WorldWideScience

Sample records for classification design challenges

  1. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification challenges. 9.8 Section 9.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.8 Classification... classification status is improper are expected and encouraged to challenge the classification status of...

  2. 49 CFR 8.17 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification challenges. 8.17 Section 8.17 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CLASSIFIED INFORMATION: CLASSIFICATION/DECLASSIFICATION/ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.17 Classification challenges. (a)...

  3. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 CFR 7.31. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of...

  4. 28 CFR 17.30 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 17.30 Section 17.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND... DRC shall redact the identity of an individual challenging a classification under paragraph (a)...

  5. The Backpack Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Something as simple as carrying books to school can be an interesting design challenge for students. It's an old problem that gets reinvented from time to time. In this article, the author discusses a backpack design challenge in which teachers work with students to design another way to carry books to school. The challenge started by trying to…

  6. Tornado design classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for identifying those structures, systems, and components of light-water-cooled reactors that should be designed to withstand the effects of the Design Basis Tornado (see Regulatory Guide 1.76, ''Design Basis Tornado for Nuclear Power Plants''), including tornado missiles, and remain functional

  7. Results from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Richard; Belov, Pavel; Bhatnagar, Vasudha; Campbell, Heather; Conley, Alex; Frieman, Joshua A; Glazov, Alexandre; Hlozek, Santiago Gonzalez-Gaitan Renee; Jha, Saurabh; Kuhlmann, Stephen; Kunz, Martin; Lampeitl, Hubert; Mahabal, Ashish; Newling, James; Nichol, Robert C; Parkinson, David; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Poznanski, Dovi; Richards, Joseph W; Rodney, Steven A; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Varughese, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge (SNPCC), a publicly released mix of simulated SNe, with types (Ia, Ibc, II) selected in proportion to their expected rate. The simulation was realized in the griz filters of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with realistic observing conditions (sky noise, point spread function and atmospheric transparency) based on years of recorded conditions at the DES site. Simulations of non-Ia type SNe are based on spectroscopically confirmed light curves that include unpublished non-Ia samples donated from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP), the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II). A spectroscopically confirmed subset was provided for training. We challenged scientists to run their classification algorithms and report a type and photo-z for each SN. Participants from 10 groups contributed 13 entries for the sample that included a host galaxy photo-z for each SN, and 9 entries for the sample that had no redshi...

  8. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA’s limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  9. Challenges for the present CKD classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review In 2002 the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) organization published a guideline on chronic kidney disease (CKD), which contained a classification system for CKD severity, independent of cause. This classification system was immediately widely embraced. However, s

  10. Design evaluaion: pneumatic transport and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the evaluation of selected design features of the cold engineering scale pneumatic transport and classification subsystems used in the development of the head-end equipment for HTGR fuel reprocessing. The report identifies areas that require further design effort and evaluation of alternatives prior to the design of the HTGR reference recycle facility (HRRF). Seven areas in the transport subsystem and three in the classification subsystem were selected for evaluation. Seventeen specific recommendations are presented for further design effort

  11. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  12. Design of a robust EMG sensing interface for pattern classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Yan L.; He, Haibo

    2010-10-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) pattern classification has been widely investigated for neural control of external devices in order to assist with movements of patients with motor deficits. Classification performance deteriorates due to inevitable disturbances to the sensor interface, which significantly challenges the clinical value of this technique. This study aimed to design a sensor fault detection (SFD) module in the sensor interface to provide reliable EMG pattern classification. This module monitored the recorded signals from individual EMG electrodes and performed a self-recovery strategy to recover the classification performance when one or more sensors were disturbed. To evaluate this design, we applied synthetic disturbances to EMG signals collected from leg muscles of able-bodied subjects and a subject with a transfemoral amputation and compared the accuracies for classifying transitions between different locomotion modes with and without the SFD module. The results showed that the SFD module maintained classification performance when one signal was distorted and recovered about 20% of classification accuracy when four signals were distorted simultaneously. The method was simple to implement. Additionally, these outcomes were observed for all subjects, including the leg amputee, which implies the promise of the designed sensor interface for providing a reliable neural-machine interface for artificial legs.

  13. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane;

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a systematic and thorough survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order...... to investigate if the challenges can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during...

