WorldWideScience

Sample records for classification design challenges

  1. Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Richard; Jha, Saurabh; Kuhlmann, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    We have publicly released a blinded mix of simulated SNe, with types (Ia, Ib, Ic, II) selected in proportion to their expected rate. The simulation is realized in the griz filters of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with realistic observing conditions (sky noise, point spread function and atmospheric transparency) based on years of recorded conditions at the DES site. Simulations of non-Ia type SNe are based on spectroscopically confirmed light curves that include unpublished non-Ia samples donated from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP), the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II). We challenge scientists to run their classification algorithms and report a type for each SN. A spectroscopically confirmed subset is provided for training. The goals of this challenge are to (1) learn the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different classification algorithms, (2) use the results to improve classification algorithms, and (3) understand what spectroscopically confirmed sub-...

  2. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... challenges to classification actions shall be in writing to an original classification authority (OCA) with.... The Department (either the OCA or IPS) shall provide an initial response in writing within 60 days....

  3. 28 CFR 17.30 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 17.30 Section 17.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND... DRC shall redact the identity of an individual challenging a classification under paragraph (a)...

  4. The Backpack Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Something as simple as carrying books to school can be an interesting design challenge for students. It's an old problem that gets reinvented from time to time. In this article, the author discusses a backpack design challenge in which teachers work with students to design another way to carry books to school. The challenge started by trying to…

  5. Tornado design classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for identifying those structures, systems, and components of light-water-cooled reactors that should be designed to withstand the effects of the Design Basis Tornado (see Regulatory Guide 1.76, ''Design Basis Tornado for Nuclear Power Plants''), including tornado missiles, and remain functional

  6. Results from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Richard; Belov, Pavel; Bhatnagar, Vasudha; Campbell, Heather; Conley, Alex; Frieman, Joshua A; Glazov, Alexandre; Hlozek, Santiago Gonzalez-Gaitan Renee; Jha, Saurabh; Kuhlmann, Stephen; Kunz, Martin; Lampeitl, Hubert; Mahabal, Ashish; Newling, James; Nichol, Robert C; Parkinson, David; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Poznanski, Dovi; Richards, Joseph W; Rodney, Steven A; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Varughese, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge (SNPCC), a publicly released mix of simulated SNe, with types (Ia, Ibc, II) selected in proportion to their expected rate. The simulation was realized in the griz filters of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with realistic observing conditions (sky noise, point spread function and atmospheric transparency) based on years of recorded conditions at the DES site. Simulations of non-Ia type SNe are based on spectroscopically confirmed light curves that include unpublished non-Ia samples donated from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP), the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II). A spectroscopically confirmed subset was provided for training. We challenged scientists to run their classification algorithms and report a type and photo-z for each SN. Participants from 10 groups contributed 13 entries for the sample that included a host galaxy photo-z for each SN, and 9 entries for the sample that had no redshi...

  7. Challenges for the present CKD classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review In 2002 the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) organization published a guideline on chronic kidney disease (CKD), which contained a classification system for CKD severity, independent of cause. This classification system was immediately widely embraced. However, s

  8. Design evaluaion: pneumatic transport and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the evaluation of selected design features of the cold engineering scale pneumatic transport and classification subsystems used in the development of the head-end equipment for HTGR fuel reprocessing. The report identifies areas that require further design effort and evaluation of alternatives prior to the design of the HTGR reference recycle facility (HRRF). Seven areas in the transport subsystem and three in the classification subsystem were selected for evaluation. Seventeen specific recommendations are presented for further design effort

  9. Software Design Level Vulnerability Classification Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shabana Rehman; Khurram Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Classification of software security vulnerability no doubt facilitates the understanding of security-related information and accelerates vulnerability analysis. The lack of proper classification not only hinders its understanding but also renders the strategy of developing mitigation mechanism for clustered vulnerabilities. Now software developers and researchers are agreed on the fact that requirement and design phase of the software are the phases where security incorporation yields maximum...

  10. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane;

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a systematic and thorough survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order to...... investigate if the challenges can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during...

  11. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  12. Challenges of aircraft design integration

    OpenAIRE

    Kafyeke, F.; Abdo, M.; Pepin, F; Piperni, P.; Laurendeau, E.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a modern airplane brings together many disciplines: structures, aerodynamics, controls, systems, propulsion with complex interdependencies and many variables. Recent aircraft programs, such as Bombardier's Continental Jet program use participants located around the world and selected for their cost, quality and delivery capability. These participants share the risk on the program and must therefore be fully implicated in the design. A big challenge is to provide information on c...

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF CRYOSOLS: SIGNIFICANCE,ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; GONG Zi-tong; CHEN Zhi-cheng; TAN Man-zhi

    2003-01-01

    International concerns about the effects of global change on permafrost-affected soils and responses of permafrost terrestrial landscapes to such change have been increasing in the last two decades. To achieve a variety of goals including the determining of soil carbon stocks and dynamics in the Northern Hemisphere, the understanding of soil degradation and the best ways to protect the fragile ecosystems in permafrost environment, further study development on Cryosol classification is being in great demand. In this paper the existing Cryosol classifications contained in three representative soil taxonomies are introduced, and the problems in the practical application of the defining criteria used for category differentiation in these taxonomic systems are discussed. Meanwhile, the resumption and reconstruction of Chinese Cryosol classification within a taxonomic frame is proposed. In dealing with Cryosol classification the advantages that Chinese pedologists have and the challenges that they have to face are analyzed. Finally, several suggestions on the study development of the further taxonomic frame of Cryosol classification are put forward.

  14. New challenges for data design

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides a platform for leading data designers whose vision and creativity help us to anticipate major changes occurring in the data design field, and pre-empt the future. Each of them strives to provide new answers to the question, “What challenges await data design?” To avoid falling into too narrow a mind-set, each works hard to elucidate the breadth of data design today and to demonstrate its widespread application across a variety of business sectors. With end users in mind, designer-contributors bring to light the myriad of purposes for which the field was originally intended, forging the bond even further between data design and the aims and intentions of those who contribute to it. The first seven parts of the book outline the scope of data design, and presents a line-up of “viewpoints” that highlight this discipline’s main topics, and offers an in-depth look into practices boasting both foresight and imagination. The eighth and final part features a series of interviews wit...

  15. Cell-based therapy technology classifications and translational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Natalie M; Ward, Stephen J; Kefalas, Panos; Hyllner, Johan

    2015-10-19

    Cell therapies offer the promise of treating and altering the course of diseases which cannot be addressed adequately by existing pharmaceuticals. Cell therapies are a diverse group across cell types and therapeutic indications and have been an active area of research for many years but are now strongly emerging through translation and towards successful commercial development and patient access. In this article, we present a description of a classification of cell therapies on the basis of their underlying technologies rather than the more commonly used classification by cell type because the regulatory path and manufacturing solutions are often similar within a technology area due to the nature of the methods used. We analyse the progress of new cell therapies towards clinical translation, examine how they are addressing the clinical, regulatory, manufacturing and reimbursement requirements, describe some of the remaining challenges and provide perspectives on how the field may progress for the future. PMID:26416686

  16. Power-Efficient Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrle, Barry

    significant gains can be realized and why power-efficiency requirements will continue to challenge designers into the future. Despite new process technologies, the future will continue to rely on innovative design approaches.

  17. Multiverse Scenarios in Cosmology: Classification, Cause, Challenge, Controversy, and Criticism

    CERN Document Server

    Vaas, Ruediger

    2010-01-01

    Multiverse scenarios in cosmology assume that other universes exist "beyond" our own universe. They are an exciting challenge both for empirical and theoretical research as well as for philosophy of science. They could be necessary to understand why the big bang occurred, why (some of) the laws of nature and the values of certain physical constants are the way they are, and why there is an arrow of time. This essay clarifies competing notions of "universe" and "multiverse"; it proposes a classification of different multiverse types according to various aspects how the universes are or are not separated from each other; it reviews the main reasons for assuming the existence of other universes: empirical evidence, theoretical explanation, and philosophical arguments; and, finally, it argues that some attempts to criticize multiverse scenarios as "unscientific", insisting on a narrow understanding of falsification, is neither appropriate nor convincing from a philosophy of science point of view. -- Keywords: big...

  18. Multicriteria classification for photonic crystal fiber design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Imene; Belacel, Nabil; Bouslimani, Yassine; Hamam, Habib; Attia, Rabah

    2008-06-01

    The photonic crystal fibers (PCF) are considered as the future information support for the telecommunication system. In this paper, a multicriteria method is used for the design of the PCFs with the user-defined optical proprieties. This method combines the deductive and the inductive learning and it is introduced for the first time in the field of optical fibers. These simulation tools will be optimized for PCF structures in order to optimize the parameters necessary for the improvement of the communication system performances. The multicriteria decision analysis makes it possible to evaluate the optical proprieties of PCFs by determining the effects of attenuation and distortion caused by Physics Phenomena. This decision is done by the means of a relational model preferably. As a result, this method avoids the recourse to distances and makes it possible to use quantitative and/or qualitative criteria. Moreover, it defeat some difficulties encountered when data are expressed in different units. These advantages allow the new multicriteria classification method to be employed easily to the diagnosis and to the design of photonic-crystals fibers.

  19. Towards a unified classification of the ectodermal dysplasias: opportunities outweigh challenges.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irvine, Alan D

    2012-02-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias include a complex and highly diverse group of heritable disorders that share in common developmental abnormalities of ectodermal derivatives. The broader definition of ectodermal dysplasias (as heritable disorders involving at least two of the ectodermal derivatives nails, teeth, hair, and eccrine sweat glands) encompasses 170-200 conditions. Some conditions included by this definition are relatively common; others are rare and, in some cases, family-specific. Classification of the ectodermal dysplasias has largely been approached by categorizing patterns of clinical findings (phenotypic grouping). In the last 2 decades great progress has been made in understanding the molecular pathogenesis and inter-relatedness of some of these conditions and a new consensus approach to classification that incorporates this new information is needed. A comprehensive and definitive classification of these disorders would be highly valuable for the many stakeholders in ED. As disease-specific molecular treatments are developed, accurate classification will assume greater importance in designing registries to enable rapid identification of those with rare disorders who may wish to participate in clinical trials. Ideally a working classification of such a disparate collection of conditions would have a design and architecture that would facilitate easy accessibility by each of the key stakeholder groups and would encourage enhanced interaction between these parties. Attaining this objective is a major challenge but is achievable. This article reviews the historical-clinical perspective and the impact of recent developments in molecular biology in the field. Reflections are offered as to the future direction of classification systems in these disorders.

  20. Designing a Classification System for Internet Offenders: Doing Cognitive Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…

  1. Challenges to Designing Game-Based Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core of...

  2. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  3. Rock mass classification and tunnel support design in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wangh, SJ; Lee, CF; Kwong, AKL

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the two recently established rock mass classification systems in China, namely the Basic Quality (BQ) and Host Rock Rating (HRR) systems. The establishment of the BQ and HRR rock mass classification systems in China is based on huge amount of experiences gathered in the design stages and later verified in the construction of rock tunnels and underground structures in China. The BQ system was originally used for classification ...

  4. Design of spectral filtering for tissue classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ajay; Shah, Pratik; Das, Bipul

    2012-02-01

    Tissue characterization from imaging studies is an integral part of clinical practice. We describe a spectral filter design for tissue separation in dual energy CT scans obtained from Gemstone Spectral Imaging scanner. It enables to have better 2D/3D visualization and tissue characterization in normal and pathological conditions. The major challenge to classify tissues in conventional computed tomography (CT) is the x-ray attenuation proximity of multiple tissues at any given energy. The proposed method analyzes the monochromatic images at different energy levels, which are derived from the two scans obtained at low and high KVp through fast switching. Although materials have a distinct attenuation profile across different energies, tissue separation is not trivial as tissues are a mixture of different materials with range of densities that vary across subjects. To address this problem, we define spectral filtering, that generates probability maps for each tissue in multi-energy space. The filter design incorporates variations in the tissue due to composition, density of individual constituents and their mixing proportions. In addition, it also provides a framework to incorporate zero mean Gaussian noise. We demonstrate the application of spectral filtering for bone-free vascular visualization and calcification characterization.

  5. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time......Summary form only given. Embedded systems are everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded systems. Over 99% of the microprocessors produced today are used in embedded systems, and recently the number of embedded systems...... in use has become larger than the number of humans on the planet. The complexity of embedded systems is growing at a very high pace and the constraints in terms of functionality, performance, low energy consumption, reliability, cost and time-to-market are getting tighter. Therefore, the task of...

  6. Mechatronic Design - Still a Considerable Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane;

    2011-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order to investigate, if the challenges...... can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during the design task, and...

  7. Mechatronic Design - Still a Considerable Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane; Wikander, Jan; During, Carl; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order to investigate, if the challenges...... can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during the design task, and...

  8. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  9. Using QA classification to guide design and manage risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raytheon Services Nevada has developed a classification process based on probabilistic risk assessment, using accident/impact scenarios for each system classified. Initial classification analyses were performed for the 20 systems of Package IA of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The analyses demonstrated a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification which minimizes the use of direct engineering judgment. They provide guidance for ESF design and risk management through the identification of: The critical characteristics of each system that need to be controlled; and the parts of the information base that most need to be further developed through performance assessment or other efforts

  10. Challenges in biomimetic design and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Barfoed, Michael; Shu, Li

    is a key issue in design and innovation work where problem identification and systematic search for suitable solution principle are major activities. One way to deal with this challenge is to use a biology search method. The use of such a method is illustrated with a case story describing the design...... including the terminology and knowledge organisation. It is often easy to recognise the splendour of a biological solution, but it can be much more difficult to understand the underlying mechanisms. Another challenge in biomimetic design is the search and identification of relevant solutions in nature. This...

  11. Challenges of interfacial classification for grain boundary engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Paidar, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2005), s. 393-398. ISSN 0267-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/02/0253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : grain boundary classification * grain boundary engineering * grain boundary segregation * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2005

  12. The Sound Challenge to Visualization Design Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Löwgren, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the emotional qualities of sound and music, and we suggest that the visual and the aural modalities should be combined in the design of visualizations involving emotional expressions. We therefore propose that visualization design should incorporate sonic interaction design drawing on musicology, cognitive neuroscience of music, and psychology of music, and identify what we see as key research challenges for such an approach.

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH CHALLENGES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF CARDIOTOCOGRAM DATA

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sundar; M. Chitradevi; G. Geetharamani

    2013-01-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is a simultaneous recording of Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) and Uterine Contractions (UC). The most common diagnostic techniques to evaluate maternal and fetal well-being during pregnancy and before delivery. By observing the Cardiotocography trace patterns doctors can understand the state of the fetus. There are several signal processing and computer programming based techniques for interpreting a typical Cardiotocography data. A model based CTG data classification system us...

  14. Overcoming challenges in the classification of deep geothermal potential

    OpenAIRE

    Breede, K.; Dzebisashvili, K.; Falcone, G.

    2015-01-01

    The geothermal community lacks a universal definition of deep geothermal systems. A minimum depth of 400 m is often assumed, with a further sub-classification into middle-deep geothermal systems for reservoirs found between 400 and 1000 m. Yet, the simplistic use of a depth cut-off is insufficient to uniquely determine the type of resource and its associated potential. Different definitions and criteria have been proposed in the past to frame deep geothermal systems. However...

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH CHALLENGES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF CARDIOTOCOGRAM DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sundar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotocography (CTG is a simultaneous recording of Fetal Heart Rate (FHR and Uterine Contractions (UC. The most common diagnostic techniques to evaluate maternal and fetal well-being during pregnancy and before delivery. By observing the Cardiotocography trace patterns doctors can understand the state of the fetus. There are several signal processing and computer programming based techniques for interpreting a typical Cardiotocography data. A model based CTG data classification system using a supervised Artificial Neural Network (ANN which can classify the CTG data based on its training data. The performance neural network based classification model has been compared with the most commonly used unsupervised clustering methods Fuzzy C-mean and k-mean clustering. The arrived results show that the performance of the supervised machine learning based classification approach provided significant performance than other compared unsupervised clustering methods. The traditional clustering methods can identify the Normal CTG patterns; they were incapable of finding Suspicious and Pathologic patterns. The ANN based classifier was capable of identifying Normal, Suspicious and Pathologic condition, from the nature of CTG data with very good accuracy.

  16. Challenges with Multi-Dimensional Inventory Classifications and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of automation in Inventory Management is increasing day by day. In ERPs various parameters have to be defined to achieve even simple levels of automation like Reorder-Point, Minimum Order Quantity, Lot-Size, Lead-Time etc. Inventory Management with today’s ERP systems can become simpler if the parameter settings of Materials Requirement Planning (MRP and Master Production Schedule (MPS are clearly understood and mapped. Various Inventory Classification methods are used like the ABC, XYZ, VED, FSN, HML, SDE etc. to group the products and maintain similar parameter settings for different group of products. Each parameter setting and product classifications have underlying assumptions. In our daily business the underlying assumptions may often be overlooked. The primary objective in this study is to highlight one of the assumptions taken for granted and to find an optimized solution for Inventory Classification for this assumption. This in turn can help enterprises be more flexible with better managed inventory.

  17. Overcoming challenges in the classification of deep geothermal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breede, K.; Dzebisashvili, K.; Falcone, G.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal community lacks a universal definition of deep geothermal systems. A minimum depth of 400 m is often assumed, with a further sub-classification into middle-deep geothermal systems for reservoirs found between 400 and 1000 m. Yet, the simplistic use of a depth cut-off is insufficient to uniquely determine the type of resource and its associated potential. Different definitions and criteria have been proposed in the past to frame deep geothermal systems. However, although they have valid assumptions, these frameworks lack systematic integration of correlated factors. To further complicate matters, new definitions such as hot dry rock (HDR), enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGSs) or deep heat mining have been introduced over the years. A clear and transparent approach is needed to estimate the potential of deep geothermal systems and be capable of distinguishing between resources of a different nature. In order to overcome the ambiguity associated with some past definitions such as EGS, this paper proposes the return to a more rigorous petrothermal versus hydrothermal classification. This would be superimposed with numerical criteria for the following: depth and temperature; predominance of conduction, convection or advection; formation type; rock properties; heat source type; requirement for formation stimulation and corresponding efficiency; requirement to provide the carrier fluid; well productivity (or injectivity); production (or circulation) flow rate; and heat recharge mode. Using the results from data mining of past and present deep geothermal projects worldwide, a classification of the same, according to the aforementioned criteria is proposed.

  18. Post-industrial landscape - its identification and classification as contemporary challenges faced by geographic research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolejka, Jaromír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2010), s. 67-78. ISSN 1842-5135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : classification * geographical research * identification method * landscape structure Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://studiacrescent.com/images/02_2010/09_jaromir_kolejka_post_industrial_landscape_its_identification_and_classification_as_contemporary_challenges_faced_by_geographic_.pdf

  19. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology. The...... demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...... to produce a competitive advantage. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry, a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids and an introduction to how a modern hearing is constructed showing the amplifier as the key component in the modern...

  20. Designing Information Measures for Real-time Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Edward; Chen, Yang; Meng, Xiao-Li; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Since telescope time is limited, real-time lightcurve classification involves carefully selecting future time points at which sources must be observed in order to maximize the information that will be gained for classification. We propose a framework for constructing measures of information for testing/classification/model-selection and demonstrate their use in experimental design. Degroot (1962) developed a general framework for constructing Bayesian measures of the expected information that an experiment will provide for estimation, and our framework analogously constructs measures of information for hypothesis testing. Such test information measures are most useful for model selection and classification problems. Indeed, our framework suggests a probability based measure of test information, which in decision problems has more appealing properties than variance based measures. In the case of lightcurve classification, we adapt our designs to penalize long waits until the next observation time. Lastly, we consider ways to address other aspects of the problem, such as uncertainty estimation arising due to contamination from nearby contaminating sources or background diffuse emission. We acknowledge support from Smithsonian Competitive Grants Fund 40488100HH0043 and NSF grant DMS 1208791.

  1. Design challenges for sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of vital importance for commercialized fast reactor to achieve component design with excellent integrity and economics. In the phase II of feasibility study till 2005, a system design for commercialized fast reactor for sodium cooling was achieved. For economical improvement, the system design was undertaken along the guideline including innovative technology for system simplification and new material development. In this paper, the results from the design for shortening of cooling pipings, new components and three dimensional seismic isolation are described, which are design challenges for the sodium cooled fast reactor. Furthermore, in-service inspection and repair is mentioned. Finally, economics for the simplification and the mass reduction employing above technologies are examined

  2. Environmental Challenges in the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Present article is based on qualitative interviews with eight offices involved in the early conceptual stages of the design process. It investigates what experiences they have with their design process especially in relation to address environmental issues. The data from the interviews are analyzed...... through a coding scheme that focuses on what experiences they have in the early stages of the design process with the brief, the environmental concerns and the challenges they meet in this work. From the interviews it is seen that the direction today is to have an increased focus on a multidisciplinary...... design process where the collaboration and broad field of experiences the participants have is needed to be able to address and inform the design process in connection with the environmental concerns from the beginning....

  3. Risk Classification Model for Design and Build Projects

    OpenAIRE

    O. E. Ogunsanmi; O. A. Salako; O. M. Ajayi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the various risk sources in Design and Build projects can be classified into three risk groups of cost, time and quality using the discriminant analysis technique. Literature search was undertaken to review issues of risk sources, classification of the identified risks into a risk structure, management of risks and effects of risks all on Design and Build projects as well as concepts of discriminant analysis as a statistical technique. This liter...

  4. Deep water challenges for drilling rig design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M. [Transocean Sedco Forex, Houston, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Drilling rigs designed for deep water must meet specific design considerations for harsh environments. The early lessons for rig design came from experiences in the North Sea. Rig efficiency and safety considerations must include structural integrity, isolated/redundant ballast controls, triple redundant DP systems, enclosed heated work spaces, and automated equipment such as bridge cranes, pipe handling gear, offline capabilities, subsea tree handling, and computerized drill floors. All components must be designed to harmonize man and machine. Some challenges which are unique to Eastern Canada include frequent storms and fog, cold temperature, icebergs, rig ice, and difficult logistics. This power point presentation described station keeping and mooring issues in terms of dynamic positioning issues. The environmental influence on riser management during forced disconnects was also described. Design issues for connected deep water risers must insure elastic stability, and control deflected shape. The design must also keep stresses within acceptable limits. Codes and standards for stress limits, flex joints and tension were also presented. tabs., figs.

  5. BIOSENSORS: DESIGN, CLASSIFICATION, AND APPLICATIONS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Korotkaya

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are promising analytical tools applicable in clinical diagnostics, food industry, environmental monitoring, and other areas in which rapid and reliable analyses are needed. This review covers the basic types of biosensors and their designs and general operating principles. A classification of biosensors according to the type of transducer they involve and according to the nature of the biological entity used as the recognition element is presented. Methods of immobilization of biol...

  6. Glorious uncertainty-challenges for network design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the challenges that face the crystal engineer in the deliberate design of new network structures. These include control over ligand and metal coordination geometry, selection of network topology from a number of possibilities which all have the same connectivity, and control of methods of increasing packing efficiency, including interpenetration (both number of nets (including only one) and topology of interpenetration). These variables can lead to polymorphism and related phenomena, the bane of crystal engineers. Templation by counterions, guest molecules and/or solvents can also lead to unpredictable results

  7. The ITER Blanket System Design Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The blanket system is one of the most technically challenging components of the ITER machine, having to accommodate high heat fluxes from the plasma, large electromagnetic loads during off-normal events and demanding interfaces with many key components (in particular the vacuum vessel and in-vessel coils) and the plasma. Plasma scenarios impose demanding requirements on the blanket in terms of heat fluxes on various areas of the first wall during different phases of operation (inboard and outboard midplane for start-up/shut-down scenarios and the top region close to the secondary X-point during flat top) as well as large electro-magnetic (EM) loads and transient energy deposition during off-normal plasma events (such as disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDE)). The high heat fluxes resulting in some areas have necessitated the use of “enhanced heat flux” panels capable of accommodating an incident heat flux of up to 5 MW/m2 in steady state. The other regions utilize “normal heat flux” panels, which have been developed and tested for a heat flux of the order of 1 — 2 MW/m2. The FW shaping design requires a compromise between the conflicting requirements for accommodation of steady state and transient loads (energy deposition during off-normal events). A shaped surface increases the heat loads which are due to plasma particles following the field lines compared to a perfectly toroidal surface. The blanket provides a major contribution to the shielding of the vacuum vessel and coils. A challenging criterion is the need to limit the integrated heating in the toroidal field coil (TFC) to ∼ 14 kW. This is particularly severe on the inboard leg where approximately 80% of the total nuclear heat on the TFC is deposited. Several design modifications were considered and analyzed to help achieve this, including increasing the inboard blanket radial thickness and reducing the assembly gaps. This paper summarizes the latest progress in the

  8. Design and implementation based on the classification protection vulnerability scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the application and spread of the classification protection, Network Security Vulnerability Scanning should consider the efficiency and the function expansion. It proposes a kind of a system vulnerability from classification protection, and elaborates the design and implementation of a vulnerability scanning system based on vulnerability classification plug-in technology and oriented classification protection. According to the experiment, the application of classification protection has good adaptability and salability with the system, and it also approves the efficiency of scanning. (authors)

  9. e-Commerce product classification: our participation at cDiscount 2015 challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Partalas, Ioannis; Balikas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This report describes our participation in the cDiscount 2015 challenge where the goal was to classify product items in a predefined taxonomy of products. Our best submission yielded an accuracy score of 64.20\\% in the private part of the leaderboard and we were ranked 10th out of 175 participating teams. We followed a text classification approach employing mainly linear models. The final solution was a weighted voting system which combined a variety of trained models.

  10. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  11. A one square kilometer radiotelescope - Design challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Kelvin J.

    1997-01-01

    SETI searches, as well as radioastronomy, requires large radiotelescopes for high sensitivity. In recent years a strong scientific case has been made for the construction of a radiotelescope operating at decimeter wavelengths with an aperture of about 1 sq km. Such an instrument would have a sensitivity about two orders of magnitude greater than is currently available. However, current projections indicate that this will require about an order of magnitude reduction in cost per unit area compared to existing structures in order to make it financially feasible. This reduction will demand new and innovative approaches in design. Even with this reduction in capital cost, such a facility is expected to be several hundred million dollars. Such a major facility will need to be developed as an international project. The international Radio Science Union (URSI) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) have recognized this and set up a joint Working Group to facilitate the development. Several different design approaches are currently being studied. These vary from a small number of large spherical radiotelescopes, through a moderate number of medium-sized parabolic antennae, to a phased array of a large number of small nonmoving 'tiles'. Each approach has advantages, disadvantages, and particular challenges.

  12. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  13. Making Recycled Paper: An Engineering Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educators are facing the challenge of attracting more students. The disparity between the need for engineers and the enrollment of engineering students is growing (Genalo, Bruning, & Adams, 2000), and career aspirations of high school students are inconsistent with the employment…

  14. Analysis on Design of Kohonen-network System Based on Classification of Complex Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The key methods of detection and classification of the electroencephalogram(EEG) used in recent years are introduced . Taking EEG for example, the design plan of Kohonen neural network system based on detection and classification of complex signals is proposed, and both the network design and signal processing are analyzed, including pre-processing of signals, extraction of signal features, classification of signal and network topology, etc.

  15. Landscape design education: challenges and proposals.

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Maria da Conceição

    2013-01-01

    Landscape design is central in landscape architectural education. Teaching landscape design can’t be just an execution of various landscape projects, where the teacher's role is more a practitioner and less an educator. We have to bring together, with the technical and disciplinary components, the pedagogic, methodological and psychological ones. Those conditions determine to deal with different domains, teaching strategies and opportunities. My doctoral research in teaching landscape design,...

  16. Engineering Design Challenges in a Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Create a light and sound show to entertain friends. Design an improved safety device for a car. Develop a 2-3 minute voice-over for a sports clip explaining the physics involved in the sport. Modify the design of a roller coaster to meet the needs of a specific group of riders. Design an appliance package for a family limited by the power and…

  17. Ontology Design Patterns: Adoption Challenges and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hammar, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) are intended to guide non-experts in performing ontology engineering tasks successfully. While being the topic of significant research efforts, the uptake of these ideas outside the academic community is limited. This paper summarises some issues preventing broader adoption of Ontology Design Patterns among practitioners, suggests research directions that may help overcome these issues, and presents early results of work in these directions.

  18. Design of neural networks for classification of remotely sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Samir R.; Cromp, Robert F.; Birmingham, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Classification accuracies of a backpropagation neural network are discussed and compared with a maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) with multivariate normal class models. We have found that, because of its nonparametric nature, the neural network outperforms the MLC in this area. In addition, we discuss techniques for constructing optimal neural nets on parallel hardware like the MasPar MP-1 currently at GSFC. Other important discussions are centered around training and classification times of the two methods, and sensitivity to the training data. Finally, we discuss future work in the area of classification and neural nets.

  19. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  20. VERTICAL HEREDITY VS. HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER: A CHALLENGE TO BACTERIAL CLASSIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Bailin; QI Ji

    2003-01-01

    The diversity and classification of microbes has been a long-standing issue. Molecular phylogeny of the prokaryotes based on comparison of the 16S rRNA sequences of the small ribosomal subunit has led to a reasonable tree of life in the late 1970s. However, the availability of more and more complete bacterial genomes has brought about complications instead of refinement of the tree. In particular, it turns out that different choice of genes may tell different history. This might be caused by possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among species. There is an urgent need to develop phylogenetic methods that make use of whole genome data. We describe a new approach in molecular phylogeny, namely, tree construction based on K-tuple frequency analysis of the genomic sequences. Putting aside the technicalities, we emphasize the transition from randomness to determinism when the string length K increases and try to comment on the challenge mentioned in the title.

  1. Biomimetics as a design methodology – possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetics – or bionik as it is called in parts of Europe – offer a number of promising opportunities and challenges for the designer. The paper investigates how biomimetics as a design methodology is used in engineering design by looking at examples of biological searches and highlight the...... possibilities and challenges. Biomimetics for engineering design is explored through an experiment involving 12 design engineering students. For 7 selected problem areas they searched biology literature available at a university library and identified a number of biological solutions. Central solution...

  2. Needs and Challenges in Education for Aircraft Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Ulrich

    A brief review of recent developments in engineering education leads to basic reflections about the importance of design education. Aircraft design is singled out as a field where demands on design are particularly high and urgent. Basic needs are determined. Additional challenges posed by engineering technology, continuing studies,…

  3. Powering the Future: A Wind Turbine Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Caitlin Hicks; Hughes, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nothing brings out the best in eighth-grade physical science students quite like an engineering challenge. The wind turbine design challenge described in this article has proved to be a favorite among students with its focus on teamwork and creativity and its (almost) sneaky reinforcement of numerous physics concepts. For this activity, pairs of…

  4. Target Value Design: The Challenge of Value Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Miron, Luciana; Kaushik, Amit; Koskela, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Target Value Design (TVD) is a management approach that aims to maximize value in the framework of a pre-established cost target. TVD views AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) as a complex system and transforms the current design practice upside down. In spite of the existing studies, applying TVD in the context of AEC still represents a major challenge. Creating a structure that enables and measures value generation to the client is part of this challenge. However, despite the c...

  5. Biomimetics as a design methodology – possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    Biomimetics – or bionik as it is called in parts of Europe – offer a number of promising opportunities and challenges for the designer. The paper investigates how biomimetics as a design methodology is used in engineering design by looking at examples of biological searches and highlight the...... possibilities and challenges. Biomimetics for engineering design is explored through an experiment involving 12 design engineering students. For 7 selected problem areas they searched biology literature available at a university library and identified a number of biological solutions. Central solution...... principles were formulated and used for designing technical items that could be used to solve the initial problems. Experiences are that biomimetic design can be made successfully using commonly available biological literature and internet resources and that designers without detailed biological knowledge...

  6. Reported Challenges for Socio-Cultural Curricula in Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, Wanjira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived challenges of attempting to integrate topics related to social and cultural issues into the coursework in graduate programs in Instructional Design and Technology (IDT). Design/methodology/approach: An open-ended online survey instrument was developed for this study for three reasons.…

  7. Barriers and Challenges in the Integrated Design Process Approcach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    agreement for reducing the global heating. This paper will briefly present the method of the Integrated Design Process, IDP [1]. It describes the background and means for developing a new method for designing integrated architecture in an interdisciplinary approach between architecture and engineering. It...... also describes the barriers and the challenges that must be overcome when trying to cross the borders between the two fields of engineering and architecture to design sustainable architecture....

  8. Design Challenges Today: An Overview of Its Sustainable Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Puyuelo Cazorla, Marina; Merino Sanjuan, Lola; Fernández Villalobos, Nieves

    2011-01-01

    Some approaches in the discipline¿s short history have marked the direction and type of commitments assumed by design and above all have offered a glimpse of where these challenges are pointing towards now. In fact, we find that design is not an independent activity but is always linked to a system which marks certain priorities according to the context. In order to reposition design objectives towards improving people's living conditions, modern society must deal with the serious...

  9. The biosystems engineering design challenge at University College Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Thomas P.; Cummins, Enda; Holden, Nicholas M.; McDonnell, Kevin; Blaney, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    The Biosystems Engineering Design Challenge has recently become an academic module open to all undergraduate students at University College Dublin. The focus of the module is on designing and building a working, bench-scale device that solves a practical problem relevant to Biosystems Engineering. The module provides an opportunity for students to learn about engineering design, project management and teamwork. Enrolled students are split into teams of up to seven and meet an assi...

  10. Automated Feature Design for Time Series Classification by Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Dustin Yewell

    2014-01-01

    Time series classification (TSC) methods discover and exploit patterns in time series and other one-dimensional signals. Although many accurate, robust classifiers exist for multivariate feature sets, general approaches are needed to extend machine learning techniques to make use of signal inputs. Numerous applications of TSC can be found in structural engineering, especially in the areas of structural health monitoring and non-destructive evaluation. Additionally, the fields of process contr...

  11. Squamous precursor lesions of the vulva: current classification and diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Lien N; Park, Kay J; Soslow, Robert A; Murali, Rajmohan

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence has established two major types of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which correspond to two distinct oncogenic pathways to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). While the incidence of VSCC has remained relatively stable over the last three decades, the incidence of VIN has increased. VIN of usual type (uVIN) is human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven, affects younger women and is a multicentric disease. In contrast, VIN of differentiated type (dVIN) occurs in post-menopausal women and develops independent of HPV infection. dVIN often arises in a background of lichen sclerosus and chronic inflammatory dermatoses. Although isolated dVIN is significantly less common than uVIN, dVIN bears a greater risk for malignant transformation to VSCC and progresses over a shorter time interval. On histological examination, uVIN displays conspicuous architectural and cytological abnormalities, while the morphological features that characterise dVIN are much more subtle and raise a wide differential diagnosis. On the molecular level, dVIN is characterised by a higher number of somatic mutations, particularly in TP53. Here we review the classification, epidemiology, clinical features, histomorphology, ancillary markers and molecular genetics of both types of VIN, and discuss the morphological challenges faced by pathologists in interpreting these lesions. PMID:27113549

  12. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  13. Structural Design Challenges in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.; Braverman, J.; Wei, X.; Hofmayer, C.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are confined within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of structural design chal- lenges encountered in recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  14. Design and simulation challenges for FERMI@elettra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S.; Allaria, E.; Badano, L.; Bontoiu, C.; Cornacchia, M.; Craievich, P.; Danailov, M.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Ferrando, O.; Ferry, S.; Iazzourene, F.; Milton, S. V.; Penco, G.; Spampinati, S.; Trovo', M.; Veronese, M.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Sonnad, K. G.; Venturini, M.; Warnock, R.; Zholents, A. A.; Pogorelov, I. V.; Borland, M.; Bassi, G.; Ellison, J. A.; Heinemann, K.; Fiorito, R.; Shkvarunets, A.; Tobin, J. C.

