calculation algorithm of the RBF centers is proposed. For the Atria Fibrillation anomalies, an artificial neural network was used as a pattern classifier to distinguish three classes of the cardiac arrhythmias. The different classes consist of the normal beats (N, the Arrhythmia (AFA and Tachycardia (TFA Atria Fibrillation cases. The global and the partition classifier are performed. The arrhythmias of MIT-BIH database are analyzed. The ANN inputs are the temporal and morphological parameters deduced from the electrocardiograph.Results. The simulation results illustrate the performances of the studied versions of the neural network and give the fault detection rate of the tested data, a rate of classification reaching the 3.7%.Conclusion. This system can constitute a mesh in a chain of automated diagnosis and can be a tool for assistance for the classification of the cardiac anomalies in the services of urgencies before the arrival of a qualified personal person.

  20. Geological classification of coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretsnaidr, P.

    1985-02-01

    A new classification of coal deposits developed by the author is evaluated. The classification considers only selected factors which characterize a coal deposit. Each factor is described by a number of points ranging from 0 to 10. Geologic structure (deposits with one or more seams or with seam groups) is described using from 1 to 10 points. Secondary deformation of a coal deposit (e.g. tectonics) and hydrogeology (aquifers, filtration properties, etc.) are described using a 10 point scale. Coal seam structure (with or without partings) is characterized using 1 to 5 points. Coal seam thickness and its stability (4 thickness classes from 0.4 to 1.0 m, 1 to 3 m, 3 to 10 m and above 10 m) is described using 0 to 5 points. Coal seam quality (ash content, calorific value and coking properties) is described using 0 to 5 points. Other factors are characterized using a 10 point scale. Use of this deposit classification is explained using four examples: the Merkur surface mine (uncomplicated conditions), the Nosek surface mine (relatively complicated conditions), the Slany deposit (with complicated conditions) and the Jan Sverma deposit (with extremely complicated conditions).

  1. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  2. Research on the Parameter Optimization of Lines Connecting Main Line and Arrival -departure Line in High -speed Railway Station Yard%高速铁路站场正线与到发线间线路优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏庆朝; 尹国栋; 时瑾; 来琳

    2015-01-01

    Research purposes:With numerous railway lines laid in the yard,high -speed railway station should not only meet the operation requirements of train to pass in high speed,but also satisfy the demand of high -speed train to arrival,departure and turn -back in station yard.For the influence of speed reduction of train and station arrangement, radius of curve on arrival -departure line is much less than that of curve on main line,and parameter selection of lines connecting main line and arrival -departure line affects the travel quality of train directly.Referring to existing researches,and based on the dynamic theory and wheel -rail contact mode,dynamic analysis model was established, considering the running conditions of train between the main line and the arrival -departure line in high -speed railway station yard.Using the established model,effects on travelling safety and stability of train aroused by length variation of intermediate straight line and transition line connecting turnout on main line and curve on arrival -departure line behind turnout were calculated.Accordingly,theoretical basis is provided for the parameter optimization of lines connecting arrival -departure line and main line in high -speed railway station yard. Research conclusions:Based on related researches on the matching relation of superelevation and transition curve length with circular curve radius,required calculation parameters were selected,and calculations on the relation between travelling quality of train and parameter variation of connection lines between main line and arrival -departure line indicate that:(1 )To meet the demand of traveling stability,intermediate straight line with length not less than 9 m was proposed to be set to connect turnout on main line and curve on arrival -departure line in high -speed railway station yard.(2)The increase of transition curve length has rarely influence on easing vehicle vibration on circular curve as the length of transition curve

  3. Is overall similarity classification less effortful than single-dimension classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Andy J; Milton, Fraser; Longmore, Christopher A; Hester, Sarah; Robinson, Jo

    2013-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that the implementation of an overall similarity classification is less effortful than the implementation of a single-dimension classification. In the current article, we argue that the evidence securely in support of this view is limited, and report additional evidence in support of the opposite proposition--overall similarity classification is more effortful than single-dimension classification. Using a match-to-standards procedure, Experiments 1A, 1B and 2 demonstrate that concurrent load reduces the prevalence of overall similarity classification, and that this effect is robust to changes in the concurrent load task employed, the level of time pressure experienced, and the short-term memory requirements of the classification task. Experiment 3 demonstrates that participants who produced overall similarity classifications from the outset have larger working memory capacities than those who produced single-dimension classifications initially, and Experiment 4 demonstrates that instructions to respond meticulously increase the prevalence of overall similarity classification.

  4. Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from an input data space (normally described by several features) to an output space. A set of training...

  5. TEXT CLASSIFICATION TOWARD A SCIENTIFIC FORUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Text mining, also known as discovering knowledge from the text, which has emerged as a possible solution for the current information explosion, refers to the process of extracting non-trivial and useful patterns from unstructured text. Among the general tasks of text mining such as text clustering,summarization, etc, text classification is a subtask of intelligent information processing, which employs unsupervised learning to construct a classifier from training text by which to predict the class of unlabeled text. Because of its simplicity and objectivity in performance evaluation, text classification was usually used as a standard tool to determine the advantage or weakness of a text processing method, such as text representation, text feature selection, etc. In this paper, text classification is carried out to classify the Web documents collected from XSSC Website (http://www. xssc.ac.cn). The performance of support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) is compared on this task. Specifically, binary text classification and multi-class text classification were conducted on the XSSC documents. Moreover, the classification results of both methods are combined to improve the accuracy of classification. An experiment is conducted to show that BPNN can compete with SVM in binary text classification; but for multi-class text classification, SVM performs much better. Furthermore, the classification is improved in both binary and multi-class with the combined method.

  6. Optimization Model on Container Slot Allocation in Container Yard with Mixed Storage Mode%混堆模式下集装箱堆场箱位指派优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红星; 杜亮; 董键

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the container slot allocation problem with the mixed storage mode. To assign containers to the optimum positions of the loading yards, the optimized allocation aims at reducing the container relocation rate and enhancing the loading efficiency. The inner-relationship between container types and the relocation operation are examined in this paper. The containers' processing priority is defined according to rolling plan and rules of mixed storage yards. The container slot allocation model is then developed to minimize the newly-added numbers of those stacked containers. The heuristic algorithm is adopted to solve this model based on the characteristics of this kind of problem. The experiment shows that the optimization model and algorithm are more effective than the current original storage planning in container yards.%所谓混堆模式下集装箱堆场箱位指派问题,是指混堆模式下,在待作业箱区为已知情况的前提下,确定集装箱在指定箱区中的最优堆存位置,以最大限度地控制堆场倒箱率,提高堆场装卸作业效率.在滚动式计划的基础上,充分考虑了不同作业箱型与倒箱作业的内在联系,依据堆场混堆的作业规则定义了作业箱优先等级,以新增集装箱压箱数最小为目标对此问题构建了箱位指派优化模型,基于问题自身的特点设计了相应的启发式算法进行求解,通过实际算例进行验证.验证结果表明,该模型及算法比港口现有混堆堆存策略有较大改进.