  14. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF CRYOSOLS: SIGNIFICANCE,ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; GONG Zi-tong; CHEN Zhi-cheng; TAN Man-zhi

    2003-01-01

    International concerns about the effects of global change on permafrost-affected soils and responses of permafrost terrestrial landscapes to such change have been increasing in the last two decades. To achieve a variety of goals including the determining of soil carbon stocks and dynamics in the Northern Hemisphere, the understanding of soil degradation and the best ways to protect the fragile ecosystems in permafrost environment, further study development on Cryosol classification is being in great demand. In this paper the existing Cryosol classifications contained in three representative soil taxonomies are introduced, and the problems in the practical application of the defining criteria used for category differentiation in these taxonomic systems are discussed. Meanwhile, the resumption and reconstruction of Chinese Cryosol classification within a taxonomic frame is proposed. In dealing with Cryosol classification the advantages that Chinese pedologists have and the challenges that they have to face are analyzed. Finally, several suggestions on the study development of the further taxonomic frame of Cryosol classification are put forward.

  16. Challenges of aircraft design integration

    OpenAIRE

    Kafyeke, F.; Abdo, M.; Pepin, F; Piperni, P.; Laurendeau, E.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a modern airplane brings together many disciplines: structures, aerodynamics, controls, systems, propulsion with complex interdependencies and many variables. Recent aircraft programs, such as Bombardier's Continental Jet program use participants located around the world and selected for their cost, quality and delivery capability. These participants share the risk on the program and must therefore be fully implicated in the design. A big challenge is to provide information on c...

  17. New challenges for data design

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides a platform for leading data designers whose vision and creativity help us to anticipate major changes occurring in the data design field, and pre-empt the future. Each of them strives to provide new answers to the question, “What challenges await data design?” To avoid falling into too narrow a mind-set, each works hard to elucidate the breadth of data design today and to demonstrate its widespread application across a variety of business sectors. With end users in mind, designer-contributors bring to light the myriad of purposes for which the field was originally intended, forging the bond even further between data design and the aims and intentions of those who contribute to it. The first seven parts of the book outline the scope of data design, and presents a line-up of “viewpoints” that highlight this discipline’s main topics, and offers an in-depth look into practices boasting both foresight and imagination. The eighth and final part features a series of interviews wit...

  18. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  19. Gender classification from video under challenging operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Schrock, Olga; Dong, Guozhu

    2014-06-01

    The literature is abundant with papers on gender classification research. However the majority of such research is based on the assumption that there is enough resolution so that the subject's face can be resolved. Hence the majority of the research is actually in the face recognition and facial feature area. A gap exists for gender classification under challenging operating conditions—different seasonal conditions, different clothing, etc.—and when the subject's face cannot be resolved due to lack of resolution. The Seasonal Weather and Gender (SWAG) Database is a novel database that contains subjects walking through a scene under operating conditions that span a calendar year. This paper exploits a subset of that database—the SWAG One dataset—using data mining techniques, traditional classifiers (ex. Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, etc.) and traditional (canny edge detection, etc.) and non-traditional (height/width ratios, etc.) feature extractors to achieve high correct gender classification rates (greater than 85%). Another novelty includes exploiting frame differentials.

  20. Power-Efficient Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrle, Barry

    significant gains can be realized and why power-efficiency requirements will continue to challenge designers into the future. Despite new process technologies, the future will continue to rely on innovative design approaches.

  1. 17 CFR 200.509 - Challenge to classification by Commission employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Challenge to classification by... COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.509 Challenge to classification by...

  2. Multiverse Scenarios in Cosmology: Classification, Cause, Challenge, Controversy, and Criticism

    CERN Document Server

    Vaas, Ruediger

    2010-01-01

    Multiverse scenarios in cosmology assume that other universes exist "beyond" our own universe. They are an exciting challenge both for empirical and theoretical research as well as for philosophy of science. They could be necessary to understand why the big bang occurred, why (some of) the laws of nature and the values of certain physical constants are the way they are, and why there is an arrow of time. This essay clarifies competing notions of "universe" and "multiverse"; it proposes a classification of different multiverse types according to various aspects how the universes are or are not separated from each other; it reviews the main reasons for assuming the existence of other universes: empirical evidence, theoretical explanation, and philosophical arguments; and, finally, it argues that some attempts to criticize multiverse scenarios as "unscientific", insisting on a narrow understanding of falsification, is neither appropriate nor convincing from a philosophy of science point of view. -- Keywords: big...