    2009-09-01

    FERMI@elettra is a fourth-generation light source user facility under construction at the Elettra Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. The high-quality 1.2 GeV electron beam drives two-seeded Free Electron Lasers (FELs) in the wavelength range 100-10 nm. Wavelength tunability, variable polarization and higher electron beam energies to reach even shorter output wavelengths are also in the machine delivery plan. This paper describes the physics processes that have been modelled to simulate FERMI@elettra and the computer codes used to optimize the machine design. The paper focuses on several design challenges and how these translate into modelling and simulation challenges.

  15. Challenging of Facial Expressions Classification Systems: Survey, Critical Considerations and Direction of Future Work

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Jamshidnezhad; M.D. Jan Nordin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is analysis of the parameters and the affects of those on the performance of the facial expressions classification systems. In recent years understanding of emotions is a basic requirement in the development of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems. Therefore, an HCI is highly depended on accurate understanding of facial expression. Classification module is the main part of facial expressions recognition system. Numerous classification techniques were propose...

  16. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    Van Breukelen, D.H.J.; De Vries, M.J.; Schure, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning, teaching skills and teacher training. LBD uses the context of design challenges to learn, among other things, science. Previous research showed that this approach to subject integration is quite successf...

  17. On some parametric classifications of quasi-symmetric 2-designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Ghosh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-symmetric $2$-designs with block intersection numbers $x$ and $y$, where $y=x+4$ and $x > 0$ are considered. If $D(v, b, r, k, \\lambda; x, y$ is a quasi-symmetric $2$-design with above condition, then it is shown that the number of such designs is finite, whenever $3\\leq x \\leq 68$. Moreover, the non-existence of triangle free quasi-symmetric $2$-designs under these parameters is obtained.

  18. The Challenges of Parametric Design in Architecture Today:Mapping the Design Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei, Yasser

    2012-01-01

    Parametric design is a new approach to architectural design based on the concept ofparameters. It utilises parameters to set relations between design elements in order todefine a range of formal alternatives. In this sense, parametric design provides greatopportunities for architects to engineer the design process more efficiently; yet itsnovelty generates some challenges for architectural practitioners. The aim of thisresearch is to explore the position of parametric design in contemporary a...

  19. SAFETY BASIS DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES IMECE2007-42747

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Designing in Safety' is a desired part of the development of any new potentially hazardous system, process, or facility. It is a required part of nuclear safety activities as specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.B, Facility Safety. This order addresses the design of nuclear related facilities developed under federal regulation IOCFR830, Nuclear Safety Management. IOCFR830 requires that safety basis documentation be provided to identify how nuclear safety is being adequately addressed as a condition for system operation (e.g., the safety basis). To support the development of the safety basis, a safety analysis is performed. Although the concept of developing a design that addresses 'Safety is simple, the execution can be complex and challenging. This paper addresses those complexities and challenges for the design activity of a system to treat sludge, a corrosion product of spent nuclear fuel, at DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State. The system being developed is referred to as the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). This paper describes the portion of the safety analysis that addresses the selection of design basis events using the experience gained from the STP and the development of design requirements for safety features associated with those events. Specifically, the paper describes the safety design process and the application of the process for two types of potential design basis accidents associated with the operation of the system, (1) flashing spray leaks and (2) splash and splatter leaks. Also presented are the technical challenges that are being addressed to develop effective safety features to deal with these design basis accidents

  20. Automatic design of robot swarms: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero eFrancesca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Automatic design is a promising approach to the design of control software for robot swarms. In an automatic design method, the design problem is cast into an optimization problem and is addressed using an optimization algorithm. In this article, we review studies in which automatic design methods are successfully applied. In particular, we focus our attention on how automatic methods are empirically assessed. An apparent issue that emerges from our review is that a solid, well- established, and consistently applied empirical practice is still missing. For example, studies that propose new methods and ideas do not typically provide any comparison with existing ones. We maintain that the lack of a proper empirical practice hinders the progress of the domain. In this article, we pursue two goals: we highlight the notable achievements in the automatic design of control software for robot swarms and we discuss the challenges to be overcome to establish a proper empirical practice for the domain.

  1. Challenges and Perspectives in Designing Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Yan, Runyu; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-07-11

    The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting and CO2 reduction on a large scale for practical applications is the ultimate goal towards worldwide sustainability. This Concept highlights the state-of-the-art research trends of artificial photosynthesis concepts and designs from some new perspectives. Particularly, it is focused on five important aspects for the design of promising artificial photosynthetic systems: 1) catalyst development, 2) architecture design, 3) device buildup 4) mechanism exploration, and 5) theoretical investigations. Some typical progress and challenges, the most significant milestones achieved to date, as well as possible future directions are illustrated and discussed. This Concept article presents a selection of new developments to highlight new trends and possibilities, main barriers, or challenges; with this, we hope to inspire more advances in the field of artificial photosynthesis. PMID:27138858

  2. Possibilities and Challenges designing low-carbon-energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological......Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken into...... account to be able to achieve efficient reductions of energy and CO2 emissions and at the same time design a product attractive for the consumer, in terms of price, level of service and aesthetical demands, to ensure its strategic implementation. This paper takes the Danish office lighting sector as a...

  3. Challenges in Designing and Scaling up Community Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    latter is to develop a platform to activate hidden or latent resources in neighbourhoods. Both of the projects are an application of service design to the public sector and together provide useful insights about designing and scaling up highly localized and personalized services and service platforms....... While several analogies can be found between the existing generation of social networking platforms and the services proposed in these projects, there are also several important differences that challenge the way local and individual services should be designed in the perspective of being scaled up to...

  4. Challenges in Designing and Scaling-up Community Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    hidden or latent resources in neighbourhoods. Both the projects are based on the activities in four pilot locations. They are an application of service design to the public sector that provide interesting insights about designing and scaling up highly localised and personalised services and platforms of...... several important differences can also be found, that challenge the way those platforms should be designed and scaled up in different contexts. Being at a more advanced stage, the Life 2.0 project obviously provided more insights, whereas MyN gives an opportunity to verify the hypotheses coming from Life...

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF HIGHWAY LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS AND THEIR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Vitrinskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The constituent elements of highway landscape are determined. Six models of highway landscape are offered. Recommendations concerning effective landscape design for application in highway construction are presented.

  6. Mixed Pixels: A Challenge in Remote Sensing Data Classification for Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Choodarathnakara, Dr. T. Ashok Kumar, Dr. Shivaprakash Koliwad, Dr. C. G. Patil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote Sensing (RS refers to the science of identification of earth surface features and estimation of their geo-biophysical properties using electromagnetic radiation as a medium of interaction. Spectral, spatial, temporal and polarization signatures are major characteristics of the sensor/target, which facilitate target discrimination. Earth surface data as seen by the sensors in different wavelengths (reflected, scattered and/or emitted, is radio-metrically and geo-metrically corrected before extraction of spectral information. RS data, with its ability for a synoptic view repetitive coverage with calibrated sensors to detect changes, observations at different resolutions, provides a better alternative for natural resources management as compared to traditional methods. The traditional classification methods have been developed using the image statistics, but their applicability to the processing of data is limited due to the presence of mixed pixels which affect the use of remotely sensed data in Land-Use and Land-Cover (LU/LC classification and change detection. Various techniques are being used to attempt to ‘unmix’ the information and identify mixing proportions from the pixels and have lead to sub-pixel classification. The purpose of this paper is to understand mixed pixel problems, its significance and techniques developed to ‘unmix’ the pixels, and also to study the various soft classification methods. It is understood that mixed pixel classification could be solved efficiently by Soft Classification methods, and Contextual Classification adopting relaxation labeling would give better results both in Neural Network based and Fuzzy Logic based Classification. Some of the major operational application themes, in which India has extensively used remote sensing data, are agriculture, forestry, water resources, land use, urban sprawl, geology, environment, coastal zone, marine resources, snow and glacier, disaster monitoring and

  7. Synthetic aperture radar system design for random field classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harger, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    An optimum design study is carried out for synthetic aperture radar systems intended for classifying randomly reflecting areas (such as agricultural fields) characterized by a reflectivity density spectral density. The problem solution is obtained, neglecting interfield interference and assuming areas of known configuration and location, as well as a certain Gaussian signal field property. The optimum processor is nonlinear, but includes conventional matched filter processing. A set of summary design curves is plotted, and is applied to the design of a satellite synthetic aperture radar system.

  8. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  9. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  10. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  11. Nanomedical device and systems design challenges, possibilities, visions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedical Device and Systems Design: Challenges, Possibilities, Visions serves as a preliminary guide toward the inspiration of specific investigative pathways that may lead to meaningful discourse and significant advances in nanomedicine/nanotechnology. This volume considers the potential of future innovations that will involve nanomedical devices and systems. It endeavors to explore remarkable possibilities spanning medical diagnostics, therapeutics, and other advancements that may be enabled within this discipline. In particular, this book investigates just how nanomedical diagnostic and

  12. Usability standards meet scenario-based design: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher J; Blandford, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on the challenges and opportunities presented by developing scenarios of use for interactive medical devices. Scenarios are integral to the international standard for usability engineering of medical devices (IEC 62366:2007), and are also applied to the development of health software (draft standard IEC 82304-1). The 62366 standard lays out a process for mitigating risk during normal use (i.e. use as per the instructions, or accepted medical practice). However, this begs the question of whether "real use" (that which occurs in practice) matches "normal use". In this paper, we present an overview of the product lifecycle and how it impacts on the type of scenario that can be practically applied. We report on the development and testing of a set of scenarios intended to inform the design of infusion pumps based on "real use". The scenarios were validated by researchers and practitioners experienced in clinical practice, and their utility was assessed by developers and practitioners representing different stages of the product lifecycle. These evaluations highlighted previously unreported challenges and opportunities for the use of scenarios in this context. Challenges include: integrating scenario-based design with usability engineering practice; covering the breadth of uses of infusion devices; and managing contradictory evidence. Opportunities included scenario use beyond design to guide marketing, to inform purchasing and as resources for training staff. This study exemplifies one empirically grounded approach to communicating and negotiating the realities of practice. PMID:25460202

  13. QMI: Rising to the Space Station Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, W. E.; Farmer, J.; Coppens, C.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) materials processing furnace is being designed to operate for 8000 hours over four years on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). The Bridgman-type furnace is being built for the directional solidification processing of metals and alloys in the microgravity environment of space. Most notably it will be used for processing aluminum and related alloys. Designing for the space station environment presents intriguing design challenges in the form of a ten-year life requirement coupled with both limited opportunities for maintenance and resource constraints in the form of limited power and space. The long life requirement has driven the design of several features in the furnace, including the design of the heater core, the selection and placement of the thermocouples, overall performance monitoring, and the design of the chill block. The power and space limitations have been addressed through a compact furnace design using efficient vacuum insulation. Details on these design features, as well as development test performance results to date, are presented.

  14. DIY design: How crowdsourcing sites are challenging traditional graphic design practice

    OpenAIRE

    Massanari, Adrienne L

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current debate over crowdsourced/do–it–yourself (DIY) design. Specifically, it highlights underlying tensions between discourse within the professional graphic design field and an increasingly sophisticated and global community of DIY designers who are challenging their professional norms and practices. Through an exploration of these sites’ approach to intellectual property, design education, compensation, and community, this research explain how cro...

  15. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  16. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Computer modeling for smart sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. K.; Davis, R. E.; Huck, F. O.; Arduini, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper a model of the processes involved in multispectral remote sensing and data classification is developed as a tool for designing and evaluating smart sensors. The model has both stochastic and deterministic elements and accounts for solar radiation, atmospheric radiative transfer, surface reflectance, sensor spectral reponses, and classification algorithms. Preliminary results are presented which indicate the validity and usefulness of this approach. Future capabilities of smart sensors will ultimately be limited by the accuracy with which multispectral remote sensing processes and their error sources can be computationally modeled.

  17. IHE cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging: design challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-03-01

    Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) has recently published a new integration profile for sharing documents between multiple enterprises. The Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing Integration Profile (XDS) lays the basic framework for deploying regional and national Electronic Health Record (EHR). This profile proposes an architecture based on a central Registry that holds metadata information describing published Documents residing in one or multiple Documents Repositories. As medical images constitute important information of the patient health record, it is logical to extend the XDS Integration Profile to include images. However, including images in the EHR presents many challenges. The complete image set is very large; it is useful for radiologists and other specialists such as surgeons and orthopedists. The imaging report, on the other hand, is widely needed and its broad accessibility is vital for achieving optimal patient care. Moreover, a subset of relevant images may also be of wide interest along with the report. Therefore, IHE recently published a new integration profile for sharing images and imaging reports between multiple enterprises. This new profile, the Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I), is based on the XDS architecture. The XDS-I integration solution that is published as part of the IHE Technical Framework is the result of an extensive investigation effort of several design solutions. This paper presents and discusses the design challenges and the rationales behind the design decisions of the IHE XDS-I Integration Profile, for a better understanding and appreciation of the final published solution.

  18. Classiology and soil classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  19. The challenge of producing an accurate statewide land cover classification of digital satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general land use/land cover data set for South Carolina produced from 1989/1990 SPOT multispectral data is presented. This data set incorporates eight categories: urban/built-up, agricultural/grass, scrub/shrub, forest, water, forested wetland, nonforested wetland, and barren. A statewide inventory of these land use/land cover 'associations' is prepared using integrated pcERDAS and prARC/INFO software by the South Carolina Land Resources Commission with unsupervised classification and reclassification routines, and subsequent air photo verification. Land cover data are produced by county and evaluated for reliability (88-percent average classification accuracy). Multiple applications are served by accurate and timely county land cover inventories for resource management and economic development at state and local government levels, specifically for purposes of land use planning and site location analysis. 6 refs

  20. Medical Classification and Terminology Systems in a Secondary Use Context: Challenges and Perils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Hauke; Gerth, Sven; Katus, Hugo A; Fegeler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of diagnosis-related groups in the German healthcare system, classifying patient diagnosis and procedures with controlled vocabularies have become mandatory and thus creating a large dataset for secondary use in biomedical research. In this paper we present the analysis of an ICD dataset with regards to potentially reimbursement motivated classification and the effects on precision and recall when considering the change history of ICD codes. PMID:27577411

  1. One-Class SVMs Challenges in Audio Detection and Classification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ellouze

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machines (SVMs have gained great attention and have been used extensively and successfully in the field of sounds (events recognition. However, the extension of SVMs to real-world signal processing applications is still an ongoing research topic. Our work consists of illustrating the potential of SVMs on recognizing impulsive audio signals belonging to a complex real-world dataset. We propose to apply optimized one-class support vector machines (1-SVMs to tackle both sound detection and classification tasks in the sound recognition process. First, we propose an efficient and accurate approach for detecting events in a continuous audio stream. The proposed unsupervised sound detection method which does not require any pretrained models is based on the use of the exponential family model and 1-SVMs to approximate the generalized likelihood ratio. Then, we apply novel discriminative algorithms based on 1-SVMs with new dissimilarity measure in order to address a supervised sound-classification task. We compare the novel sound detection and classification methods with other popular approaches. The remarkable sound recognition results achieved in our experiments illustrate the potential of these methods and indicate that 1-SVMs are well suited for event-recognition tasks.

  2. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Phil [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Hojjati, Alireza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Linder, Eric, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  3. EPR design features to mitigate severe accident challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor (PWR), is a 4300-4500 MWth that incorporates proven technology within an optimized configuration to enhance safety. EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product. Commercial EPR units are currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France at the Flamanville site. In recent months, Framatome ANP announced their intention to market the EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids as well as their intent to pursue design certification in the United States under 10CFR52. The EPR safety philosophy is based on a deterministic consideration of defense-in-depth complemented by probabilistic analyses. Not only is the EPR designed to prevent and mitigate design basis accidents (DBAs), it employs an extra level of safety associated with severe accident response. Therefore, as a design objective, features are included to ensure that radiological consequences are limited such that the need for stringent counter measures, such as evacuation and relocation of the nearby population, can be reasonably excluded. This paper discusses some of the innovative features of the EPR to address severe accident challenges. (author)

  4. Feasibility Study on a Portable Field Pest Classification System Design Based on DSP and 3G Wireless Communication Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Liu; Ruizhen Han; Yong He

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classif...

  5. Design Challenges for a Wide-Aperture Insertion Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Russenschuck, S; Perez, J C; Ramos, D; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Kirby, G; Sahner, T; Schwerg, N

    2011-01-01

    The design and development of a superconducting (Nb-Ti) quadrupole with 120 mm aperture, for an upgrade of the LHC insertion region, faces challenges arising from the LHC beam optics requirements and the heat-deposition. The first triggered extensive studies of coil alternatives with four and six coil-blocks in view of field quality and operation margins. The latter requires more porous insulation schemes for both the cables and the ground-plane. This in turn necessitates extensive heatpropagation and quench-velocity studies, as well as more efficient quench heaters. The engineering design of the magnet includes innovative features such as self-locking collars, which will enable the collaring to be performed with the coils on a horizontal assembly bench, a spring-loaded and collapsible assembly mandrel, tuning-shims for field quality, porous collaring-shoes, and coil end-spacer design based on differential geometry methods. The project also initiated code extensions in the quench-simulation and CAD/CAM module...

  6. The RHIC project: design, status, challenges, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction status of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is discussed. Those novel features of a heavy ion Collider that are distinct from conventional hadron Colliders in general are noted. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range including collisions between ions of unequal energies. The project is in the fifth year of a seven-year construction cycle. A review of the superconducting magnet program is given together with progress to date on the machine construction and commissioning. Emphasis is made on challenging issues including intrabeam scattering, interaction-region error compensation, magnet alignments, and matched transition-energy jump

  7. Design and Development of the Blackbird: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The Lockheed Blackbirds hold a unique place in the development of aeronautics. In their day, the A-12, YF-12, M-21, D-21, and SR-71 variants outperformed all other jet airplanes in terms of altitude and speed. Now retired, they remain the only production aircraft capable of sustained Mach 3 cruise and operational altitudes above 80,000 feet. In this paper the author describes the design evolution of the Blackbird from Lockheed's early Archangel studies for the Central Intelligence Agency through Senior Crown, production of the Air Force's SR-71. He describes the construction and materials challenges faced by Lockheed, the Blackbird's performance characteristics and capabilities, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's role in using the aircraft as a flying laboratory to collect data on materials, structures, loads, heating, aerodynamics, and performance for high-speed aircraft.

  8. Design challenges and safety concept for the AVANTI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaias, G.; Ardaens, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    AVANTI is a formation-flight experiment involving two noncooperative satellites. After a brief overview of the challenges that experiment design and scenario induce, this paper presents the safety concept retained to guarantee the safety of the formation. The peculiarity of the proposed approach is that it does not rely on the continuous availability of tracking data of the client spacecraft but rather exploits the concept of passive safety of special relative trajectories. To this end, the formation safety criterion based on the minimum distance normal to the flight direction has been extended in order to be applicable also to drifting relative orbits, resulting from non-vanishing relative semi-major axis encountered during a rendezvous or produced by the action of the differential aerodynamic drag.

  9. A Novel System for Non-Invasive Method of Animal Tracking and Classification in Designated Area Using Intelligent Camera System

    OpenAIRE

    S. Matuska; Hudec, R.; P. Kamencay; M. Benco; M. Radilova

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel system for non-invasive method of animal tracking and classification in designated area. The system is based on intelligent devices with cameras, which are situated in a designated area and a main computing unit (MCU) acting as a system master. Intelligent devices track animals and then send data to MCU to evaluation. The main purpose of this system is detection and classification of moving animals in a designated area and then creation of migration corridors of wi...

  10. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the opening of a national kids' baseball coin design challenge on April...

  11. Design Hybrid method for intrusion detection using Ensemble cluster classification and SOM network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Rathore

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In current scenario of internet technology security is big challenge. Internet network threats by various cyber-attack and loss the system data and degrade the performance of host computer. In this sense intrusion detection are challenging field of research in concern of network security based on firewall and some rule based detection technique. In this paper we proposed an Ensemble Cluster Classification technique using som network for detection of mixed variable data generated by malicious software for attack purpose in host system. In our methodology SOM network control the iteration of distance of different parameters of ensembling our experimental result show that better empirical evaluation on KDD data set 99 in comparison of existing ensemble classifier.

  12. Challenges And Results of the Applications of Fuzzy Logic in the Classification of Rich Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Girola Schneider, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    The fuzzy logic is a branch of the artificial intelligence founded on the concept that 'everything is a matter of degree.' It intends to create mathematical approximations on the resolution of certain types of problems. In addition, it aims to produce exact results obtained from imprecise data, for which it is particularly useful for electronic and computer applications. This enables it to handle vague or unspecific information when certain parts of a system are unknown or ambiguous and, therefore, they cannot be measured in a reliable manner. Also, when the variation of a variable can produce an alteration on the others.The main focus of this paper is to prove the importance of these techniques formulated from a theoretical analysis on its application on ambiguous situations in the field of the rich clusters of galaxies. The purpose is to show its applicability in the several classification systems proposed for the rich clusters, which are based on criteria such as the level of richness of the cluster, the distribution of the brightest galaxies, whether there are signs of type-cD galaxies or not or the existence of sub-clusters.Fuzzy logic enables the researcher to work with “imprecise” information implementing fuzzy sets and combining rules to define actions. The control systems based on fuzzy logic join input variables that are defined in terms of fuzzy sets through rule groups that produce one or several output values of the system under study. From this context, the application of the fuzzy logic’s techniques approximates the solution of the mathematical models in abstractions about the rich galaxy cluster classification of physical properties in order to solve the obscurities that must be confronted by an investigation group in order to make a decision.

  13. Challenges in seismic design of civil structures for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent events have heightened the risk perception from natural as well as man-made disasters. The issues related to earthquake safety of nuclear installations have been recognized with renewed vigour than never before. The earthquake design of civil structures for nuclear facilities poses diverse challenges in terms of ensuring safety against seismic events, especially for the new generation reactors with their unique and complex systems. The constituent systems of a nuclear facility can be broadly classified into Structures, Systems (piping, electrical, control and instrumentation) and Components (SSC) of unique characteristics of their own. The structures, systems and components need to be designed for normal operating loads such as dead weight, weight of supporting systems and component, pressure, temperature, normal operating vibratory loads etc. and accidental loads caused due to both external and internal events. The severity of the external events is site specific and depends on the site where the facility is proposed to be set up. To address adequate safety of the facility, an appropriate site determined by the guidelines of nuclear plants siting criteria needs to be selected. This site has to be examined with respect to the frequency and severity of natural phenomena and man induced events. One of the accidental natural phenomena is earthquake. Since the SSCs are finally supported on the civil structures of the nuclear facility, the civil structures shall have adequate strength to counter various loading phenomena especially the seismic loading

  14. Neutronic challenges of advanced boiling water reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement of Boiling Water Reactor technology has been under investigation at the Center for Advance Nuclear Energy Systems at MIT. The advanced concepts under study provide economic incentives through enabling further power uprates (i.e. increasing vessel power density) or better fuel cycle uranium utilization. The challenges in modeling of three advanced concepts with focus on neutronics are presented. First, the Helical Cruciform Fuel rod has been used in some Russian reactors, and studied at MIT for uprating the power in LWRs through increased heat transfer area per unit core volume. The HCF design requires high fidelity 3D tools to assess its reactor physics behavior as well as thermal and fuel performance. Second, an advanced core design, the BWR-HD, was found to promise 65% higher power density over existing BWRs, while using current licensing tools and existing technology. Its larger assembly size requires stronger coupling between neutronics and thermal hydraulics compared to the current practice. Third is the reduced moderation BWRs, which had been proposed in Japan to enable breeding and burning of fuel as an alternative to sodium fast reactors. Such technology suffers from stronger sensitivity of its neutronics to the void fraction than the traditional BWRs, thus requiring exact modeling of the core conditions such as bypass voiding, to correctly characterize its performance. (author)

  15. Classification of Approaches and Challenges of Frequent Subgraphs Mining in Biological Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza; Azizani, Fereshteh

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of biological networks is one of the important challenges in system biology. In addition, increasing amount of experimental data in biological networks necessitate the use of efficient methods to analyze these huge amounts of data. Such methods require to recognize common patterns to analyze data. As biological networks can be modeled by graphs, the problem of common patterns recognition is equivalent with frequent sub graph mining in a set of graphs. ...

  16. Application of Convolutional Neural Network for Image Classification on Pascal VOC Challenge 2012 dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Suyash

    2016-01-01

    In this project we work on creating a model to classify images for the Pascal VOC Challenge 2012. We use convolutional neural networks trained on a single GPU instance provided by Amazon via their cloud service Amazon Web Services (AWS) to classify images in the Pascal VOC 2012 data set. We train multiple convolutional neural network models and finally settle on the best model which produced a validation accuracy of 85.6% and a testing accuracy of 85.24%.

  17. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA study: Design challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Cristan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone to the effect of the first (stimulant. We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic. Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual

  18. Design of a flexible tactile sensor for classification of rigid and deformable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Kootstra, Gert; Bilberg, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a novel tactile-array sensor based on flexible piezoresistive rubber.We describe the design of the sensor...... use of the sensor in an active object-classification system. A robotic gripper with two sensors mounted on its fingers performs a palpation procedure on a set of objects. By squeezing an object, the robot actively explores the material properties, and the system acquires tactile information...... corresponding to the resulting pressure. Based on a k-nearest neighbor classifier and using dynamic time warping to calculate the distance between different time series, the system is able to successfully classify objects. Our sensor demonstrates similar classification performance to the Weiss Robotics tactile...

  19. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Water Quality Standards - Table G Lake Classifications and Use Designations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains Missouri Water Quality Standards (WQS) lake classifications and use designations described in the Missouri Code of State Regulations (CSR),...

  20. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...

  1. Neuromechanical Control for Hexapedal Robot Walking on Challenging Surfaces and Surface Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    The neuromechanical control principles of animal locomotion provide good insights for the development of bio-inspired legged robots for walking on challenging surfaces. Based on such principles, we developed a neuromechanical controller consisting of a modular neural network (MNN) and of virtual...... achieved by only changing the stiffness parameters of the VAAMs. In addition, six surfaces can be also classified by observing the motor signals generated by the controller. The performance of the controller is tested on a physical hexapod robot. Experimental results show that it can effectively walk on...

  2. Nuclear challenges and progress in designing stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternate to the mainline magnetic fusion tokamaks, the stellarator concept offers a steady state operation without external driven current, eliminating the risk of plasma irruptions. Over the past 2-3 decades, stellarator power plants have been studied in the U.S., Japan, and Europe to enhance the physics and engineering aspects and optimize the design parameters that are subject to numerous constraints. The earlier 1980's studies delivered large stellarators with an average major radius exceeding 20 m. The most recent development of the compact stellarator concept has led to the construction of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) in the U.S. and the 3 years power plant study of ARIES-CS, a compact stellarator with 7.75 m average major radius, approaching that of tokamaks. The ARIES-CS first wall configuration deviates from the standard practice of uniform toroidal shape in order to achieve compactness. Modeling such a complex geometry for 3-D nuclear analysis was a challenging engineering task. A novel approach based on coupling the CAD model with the MCNP Monte Carlo code was developed to model, for the first time ever, the complex stellarator geometry for nuclear assessments. The most important parameter that determines the stellarator size and cost is the minimum distance between the plasma boundary and mid-coil. Accommodating the breeding blanket and necessary shield to protect the superconducting magnet represented another challenging task. An innovative approach utilizing a non-uniform blanket combined with a highly efficient WC shield for this highly constrained area reduced the radial standoff (and machine size and cost) by 25- 30%, which is significant. As stellarators generate more radwaste than tokamaks, managing ARIES-CS active materials during operation and after plant decommissioning was essential for the environmental attractiveness of the machine. The geological disposal option could be replaced with more attractive scenarios

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the Bothriocephalidea (Cestoda): molecular data challenge morphological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the relationships of the cestode order Bothriocephalidea, parasites of marine and freshwater bony fish, were assessed using multi-gene molecular phylogenetic analyses. The dataset included 59 species, covering approximately 70% of currently recognised genera, a sample of bothriocephalidean biodiversity gathered through an intense 15year effort. The order as currently circumscribed, while monophyletic, includes three non-monophyletic and one monophyletic families. Bothriocephalidae is monophyletic and forms the most derived lineage of the order, comprised of a single freshwater and several marine clades. Biogeographic patterns within the freshwater clade are indicative of past radiations having occurred in Africa and North America. The earliest diverging lineages of the order comprise a paraphyletic Triaenophoridae. The Echinophallidae, consisting nearly exclusively of parasites of pelagic fish, was also resolved as paraphyletic with respect to the Bothriocephalidae. Philobythoides sp., the only representative included from the Philobythiidae, a unique family of parasites of bathypelagic fish, was sister to the genus Eubothrium, the latter constituting one of the lineages of the paraphyletic Triaenophoridae. Due to the weak statistical support for most of the basal nodes of the Triaenophoridae and Echinophallidae, as well as the lack of obvious morphological synapomorphies shared by taxa belonging to the statistically well-supported lineages, the current family-level classification, although mostly non-monophyletic, is provisionally retained, with the exception of the family Philobythiidae, which is recognised as a synonym of the Triaenophoridae. In addition, Schyzocotyle is resurrected to accommodate the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934) n. comb. (syn. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934), which is of veterinary importance, and Schyzocotyle nayarensis (Malhotra, 1983) n. comb. (syn. Ptychobothrium

  4. Urban design and health: progress to date and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Melanie; Boulange, Claire; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, a growing body of Australian and international evidence has demonstrated that urban design attributes are associated with a range of health outcomes. For example, the location of employment, shops and services, provision of public and active transport infrastructure and access to open space and recreational opportunities are associated with chronic disease risk factors such as physical activity levels, access to healthy food, social connectedness, and air quality. Despite the growing knowledge base, this evidence is not being consistently translated into urban planning policy and practice in Australia. Low-density neighbourhoods with poor access to public transport, shops and services continue to be developed at a rapid rate in the sprawling outer suburbs of Australian cities. This paper provides an overview of the evidence of the association between the built environment and chronic diseases, highlighting progress and future challenges for health promotion. It argues that health promotion practitioners and researchers need to more closely engage with urban planning practitioners, policymakers and researchers to encourage the creation of healthy urban environments through integrated transport, land use and infrastructure planning. There is also a need for innovative research to evaluate the effectiveness of policy options. This would help evidence to be more effectively translated into policy and practice, making Australia a leader in planning healthy communities. PMID:24739774

  5. Designing and Developing Game-Like Learning Experience in Virtual Worlds: Challenges and Design Decisions of Novice Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Turkan Karakus; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Many virtual worlds have been adopted for implementation within educational settings because they are potentially useful for building effective learning environments. Since the flexibility of virtual worlds challenges to obtain effective and efficient educational outcomes, the design of such platforms need more attention. In the present study, the…

  6. The Experience City and challenges for Architects and Urban Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    The article discusse the challenges of the experience economy from a Nordic welfare perspective. It argues that the challenges of the experience economy must be combined with the ambition that our cities are not reduced to entertainment engines. The urban life in the Nordic "welfare cities" must ...

  7. DICE Mission Design, Development, and Implementation: Success and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, E.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Crowley, G.; Barjatya, A.; Petersen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Funded by the NSF CubeSat and NASA ELaNa programs, the Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment (DICE) mission consists of two 1.5U CubeSats which were launched into an eccentric low Earth orbit on October 28, 2011. Each identical spacecraft carries two Langmuir probes to measure ionospheric in-situ plasma densities, electric field probes to measure in-situ DC and AC electric fields, and a magnetometer to measure in-situ DC and AC magnetic fields. Given the tight integration of these multiple sensors with the CubeSat platforms, each of the DICE spacecraft is effectively a "sensor-sat" capable of comprehensive ionospheric diagnostics. Over time, the sensor-sats will separate relative to each other due to differences in the ejection velocity and enable accurate identification of geospace storm-time features, such as the geomagnetic Storm Enhanced Density (SED) bulge and plume. The use of two identical sensor-sats permits the de-convolution of spatial and temporal ambiguities in the observations of the ionosphere from a moving platform. In addition to demonstrating nanosat constellation science, the DICE mission downlink communications system is operating at 3 Mbit/s. To our knowledge, this transmission rate is a factor of 100 or more greater than previous CubeSat missions to date. This paper will focus on the DICE mission design, implementation, and on-orbit operations successes as well as the challenges faced in implementing a high-return science mission with limited resources. Specifically, it will focus on the lessons learned in integrating, calibrating, and managing a small constellation of sensor-sats for global science measurements.

  8. iPad Learning Ecosystem: Developing Challenge-Based Learning Using Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Catalina; Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking,…

  9. Towards automation of control software: a review of challenges in mechatronic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Cabrera, A.A.; Foeken, M.J.; Tekin, O.A.; Woestenenk, K.; Erden, M.S.; De Schutter, B.; Tooren, M.J.L.; Babuska, R.; Houten, van F.J.A.M.; Tomiyama, T.

    2010-01-01

    Development of mechatronic systems requires collaboration among experts from different design domains. In this paper the authors identify a set of challenges related to the design of mechatronic systems. The challenges are mostly related to integration of design and analysis tools, and automation of

  10. Teaching habitat and animal classification to fourth graders using an engineering-design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGOTM engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented. Purpose: The driving questions for our work are: (1) What is the impact of an engineering-design-based curricular module on students' understanding of habitat and animal classification? (2) What are students' misconceptions regarding animal classification and habitat? Sample: The study was conducted in an inner-city K-8 school in the northeastern region of the United States. There were two fourth grade classrooms in the school. The first classroom included seven girls and nine boys, whereas the other classroom included eight girls and eight boys. All fourth grade students participated in the study. Design and methods: In answering the research questions mixed-method approaches are used. Data collection methods included pre- and post-tests, pre- and post-interviews, student journals, and classroom observations. Identical pre- and post-tests were administered to measure students' understanding of animals. They included four multiple-choice and six open-ended questions. Identical pre- and post-interviews were administered to explore students' in-depth understanding of animals. Results: Our results show that students significantly increased their performance after instruction on both the multiple-choice questions (t = -3.586, p = .001) and the open-ended questions (t = -5.04, p = .000). They performed better on the post interviews as well. Also, it is found that design-based instruction helped students comprehend core concepts of a life science subject, animals. Conclusions: Based on these results, the main argument of the study is that engineering design is a useful framework for teaching not only physical science-related subjects, but

  11. Design of Transparent Distributed IMS Network: Security Challenges Risk and Signaling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Allouch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The IP Multimedia subsystem (IMS based on SIP as mechanism signalling and interfaces with otherservers using OSA (Open Service Access and CAMEL (Customized Applications for Mobile networkEnhanced Logic.Is responsible for the interconnection of IP packets with other network, IMS support datacommunication services, voice, video, messaging and web-based technologies. In this work we present adistributed design of architecture that turns up some challenges of transparent mobility on the secured IMSarchitecture. We introduced the architecture with clustering database HSS and automatic storage of datafiles that give a secure access to database. This paper gives an overview of classification of security in IMSnetwork and we show delay analysis comparison in signalling interworking with and without securingGateway (SEG in the registration of any UE in access network based IMS. We show that there is a tradeoffbetween the level of increasing system security and the potential delay incurred by mobility in AccessNetwork .we conclude that this architecture is suitable for operators and services providers for the newbusiness models delivering ,the services based IMS Everywhere, anytime and with any terminals.