  7. Cirrhosis Classification Based on Texture Classification of Random Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate staging of hepatic cirrhosis is important in investigating the cause and slowing down the effects of cirrhosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD can provide doctors with an alternative second opinion and assist them to make a specific treatment with accurate cirrhosis stage. MRI has many advantages, including high resolution for soft tissue, no radiation, and multiparameters imaging modalities. So in this paper, multisequences MRIs, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase, are applied. However, CAD does not meet the clinical needs of cirrhosis and few researchers are concerned with it at present. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of widespread fibrosis and regenerative nodules in the hepatic, leading to different texture patterns of different stages. So, extracting texture feature is the primary task. Compared with typical gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM features, texture classification from random features provides an effective way, and we adopt it and propose CCTCRF for triple classification (normal, early, and middle and advanced stage. CCTCRF does not need strong assumptions except the sparse character of image, contains sufficient texture information, includes concise and effective process, and makes case decision with high accuracy. Experimental results also illustrate the satisfying performance and they are also compared with typical NN with GLCM.

  8. Cirrhosis classification based on texture classification of random features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Shao, Ying; Guo, Dongmei; Zheng, Yuanjie; Zhao, Zuowei; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate staging of hepatic cirrhosis is important in investigating the cause and slowing down the effects of cirrhosis. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) can provide doctors with an alternative second opinion and assist them to make a specific treatment with accurate cirrhosis stage. MRI has many advantages, including high resolution for soft tissue, no radiation, and multiparameters imaging modalities. So in this paper, multisequences MRIs, including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase, are applied. However, CAD does not meet the clinical needs of cirrhosis and few researchers are concerned with it at present. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of widespread fibrosis and regenerative nodules in the hepatic, leading to different texture patterns of different stages. So, extracting texture feature is the primary task. Compared with typical gray level cooccurrence matrix (GLCM) features, texture classification from random features provides an effective way, and we adopt it and propose CCTCRF for triple classification (normal, early, and middle and advanced stage). CCTCRF does not need strong assumptions except the sparse character of image, contains sufficient texture information, includes concise and effective process, and makes case decision with high accuracy. Experimental results also illustrate the satisfying performance and they are also compared with typical NN with GLCM.

  9. Aural Classification and Temporal Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    tiques brutes. iv DRDC Atlantic TR 2010-136 Recherches futures : Les recherches sur les effets du rapport signal sur bruit (S/B) sur les performances de...classification se poursuivent. La compréhension des effets du rapport S/B aidera peut-être à déterminer la meilleure méthode pour aborder le...features in the field of musical acoustics. These perceptual-based quantities (i.e., attack time, duration, loudness, etc.) are calculated for all of the

  10. Classification of Magnetic Nanoparticle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogren, Sara; Fornara, Andrea; Ludwig, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study presents classification of different magnetic single- and multi-core particle systems using their measured dynamic magnetic properties together with their nanocrystal and particle sizes. The dynamic magnetic properties are measured with AC (dynamical) susceptometry and magnetorelaxomet...... the four year EU NMP FP7 project, NanoMag, which is focused on standardization of analysis methods for magnetic nanoparticles....... and the size parameters are determined from electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Using these methods, we also show that the nanocrystal size and particle morphology determines the dynamic magnetic properties for both single- and multi-core particles. The presented results are obtained from...

  11. SEMANTIC TRANSFERS: CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskvin, V.P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is represented the general classification of semantic transfers. As the research has shown, transfers can be systematized based on four parameters: 1 the type of associations lying on their basis: similarity, contiguity and contrast, the associations by similarity and contrast being regarded as the basis for taxonomic transfers (from genus to species, from species to genus, from species to species, etc.; 2 the functional parameter: functionally relevant and irrelevant; 3 the sphere of action: transfer applies both to lexical and grammatical semantics; 4 the degree of ex-pressiveness: thus, the metonymic associations are more predictable than the metaphoric ones.

  12. A Classification of BPEL Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kopp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL has emerged as de-facto standard for business processes implementation. This language is designed to be extensible for including additional valuable features in a standardized manner. There are a number of BPEL extensions available. They are, however, neither classified nor evaluated with respect to their compliance to the BPEL standard. This article fills this gap by providing a framework for classifying BPEL extensions, a classification of existing extensions, and a guideline for designing BPEL extensions.

  13. Classification for Inconsistent Decision Tables

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    Decision trees have been used widely to discover patterns from consistent data set. But if the data set is inconsistent, where there are groups of examples with equal values of conditional attributes but different labels, then to discover the essential patterns or knowledge from the data set is challenging. Three approaches (generalized, most common and many-valued decision) have been considered to handle such inconsistency. The decision tree model has been used to compare the classification results among three approaches. Many-valued decision approach outperforms other approaches, and M_ws_entM greedy algorithm gives faster and better prediction accuracy.

  14. Automated Classification of Power Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    the classification code of the n th event. Boolean EVC [n] The ‘Event file created?’ Boolean is set to 1 if the event has had an event file created...indicate the type of event. int EVC [MAX_EVENTS]; // Boolean to indicate whether an event has had an .evt file created int local_det=0...i; // CLEAN THE EVENT TEXT DATA. for (i=0;i<MAX_EVENTS;i++) { Class[i]="Empty." Class_ID[i]=0; EVC [i]=FALSE; event_class_status[i

  15. CT classification of acetabular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B.; Porcellini, B.; Robotti, G.

    1984-05-01

    The contribution of computed tomography (CT) in classifying acetabular fractures was analysed retrospectively in 33 cases. CT and plain radiography classification agreed in 27 cases (82%). CT revealed more extensive fractures in 6 patients (thereof 5 patients with associated fractures). In 10 patients (thereof 9 patients with associated fractures) CT showed intraarticular fragments; radiographically intraarticular fragments were seen only in 2 patients and suspected in 4. CT is of considerable aid in defining the fracture pattern. It should be used mainly in patients with radiographically difficult interpretable associated fractures in order to assess preoperatively the weight-bearing part of the acetabulum, the degree of displacement and the presence of intraarticular fragments.

  16. Improving TMD classification using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T

    2010-10-01

    The classification of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is still controversial. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique, a method that polls experts' anonymous opinion in an iterative process with controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of group response, could be valuable to improve this challenging topic. The article illustrates the application of the Delphi technique for deciding whether the terms myalgia or myofascial pain should be used in a TMD classification system and discusses the technique's potential for TMD classification in general. In three Delphi rounds, 14 TMD experts from the Division of TMD and Orofacial Pain of the University of Minnesota reached a consensus about which TMD diagnoses should be included in a TMD classification system. They preferred the term myofascial pain over myalgia. The Delphi technique has the potential to provide answers to complex questions in TMD classification, e.g., TMD nomenclature and range as well as scope of conditions included in a future TMD classification system.