  3. Towards a unified classification of the ectodermal dysplasias: opportunities outweigh challenges.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irvine, Alan D

    2012-02-01

    The ectodermal dysplasias include a complex and highly diverse group of heritable disorders that share in common developmental abnormalities of ectodermal derivatives. The broader definition of ectodermal dysplasias (as heritable disorders involving at least two of the ectodermal derivatives nails, teeth, hair, and eccrine sweat glands) encompasses 170-200 conditions. Some conditions included by this definition are relatively common; others are rare and, in some cases, family-specific. Classification of the ectodermal dysplasias has largely been approached by categorizing patterns of clinical findings (phenotypic grouping). In the last 2 decades great progress has been made in understanding the molecular pathogenesis and inter-relatedness of some of these conditions and a new consensus approach to classification that incorporates this new information is needed. A comprehensive and definitive classification of these disorders would be highly valuable for the many stakeholders in ED. As disease-specific molecular treatments are developed, accurate classification will assume greater importance in designing registries to enable rapid identification of those with rare disorders who may wish to participate in clinical trials. Ideally a working classification of such a disparate collection of conditions would have a design and architecture that would facilitate easy accessibility by each of the key stakeholder groups and would encourage enhanced interaction between these parties. Attaining this objective is a major challenge but is achievable. This article reviews the historical-clinical perspective and the impact of recent developments in molecular biology in the field. Reflections are offered as to the future direction of classification systems in these disorders.

  4. Designing a Classification System for Internet Offenders: Doing Cognitive Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…

  5. Rock mass classification and tunnel support design in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wangh, SJ; Lee, CF; Kwong, AKL

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the two recently established rock mass classification systems in China, namely the Basic Quality (BQ) and Host Rock Rating (HRR) systems. The establishment of the BQ and HRR rock mass classification systems in China is based on huge amount of experiences gathered in the design stages and later verified in the construction of rock tunnels and underground structures in China. The BQ system was originally used for classification ...

  6. The embedded systems design challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Henzinger, T. A.; Sifakis, J

    2006-01-01

    We summarize some current trends in embedded systems design and point out some of their characteristics, such as the chasm between analytical and computational models, and the gap between safety-critical and best-effort engineering practices. We call for a coherent scientific foundation for embedded systems design, and we discuss a few key demands on such a foundation: the need for encompassing several manifestations of heterogeneity, and the need for constructivity in design. We believe that...

  7. Challenges in Nordic Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background.......Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background....

  8. Challenges to Designing Game-Based Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core of establish......The four categories labelled game-design, didactic design, organisational design and business design each constitute a set of challenges, each requiring a particular set of competencies. The key conclusion of the paper is that even though the learning game design constitutes the core...... of establishing game based business (GBB), the subsequent stages of development call for other kinds of competencies in order to become a viable GBB....

  9. Mechatronic Design - Still a Considerable Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane;

    2011-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order to investigate, if the challenges...... can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during the design task...

  10. Challenges in biomimetic design and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Barfoed, Michael; Shu, Li

    Biomimetic design copies desired principles found in nature and implement them into artificial applications. Applications could be products we use in our daily life but it can also be used to inspire material innovation. However there are significant challenges in performing biomimetic design. One....... This is a key issue in design and innovation work where problem identification and systematic search for suitable solution principle are major activities. One way to deal with this challenge is to use a biology search method. The use of such a method is illustrated with a case story describing the design...... including the terminology and knowledge organisation. It is often easy to recognise the splendour of a biological solution, but it can be much more difficult to understand the underlying mechanisms. Another challenge in biomimetic design is the search and identification of relevant solutions in nature...

  11. Using QA classification to guide design and manage risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathrop, J. [Strategic Insights, Los Altos, CA (United States); DeKlever, R. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Petrie, E.H. [USDOE Nevada Field Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-01-28

    Raytheon Services Nevada has developed a classification process based on probabilistic risk assessment, using accident/impact scenarios for each system classified. Initial classification analyses were performed for the 20 systems of Package IA of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The analyses demonstrated a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification which minimizes the use of direct engineering judgment. They provide guidance for ESF design and risk management through the identification of: The critical characteristics of each system that need to be controlled; and the parts of the information base that most need to be further developed through performance assessment or other efforts.

  12. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH CHALLENGES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF CARDIOTOCOGRAM DATA

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sundar; M. Chitradevi; G. Geetharamani

    2013-01-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is a simultaneous recording of Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) and Uterine Contractions (UC). The most common diagnostic techniques to evaluate maternal and fetal well-being during pregnancy and before delivery. By observing the Cardiotocography trace patterns doctors can understand the state of the fetus. There are several signal processing and computer programming based techniques for interpreting a typical Cardiotocography data. A model based CTG data classification system us...