  12. Prometheus unbound - challenges of risk evaluation, risk classification, and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1999-11-01

    For dealing with risks in a rational fashion, it is necessary to characterize risks and use the parameters of characterization as tools for designing appropriate actions. This reports suggests a set of criteria that one can use in evaluating risks. These criteria include: - Damage potential, i.e. the amount of damage that the hazard can cause; - probability of occurrence, i.e. the likelihood that a specific damage will occur; - incertitude, i.e., the remaining uncertainties that are not covered by the assessment of probabilities (subdivided in statistical uncertainties, genuine uncertainty, and ignorance); - ubiquity which defines the geographic dispersion of potential damages (intragenerational justice); - persistency which defines the temporal extension of potential damages (intergenerational justice); - irreversibility which describes the impossible restoration of the situation to the state before the damage occurred (possible restoration are e.g. reforestation and cleaning of water); - delay effects which characterize the time of latency between the initial event and the actual impact of damage. The time of latency could be of physical, chemical or biological nature; and - potential of mobilization which is understood as violation of individual, social or cultural interests and values generating social conflicts and psychological reactions by affected people. (orig.)

  13. [Supernumerary teeth in the maxilla and mandible-an interdisciplinary challenge. Part 1: epidemiology, etiology, classification and associated complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossaz, Jessica; Suter, Valerie G A; Katsaros, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth develop in addition to the normal dentition and are a therapeutic challenge for pedodontists, orthodontists and oral surgeons alike. Therefore, interdisciplinary treatment concepts are needed for the benefit of the patient. In the present, two-parted literature review on supernumerary teeth, current classification, associated complications, diagnostic steps and different therapeutic approches are presented and discussed. Supernumerary teeth are diagnosed in the primary and permanent dentition. Supernumerary incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, as well as distomolars and mesiodentes can be seen according to the location of the supernumerary teeth. Furthermore, based on the morphology of the supernumeraries four different types can be differentiated: conical, tuberculate, supplemental, and odontoma. Supernumerary teeth often remain asymptomatic, and are only diagnosed incidentally during a routine dental visit on radiographs (often intraoral). Nevertheless, various complications have been reported in the literature for supernumerary teeth such as disturbed eruption, malpositioning/rotation, root resorption of neighbouring teeth, and development of dentigerous cysts in impacted supernumeraries. Root resorption of neighbouring teeth can be radiographically diagnosed in up to 22.8% of the cases. PMID:26915750

  14. A neural network-based optimal spatial filter design method for motor imagery classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ayhan; Olmez, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel spatial filter design method is introduced. Spatial filtering is an important processing step for feature extraction in motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces. This paper introduces a new motor imagery signal classification method combined with spatial filter optimization. We simultaneously train the spatial filter and the classifier using a neural network approach. The proposed spatial filter network (SFN) is composed of two layers: a spatial filtering layer and a classifier layer. These two layers are linked to each other with non-linear mapping functions. The proposed method addresses two shortcomings of the common spatial patterns (CSP) algorithm. First, CSP aims to maximize the between-classes variance while ignoring the minimization of within-classes variances. Consequently, the features obtained using the CSP method may have large within-classes variances. Second, the maximizing optimization function of CSP increases the classification accuracy indirectly because an independent classifier is used after the CSP method. With SFN, we aimed to maximize the between-classes variance while minimizing within-classes variances and simultaneously optimizing the spatial filter and the classifier. To classify motor imagery EEG signals, we modified the well-known feed-forward structure and derived forward and backward equations that correspond to the proposed structure. We tested our algorithm on simple toy data. Then, we compared the SFN with conventional CSP and its multi-class version, called one-versus-rest CSP, on two data sets from BCI competition III. The evaluation results demonstrate that SFN is a good alternative for classifying motor imagery EEG signals with increased classification accuracy. PMID:25933101

  15. Activity theory as a challenge to systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests an improvement of the theoretical foundation of information systems research of the 1990s. This foundation is found in human activity theory. The paper deals with how human activity theory can help systems design change, theoretically and practically. Applying activity theory to...... systems design, certain cornerstones become apparent, on which future systems design practice and research need to build. The paper will discuss these cornerstones, and the implications of the new understanding for design practice and research....

  16. Constellation Program Design Challenges as Opportunities for Educational Outreach- Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC) and the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Education Office both have programs that present design challenges for university senior design classes that offer great opportunities for educational outreach and workforce development. These design challenges have been identified by NASA engineers and scientists as actual design problems faced by the Constellation Program in its exploration missions and architecture. Student teams formed in their senior design class select and then work on a design challenge for one or two semesters. The senior design class follows the requirements set by their university, but it must also comply with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in order to meet the class academic requirements. Based on a one year fellowship at a TSGC university under the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) and several years of experience, lessons learned are presented on the NASA Design Challenge Program.

  17. A wireless sensor network design and implementation for vehicle detection, classification, and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaafreh, A.; Al Assaf, A.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle intrusion is considered a significant threat for critical zones specially the militarized zones and therefore vehicles monitoring has a great importance. In this paper a small wireless sensor network for vehicle intrusion monitoring consists of a five inexpensive sensor nodes distributed over a small area and connected with a gateway using star topology has been designed and implemented. The system is able to detect a passage of an intrusive vehicle, classify it either wheeled or tracked, and track the direction of its movement. The approach is based on Vehicle's ground vibrations for detection, vehicle's acoustic signature for classification and the Energy- based target localization for tracking. Detection and classification are implemented by using different algorithms and techniques including Analog to Digital Conversion, Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Neural Network .All of these algorithms and techniques are implemented locally in the sensor node using Microchip dsPIC digital signal controller. Results are sent from the sensor node to the gateway using ZigBee technology and then from the gateway to a web server using GPRS technology.

  18. Analysis and design of VEK for extreme events - a challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For analysis and design of the VEK building - especially for design against earthquake and airplane crash - a 3D-integral-model had been developed, being able of yielding any global response quantities - displacements, accelerations, sectional forces, response spectra, global reinforcement - for any load actions from one mathematical model. Especially for airplane crash a so called dynamic design results in reinforcement quantities at every time step and so leads to a realistic and economic design. The advantages of the integral-model had been transferred to the design of the processing installation where the structural analysis of steel structures, vessels and piping had been dealt with in one integral mathematical model. (orig.)

  19. Design Innovations and Implementation Challenges - A Case of Smart Textiles in Future Hospital Interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    Concerned with the overall challenges of implementing design innovations, this paper relates to the specific case of applying smart textiles in future hospital interiors. The methodological approach is inspired by design thinking and implementation processes, and through the scope of a developed...... strategic framework, the implementation challenges will be discussed from a holistic integrative design perspective. With this explorative initiative, our aim is to present specific approaches to progress the design innovation of smart textiles, and the implementation climate of future hospitals....

  20. New development: the challenges of designing municipal governance indicators

    OpenAIRE

    da Cruz, Nuno F.; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative governance indicators are being increasingly used to investigate the quality of governance and to ‘measure what matters’ in local government. This article addresses the challenges of developing appropriate and accurate indicators and presents a model for assessing governance systematically.

  1. Modernisation of Graphic Design: The Possibilities and Challenges of Digitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T.F. Poon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As inventions go, the contrivance of design as a dynamic, fluid, operational vehicle of human technology has always been subject to arguments and debates. The digitalisation of graphic design is a comparatively new field of research, a progressive process that evolves with technological developments. Undoubtedly, the evolution of design practices has transformed the entire design process in ways not deemed possible in the past. The advantages of digitalisation are particularly tangible in the range of possibilities generated by computer-based design tools. The main argument for the increase in “design capital” has been the accessibility of modern art tools to both design practitioners and the wider society, through mass digital culture absorption and the emerging technologies of production and reproduction. In presenting the fundamentals of digitalisation in design practices, this paper retraces the key cornerstones in the evolution of graphic design as an aesthetic medium from the 19th - to 21st -century, while pointing out the expanding, reflexive relationships between design and our environment. The researcher’s aim is to connect the socio-historical developmental frames of social progress and the practical uses of digitalisation in art and design today. The innovations in computermediated design work today grew from experimental platforms in the 20th -century, inasmuch as technological diffusion in the 21st -century Information Age derived from the widespread global embrace of the World Wide Web, multimedia and graphical computing systems. As a result of this development of the technological ‘canvas’, the production of design, aesthetic and cultural objects has shifted from the traditional artist-craftsman-specialist paradigm to reflect a more encompassing, diverse scope of ideas fostered by the exposure to different facets of creative capital and inspirations.

  2. Challenges in Design of an Orientation free Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (µDMFC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hales, Jan Harry

    2014-01-01

    challenges in design and manufacturing of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) as the power generator in hearing aid devices is investigated. Among the different challenges in design for μDMFC, the CO2 bubble management and orientation independency of the cell are addressed by proposing a spring loaded...

  3. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  4. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA) study: Design challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer Cristan A; Arnold L Eugene; Bukstein Oscar G; Findling Robert L; Gadow Kenneth D; Li Xiaobai; Butter Eric M; Aman Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug) and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies) timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatmen...

  5. Design Challenges of Millimeter Wave Communications: A MAC Layer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fischione, Carlo; Fodor, Gabor; Athanasiou, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    As the spectrum is becoming more scarce due to exponential demand of formidable data quantities, the new millimiterwave (mmW) band is considered as an enabling player of 5G communications to provide multi-gigabits wireless acccess. MmW communications exhibit high attenuation and blockage, directionality due to massive beamforming, deafness, low-interference, and may need micro waves networks for coordination and fallback support. The current mmW standardizations are challenged by the overwhel...

  6. Automatic Dismantling Challenges in the Structural Design of LCD TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Many liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs) end up in the waste stream today. The combination of hazardous materials such as mercury and liquid crystal, and the labor-intensive disassembly of LCD TVs, make the recycling process interesting to automate. However, since there are so many manufacturers the variation of LCD TVs is high, making automation a challenge. Todays most common automatic process utilizes shredders, resulting in degradation of recycled material and possible decont...

  7. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary cla...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  8. Teacher Challenges to Implement Engineering Design in Secondary Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. This article is the third article in a three-part series presenting the results of this study. The first article in the series titled "Examination of Engineering Design Curriculum Content" highlighted the research…

  9. Four categories of design challenges to building game-based business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus; Harpelund, Christian

    2014-01-01

    four-category approach to understanding such challenges. The four categories include 1) the learning game design, 2) didactic design on how the game is to be used, 3) organisational design for establishing both supply and demand, and finally 4) business design, which concerns the establishment of a...

  10. Mobile healthcare applications: system design review, critical issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in monitoring and delivery of healthcare interventions. They are often considered as pocket computers, due to their advanced computing features, enhanced preferences and diverse capabilities. Their sophisticated sensors and complex software applications make the mobile healthcare (m-health) based applications more feasible and innovative. In a number of scenarios user-friendliness, convenience and effectiveness of these systems have been acknowledged by both patients as well as healthcare providers. M-health technology employs advanced concepts and techniques from multidisciplinary fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering and medicine which benefit the innovations of these fields towards healthcare systems. This paper deals with two important aspects of current mobile phone based sensor applications in healthcare. Firstly, critical review of advanced applications such as; vital sign monitoring, blood glucose monitoring and in-built camera based smartphone sensor applications. Secondly, investigating challenges and critical issues related to the use of smartphones in healthcare including; reliability, efficiency, mobile phone platform variability, cost effectiveness, energy usage, user interface, quality of medical data, and security and privacy. It was found that the mobile based applications have been widely developed in recent years with fast growing deployment by healthcare professionals and patients. However, despite the advantages of smartphones in patient monitoring, education, and management there are some critical issues and challenges related to security and privacy of data, acceptability, reliability and cost that need to be addressed. PMID:25476753

  11. Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge: I. Experimental Design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobler, Gregory; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phillip J; Liao, Kai; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric; Rumbaugh, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters as well as probe the dark matter (sub-)structure within the lens galaxy. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly as a result of some dedicated efforts; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ~1000 lens systems consisting of a foreground elliptical galaxy producing multiple images of a background quasar. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community to accurately measure the time delays in strong gravitational lens systems, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we invite the community to take part in a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of "ladders", each containing a group of simulated datasets to be analyzed blindly by participating independent analysis teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed le...

  12. Optimal design of neural networks for land-cover classification from multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvan-Cardenas, Jose L.

    2004-02-01

    It has long been shown the effectiveness of artificial neural networks to solve highly non-linear problems such as land-cover classification based on multispectral imagery. However, due to the large amount of data that is processed within this kind of applications, it is desirable to design networks with the lowest number of neurons that are capable to separate all of the given classes. At present, there are several methods intended to determine this optimal network. Most of them involve adjoining or pruning hidden neurons followed by further training in iterative fashion, which is generally a very slow process. As an alternative, the approach described in this paper is based on the computation of centroids of relevant clusters for each class samples through the well known clustering method ISODATA. A proper tessellation of the ISODATA centroids allows first the determination of the minimum number of neurons in the first hidden layer that are required to effectively separate all of the classes; and secondly, to compute weight and bias parameters for such neurons. Then, the minimum network required to perform the logic function that combines the halfspaces generated by the first layer into class-discriminant surfaces is determined via a logic function reduction method. This approach is much faster than that of current methods because it allows to determine the optimum network size and compute weight and bias parameters without further iterative adjustments. The procedure was tested with landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Results indicated that (1) the network exhibits good generalization behavior and (2) classification accuracies do not depend on the class boundary complexity but only on the class overlapping extent.

  13. Nuclear submarines in the Royal Navy - the design challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early years of the century, submarines have been among the most potent contributors to naval power. Nuclear-powered submarines, with the ability to stay continuously submerged for months and capable of the high sustained speeds previously only achieved by surface warships, now vie with aircraft carriers as the capital ships of the major navies of the world. Indeed, their unsurpassed stealth has made them the prime choice for deploying a nuclear deterrent capability. After a brief historical survey, this paper reviews the current status of the Royal Navy's nuclear submarine fleet then describes the design and construction process for a nuclear submarine. The design of any submarine is a complex and highly integrated process and the particular and far-reaching effects of incorporating nuclear steam-raising plant are discussed, along with the key safety considerations involved in nuclear submarine design and operation. The paper concludes with some thoughts on the future development of submarines. (author)

  14. Universal Design for Learning: Policy Challenges and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Kim M.

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of universal design for learning (UDL) in the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act 2008 (HEA) demonstrates its escalating importance in the education field. UDL concepts and practices are not yet broadly integrated into all education policy. Policy has been slow to catch up to this quickly growing practice. To address that…

  15. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  16. Two Paper Airplane Design Challenges: Customizing for Different Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Meyer, Allison Antink

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of scientific inquiry into college classrooms has steadily risen as faculty work to move away from exclusively didactic methods. One type of inquiry structure, the design task, produces a product rather than simply a conclusion. This offers students a context to apply their understanding of content in a tangible way that has…

  17. Design Issues and Challenges of File Systems for Flash Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano, Michele; Di Carlo, Stefano; Prinetto, Paolo Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to properly address the issues of using NAND flash memories as mass-memory devices from the native file system standpoint. We hope that the ideas and the solutions proposed in this chapter will be a valuable starting point for designers of NAND flash-based mass-memory devices

  18. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...

  19. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    , variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation of......Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development...... the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed...

  20. The challenge of representative design in psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, Robin

    2004-01-01

    The demands of representative design, as formulated by Egon Brunswik (1956), set a high methodological standard. Both experimental participants and the situations with which they are faced should be representative of the populations to which researchers claim to generalize results. Failure to observe the latter has led to notable experimental failures in psychology from which economics could learn. It also raises questions about the meaning of testing economic theories in ?abstract? environme...

  1. SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE DESIGN CHALLENGES IN AUTOMOTIVE EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwari Hegde; Geetishree Mishra; Gurumurthy, K. S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern auto motives integrate large amount of electronic devices to improve the driving safety and comfort. This growing number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) with sophisticated software escalates the vehicle system design complexity. In this paper we explain the complexity of ECUs in terms of hardware and software and also we explore the possibility of Common Object Request Broker Architecture(CORBA) architecture for the integration of add-on software in ECUs. This reduces the complexity...

  2. Designing Effective Serious Games: Opportunities and Challenges for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellotti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Serious Games represent an acknowledged potential for instruction, because they are able to strongly motivate learners. They can also provide immersive environments where advanced users can practice knowledge and skills, also exploiting multimodal interaction. They can combine the effectiveness of computer processing and data storage, with high levels of attractiveness. Our work has investigated the state of the art research on SGs, starting from the cognitive aspects, that are necessary in order to root technological development and applications in sound theoretical foundations. The paper discusses some key aspects about SG design and exploitation: choice of components-off-the-shelf or from-scratch design, tools and methodologies for development or adaptation, intelligent tutoring, virtual coaches and affective learning, living worlds, game mechanics, Human-Computer Interaction. While several SGs have been developed, still the literature stresses a lack of significant, extensive user tests. Further research is necessary to investigate in greater detail the real effectiveness of the various types of SGs. The paper proposes several research questions - that range from requirements elicitation to design and from deployment to use and evaluation - to be answered in order to avoid technology pushing and drive technological research according to the requirements of the end-users and stakeholders. We believe that deepening the analysis about these issues is key to strengthen the foundations of SG research, for which we identify four major directions: definition of metrics and learning progress evaluation tools; methodologies and tools for designing games from various topics and for various users; computing and communication architectures; technologies that can enhance the overall system performance.

  3. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  4. Sustainable hydrogen - A challenge for materials science and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Hydrogen is the ideal fuel, considering its fully non-polluting by-products. Still, in discussions on 'sustainable hydrogen', there must be considered all the steps implied in hydrogen production, storage and use and the overall energy balance represents the real starting point of evaluating the sustainability. So far, hydrogen production is related to rather energy-consuming processes; extended research is devoted to develop high efficiency processes, but the industrial hydrogen production makes use of either large electrical or thermal energy amounts. Hydrogen production via water photolysis represents, consequently a viable alternative although many steps have to be elaborated to reached the industrial scale of these processes. Hydrogen storing represents another problem that affects its application; a safe storage way, in metal hydrides, is still under intensive research all over the world. The group of the Centre of Product Design for Sustainable Development is engaged in research for developing a laboratory photolyser, able to produce hydrogen and to offer an efficient storage alternative. The photolyser is a photo-electrochemical cell, and the efficiency of the photolysis process depends on several factors: - the photo-electrodes: thin films of wide band gap semiconductors with tailored properties; - the aqueous environment, with effect on the electrode materials properties and stability; - the external bias; - the cell design. The paper focuses mainly on the photo-electrode materials that were tested. The influence of the composition, crystalline and defect structure, of the morphology and of the interfaces on the photolysis process are reviewed. The effect of the pH in the aqueous media is discussed along with the stability of the materials and the reversibility of the adsorption/desorption processes. The design criteria that must be fulfilled in developing the photolyser are also discussed. (authors)

  5. Remarkable Computing - the Challenge of Designing for the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves

    The vision of ubiquitous computing is floating into the domain of the household, despite arguments that lessons from design of workplace artefacts cannot be blindly transferred into the domain of the household. This paper discusses why the ideal of unremarkable or ubiquitous computing is too narr...... with respect to the household. It points out how understanding technology use, is a matter of looking into the process of use and on how the specific context of the home, in several ways, call for technology to be remarkable rather than unremarkable....

  6. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  7. Constructing delta realities; Joint Fact Finding challenges in Serious Game Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Pel (Bonno); M. Duijn (Michael); M.X. Janssen (Matti); J. Edelenbos (Jurian)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper addresses the challenges of Joint Fact Finding (JFF) in spatial planning and design. JFF is an important component of a deliberative planning practice: The construction of (problematic) realities is fundamental for the formulation of challenges and solutions.

  8. Co-design and implementation research: challenges and solutions for ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Goodyear-Smith, F; Jackson, C; Greenhalgh, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Implementation science research, especially when using participatory and co-design approaches, raises unique challenges for research ethics committees. Such challenges may be poorly addressed by approval and governance mechanisms that were developed for more traditional research approaches such as randomised controlled trials. Discussion Implementation science commonly involves the partnership of researchers and stakeholders, attempting to understand and encourage uptake of complet...

  9. Challenges and perspectives in Service Design curricula. The case of the Service Systems Design Master of Aalborg University in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Morelli, Nicola; Grani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the new Master program on Service Systems Design at Aalborg University in Copenhagen will be presented, focusing on the challenges of building such a curriculum and on its peculiar approach to Service Design through the Problem Based Learning methodology. All the semesters will be...

  10. CFD based extraction column design-Chances and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark W Hlawitschka; Menwer M Attarakih; Samer S Alzyod; Hans-Jrg Bart

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that one-dimensional (1-D) [and three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] simulations can replace the state-of-the-art usage of pseudo-homogeneous dispersion or back mixing models. This is based on standardized lab-scale cel experiments for the determination of droplet rise, breakage, coalescence and mass transfer parameters in addition to a limited number of additional mini-plant experiments with original fluids. Alternatively, the hydrodynamic parameters can also be derived using more sophisticated 3-D CFD simulations. Computational 1-D modeling served as a basis to replace pilot-plant experiments in any column geometry. The combination of 3-D CFD simulations with droplet population balance models (DPBM) increased the accuracy of the hydrodynamic simulations and gave information about the local droplet size. The high computational costs can be reduced by open source CFD codes when using a flexible mesh generation. First combined simulations using a three way coupled CFD/DPBM/mass-transfer solver pave the way for a safer design of industrial-sized columns, where no correlations are available.

  11. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  12. Expanding entrepreneurial teams in design driven Finnish startups: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Granö, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore challenges and opportunities of Finnish design driven startups expanding the entrepreneurial team. Key people from four design driven ventures in the capital area of Helsinki were interviewed to determine success factors in their process of adding new team members. The study looks into characteristics of entrepreneurs in general versus design entrepreneurs as well as required skillsets of team members. The reasoning of design entrepr...

  13. Towards designing an email classification system using multi-view based semi-supervised learning

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenjuan; Meng, Weizhi; Tan, Zhiyuan; Xiang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The goal of email classification is to classify user emails into spam and legitimate ones. Many supervised learning algorithms have been invented in this domain to accomplish the task, and these algorithms require a large number of labeled training data. However, data labeling is a labor intensive task and requires in-depth domain knowledge. Thus, only a very small proportion of the data can be labeled in practice. This bottleneck greatly degrades the effectiveness of supervised email classif...

  14. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course contents and relevant teaching methods are discussed.

  15. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course...

  16. Encouraging Effective Group Work: The pedagogical challenges involved in designing a staff workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Pamplin, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two main pedagogical challenges involved in designing a workshop for staff in the Schools of Arts and Social Sciences. While it may be simple to prepare a linear, teacher-driven presentation which can be delivered to an audience of any size, this misses the opportunity to design a flexible learning experience in which the participants play an active role. The design for the workshop, which is based on the pedagogical theories of facilitative teaching (Biggs 1999) and appr...

  17. Opening up design science: The challenge of designing for reuse and joint development

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, G. V.; Haefliger, S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to advance design science by developing a framework for research on reuse and the relationship between external IT artifacts and their users. A design science approach to IS research needs to grapple with the fact that a number of relevant, economically attractive, external IT artifacts cannot be designed from scratch nor meaningfully evaluated based on the current state of development, and so design science research will struggle with incomplete cycles of design,...

  18. Multiclass Classification by Adaptive Network of Dendritic Neurons with Binary Synapses Using Structural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Shaista; Basu, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    The development of power-efficient neuromorphic devices presents the challenge of designing spike pattern classification algorithms which can be implemented on low-precision hardware and can also achieve state-of-the-art performance. In our pursuit of meeting this challenge, we present a pattern classification model which uses a sparse connection matrix and exploits the mechanism of nonlinear dendritic processing to achieve high classification accuracy. A rate-based structural learning rule f...

  19. Multiclass Classification by Adaptive Network of Dendritic Neurons with Binary Synapses using Structural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Shaista eHussain; Arindam eBasu

    2016-01-01

    The development of power-efficient neuromorphic devices presents the challenge of designing spike pattern classification algorithms which can be implemented on low-precision hardware and can also achieve state-of-the-art performance. In our pursuit of meeting this challenge, we present a pattern classification model which uses a sparse connection matrix and exploits the mechanism of nonlinear dendritic processing to achieve high classification accuracy. A rate-based structural learning rule f...

  20. New Challenges for Design Participation in the Era of Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brereton, Margot; Buur, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of participatory design in the work democracy projects of the 1970’s and 1980’s in Scandinavia, computing technology and people’s engagement with it have undergone fundamental changes. Although participatory design continues to be a precondition for designing computing that aligns...... ubiquitous computing, and how this challenges the original participatory design thinking. In particular we will argue that more casual, exploratory formats of engagement with people are required, and rather than planning the all-encompassing systems development project, participatory design needs to move...

  1. Some Challenges in the Design of Human-Automation Interaction for Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Roth, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amounts of automation are being introduced to safety-critical domains. While the introduction of automation has led to an overall increase in reliability and improved safety, it has also introduced a class of failure modes, and new challenges in risk assessment for the new systems, particularly in the assessment of rare events resulting from complex inter-related factors. Designing successful human-automation systems is challenging, and the challenges go beyond good interface development (e.g., Roth, Malin, & Schreckenghost 1997; Christoffersen & Woods, 2002). Human-automation design is particularly challenging when the underlying automation technology generates behavior that is difficult for the user to anticipate or understand. These challenges have been recognized in several safety-critical domains, and have resulted in increased efforts to develop training, procedures, regulations and guidance material (CAST, 2008, IAEA, 2001, FAA, 2013, ICAO, 2012). This paper points to the continuing need for new methods to describe and characterize the operational environment within which new automation concepts are being presented. We will describe challenges to the successful development and evaluation of human-automation systems in safety-critical domains, and describe some approaches that could be used to address these challenges. We will draw from experience with the aviation, spaceflight and nuclear power domains.

  2. Challenges and Limitations of Applying an Emotion-driven Design Approach on Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper L.; Gudmundsson, Hjalte P.; Achiche, Sofiane;

    2011-01-01

    Population ageing is without parallel in human history and the twenty-first century will witness even more rapid ageing than did the century just past. Understanding the user needs of the elderly and how to design better products for this segment of the population is crucial, as it can offer a...... measure the emotional responses of the elderly, a questionnaire was designed and adapted from P.M.A. Desmet’s product-emotion measurement instrument: PrEmo. During the case study it was observed that there were several challenges when carrying out the user survey, and that those challenges particularly...... competitive advantage for companies. In this paper, challenges of applying an emotion-driven design approach applied on elderly people, in order to identify their user needs towards walking frames, are discussed. The discussion will be based on the experiences and results obtained from the case study. To...

  3. Challenges and Limitations of Applying an Emotion-driven Design Approach on Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper L.; Gudmundsson, Hjalte P.; Achiche, Sofiane; Boelskifte, Per

    Population ageing is without parallel in human history and the twenty-first century will witness even more rapid ageing than did the century just past. Understanding the user needs of the elderly and how to design better products for this segment of the population is crucial, as it can offer a...... measure the emotional responses of the elderly, a questionnaire was designed and adapted from P.M.A. Desmet’s product-emotion measurement instrument: PrEmo. During the case study it was observed that there were several challenges when carrying out the user survey, and that those challenges particularly...... competitive advantage for companies. In this paper, challenges of applying an emotion-driven design approach applied on elderly people, in order to identify their user needs towards walking frames, are discussed. The discussion will be based on the experiences and results obtained from the case study. To...

  4. LTE and the evolution to 4G wireless design and measurement challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rumney, Moray

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide to LTE design, test and measurement, this new edition has been updated to include the latest developments This book presents the latest details on LTE from a practical and technical perspective. Written by Agilent's measurement experts, it offers a valuable insight into LTE technology and its design and test challenges. Chapters cover the upper layer signaling and system architecture evolution (SAE). Basic concepts such as MIMO and SC-FDMA, the new uplink modulation scheme, are introduced and explained, and the authors look into the challenges of verifying the

  5. Investigation of Classification and Design Requirements for Digital Software for Advanced Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the digital technology is being developed drastically, it is being applied to various industrial instrumentation and control (I and C) fields. In the nuclear power plants, I and C systems are also being installed by digital systems replacing their corresponding analog systems installed previously. There had been I and C systems constructed by analog technology especially for the reactor protection system in the research reactor HANARO. Parallel to the pace of the current trend for digital technology, it is desirable that all I and C systems including the safety critical and non-safety systems in an advanced research reactor is to be installed based on the computer based system. There are many attractable features in using digital systems against existing analog systems in that the digital system has a superior performance for a function and it is more flexible than the analog system. And any fruit gained from the newly developed digital technology can be easily incorporated into the existing digital system and hence, the performance improvement of a computer based system can be implemented conveniently and promptly. Moreover, the capability of high integrity in electronic circuits reduces the electronic components needed to construct the processing device and makes the electronic board simple, and this fact reveals that the hardware failure itself are unlikely to occur in the electronic device other than some electric problems. Balanced the fact mentioned above are the roles and related issues of the software loaded on the digital integrated hardware. Some defects in the course of software development might induce a severe damage on the computer system and plant systems and therefore it is obvious that comprehensive and deep considerations are to be placed on the development of the software in the design of I and C system for use in an advanced research reactor. The work investigates the domestic and international standards on the classifications of digital

  6. Investigation of Classification and Design Requirements for Digital Software for Advanced Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gee Young; Jung, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Park, C

    2005-06-15

    As the digital technology is being developed drastically, it is being applied to various industrial instrumentation and control (I and C) fields. In the nuclear power plants, I and C systems are also being installed by digital systems replacing their corresponding analog systems installed previously. There had been I and C systems constructed by analog technology especially for the reactor protection system in the research reactor HANARO. Parallel to the pace of the current trend for digital technology, it is desirable that all I and C systems including the safety critical and non-safety systems in an advanced research reactor is to be installed based on the computer based system. There are many attractable features in using digital systems against existing analog systems in that the digital system has a superior performance for a function and it is more flexible than the analog system. And any fruit gained from the newly developed digital technology can be easily incorporated into the existing digital system and hence, the performance improvement of a computer based system can be implemented conveniently and promptly. Moreover, the capability of high integrity in electronic circuits reduces the electronic components needed to construct the processing device and makes the electronic board simple, and this fact reveals that the hardware failure itself are unlikely to occur in the electronic device other than some electric problems. Balanced the fact mentioned above are the roles and related issues of the software loaded on the digital integrated hardware. Some defects in the course of software development might induce a severe damage on the computer system and plant systems and therefore it is obvious that comprehensive and deep considerations are to be placed on the development of the software in the design of I and C system for use in an advanced research reactor. The work investigates the domestic and international standards on the classifications of digital

  7. 75 FR 33169 - Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Administration (FDA) published a final rule in the Federal Register of August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38686) which... (powder), which is composed primarily of silver, tin, and copper (74 FR 38686). The final rule classified... previous classification of amalgam alloy in the codified section of the final rule (74 FR 38686 at...

  8. Environmentally Design; Barriers and Challenges in the Integrated Design Process Approch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    heating. The paper will shortly present the method of the Integrated Design Process (IDP). It describes the background and means for developing a new method for designing integrated architecture in an interdisciplinary approach between architecture and engineering. It also describes the barriers and the...

  9. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    centered in technological development; (2) the business selection response strategy centered in business skills (which should be additional to the technical skills); and (3) the design intervention response strategy focused on a network approach to technology, business and society. These conceptualizations...... are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academicreform and the international...

  10. Situating the transient user: overcoming challenges in the design of e-government systems

    OpenAIRE

    Inglesant, P. G.; Sasse, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    e-Government systems present new challenges for user involvement in the design process. Existing user-centred and participatory design methodologies were mainly developed for situations where a user is in the workplace. In e-government applications the user population is heterogeneous and numerous; the increasing ubiquity of e-government systems also questions the concept of “the interface”. This paper presents the results of a study of discourses of e-government users in two cases studies of...

  11. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Suhaily,; Mohammad Jawaid; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil,; A. Rahman Mohamed; , F. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and te...

  12. Present day design challenges exemplified by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present day design challenges faced by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant engineer result from two causes. The first cause is aspiration to achieve a design that will operate at conditions which are desirable for future LMFBRs in order for them to achieve low power costs and good breeding. The second cause is the licensing impact. Although licensing the CRBRP won't eliminate future licensing effort, many licensing questions will have been resolved and precedents set for the future LMFBR industry

  13. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Manikandan; Srinivasan Subha

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and predi...

  14. The Challenges of Designing and Implementing a Doctoral Student Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Karri A.; Caldwell, Mary Lee

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between doctoral students and faculty members has been identified as a key component of a successful graduate school experience. In this article, we consider the challenges inherent in designing and implementing a formal doctoral student mentoring program. By bringing together students, peer mentors, and faculty mentors, the…

  15. Designing Self-Evaluation Instruments for Academic Programmes: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Francis

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to design valid and reliable self-evaluation instruments for periodic evaluation of academic programmes of Bolgatanga Polytechnic in Ghana, using evaluation experts and relevant stakeholders of the polytechnic. This paper presents some of the challenges, including those of institutional support, the technical demands of…

  16. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  17. Integration of scholastic curriculum in computergames – impossible or a design challenge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    The present paper argues that integration of scholastic knowledge in computer games is a design challenge and one that will only work if you preserve the computer game as a game. This is important cause if you don’t adhere to or understand the dynamics of computer games you run the risk of destro...

  18. Hybrid Societies: Challenges and Perspectives in the Design of Collective Behavior in Self-organizing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eHamann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid societies are self-organizing, collective systems composed of different components, for example, natural and artificial parts (bio-hybrid or human beings interacting with and through technical systems (socio-technical. Many different disciplines investigate methods and systems closely related to the design of hybrid societies. A~stronger collaboration between these disciplines could allow for re-use of methods and create significant synergies. We identify three main areas of challenges in the design of self-organizing hybrid societies. First, we identify the formalization challenge. There is an urgent need for a generic model that allows a description and comparison of collective hybrid societies. Second, we identify the system design challenge. Starting from the formal specification of the system, we need to develop an integrated design process. Third, we identify the challenge of interdisciplinarity. Current research on self-organizing hybrid societies stretches over many different fields and hence requires the re-use and synthesis of methods at intersections between disciplines. We then conclude by presenting our perspective for future approaches with high potential in this area.

  19. Is classification necessary after Google?

    OpenAIRE

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine challenges facing bibliographic classification at both the practical and theoretical levels. At the practical level, libraries are increasingly dispensing with classifying books. At the theoretical level, many researchers, managers, and users believe that the activity of “classification” is not worth the effort, as search engines can be improved without the heavy cost of providing metadata. Design/methodology/approach – The basic issue in clas...

  20. Feasibility Study on a Portable Field Pest Classification System Design Based on DSP and 3G Wireless Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP, which uses a digital signal processor (DSP as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP. The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests’ pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture.

  1. Feasibility study on a portable field pest classification system design based on DSP and 3G wireless communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruizhen; He, Yong; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests' pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture. PMID:22736996

  2. Device and Circuit Design Challenges in the Digital Subthreshold Region for Ultralow-Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vaddi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, subthreshold operation has gained a lot of attention due to ultra low-power consumption in applications requiring low to medium performance. It has also been shown that by optimizing the device structure, power consumption of digital subthreshold logic can be further minimized while improving its performance. Therefore, subthreshold circuit design is very promising for future ultra low-energy sensor applications as well as high-performance parallel processing. This paper deals with various device and circuit design challenges associated with the state of the art in optimal digital subthreshold circuit design and reviews device design methodologies and circuit topologies for optimal digital subthreshold operation. This paper identifies the suitable candidates for subthreshold operation at device and circuit levels for optimal subthreshold circuit design and provides an effective roadmap for digital designers interested to work with ultra low-power applications.

  3. Challenges and Opportunities for Establishing Design as a Research Discipline in Civil and Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    faculty, research and education communities, conferences, and journals. However, design remains an emerging sub-discipline in civil and environmental engineering – practiced, valued, and taught but not subject to rigorous academic research. This paper presents some of the challenges associated with the...... establishment of design as a research discipline within civil and environmental engineering, some of the benefits and opportunities that will come from that establishment, and some evidence for the fact that this process has already begun.......There are a number of fields including architecture, industrial design, and urban planning and design, where design is the discipline upon which all research and teaching activities are based. In other fields such as aerospace and mechanical engineering, design is a sub-discipline with its own...