  17. HYBRID INTERNET TRAFFIC CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun; Zhang Shunyi; Lu Yanqing; Yan Junrong

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and real-time classification of network traffic is significant to network operation and management such as QoS differentiation, traffic shaping and security surveillance. However, with many newly emerged P2P applications using dynamic port numbers, masquerading techniques, and payload encryption to avoid detection, traditional classification approaches turn to be ineffective. In this paper, we present a layered hybrid system to classify current Internet traffic, motivated by variety of network activities and their requirements of traffic classification. The proposed method could achieve fast and accurate traffic classification with low overheads and robustness to accommodate both known and unknown/encrypted applications. Furthermore, it is feasible to be used in the context of real-time traffic classification. Our experimental results show the distinct advantages of the proposed classification system, compared with the one-step Machine Learning (ML) approach.

  18. Supervised Classification Performance of Multispectral Images

    CERN Document Server

    Perumal, K

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays government and private agencies use remote sensing imagery for a wide range of applications from military applications to farm development. The images may be a panchromatic, multispectral, hyperspectral or even ultraspectral of terra bytes. Remote sensing image classification is one amongst the most significant application worlds for remote sensing. A few number of image classification algorithms have proved good precision in classifying remote sensing data. But, of late, due to the increasing spatiotemporal dimensions of the remote sensing data, traditional classification algorithms have exposed weaknesses necessitating further research in the field of remote sensing image classification. So an efficient classifier is needed to classify the remote sensing images to extract information. We are experimenting with both supervised and unsupervised classification. Here we compare the different classification methods and their performances. It is found that Mahalanobis classifier performed the best in our...

  19. Music Genre Classification Systems - A Computational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrendt, Peter; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    Automatic music genre classification is the classification of a piece of music into its corresponding genre (such as jazz or rock) by a computer. It is considered to be a cornerstone of the research area Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and closely linked to the other areas in MIR. It is thought that MIR will be a key element in the processing, searching and retrieval of digital music in the near future. This dissertation is concerned with music genre classification systems and in particular...

  20. Classification of odontogenic cysts and tumors - Antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Aesha; Jayanthi, P; Tanveer, Shahela; Gobu, Sreeja C

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Paul Broca produced a monograph on tumor classification which also included the classification of odontogenic tumors (OTs). The terminology used to describe malignant epithelial OTs has varied since the World Health Organization published the initial consensus on the taxonomy of OTs. Minor changes were introduced in the second edition. It is only in the very recent years that additional knowledge has accumulated and refined the classification. This review emphasizes on reasons for modification by each author and the recent acceptance.

  1. COLLISIONS IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF SLAP LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Yevsyeyenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no agreement among experts on the classification of injury of o the long head tendon of biceps brachii in the area of its attachment to the shoulder blade. Some authors take the Snyder’s classification as basis; others describe it as a separate injury. The authors presented the review of existing classifications of the labrum shoulder injury (so-called SLAP lesions and traumas of the tendon of the long head biceps.

  2. 贮木场自动化原木生产实验教学系统建设%Construction of Experimental Teaching of Automatic Log Production System in Log Yard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佩剑; 杨慧敏; 杨学春; 肖生苓

    2011-01-01

    从贮木场自动化原木生产系统的建设目标、建设原则、系统规划设计、建设成果和取得成果等方面,进行详细的论述,并就如何建设一个符合教学、科研和社会服务要求的生产系统进行深入的研究探讨。%The paper gave a detail discussion on the construction goal, construction principle, systems planning and design, and construction achievement of the automatic log production system in log yard. Further study was made on how to build a production system that could meet the requirement of teaching, research and social services.

  3. Multisensor Target Detection And Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Mills, James P.; Kabrisky, Matthew

    1988-08-01

    In this paper a new approach to the detection and classification of tactical targets using a multifunction laser radar sensor is developed. Targets of interest are tanks, jeeps, trucks, and other vehicles. Doppler images are segmented by developing a new technique which compensates for spurious doppler returns. Relative range images are segmented using an approach based on range gradients. The resultant shapes in the segmented images are then classified using Zernike moment invariants as shape descriptors. Two classification decision rules are implemented: a classical statistical nearest-neighbor approach and a multilayer perceptron architecture. The doppler segmentation algorithm was applied to a set of 180 real sensor images. An accurate segmentation was obtained for 89 percent of the images. The new doppler segmentation proved to be a robust method, and the moment invariants were effective in discriminating the tactical targets. Tanks were classified correctly 86 percent of the time. The most important result of this research is the demonstration of the use of a new information processing architecture for image processing applications.

  4. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored.

  5. Classification of current scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  6. Personality: Description, Classification and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Taymur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many descriptions and classifications of personality have been made to understand and acknowledge human being through out the history. During the developmental process of psychiatry, almost every school defined and assessed personality regarding to their own perspective. As DSM (Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and ICD (International Classification of Diseases being available to common usage, scientists conducted studies to set a common terminology for personality. Categorical and dimensional approaches are the most fundamentally different assessment strategies in the research and clinical aspects about personality. While categorical approach views the personality as dichotomies which consists of different groups, dimensional approach aims to describe the personality on the basis of dimensions, thus suggests that the personality is a structure formed by definite dimensions. Several advantages and disadvantages can be noticed when descriptions of personality and tools for the evaluation of personality are reviewed. When the section making suggestions about personality disorder in DSM-5 is evaluated, it is seen that it aims to restructure the personality disorder diagnostic group according to new findings and critiques. In this article, the description of personality throughout the history, dimensional, categorical and cognitive approaches to personality, the features of the tools that are used to assess and measure the personality are reviewed.

  7. Classification based polynomial image interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Sebastian; Schröder, Hartmut

    2008-02-01

    Due to the fast migration of high resolution displays for home and office environments there is a strong demand for high quality picture scaling. This is caused on the one hand by large picture sizes and on the other hand due to an enhanced visibility of picture artifacts on these displays [1]. There are many proposals for an enhanced spatial interpolation adaptively matched to picture contents like e.g. edges. The drawback of these approaches is the normally integer and often limited interpolation factor. In order to achieve rational factors there exist combinations of adaptive and non adaptive linear filters, but due to the non adaptive step the overall quality is notably limited. We present in this paper a content adaptive polyphase interpolation method which uses "offline" trained filter coefficients and an "online" linear filtering depending on a simple classification of the input situation. Furthermore we present a new approach to a content adaptive interpolation polynomial, which allows arbitrary polyphase interpolation factors at runtime and further improves the overall interpolation quality. The main goal of our new approach is to optimize interpolation quality by adapting higher order polynomials directly to the image content. In addition we derive filter constraints for enhanced picture quality. Furthermore we extend the classification based filtering to the temporal dimension in order to use it for an intermediate image interpolation.

  8. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  9. CCM: A Text Classification Method by Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new Cluster based Classification Model (CCM) for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks, is presented. Comparative experiments of the proposed model against traditional classification models and the boosting algorithm are also discussed. Experimental results...... show that the CCM outperforms traditional classification models as well as the boosting algorithm for the task of suspicious email detection on terrorism domain email dataset and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups datasets. The overall finding is that applying a cluster based...

  10. Entanglement classification with matrix product states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Egusquiza, I L; Di Candia, R; Saberi, H; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2016-07-26

    We propose an entanglement classification for symmetric quantum states based on their diagonal matrix-product-state (MPS) representation. The proposed classification, which preserves the stochastic local operation assisted with classical communication (SLOCC) criterion, relates entanglement families to the interaction length of Hamiltonians. In this manner, we establish a connection between entanglement classification and condensed matter models from a quantum information perspective. Moreover, we introduce a scalable nesting property for the proposed entanglement classification, in which the families for N parties carry over to the N + 1 case. Finally, using techniques from algebraic geometry, we prove that the minimal nontrivial interaction length n for any symmetric state is bounded by .