  14. AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH CHALLENGES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF CARDIOTOCOGRAM DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sundar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotocography (CTG is a simultaneous recording of Fetal Heart Rate (FHR and Uterine Contractions (UC. The most common diagnostic techniques to evaluate maternal and fetal well-being during pregnancy and before delivery. By observing the Cardiotocography trace patterns doctors can understand the state of the fetus. There are several signal processing and computer programming based techniques for interpreting a typical Cardiotocography data. A model based CTG data classification system using a supervised Artificial Neural Network (ANN which can classify the CTG data based on its training data. The performance neural network based classification model has been compared with the most commonly used unsupervised clustering methods Fuzzy C-mean and k-mean clustering. The arrived results show that the performance of the supervised machine learning based classification approach provided significant performance than other compared unsupervised clustering methods. The traditional clustering methods can identify the Normal CTG patterns; they were incapable of finding Suspicious and Pathologic patterns. The ANN based classifier was capable of identifying Normal, Suspicious and Pathologic condition, from the nature of CTG data with very good accuracy.

  15. The Sound Challenge to Visualization Design Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Löwgren, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the emotional qualities of sound and music, and we suggest that the visual and the aural modalities should be combined in the design of visualizations involving emotional expressions. We therefore propose that visualization design should incorporate sonic interaction design drawing on musicology, cognitive neuroscience of music, and psychology of music, and identify what we see as key research challenges for such an approach.

  16. Designing Information Measures for Real-time Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Edward; Chen, Yang; Meng, Xiao-Li; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Since telescope time is limited, real-time lightcurve classification involves carefully selecting future time points at which sources must be observed in order to maximize the information that will be gained for classification. We propose a framework for constructing measures of information for testing/classification/model-selection and demonstrate their use in experimental design. Degroot (1962) developed a general framework for constructing Bayesian measures of the expected information that an experiment will provide for estimation, and our framework analogously constructs measures of information for hypothesis testing. Such test information measures are most useful for model selection and classification problems. Indeed, our framework suggests a probability based measure of test information, which in decision problems has more appealing properties than variance based measures. In the case of lightcurve classification, we adapt our designs to penalize long waits until the next observation time. Lastly, we consider ways to address other aspects of the problem, such as uncertainty estimation arising due to contamination from nearby contaminating sources or background diffuse emission. We acknowledge support from Smithsonian Competitive Grants Fund 40488100HH0043 and NSF grant DMS 1208791.

  17. Environmental Challenges in the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Present article is based on qualitative interviews with eight offices involved in the early conceptual stages of the design process. It investigates what experiences they have with their design process especially in relation to address environmental issues. The data from the interviews are analyzed...... through a coding scheme that focuses on what experiences they have in the early stages of the design process with the brief, the environmental concerns and the challenges they meet in this work. From the interviews it is seen that the direction today is to have an increased focus on a multidisciplinary...

  18. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...... to produce a competitive advantage. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry, a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids and an introduction to how a modern hearing is constructed showing the amplifier as the key component in the modern hearing aid...

  19. Design challenges for tomorrow's manned launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1993-02-01

    This paper attempts to capture some of the technical and national challenges facing the design of America's next manned launch system (MLS). There are three basic paths for pursuing tomorrow's MLS; each with variations. Some characteristics that will be sought regardless of the concept selected include low development (or front-end) and life-cycle costs, safety, operability, availability, and a host of other 'ilities'. In order to discriminate among the concepts, a robust design environment and a variety of new and improved analysis tools are needed that produce critical metrics in a timely, efficient manner from a large study space. This paper presents some of the challenges in development, integration, and application of optimization, costing, operations modeling, and several engineering disciplinary tools including geometry modeling, structures, aerodynamics/aeroheating, and trajectory/performance.

  20. Integrating Art and Science Through "Design Challenges"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, L.; Pompea, S. M.; Tzou, C.; Guthrie, M.; Tsurusaki, B.; Danielson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combining art with science can be a powerful way to engage audiences, yet there is little published evidence about effective STEAM approaches. Through our NSF-funded effort "Project STEAM: Integrating Art with Science to Build Science Identities among Girls," our team has developed a "design challenge" approach that combines optics, biology, and art. During these challenges, participants explore scientific concepts and use their understandings to design artistic products. The project aims to ultimately increase female representation in careers that currently have a high gender disparity, such as the geosciences, by changing attitudes and dispositions towards science among pre-middle school girls. We present evaluation and research results that suggest that our approach is effective in engaging and building science identities in participants.