  4. Challenges in the design of Waste Management Plant (WMP) for Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 500 MW, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is being constructed by DAE at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu. Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF) is also being planned as an integrated facility in close proximity to PFBR to cater to the need of closing the fast reactor fuel cycle. The design of waste management plant of FRFCF is one of the important and challenging tasks in FRFCF. The high burn up, short cooling period and high fissile content of spent fuel input from fast Reactors to FRFCF are the main reasons for the difficulties / challenges posed in the management of wastes from FRFCF. Separation of actinides and Platinum Group Metals (PGM) from high level liquid wastes, higher waste oxide loading in vitrified waste product from high level liquid waste management, development of better sorbent and chemical treatment method for achieving higher decontamination factors in the treatment of low and intermediate level liquid wastes and separation of plutonium from spent / de-graded solvent waste are some of the challenges which are addressed in this paper. Solid waste management is also associated with major challenges because of high volume of alpha contaminated wastes. Proper segregation, assaying, conditioning and treatment for volume reduction are planned. Management of significant amount of solid wastes generated as fuel hardware components (alpha and non-alpha) through proper storage and retrieval for future conditioning / disposal are also addressed in this paper. This paper describes the challenges faced during the design and solutions provided for each system. (author)

  5. Opportunities and challenges for innovation in the design of low-carbon energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Andersen, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken into...... study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological...... account to be able to achieve efficient reductions of energy and CO2 emissions and at the same time design a product attractive for the consumer, in terms of price, level of service and aesthetical demands, to ensure its strategic implementation. This paper takes the Danish office lighting sector as a...

  6. NANOPARTICLE DESIGN AND HANDLING--CHALLENGES FOR ENGINEERS AND PARTICLE TECHNOLOGISTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Einar Kruis; Rakesh K. Joshi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the opportunities and challenges which future applications based on nanoparticles offer to engineers are described. New high-added value products induce us to rethink ways to control nanoparticle design and handling. Several challenges are described and typical solutions are given: (1) finding relevant engineering tasks outside traditional process industry; (2) the importance of mixing reactants; (3) obtaining monodisperse particles; (4) gaining efficient control via electric forces and (5) developing multi-step processes which allow more control over particle properties.

  7. The Design and Management of Medical Device Clinical Trials Strategies and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aleem, Salah M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials tasks and activities are widely diverse and require certain skill sets to both plan and execute. This book provides professionals in the field of clinical research with valuable information on the challenging issues of the design, execution, and management of clinical trials, and how to resolve these issues effectively. It discusses key obstacles such as challenges to patient recruitment, investigator and study site selection, and dealing with compliance issues. Through practical examples, professionals working with medical device clinical trials will discover the appropriate s

  8. Two approaches to meeting the economic challenge for advanced BWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design overview and approach to addressing the aforementioned economic challenges for two Advanced BWR designs. The first plant is the ABWR and the second is the ESBWR. The ABWR relies on proven technology and components and an extensive infrastructure that has been built up over the last 20 years. Because it has proven and standards safety systems it has very limited uncertainty regarding licensing. Finally, it relies on the economies of scale and overall design flexibility to improve the overall economics of power generation. The ESBWR on the other hand has taken an innovative approach to reduce systems and components to simplify the overall plant to improve plant economics. The overall plant design is indeed simpler, but improved economics required reliance on some economies of scale also. This design embodied in the ESBWR, also has minimized the overall development cost by utilizing features and components from the ABWR and SBWR technology programs

  9. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  10. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  11. Positioning Learning Design: Learner Experience and the challenges of transforming teaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mark,; Griffiths, Dai; Hanslot, Zubair

    2010-01-01

    Johnson, M., Griffiths, D., & Hanslot, Z. (2010). Positioning Learning Design: Learner Experience and the challenges of transforming teaching practice. In D. Griffiths, & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 6th TENCompetence Open workshop (pp. 11-21). November, 19-20, 2009. Manchester, UK. Bolton, UK: Institute for Educational Cybernetics, The University of Bolton. For the complete book please see http://hdl.handle.net/1820...

  12. Design of Transparent Distributed IMS Network: Security Challenges Risk and Signaling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Allouch; Mostafa Belkasmi

    2013-01-01

    The IP Multimedia subsystem (IMS) based on SIP as mechanism signalling and interfaces with otherservers using OSA (Open Service Access) and CAMEL (Customized Applications for Mobile networkEnhanced Logic).Is responsible for the interconnection of IP packets with other network, IMS support datacommunication services, voice, video, messaging and web-based technologies. In this work we present adistributed design of architecture that turns up some challenges of transparent mobility on the secure...

  13. Design Opportunities and Challenges in Indian Urban Slums-Community Communication and Mobile Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhigyan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the area of community communication for marginalized communities belonging to Indian urban slums. The aim of the thesis is to identify design challenges and opportunities for mobile based community communication services for residents of Indian urban slums. The thesis is based on two ethnographic field research done in urban slums of India. The research is qualitative in nature and is best identified as participatory bottom-up exploration. The research is grounded ...

  14. Exploring challenges in rational enzyme design by simulating the catalysis in artificial kemp eliminase

    OpenAIRE

    Frushicheva, Maria P.; Cao, Jie; Chu, Zhen T.; Warshel, Arieh

    2010-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in biotechnology and in biochemistry is the ability to design effective enzymes. Doing so would be a convincing manifestation of a full understanding of the origin of enzyme catalysis. Despite an impressive progress, most of the advances on this front have been made by placing the reacting fragments in the proper places, rather than by optimizing the environment preorganization, which is the key factor in enzyme catalysis. Rational improvement of the preorgan...

  15. HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipeline and riser design in Guanabara Bay: challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfimsilva, Carlos; Jorge, Joao Paulo Carrijo; Schmid, Dominique; Gomes, Rodrigo Klim [INTECSEA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, Alexander Piraja [GDK, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Worldwide shipments of plastic pipes are forecasted to increase 5.2% per year since 2008, being commonly used for water supply and sewage disposal. The HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipes have been applied recently to deliver potable water and fire fighting water for the main pier of the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro. The system contains three sizes of pipe outside diameter, 110 mm and 160 mm for water supply, and 500 mm for the fire fighting system. The main design challenges of the pipeline system included providing on-bottom stability, a suitable installation procedure and a proper riser design. The on-bottom stability calculations, which are quite different from the conventional steel pipelines, were developed by designing concrete blocks to be assembled on the pipeline in a required spacing to assure long term stability, knowing that plastic pipes are buoyant even in flooded conditions. The installation procedure was developed considering the lay down methodology based on surface towing technique. The riser was designed to be installed together with additional steel support structure to allow the entire underwater system to have the same plastic pipe specification up to the surface. This paper presents the main challenges that were faced during the design of the HDPE pipelines for the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, addressing the solutions and recommendations adopted for the plastic underwater pipeline system.

  16. The Challenges of Designing the Rocker-Bogie Suspension for the Mars Exploration Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Brian D.; Voorhees, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the rocker-bogie suspension design has become a proven mobility application known for its superior vehicle stability and obstacle-climbing capability. Following several technology and research rover implementations, the system was successfully flown as part of Mars Pathfinder s Sojourner rover. When the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project was first proposed, the use of a rocker-bogie suspension was the obvious choice due to its extensive heritage. The challenge posed by MER was to design a lightweight rocker-bogie suspension that would permit the mobility to stow within the limited space available and deploy into a configuration that the rover could then safely use to egress from the lander and explore the Martian surface. This paper will describe how the MER rocker-bogie suspension subsystem was able to meet these conflicting design requirements while highlighting the variety of deployment and latch mechanisms employed in the design.

  17. Technology Transfer Challenges: A Case Study of User-Centered Design in NASA's Systems Engineering Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Stage (US) section of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ares I rocket will require internal access platforms for maintenance tasks performed by humans inside the vehicle. Tasks will occur during expensive critical path operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) including vehicle stacking and launch preparation activities. Platforms must be translated through a small human access hatch, installed in an enclosed worksite environment, support the weight of ground operators and be removed before flight - and their design must minimize additional vehicle mass at attachment points. This paper describes the application of a user-centered conceptual design process and the unique challenges encountered within NASA's systems engineering culture focused on requirements and "heritage hardware". The NASA design team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) initiated the user-centered design process by studying heritage internal access kits and proposing new design concepts during brainstorming sessions. Simultaneously, they partnered with the Technology Transfer/Innovative Partnerships Program to research inflatable structures and dynamic scaffolding solutions that could enable ground operator access. While this creative, technology-oriented exploration was encouraged by upper management, some design stakeholders consistently opposed ideas utilizing novel, untested equipment. Subsequent collaboration with an engineering consulting firm improved the technical credibility of several options, however, there was continued resistance from team members focused on meeting system requirements with pre-certified hardware. After a six-month idea-generating phase, an intensive six-week effort produced viable design concepts that justified additional vehicle mass while optimizing the human factors of platform installation and use. Although these selected final concepts closely resemble heritage internal access platforms, challenges from the application of the

  18. Federal-State Consultation in SNF Transportation System Design: The Continuing Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal-state consultation is well established as a core state concern in SNF transportation system design (TSD). This may be attributed, in part, to the limited guidance on transportation systems provided by the NWPA, in part, to the development since 1982 of a greater appreciation of the complexity of SNF transport as a system, and, in part, to recent DOE initiatives to preempt state authority in this critical aspect of SNF and HLW management.1 The OCRWM agency for TSD (the Office of Logistics Management: OLM) acknowledges that federal-state consultation is a core state concern, and has provided commendable statements regarding the role of consultation processes in SNF system design. Yet, DoE's commitment to federal-state consultation remains tentative. It's recently released National Transportation Plan (NTP: Rev.0) does not provide a clear description how federal-state consultation will be incorporated in phased review and decision in a complicated systems design process. No one argues that real federal-state consultation in SNF TSD is simple or easy, for DOE or for their state partners. Yet, success in such consultation is arguably prerequisite to success in any campaign for any large-scale cross-country transport of the nation's growing SNF inventory. This paper considers some of the challenges (institutional, technical, perceptual) to federal-state consultation in SNF TSD. These challenges apply to any re-formulation of the nation's nuclear waste policy that does not involve full and firm national commitment to extended onsite storage. The gap between the expressed consultation intent and actual consultation process is probably attributable to a combination of institutional and technical factors. Among the eight challenges discussed above, eight are primarily institutional, one is rooted in human cognition, and two involve technical system design and application. The list of challenges is preliminary and intended to provoke discussion. It is hoped that

  19. Component design challenges for the ground-based SP-100 nuclear assembly test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SP-100 ground engineering system (GES) program involves a ground test of the nuclear subsystems to demonstrate their design. The GES nuclear assembly test (NAT) will be performed in a simulated space environment within a vessel maintained at ultrahigh vacuum. The NAT employs a radiation shielding system that is comprised of both prototypical and nonprototypical shield subsystems to attenuate the reactor radiation leakage and also nonprototypical heat transport subsystems to remove the heat generated by the reactor. The reactor is cooled by liquid lithium, which will operate at temperatures prototypical of the flight system. In designing the components for these systems, a number of design challenges were encountered in meeting the operational requirements of the simulated space environment (and where necessary, prototypical requirements) while also accommodating the restrictions of a ground-based test facility with its limited available space. This paper presents a discussion of the design challenges associated with the radiation shield subsystem components and key components of the heat transport systems

  20. Classification of red wine based on its protected designation of origin (PDO) using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S; Rosales, J D; Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; Anzano, J; Caceres, J O

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on a simple and fast classification procedure for the quality control of red wines with protected designation of origin (PDO) by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique combined with Neural Networks (NN) in order to increase the quality assurance and authenticity issues. A total of thirty-eight red wine samples from different PDO were analyzed to detect fake wines and to avoid unfair competition in the market. LIBS is well known for not requiring sample preparation, however, in order to increase its analytical performance a new sample preparation treatment by previous liquid-to-solid transformation of the wine using a dry collagen gel has been developed. The use of collagen pellets allowed achieving successful classification results, avoiding the limitations and difficulties of working with aqueous samples. The performance of the NN model was assessed by three validation procedures taking into account their sensitivity (internal validation), generalization ability and robustness (independent external validation). The results of the use of a spectroscopic technique coupled with a chemometric analysis (LIBS-NN) are discussed in terms of its potential use in the food industry, providing a methodology able to perform the quality control of alcoholic beverages. PMID:27343593

  1. Design requirements, challenges, and solutions for high-temperature falling particle receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford

    2016-05-01

    Falling particle receivers (FPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. Previous analysis for FPR systems include computational fluid dynamics (CFD), analytical evaluations, and experiments to determine the feasibility and achievability of this CSP technology. Sandia National Laboratories has fabricated and tested a 1 MWth FPR that consists of a cavity receiver, top hopper, bottom hopper, support structure, particle elevator, flux target, and instrumentation. Design requirements and inherent challenges were addressed to enable continuous operation of flowing particles under high-flux conditions and particle temperatures over 700 °C. Challenges include being able to withstand extremely high temperatures (up to 1200°C on the walls of the cavity), maintaining particle flow and conveyance, measuring temperatures and mass flow rates, filtering out debris, protecting components from direct flux spillage, and measuring irradiance in the cavity. Each of the major components of the system is separated into design requirements, associated challenges and corresponding solutions. The intent is to provide industry and researchers with lessons learned to avoid pitfalls and technical problems encountered during the development of Sandia's prototype particle receiver system at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF).

  2. Design and welding challenges in the infield flowlines of the Encana deep Panuke development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Kenneth A. [Acergy Norway AS, Stavanger, (Norway); Russel, Craig [Acergy UK Ltd, Aberdeen, (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Encana Corporation is developing the offshore Deep Panuke gas field in Nova Scotia. The design and the construction of such a pipeline are challenging. This paper presents the development of welding process in the infield flowlines of the Encana Deep Panuke. First, the paper describes the progress of the development of the Deep Panuke gas field. These flowlines are to be installed using the Acergy Falcon, a vessel which has an installation system based on a variable angle J-lay principle and plastic deformation of the pipe. The paper then focused on the welding process for clad pipe. The design technology for pressure containment wall thickness design, including the strength effect of the clad layer, is discussed in light of DNV OS-F101. Encana succeed in getting the welding engineering ready for double jointing and going offshore. A new pressure containment formulation from a DNV JIP has been employed for the first time.

  3. Mechatronic futures challenges and solutions for mechatronic systems and their designers

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, David

    2016-01-01

    Offering a comprehensive overview of the challenges, risks and options facing the future of mechatronics, this book provides insights into how these issues are currently assessed and managed. Building on the previously published book ‘Mechatronics in Action,’ it identifies and discusses the key issues likely to impact on future mechatronic systems. It supports mechatronics practitioners in identifying key areas in design, modeling and technology and places these in the wider context of concepts such as cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things. For educators it considers the potential effects of developments in these areas on mechatronic course design, and ways of integrating these. Written by experts in the field, it explores topics including systems integration, design, modeling, privacy, ethics and future application domains. Highlighting novel innovation directions, it is intended for academics, engineers and students working in the field of mechatronics, particularly those developing new conc...

  4. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the contemporary expectations to engineers and their training at engineering schools. But what is entrepreneurship? We propose three different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship in engineering and design programs. They are: (1) the technology-driven promotion response...... are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academicreform and the international...... centered in technological development; (2) the business selection response strategy centered in business skills (which should be additional to the technical skills); and (3) the design intervention response strategy focused on a network approach to technology, business and society. These conceptualizations...

  5. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the contemporary expectations to engineers and their training at engineering schools. But what is entrepreneurship? We propose three different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship in engineering and design programs. They are: (I) the technology-driven promotion response...... are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academic reform and the international...... centered in technological development; (2) the business selection response strategy centered in business skills (which should be additional to the technical skills); and (3) the design intervention response strategy focused on a network approach to technology, business and society. These conceptualizations...

  6. A Classification of Constructivist Instructional Design Models Based on Learning and Teaching Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardanesh, Hashem

    2006-01-01

    In a conceptual-analytical study using a deductive classificatory content analysis method ten constructivist instructional design models were selected, and learning/teaching approaches within each model were appraised. Using the original writings of the originators of each design model, the learning and teaching approaches employed or permitted to…

  7. Medial temporal lobe activity during semantic classification using a flexible fMRI design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Lazeron, R.H.C.; Jonker, C.

    2002-01-01

    n this study, we evaluated the use of a self-paced PORI design, to allow a flexible speed of responding with only four alternating stimulus blocks to minimize the influence of task switching on a group of young subjects. This was done in view of our intention to use such a design on groups of elderl

  8. Product Classification in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lihong; Xu, Yaoxuan

    2010-01-01

    Oriflame is a famous international direct sale cosmetics company with complicated supply chain operation but it lacks of a product classification system. It is vital to design a product classification method in order to support Oriflame global supply planning and improve the supply chain performance. This article is aim to investigate and design the multi-criteria of product classification, propose the classification model, suggest application areas of product classification results and intro...

  9. System Design for Sustainable Energy for all. A new challenging role for design to foster sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Vezzoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Product-Service System Design for Sustainability applied to Distributed Renewable Energy DRE is a promising approach to help achieve the goal of “Sustainable energy for all” (United Nation. Firstly, two understandings are presented: 1 Distributed Renewable Energy (DRE is a key leverage for sustainable development and; 2 Product-Service System (PSS is a promising model for sustainable development. Based on those understandings two consequent research hypotheses are presented: 1 S.PSS is a promising model for DRE and is particularly relevant for the distributed and informal economies in low-middle income (all contexts; 2 (Product-Service System Design for Sustainable energy for all is a new challenging role for design. The recently awarded LeNSes (Learning Network on Sustainable energy system EU project (bi-regional with Africa is based on these hypotheses and it is introduced in terms of its aims and expected results, i.e. to deepen and diffuse the knowledge-base and know-how of system design for sustainable energy for all. Finally, two best practices of DRE-based S.PSS are described, one is the recently awarded (2014 International Ashden project ‘M-POWER Off-grid electric services in Arusha, Tanzania’ and the second is the pilot implementation of the ‘Sunride sustainable mobility system in Cape Town’.

  10. Suggestions on performance of finite element limit analysis for eliminating the necessity of stress classifications in design and defect assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In structural design of a nuclear power component, stress classification from elastic stress analysis resultants is often used. Alternatively, to improve accuracy, finite element limit analysis may be performed. This paper examines some issues relating to the use of limit analysis; specifically, the treatment of multiple applied loads and the definition of the limit load from analysis using hardening plasticity laws. These are addressed both by detailed analysis for a simple geometry and by using the reference stress approach to estimate the inelastic displacement. The proposals are also applicable to a defect assessment of a cracked component, and treatment of distributed loads. It is shown that multiple or distributed loads should be treated as if they were applied proportionally irrespective of the actual nature of loads, and that the limit load from analysis with general plasticity laws may be estimated using a newly suggested reduced elastic slope method. (author)

  11. IPAD LEARNING ECOSYSTEM: Developing Challenge-Based Learning using Design Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina MARIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and provides an overview of the pilot implementation of the course. The course achieved its goals to a great extent in that learners felt that they were beginning to help build a better college community by sharing stories of their learning experience and their insights about the essential question they chose with other students and with other teachers. The course also helped the students discover the use of English as they found ways to reach out to the broader college community and held meaningful conversations with teachers, librarians, managers, and staff from different departments and other students. The course transformed the teacher/researcher into an observer of learning and a guide, thus flipping the classroom and allowing the learners to take responsibility and steer their own learning experiences. Further development is needed in the areas of CBL assessment rubric development in English Language Teaching (ELT and the analysis of student generated content through iPad applications.

  12. Design and test challenges in Nano-scale analog and mixed CMOS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Karmani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of integration densities in Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOStechnology has driven the rapid growth of very large scale integrated (VLSI circuit for today's high-techelectronics industries from consumer products to telecommunications and computers. As CMOStechnologies are scaled down into the nanometer range, analog and mixed integrated circuit (IC design andtesting have become a real challenge to ensure the functionality and quality of the product. The first part ofthe paper presents the CMOS technology scaling impact on design and reliability for consumer and criticalapplications. We then propose a discussion on the role and challenges of testing analog and mixed devicesin the nano-scale era. Finally we present the IDDQ testing technique used to detect the most likely defects ofbridging type occurring in analog CMOS circuits during the manufacturing process and creating a resistivepath between VDD supply and the ground.To prove the efficiency of the proposed technique we design a CMOS 90nm operational amplifier (Opamp and a Built in Current Sensor (BICS to validate the technique and correlate it with post layoutsimulation results.

  13. Cassini/Huygens: a challenge in international interface design, integration, and cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Donald H.

    1996-10-01

    The Cassini mission is a joint venture between NASA, European Space Agency (ESA), and Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A major interface is between the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) provided Orbiter and the ESA provided Atmospheric Probe. The Orbiter is designed to orbit the planet Saturn, while the Probe will descend into the atmosphere and impact the surface of Titan. After years of study and scientific meetings between NASA, JPL, and ESA, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between NASA and ESA on 17 December 1990. Project teams were formed at JPL and ESA and work began on the interface definition and integration of the Probe onto the Orbiter. Unique challenges were presented due to the fact that this was the first such atmospheric probe designed and developed in Europe, the complicated mechanical and electrical interface between the Probe and the Orbiter, and the nine hour time difference between JPL and ESA. As with the Galileo mission to Jupiter, the Orbiter provides an environmentally acceptable vehicle for the Probe during the long cruise phase, a communication link to Earth for periodic Probe checkouts during this cruise phase, a stable and accurately pointed platform for Probe separation, and a relay link to Earth for the actual Probe mission descent into the Titan atmosphere. Management and technical interchange tools were developed to address these challenges. The Probe design and its interface with the Orbiter are the result of this effort.

  14. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  15. Challenges for eco-design of emerging technologies: The case of electronic textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Recent innovations of electronic textiles and their end-of-life impacts are reviewed. • The properties of e-textiles are examined against Design for Recycling (DfR) principles. • Eco-design strategies for sustainable product development are discussed. • Compatibility standards for e-textiles are proposed as a waste prevention strategy. • Labelling of e-textiles is suggested as a measure to facilitate recycling. - Abstract: The combination of textile and electronic technologies results in new challenges for sustainable product design. Electronic textiles (e-textiles) feature a seamless integration of textiles with electronics and other high-tech materials. Such products may, if they become mass consumer applications, result in a new kind of waste that could be difficult to recycle. The ongoing innovation process of e-textiles holds opportunities to prevent future end-of-life impacts. Implementing eco-design in the technological development process can help to minimise future waste. However, the existing Design for Recycling (DfR) principles for textiles or electronics do not match with the properties of the combined products. This article examines possibilities to advance eco-design of a converging technology. DfR strategies for e-textiles are discussed from the background of contemporary innovation trends. Three waste preventative eco-design approaches for e-textiles are discussed: 1 harnessing the inherent advantages of smart materials for sustainable design; 2 establishing open compatibility standards; 3 labelling the e-textiles to facilitate their recycling. It is argued that life-cycle thinking needs to be implemented concurrent to the technological development process

  16. Challenges, Applications, and Recent Advances of Protein-Ligand Docking in Structure-Based Drug Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Z. Grinter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The docking methods used in structure-based virtual database screening offer the ability to quickly and cheaply estimate the affinity and binding mode of a ligand for the protein receptor of interest, such as a drug target. These methods can be used to enrich a database of compounds, so that more compounds that are subsequently experimentally tested are found to be pharmaceutically interesting. In addition, like all virtual screening methods used for drug design, structure-based virtual screening can focus on curated libraries of synthesizable compounds, helping to reduce the expense of subsequent experimental verification. In this review, we introduce the protein-ligand docking methods used for structure-based drug design and other biological applications. We discuss the fundamental challenges facing these methods and some of the current methodological topics of interest. We also discuss the main approaches for applying protein-ligand docking methods. We end with a discussion of the challenging aspects of evaluating or benchmarking the accuracy of docking methods for their improvement, and discuss future directions.

  17. Soil and rock classification according to thermal conductivity: Design of ground-coupled heat pump systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, L.A.; Marlowe, J.I.

    1989-08-01

    This study establishes the ranges of values of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the various soils and rocks in the United States and provides this information in a form that can be used in the design of ground-coupled heat pump systems. It presents a simple classification system for use in the identification of soils and rocks by persons not trained in soil mechanics or petrology. This technical document is given practical application in a companion field manual for the identification and classification of thermal conductivity of the various soils and rocks that can be encountered in the United States. The field manual, supported by EPRI, was published by the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association. The soil study provides a correlation between thermal resistivity and moisture content. It examines temporal behavior of ambient soil moisture and influence of environmental factors on soil moisture content. It cites factors known to influence soil moisture content, and the National Soil Moisture Study, which provided ambient soil moisture data for a four- to six-year period in six states. It discusses limit states of soil moisture content (field capacity and wilting point) and use of these states to define approximate extremes of ambient soil moisture levels. It proposes a new method of normalization of soil moisture content by its limit states -- the thermal moisture index -- and investigates some of its properties. It uses a mathematical simulator of soil/water hydraulics -- the EPIC model -- to illustrate effects of soil texture, precipitation, and soil temperature on soil moisture under more controlled conditions and with greater geographic coverage than is obtainable from National Soil Moisture Study data. Results of this study demonstrate that four general soil groups can be used to determine earth-loop size (pipe length) for ground-coupled heat pump systems. 48 refs., 162 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Pattern recognition and classification an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition and classification is fundamental to many of the automated electronic systems in use today. However, despite the existence of a number of notable books in the field, the subject remains very challenging, especially for the beginner. Pattern Recognition and Classification presents a comprehensive introduction to the core concepts involved in automated pattern recognition. It is designed to be accessible to newcomers from varied backgrounds, but it will also be useful to researchers and professionals in image and signal processing and analysis, and in computer visi

  19. Challenges and Progress in Aerodynamic Design of Hybrid Wingbody Aircraft with Embedded Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, May-Fun

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the contributions to high-fidelity capabilities for analysis and design of hybrid wingbody (HWB) configurations considered by NASA. Specifically, we focus on the embedded propulsion concepts of the N2-B and N3-X configurations, some of the future concepts seriously investigated by the NASA Fixed Wing Project. The objective is to develop the capability to compute the integrated propulsion and airframe system realistically in geometry and accurately in flow physics. In particular, the propulsion system (including the entire engine core-compressor, combustor, and turbine stages) is vastly more difficult and costly to simulate with the same level of fidelity as the external aerodynamics. Hence, we develop an accurate modeling approach that retains important physical parameters relevant to aerodynamic and propulsion analyses for evaluating the HWB concepts. Having the analytical capabilities at our disposal, concerns and issues that were considered to be critical for the HWB concepts can now be assessed reliably and systematically; assumptions invoked by previous studies were found to have serious consequences in our study. During this task, we establish firmly that aerodynamic analysis of a HWB concept without including installation of the propulsion system is far from realistic and can be misleading. Challenges in delivering the often-cited advantages that belong to the HWB are the focus of our study and are emphasized in this report. We have attempted to address these challenges and have had successes, which are summarized here. Some can have broad implications, such as the concept of flow conditioning for reducing flow distortion and the modeling of fan stages. The design optimization capability developed for improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline HWB configurations is general and can be employed for other applications. Further improvement of the N3-X configuration can be expected by expanding the design space. Finally, the support of

  20. DESIGN AN ADVANCE COMPUTER-AIDED TOOL FOR IMAGE AUTHENTICATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Teymourzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, advancements in the fields of digital image processing and artificial intelligence have been applied in solving many real-life problems. This could be seen in facial image recognition for security systems, identity registrations. Hence a bottleneck of identity registration is image processing. These are carried out in form of image preprocessing, image region extraction by cropping, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and image compression using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. Other processing include filtering and histogram equalization using contrast stretching is performed while enhancing the image as part of the analytical tool. Hence, this research work presents a universal integration image forgery detection analysis tool with image facial recognition using Black Propagation Neural Network (BPNN processor. The proposed designed tool is a multi-function smart tool with the novel architecture of programmable error goal and light intensity. Furthermore, its advance dual database increases the efficiency for high performance application. With the fact that, the facial image recognition will always, give a matching output or closest possible output image for every input image irrespective of the authenticity, the universal smart GUI tool is proposed and designed to perform image forgery detection with the high accuracy of ±2% error rate. Meanwhile, a novel structure that provides efficient automatic image forgery detection for all input test images for the BPNN recognition is presented. Hence, an input image will be authenticated before being fed into the recognition tool.

  1. Assessing the effects of sampling design on water quality status classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charlotte; Freer, Jim; Johnes, Penny; Collins, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires continued reporting of the water quality status of all European waterbodies, with this status partly determined by the time a waterbody exceeds different pollution concentration thresholds. Routine water quality monitoring most commonly takes place at weekly to monthly time steps meaning that potentially important pollution events can be missed. This has the potential to result in the misclassification of water quality status. Against this context, this paper investigates the implications of sampling design on a range of existing water quality status metrics routinely applied to WFD compliance assessments. Previous research has investigated the effect of sampling design on the calculation of annual nutrient and sediment loads using a variety of different interpolation and extrapolation models. This work builds on this foundation, extending the analysis to include the effects of sampling regime on flow- and concentration-duration curves as well as threshold-exceedance statistics, which form an essential part of WFD reporting. The effects of sampling regime on both the magnitude of the summary metrics and their corresponding uncertainties are investigated. This analysis is being undertaken on data collected as part of the Hampshire Avon Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project; a DEFRA funded initiative investigating cost-effective solutions for reducing diffuse pollution from agriculture. The DTC monitoring platform is collecting water quality data at a variety of temporal resolutions and using differing collection methods, including weekly grab samples, daily ISCO autosamples and high resolution samples (15-30 min time step) using analysers in situ on the river bank. Datasets collected during 2011-2013 were used to construct flow- and concentration-duration curves. A bootstrapping methodology was employed to resample randomly the individual datasets and produce distributions of the curves in order to quantify the

  2. Design of fixed and mobile PET/CT facilities - the similarities and the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of PET/CT facilities present particular challenges for Radiation Protection. The high energy gamma ray emitted from the radionuclides used, the prolonged uptake period with patients within the facility and the relatively high dose rates from those patients result in some shielding being required and a careful consideration of the layout within each unit. This paper will present the approach used for the design of a fixed facility and will present staff dose data demonstrating that the design has resulted in low staff doses. The approach used to design mobile facilities will then be described, and a consideration of the doses received on this type of unit will also be given. The fixed facility was installed into a wooden clad building and was extremely small. The building was shared with other non radiation workers. Walls were constructed from dense concrete blocks and the layout arranged to prevent a direct line of site between the patient and workers at any point apart from the scan room where a lead glass window was used. For the mobile facility lead was used as the shielding material. The basic approach was to maximise the distance between operators and resting patients. Because of weight restrictions and limitation on the dose rate at the scanner defined by the scanner manufacturer, a higher dose constraint had to be adopted for staff on the unit. Additional complications include the mobility of the unit which can be parked adjacent to buildings with a variety of construction materials. Results of whole body monitoring for staff in the fixed facility over 5 years will be presented with the results from the mobile units over the last year. These will demonstrate the difficulties in keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable in the mobile scenario and the importance of designing the facility with staff dose in mind from the outset. (author)

  3. Design of fixed and mobile PET/CT facilities: the similarities and the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of PET/CT facilities present particular challenges for Radiation Protection. The high energy gamma ray emitted from the radionuclides used, the prolonged uptake period with patients within the facility and the relatively high dose rates from those patients result in some shielding being required and a careful consideration of the layout within each unit. This paper will present the approach used for the design of a fixed facility and will present staff dose data demonstrating that the design has resulted in low staff doses. The approach used to design mobile facilities will then be described, and a consideration of the doses received on this type of unit will also be given. The fixed facility was installed into a wooden clad building and was extremely small. The building was shared with other non radiation workers. Walls were constructed from dense concrete blocks and the layout arranged to prevent a direct line of site between the patient and workers at any point apart from the scan room where a lead glass window was used. For the mobile facility lead was used as the shielding material. The basic approach was to maximise the distance between operators and resting patients. Because of weight restrictions and limitation on the dose rate at the scanner defined by the scanner manufacturer, a higher dose constraint had to be adopted for staff on the unit. Additional complications include the mobility of the unit which can be parked adjacent to buildings with a variety of construction materials. Results of whole body monitoring for staff in the fixed facility over 5 years will be presented with the results from the mobile units over the last year. These will demonstrate the difficulties in keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable in the mobile scenario and the importance of designing the facility with staff dose in mind from the outset. (author)

  4. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases). PMID:27563912

  5. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suhaily,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and technology. This research also discusses the need for biocomposite materials that do not depend on the growth of populations, but on the growth and development of the economy. This study focuses on globally available agro-based biocomposites, especially those from oil palm biomass: plywood, medium density fiberboard (MDF, wood plastic composite (WPC, laminated veneer lumber (LVL, oriented strand board (OSB, hardboards, and particleboard. Additional positive aspects of biocomposites are their environmentally friendly character, high quality, competitive design, and capacity to improve the value proposition of high-end products. These attributes increase the demand for agro-based biocomposite furniture on the international market.

  6. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Leobardo Herrera-May

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases.

  7. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. PMID:26881271

  8. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. PMID:26881271

  9. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Manikandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  10. Nominal classification

    OpenAIRE

    Senft, G.

    2007-01-01

    This handbook chapter summarizes some of the problems of nominal classification in language, presents and illustrates the various systems or techniques of nominal classification, and points out why nominal classification is one of the most interesting topics in Cognitive Linguistics.

  11. Urban drainage system planning and design--challenges with climate change and urbanization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Zeinab; Sharma, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are in general failing in their functions mainly due to non-stationary climate and rapid urbanization. As these systems are becoming less efficient, issues such as sewer overflows and increase in urban flooding leading to surge in pollutant loads to receiving water bodies are becoming pervasive rapidly. A comprehensive investigation is required to understand these factors impacting the functioning of urban drainage, which vary spatially and temporally and are more complex when weaving together. It is necessary to establish a cost-effective, integrated planning and design framework for every local area by incorporating fit for purpose alternatives. Carefully selected adaptive measures are required for the provision of sustainable drainage systems to meet combined challenges of climate change and urbanization. This paper reviews challenges associated with urban drainage systems and explores limitations and potentials of different adaptation alternatives. It is hoped that the paper would provide drainage engineers, water planners, and decision makers with the state of the art information and technologies regarding adaptation options to increase drainage systems efficiency under changing climate and urbanization. PMID:26177398

  12. The offshoring challenge strategic design and innovation for tomorrow’s organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bals, Lydia; Jensen, Peter; Larsen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The continuous search for efficiency gains and the goal of attaining a sustainable competitive advantage have steadily increased the volume of goods and services procured globally from third party vendors. In this context, named as “the next wave of globalization”, the offshoring phenomenon has stimulated research and political debates. With the rise of services offshoring, international value chain disaggregation for services has reached a formerly unknown scale. Also, it is increasingly complex transactions, requiring a higher degree of qualification, which are becoming subject to offshoring as well. The Offshoring Challenge: Strategic Design and Innovation for Tomorrow’s Organization features selected chapters by an international research community on the topic of offshoring. All potential business models from offshore outsourcing to third party providers are covered, from cooperative arrangements to internal organizational set-ups including captive offshore centers. Contributions have significant in...