  11. Classification system to describe workpieces definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macconnell, W R

    2013-01-01

    A Classification System to Describe Workpieces provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects and principles of coding. This book discusses the various applications of the classification system of coding.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the requirements of a system of classification pertaining adequately and equally to design, production, and work planning. This text then examines the purpose of the classification system in production to determine the most suitable means of machining a component. Other chapters consider the optimal utilization of m

  12. SCOR: a Structural Classification of RNA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Peter S; Tamura, Makio; Holbrook, Stephen R; Brenner, Steven E

    2002-01-01

    The Structural Classification of RNA (SCOR) database provides a survey of the three-dimensional motifs contained in 259 NMR and X-ray RNA structures. In one classification, the structures are grouped according to function. The RNA motifs, including internal and external loops, are also organized in a hierarchical classification. The 259 database entries contain 223 internal and 203 external loops; 52 entries consist of fully complementary duplexes. A classification of the well-characterized tertiary interactions found in the larger RNA structures is also included along with examples. The SCOR database is accessible at http://scor.lbl.gov.

  13. Ontology-Based Classification System Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabusts Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyse and develop an ontology-based classification system methodology that uses decision tree learning with statement propositionalized attributes. Classical decision tree learning algorithms, as well as decision tree learning with taxonomy and propositionalized attributes have been observed. Thus, domain ontology can be extracted from the data sets and can be used for data classification with the help of a decision tree. The use of ontology methods in decision tree-based classification systems has been researched. Using such methodologies, the classification accuracy in some cases can be improved.

  14. Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This online collection includes documents decided upon by the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) starting in Fiscal Year 2012. The documents...

  15. SCOR: a structural classification of RNA database.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klosterman, Peter S.; Tamura, Makio; Holbrook, Stephen R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2001-10-10

    The Structural Classification of RNA (SCOR) database provides a survey of the three-dimensional motifs contained in 259 NMR and X-ray RNA structures. In one classification, the structures are grouped according to function. The RNA motifs, including internal and external loops, are also organized in a hierarchical classification. The 259 database entries contain 223 internal and 203 external loops; 52 entries consist of fully complementary duplexes. A classification of the well-characterized tertiary interactions found in the larger RNA structures is also included along with examples. The SCOR database is accessible at http://scor.lbl.gov.

  16. A New Geochemical Classification of Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Changmou; L. Lynn Chyi

    2001-01-01

    The geochemical classification proposed by Goldschmidt was based on meteoritic analysis and elemental partition in blast furnace. There are many surprises when applied to the discussion of natural occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences. A modified classification of elements based on basic chemical properties and their occurrences in nature is, therefore, proposed for students learning geochemistry and geologists working in the field. Elements are classified into six groups including lithophile, oxyphile, siderophile, chalcophile, biophile, and atmophile elements. Five terms are taken from Goldshcmidt's original classification. Oxyphile is a new term.

  17. Performance of Object Classification Using Zernike Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ariffuddin Joret; Mohammad Faiz Liew Abdullah; Muhammad Suhaimi Sulong; Asmarashid Ponniran; Siti Zuraidah Zainudin

    2014-01-01

    Moments have been used in all sorts of object classification systems based on image. There are lots of moments studied by many researchers in the area of object classification and one of the most preference moments is the Zernike moment. In this paper, the performance of object classification using the Zernike moment has been explored. The classifier based on neural networks has been used in this study. The results indicate the best performance in identifying the aggregate is at 91.4% with a ten orders of the Zernike moment. This encouraging result has shown that the Zernike moment is a suitable moment to be used as a feature of object classification systems.

  18. Ponder over the Investment and Operation Mode of Bus Passenger Stations Yard's Construction in Hebei Province%对河北汽车客运站场建设投资运营模式的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀婷; 王满; 贾培培

    2012-01-01

    文章结合河北省汽车客运站现状,分析了河北省汽车客运站场建设投资运营中存在的问题,并研究其它先进客运站场在投资运营管理方面经验,结合河北省的状况,得出未来河北省汽车客运站场建设在投资运营方面应借鉴先进经验,在建设资金方面:制定相关政策吸引民间资本,拓宽融资渠道、多元化筹资;加强政府资金的监管力度,确保其保值增值.在运营方面:确定客运站场市场经营主体地位,引进竞争机制理顺管理体制;明确行业主管部门与企业经营责任;加大站运分离力度,实现公平竞争.%Combining with the bus passenger stations current situation of Hebei province, the paper analyzed the current problems in investment and operation of bus passenger yard's construction in the province. And then analyzed the other advanced stations' experience. Finally drew the conclusion that to attract private capital and broaden financing channel, Hebei provincial government should formulate relevant policy in investment, and to ensure the value of state-owned assets, the government should strengthen the supervision of the money they paid. On the operation should introduce the competitive system to make management system and put the station yard in the dominant position of market management. Distinguish the competent trade authorities and enterprise's responsibility. Intensify efforts to the station and operation separate to realize fair competition.

  19. Thermo-refrigerating machineries. Classification; Machines thermofrigorifiques. Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duminil, M. [Association Francaise du Froid (AFF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-07-01

    Thermo-refrigerating systems transfer the heat extracted from a cold source towards a heat source and consume thermal energy from a third source. This article proposes a classification of thermo-refrigerating systems in three categories: the systems with a changing state working fluid (physical change of the refrigerant: dissociable systems, integrated systems (ejection systems, sorption systems); chemical change of the refrigerant), the systems where the working fluid stays in the same physical state (dissociable systems (Brayton, Siemens, Stirling and Ericsson cycles), integrated systems (Vuilleumier cycle systems, thermochemical systems)) and the other systems (Seebeck thermoelectric generator with Peltier effect modules). Dissociable thermo-refrigerating systems are made of the grouping of two separate thermal machines: a thermal engine and a mechanical-refrigerating machine. (J.S.)

  20. Gaussian maximum likelihood and contextual classification algorithms for multicrop classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Zenzo, Silvano; Bernstein, Ralph; Kolsky, Harwood G.; Degloria, Stephen D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reviews some of the ways in which context has been handled in the remote-sensing literature, and additional possibilities are introduced. The problem of computing exhaustive and normalized class-membership probabilities from the likelihoods provided by the Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier (to be used as initial probability estimates to start relaxation) is discussed. An efficient implementation of probabilistic relaxation is proposed, suiting the needs of actual remote-sensing applications. A modified fuzzy-relaxation algorithm using generalized operations between fuzzy sets is presented. Combined use of the two relaxation algorithms is proposed to exploit context in multispectral classification of remotely sensed data. Results on both one artificially created image and one MSS data set are reported.

  1. Biological signals classification and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiasaleh, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random, and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently ...