  1. Risk Classification Model for Design and Build Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Ogunsanmi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the various risk sources in Design and Build projects can be classified into three risk groups of cost, time and quality using the discriminant analysis technique. Literature search was undertaken to review issues of risk sources, classification of the identified risks into a risk structure, management of risks and effects of risks all on Design and Build projects as well as concepts of discriminant analysis as a statistical technique. This literature review was undertaken through the use of internet, published papers, journal articles and other published reports on risks in Design and Build projects. A research questionnaire was further designed to collect research information. This research study is a survey research that utilized cross-sectional design to capture the primary data. The data for the survey was collected in Nigeria. In all 40 questionnaires were sent to various respondents that included Architects, Engineers, Quantity Surveyors and Builders who had used Design and Build procurement method for their recently completed projects. Responses from these retrieved questionnaires that measured the impact of risks on Design and Build were analyzed using the discriminant analysis technique through the use of SPSS software package to build two discriminant models for classifying risks into cost, time and quality risk groups. Results of the study indicate that time overrun and poor quality are the two factors that discriminate between cost, time and quality related risk groups. These two discriminant functions explain the variation between the risk groups. All the discriminating variables of cost overrun, time overrun and poor quality demonstrate some relationships with the two discriminant functions. The two discriminant models built can classify risks in Design and Build projects into risk groups of cost, time and quality. These classifications models have 72% success rate of classification

  2. Deep water challenges for drilling rig design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M. [Transocean Sedco Forex, Houston, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Drilling rigs designed for deep water must meet specific design considerations for harsh environments. The early lessons for rig design came from experiences in the North Sea. Rig efficiency and safety considerations must include structural integrity, isolated/redundant ballast controls, triple redundant DP systems, enclosed heated work spaces, and automated equipment such as bridge cranes, pipe handling gear, offline capabilities, subsea tree handling, and computerized drill floors. All components must be designed to harmonize man and machine. Some challenges which are unique to Eastern Canada include frequent storms and fog, cold temperature, icebergs, rig ice, and difficult logistics. This power point presentation described station keeping and mooring issues in terms of dynamic positioning issues. The environmental influence on riser management during forced disconnects was also described. Design issues for connected deep water risers must insure elastic stability, and control deflected shape. The design must also keep stresses within acceptable limits. Codes and standards for stress limits, flex joints and tension were also presented. tabs., figs.

  3. The ITER Blanket System Design Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The blanket system is one of the most technically challenging components of the ITER machine, having to accommodate high heat fluxes from the plasma, large electromagnetic loads during off-normal events and demanding interfaces with many key components (in particular the vacuum vessel and in-vessel coils) and the plasma. Plasma scenarios impose demanding requirements on the blanket in terms of heat fluxes on various areas of the first wall during different phases of operation (inboard and outboard midplane for start-up/shut-down scenarios and the top region close to the secondary X-point during flat top) as well as large electro-magnetic (EM) loads and transient energy deposition during off-normal plasma events (such as disruptions and vertical displacement events (VDE)). The high heat fluxes resulting in some areas have necessitated the use of “enhanced heat flux” panels capable of accommodating an incident heat flux of up to 5 MW/m2 in steady state. The other regions utilize “normal heat flux” panels, which have been developed and tested for a heat flux of the order of 1 — 2 MW/m2. The FW shaping design requires a compromise between the conflicting requirements for accommodation of steady state and transient loads (energy deposition during off-normal events). A shaped surface increases the heat loads which are due to plasma particles following the field lines compared to a perfectly toroidal surface. The blanket provides a major contribution to the shielding of the vacuum vessel and coils. A challenging criterion is the need to limit the integrated heating in the toroidal field coil (TFC) to ∼ 14 kW. This is particularly severe on the inboard leg where approximately 80% of the total nuclear heat on the TFC is deposited. Several design modifications were considered and analyzed to help achieve this, including increasing the inboard blanket radial thickness and reducing the assembly gaps. This paper summarizes the latest progress in the

  4. e-Commerce product classification: our participation at cDiscount 2015 challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Partalas, Ioannis; Balikas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This report describes our participation in the cDiscount 2015 challenge where the goal was to classify product items in a predefined taxonomy of products. Our best submission yielded an accuracy score of 64.20\\% in the private part of the leaderboard and we were ranked 10th out of 175 participating teams. We followed a text classification approach employing mainly linear models. The final solution was a weighted voting system which combined a variety of trained models.