  13. Critical challenges to the design of drug-eluting medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Andrew; Junnarkar, Gunjan

    2013-04-01

    Drug-eluting devices cover a wide variety of possible product concepts. The design constraints for modified or sustained local delivery technologies that are compatible with medical devices are quite different from those constraints with any conventional dosage forms. To develop a successful development strategy from proof-of-concept to commercialization, it is of paramount importance to assess how drug delivery affects the desired mechanism of action of such combination products. Starting at the feasibility stage, the project team must have a clear understanding of the performance targets expected by patients and physicians/surgeons. In addition, R&D staff must anticipate and proactively address the differences in technical, quality and regulatory requirements from drug delivery and medical device perspectives. Through the eyes of drug delivery, this article will describe common challenges encountered in the development of drug-eluting devices and offer relevant mitigation strategies. PMID:23557288

  14. Block design enhances classification of 3D reach targets from electroencephalographic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnik, Ronen; Tadipatri, Vijay Aditya; Tewfik, Ahmed H; Pellizzer, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    To date, decoding accuracy of actual or imagined pointing movements to targets in 3D space from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals has remained modest. The reason may pertain to the fact that these movements activate essentially the same neural networks. In this study, we aimed at testing whether repetitive pointing movements to each of the targets promotes the development of segregated neural patterns, resulting in enhanced decoding accuracy. Six human subjects generated slow or fast repetitive pointing movements with their right dominant arm to one of five targets distributed in 3D space, followed by repetitive imagery of movements to the same target or to a different target. Nine naive subjects generated both repetitive and non-repetitive slow actual movements to each of the five targets to test the effect of block design on decoding accuracy. In order to assure that base line drift and low frequency motion artifacts do not contaminate the data, the data were high-pass filtered in 4-30Hz, leaving out the delta and gamma band. For the repetitive trials, the model decoded target location with 81% accuracy, which is significantly higher than chance level. The average decoding rate of target location was only 30% for the non-repetitive trials, which is not significantly different than chance level. A subset of electrodes, mainly over the contralateral sensorimotor areas, was found to provide most of the discriminative features for all tested conditions. Time proximity between trained and tested blocks was found to enhance decoding accuracy of target location both by target non-specific and specific mechanisms. Our findings suggest that movement repetition promotes the development of distinct neural patterns, presumably by the formation of target-specific kinesthetic memory. PMID:27223628

  15. Classifier in Age classification

    OpenAIRE

    B. Santhi; R.Seethalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Face is the important feature of the human beings. We can derive various properties of a human by analyzing the face. The objective of the study is to design a classifier for age using facial images. Age classification is essential in many applications like crime detection, employment and face detection. The proposed algorithm contains four phases: preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The classification employs two class labels namely child and Old. This st...

  16. Design challenges and analysis of the ITER core LIDAR Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximum temperature expected in ITER is in the region of 40 keV and the minimum average density of approximately 3x1019 m-3 is also expected. The proven capability, convenience, and port occupancy of the LIDAR Thomson scattering approach, demonstrated on JET, makes it an excellent candidate for ITER. Nonetheless, there are formidable design challenges in realizing such a diagnostic system. The expected high temperature presents its own problem of a very large relativistic blueshift of the scattered spectrum (e.g., λ/λ0∼0.35 for Te=40 keV), impacting on the laser choice and spectrometer/detector system. The combination of coupling high power lasers to the plasma and broadband wavelength detection has been examined in terms of minimizing the operational risk to the overall system, while optimizing the diagnostic performance. Part of the exercise has also included identifying the present critical components, and reducing their impact, e.g., on diagnostic reliability and performance, and attempt to make the design compatible with possible long term developments and operational requirement. Issues such as redundancy of key operational components, e.g., lasers are explored

  17. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  18. Challenges to the design of containment filtered venting systems at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents (SA) may result in pressure and temperature increase leading to containment failure and uncontrolled release of radioactive products to the environment. Containment over-pressurization can be prevented by the operation of a Containment Filter Venting System (CFVS) intended to actuate within the specific SA conditions. However, the particular design solution and especially the sizing of appropriate Containment Filter Venting System require precise information regarding the accident progression and parameters. Such information may be obtained only by detailed assessment of each phase of the severe accident considering the specific reactor technology. Therefore, a study was performed in order to evaluate the most challenging conditions and the most suitable solution for implementation of a system for filtered venting of the containment taking into account the uncertain nature of the accidents and the limitations of the mathematical simulations. The current paper presents the main results from the above mentioned study on the influence of the severe accident conditions, including the specific containment environment effects, to the design and sizing of Containment Filter Venting System. The study includes the selection of a bounding case and the initial conditions for simulation of a severe accident scenario which is expected to pose the most stringent requirements to the CFVS. Evaluation of the Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) parameters and analysis of system performance during the severe accident progression is furthermore performed. The main parameters of the accident scenario under evaluation are the timing of the vessel failure and the containment design limit pressure achievement, hydrogen production during the accident and its influence on the system operation. The accuracy of predictions of the severe accident parameters (containment pressure and temperature, fission product mass concentration at different stages of accident, modelling

  19. Challenging issues in the design and manufacturing of the European sectors of the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel was described with its features and particularities. • Engineering and CAD design of Sector 5 is finish; the work of sectors 3 and 4 is ongoing. • Fabrication Mock Ups almost finished with an important know-how acquired. • Procurement of raw material (plates and forgings) started. • Qualification of welding, NDT and forming close to be finished. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Domestic Agency for the ITER project, has to supply seven sectors as part of the European contribution to the project. F4E signed the Procurement Agreement with ITER Organization (IO) in 2009. After a call for tender in 2010, the contract for the manufacturing of seven sectors was placed in October 2010 to a consortium of three Italian companies, Ansaldo, Mangiarotti and Walter Tosto (AMW). The first sector in the manufacturing route is Sector 5 (later will come 4, 3, 2, 9, 8, 7). This paper will cover: the status of the engineering activities, design, procurement and preparation to begin the manufacturing in 2013. Also will be presented the statutory and regulatory requirements of the French Nuclear Safety regulator and the status of the relevant R and D mock-ups to demonstrate manufacturing feasibility control of distortions (using predictions with analysis and algorithms to change in real time the manufacturing route in order to correct such distortions, inspectability and metrology). Another important aspect at this stage of the manufacturing is qualification of activities like welding, Non-destructive Examination and Hot Forming. This paper describes the status of the activities currently in process in order to meet with the challenging design, schedule and high quality requirements of the project

  20. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  1. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    OpenAIRE

    Wendong Tao; James S. Bays; Daniel Meyer; Richard C. Smardon; Zeno F. Levy

    2014-01-01

    As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This ...

  2. Constructed wetlands for treatment of combined sewer overflow in the US: a review of design challenges and application status

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, W; Bays, J.S.; Meyer, D.; Smardon, R.C.; Levy, Z.F.

    2014-01-01

    International audience As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of c...

  3. Milp-hyperbox classification for structure-based drug design in the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of SIRTUIN6

    OpenAIRE

    Tardu, Mehmet; Rahim, Fatih; Kavaklı, İbrahim Halil; Türkay, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Virtual screening of chemical libraries following experimental assays of drug candidates is a common procedure in structure-based drug discovery. However, virtual screening of chemical libraries with millions of compounds requires a lot of time for computing and data analysis. A priori classification of compounds in the libraries as low-and high-binding free energy sets decreases the number of compounds for virtual screening experiments. This classification also reduces the required computati...

  4. Design of experiments and data analysis challenges in calibration for forensics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forensic science aims to infer characteristics of source terms using measured observables. Our focus is on statistical design of experiments and data analysis challenges arising in nuclear forensics. More specifically, we focus on inferring aspects of experimental conditions (of a process to produce product Pu oxide powder), such as temperature, nitric acid concentration, and Pu concentration, using measured features of the product Pu oxide powder. The measured features, Y, include trace chemical concentrations and particle morphology such as particle size and shape of the produced Pu oxide power particles. Making inferences about the nature of inputs X that were used to create nuclear materials having particular characteristics, Y, is an inverse problem. Therefore, statistical analysis can be used to identify the best set (or sets) of Xs for a new set of observed responses Y. One can fit a model (or models) such as Y = f(X) + error, for each of the responses, based on a calibration experiment and ''invert'' to solve for the best set of Xs for a new set of Ys. This perspectives paper uses archived experimental data to consider aspects of data collection and experiment design for the calibration data to maximize the quality of the predicted Ys in the forward models; that is, we assume that well-estimated forward models are effective in the inverse problem. In addition, we consider how to identify a best solution for the inferred X, and evaluate the quality of the result and its robustness to a variety of initial assumptions, and different correlation structures between the responses. In addition, we also briefly review recent advances in metrology issues related to characterizing particle morphology measurements used in the response vector, Y

  5. Energy Transition: Missed Opportunities and Emerging Challenges for Landscape Planning and Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée M. de Waal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Making the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy seems inevitable. Because energy transition poses new challenges and opportunities to the discipline of landscape architecture, the questions addressed in this paper are: (1 what landscape architects can learn from successful energy transitions in Güssing, Jühnde and Samsø; and (2 to what extent landscape architecture (or other spatial disciplines contributed to energy transition in the aforementioned cases. An exploratory, comparative case study was conducted to identify differences and similarities among the cases, to answer the research questions, and to formulate recommendations for further research and practice. The comparison indicated that the realized renewable energy systems are context-dependent and, therefore, specifically designed to meet the respective energy demand, making use of the available potentials for renewable energy generation and efficiency. Further success factors seemed to be the presence of (local frontrunners and a certain degree of citizen participation. The relatively smooth implementation of renewable energy technologies in Jühnde and on Samsø may indicate the importance of careful and (partly institutionalized consideration of landscape impact, siting and design. Comparing the cases against the literature demonstrated that landscape architects were not as involved as they, theoretically, could have been. However, particularly when the aim is sustainable development, rather than “merely” renewable energy provision, the integrative concept of “sustainable energy landscapes” can be the arena where landscape architecture and other disciplines meet to pursue global sustainability goals, while empowering local communities and safeguarding landscape quality.

  6. 基于颜色特征的家居设计图分类%Classification of House-designing Image Based on Color Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娉婷; 石跃祥; 戴皇冠

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of emotional classification of the house-designing image based on color feature. A relationship model is built between the color features and emotional semantics based on the perceptual understanding of color. It uses the house- designing image as data, and the classification of house-designing image is performed by the extraction of global and local color feature combine with the classifier based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network(RBFNN). Experimental results show the availability of the classification.%提出一种基于颜色特征的家居设计图情感分类方法.通过人们对色彩的感知和理解,建立图像颜色特征与情感语义的关系模型.在此基础上,以家居设计图为数据源,提取图像的全局和局部颜色特征,结合基于RBF网络的分类器完成对家居设计图像的风格分类.实验结果证明了该方法的有效性.

  7. Lead-cooled system design and challenges in the frame of Generation IV International Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, Luciano; Smith, Craig F.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Mansani, Luigi; Reale, Marco; Sienicki, James J.

    2011-08-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Technology Roadmap identified the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) as a technology well suited for electricity generation, hydrogen production and actinide management in a closed fuel cycle. One of the most important features of the LFR is the fact that lead is a relatively inert coolant, a feature that conveys significant advantages in terms of safety, system simplification, and the consequent potential for economic performance. In 2004, the GIF LFR Provisional System Steering Committee was organized and began to develop the LFR System Research Plan. The committee selected two pool-type reactor concepts as candidates for international cooperation and joint development in the GIF framework: these are the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR); and the European Lead-cooled System (ELSY). The high boiling point (1745 °C) of lead has a beneficial impact to the safety of the system, whereas its high melting point (327.4 °C) requires new engineering strategies, especially for In-Service-Inspection and refuelling. Lead, especially at high temperatures, is also relatively corrosive towards structural materials. This necessitates that coolant purity and the level of dissolved oxygen be carefully controlled, in addition to the proper selection of structural materials. For the GIF LFR concepts, lead has been chosen as the coolant rather than Lead-Bismuth Eutectic primarily because of its greatly reduced generation of the alpha-emitting 210Po isotope formed in the coolant. This results in significantly reduced levels of radioactive contamination of the coolant while minimizing the effect of decay power in the coolant from such contaminants; an additional consideration is the desire to eliminate dependence on bismuth which might be a limited resource. This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the LFR, a summary of the advantages and challenges associated with heavy liquid metal coolants, and an

  8. Risks and challenges associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of a nuclear power plant project, considering the period prior to the operation of the plant, requires a very strict risk control to ensure compliance with a series of challenges. The present paper identifying the most important challenges facing the construct ability and license requirements of the process, identifying the interfaces and proposing a methodology of construction to meet the challenge of a construction process in 5 years.

  9. Addressing the Challenges of Inquiry-Based Learning Through Technology and Curriculum Design

    OpenAIRE

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Gordin, Douglas N.; Pea, Roy D.

    1999-01-01

    Inquiry experiences can provide valuable opportunities for students to improve their understanding of both science content and scientific practices. However, the implementation of inquiry learning in classrooms presents a number of significant challenges. We have been exploring these challenges through a program of research on the use of scientific visualization technologies to support inquiry-based learning in the geosciences. In this article, we describe 5 significant challenges to implemen...

  10. Recommendations for the Optimal Design of Exergame Interventions for Persons with Disabilities: Challenges, Best Practices, and Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wiemeyer, Josef; Deutsch, Judith; Malone, Laurie A.; Rowland, Jennifer L.; Swartz, Maria C.; Xiong, Jianjing; Zhang, Fang Fang

    2015-01-01

    A group discussion of individuals with expertise working in the field of exergaming and rehabilitation focused on the issue of designing exergames for persons with disabilities as well as appropriate interventions using exergames. The purpose of these discussions was to develop recommendations for the design, evaluation, and application of exergames in therapy serving as potential guidelines for researchers, developers, and therapists. The following key issues were addressed: (1) Challenges i...

  11. The challenges of designing a common, standards-based curriculum for all South Africa’s languages

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Murray

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the challenges of designing a common core curriculum for all South Africa’s eleven official languages to be taught as school subjects.  It takes the position that curriculum design should be responsive to the character and status of specific languages, the purposes for which they are used and the time available in the curriculum to study them.  Curriculum developers should also be knowledgeable about the historical antecedents of the language curriculum in question, and ...

  12. Design challenges and guidelines for free-space optical communication links using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing of multiple beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Alan E.; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Ren, Yongxiong; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, recent studies on the potential challenges for an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing system were reviewed. The design guideline for a practical OAM multiplexing system were investigated in term of (i) the power loss due to the beam divergence and limited-size receiver, and (ii) the channel crosstalk due to the misalignment between the transmitter and receiver.

  13. Critical Curriculum Design for Blended Learning in Higher Education: The Strategies, Principles and Challenges of Interactive Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurubacak, Gulsun

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to introduce a critical curriculum design approach for bringing curriculum change for Blended Learning in higher education. Furthermore, the strategies, principles and challenges of this approach are also presented. This paper provides a perspective on such serious concerns as whether curriculum change should…

  14. Active Learning for Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Text classification approaches are used extensively to solve real-world challenges. The success or failure of text classification systems hangs on the datasets used to train them, without a good dataset it is impossible to build a quality system. This thesis examines the applicability of active learning in text classification for the rapid and economical creation of labelled training data. Four main contributions are made in this thesis. First, we present two novel selection strategies to cho...

  15. Classification of cultivated mussels from Galicia (Northwest Spain) with European Protected Designation of Origin using trace element fingerprint and chemometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in combination with different supervised chemometric approaches has been used to classify cultivated mussels in Galicia (Northwest of Spain) under the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). 158 mussel samples, collected in the five rias on the basis of the production, along with minor and trace elements, including high field strength elements (HFSEs) and rare earth elements (REEs), were used with this aim. The classification of samples was achieved according to their origin: Galician vs. other regions (from Tarragona, Spain, and Ethang de Thau, France) and between the Galician Rias. The ability of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) to classify the samples was investigated. Correct assignations for Galician and non-Galician samples were obtained when LDA and SIMCA were used. ANNs were more effective when a classification according to the ria of origin was to be applied.

  16. Classification of cultivated mussels from Galicia (Northwest Spain) with European Protected Designation of Origin using trace element fingerprint and chemometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costas-Rodriguez, M.; Lavilla, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, C., E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-04-07

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in combination with different supervised chemometric approaches has been used to classify cultivated mussels in Galicia (Northwest of Spain) under the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). 158 mussel samples, collected in the five rias on the basis of the production, along with minor and trace elements, including high field strength elements (HFSEs) and rare earth elements (REEs), were used with this aim. The classification of samples was achieved according to their origin: Galician vs. other regions (from Tarragona, Spain, and Ethang de Thau, France) and between the Galician Rias. The ability of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) to classify the samples was investigated. Correct assignations for Galician and non-Galician samples were obtained when LDA and SIMCA were used. ANNs were more effective when a classification according to the ria of origin was to be applied.

  17. Overview of CEA's R&D on GFR fuel element design: from challenges to solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the period 2002-2012, CEA conducted some extensive R&D on the design of GFR fuel elements (together with related material and core/system studies). This paper reviews the challenges raised by this programme, the solutions proposed to address them, and the remaining issues. Studies were performed on the assembly duct, the pin bundle and the fuel pin. The main issues were related to the challenge of using silicon carbide composites (SiC/SiC) for the pin cladding and the assembly duct, as well as mixed uranium-plutonium carbide (UPuC) for the nuclear fuel. Emphasizing the pin design, key achievements are reviewed in this paper regarding such topics as fission product confinement and high burnup performance, for the sake of which original design options were recently patented. (author)

  18. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G. J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  19. Technical Challenges in the Construction of Gothic Vaults: The Gothic Theory of Structural Design

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Fernández, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The construction of a Gothic vault implied the solution of several technical challenges. The literature on Gothic vault construction is quite large and its growth continues steadily. The main challenge of any structure is that, during and after construction, it must be "safe", that is, it must not collapse. Indeed, it must be amply safe, able to support different loads for long periods of time. Masonry architecture has shown its structural safety for centuries or millennia. The Pantheon of Ro...

  20. The Pediatric Home Care/Expenditure Classification Model (P/ECM): A Home Care Case-Mix Model for Children Facing Special Health Care Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    Case-mix classification and payment systems help assure that persons with similar needs receive similar amounts of care resources, which is a major equity concern for consumers, providers, and programs. Although health service programs for adults regularly use case-mix payment systems, programs providing health services to children and youth rarely use such models. This research utilized Medicaid home care expenditures and assessment data on 2,578 children receiving home care in one large sta...

  1. Design and challenges for a tsunami early warning system in the Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioğlu, Öcal

    2016-01-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes in Turkey, with a total affected population of around 7 million and direct losses of around 25 billion USD. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude Mw = 7.4, Parsons (J Geophys Res. 109, 2004) concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35 to 70 % in the next 30 years. According to a 2011 study, an earthquake with Mw = 7.25 on the Main Marmara Fault is expected to heavily damage or destroy 2 to 4 % of around 1,000,000 buildings in Istanbul with a population around 13 million, with 9 to 15 % of the buildings receiving medium damage and 20 to 34 % of the buildings damaged lightly (Erdik, Science 341:72, 2013). In the absence of adequate post-earthquake assembly areas especially in the heavily urbanized Istanbul, it is evident that after a major earthquake, especially in the coastal parts of the city, citizens would be storming to landfill assembly and recreational areas. Besides earthquakes, around 30 tsunamis have been reported by Altınok et al. (Natural Hazards Earth System Science 11:273-293, 2011) in the Marmara Sea. Among those, catastrophic earthquakes such as 1509, 1766, and 1894 resulted in considerable tsunamis and some damage. The latest tsunami observed in Marmara was due to a triggered submarine landslide of the 1999 Mw = 7.4 Kocaeli earthquake which led to reported run-up heights of 1-3 m in most places (Tinti et al., Marine Geology 225:311-330, 2006). In this study, I propose a design for a tsunami warning system specific for the Marmara region that is strongly coupled with the earthquake early warning system (due to the short arrival times of tsunami) and stakeholders of the tsunami mitigation activities, such as local and regional components of disaster and emergency management and civil protection units, to ensure that the citizens

  2. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  3. Mechanical equipment classification research of AP1000 nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the design features of AP1000, the AP1000 classification definition and seismic classification is described and analyzed. The characteristics of AP1000 mechanical equipment classification list is concluded for safety, seismic and manufacture classification. Through comparing the AP1000 classification and M310 classification, the questions perhaps met are found during the mechanical equipment classification of AP1000 nuclear power plants design and construction in China at future. Finally solution plans are given aiming at the above questions. (authors)

  4. Analysis of Nordic educational projects designed to meet challenges in society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Manninen, Jyri; Àrnason, Hróbjartur;

    in 2009 that a research project should be started to study "how education can help societies to meet challenges, make use of opportunities and create changes". The project received funding from NVL (Nordic Network for Adult Learning, www.nordvux.net). The aim of the project was to create a handbook...... was the question: "What made these projects successful?" The result is a list of 8 "success factors". It is quite common that individuals, groups and even whole societies turn to learning and education to cope with crisis and other challenges. Governments and other agencies who distribute tax money often encourage...... learning providers, trade unions and other agencies supporting human development to create learning inter-ventions to address specific crisis, challenges or changes. In view of recent crises experienced by the Nordic countries The Education and Training Service Centre in Ice-land (www.frae.is) proposed...

  5. Short Text Classification: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosive growth of e-commerce and online communication, a new genre of text, short text, has been extensively applied in many areas. So many researches focus on short text mining. It is a challenge to classify the short text owing to its natural characters, such as sparseness, large-scale, immediacy, non-standardization. It is difficult for traditional methods to deal with short text classification mainly because too limited words in short text cannot represent the feature space and the relationship between words and documents. Several researches and reviews on text classification are shown in recent times. However, only a few of researches focus on short text classification. This paper discusses the characters of short text and the difficulty of short text classification. Then we introduce the existing popular works on short text classifiers and models, including short text classification using sematic analysis, semi-supervised short text classification, ensemble short text classification, and real-time classification. The evaluations of short text classification are analyzed in our paper. Finally we summarize the existing classification technology and prospect for development trend of short text classification

  6. Classification and designation systems for materials: A report on the present situation, an inventory of the systems in use, and comments on the future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Keith W.

    1996-01-01

    The different systems that are in use for the major classes of engineering materials are summarized. The work was carried out within the scope of the Versailles project on advanced materials and standards (VAMAS). An inventory of national and international standards that give specifications for the materials and international standards are included. Comments on the increasing knowledge of, and the increasing demand for, data concerning the materials performance are included. Recommendations for future activities in the standardization of classification and designation systems are given.

  7. Kick Stick Hands-on Challenge: Discover Circuits with PBS's "Design Squad Nation"[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the "Kick Stick" activity from Design Squad Nation, in which kids turn a wooden paint stirrer and circuit into a motorized, spinning arm--then use it to kick a Ping-Pong[R] ball across the floor. Teachers can enrich their students' exploration of circuits and emphasize the engineering design process with "Design Squad…

  8. The Road Ahead for Library Classification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses knowledge organization tools in the context of seven challenges facing library classification systems. Highlights include revisions to the Dewey Decimal Classification, the Windows-based CD-ROM version of Dewey, support for machine-assisted classification, multilingual use of Dewey, use of Dewey as a general knowledge organization and…

  9. Evaluation of the ‘Be Innovative’ Design and Electronic Engineering Challenge 2014 and Chinese students’ response

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Paul; Holmes, Violeta; McDermott, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    UK and global economies need innovative graduates with cross-disciplinary knowledge and skills. In order to promote innovation and creativity among Chinese students ‘Be Innovative!’, an electronic engineering and design themed educational challenge, was created by the British Council in China. Partnering for this project were six UK universities: University of Central Lancashire, Coventry University, University of Huddersfield, Kingston University, Royal College of Art and Sheffield Hallam Un...

  10. Public Health Insurance in Vietnam towards Universal Coverage: Identifying the challenges, issues, and problems in its design and organizational practices

    OpenAIRE

    Midori Matsushima; Hiroyuki Yamada

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is attempting to achieve universal health insurance coverage by 2014. Despite great progress, the country faces some challenges, issues and problems. This paper reviewed official documents, existing reports, and related literature to address: (1) grand design for achieving universal health coverage, (2) current insurance coverage, (3) health insurance premium and subsidies by the government, (4) benefit package and payment rule, and (5) organizational practices. From the review, it be...

  11. Creating the Challenge Creator Platform Independent Usability Design Principles and Heuristics for Level Editor Tools in Games

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Zack

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In this thesis I have, together with game developer and publisher Paradox Interactive, designed and implemented a level editor tool for use in their game Magicka 2. With this tool users can create, edit and share custom Challenge levels in the game. I have also done a more in-depth scientific study of usability in such level editor tools, especially pertaining to the disparity between various controller input schemes and platforms. Methods. I have performed a literary study of art...

  12. Teaching Social Media Journalism: Challenges and Opportunities for Future Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the growing demand for digitally competent employees in the news media industry, journalism schools are cautiously integrating social media reporting into their curriculum. This study explores techniques for teaching news reporting on social media platforms focusing on challenges and opportunities for learning engagement that…

  13. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  14. The Challenges of Art Education in Designer Capitalism: Collaborative Practices in the (New Media) Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    jagodzinski, jan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the challenges to art education in the twenty-first century as art curricula around the world begin to change so as to meet the new emergent technological realities. It is argued that within a "control" society like ours, where the economic system of capitalism dictates the direction of education along with its…

  15. Recommendations for the Optimal Design of Exergame Interventions for Persons with Disabilities: Challenges, Best Practices, and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Josef; Deutsch, Judith; Malone, Laurie A; Rowland, Jennifer L; Swartz, Maria C; Xiong, Jianjing; Zhang, Fang Fang

    2015-02-01

    A group discussion of individuals with expertise working in the field of exergaming and rehabilitation focused on the issue of designing exergames for persons with disabilities as well as appropriate interventions using exergames. The purpose of these discussions was to develop recommendations for the design, evaluation, and application of exergames in therapy serving as potential guidelines for researchers, developers, and therapists. The following key issues were addressed: (1) Challenges in exergame design for persons with disabilities, (2) adaptation of exergames for persons with disabilities, (3) exergame interventions, and (4) future research directions. It is the hope of the group that the results of these recommendations will help improve the quality of exergame design and interventions and thereby increase opportunities for persons with disabilities to engage sustainably in exergaming. PMID:26181682

  16. Textiles as Tangible Working Materials in Participatory Design Processes: Potentials and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative...... nature facilitating dialogue between different stakeholders and its ability to move stakeholder participation to the early stages of the design process. We have explored PD tools in a design process engaging architects and textile designers in designing textile products for Danish hospitals. From this we...... have realized a potential in dividing the materials into three types with different attributes, which should consequently be staged differently in a PD process. We have thereby seen that exploring PD in a textile design process improves the understanding of the role of tangible working materials in PD...

  17. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  18. New design challenges to widely implement 'Sustainable Product-Service Systems'

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzoli, C; CESCHIN, F.; Diehl, JC; Kohtala, C

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable Product-Service Systems (S.PSS) carry great potential to deliver social well-being and economic prosperity while operating within the limits of our planet. They can however be complex to design, test, implement and bring to the mainstream. To increase our understanding of the potential benefits, drivers and barriers in S.PSS design, the research community has been inspired to collect and analyse an extensive number of cases in diverse sectors and to develop and test several design...

  19. Classification of syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhorat, T H

    2000-01-01

    Syringomyelia poses special challenges for the clinician because of its complex symptomatology, uncertain pathogenesis, and multiple options of treatment. The purpose of this study was to classify intramedullary cavities according to their most salient pathological and clinical features. Pathological findings obtained in 175 individuals with tubular cavitations of the spinal cord were correlated with clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a database of 927 patients. A classification system was developed in which the morbid anatomy, cause, and pathogenesis of these lesions are emphasized. The use of a disease-based classification of syringomyelia facilitates diagnosis and the interpretation of MR imaging findings and provides a guide to treatment. PMID:16676921

  20. Grand Challenges and Opportunities in Supply Chain Network Analysis and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nagurney, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Pour visualiser la présentation cliquez sur le lien "En savoir plus sur cette publication" International audience Supply chain networks provide the backbones for our economies since they involve the production, storage, and distribution of products as varied as vaccines and medicines, food, high tech products, automobiles, clothing, and even energy. Many of the supply chains today are global in nature and time-sensitive and present challenging aspects for modeling and analysis. In this ...

  1. The Challenges of CASE Design Integration in the Telecommunication Application Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Capretz, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of the problems facing the telecommunication software industry is presently at a point at which software engineers should become deeply involved. This paper presents a research project on advanced telecommunication technology carried out in Europe, called BOOST (Broadband Object-Oriented Service Technology). The project involved cooperative work among telecommunication companies, research centres and universities from several countries. The challenges to integrate CASE tools to ...

  2. Changing computing curricula in African universities: evaluating progress and challenges via design-reality gap analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heeks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are diffusing rapidly into all African nations. Effective use of the new technology requires a step-change in local skill levels; including a step-change in ICT-related university education. Part of that process must be an updating of university computing curricula, ranging from computer science through to information systems. Adoption of international curricula offers a ready means for updating, but African universities face challenges of imp...

  3. Designing Mobility in a City in Transition. Challenges from the Case of Palermo

    OpenAIRE

    Ignazio Vinci; Salvatore Di Dio

    2014-01-01

    Transport policy is one of the most crucial sectors in the process of adaptation of contemporary cities to the challenge of sustainable development. For its close relation with social habits and people behaviors, in fact, innovation in transports play a strategic role both in the decreasing of the environmental impact of mobility and in the improvement of the quality of the built environment. To do so, however, cities need to reach a more effective integration between transport policy and lan...

  4. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Janke; Athaydes Leite; Marcell Nikolausz; Thomas Schmidt; Jan Liebetrau; Michael Nelles; Walter Stinner

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, an...

  5. Paper Table Hands-on Challenge: Explore Structures with PBS's "Design Squad"[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Build a table that's sturdy enough to hold a heavy weight! The catch? Students can only use eight sheets of newspaper, one piece of cardboard, and masking tape. This article describes "Paper Table," a hands-on activity from "Design Squad," in which kids investigate structures while following the steps of the engineering design process. Teachers…

  6. Small Craft Advisory!: Cardboard Boat Challenges Students' Research, Design and Construction Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, Kurt; Brand, Lance; Shackelford, Ray

    2006-01-01

    Throughout history, people have moved themselves and cargo across water in boats and other types of vessels. Most vessels are developed using a technological design process, which typically involves problem solving and a series of steps. The designer documents each step to provide an accurate record of accomplishments and information to guide…

  7. Design to Process Capabilities: challenges for the use of Process Capability Databases (PCDBs) in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Göhler, Simon Moritz; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In approaches such as Robust Design, Tolerance Management, Design for Six Sigma (DfSS), etc. there is little disagreement that a better understanding of inevitable production variation is conducive to the success of development projects [Eifler et al. (2013), Arvidsson and Gremyr (2008), Karmakar...

  8. Challenges of Critical and Emancipatory Design Science Research: The Design of ‘Possible Worlds’ as Response

    OpenAIRE

    Heusinger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Popper's (1967) 'piecemeal social change' is an approach manifesting itself in science as critical and emancipatory (C&E) research. It is concerned with incrementally removing manifested inequalities to achieve a 'better' world. Although design science research in information systems seems to be a prime candidate for such endeavors, respective projects are clearly underrepresented. This position paper argues that this is due to the demand of justifying research ex post by an evaluation in pra...

  9. Engineering Learning: Cross-Community Design, Development, and Implementation of Engineering Design Challenges at a Science Center

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The perception of engineering as intimidating contributes to a lack of diversity among aspiring engineers. My research develops a deeper understanding of tinkering spaces at public science centers as an accessible pathway towards engineering. I engage in cross-community collaborations with college engineering students, industry engineers, and informal science educators to design tinkering spaces, and I analyze the effect of these spaces on the learner experience. This dissertation explores...

  10. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC): A Safeguards Instrument Design to Address Future Fuel Measurement Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary of this presentation: (1) EFC instrument design for 235U verification measurements issued to EURATOM to issue a call for commercial tender; (2) Achieved a fast (Cd mode) measurement with less than 2% relative uncertainty in the doubles neutron counting rate in 10 minutes using a standard source strength; (3) Assay time in fast mode consistent with the needs of an inspector; (4) Extended to realistic calibration range for modern fuel designs - Relatively insensitive to gadolinia content for fuel designs with up to 32 burnable poison rods and 15 wt % gadolinia concentration, which is a realistic maximum for modern PWR fuel; (5) Improved performance over the standard thermal neutron collar with greater than twice the efficiency of the original design; (6) Novel tube pattern to reduce the impact of accidental pile-up; and (7) Joint test of prototype unit - EURATOM-LANL.

  11. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of a

  12. Challenging encapsulation in the design of high-risk control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, D.

    2002-01-01

    An apporpriate architectural approach is to acknowledge the underlying physics and to elevate the concepts of state and models to first-class design elements that are not encapsulated within subsystem objects.

  13. Service design in information technology startups: Unpacking opportunities and challenges through three case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Avesta

    2014-01-01

    What is the role and value of service design in startup companies in the Information Technology (IT) industry? And how can service design help startups develop their services more effectively? Increased global competition forces new ventures to create useful and unique service experiences, as customers rarely make purchasing decisions based on function alone. The need to think and act differently has shifted the service innovation paradigm and significantly increased the role and relevanc...

  14. Landscape designed by farming systems: a challenge for landscape agronomists in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, M.; Mignolet, C.; Herrmann, S.; Rizzo, D.; Moonen, C.; Barberi, P.; Galli, M.; Bonari, E.; Silvestri, N.; Thenail, C.; S. Lardon; Rapey, H.; Marraccini, E.; Le Ber, F.; Meynard, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    As agronomists, we are concerned by the landscapes seen as a result of human decisions. So, landscape is for us human-made and the main driving forces of landscape design processes are farming systems. In this way, landscape is designed by the farming systems in a complex relationship with the land. Just like ecologists twenty years ago developed a trend of ecology focusing on landscape ecology, we propose to create a new trend in agronomic research: landscape agronomy.

  15. Optimal design of microalgae-based biorefinery: Economics, opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have great potential as a feedstock for the production of a wide range of end-products under the broad concept of biorefinery. In an earlier work, we proposed a superstructure based optimization model to find the optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal...... biomass, and identified several challenges with the focus being on utilizing lipids extracted microalgal biomass for economic and environmentally friendly production of useful energy products. In this paper, we expand the previous optimization framework by considering the processing of microalgae residue...

  16. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  17. Designing Mobility in a City in Transition. Challenges from the Case of Palermo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Vinci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport policy is one of the most crucial sectors in the process of adaptation of contemporary cities to the challenge of sustainable development. For its close relation with social habits and people behaviors, in fact, innovation in transports play a strategic role both in the decreasing of the environmental impact of mobility and in the improvement of the quality of the built environment. To do so, however, cities need to reach a more effective integration between transport policy and land-use planning, as well as taking full advantage by the spreading of new technologies. In this context, this paper discusses the challenges provided by the reshaping of the transport system in the metropolitan area of Palermo, the second larger city in Southern Italy. It attempts to explore, particularly, the potential connections between the future “hard factors” of the transport policy – as a result of the programme of infrastructural improvement under realization in the urban area –, with other “soft factors”, such as the practices of social innovation in the field of mobility with the help of ICTs and other opportunities for urban regeneration linked to the reshaping of the transport system.