  2. Megaureter: classification, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, F; Vino, L; Pizzini, C; Benini, D; Fanos, V

    2000-01-01

    The term megaureter does not define a specific pathological condition, because it can be due to different underlying abnormalities. The most used classification includes three groups: refluxing megaureter, associated with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR); obstructive megaureter, associated with urine flow impairment at the vesicoureteral junction; non-refluxing non-obstructive megaureter, if neither obstruction nor reflux can be identified. Each group can be divided into two subgroups: primary megaureter; secondary megaureter. With the advent of antenatal ultrasound an increased number of cases are identified prior to the onset of symptoms. The common used investigation are: urinary tract ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, urography, serial diuretic renography and pressure-perfusion studies (Whitaker test). The advent of prenatal and neonatal echography has modified the natural history of megaureter. Nowadays non operative management is preferred. Operative intervention is indicated only in these cases: significant impairment to urine flow; worsening renal function during the observation time; recurrent UTI in spite of adequate antibiotic prophylaxis.

  3. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: Classification revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Bouros MD, PhD, FCCP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Thoracic Society (ATS, the European Respiratory Society (ERS and the Japan Respiratory Society (JRS are planning a revision of the 2002 ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs1. In two years’ time it will be 10 years since its publication and with a view to publishing the revision after 10 years (i.e., in 2012, a steering committee has been established, which met in New Orleans during ATS congress in May 2010 and more recently in Barcelona during the ERS congress (Photo. The committee will meet again during the ATS and the ERS congresses that will be held in the next two years, with an additional meeting in Modena, Italy, in Αpril 2011.

  4. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  5. Morphological classification of nanoceramic aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Kang, Bongwoo; Ospina, Carolina; Sung, Changmo

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum silicate nanoaggregates grown at near-room temperature on an organic template under a variety of experimental conditions have been imaged by transmission electron microscopy. Images have been automatically classified by an algorithm based on "spectrum enhancement", multivariate statistics and supervised optimization. Spectrum enhancement consists of subtracting, in the log scale, a known function of wavenumber from the angle averaged power spectral density of the image. Enhanced spectra of each image, after polynomial interpolation, have been regarded as morphological descriptors and as such submitted to principal components analysis nested with a multiobjective parameter optimization algorithm. The latter has maximized pairwise discrimination between classes of materials. The role of the organic template and of a reaction parameter on aggregate morphology has been assessed at two magnification scales. Classification results have also been related to crystal structure data derived from selected area electron diffraction patterns.

  6. Class Discovery in Galaxy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bazell, D; Bazell, David; Miller, David J.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, automated, supervised classification techniques have been fruitfully applied to labeling and organizing large astronomical databases. These methods require off-line classifier training, based on labeled examples from each of the (known) object classes. In practice, only a small batch of labeled examples, hand-labeled by a human expert, may be available for training. Moreover, there may be no labeled examples for some classes present in the data, i.e. the database may contain several unknown classes. Unknown classes may be present due to 1) uncertainty in or lack of knowledge of the measurement process, 2) an inability to adequately ``survey'' a massive database to assess its content (classes), and/or 3) an incomplete scientific hypothesis. In recent work, new class discovery in mixed labeled/unlabeled data was formally posed, with a proposed solution based on mixture models. In this work we investigate this approach, propose a competing technique suitable for class discovery in neural network...

  7. Sources of variation in hydrological classifications: Time scale, flow series origin and classification procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Francisco J.; Barquín, José; Álvarez, César

    2016-07-01

    Classification of flow regimes in water management and hydroecological research has grown significantly in recent years. However, depending on available data and the procedures applied, there may be several credible classifications for a specific catchment. In this study, three inductive classifications derived from different initial flow data and one expert-driven classification were defined. The hydrological interpretation, statistical performance and spatial correspondence of these classifications were compared. Daily Gauged Classification (DC) was derived from daily flow data while Monthly Gauged Classification (MC) and Monthly Modeled Classification (MMC) were derived from monthly flow series, using gauged and modeled flow data, respectively. Expert-Driven Classification (EDC) was based on a Spanish nationwide hydrological classification, which is being used in the current River Basin Management Plans. The results showed that MC accounted for much of the critical hydrological information variability comprised within the DC. However, it also presented limitations regarding the inability to represent important hydroecological attributes, especially those related to droughts and high flow events. In addition, DC and MC presented an equivalent performance more than 60% of the time and obtained a mean ARI value of 0.4, indicating a similar classification structure. DC and MC outperformed MMC 100% and more than 50% of the times when they were compared by means of the classification strength and ANOVA, respectively. MMC also showed low correspondence with these classifications (ARI = 0.20). Thus, the use of modeled flow series should be limited to poorly gauged areas. Finally, the significantly reduced performance and the uneven distribution of classes found in EDC questions its application for different management objectives. This study shows that the selection of the most suitable approach according to the available data has significant implications for the

  8. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakehashi A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Akihiro Kakehashi,1 Mikiko Takezawa,1 Jun Akiba21Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, 2Kanjodori Eye Clinic, Asahikawa, JapanAbstract: Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography (OCT. By biomicroscopy, the vitreous condition is determined based on the presence or absence of a PVD. The PVD then is classified as either a complete posterior vitreous detachment (C-PVD or a partial posterior vitreous detachment (P-PVD. A C-PVD is further divided into a C-PVD with collapse and a C-PVD without collapse, while a P-PVD is divided into a P-PVD with shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD with shrinkage and a P-PVD without shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD without shrinkage. A P-PVD without shrinkage has a subtype characterized by vitreous gel attachment through the premacular hole in a posterior hyaloid membrane to the macula (P-PVD without shrinkage [M]. By OCT, a shallow PVD is classified as the absence of a shallow PVD or as a shallow PVD. A shallow PVD is then subclassified as a shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, a shallow PVD with shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, and a peripheral shallow PVD. A shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex has two subtypes: an age-related shallow PVD and a perifoveal PVD associated with a macular hole.Keywords: classification, optical coherence tomography, PVD, slit-lamp biomicroscopy

  9. Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Advanced Pattern Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2012-01-01

    This monograph presents selected areas of application of pattern recognition and classification approaches including handwriting recognition, medical image analysis and interpretation, development of cognitive systems for image computer understanding, moving object detection, advanced image filtration and intelligent multi-object labelling and classification. It is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors, professors and students will find this book useful.

  10. Outline History of Classification: An Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocran, Emanuel Benjamin

    According to this author, library classification should be viewed in its broader context of the classification of knowledge--the orderly arrangement of thoughts and things for convenient reference. This has been an activity of man since his earliest days, when primitive man first classified animals and plants in the interest of food. Philosophers,…

  11. STUDY ON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CHINESE COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    1998-01-01

    An integrated coal classification system-technical/commercial and scientific/geneticclassification in China is discussed in this paper. This system shall enable producers, sellers andpurchasers to communicate unambiguously with regard to the quality of coal complying with therequirements of the respective application. The determination of perfect coal classification systemis an important measure for rational utilization of coal resources.