  5. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-03-11

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  6. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  7. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  8. Actionable exomic incidental findings in 6503 participants: challenges of variant classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Laura M; Dorschner, Michael O; Robertson, Peggy D; Salama, Joseph S; Hart, Ragan; Shirts, Brian H; Murray, Mitzi L; Tokita, Mari J; Gallego, Carlos J; Kim, Daniel Seung; Bennett, James T; Crosslin, David R; Ranchalis, Jane; Jones, Kelly L; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Jarvik, Ella R; Itsara, Andy; Turner, Emily H; Herman, Daniel S; Schleit, Jennifer; Burt, Amber; Jamal, Seema M; Abrudan, Jenica L; Johnson, Andrew D; Conlin, Laura K; Dulik, Matthew C; Santani, Avni; Metterville, Danielle R; Kelly, Melissa; Foreman, Ann Katherine M; Lee, Kristy; Taylor, Kent D; Guo, Xiuqing; Crooks, Kristy; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Raffel, Leslie J; Gordon, Ora; Machini, Kalotina; Desnick, Robert J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Lubitz, Steven A; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Cooper, Greg M; Joffe, Steven; Richards, C Sue; Yang, Yaoping; Rotter, Jerome I; Rich, Stephen S; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Berg, Jonathan S; Spinner, Nancy B; Evans, James P; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Leppig, Kathleen A; Bennett, Robin L; Bird, Thomas; Sybert, Virginia P; Grady, William M; Tabor, Holly K; Kim, Jerry H; Bamshad, Michael J; Wilfond, Benjamin; Motulsky, Arno G; Scott, C Ronald; Pritchard, Colin C; Walsh, Tom D; Burke, Wylie; Raskind, Wendy H; Byers, Peter; Hisama, Fuki M; Rehm, Heidi; Nickerson, Debbie A; Jarvik, Gail P

    2015-03-01

    Recommendations for laboratories to report incidental findings from genomic tests have stimulated interest in such results. In order to investigate the criteria and processes for assigning the pathogenicity of specific variants and to estimate the frequency of such incidental findings in patients of European and African ancestry, we classified potentially actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in all 4300 European- and 2203 African-ancestry participants sequenced by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). We considered 112 gene-disease pairs selected by an expert panel as associated with medically actionable genetic disorders that may be undiagnosed in adults. The resulting classifications were compared to classifications from other clinical and research genetic testing laboratories, as well as with in silico pathogenicity scores. Among European-ancestry participants, 30 of 4300 (0.7%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.1%) had a disruptive variant that was expected to be pathogenic, whereas 52 (1.2%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. For African-ancestry participants, six of 2203 (0.3%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.3%) had an expected pathogenic disruptive variant, whereas 13 (0.6%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling mammalian conservation score and the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion summary score of conservation, substitution, regulation, and other evidence were compared across pathogenicity assignments and appear to have utility in variant classification. This work provides a refined estimate of the burden of adult onset, medically actionable incidental findings expected from exome sequencing, highlights challenges in variant classification, and demonstrates the need for a better curated variant interpretation knowledge base.