  18. Los Alamos national Laboratory overview of the SAVY-4000 design: meeting the challenge for worker safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-06-12

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based storage container design, the SAVY-4000. The SAVY-4000 is the first vented general use nuclear material container demonstrated to meet the requirements of DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. The SAVY-4000 is an innovative and creative design demonstrated by the fact that it can be opened and closed in a few seconds without torque wrenches or other tools; has a built-in, fire-rated filter that prevents the build-up of hydrogen gas, yet retains 99.97% of plutonium particulates, and prevents release of material even in a 12 foot drop. Finally, it has been tested to 500C for 2 hours, and will reduce the risk to the public in the event of an earthquake/fire scenario. This will allow major nuclear facilities to credit the container towards source term Material at Risk (MAR) reduction. The container was approved for nuclear material storage in theTA-55 Plutonium Facility on March 15, 2011, and the first order of 79 containers was received at LANL on March 21, 2011. The first four SAVY-4000 containers were packaged with plutonium on August 2, 2011. Key aspects ofthe SAVY-4000 vented storage container design will be discussed which include design qualification and testing, implementation plan development and status, risk ranking methodology for re-packaging, in use implementation with interface to LANMAS, surveillance strategy, the design life extension program as enhanced by surveillance activities and production status with the intent to extend well beyond the current five year design life.

  19. Designing a software for systematic registration of oral and maxillofacial diseases based on the latest update of the World Health Organization ICD-10 classification system in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mansorian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Classification is a fundamental issue in quantitative studies of any phenomenon and has been known as a necessity for the advancement of science. Using a standard record system for diseases is critical for research purposes and also could improve the quality of medical health services. In this study, after evaluating current codding systems in oral medicine, we designed a software for systematic coding and registration of Oral and Maxillofacial diseases based on the latest update of the World Health Organization ICD-10 classification system in 2010.   Materials and Methods: Based on the latest WHO ICD-10 update in 2010 and by using software s as: vb.net, net framework, SQL Server and Microsoft Visual Studio, standard coding software for recording patient's data at the department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences was designed. Data from all patients were codded by standard ICD-10 codes and registered by the software. Also an online portal for recording patient's data which could be used nationwide was designed. By d esigning this software the process of forming and registering patient's records, and their treatment process is facilitated . An archive of patient data was also stablished .   Conclusion: As a result , this software in addition to maintaining patient data , facilitate studies and research projects greatly. It’s recommended that the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education as the concessioner of this software, improves codding and registration systems of oral diseases at the dental schools by developing this software.

  20. Evolving from Planning and Scheduling to Real-Time Operations Support: Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Ludowise, Melissa; McCurdy, Michael; Li, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Versions of Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration (SPIFe) have supported a variety of mission operations across NASA. This software tool has evolved and matured over several years, assisting planners who develop intricate schedules. While initially conceived for surface Mars missions, SPIFe has been deployed in other domains, where people rather than robotic explorers, execute plans. As a result, a diverse set of end-users has compelled growth in a new direction: supporting real-time operations. This paper describes the new needs and challenges that accompany this development. Among the key features that have been built for SPIFe are current time indicators integrated into the interface and timeline, as well as other plan attributes that enable execution of scheduled activities. Field tests include mission support for the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) campaigns.

  1. Challenges in designing for horizontal learning in the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Marianne; Bergstedt, Palle; Jørgensen, Claus Bo;

    2016-01-01

    As part of an on-going research project (2015-2017) at The National Centre for Vocational Pedagogy, Metropolitan University College, we are studying why and how vocational teachers understand and design for boundary crossing through the use of ICT-based artefacts. The research project is based on...

  2. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Thermal Protection Systems. EP-2008-09-122-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick; McWilliams, Harold; Wagoner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, and their partners at other NASA centers and in private industry, are designing and beginning to develop the next generation of spacecraft to transport cargo, equipment, and human explorers to space. These vehicles--the Ares I and Ares V launch…

  3. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Spacecraft Structures. EP-2008-09-121-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick; McWilliams, Harold; Wagoner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center along with their partners at other NASA centers, and in private industry, are designing and beginning to develop the next generation of spacecraft to transport cargo, equipment, and human explorers to space. These vehicles are part of the Constellation…

  4. Engineering Design and Manufacturing Challenges for a Wide-Aperture, Superconducting Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Bielert, E; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Lepoittevin, B; Lorin, C; Luzieux, S; Perez, J C; Russenschuck, S; Sahner, T; Smekens, D; Segreti, M; Durante, M

    2012-01-01

    The design and construction of a wide-aperture, superconducting quadrupole magnet for the LHC insertion region is part of a study towards a luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN. The engineering design of components and tooling, the procurement, and the construction work presented in this paper includes innovative features such as more porous cable insulation, a new collar structure allowing horizontal assembly with a hydraulic collaring press, tuning shims for the adjustment of field quality, a fishbone like structure for the ground-plane insulation, and an improved quench-heater design. Rapid prototyping of coil-end spacers and trial-coil winding led to improved shapes, thus avoiding the need to impregnate the ends with epoxy resin, which would block the circulation of helium. The magnet construction follows established procedures for the curing and assembly of the coils, in order to match the workflow established in CERN’s ”large magnet facility.” This requirement led to the design and procurement of...

  5. Drawing a Roadmap: Barriers and Challenges to Designing the Ideal Virtual World for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this article is to draw a roadmap for designing an "ideal" virtual world for higher education, pointing decision-makers in a general direction for implementing virtual worlds and noting various barriers along the way. When using a roadmap, one can take many different paths to reach a desired destination. Similarly, institutions can…

  6. Game Design & Development: Using Computer Games as Creative and Challenging Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Cheryl; Hundley, Jacqueline; Montgomery, Lacey Strange

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a game design and development course. The rationale for forming this class was to use student excitement with video games as an intrinsic motivation over traditional courses. Today's students have grown up exposed to gaming, interactive environments, and vivid 3D. Computer gaming has the capacity to attract many new students…

  7. Trial Design Challenges when Combining Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McCracken, James T.; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Swiezy, Naomi; Mulick, James; Stigler, Kimberly; Bearss, Karen; Ritz, Louise; Wagner, Ann; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for a 24-week, randomized trial designed to test whether risperidone plus structured parent training would be superior to risperidone only on measures of noncompliance, irritability and adaptive functioning. In this model, medication reduces tantrums, aggression and self-injury; parent training promotes…

  8. Yaw Systems for wind turbines – Overview of concepts, current challenges and design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking at the upscaling of the rotor diameter not only the loss in power production but the aerodynamic loads arising from yaw misalignment will have an increasing impact on the yaw system design in future wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of yaw systems used in current wind turbines and a review of patents with regards to the yaw system. The current state of the art of yaw systems has been analyzed through a systematic literature review. Further a patent analysis has been done through the European Patent Office. Todays design and strength requirements as per IEC and GL standards will be reviewed and alternative design calculations will be discussed. Over 100 patents have been identified as relevant to the yaw system and have been analyzed. It has been found that most patents are dealing with load reduction possibilities on the yaw system, where fatigue loads seem more of a problem than ultimate loads. Most of these patents concern especially the yaw actuator, which consists of multiple electrical motors, reduction gears and shaft pinions. This is due to the nature of the gearing in the actuator and the gearing between the shaft pinion and the ring gear. This coincides with the patents for yaw brakes, which mostly aim to reduce the fatigue loads during yaw maneuverer and during nacelle standstill. Patents for the yaw bearing are incorporating the reduction of loads through the usage of friction bearings or different bearing arrangement approaches. The paper shows that the conventional yaw system designs are still trying to meet the high requirements regarding the lifetime of a wind turbine and turbulent wind loads. New designs for yaw systems in general are hard to find. Many patents concentrate on control algorithms that depend on additional instruments and incorporate electromechanical systems

  9. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  10. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  11. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  12. Design of a Solar Powered Car for Physically Challenged Using Embedded Technology

    OpenAIRE

    V. Poorna Devi#1 , Dr. G.N. Kodanda Ramaiah

    2013-01-01

    In the years to come the need for energy will increase manifold while the reserve of conventional energy will deplete in rapid pace. To meet the growing demand of energy harnessing of non-conventional / renewable energy is the necessity. Among all the available non-conventional sources, solar energy is the most abundant and uniformly distributed. Solar powered car is thesystem with the efficient utilization of solar energy designs a general purpose vehicle by charging battery using solar ener...

  13. Internationalisation of the BNFL fuel and waste treatment plant designs the challenges and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1970's BNFL has considerably expanded its range of fuel cycle plants, involving an investment of over US$7.5bn (55bn Won). This has included significant development of its Sellafield site with a wide variety of plants and processes to deal with spent fuel and development of its fuel fabrication facilities at the Spring fields Site. In contrast to reactors, fuel plants are constructed infrequently and it is therefore crucial to 'get it right first time'. The achievement of high levels of safety has been an important factor in the development of these facilities. BNFL has applied safety criteria which are as stringent as any other international safety criteria in terms of the extent to which radiation doses to plant workers and people off-site are minimised from both routine operations and possible fault conditions. Because the plant designs are established and supported by robust safety cases they are capable of being licensed overseas. The benefits of this are lower financial risk and shorter project timescales, due to avoiding the high design and safety case development costs (typically of the order of 20% of project cost) which are incurred in the production of a 'first of a kind' design. This paper briefly discusses the role of safety cases in the UK licensing process and the principle safety standards which are applied to BNFL plants and shows how they achieve high levels of safety by comparing them with equivalent IAEA and US based standards. It illustrates how the plants meet or exceed these safety standards by using specific data from existing safety cases supported by operational data where applicable. It discusses some of the important features of the UK approach to safety and licensing and emphasises the need to examine safety provisions on a case by case basis rather than adopting a prescriptive approach to implementing design provisions if cost effectiveness is to be achieved

  14. Interregional Knowledge Management Workshop on Life Cycle Management of Design Basis Information. Issues, Challenges, Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and objectives: • It is evident that the design basis area is from the point of view of knowledge sharing extremely complicated. • Time is changing and puts on us ever greater demands. • We have to analyze the near and remote surroundings and have to simplified the problem of knowledge sharing in that area. • I believe that it is graspable task for knowledge management and I will try to outline some possible context and approaches

  15. Trial Design Challenges When Combining Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    SCAHILL, LAWRENCE; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McCracken, James T.; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Swiezy, Naomi; MULICK, JAMES; Stigler, Kimberly; Bearss, Karen; Ritz, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for a 24-week, randomized trial designed to test whether risperidone plus structured parent training would be superior to risperidone only on measures of noncompliance, irritability and adaptive functioning. In this model, medication reduces tantrums, aggression and self-injury; parent training promotes improvement in noncompliance and adaptive functioning. Thus, medication and parent training target related, but separate, outcomes. At week 24, the medication...

  16. Research and Development Projects with ICT and students as learning designers in Primary Schools: A methodological challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana;

    use of ICT in the Danish primary school from 2012-2015 combined with an increased focus on fulfilling learning objectives and to build competencies. This effort is on the one side due to a decade of disappointing Danish PISA results regarding reading, writing and math; on the other side due to the......In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from the...... how: • ICT supports students learning, • ICT release time for more teaching, and • teachers digital literacy impact on the role of ICT in the educational practice. Further the call required collaboration between universities and university colleges in order to disseminate knowledge and new practices...

  17. C.N. Cofrentes power up-rate up to 110 %. A challenge for cycle 14 core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.N.Cofrentes is a GE design BWR reactor with 624 bundles in the core, a rated power of 2894 MWt and it is currently operating Cycle 13 at 104.2 % power. Commercial operation started in 1984 with 12-month cycles at rated power. Both cycle length and thermal power have been increased since then. Power has been up-rated in two steps, first at 102 % in Cycle 4 and later in Cycle 11 at 104.2%. Cycle length has been extended from the original 12-month to the currently 18-month cycles. Next cycle, Cycle 14, will be an 18-month cycle operating at 110 % power. This goal is a challenge for the in-house nuclear design team. Start up for Cycle 14 is planned for the first quarter of 2002. (author)

  18. Inter-regional Knowledge Management Workshop on Life-cycle Management of Design Basis Information – Issues, Challenges, Approaches. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Workshop had a strategic focus on identifying and clarifying long-term issues and objectives related to our collective responsibilities to ensure that both existing nuclear facilities and future new build projects properly address life-cycle management of plant design basis knowledge (i.e. from design to decommissioning). The workshop attempted to bring together key stakeholders and build a better collective understanding, recognizing that very different perspectives exist and there are a wide range of national contexts and approaches. The various issues and challenges related to this topic and facing the nuclear energy sector both today and in the long-term were discussed in a senior management context and at strategic level

  19. Advances and Challenges in the Implementation of DiD in Siting, Design, and Construction of Nuclear Installations in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam is embarking on a development of a nuclear power program. The main focus is now on the initial 1000 MWe x 2 units of the nuclear power plant in Ninh Thuan province. Now, the nuclear projects of Vietnam are in the phase of siting approval and investment projects approval. The design assessment will be performed in 2013-2014; the construction and installation will be performed from now until the operating licensing is obtained in 2020-2021. With state of development of a nuclear power program in Vietnam, this paper only focuses on advances and challenges in the implementation of Defence in Depth (DID) in siting, design, and construction of nuclear installations in Vietnam. (author)

  20. Multi-armed Bandit Models for the Optimal Design of Clinical Trials: Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Sofía S.; Bowden, Jack; Wason, James

    2016-01-01

    Multi-armed bandit problems (MABPs) are a special type of optimal control problem well suited to model resource allocation under uncertainty in a wide variety of contexts. Since the first publication of the optimal solution of the classic MABP by a dynamic index rule, the bandit literature quickly diversified and emerged as an active research topic. Across this literature, the use of bandit models to optimally design clinical trials became a typical motivating application, yet little of the resulting theory has ever been used in the actual design and analysis of clinical trials. To this end, we review two MABP decision-theoretic approaches to the optimal allocation of treatments in a clinical trial: the infinite-horizon Bayesian Bernoulli MABP and the finite-horizon variant. These models possess distinct theoretical properties and lead to separate allocation rules in a clinical trial design context. We evaluate their performance compared to other allocation rules, including fixed randomization. Our results indicate that bandit approaches offer significant advantages, in terms of assigning more patients to better treatments, and severe limitations, in terms of their resulting statistical power. We propose a novel bandit-based patient allocation rule that overcomes the issue of low power, thus removing a potential barrier for their use in practice.

  1. An overview of challenges limiting the design of protective mucosal vaccines for finfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in mucosal vaccination in finfish has gained prominence in the last decade in pursuit of mucosal vaccines that would lengthen the duration of protective immunity in vaccinated fish. However, injectable vaccines have continued to dominate in the vaccination of finfish because they are perceived to be more protective than mucosal vaccines. Therefore, it has become important to identify the factors that limit developing protective mucosal vaccines in finfish as an overture to identifying key areas that require optimization in mucosal vaccine design. Some of the factors that limit the success for designing protective mucosal vaccines for finfish identified in this review include the lack optimized protective antigen doses for mucosal vaccines, absence of immunostimulants able to enhance the performance of non-replicative mucosal vaccines, reduction of systemic antibodies due to prolonged exposure to oral vaccination and the lack of predefined correlates of protective immunity for use in the optimization of newly developed mucosal vaccines. This review also points out the need to develop prime-boost vaccination regimes able to induce long-term protective immunity in vaccinated fish. By overcoming some of the obstacles identified herein it is anticipated that future mucosal vaccines shall be designed to induce long-term protective immunity in finfish.

  2. Disposal of SNL-designed electronics assemblies associated with the nuclear weapons program - challenges and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the common waste streams generated throughout the nuclear weapon complex is 'hardware' originating from the nuclear weapons program. The activities associated with this hardware at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) include design and development, environmental testing, reliability and stockpile surveillance testing, and military liaison training. SNL-designed electronic assemblies include radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems, Waste stream characterization using process knowledge is difficult due to the age of some components and lack of design information oriented towards hazardous constituent identification. Chemical analysis methods such as the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) are complicated by the inhomogeneous character of these components and the fact that many assemblies have aluminum or stainless steel cases, with the electronics encapsulated in a foam or epoxy matrix. In addition, some components may contain explosives, radioactive materials, toxic substances (PCBs, asbestos), and other regulated or personnel hazards which must be identified prior to handling and disposal. In spite of the above difficulties, we have succeeded in characterizing a limited number of weapon components using a combination of process knowledge and chemical analysis. For these components, we have shown that if the material is regulated as RCRA hazardous waste, it is because the waste exhibits one or more hazardous characteristics; primarily reactivity and/or toxicity (Pb, Cd). (author)

  3. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  4. Strategic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hardt, Moritz; Megiddo, Nimrod; Papadimitriou, Christos; Wootters, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning relies on the assumption that unseen test instances of a classification problem follow the same distribution as observed training data. However, this principle can break down when machine learning is used to make important decisions about the welfare (employment, education, health) of strategic individuals. Knowing information about the classifier, such individuals may manipulate their attributes in order to obtain a better classification outcome. As a result of this behavior...

  5. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Janke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1, mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year.

  6. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5-181 Nm³·tonFM(-1)), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  7. Challenging nickel-catalysed amine arylations enabled by tailored ancillary ligand design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Christopher M; MacQueen, Preston M; Rotta-Loria, Nicolas L; Sawatzky, Ryan S; Borzenko, Andrey; Chisholm, Alicia J; Hargreaves, Breanna K V; McDonald, Robert; Ferguson, Michael J; Stradiotto, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed C(sp(2))-N cross-coupling (that is, Buchwald-Hartwig amination) is employed widely in synthetic chemistry, including in the pharmaceutical industry, for the synthesis of (hetero)aniline derivatives. However, the cost and relative scarcity of palladium provides motivation for the development of alternative, more Earth-abundant catalysts for such transformations. Here we disclose an operationally simple and air-stable ligand/nickel(II) pre-catalyst that accommodates the broadest combination of C(sp(2))-N coupling partners reported to date for any single nickel catalyst, without the need for a precious-metal co-catalyst. Key to the unprecedented performance of this pre-catalyst is the application of the new, sterically demanding yet electron-poor bisphosphine PAd-DalPhos. Featured are the first reports of nickel-catalysed room temperature reactions involving challenging primary alkylamine and ammonia reaction partners employing an unprecedented scope of electrophiles, including transformations involving sought-after (hetero)aryl mesylates for which no capable catalyst system is known. PMID:27004442

  8. Challenges in bridging theory and applications with examples from Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Sadasivan

    2013-10-01

    Over the past 3 decades the semiconductor industry has doubled the number of transistors on integrated circuits every 2 years, following an empirical law widely known as Moore's law. The ability of the semiconductor industry to stay on Moore's law has enabled the digital revolution and now the convergence of communications and computing. However, as the size of the smallest structures decrease, this has required the introduction of many new materials and the interactions of these heterogeneous materials and processing is increasing in complexity. The increasing use of the nano materials and the ever-shrinking dimensions requires development of an improved understanding of material properties (electronic, thermal, mechanical, and optical) at differences scales. Due to the presence of multiple thin films and metal alloys in the nano technology, grains, and interfaces assume more significance than before. This paper reviews some of the challenges in materials and the opportunities for using fundamental modeling and characterization techniques to enable successful management of these heterogeneous interactions. As the industry evaluates new materials for future technologies, research is needed to develop new modeling and characterization techniques to evaluate nano-materials and materials with nano-scale dimensions and structure.

  9. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. PMID:26929197

  10. R&D Challenges for SFR Design and Safety Analysis: Opportunities for International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the R&D in the safety domain in support of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design and safety analysis. Examples are provided, in particular in the fields of reactivity and decay heat removal control, severe accident analysis, in-service inspection and repair, and chemical risks. It is highlighted that these activities are relevant for international cooperation, especially benchmarks and sharing of experimental facilities. Different frameworks are available for cooperation, such as the Generation IV International Forum, the IAEA (in particular through its coordinated research projects), the European Commission Framework Programme and also bilateral cooperation. (author)

  11. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2014 Water Quality Standards - Table H Stream Classifications and Use Designations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains Missouri's use designations for streams listed in Table H of the Water Quality Standards rule published in the Missouri Code of State...

  12. Towards Automatic Classification of Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Armañanzas, Rubén; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of neurons into types has been much debated since the inception of modern neuroscience. Recent experimental advances are accelerating the pace of data collection. The resulting information growth of morphological, physiological, and molecular properties encourages efforts to automate neuronal classification by powerful machine learning techniques. We review state-of-the-art analysis approaches and availability of suitable data and resources, highlighting prominent challenge...

  13. The TAHMO sensor design challenge: unlocking and empowering local African talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2013-12-01

    The TAHMO initiative aims to develop and install 20.000 weather stations in sub Saharan Africa. The success of this endeavor greatly depends on using local knowledge, as well as support from local communities. A sensor design competition was held in which participants were asked to design a novel weather sensor. Promotion of the competition was focused on Africa and mainly African student teams responded. The best 15 out of 34 submission were send a 'maker package' containing the tools and materials to physically make their sensors. Winners of the maker packages were asked to upload a video of the process of building their sensors. Using these videos, 9 teams were invited to a final one-week workshop in which all teams worked together to connect all their sensors and automatically upload measurement readings to the internet. This goal was achieved on the last day of the workshop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOTPMp-13Bs The main results of this competition, the lessons learned and the road ahead for TAHMO will be presented.

  14. The acoustical design of vehicles-a challenge for qualitative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, Andre

    2005-09-01

    Whenever the acoustical design of vehicles is explored, the crucial question about the appropriate method of evaluation arises. Research shows that not only acoustic but also non-acoustic parameters have a major influence on the way sounds are evaluated. Therefore, new methods of evaluation have to be implemented. Methods are needed which give the opportunity to test the quality of the given ambience and to register the effects and evaluations in their functional interdependence as well as the influence of personal and contextual factors. Moreover, new methods have to give insight into processes of evaluation and their contextual parameters. In other words, the task of evaluating acoustical ambiences consists of designating a set of social, psychological, and cultural conditions which are important to determine particular individual and collective behavior, attitudes, and also emotions relative to the given ambience. However, no specific recommendations exist yet which comprise particular descriptions of how to assess those specific sound effects. That is why there is a need to develop alternative methods of evaluation with whose help effects of acoustical ambiences can be better predicted. A method of evaluation will be presented which incorporates a new sensitive approach for the evaluation of vehicle sounds.

  15. Challenges in the design and development of high power DC electron accelerator for flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of electron beam for the flue gas treatment (EBFGT) requires accelerator modules with a beam power 100-500 leW and electron energy range 0.5-1 MeV. Electron beam can simultaneously treat SOx and NOx in the flue gas released from thermal power plants and produce useful fertilizers in the dry environment. A beginning has been made in to simulate the flue gas in a reaction chamber and treat them using DC Electron Accelerator at 1 MeV energy, 1-10 mA beam current at Electron Beam Centre, BARC. The important accelerator parameters are related to electrical efficiency, accelerator reliability, and accelerator price. Experience gained in the design and development industrial DC electron accelerators and initial experimental results in simulated flue gas treatment are described. Also the conceptual design of a 500 keV, 1.2A DC electron accelerator module using power line frequency transformer and rectifiers for a 60 MWe thermal power plant has been presented. (author)

  16. The unexpected structure of the designed protein Octarellin V.1 forms a challenge for protein structure prediction tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Maximiliano; Sleutel, Mike; Vandevenne, Marylene; Parvizi, Gregory; Attout, Sophie; Jacquin, Olivier; Vandenameele, Julie; Fischer, Axel W; Damblon, Christian; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Valerio-Lepiniec, Marie; Urvoas, Agathe; Durand, Dominique; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Minard, Philippe; Maes, Dominique; Meiler, Jens; Matagne, André; Martial, Joseph A; Van de Weerdt, Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Despite impressive successes in protein design, designing a well-folded protein of more 100 amino acids de novo remains a formidable challenge. Exploiting the promising biophysical features of the artificial protein Octarellin V, we improved this protein by directed evolution, thus creating a more stable and soluble protein: Octarellin V.1. Next, we obtained crystals of Octarellin V.1 in complex with crystallization chaperons and determined the tertiary structure. The experimental structure of Octarellin V.1 differs from its in silico design: the (αβα) sandwich architecture bears some resemblance to a Rossman-like fold instead of the intended TIM-barrel fold. This surprising result gave us a unique and attractive opportunity to test the state of the art in protein structure prediction, using this artificial protein free of any natural selection. We tested 13 automated webservers for protein structure prediction and found none of them to predict the actual structure. More than 50% of them predicted a TIM-barrel fold, i.e. the structure we set out to design more than 10years ago. In addition, local software runs that are human operated can sample a structure similar to the experimental one but fail in selecting it, suggesting that the scoring and ranking functions should be improved. We propose that artificial proteins could be used as tools to test the accuracy of protein structure prediction algorithms, because their lack of evolutionary pressure and unique sequences features. PMID:27181418

  17. Featherweight Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  18. Design challenges: A new path to understanding science concepts and skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marc Stephan

    This study tests an alternative strategy for developing science curricula based on two developmental models: skill theory (Fischer, 1980) and perceptual control theory (Powers, 1978). Traditional and Discovery Science programs are introduced as ways to map out a continuum of currently used strategies in science curriculum development. The continuum is used as a framework for understanding how the proposed alternative model of curriculum development compares with the Traditional and Discovery approaches. The alternative model incorporates activities already in development at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in a NSF funded program called DESIGNS (Doable Engineering Science Investigations Geared for Non-science Students). This thesis suggests a strategy for sequencing existing activities in DESIGNS as well as describes an approach for building and sequencing new activities in science. Microdevelopment, a phenomena observed in short term learning (Fischer & Granott, 1995), is used as a tool for refining the content of activities as well articulating the need for a developmental framework in curriculum development. Pedagogical criteria for all three approaches were defined first, and then used to build three two-week units on electromagnetism for middle school students. All three units were tested in two different schools in New England with 125 seventh and eighth grade students. Three measures were used: a concept assessment questionnaire to evaluate changes in understanding, a skills test (TIPS II) to evaluate changes in student's ability to choose appropriate skills in science experiments, and a reaction survey to assess the student thoughts on each activity in the unit. Results indicate that students participating in the DESIGNS curriculum showed significant improvement in conceptual understanding, and limited but significant improvement in skill development. The Discovery curriculum showed gains in concept understanding early in the unit, but the

  19. Challenges in spent nuclear fuel final disposal:conceptual design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Ahmed RANA

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a long-standing issue in nuclear technology. Mainly, UO2 and metallic U are used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. Spent nuclear fuel contains fission products and transuranium elements, which would remain radioactive for 104 to 108 years. In this brief communication, essential concepts and engineering elements related to high-level nuclear waste disposal are described. Conceptual design models are described and discussed considering the long-time scale activity of spent nuclear fuel or high level waste. Notions of physical and chemical barriers to contain nuclear waste are highlightened. Concerns regarding integrity, self-irradiation induced decomposition and thermal effects of decay heat on the spent nuclear fuel are also discussed. The question of retrievability of spent nuclear fuel after disposal is considered.

  20. Development of the Pico Star Tracker ST-200 – Design Challenges and Road Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Segert, Tom; Engelen, Steven; Buhl, Matthias; Monna, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The Pico Star Tracker ST-200 under development by Berlin Space Technologies GmbH (BST) is specifically designed keeping the limitations of CubeSats in mind. It comes in a compact 29x29x37mm³ package. It weights 74g and has a power consumption of 220mW average (620mW peak). The ST-200 offers a set of standard interfaces (I²C, SPI, RS485, RS232) and accepts input voltages of 3.3 to 5V. It can detect stars with a limiting magnitude of 6 and has an accuracy of 30 arc seconds (~0.01°). Using its i...

  1. Scaling laws for free piston Stirling engine design: Benefits and challenges of miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores the scaling effects for FPSE (free piston Stirling engines), which are known for their simple architecture and potentially high thermodynamic performances. Scaling laws are given and their potential for miniaturization is highlighted. A simple model which allows the design of the geometrical parameters of the heat exchangers, the regenerator and the masses of the pistons is proposed. It is based on the definition of six characteristic dimensionless groups. They are derived from the physics underlying the behavior of the free piston Stirling machine and their relevancy is backed up by comparisons between documented Stirling engines from the literature. Keeping constant values for each group throughout the scaling range theoretically ensures constant performance. The main losses of Stirling engine (heat conduction loss, reheat loss in the regenerator, pressure drop and gas-spring hysteresis) can be expressed as a function of the geometrical and operating parameters. Additionally, the consequences of leakage due to the manufacturing precision of pistons architectures are underlined. From the proposed scaling laws, potential power and efficiency of Stirling cycle engines at a millimeter scale can be anticipated. It appears that the power density increases with miniaturization. It is also shown that the dynamic masses related to the engine size are increased when scaling down and that the gap leakage presents the highest detrimental effects on the efficiency. These results call for dedicated architectures for micro-engines. - Highlights: • Similitude strategy is applied to Stirling engines and allows preliminary design. • New scaling laws are derived. • The power density can be increased with miniaturization. • The gap between the piston and casing is highly detrimental to the performances. • High engine operating pressure is required when miniaturizing

  2. Furniture design

    CERN Document Server

    Smardzewski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the principles of designing furniture as wooden structures, this book discusses issues related to the history of furniture structures, their classification and characteristics, ergonomic approaches to anthropometric requirements and safety of use. It presents key methods and highlights common errors in designing the characteristics of the materials, components, joints and structures, as well as looking at the challenges regarding developing associated design documentation. Including analysis of how designers may go about calculating the stiffness and endurance of parts, joints and whole structures, the book analyzes questions regarding the loss of furniture stability and the resulting threats to health of the user, putting forward a concept of furniture design as an engineering processes. Creating an attractive, functional, ergonomic and safe piece of furniture is not only the fruit of the work of individual architects and artists, but requires an effort of many people working ...

  3. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies – a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Kjeld

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. Methods A case study approach is used to describe naturally occurring organizational changes in four, large, Nordic intervention projects that ran 3–5 years, covered 3–52 worksites, cost 0.25 mill–2.2 mill €, and involved 3–7 researchers. Results In all four cases, high rates of closing, merging, moving, downsizing or restructuring was observed, and in all four cases at least one company/worksite experienced two or more re-organizations during the project period. If individual worksites remained, ownership or (for publicly owned administrative or legal base often shifted. Forthcoming closure led employees and managers to seek employment at other worksites participating in the studies. Key employees involved in the intervention process often changed. Conclusion Major changes were the rule rather than the exception. Frequent fundamental changes at worksites need to be taken into account when planning intervention studies and raises serious questions concerning design, analyses and interpretation of results. The frequent changes may also have deleterious implications for the potential effectiveness of many real life interventions directed toward worksites. We urge researchers and editors to prioritize this subject in order to improve the quality of future intervention research and preventive action.

  4. Tight Coupling Internetworking Between UMTS and WLAN: Challenges, Design Architectures and Simulation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Armi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To provide seamless internet connectivity anywhere at any time to the mobile users, there is astrong demand for the integration of wireless access networks for all-IP based Next GenerationNetworks (NGN. The Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN is capable of providing high data rateat low cost. However, its services are limited to a small geographical area. Universal MobileTelecommunications System (UMTS networks provide global coverage, however, cost is highand the provided data rate do not fulfill the requirements of bandwidth intensive applications. Byintegrating these two promising technologies; UMTS and WLAN several benefits can beachieved, i.e., load balancing, extension of coverage area, better Quality of Service (QoS,improved security features, etc. Therefore, the integration of these two technologies can provideubiquitous connectivity and high data rate at low cost to wireless clients. In this paper differentintegration mechanisms of UMTS and WLAN are investigated. More precisely, an integratedmechanism for the integration of UMTS and WLAN based on two different variations of tightcoupling, i.e., interconnecting WLAN with Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN and GatewayGPRS Support Node (GGSN is designed and analyzed. The simulated results reveal that theGGSN-WLAN integration performance is better than the SGSN-WLAN integration for all theapplied applications and measurement parameters.

  5. 14 CFR 1203.701 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1203.701 Section 1203.701... Government Information § 1203.701 Classification. (a) Foreign government information that is classified by a foreign entity shall either retain its original classification designation or be marked with a...

  6. 14 CFR 298.3 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 298.3 Section 298.3... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.3 Classification. (a) There is hereby established a classification of air carriers, designated as “air taxi operators,”...

  7. State of the art, challenges and perspectives in the design of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B; Justo, Giselle Z; Haddad, Paula S

    2015-11-01

    Recently, an increasing number of publications have demonstrated the importance of the small molecule nitric oxide (NO) in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. NO acts as a key modulator in cardiovascular, immunological, neurological, and respiratory systems, and deficiencies in the production of NO or its inactivation has been associated with several pathologic conditions, ranging from hypertension to sexual dysfunction. Although the clinical administration of NO is still a challenge owing to its transient chemical nature, the combination of NO and nanocarriers based on biocompatible polymeric scaffolds has emerged as an efficient approach to overcome the difficulties associated with the biomedical administration of NO. Indeed, significant progress has been achieved by designing NO-releasing polymeric nanomaterials able to promote the spatiotemporal generation of physiologically relevant amounts of NO in diverse pharmacological applications. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the preparation of versatile NO-releasing nanocarriers based on polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers and micelles. Despite the significant innovative progress achieved using nanomaterials to tailor NO release, certain drawbacks still need to be overcome to successfully translate these research innovations into clinical applications. In this regard, this review discusses the state of the art regarding the preparation of innovative NO-releasing polymeric nanomaterials, their impact in the biological field and the challenges that need to be overcome. We hope to inspire new research in this exciting area based on NO and nanotechnology. PMID:25636971

  8. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  9. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  10. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are no...... software packages such as SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer....

  11. Classifying Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakowski, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the experience of a group of first-grade teachers as they tackled the science process of classification, a targeted learning objective for the first grade. While the two-year process was not easy and required teachers to teach in a new, more investigation-oriented way, the benefits were great. The project helped teachers and…

  12. Cancer Data Clustering and Classification Based using Efnn_Pcamethod

    OpenAIRE

    J. Saranya; Hemalatha, R.

    2014-01-01

    One challenge area inside the studies of natural phenomenon data is that the classifications of the expression dataset into correct classes. The distinctive nature of the of Obtainable natural phenomenon data set is that the foremost challenge. massive vary of extraneous attributes (genes), challenge arises from the applying domain of cancer classification. though Accuracy plays a major think about cancer classification, the biological conation is another key criterion, as any biological data...

  13. Design of Radar Software Test Case Based on Classification Tree%基于分类树的雷达软件测试用例设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    职晓; 裴阿平; 张江华

    2014-01-01

    Owing to larger and larger scale of software size, it is less and less feasible to test every functional unit of modern radar software by using common combinatorial testing techniques in engineering. Aiming at solving defi-ciency of a large amount of redundant test cases generated by using the classification tree method ( CTM) designing test cases, the orthogonal experimental design method based on case set generated by CTM is used to simplify and optimize the testing so as to improve testing efficiency. The experimental results show that optimization of testing case based on orthogonal experimental test designing method can be used to reduce redundant test cases effectively and save test source and cost. It possesses applicable value in engineering.%现代雷达软件测试由于软件规模越来越大,利用常规的组合覆盖方法测试各功能单元工程上越来越不现实。文章针对分类树方法设计测试用例产生大量冗余测试用例的缺陷,提出了在分类树方法生成的用例集基础上,利用正交试验设计法对其进行精简优化,以提高测试效率。实验结果表明,基于正交试验设计法的测试用例优化,可以有效减少冗余测试用例,节省测试资源和成本,具有一定的工程应用价值。

  14. Small satellites for big science: the challenges of high-density design in the DLR Kompaktsatellit AsteroidFinder/SSB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimo Grundmann, Jan

    initiated the Kompaktsatellit line of development. It is intended to enable dedicated missions for science projects that would earlier have resulted in one full-scale scientific instrument among many sharing a ride on a large platform without the perspective of follow-on within an academic career lifetime. In an internal competition, the AsteroidFinder instrument dedicated to the search for small bodies orbiting the Sun interior to Earth's orbit has been selected as the payload to fly first on a Kompaktsatellit. Alongside, the Standard Satellite Bus kit, /SSB, is being developed, based on extensive re-use of experience, concepts, and components of the DLR satellites BIRD and TET. It is designed to avoid the overhead carried by pre-defined standard bus concepts while allowing for seamless integration of the payload into an organic spacecraft design. Challenges encountered and solutions found across the subsystems of AsteroidFinder/SSB will be presented.