  12. Webpage Segments Classification with Incremental Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Kim, Yang Sok; Kang, Byeong Ho

    This paper suggests an incremental information extraction method for social network analysis of web publications. For this purpose, we employed an incremental knowledge acquisition method, called MCRDR (Multiple Classification Ripple-Down Rules), to classify web page segments. Our experimental results show that our MCRDR-based web page segments classification system successfully supports easy acquisition and maintenance of information extraction rules.

  13. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  14. WHO-EORTC classification for cutaneous lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemze, Rein; Jaffe, Elaine S; Burg, Günter; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Swerdlow, Steven H; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Chimenti, Sergio; Diaz-Perez, José L; Duncan, Lyn M; Grange, Florent; Harris, Nancy Lee; Kempf, Werner; Kerl, Helmut; Kurrer, Michael; Knobler, Robert; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Sander, Christian; Santucci, Marco; Sterry, Wolfram; Vermeer, Maarten H; Wechsler, Janine; Whittaker, Sean; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2005-05-15

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are currently classified by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) classification or the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, but both systems have shortcomings. In particular, differences in the classification of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas other than mycosis fungoides, Sezary syndrome, and the group of primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders and the classification and terminology of different types of cutaneous B-cell lymphomas have resulted in considerable debate and confusion. During recent consensus meetings representatives of both systems reached agreement on a new classification, which is now called the WHO-EORTC classification. In this paper we describe the characteristic features of the different primary cutaneous lymphomas and other hematologic neoplasms frequently presenting in the skin, and discuss differences with the previous classification schemes. In addition, the relative frequency and survival data of 1905 patients with primary cutaneous lymphomas derived from Dutch and Austrian registries for primary cutaneous lymphomas are presented to illustrate the clinical significance of this new classification.

  15. Proposed Classification of Software for CAMAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Palle; Moszczynskii, J. J.; Nicolaysen, O. P.

    1974-01-01

    This proposed classification of CAMAC software is an extension of the scheme used for the CAMAC hardware product guide. An example of a CAMAC software guide illustrates the use of this classification. A form summarising the data needed for the exchange of software documentation is included...

  16. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (TERMINOLOGICALAND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Kuzmina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the data of home and foreign literature and on the long-term experience of pediatric rheumatologists, terminologic and classification aspects of Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA are presented. Approaches to developing of diagnostic and classification of JRA criteria in future are described.

  17. 46 CFR 164.018-3 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 164.018-3 Section 164.018-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Classification. The following types of retroreflective material are approved under this specification: (a) Type...

  18. 32 CFR 1602.2 - Administrative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative classification. 1602.2 Section 1602.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.2 Administrative classification. A reclassification action relating to a registrant's...

  19. 46 CFR 162.028-2 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 162.028-2 Section 162.028-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Classification. (a) Every portable fire extinguisher shall be classified as to type and size as specified in §...

  20. 18 CFR 367.26 - Departmental classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Departmental classification. 367.26 Section 367.26 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... ACT General Instructions § 367.26 Departmental classification. Salaries and wages and all other...

  1. Investigating Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Animal Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Jacob N.; Duran, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted regarding alternative conceptions about animal diversity and classification, many of which have used a cross-age approach to investigate how students' conceptions change over time. None of these studies, however, have investigated teachers' conceptions of animal classification. This study was intended to…

  2. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as...

  3. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  4. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  5. 46 CFR 162.039-2 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 162.039-2 Section 162.039-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Classification. (a) Every semiportable fire extinguisher shall be classified as to type and size as specified...

  6. AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Koerner, John D.; Radcliff, Kris E.; Oner, F. Cumhur; Reinhold, Maximilian; Schnake, Klaus J.; Kandziora, Frank; Fehlings, Michael G.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Vialle, Luiz R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This project describes a morphology-based subaxial cervical spine traumatic injury classification system. Using the same approach as the thoracolumbar system, the goal was to develop a comprehensive yet simple classification system with high intra- and interobserver reliability to be used f

  7. [Classification of epileptic seizures and syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noachtar, S; Rémi, J

    2012-02-01

    Advances in diagnostic and therapeutic options require a revision of the current classification of seizures and epilepsies. Recently, a classification proposal was introduced which reflects the ambivalence of the Internationalen Liga gegen Epilepsie (ILAE). We suggest that epileptology should utilize the same established systematic approach used in clinical neurology.

  8. Cluster-based adaptive metric classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Petkov, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Introducing adaptive metric has been shown to improve the results of distance-based classification algorithms. Existing methods are often computationally intensive, either in the training or in the classification phase. We present a novel algorithm that we call Cluster-Based Adaptive Metric (CLAM) c

  9. 28 CFR 524.73 - Classification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.73... this section, an inmate (including pretrial inmates) may be classified as a CIM case at any time by a... Prisons, does not require additional review, and overrides any other CIM assignment. (2) State...

  10. Computerized classification testing with the Rasch model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theo J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the

  11. Classification of Pansharpened Urban Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, Frosti; Sveinsson, Johannes R.; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2012-01-01

    The classification of high resolution urban remote sensing imagery is addressed with the focus on classification of imagery that has been pansharpened by a number of different pansharpening methods. The pansharpening process introduces some spectral and spatial distortions in the resulting fused ...

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karnal H.Yasir; TANG Yun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented. This classification is an extension of the result given by Takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KamalH.Yasir; TNAGYun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented.This classification is an extension of the result given by takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.

  14. 76 FR 47614 - Mail Classification Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Mail Classification Change AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request for a change in classification to the ``Reply Rides Free'' program. The change increases the qualifying First-Class mail letter weight. This...

  15. Asiago spectroscopic classification of two SNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; OAPd, M. Turatto (INAF

    2016-09-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of two transients. The targets are supplied by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNOvae (ASAS-SN) and the TNS (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il).

  16. Are classifications of proximal radius fractures reproducible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos João BG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the proximal radius need to be classified in an appropriate and reproducible manner. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the three most widely used classification systems. Methods Elbow radiographs images of patients with proximal radius fractures were classified according to Mason, Morrey, and Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classifications by four observers with different experience with this subject to assess their intra- and inter-observer agreement. Each observer analyzed the images on three different occasions on a computer with numerical sequence randomly altered. Results We found that intra-observer agreement of Mason and Morrey classifications were satisfactory (κ = 0.582 and 0.554, respectively, while the AO/ASIF classification had poor intra-observer agreement (κ = 0.483. Inter-observer agreement was higher in the Mason (κ = 0.429-0.560 and Morrey (κ = 0.319-0.487 classifications than in the AO/ASIF classification (κ = 0.250-0.478, which showed poor reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra-observer agreement of the Mason and Morey classifications showed overall satisfactory reliability when compared to the AO/ASIF system. The Mason classification is the most reliable system.

  17. Classification issues related to neuropathic trigeminal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2004-01-01

    The goal of a classification system of medical conditions is to facilitate accurate communication, to ensure that each condition is described uniformly and universally and that all data banks for the storage and retrieval of research and clinical data related to the conditions are consistent. Classification entails deciding which kinds of diagnostic entities should be recognized and how to order them in a meaningful way. Currently there are 3 major pain classification systems of relevance to orofacial pain: The International Association for the Study of Pain classification system, the International Headache Society classification system, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). All use different methodologies, and only the RDC/TMD take into account social and psychologic factors in the classification of conditions. Classification systems need to be reliable, valid, comprehensive, generalizable, and flexible, and they need to be tested using consensus views of experts as well as the available literature. There is an urgent need for a robust classification system for neuropathic trigeminal pain.