  9. Actionable exomic incidental findings in 6503 participants: challenges of variant classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Laura M.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Robertson, Peggy D.; Salama, Joseph S.; Hart, Ragan; Shirts, Brian H.; Murray, Mitzi L.; Tokita, Mari J.; Gallego, Carlos J.; Kim, Daniel Seung; Bennett, James T.; Crosslin, David R.; Ranchalis, Jane; Jones, Kelly L.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Itsara, Andy; Turner, Emily H.; Herman, Daniel S.; Schleit, Jennifer; Burt, Amber; Jamal, Seema M.; Abrudan, Jenica L.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Conlin, Laura K.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Santani, Avni; Metterville, Danielle R.; Kelly, Melissa; Foreman, Ann Katherine M.; Lee, Kristy; Taylor, Kent D.; Guo, Xiuqing; Crooks, Kristy; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Gordon, Ora; Machini, Kalotina; Desnick, Robert J.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Cooper, Greg M.; Joffe, Steven; Richards, C. Sue; Yang, Yaoping; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rich, Stephen S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Evans, James P.; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Leppig, Kathleen A.; Bennett, Robin L.; Bird, Thomas; Sybert, Virginia P.; Grady, William M.; Tabor, Holly K.; Kim, Jerry H.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Wilfond, Benjamin; Motulsky, Arno G.; Scott, C. Ronald; Pritchard, Colin C.; Walsh, Tom D.; Burke, Wylie; Raskind, Wendy H.; Byers, Peter; Hisama, Fuki M.; Rehm, Heidi; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations for laboratories to report incidental findings from genomic tests have stimulated interest in such results. In order to investigate the criteria and processes for assigning the pathogenicity of specific variants and to estimate the frequency of such incidental findings in patients of European and African ancestry, we classified potentially actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in all 4300 European- and 2203 African-ancestry participants sequenced by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). We considered 112 gene-disease pairs selected by an expert panel as associated with medically actionable genetic disorders that may be undiagnosed in adults. The resulting classifications were compared to classifications from other clinical and research genetic testing laboratories, as well as with in silico pathogenicity scores. Among European-ancestry participants, 30 of 4300 (0.7%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.1%) had a disruptive variant that was expected to be pathogenic, whereas 52 (1.2%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. For African-ancestry participants, six of 2203 (0.3%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.3%) had an expected pathogenic disruptive variant, whereas 13 (0.6%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling mammalian conservation score and the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion summary score of conservation, substitution, regulation, and other evidence were compared across pathogenicity assignments and appear to have utility in variant classification. This work provides a refined estimate of the burden of adult onset, medically actionable incidental findings expected from exome sequencing, highlights challenges in variant classification, and demonstrates the need for a better curated variant interpretation knowledge base. PMID:25637381

  10. Analysis on Design of Kohonen-network System Based on Classification of Complex Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The key methods of detection and classification of the electroencephalogram(EEG) used in recent years are introduced . Taking EEG for example, the design plan of Kohonen neural network system based on detection and classification of complex signals is proposed, and both the network design and signal processing are analyzed, including pre-processing of signals, extraction of signal features, classification of signal and network topology, etc.

  11. Engineering Design Challenges in a Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Create a light and sound show to entertain friends. Design an improved safety device for a car. Develop a 2-3 minute voice-over for a sports clip explaining the physics involved in the sport. Modify the design of a roller coaster to meet the needs of a specific group of riders. Design an appliance package for a family limited by the power and…

  12. Ontology Design Patterns: Adoption Challenges and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hammar, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) are intended to guide non-experts in performing ontology engineering tasks successfully. While being the topic of significant research efforts, the uptake of these ideas outside the academic community is limited. This paper summarises some issues preventing broader adoption of Ontology Design Patterns among practitioners, suggests research directions that may help overcome these issues, and presents early results of work in these directions.

  13. VERTICAL HEREDITY VS. HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER: A CHALLENGE TO BACTERIAL CLASSIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Bailin; QI Ji

    2003-01-01

    The diversity and classification of microbes has been a long-standing issue. Molecular phylogeny of the prokaryotes based on comparison of the 16S rRNA sequences of the small ribosomal subunit has led to a reasonable tree of life in the late 1970s. However, the availability of more and more complete bacterial genomes has brought about complications instead of refinement of the tree. In particular, it turns out that different choice of genes may tell different history. This might be caused by possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among species. There is an urgent need to develop phylogenetic methods that make use of whole genome data. We describe a new approach in molecular phylogeny, namely, tree construction based on K-tuple frequency analysis of the genomic sequences. Putting aside the technicalities, we emphasize the transition from randomness to determinism when the string length K increases and try to comment on the challenge mentioned in the title.

  14. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  15. Biomimetics as a design methodology – possibilities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2009-01-01

    Biomimetics – or bionik as it is called in parts of Europe – offer a number of promising opportunities and challenges for the designer. The paper investigates how biomimetics as a design methodology is used in engineering design by looking at examples of biological searches and highlight...... the possibilities and challenges. Biomimetics for engineering design is explored through an experiment involving 12 design engineering students. For 7 selected problem areas they searched biology literature available at a university library and identified a number of biological solutions. Central solution...