  15. Is classification necessary after Google?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine challenges facing bibliographic classification at both the practical and theoretical levels. At the practical level, libraries are increasingly dispensing with classifying books. At the theoretical level, many researchers, managers, and users beli...

  16. Advances and Challenges In Uncertainty Quantification with Application to Climate Prediction, ICF design and Science Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Woodward, C. S.; Johannesson, G.; Domyancic, D.; Covey, C. C.; Lucas, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a critical field within 21st century simulation science that resides at the very center of the web of emerging predictive capabilities. The science of UQ holds the promise of giving much greater meaning to the results of complex large-scale simulations, allowing for quantifying and bounding uncertainties. This powerful capability will yield new insights into scientific predictions (e.g. Climate) of great impact on both national and international arenas, allow informed decisions on the design of critical experiments (e.g. ICF capsule design, MFE, NE) in many scientific fields, and assign confidence bounds to scientifically predictable outcomes (e.g. nuclear weapons design). In this talk I will discuss a major new strategic initiative (SI) we have developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to advance the science of Uncertainty Quantification at LLNL focusing in particular on (a) the research and development of new algorithms and methodologies of UQ as applied to multi-physics multi-scale codes, (b) incorporation of these advancements into a global UQ Pipeline (i.e. a computational superstructure) that will simplify user access to sophisticated tools for UQ studies as well as act as a self-guided, self-adapting UQ engine for UQ studies on extreme computing platforms and (c) use laboratory applications as a test bed for new algorithms and methodologies. The initial SI focus has been on applications for the quantification of uncertainty associated with Climate prediction, but the validated UQ methodologies we have developed are now being fed back into Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SSS) and ICF UQ efforts. To make advancements in several of these UQ grand challenges, I will focus in talk on the following three research areas in our Strategic Initiative: Error Estimation in multi-physics and multi-scale codes ; Tackling the "Curse of High Dimensionality"; and development of an advanced UQ Computational Pipeline to enable

  17. MULTI-LABEL CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCT REVIEWS USING STRUCTURED SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincy B. Chrystal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the text classification problems are associated with multiple class labels and hence automatic text classification is one of the most challenging and prominent research area. Text classification is the problem of categorizing text documents into different classes. In the multi-label classification scenario, each document is associated may have more than one label. The real challenge in the multi-label classification is the labelling of large number of text documents with a subset of class categories. The feature extraction and classification of such text documents require an efficient machine learning algorithm which performs automatic text classification. This paper describes the multi-label classification of product review documents using Structured Support Vector Machine.

  18. Triggering imagery with unattended seismic/magnetic sensing for vehicle classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, Ronald A.

    2004-09-01

    Acoustic sensing has traditionally been the preferred method for the detection and classification of ground vehicles. However, environmental conditions such as wind and rain pose a great challenge to prevent false detections and misclassifications. The recent work of McQ System Innovations has demonstrated the ability to successfully detect and classify vehicles with the fusion of seismic and magnetic sensing without false detections and only a small percentage of misclassifications. The algorithms developed were designed to detect single vehicles as well as vehicles in a convoy. Based on the classification of each vehicle, an imager can be triggered to find the best frame of the target, and store the image in onboard memory to send back to an operator display. The methodology of the algorithms designed for seismic/magnetic detection and classification of vehicles is shown, as well as results of testing the algorithms running in a remote sensor.

  19. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  20. Multi-borders classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The number of possible methods of generalizing binary classification to multi-class classification increases exponentially with the number of class labels. Often, the best method of doing so will be highly problem dependent. Here we present classification software in which the partitioning of multi-class classification problems into binary classification problems is specified using a recursive control language.

  1. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part of th...

  2. A Survey on Augmented Reality Challenges and Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan Rabbi; Sehat Ullah

    2013-01-01

    This survey paper presents classification of different challenges and tracking techniques in the field of Augmented Reality. The challenges in augmented reality are categorized in performance challenges, alignment challenges, interaction challenges, mobility/portability challenges and visualization challenges. Augmented reality tracking techniques are mainly divided into sensor based tracking, vision based tracking and hybrid tracking. The sensor based tracking are further divided into optica...

  3. Domain-Based Classification of CSCW Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available CSCW systems are widely used for group activities in different organizations and setups. This study briefly describes the existing classifications of CSCW systems and their shortcomings. These existing classifications are helpful to categorize systems based on a general set of CSCW characteristics but do not provide any guidance towards system design and evaluation. After literature review of ACM CSCW conference (1986-2010, a new classification is proposed to categorize CSCW systems on the basis of domains. This proposed classification may help researchers to come up with more effective design and evaluation methods for CSCW systems.

  4. Semantic classification of diseases in discharge summaries using a context-aware rule-based classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Illés; Tikk, Domonkos; Gál, Viktor; Kardkovács, Zsolt T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated and disease-specific classification of textual clinical discharge summaries is of great importance in human life science, as it helps physicians to make medical studies by providing statistically relevant data for analysis. This can be further facilitated if, at the labeling of discharge summaries, semantic labels are also extracted from text, such as whether a given disease is present, absent, questionable in a patient, or is unmentioned in the document. The authors present a classification technique that successfully solves the semantic classification task. DESIGN The authors introduce a context-aware rule-based semantic classification technique for use on clinical discharge summaries. The classification is performed in subsequent steps. First, some misleading parts are removed from the text; then the text is partitioned into positive, negative, and uncertain context segments, then a sequence of binary classifiers is applied to assign the appropriate semantic labels. Measurement For evaluation the authors used the documents of the i2b2 Obesity Challenge and adopted its evaluation measures: F(1)-macro and F(1)-micro for measurements. RESULTS On the two subtasks of the Obesity Challenge (textual and intuitive classification) the system performed very well, and achieved a F(1)-macro = 0.80 for the textual and F(1)-macro = 0.67 for the intuitive tasks, and obtained second place at the textual and first place at the intuitive subtasks of the challenge. CONCLUSIONS The authors show in the paper that a simple rule-based classifier can tackle the semantic classification task more successfully than machine learning techniques, if the training data are limited and some semantic labels are very sparse. PMID:19390101

  5. Application of Data Mining in Protein Sequence Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprativ Saha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein sequence classification involves feature selection for accurate classification. Popular protein sequence classification techniques involve extraction of specific features from the sequences. Researchers apply some well-known classification techniques like neural networks, Genetic algorithm, Fuzzy ARTMAP,Rough Set Classifier etc for accurate classification. This paper presents a review is with three different classification models such as neural network model, fuzzy ARTMAP model and Rough set classifier model.This is followed by a new technique for classifying protein sequences. The proposed model is typicallyimplemented with an own designed tool and tries to reduce the computational overheads encountered by earlier approaches and increase the accuracy of classification.

  6. Classification and knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  7. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  8. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Packet Classification Algorithms, with Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediyeh AmirJahanshahi Sistani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available in a realm of ever-increasing Internet connectivity, together with swelling computer security threats, security-cognizant network applications technology is gaining widespread popularity. Packet classifiers are extensively employed for numerous network applications in different types of network devices such as Firewalls and Router, among others. Appreciating the tangible performance of recommended packet classifiers is a prerequisite for both algorithm creators and consumers. However, this is occasionally challenging to accomplish. Each innovative algorithm published is assessed from diverse perceptions and is founded on different suppositions. Devoid of a mutual foundation, it is virtually impossible to compare different algorithms directly. In the interim, it too aids the system implementers to effortlessly pick the most suitable algorithm for their actual applications. Electing an ineffectual algorithm for an application can invite major expenditures. This is particularly true for packet classification in network routers, as packet classification is fundamentally a tough problem and all current algorithms are constructed on specific heuristics and filter set characteristics. The performance of the packet classification subsystem is vital for the aggregate success of the network routers. In this study, we have piloted an advanced exploration of the existing algorithms to provide a comparative evaluation of a number of known classification algorithms that have been considered for both software and hardware implementation. We have explained our earlier suggested DimCut packet classification algorithm, and related it with the BV, HiCuts and HyperCuts decision tree-based packet classification algorithms with the comparative evaluation analysis. This comparison has been carried out on implementations based on the same principles and design choices from different sources. Performance measurements have been obtained by feeding the implemented

  10. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  11. Considerations of Unmanned Aircraft Classification for Civil Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Morris, A. Terry; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. Although use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in military and public service operations is proliferating, civil use of UAS remains limited in the United States today. This report focuses on one particular regulatory challenge: classifying UAS to assign airworthiness standards. Classification is useful for ensuring that meaningful differences in design are accommodated by certification to different standards, and that aircraft with similar risk profiles are held to similar standards. This paper provides observations related to how the current regulations for classifying manned aircraft, based on dimensions of aircraft class and operational aircraft categories, could apply to UAS. This report finds that existing aircraft classes are well aligned with the types of UAS that currently exist; however, the operational categories are more difficult to align to proposed UAS use in the NAS. Specifically, the factors used to group manned aircraft into similar risk profiles do not necessarily capture all relevant UAS risks. UAS classification is investigated through gathering approaches to classification from a broad spectrum of organizations, and then identifying and evaluating the classification factors from these approaches. This initial investigation concludes that factors in addition to those currently used today to group manned aircraft for the purpose of assigning airworthiness standards will be needed to adequately capture risks associated with UAS and their operations.

  12. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  13. Classification of Emergency Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Muench, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    In most of today's emergency scenarios information plays a crucial role. Therefore, information has to be constantly collected and shared among all rescue team members and this requires new innovative technologies. In this paper a classification of emergency scenarios is presented, describing their special characteristics and common strategies employed by rescue units to handle them. Based on interviews with professional firefighters, requirements for new systems are listed. The goal of this article is to support developers designing new systems by providing them a deeper look into the work of first responders.

  14. The 24 hour challenge: creating a multidiscipline environment for design and entrepreneurship in engineering and design. Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jess

    2014-01-01

    This Innovation and Creative Exchange (ICE) is an inter-school enterprise opportunity exclusively for second year Engineering and Design students at the University of Huddersfield. Its primary objective is to bring the best of innovative design and industry thinking into the undergraduate curriculum and to embed the latest innovation and design methodologies into the curriculum for engineering and design students – the next generation of employees for UK knowledge-based industries.

  15. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  16. New Challenges for Participation in Participatory Design in Family, Clinical and Other Asymmetrical, Non-work Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Hedvall, Per-Oluf

    Participatory design (PD) has taken as its ideal that designers and users should engage in an equal language game. When we apply PD in contexts where some of the users involved are weak, ill, or have impairments, this assumed equality can no longer be an ideal. The workshop explores new ideals fo...... participatory design in non-work settings with highly heterogeneous user constellations....

  17. Web Content Classification: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Prabhjot

    2014-01-01

    As the information contained within the web is increasing day by day, organizing this information could be a necessary requirement.The data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Classification of web page content is essential to many tasks in web information retrieval such as maintaining web directories and focused crawling.The uncontrolled type of nature of web content presents additional challenges to web ...

  18. The challenge of alignment and barriers for the design and implementation of science, technology and innovation policies for innovation systems in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminade , Cristina; Padilla Pérez , Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at shedding some light on the challenges of designing and implementing STI policies in developing countries. In particular, we discuss the problems of alignment of STI policies with the national economic development agenda, the alignment of innovation system policy with ST policies, the alignment of objectives and instruments with systemic problems as well as a proposed method for the identification of systemic problems in systems of innovation in developing countries.

  19. The Biology Experimental Design Challenge: An Interactive Approach to Enhance Students’ Understanding of Scientific Inquiry in the Context of an Introductory Biology Course †

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific method serves as a procedural framework for advancing knowledge and discoveries in a number of fields, including the natural and life sciences.  Despite its essential role in these disciplines, students often perceive the scientific method to be a fact-driven, linear pursuit, rather than a dynamic process.  To address this concern, I developed the Biology Experimental Design Challenge (BEDC) game to reinforce students’ understanding of the scientific process.  Specifically, the...

  20. Baltic 2 offshore wind farm. Challenges and solutions during design and erection of a 288 MW offshore wind power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore wind offers a great potential for reliable power supply with markedly less future costs. However, offshore also means special requirements related to transport and installation at sea. Even if these requirements alone are very stringent, they are not the only ones that apply. Meeting these challenges requires project organisation comparable to other major projects.

  1. Experience of three-dimensional vision in the era of digital interaction new devices : opportunity and challenges for applied mathematics and visual design

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Federico Alberto

    2014-01-01

    It will be soon presented to the public a new version of stereoscopic viewers designed for observing files and video projected images through a system of transparent optical prisms which allow the simultaneous perception of the surrounding environment. The real challenge for applied mathematics and visual design will be to prefigure how to use them and their applications, since these new devices can actually enable a deeper visual experience. A specific case study concerns the visualizations of the collisions at the LHC at CERN, selected to verify the traces of the boson theorized by Francois Englert and Peter Higgs, with Robert Brout, who recently (2013) received the Nobel Prize for their research.

  2. Classification system to describe workpieces definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macconnell, W R

    2013-01-01

    A Classification System to Describe Workpieces provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects and principles of coding. This book discusses the various applications of the classification system of coding.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the requirements of a system of classification pertaining adequately and equally to design, production, and work planning. This text then examines the purpose of the classification system in production to determine the most suitable means of machining a component. Other chapters consider the optimal utilization of m

  3. Towards the automatic classification of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armañanzas, Rubén; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2015-05-01

    The classification of neurons into types has been much debated since the inception of modern neuroscience. Recent experimental advances are accelerating the pace of data collection. The resulting growth of information about morphological, physiological, and molecular properties encourages efforts to automate neuronal classification by powerful machine learning techniques. We review state-of-the-art analysis approaches and the availability of suitable data and resources, highlighting prominent challenges and opportunities. The effective solution of the neuronal classification problem will require continuous development of computational methods, high-throughput data production, and systematic metadata organization to enable cross-laboratory integration. PMID:25765323

  4. La LC classification come linked data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Ford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 and in 2011, the Library of Congress made two of its largest authority files – Subject Headings and Names – available as linked data via LC’s Linked Data Service, ID.LOC.GOV. Both are offered in MADS/RDF and SKOS. It is LC’s objective, in 2012, to publish another of its largest authority files as linked data: LC Classification. Whereas the source records for Subject Headings and Names are encoded in the MARC Authority format, from which there is a relatively straightforward mapping to MADS/RDF and SKOS, LC Classification records rely on the MARC Classification format. Mapping from LC Classification to MADS/RDF or SKOS has been a little more challenging. For example, records that represent classification ranges, which are not Concepts intended to be assigned, are not easily accommodated in SKOS. This presents additional problems when needing to accurately represent the relationships in RDF for LC Classification. With comparison to the publication of LCSH and Names at ID.LOC.GOV, this paper will examine issues encountered – and how those challenges were addressed – during the conversion of LC Classification to MADS/RDF and SKOS for release as linked data at ID.LOC.GOV.

  5. Challenges of Designing New Urban Quality in Historical Environment: Based on Final Projects of BA Students of the Department of Urban Design, FA, VGTU

    OpenAIRE

    Dijokienė, Dalia

    2013-01-01

    Historical urban heritage represents not only the accumulation of the wealth of civilization but also a foundation for identity of urban communities. However, a town is still a living system, the existence of which is supported by its constant development, change and growth. Creating a new urban quality in a historical environment without prejudice to the existing harmony is a complex and challenging task. This article looks into and summarizes knowledge accumulated from the final projects of...

  6. Taking over someone else's e-learning design: challenges trigger change in e-learning beliefs and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As universities invest in the development of e-learning resources, e-learning sustainability has come under consideration. This has largely focused on the challenges and facilitators of organisational and technological sustainability and scalability, and professional development. Little research has examined the experience of a teacher dealing with e-learning sustainability when taking over a course with an e-learning resource and associated assessment. This research focuses on a teacher who was inexperienced with e-learning technology, yet took over a blended unit of study with an e-learning resource that accounted for one-fifth of the subject assessment and was directed towards academic skills development relevant to the degree program. Taking a longitudinal approach, this research examines the challenges faced by the new teacher and the way she changed the e-learning resource and its implementation over two years. A focus of the research is the way the teacher's reflections on the challenges and changes provided an opportunity and stimulus for change in her e-learning beliefs and practices. This research has implications for the way universities support teachers taking over another teacher's e-learning resource, the need for explicit documentation of underpinning beliefs and structured handover, the benefit of teamwork in developing e-learning resources, and provision of on-going support.

  7. Presentation summary, safety design aspects and U.S. licensing challenges of the pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation consists of three sections: An overview of the status of the PBMR project in South Africa, a review of the design features and philosophy being utilized to design the PBMR, and a summary of the key licensing issues that Exelon has identified in assessing the licensability of the PBMR for application in this country

  8. Movie Review Classification and Feature based Summarization of Movie Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeeha Mohammed Basheer#1, Syed Farook

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment classification and feature based summarization are essential steps involved with the classification and summarization of movie reviews. The movie review classification is based on sentiment classification and condensed descriptions of movie reviews are generated from the feature based summarization. Experiments are conducted to identify the best machine learning based sentiment classification approach. Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation were compared to identify features which in turn affects the summary size. The focus of the system design is on classification accuracy and system response time.

  9. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  10. The sources of use knowledge: towards integrating the dynamics of technology use and design in the articulation of societal challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peine, A.; Herrmann, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews three strands of the innovation literature that have presented innovation as a distributed process that combines knowledge of designers and users: user innovations, Science and Technology Studies (STS), and domestication research. These literatures have explored different aspects

  11. Internationalization of Finnish design-intensive SMEs and the challenge of international marketing communication strategy. Case: Three Finnish design-intesive SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Lahti, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of the study: The main purpose of this research is to examine the international marketing communication channel strategies that Finnish design intensive SMEs use in their internationalization process and why these particular channels are selected. Secondary the international sales channel strategies as well as the role of design and its effect to the internationalization process and overall competitiveness was studied. Methodology: This research is a qualitative cas...

  12. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  13. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Bridging the gap between selection decisions of facade systems at the early design phase: Issues, challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kassema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building facade has a significant impact on the environmental and economic performance of buildings and projects. The specification of their elements at the early design phase depends on numerous technical, environmental and economic factors and involves several stakeholders. The procurement and delivery of the facade work package from the early design phase, through detailed design and manufacture, to installation is a process with several inherent risk factors due to the involved cost, technical and engineering complexities and its position on the critical path in all projects. This research investigates the process of selection and specification of building facade elements at the early design phases with the overarching aim of identifying the issues affecting specification decisions, their root causes and impact on projects. The research utilizes a mixed research approach which combines a retrospective case study and an industry survey as two research methods that build on each other. The findings suggest that the complexity of specification at the early design phases is exacerbated by factors such as the inadequate technical knowledge of stakeholders involved in the decision making process, the non-involvement of building facade consultants, the late involvement of specialist facade subcontractors, and in a few cases by some commercial exclusivity agreements that restricts specification decisions. 

  15. Improving behaviour classification consistency: a technique from biological taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Timo A.; Choi, Serene Hyun-Jin; Bahr, Mark; Bahr, Nan

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative behaviour analysis requires the classification of behaviour to produce the basic data. In practice, much of this work will be performed by multiple observers, and maximising inter-observer consistency is of particular importance. Another discipline where consistency in classification is vital is biological taxonomy. A classification tool of great utility, the binary key, is designed to simplify the classification decision process and ensure consistent identification of prop...

  16. Shape and Surface: The challenges and advantages of 3D techniques in innovative fashion, knitwear and product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendt, E.

    2016-07-01

    The presentation wants to show what kind of problems fashion and textile designers are facing in 3D-knitwear design, especially regarding fashionable flat-knit styles, and how they can use different kinds of techniques and processes to generate new types of 3D-designs and structures. To create really new things we have to overcome standard development methods and traditional thinking and should start to open our minds again for the material itself to generate new advanced textile solutions. This paper mainly introduces different results of research projects worked out in the master program “Textile Produkte” during lectures in “Innovative Product Design” and “Experimental Knitting”.

  17. Big innovations in a small instrument: technical challenges in a new CCD system design for the Automated Patrol Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziarski, Stan; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Smith, Greg; Barden, Sam; Dawson, John; Horton, Anthony; Saunders, Will; Brzeski, Jurek; Churilov, Vladimir; Klauser, Urs; Waller, Lew; Mayfield, Don; Correll, David; Phillips, Andre; Whittard, Denis

    2008-07-01

    We describe the design of a new CCD system delivered to the Automated Patrol Telescope at Siding Springs NSW Australia operated by UNSW. A very fast beam (f/1) with a mosaic of two MITLL CCID-34 detectors placed only 1 mm behind the field flattener which also serves as the dewar window, have called for innovative engineering solutions. This paper describes the design and procedure of the field-flattener mounting, differential screw adjustable detector mount and dewar suspension on the external ring providing tip/tilt and focus adjustment.

  18. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M;

    2008-01-01

    the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  19. Classification of articulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, A

    1980-03-01

    A simple classification in familiar terms with definite, clear characteristics can be adopted. This classification system is based on the number of records used and the adjustments necessary for the articulator to accept these records. The classification divides the articulators into nonadjustable, semiadjustable, and fully adjustable articulators (Table I). PMID:6928204

  20. International design project semester: a program to challenge industrial design engineering undergraduates to work and study in teams in both presential and non presential learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Segalàs Coral, Jorge; Benson Murphy, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Since 1991, the Technical University of Catalonia has focussed on introducing Sustainability education in all its engineering and architectural programmes through two environmental plans (1996-2000, 2000-2005), and currently through the UPC Sustainable 2015 [1] plan. Under this framework and following the success of the project programme, European Project Semester (EPS) the School of Engineering of Vilanova i la Geltrú (EPSEVG) has designed and coordinated a new Erasmus mobility ...

  1. Exploring Interdisciplinary Grand Challenges in ICT Design to Support Proactive Health and Wellbeing (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 14272)

    OpenAIRE

    Schraefel, M. C.; Churchill, Elizabeth F.

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant successes in ICT in eHealth. Examples include deploying mobile devices to improve drug adherence, designing Internet services to extend human expert contact, and developing devices and services that encourage engagement in proactive healthcare activities. From an infrastructure perspective, better supply-chain management has reduced healthcare and patient support costs. However, we believe that even greater benefits for improved Quality of Life (QoL) can be re...

  2. Disciplinary and Institutional Perspectives on Open Educational Practice in Art, Design and Media Studies:Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Sarah Anne; Casey, John; Follows, Chris; Mallinder, Stephen; Flint, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    This paper features reflective accounts from teams at two UK universities who are engaged in open education projects supported by national agencies (JISC and the HEA). Art, Design and Media (ADM) studies, by their nature, often feature an emphasis on practical studio and workshop based activities, with a pedagogic culture marked by an emphasis on mentoring, apprenticeship and peer support. In some ways the teaching of ADM subjects can be seen to represent the epitome of the traditional campus...

  3. Pro duct Image Classification Based on Fusion Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hui; LIU Jing-jing; YANG Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Two key challenges raised by a product images classification system are classi-fication precision and classification time. In some categories, classification precision of the latest techniques, in the product images classification system, is still low. In this paper, we propose a local texture descriptor termed fan refined local binary pattern, which captures more detailed information by integrating the spatial distribution into the local binary pattern feature. We compare our approach with different methods on a subset of product images on Amazon/eBay and parts of PI100 and experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed approach is superior to the current existing methods. The highest classification precision is increased by 21%and the average classification time is reduced by 2/3.

  4. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pressler Taylor R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a

  5. A unified Bayesian hierarchical model for MRI tissue classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dai; Liang, Dong; Tierney, Luke

    2014-04-15

    Various works have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue classification extensively to study a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Various noise characteristics and other artifacts make this classification a challenging task. Instead of splitting the procedure into different steps, we extend a previous work to develop a unified Bayesian hierarchical model, which addresses both the partial volume effect and intensity non-uniformity, the two major acquisition artifacts, simultaneously. We adopted a normal mixture model with the means and variances depending on the tissue types of voxels to model the observed intensity values. We modeled the relationship among the components of the index vector of tissue types by a hidden Markov model, which captures the spatial similarity of voxels. Furthermore, we addressed the partial volume effect by construction of a higher resolution image in which each voxel is divided into subvoxels. Finally, We achieved the bias field correction by using a Gaussian Markov random field model with a band precision matrix designed in light of image filtering. Sparse matrix methods and parallel computations based on conditional independence are exploited to improve the speed of the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. The unified model provides more accurate tissue classification results for both simulated and real data sets. PMID:24738112

  6. Energy-Efficient Context Classification With Dynamic Sensor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lawrence K.; Bui, Alex A. T.; Batalin, Maxim A.; Kaiser, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency has been a longstanding design challenge for wearable sensor systems. It is especially crucial in continuous subject state monitoring due to the ongoing need for compact sizes and better sensors. This paper presents an energy-efficient classification algorithm, based on partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). In every time step, POMDP dynamically selects sensors for classification via a sensor selection policy. The sensor selection problem is formalized as an optimization problem, where the objective is to minimize misclassification cost given some energy budget. State transitions are modeled as a hidden Markov model (HMM), and the corresponding sensor selection policy is represented using a finite-state controller (FSC). To evaluate this framework, sensor data were collected from multiple subjects in their free-living conditions. Relative accuracies and energy reductions from the proposed method are compared against naïve Bayes (always-on) and simple random strategies to validate the relative performance of the algorithm. When the objective is to maintain the same classification accuracy, significant energy reduction is achieved. PMID:23852981

  7. Proactive and integrated primary care for frail older people: design and methodological challenges of the Utrecht primary care PROactive frailty intervention trial (U-PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleijenberg Nienke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, primary care for frail older people is reactive, time consuming and does not meet patients' needs. A transition is needed towards proactive and integrated care, so that daily functioning and a good quality of life can be preserved. To work towards these goals, two interventions were developed to enhance the care of frail older patients in general practice: a screening and monitoring intervention using routine healthcare data (U-PRIM and a nurse-led multidisciplinary intervention program (U-CARE. The U-PROFIT trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the U-PROFIT trial design and to discuss methodological issues and challenges. Methods/Design The effectiveness of U-PRIM and U-CARE is being tested in a three-armed, cluster randomized trial in 58 general practices in the Netherlands, with approximately 5000 elderly individuals expected to participate. The primary outcome is the effect on activities of daily living as measured with the Katz ADL index. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, mortality, nursing home admission, emergency department and out-of-hours General Practice (GP, surgery visits, and caregiver burden. Discussion In a large, pragmatic trial conducted in daily clinical practice with frail older patients, several challenges and methodological issues will occur. Recruitment and retention of patients and feasibility of the interventions are important issues. To enable broad generalizability of results, careful choices of the design and outcome measures are required. Taking this into account, the U-PROFIT trial aims to provide robust evidence for a structured and integrated approach to provide care for frail older people in primary care. Trial registration NTR2288

  8. Modern classification of neoplasms: reconciling differences between morphologic and molecular approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 150 years, pathologists have relied on histomorphology to classify and diagnose neoplasms. Their success has been stunning, permitting the accurate diagnosis of thousands of different types of neoplasms using only a microscope and a trained eye. In the past two decades, cancer genomics has challenged the supremacy of histomorphology by identifying genetic alterations shared by morphologically diverse tumors and by finding genetic features that distinguish subgroups of morphologically homogeneous tumors. The Developmental Lineage Classification and Taxonomy of Neoplasms groups neoplasms by their embryologic origin. The putative value of this classification is based on the expectation that tumors of a common developmental lineage will share common metabolic pathways and common responses to drugs that target these pathways. The purpose of this manuscript is to show that grouping tumors according to their developmental lineage can reconcile certain fundamental discrepancies resulting from morphologic and molecular approaches to neoplasm classification. In this study, six issues in tumor classification are described that exemplify the growing rift between morphologic and molecular approaches to tumor classification: 1) the morphologic separation between epithelial and non-epithelial tumors; 2) the grouping of tumors based on shared cellular functions; 3) the distinction between germ cell tumors and pluripotent tumors of non-germ cell origin; 4) the distinction between tumors that have lost their differentiation and tumors that arise from uncommitted stem cells; 5) the molecular properties shared by morphologically disparate tumors that have a common developmental lineage, and 6) the problem of re-classifying morphologically identical but clinically distinct subsets of tumors. The discussion of these issues in the context of describing different methods of tumor classification is intended to underscore the clinical value of a robust tumor classification. A

  9. Challenging design and development of Ma_Miss, a miniaturised spectrometric instrument for Mars sub-soil analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, E.; Coradini, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Capanni, A.; Paolinetti, R.; Re, E.; Magnani, P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies), the miniaturized instrument for spectrometric and stratigraphic analysis of sub-soil developed by SELEX Galileo in the context of ESA ExoMars mission. The Ma_Miss experiment is coordinated by the Principal Investigator Angioletta Coradini (IFSI-INAF, Rome) and is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The exploration of Mars requires a detailed in-situ investigation of the Martian surface and sub-surface. Determining the composition of the Martian subsoil will provide a direct indication of the steps through which the sample material evolved along geological timescales. Ma_Miss is an instrument fully integrated in the Drill system (developed by SELEX Galileo) hosted by a Rover operating on Mars surface; Ma_Miss illuminates the wall of the drill borehole and acquires its reflectance signal in the Visible and Infrared (0.4-2.2 micron) range, analyzes it through a miniaturized spectrometer (20nm spectral resolution), and transmits the digital data to the Rover. The innovative instrument concept was driven by several key needs, related to challenging scientific requirements and extreme environmental constraints. Implementation of the concept has required a deep interdisciplinary concurrent development in order to solve critical aspects of engineering and manufacturing, covering miniaturized monolithic optics and novel concept for fiberoptic connectors capable to automatically mate/de-mate during the robotic assembly of the Drill elements on Mars.

  10. Implementation of an Ebola virus disease vaccine clinical trial during the Ebola epidemic in Liberia: Design, procedures, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen B; Neaton, James D; Lane, H Clifford; Kieh, Mark W S; Massaquoi, Moses B F; Touchette, Nancy A; Nason, Martha C; Follmann, Dean A; Boley, Fatorma K; Johnson, Melvin P; Larson, Gregg; Kateh, Francis N; Nyenswah, Tolbert G

    2016-02-01

    The index case of the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa is believed to have originated in Guinea. By June 2014, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone were in the midst of a full-blown and complex global health emergency. The devastating effects of this Ebola epidemic in West Africa put the global health response in acute focus for urgent international interventions. Accordingly, in October 2014, a World Health Organization high-level meeting endorsed the concept of a phase 2/3 clinical trial in Liberia to study Ebola vaccines. As a follow-up to the global response, in November 2014, the Government of Liberia and the US Government signed an agreement to form a research partnership to investigate Ebola and to assess intervention strategies for treating, controlling, and preventing the disease in Liberia. This agreement led to the establishment of the Joint Liberia-US Partnership for Research on Ebola Virus in Liberia as the beginning of a long-term collaborative partnership in clinical research between the two countries. In this article, we discuss the methodology and related challenges associated with the implementation of the Ebola vaccines clinical trial, based on a double-blinded randomized controlled trial, in Liberia. PMID:26768572

  11. Scalable metagenomic taxonomy classification using a reference genome database

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Sasha K.; Hysom, David A.; Shea N. Gardner; Lloyd, G. Scott; Gokhale, Maya B.; Allen, Jonathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Deep metagenomic sequencing of biological samples has the potential to recover otherwise difficult-to-detect microorganisms and accurately characterize biological samples with limited prior knowledge of sample contents. Existing metagenomic taxonomic classification algorithms, however, do not scale well to analyze large metagenomic datasets, and balancing classification accuracy with computational efficiency presents a fundamental challenge. Results: A method is presented to shift...

  12. Towards automatic classification of all WISE sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kurcz, Agnieszka; Solarz, Aleksandra; Krupa, Magdalena; Pollo, Agnieszka; Małek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The WISE satellite has detected hundreds of millions sources over the entire sky. Classifying them reliably is however a challenging task due to degeneracies in WISE multicolour space and low levels of detection in its two longest-wavelength bandpasses. Here we aim at obtaining comprehensive and reliable star, galaxy and quasar catalogues based on automatic source classification in full-sky WISE data. This means that the final classification will employ only parameters available from WISE itself, in particular those reliably measured for a majority of sources. For the automatic classification we applied the support vector machines (SVM) algorithm, which requires a training sample with relevant classes already identified, and we chose to use the SDSS spectroscopic dataset for that purpose. By calibrating the classifier on the test data drawn from SDSS, we first established that a polynomial kernel is preferred over a radial one for this particular dataset. Next, using three classification parameters (W1 magnit...

  13. A randomised controlled trial on hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: design and methodological challenges (the IMAGINE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flik Carla E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a common gastro-intestinal disorder in primary and secondary care, characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort, altered bowel habits and/or symptoms of bloating and distension. In general the efficacy of drug therapies is poor. Hypnotherapy as well as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and short Psychodynamic Therapy appear to be useful options for patients with refractory IBS in secondary care and are cost-effective, but the evidence is still limited. The IMAGINE-study is therefore designed to assess the overall benefit of hypnotherapy in IBS as well as comparing the efficacy of individual versus group hypnotherapy in treating this condition. Methods/Design The design is a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The study group consists of 354 primary care and secondary care patients (aged 18-65 with IBS (Rome-III criteria. Patients will be randomly allocated to either 6 sessions of individual hypnotherapy, 6 sessions of group hypnotherapy or 6 sessions of educational supportive therapy in a group (placebo, with a follow up of 9 months post treatment for all patients. Ten hospitals and four primary care psychological practices in different parts of The Netherlands will collaborate in this study. The primary efficacy parameter is the responder rate for adequate relief of IBS symptoms. Secondary efficacy parameters are changes in the IBS symptom severity, quality of life, cognitions, psychological complaints, self-efficacy as well as direct and indirect costs of the condition. Hypnotherapy is expected to be more effective than the control therapy, and group hypnotherapy is expected not to be inferior to individual hypnotherapy. Discussion If hypnotherapy is effective and if there is no difference in efficacy between individual and group hypnotherapy, this group form of treatment could be offered to more IBS patients, at lower costs. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN22888906

  14. Classification-based comparison of pre-processing methods for interpretation of mass spectrometry generated clinical datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefsloot Huub CJ; de Koster Chris G; Bleijlevens Boris; van Themaat Emiel; Buist Marrije R; Moerland Perry D; Wegdam Wouter; Aerts Johannes MFG

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mass spectrometry is increasingly being used to discover proteins or protein profiles associated with disease. Experimental design of mass-spectrometry studies has come under close scrutiny and the importance of strict protocols for sample collection is now understood. However, the question of how best to process the large quantities of data generated is still unanswered. Main challenges for the analysis are the choice of proper pre-processing and classification methods. W...

  15. A proposal for a classification of product-related dependencies in development of mechatronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Achiche, Sofiane

    2014-01-01

    When designing mechatronic products ‘complex dependencies’ are often reported to be a major challenge. This paper focuses on managing dependencies between attributes of the product during the design process. The literature study shows that there is a gap in the literature with regards to the...... classification of product-related dependencies. Traditionally these dependencies have been described as appearing between the following product attributes: function, properties and structure. By analysing three mechatronic projects from industry we identified and classified 13 types of product...