  18. Classification Trees for Problems with Monotonicity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Potharst (Rob); A.J. Feelders

    2002-01-01

    textabstractFor classification problems with ordinal attributes very often the class attribute should increase with each or some of the explaining attributes. These are called classification problems with monotonicity constraints. Classical decision tree algorithms such as CART or C4.5 generally do

  19. Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenario...... sow-activity classification can be approached with standard machine learning methods for pattern classification. Individual predictions for elements of times series of arbitrary length are combined to classify it as a whole. An extensive comparison of representative learning algorithms, including...... neural networks, support vector machines, and ensemble methods, is presented. Experimental results are reported using a data set for sow-activity classification collected in a real production herd. The data set, which has been widely used in related works, includes measurements from active (Feeding...

  20. Classifications of objects on hyperspectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    tablets have the same or similar excipient and different active ingredients, some of the pixels chemically will be identical. But these similar pixels will be associated with different classes when a classification model is being calibrated. This can give unstable model and poor classification results...... information about spatial relations of the pixels. This works well in general, especially for exploratory analysis or multivariate curve resolution, but for some specific tasks it is not beneficial at all. One of such tasks is classification or clustering of objects on hyperspectral images. An object here....... In the present work a classification method that combines classic image classification approach and MIA is proposed. The basic idea is to group all pixels and calculate spectral properties of the pixel group to be used further as a vector of predictors for calibration and class prediction. The grouping can...

  1. The Classification and Indexing of Imaginative Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2005-01-01

    With the indexing of imaginative literature included in an expanding number of bibliographic databases, the overall representation of this kind of literature has definitely been improved. Still, in terms of information retrieval and being able to judge the relevance of the titles, it seems...... that the usefulness of classification and indexing alike are still being restricted by some old romantic and objectivistic, or even positivistic, ideas and ideals. In order to argue that point the paper firstly re-examines the classification of imaginative literature in early editions of the Dewey Decimal...... Classification, then analyzes the main structures in the modern classification and indexing in the Library of Congress and in the Danish Bibliographic Centre. It is concluded that the classification of imaginative literature not has changed very much since the days of Dewey and that the indexing largely reflects...

  2. Hyperspectral image classification using functional data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Xiao, Guangrun; Xia, Tian; Tang, Y Y; Li, Luoqing

    2014-09-01

    The large number of spectral bands acquired by hyperspectral imaging sensors allows us to better distinguish many subtle objects and materials. Unlike other classical hyperspectral image classification methods in the multivariate analysis framework, in this paper, a novel method using functional data analysis (FDA) for accurate classification of hyperspectral images has been proposed. The central idea of FDA is to treat multivariate data as continuous functions. From this perspective, the spectral curve of each pixel in the hyperspectral images is naturally viewed as a function. This can be beneficial for making full use of the abundant spectral information. The relevance between adjacent pixel elements in the hyperspectral images can also be utilized reasonably. Functional principal component analysis is applied to solve the classification problem of these functions. Experimental results on three hyperspectral images show that the proposed method can achieve higher classification accuracies in comparison to some state-of-the-art hyperspectral image classification methods.

  3. Classification and Analysis of Computer Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    various classification modes (decision trees, rulesets, boosting, softening thresholds) regarding the classification accuracy and the time required to create the classifier. We showed how to use our VBS tool to obtain per-flow, per-application, and per-content statistics of traffic in computer networks...... classification (as by using transport layer port numbers, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), statistical classification) and assessed their usefulness in particular areas. We found that the classification techniques based on port numbers are not accurate anymore as most applications use dynamic port numbers, while...... DPI is relatively slow, requires a lot of processing power, and causes a lot of privacy concerns. Statistical classifiers based on Machine Learning Algorithms (MLAs) were shown to be fast and accurate. At the same time, they do not consume a lot of resources and do not cause privacy concerns. However...

  4. Learning features for tissue classification with the classification restricted Boltzmann machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tulder, Gijs; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Performance of automated tissue classification in medical imaging depends on the choice of descriptive features. In this paper, we show how restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) can be used to learn features that are especially suited for texture-based tissue classification. We introduce...... the convolutional classification RBM, a combination of the existing convolutional RBM and classification RBM, and use it for discriminative feature learning. We evaluate the classification accuracy of convolutional and non-convolutional classification RBMs on two lung CT problems. We find that RBM-learned features...... outperform conventional RBM-based feature learning, which is unsupervised and uses only a generative learning objective, as well as often-used filter banks. We show that a mixture of generative and discriminative learning can produce filters that give a higher classification accuracy....

  5. 75 FR 69142 - Postal Rate and Classification Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Postal Rate and Classification Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... its intention of planned rate and classification changes rates for certain competitive domestic and... competitive products.\\1\\ The Filing also includes related mail classification changes. The Postal...

  6. A Multi-layer Hybrid Framework for Dimensional Emotion Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Gunes, Hatice; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates dimensional emotion prediction and classification from naturalistic facial expressions. Similarly to many pattern recognition problems, dimensional emotion classification requires generating multi-dimensional outputs. To date, classification for valence and arousal dimensions

  7. Validation and Classification of Web Services using Equalization Validation Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAMELU MUTHUKRISHNAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the business process world, web services present a managed and middleware to connect huge number of services. Web service transaction is a mechanism to compose services with their desired quality parameters. If enormous transactions occur, the provider could not acquire the accurate data at the correct time. So it is necessary to reduce the overburden of web service t ransactions. In order to reduce the excess of transactions form customers to providers, this paper propose a new method called Equalization Validation Classification. This method introduces a new weight - reducing algorithm called Efficient Trim Down algorit hm to reduce the overburden of the incoming client requests. When this proposed algorithm is compared with Decision tree algorithms of (J48, Random Tree, Random Forest, AD Tree it produces a better accuracy and Validation than the existing algorithms. The proposed trimming method was analyzed with the Decision tree algorithms and the results implementation shows that the ETD algorithm provides better performance in terms of improved accuracy with Effective Validation. Therefore, the proposed method provide s a good gateway to reduce the overburden of the client requests in web services. Moreover analyzing the requests arrived from a vast number of clients and preventing the illegitimate requests save the service provider time

  8. Classification of primary articular chondrocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnan, D; Sitaj, S

    1979-01-01

    classification of CCA because, based on an analysis of major groups of patients, it was revealed that there is a varied picture of chondrocalcinosis or pseudogout (18, 19) or deposition disease (17). of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals. In our paper we are presenting our view on the primary form of CCA and submitting the characteristics of classification which ensued from more than 20 years observation of our group of patients, in particular based on the evaluation of the beginning of the clinical and X-ray manifestations and the further development of the disease.

  9. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  10. Classifications of patterned hair loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  11. Multi-Level Audio Classification Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Vavrek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-level classification architecture for solving binary discrimination problem is proposed in this paper. The main idea of proposed solution is derived from the fact that solving one binary discrimination problem multiple times can reduce the overall miss-classification error. We aimed our effort towards building the classification architecture employing the combination of multiple binary SVM (Support Vector Machine classifiers for solving two-class discrimination problem. Therefore, we developed a binary discrimination architecture employing the SVM classifier (BDASVM with intention to use it for classification of broadcast news (BN audio data. The fundamental element of BDASVM is the binary decision (BD algorithm that performs discrimination between each pair of acoustic classes utilizing decision function modeled by separating hyperplane. The overall classification accuracy is conditioned by finding the optimal parameters for discrimination function resulting in higher computational complexity. The final form of proposed BDASVM is created by combining four BDSVM discriminators supplemented by decision table. Experimental results show that the proposed classification architecture can decrease the overall classification error in comparison with binary decision trees SVM (BDTSVM architecture.

  12. Neural network parameters affecting image classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Tiwari

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The study is to assess the behaviour and impact of various neural network parameters and their effects on the classification accuracy of remotely sensed images which resulted in successful classification of an IRS-1B LISS II image of Roorkee and its surrounding areas using neural network classification techniques. The method can be applied for various defence applications, such as for the identification of enemy troop concentrations and in logistical planning in deserts by identification of suitable areas for vehicular movement. Five parameters, namely training sample size, number of hidden layers, number of hidden nodes, learning rate and momentum factor were selected. In each case, sets of values were decided based on earlier works reported. Neural network-based classifications were carried out for as many as 450 combinations of these parameters. Finally, a graphical analysis of the results obtained was carried out to understand the relationship among these parameters. A table of recommended values for these parameters for achieving 90 per cent and higher classification accuracy was generated and used in classification of an IRS-1B LISS II image. The analysis suggests the existence of an intricate relationship among these parameters and calls for a wider series of classification experiments as also a more intricate analysis of the relationships.

  13. Understanding about the classification of pulp inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since most authors use the reversible pulpitis and irreversible pulpitis classification, however, many dentists still do not implement these new classifications. Research was made using a descriptive method by proposing questionnaire to dentists from various dental clinics. The numbers of the dentists participating in this research are 22 dentists. All respondents use the diagnosis sheet during their examinations on patients. Nonetheless, it can't be known what diagnosis card used and most of the dentists are still using the old classification. Concerning responses given towards the new classification: a the new classification had been heard, however, it was not clear (36.3%; b the new classification has never been heard at all (63.6%. Then, responses concerning whether a new development is important to be followed-up or not: a there are those who think that information concerning new development is very important (27.2%; b those who feel that it is important to have new information (68.3%; c those who think that new information is not important (8%. It concluded that information concerning the development of classification of pulp inflammation did not reach the dentists.

  14. A practicable approach for periodontal classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Mittal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and classification of periodontal diseases has remained a dilemma since long. Two distinct concepts have been used to define diseases: Essentialism and Nominalism. Essentialistic concept implies the real existence of disease whereas; nominalistic concept states that the names of diseases are the convenient way of stating concisely the endpoint of a diagnostic process. It generally advances from assessment of symptoms and signs toward knowledge of causation and gives a feasible option to name the disease for which etiology is either unknown or it is too complex to access in routine clinical practice. Various classifications have been proposed by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP in 1986, 1989 and 1999. The AAP 1999 classification is among the most widely used classification. But this classification also has demerits which provide impediment for its use in day to day practice. Hence a classification and diagnostic system is required which can help the clinician to access the patient′s need and provide a suitable treatment which is in harmony with the diagnosis for that particular case. Here is an attempt to propose a practicable classification and diagnostic system of periodontal diseases for better treatment outcome.

  15. Pet fur color and texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  16. ACCUWIND - Methods for classification of cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Busche, P.

    2006-05-15

    Errors associated with the measurement of wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well-calibrated anemometers show significant and not acceptable difference. The European CLASSCUP project posed the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to develop a classification system for quantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. This classification system has now been implemented in the IEC 61400-12-1 standard on power performance measurements in annex I and J. The classification of cup anemometers requires general external climatic operational ranges to be applied for the analysis of systematic errors. A Class A category classification is connected to reasonably flat sites, and another Class B category is connected to complex terrain, General classification indices are the result of assessment of systematic deviations. The present report focuses on methods that can be applied for assessment of such systematic deviations. A new alternative method for torque coefficient measurements at inclined flow have been developed, which have then been applied and compared to the existing methods developed in the CLASSCUP project and earlier. A number of approaches including the use of two cup anemometer models, two methods of torque coefficient measurement, two angular response measurements, and inclusion and exclusion of influence of friction have been implemented in the classification process in order to assess the robustness of methods. The results of the analysis are presented as classification indices, which are compared and discussed. (au)

  17. Artificial neural network classification using a minimal training set - Comparison to conventional supervised classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas; Ritter, Niles; Bryant, Nevin

    1990-01-01

    Recent research has shown an artificial neural network (ANN) to be capable of pattern recognition and the classification of image data. This paper examines the potential for the application of neural network computing to satellite image processing. A second objective is to provide a preliminary comparison and ANN classification. An artificial neural network can be trained to do land-cover classification of satellite imagery using selected sites representative of each class in a manner similar to conventional supervised classification. One of the major problems associated with recognition and classifications of pattern from remotely sensed data is the time and cost of developing a set of training sites. This reseach compares the use of an ANN back propagation classification procedure with a conventional supervised maximum likelihood classification procedure using a minimal training set. When using a minimal training set, the neural network is able to provide a land-cover classification superior to the classification derived from the conventional classification procedure. This research is the foundation for developing application parameters for further prototyping of software and hardware implementations for artificial neural networks in satellite image and geographic information processing.

  18. Audio-Visual Classification of Sports Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a method for classification of sports types from combined audio and visual features ex- tracted from thermal video. From audio Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are extracted, and PCA are applied to reduce the feature space to 10 dimensions. From the visual modality...... short trajectories are constructed to rep- resent the motion of players. From these, four motion fea- tures are extracted and combined directly with audio fea- tures for classification. A k-nearest neighbour classifier is applied for classification of 180 1-minute video sequences from three sports types...

  19. Histological classification of mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dmitrenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS is the most common histopathology occurring in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Over the past decades, there have been various attempts to classify the variants of hippocampal neuronal cell loss in relation to postoperative outcome. However, no consensus on the common international definition and classification of MTS has been reached. The article describes the modern histological classification based on a semiquantitative hippocampal cell loss model. The publications dealing with the histological classification of mesial temporal sclerosis are reviewed. 

  20. Sports Type Classification using Signature Heatmaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Automatic classification of activities in a sports arena is important in order to analyse and optimise the use of the arenas. In this work we classify five sports types based only on occupancy heatmaps produced from position data. Due to privacy issues we use thermal imaging for detecting people...... and then calculate their positions on the court us- ing homography. Heatmaps are produced by summarising Gaussian distributions respresenting people over 10-minute periods. Before classification the heatmaps are projected to a low-dimensional discriminative space using the principle of Fisherfaces. Our result using...... two weeks of video are very promising with a correct classification of 90.76 %....