  16. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  17. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Design and legal considerations for North American emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When considering a multi-pollutant emissions trading system covering Mexico, the United States and Canada, several issues must be looked at. Such a system would result from the changing environment in the electricity sector. An understanding of the architectural elements involved in the design of an emissions trading regime was the stated goal for the preparation of this working paper. In the event of the implementation of a North American emissions trading system, some potential interface issues resulting from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were identified. An overview of the emissions trading systems currently in place in North America and their results was included in a background paper, as well as a description of architectural elements comprised in the design of an emissions trading system, the implications of cross-border harmonization taking into account environmental integrity and economic efficiency, and potential trade issues. This paper was circulated among a broad section of policy experts in environmental matters, and was then discussed at an informal workshop in December 2001, attended by 25 cross-sectoral experts. The author also identified several areas where further work is required. refs., 2 tabs

  18. Custom design of a hanging cooling water power generating system applied to a sensitive cooling water discharge weir in a seaside power plant: A challenging energy scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an innovative design of hydro-electricity system was applied to an unconventional site in an attempt to generate electricity from the exhaust cooling water of a coal-fired power plant. Inspired by the idea of micro hydro, present study can be considered new in three aspects: design, resource and site. This system was hung at a cooling water discharge weir, where all sorts of civil work were prohibited and sea water was used as the cooling water. It was designed and fabricated in the university's mechanical workshop and transported to the site for installation. The system was then put into proof run for a three-month period and achieved some success. Due to safety reasons, on-site testing was prohibited by the power plant authority. Hence, most data was acquired from the proof run. The driving system efficiency was tested in the range of 25% and 45% experimentally while modeling results came close to experimental results. Payback period for the system is estimated to be about 4.23 years. Result obtained validates the feasibility of the overall design under the sensitive site application. - Highlights: • Challenging energy scheme via a hanging cooling water power generating system. • Driving system efficiency was tested in the range of 25% and 45%. • Payback period for the system is estimated to be about 4.2 years

  19. Evaluating Sex Classifications: The Search for Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marilyn S.

    1974-01-01

    The latest Supreme Court ruling on legislation mandating disparate treatment based on sex has left lower courts facing challenges to such laws as unsure of their analyses as they are confident of their results. Discusses 6 state and federal district court opinions on sex classifications. (Author/PG)

  20. Challenges for the Sequential Interaction Between Optimal Design of Field Campaigns and Model Calibration for Non-Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Stochastic models of sub-surface systems generally suffer from parametric and conceptual uncertainty. To reduce the model uncertainty, model parameters are calibrated using additional collected data. These data often come from costly data acquisition campaigns that need to be optimized to collect the data with the highest data utility (DU) or value of information. In model-based approaches, the DU is evaluated based on the uncertain model itself and is therefore uncertain as well. Additionally, for non-linear models, data utility depends on the yet unobserved measurement values and can only be estimated as an expected value over an assumed distribution of possible measurement values. Both factors introduce uncertainty into the optimization of field campaigns. We propose and investigate a sequential interaction scheme between campaign optimization, data collection and model calibration. The field campaign is split in individual segments. Each segment consists of optimization, segment-wise data collection, and successive model calibration or data assimilation. By doing so, (1) the expected data utility for the newly collected data is replaced by their actual one, (2) the calibration restricts both conceptual and parametric model uncertainty, and thus (3) the distribution of possible future data values for the subsequent campaign segments also changes. Hence, the model to describe the real system improves successively with each collected data segment, and so does the estimate of the yet remaining data requirements to achieve the overall investigation goals. We will show that using the sequentially improved model for the optimal design (OD) of the remaining field campaign leads to superior and more targeted designs.However, this traditional sequential OD optimizes small data segments one-by-one. In such a strategy, possible mutual dependencies with the possible data values and the optimization of data values collection in later segments are neglected. This allows a

  1. A review of wireless-photonic systems: Design methodologies and topologies, constraints, challenges, and innovations in electronics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsaei, Ahmadreza; Wang, Yun; Molavi, Reza; Jayatilleka, Hasitha; Caverley, Michael; Beikahmadi, Mohammad; Masnadi Shirazi, Amir Hossein; Jaeger, Nicolas; Chrostowski, Lukas; Mirabbasi, Shahriar

    2016-08-01

    Photonic networks form the backbone for data communications. In particular, in current and future wireless communication systems, photonic networks are becoming increasingly popular for data distribution between the central office and the remote antenna units at base stations. As wireless-photonic systems become in increasing demand, low-cost implementation of such systems will be desirable. This paper describes how integrated photonics and electronics, on silicon, can be used to design such systems. Various building blocks of such silicon-photonics systems are reviewed. The emphasis is on a 60 GHz wireless system which could be suitable for the emerging 5th-generation (5G) cellular networks. The implementation discussed here uses digital baseband optical transmission as opposed to the radio-over-fibre approach.

  2. Replacement of steam generators for Embalse NGS - the steam generator cartridge design and manufacturing issues, localization and site assembly challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embalse Nuclear Generating Station (Central Nuclear Embalse) was placed in service in 1983 and the outage for refurbishment is foreseen for 2011/2012. Embalse is equipped with four vertical inverted 'U' tube-type Steam Generators (SG) with integral preheater, I-800 tubes and carbon steel internals. Between 2002-2006, the owner assessed the potential for SG life extension; Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) and AECL and a number of actions were completed towards meeting this objective (i.e.: primary divider plate replacement, additional U Bend support and inspection port installation). However, degradation of the tube supports (carbon steel broached plate) and U-bend supports due to Flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) compromised the possibility for life extension of these Steam Generators. This issue, coupled with the plan to increase the plant power output during the life extension of the station, resulted in the strategic decision by NA-SA, to replace the Steam Generators. Several options were considered for SG replacement: In-situ replacement of the SG tube bundle, the original steam drum to be re-used; Removal and replacement of the entire SG (including the steam drum); and, Replacement of the bottom portion of the SG, i.e. the shell, the tube bundle, the tube sheet, the primary head and its internals and the primary nozzles with a factory assembled cartridge (collectively called the 'SG cartridge'). In this option, the original steam drum would be retained for the extended life. The final decision, based on the recommendations from the Life Assessment Study performed during the Pre-project Condition Assessment Process, is to replace only the Steam Generator cartridges. NA-SA requested AECL's support for the preparation of the Technical Specification for the replacement cartridges, allowing for the higher plant output. This paper presents the design basis for the technical requirements covered in the Technical Specification. The specified requirements include

  3. Innovating Web Page Classification Through Reducing Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoli (李晓黎); SHI Zhongzhi(史忠植)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new method that eliminates noise in Web page classification. It first describes the presentation of a Web page based on HTML tags. Then through a novel distance formula, it eliminates the noise in similarity measure. After carefully analyzing Web pages, we design an algorithm that can distinguish related hyperlinks from noisy ones.We can utilize non-noisy hyperlinks to improve the performance of Web page classification (the CAWN algorithm). For any page, wecan classify it through the text and category of neighbor pages related to the page. The experimental results show that our approach improved classification accuracy.

  4. Gender Classification by Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Moallem

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender classification from face images has many applications and is thus an important research topic. This paper presents an approach to gender classification based on shape and texture information gathered to design a fuzzy decision making system. Beside face shape features, Zernik moments are applied as system inputs to improve the system output which is considered as the probability of being male face image. After parameters tuning of the proposed fuzzy decision making system, 85.05% classification rate on the FERET face database (including 1199 individuals from different poses and facial expressions shows acceptable results compare to other methods.

  5. Effects of satellite platform's vibrations on the image quality of a remote sensing payload: system level design and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Javad

    2015-09-01

    Image motion due to satellite platform vibrations often limits the resolution and performance of remote sensing payloads, especially for the missions with high resolution objectives. Vibration blurs the incoming energy and degrades the overall payload's ability to detect the target with proper quality. Effects of Linear and high frequency vibrations on the overall MTF are known exactly in closed-form but the low frequency vibration effect is a random process and must be considered statistically. It should be considered in system level payload design to know whether or not the overall MTF is limited by the vibration blur radius. The maximum resolvable spatial frequency of the camera may be limited by this vibration effects. Here we fully analyzed different vibration effects on the image quality and have specified the allowable image motion. Image motion velocity due to the Earth rotation around its axis and the satellite motion in its orbit considered separately. Degradation in the modulation transfer function due to this kind of movement is calculated to define the required pointing stability of the satellite. In this paper we have considered the effects of a single and double harmonics low frequency vibration on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). Because of its random effects, the majority of this paper deals with the statistical analysis of its blur radius and its consequent MTF budget.

  6. Recursive heuristic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  7. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  8. Multi-engine packet classification hardware accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Alan; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojun; Liu, Bin

    2009-01-01

    As line rates increase, the task of designing high performance architectures with reduced power consumption for the processing of router traffic remains important. In this paper, we present a multi-engine packet classification hardware accelerator, which gives increased performance and reduced power consumption. It follows the basic idea of decision-tree based packet classification algorithms, such as HiCuts and HyperCuts, in which the hyperspace represented by the ruleset is recursively divi...

  9. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neu...

  10. Gender Classification by Fuzzy Inference System

    OpenAIRE

    Payman Moallem; B. Somayeh Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    Gender classification from face images has many applications and is thus an important research topic. This paper presents an approach to gender classification based on shape and texture information gathered to design a fuzzy decision making system. Beside face shape features, Zernik moments are applied as system inputs to improve the system output which is considered as the probability of being male face image. After parameters tuning of the proposed fuzzy decision making system, 85.05% class...

  11. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies...

  12. Classification of Product Requirements Based on Product Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhen Yu; Zeng, Yong

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Effective management of product requirements is critical for designers to deliver a quality design solution in a reasonable range of cost and time. The management depends on a well-defined classification and a flexible representation of product requirements. This article proposes two classification criteria in terms of different partitions of product environment based on a formal structure of produ...

  13. Investigation into the need for ingesting foreign imaging exams into local systems and evaluation of the design challenges of Foreign Exam Management (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Lazar; Agrawal, Arun; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Koff, David

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. Most of these deployments have taken the approach of "sharing" imaging exams via portals and web-based viewers. The motivation of portal/web-based access is driven by a) the perception that review of imaging exams via portal methods is satisfactory to all users and b) the perceived complexity of ingesting foreign exams into local systems. This research project set out to objectively evaluate who really needs foreign exams within their local systems, what those systems might be and how often this is required. Working on the belief that Foreign Exam Management (FEM) is required to support clinical workflow, the project implemented a FEM capability within an XDSI. b domain to identify the design challenges and nuances associated with FEM.

  14. Challenges of Designing a 13-Hz High-Load Vibration Isolation System with Tight Volume Constraints: Lessons Learned and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Stella; Ruebsamen, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a passive isolation system using D-struts (Registered TradeMark) to isolate an optical payload from aircraft-borne jitter with challenging stroke per volume requirements. It discusses the use of viscoelastic-coated D-struts® that meet the customer performance and outgassing specification, NASA-1124. The result was a relatively soft isolation system, (where the first mode was 13 Hz), with each individual strut capable of withstanding loads on the order of magnitude of 623 N (140 lbf), weighing less than 910 g (2 lbm), fitting in a volume 5.1 cm (2 inches) in diameter and 12-cm (4.7-inches) long and capable of performing up to 1000 Hz without nonlinearities.

  15. Efficient Pairwise Multilabel Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Loza Mencía, Eneldo

    2013-01-01

    Multilabel classification learning is the task of learning a mapping between objects and sets of possibly overlapping classes and has gained increasing attention in recent times. A prototypical application scenario for multilabel classification is the assignment of a set of keywords to a document, a frequently encountered problem in the text classification domain. With upcoming Web 2.0 technologies, this domain is extended by a wide range of tag suggestion tasks and the trend definitely...

  16. Efficient multivariate sequence classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuksa, Pavel P.

    2014-01-01

    Kernel-based approaches for sequence classification have been successfully applied to a variety of domains, including the text categorization, image classification, speech analysis, biological sequence analysis, time series and music classification, where they show some of the most accurate results. Typical kernel functions for sequences in these domains (e.g., bag-of-words, mismatch, or subsequence kernels) are restricted to {\\em discrete univariate} (i.e. one-dimensional) string data, such ...

  17. Aspects de la classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mari, Jean-François; Napoli, Amedeo

    1996-01-01

    Les techniques de classification numérique ont toujours été présentes en reconnaissance des formes. Les réseaux de neurones montrent chaque jour leurs (très ?) bonnes propriétés de classification, et la classification se fait de plus en plus présente en représentation des connaissances. Ainsi, ce rapport présente, simplement dans un but introductif, les aspects mathématiques, statistiques, neuromimétiques et cognitifs de la classification.

  18. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  19. Employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to capture user feedback in the design and testing stage of development of home-based arm rehabilitation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andrew; O'Connor, Rory; Levesley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework to ensure that key aspects of user feedback are identified in the design and testing stages of development of a home-based upper limb rehabilitation system. Seventeen stroke survivors with residual upper limb weakness, and seven healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation, were enrolled in the user-centered design process. Through semi-structured interviews, they provided feedback on the hardware, software and impact of a home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. Members of the multidisciplinary clinical and engineering research team, based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centred design, developed the topic list for the interviews. Meaningful concepts were extracted from participants' interviews based on existing ICF linking rules and matched to categories within the ICF Comprehensive Core Set for stroke. Most of the interview concepts (except personal factors) matched the existing ICF Comprehensive Core Set categories. Personal factors that emerged from interviews e.g. gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorised within the ICF framework and hence could not be matched to a specific Core Set category. PMID:26852630

  20. Design challenges of EO polymer based leaky waveguide deflector for 40 Gs/s all-optical analog-to-digital converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjloum, Massinissa; El Gibari, Mohammed; Li, Hongwu; Daryoush, Afshin S.

    2016-08-01

    Design challenges and performance optimization of an all-optical analog-to-digital converter (AOADC) is presented here. The paper addresses both microwave and optical design of a leaky waveguide optical deflector using electro-optic (E-O) polymer. The optical deflector converts magnitude variation of the applied RF voltage into variation of deflection angle out of a leaky waveguide optical beam using the linear E-O effect (Pockels effect) as part of the E-O polymer based optical waveguide. This variation of deflection angle as result of the applied RF signal is then quantized using optical windows followed by an array of high-speed photodetectors. We optimized the leakage coefficient of the leaky waveguide and its physical length to achieve the best trade-off between bandwidth and the deflected optical beam resolution, by improving the phase velocity matching between lightwave and microwave on one hand and using pre-emphasis technique to compensate for the RF signal attenuation on the other hand. In addition, for ease of access from both optical and RF perspective, a via-hole less broad bandwidth transition is designed between coplanar pads and coupled microstrip (CPW-CMS) driving electrodes. With the best reported E-O coefficient of 350 pm/V, the designed E-O deflector should allow an AOADC operating over 44 giga-samples-per-seconds with an estimated effective resolution of 6.5 bits on RF signals with Nyquist bandwidth of 22 GHz. The overall DC power consumption of all components used in this AOADC is of order of 4 W and is dominated by power consumption in the power amplifier to generate a 20 V RF voltage in 50 Ohm system. A higher sampling rate can be achieved at similar bits of resolution by interleaving a number of this elementary AOADC at the expense of a higher power consumption.

  1. A MapReduce based Parallel SVM for Email Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Support Vector Machine (SVM is a powerful classification and regression tool. Varying approaches including SVM based techniques are proposed for email classification. Automated email classification according to messages or user-specific folders and information extraction from chronologically ordered email streams have become interesting areas in text machine learning research. This paper presents a parallel SVM based on MapReduce (PSMR algorithm for email classification. We discuss the challenges that arise from differences between email foldering and traditional document classification. We show experimental results from an array of automated classification methods and evaluation methodologies, including Naive Bayes, SVM and PSMR method of foldering results on the Enron datasets based on the timeline. By distributing, processing and optimizing the subsets of the training data across multiple participating nodes, the parallel SVM based on MapReduce algorithm reduces the training time significantly

  2. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy. Phylogenetic Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works. 1 Why phylogenetic tools in astrophysics? 1.1 History of classification The need for classifying living organisms is very ancient, and the first classification system can be dated back to the Greeks. The goal was very practical since it was intended to distinguish between eatable and toxic aliments, or kind and dangerous animals. Simple resemblance was used and has been used for centuries. Basically, until the XVIIIth...

  3. An Assessment of Case Base Reasoning for Short Text Message Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Matt, (Thesis); Delany, Sarah Jane; Zamolotskikh, Anton

    2004-01-01

    Message classification is a text classification task that has provoked much interest in machine learning. One aspect of message classification that presents a particular challenge is the classification of short text messages. This paper presents an assessment of applying a case based approach that was developed for long text messages (specifically spam filtering) to short text messages. The evaluation involves determining the most appropriate feature types and feature representation for short...

  4. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  5. Musings on galaxy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification schemes and their utility are discussed with a number of examples, particularly for cD galaxies. Data suggest that primordial turbulence rather than tidal torques is responsible for most of the presently observed angular momentum of galaxies. Finally, some of the limitations on present-day schemes for galaxy classification are pointed out. 54 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  6. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  7. Classification and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least nine classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (PsA that have been proposed and used in clinical studies. With the exception of the ESSG and Bennett rules, all of the other criteria sets have a good performance in identifying PsA patients. As the CASPAR criteria are based on a robust study methodology, they are considered the current reference standard. However, if there seems to be no doubt that they are very good to classify PsA patients (very high specificity, they might be not sensitive enough to diagnose patients with unknown early PsA. The vast clinical heterogeneity of PsA makes its assessment very challenging. Peripheral joint involvement is measured by 78/76 joint counts, spine involvement by the instruments used for ankylosing spondylitis (AS, dactylitis by involved digit count or by the Leeds dactylitis index, enthesitis by the number of affected entheses (several indices available and psoriasis by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Peripheral joint damage can be assessed by a modified van der Heijde-Sharp scoring system and axial damage by the methods used for AS or by the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI. As in other arthritides, global evaluation of disease activity and severity by patient and physician and assessment of disability and quality of life are widely used. Finally, composite indices that capture several clinical manifestations of PsA have been proposed and a new instrument, the Psoriatic ARthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS, is currently being developed.

  8. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Summary form only given. Embedded systems are everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded systems. Over 99% of the microprocessors produced today are used in embedded systems, and recently the number of embedded systems...

  9. Comunidades virtuales, grupos y proyectos de investigación sobre ims learning design. Status quo, factores clave y retos inmediatos [Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burgos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We carry out a report showing the state of the art about virtual communities, research groups and projects focused on the e-learning specification IMS Learning Design or directly related to it. This specification is currently becoming the most flexible and supported de facto standard for modelling full learning processes, as a complement for any structure of educational contents. Afterwards, as a consequence of the previous study, we develop a reading and a further analysis of the current panorama, and describe the key factors that show the relevance and impact of IMS Learning Design and also the main forthcoming challenges. Realizamos una descripción del estado del arte sobre las comunidades virtuales, los grupos de trabajo y los proyectos de investigación centrados en la especificación de e-learning IMS Learning Design o desarrollados en torno a ella. Esta especificación se está convirtiendo de facto en el estándar más versátil y respaldado para modelar procesos completos de aprendizaje como complemento de estructuras de contenidos educativos. Posteriormente, y como consecuencia del estudio, desarrollamos un análisis y lectura del panorama actual con una indicación de los factores clave que muestran su impacto y relevancia y los principales retos a abordar en un futuro inmediato.

  10. Brain Decoding-Classification of Hand Written Digits from fMRI Data Employing Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargholi, Elahe'; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali

    2016-01-01

    We are frequently exposed to hand written digits 0–9 in today's modern life. Success in decoding-classification of hand written digits helps us understand the corresponding brain mechanisms and processes and assists seriously in designing more efficient brain–computer interfaces. However, all digits belong to the same semantic category and similarity in appearance of hand written digits makes this decoding-classification a challenging problem. In present study, for the first time, augmented naïve Bayes classifier is used for classification of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements to decode the hand written digits which took advantage of brain connectivity information in decoding-classification. fMRI was recorded from three healthy participants, with an age range of 25–30. Results in different brain lobes (frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal) show that utilizing connectivity information significantly improves decoding-classification and capability of different brain lobes in decoding-classification of hand written digits were compared to each other. In addition, in each lobe the most contributing areas and brain connectivities were determined and connectivities with short distances between their endpoints were recognized to be more efficient. Moreover, data driven method was applied to investigate the similarity of brain areas in responding to stimuli and this revealed both similarly active areas and active mechanisms during this experiment. Interesting finding was that during the experiment of watching hand written digits, there were some active networks (visual, working memory, motor, and language processing), but the most relevant one to the task was language processing network according to the voxel selection. PMID:27468261

  11. Understanding the fabric of protein crystals: computational classification of biological interfaces and crystal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Guido; Duarte, Jose M; Baskaran, Kumaran; Bliven, Spencer; Somody, Joseph C

    2016-02-15

    Modern structural biology still draws the vast majority of information from crystallography, a technique where the objects being investigated are embedded in a crystal lattice. Given the complexity and variety of those objects, it becomes fundamental to computationally assess which of the interfaces in the lattice are biologically relevant and which are simply crystal contacts. Since the mid-1990s, several approaches have been applied to obtain high-accuracy classification of crystal contacts and biological protein-protein interfaces. This review provides an overview of the concepts and main approaches to protein interface classification: thermodynamic estimation of interface stability, evolutionary approaches based on conservation of interface residues, and co-occurrence of the interface across different crystal forms. Among the three categories, evolutionary approaches offer the strongest promise for improvement, thanks to the incessant growth in sequence knowledge. Importantly, protein interface classification algorithms can also be used on multimeric structures obtained using other high-resolution techniques or for protein assembly design or validation purposes. A key issue linked to protein interface classification is the identification of the biological assembly of a crystal structure and the analysis of its symmetry. Here, we highlight the most important concepts and problems to be overcome in assembly prediction. Over the next few years, tools and concepts of interface classification will probably become more frequently used and integrated in several areas of structural biology and structural bioinformatics. Among the main challenges for the future are better addressing of weak interfaces and the application of interface classification concepts to prediction problems like protein-protein docking. PMID:26508758

  12. Classification of hydrological parameter sensitivity and evaluation of parameter transferability across 431 US MOPEX basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huiying; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Sun, Yu; Tesfa, Teklu; Ruby Leung, L.

    2016-05-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) represents physical, chemical, and biological processes of the terrestrial ecosystems that interact with climate across a range of spatial and temporal scales. As CLM includes numerous sub-models and associated parameters, the high-dimensional parameter space presents a formidable challenge for quantifying uncertainty and improving Earth system predictions needed to assess environmental changes and risks. This study aims to evaluate the potential of transferring hydrologic model parameters in CLM through sensitivity analyses and classification across watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) in the United States. The sensitivity of CLM-simulated water and energy fluxes to hydrological parameters across 431 MOPEX basins are first examined using an efficient stochastic sampling-based sensitivity analysis approach. Linear, interaction, and high-order nonlinear impacts are all identified via statistical tests and stepwise backward removal parameter screening. The basins are then classified according to their parameter sensitivity patterns (internal attributes), as well as their hydrologic indices/attributes (external hydrologic factors) separately, using Principal component analysis (PCA) and expectation-maximization (EM) - based clustering approach. Similarities and differences among the parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class), the hydrologic indices-based classification (H-Class), and the Koppen climate classification systems (K-Class) are discussed. Within each parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class) with similar parameter sensitivity characteristics, similar inversion modeling setups can be used for parameter calibration, and the parameters and their contribution or significance to water and energy cycling may also be more transferrable. This classification study provides guidance on identifiable parameters, and on parameterization and inverse model design for CLM but the

  13. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; SwanII, J. Edward [Mississippi State University (MSU); Fitzpatrick, Patrick J. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Jankun-Kelly, T.J. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  14. Compressive image acquisition and classification via secant projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given its importance in a wide variety of machine vision applications, extending high-speed object detection and recognition beyond the visible spectrum in a cost-effective manner presents a significant technological challenge. As a step in this direction, we developed a novel approach for target image classification using a compressive sensing architecture. Here we report the first implementation of this approach utilizing the compressive single-pixel camera system. The core of our approach rests on the design of new measurement patterns, or projections, that are tuned to objects of interest. Our measurement patterns are based on the notion of secant projections of image classes that are constructed using two different approaches. Both approaches show at least a twofold improvement in terms of the number of measurements over the conventional, data-oblivious compressive matched filter. As more noise is added to the image, the second method proves to be the most robust. (paper)

  15. Supervised Material Classification in Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Gabor Filter Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael L.

    RIT's Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool allows modeling of real world scenes to create synthetic imagery for sensor design and analysis, trade studies, algorithm validation, and training image analysts. To increase model construction speed, and the diversity and size of synthetic scenes which can be generated it is desirable to automatically segment real world imagery into different material types and import a material classmap into DIRSIG. This work contributes a methodology based on standard texture recognition techniques to supervised classification of material types in oblique aerial imagery. Oblique imagery provides many challenges for texture recognition due to illumination changes with view angle, projective distortions, occlusions and self shadowing. It is shown that features derived from a set of rotationally invariant bandpass filters fused with color channel information can provide supervised classification accuracies up to 70% with minimal training data.

  16. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases the...... classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  17. Small Sample Issues for Microarray-Based Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the molecular biological differences between normal and diseased tissues, it is desirable to perform classification among diseases and stages of disease using microarray-based gene-expression values. Owing to the limited number of microarrays typically used in these studies, serious issues arise with respect to the design, performance and analysis of classifiers based on microarray data. This paper reviews some fundamental issues facing small-sample classification: classific...

  18. Cancer classification in the genomic era: five contemporary problems

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Qingxuan; Merajver, Sofia D.; Li, Jun Z.

    2015-01-01

    Classification is an everyday instinct as well as a full-fledged scientific discipline. Throughout the history of medicine, disease classification is central to how we develop knowledge, make diagnosis, and assign treatment. Here, we discuss the classification of cancer and the process of categorizing cancer subtypes based on their observed clinical and biological features. Traditionally, cancer nomenclature is primarily based on organ location, e.g., “lung cancer” designates a tumor originat...

  19. Augmented reality as a design tool for mobile interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Nielsen, Christina

    2000-01-01

    This paper challenges user interface paradigms for mobile devices, by using the technical classification of augmented reality interfaces as a thinking tool to develop ideas for interaction with mobile devices. The paper presents future work scenarios from a wastewater treatment plant embodying PDA...... applications derived from the classification of augmented reality interfaces. The focus on physical interaction with objects of work and with the mobile device provides us with a range of interaction styles, based on e.g. gestures and manipulation of objects. Furthermore, issues of transparency and directness...... are addressed. The future scenarios indicate that the concepts of augmented reality support solving context problems in mobile design....

  20. Classification of Error-Diffused Halftone Images Based on Spectral Regression Kernel Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigao Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel algorithm to solve the challenging problem of classifying error-diffused halftone images. We firstly design the class feature matrices, after extracting the image patches according to their statistics characteristics, to classify the error-diffused halftone images. Then, the spectral regression kernel discriminant analysis is used for feature dimension reduction. The error-diffused halftone images are finally classified using an idea similar to the nearest centroids classifier. As demonstrated by the experimental results, our method is fast and can achieve a high classification accuracy rate with an added benefit of robustness in tackling noise.

  1. SOC中Data-Path布图设计面临的挑战%Challenges to Data-Path Physical Design Inside SOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    经彤; 洪先龙; 蔡懿慈; 许静宇; 杨长旗; 张轶谦; 周强; 吴为民

    2002-01-01

    目前所设计的系统级芯片(SOC)包含有多个data-path模块,这使得data-path成为整个G大规模集成电路(GSI)设计中最关键的部分.以往的布图理论及算法在许多方面已不能满足data-path布图设计的需要,这主要是由于传统的布图工具没有考虑data-path所特有的电路结构特点.Data-path具有规整的位片结构,具有很高的性能指标要求,如对于时延、耦合效应和串扰等性能都有严格的要求.此外,data-path中还存在大量成束状结构的BUS线网.文中提出了data-path布图设计所面临的挑战.从介绍data-path布图的基本问题入手,重点分析了data-path布图设计中的关键技术,并在讨论已有研究工作的基础上针对不同的布图阶段提出了可行的技术路线与设想.%Previously,a single data-path stack was adequate for data-path chips,and the complexity and size of the data-path was comparatively small.As current data-path chips,such as system-on-a-chip (SOC),become more complex,multiple data-path stacks are required to implement the entire data-path.As more data-path stacks are integrated into SOC,data-path is becoming a critical part of the whole giga-scale integrated circuits (GSI) design.The traditional physical design methodology can not satisfy the data-path performance requirements,because it can not accommodate the data-path bit-sliced structure and the strict performance (such as timing,coupling,and crosstalk) constraints.Challenges in the data-path physical design are addressed.The fundamental problems and key technologies in data-path physical design are analysed.The corresponding researches and solutions in this research field are also discussed.

  2. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U.

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classif...

  3. Chemical Classification of Space Debris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunlai; ZUO Wei; LIU Jianjun; OUYANG Ziyuan

    2004-01-01

    Space debris, here referring to all non-operating orbital objects, has steadily increased in number so that it has become a potential barrier to the exploration of space. The ever-increasing number of space debris pieces in space has created an increasingly threatening hazard to all on-the-orbit spacecraft, and all future space exploration activities have to be designed and operated with respect to the increasing threat posed by space debris. Generally, space debris is classified as large, medium and small debris pieces based on their sizes. The large debris piece is easily catalogued, but medium to small debris pieces are very difficult to track and also quite different in damage mechanisms from the large ones. In this paper, a scheme of chemical classification of space debris is developed. In our scheme, the first-order classification is employed to divide space debris into two groups: natural micrometeoroids and artificial space debris.The second-order classification is based on their chemical patterns and compositions. The natural micrometeoroids are further divided into three types, namely maric, metal and phyllosilicate micrometeorites, while the artificial space debris is divided into seven types, which are polymers, non-metal debris, metals and their alloys, oxides, sulphides and their analogs, halides and carbides. Of the latter seven types, some can also be further divided into several sub-types. Chemical classification of space debris is very useful for the study of the chemical damage mechanism of small debris pieces, and also is of great significance in constraining the origin and source of space debris and assessing their impact on spacecraft and human space activities.

  4. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnadottir, H.; Hilding-Rydevik, T. [Nordregio, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented

  5. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented. Our perception of

  6. Photometric Supernova Classification with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Michelle; McEwen, Jason D.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K.

    2016-08-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  7. Development and validation of a computerized algorithm for International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walden, K; Bélanger, L M; Biering-Sørensen, F;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Validation study. OBJECTIVES: To describe the development and validation of a computerized application of the international standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury (ISNCSCI). SETTING: Data from acute and rehabilitation care. METHODS: The Rick Hansen Institute......-ISNCSCI Algorithm (RHI-ISNCSCI Algorithm) was developed based on the 2011 version of the ISNCSCI and the 2013 version of the worksheet. International experts developed the design and logic with a focus on usability and features to standardize the correct classification of challenging cases. A five-phased process...... was used to develop and validate the algorithm. Discrepancies between the clinician-derived and algorithm-calculated results were reconciled. RESULTS: Phase one of the validation used 48 cases to develop the logic. Phase three used these and 15 additional cases for further logic development to...

  8. Module-Based Breast Cancer Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuji; Xuan, Jianhua; Clarke, Robert; Ressom, Habtom W

    2013-01-01

    The reliability and reproducibility of gene biomarkers for classification of cancer patients has been challenged due to measurement noise and biological heterogeneity among patients. In this paper, we propose a novel module-based feature selection framework, which integrates biological network information and gene expression data to identify biomarkers not as individual genes but as functional modules. Results from four breast cancer studies demonstrate that the identified module biomarkers i...

  9. Classification of Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Messai, Mohamed-Lamine

    2014-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), security has a vital importance. Recently, there was a huge interest to propose security solutions in WSNs because of their applications in both civilian and military domains. Adversaries can launch different types of attacks, and cryptography is used to countering these attacks. This paper presents challenges of security and a classification of the different possible attacks in WSNs. The problems of security in each layer of the network's OSI model are dis...

  10. Arabic Document Classification Using Multiword Features

    OpenAIRE

    Diab Abuaiadah

    2013-01-01

    Weinvestigate the use of multiword features to improve Arabic document classification. The Arabic language is both morphologically rich and highly inflected. Accordingly it presents more challenges when enhancing Arabic information retrieval to a level comparable to English. The multiword features are modeled as a combination of words appearing within windows of varying sizes. Our experiments show multiword features combined with dice similarity distance outperform the cosine similarity funct...

  11. Nonparametric Transient Classification using Adaptive Wavelets

    OpenAIRE

    Varughese, Melvin; von Sachs, Rainer; Stephanou, Michael; Bassett, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Classifying transients based on the multi band light curves is a challenging but crucial problem in the era of GAIA and LSST since the sheer volume of transients will make spectroscopic classification unfeasible. Here we present a nonparametric classier that uses the transient's light curve measurements to predict its class given training data. It implements two novel components: the first is the use of the BAGIDIS wavelet methodology - a method of characterizing functional data using hierarc...

  12. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  13. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    detection in a cardiovascular disease study. The third focus is to deepen the understanding of classification mechanism by visualizing the knowledge learned by a classifier. More specifically, to build the most typical patterns recognized by the Fisher's linear discriminant rule with applications......Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition......, a good metric is required to measure distance or similarity between feature points so that the classification becomes feasible. Furthermore, in order to build a successful classifier, one needs to deeply understand how classifiers work. This thesis focuses on these three aspects of classification...

  14. A novel pattern classification scheme using the Baker's map

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Alan; Keating, John; Shorten, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel application of nonlinear systems in the design of pattern classification systems. We show that pattern classification systems can be designed based upon training algorithms designed to control the qualitative behaviour of a nonlinear system. Our paradigm is illustrated by means of a simple chaotic system-the Baker's map. Algorithms for training the system are presented and examples are given to illustrate the operation and learning of the system for pattern classificati...

  15. Design of war materials management system of classification and transport%战备物资分类转运体系的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍; 张鹏; 荆斌; 周双勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To design a war preparedness warehouse management and distribution system, speeding up emergency aid distribution, transport efficiency and reduceing emergency response time. Method: Combine warehouse, RFID management systems with industrial automation network technology, signals collectted by computer control system is send and received, which aims to control the transportation and distribution by computer terminal. Results: This system's intelligent analysis of the collected signal can improve the diagnostic rate of related diseases. Conclusion: This system has low investment, high efficiency, which provides a new way of thinking to the transport of war materials and management.%目的:设计一种战备库房仓储管理及分发系统,加快急救物资发放、转运效率,缩短应急响应时间。方法:把立体仓库、RFID管理系统、自动化工控网络技术结合起来,由计算机系统将采集到的控制信号进行发送和接收,由计算机终端进行物资转运控制。结果:本系统实现了采集信号的智能分析,提高了物资调配的效率。结论:本系统具有投资小、效率高的特点,为战备物资的转运及管理提供一种新的思路。

  16. Inhibition in multiclass classification

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Ramón; Vembu, Shankar; Amigó, José M.; Nowotny, Thomas; Elkan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The role of inhibition is investigated in a multiclass support vector machine formalism inspired by the brain structure of insects. The so-called mushroom bodies have a set of output neurons, or classification functions, that compete with each other to encode a particular input. Strongly active output neurons depress or inhibit the remaining outputs without knowing which is correct or incorrect. Accordingly, we propose to use a classification function that embodies unselective inhibition and ...

  17. Multiple sparse representations classification

    OpenAIRE

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan; Niessen, Wiro; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small...

  18. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surro...

  19. Twitter content classification

    OpenAIRE

    Dann, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper delivers a new Twitter content classification framework based sixteen existing Twitter studies and a grounded theory analysis of a personal Twitter history. It expands the existing understanding of Twitter as a multifunction tool for personal, profession, commercial and phatic communications with a split level classification scheme that offers broad categorization and specific sub categories for deeper insight into the real world application of the service.

  20. Text classification method review

    OpenAIRE

    Mahinovs, Aigars; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Roy, Rajkumar; Baxter, David

    2007-01-01

    With the explosion of information fuelled by the growth of the World Wide Web it is no longer feasible for a human observer to understand all the data coming in or even classify it into categories. With this growth of information and simultaneous growth of available computing power automatic classification of data, particularly textual data, gains increasingly high importance. This paper provides a review of generic text classification process, phases of that process and met...