  16. Powering the Future: A Wind Turbine Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, Caitlin Hicks; Hughes, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Nothing brings out the best in eighth-grade physical science students quite like an engineering challenge. The wind turbine design challenge described in this article has proved to be a favorite among students with its focus on teamwork and creativity and its (almost) sneaky reinforcement of numerous physics concepts. For this activity, pairs of…

  17. New Course Design: Classification Schemes and Information Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    2002-01-01

    Describes a course developed at St. John's University (New York) in the Division of Library and Information Science that relates traditional classification schemes to information architecture and Web sites. Highlights include functional aspects of information architecture, that is, the way content is structured; assignments; student reactions; and…

  18. Squamous precursor lesions of the vulva: current classification and diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Lien N; Park, Kay J; Soslow, Robert A; Murali, Rajmohan

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence has established two major types of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which correspond to two distinct oncogenic pathways to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). While the incidence of VSCC has remained relatively stable over the last three decades, the incidence of VIN has increased. VIN of usual type (uVIN) is human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven, affects younger women and is a multicentric disease. In contrast, VIN of differentiated type (dVIN) occurs in post-menopausal women and develops independent of HPV infection. dVIN often arises in a background of lichen sclerosus and chronic inflammatory dermatoses. Although isolated dVIN is significantly less common than uVIN, dVIN bears a greater risk for malignant transformation to VSCC and progresses over a shorter time interval. On histological examination, uVIN displays conspicuous architectural and cytological abnormalities, while the morphological features that characterise dVIN are much more subtle and raise a wide differential diagnosis. On the molecular level, dVIN is characterised by a higher number of somatic mutations, particularly in TP53. Here we review the classification, epidemiology, clinical features, histomorphology, ancillary markers and molecular genetics of both types of VIN, and discuss the morphological challenges faced by pathologists in interpreting these lesions. PMID:27113549

  19. Automated Feature Design for Time Series Classification by Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Dustin Yewell

    2014-01-01

    Time series classification (TSC) methods discover and exploit patterns in time series and other one-dimensional signals. Although many accurate, robust classifiers exist for multivariate feature sets, general approaches are needed to extend machine learning techniques to make use of signal inputs. Numerous applications of TSC can be found in structural engineering, especially in the areas of structural health monitoring and non-destructive evaluation. Additionally, the fields of process contr...

  20. Barriers and Challenges in the Integrated Design Process Approcach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    agreement for reducing the global heating. This paper will briefly present the method of the Integrated Design Process, IDP [1]. It describes the background and means for developing a new method for designing integrated architecture in an interdisciplinary approach between architecture and engineering. It...... also describes the barriers and the challenges that must be overcome when trying to cross the borders between the two fields of engineering and architecture to design sustainable architecture....

  1. Addressing the challenges of patient-centred design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen LaBat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patient-centred design is a relatively new term, but a longstanding concept in clinical practice. This discussion looks at patient-centred design and explores the relationships of patient-centred design to universal design, user-centred design and the newer human-centred design. It also explores why interdisciplinary approaches are needed for patient-centred design and how interdisciplinary collaboration works to address the challenges of patient centred design. Successful patient-centred solutions can grow from collaborations which include shared visions, understanding of both the nature and degree of variation in the patient,materials, and the designed solution, clear regular communication among all parties with careful definition of terms, and respect for the inherent cultures of all disciplines involved.

  2. Challenging of Facial Expressions Classification Systems: Survey, Critical Considerations and Direction of Future Work

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Jamshidnezhad; M.D. Jan Nordin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is analysis of the parameters and the affects of those on the performance of the facial expressions classification systems. In recent years understanding of emotions is a basic requirement in the development of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems. Therefore, an HCI is highly depended on accurate understanding of facial expression. Classification module is the main part of facial expressions recognition system. Numerous classification techniques were propose...

  3. Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to understand challenges in community reintegration of injured veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda J; Allen, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study used the framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to understand the challenges faced by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans as they reintegrate into the community. We conducted semistructured interviews with 14 injured veterans, 12 caregivers, and 14 clinicians. We used ICF taxonomy to code data and identify issues. We identified challenges in the following ICF domains: learning and applying knowledge; general tasks and demands; communication; mobility; self-care; domestic life; interpersonal interactions, major life areas; and community, social, and civic life. We found many similarities between the challenges faced by veterans with and without polytraumatic injuries, although veterans with polytraumatic injuries faced challenges of greater magnitude. Identifying community reintegration challenges early and promoting reintegration are important mandates for the Department of Veterans Affairs. The findings of this study are useful in understanding the needs of OEF/OIF veterans.

  4. Design and simulation challenges for FERMI@elettra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S.; Allaria, E.; Badano, L.; Bontoiu, C.; Cornacchia, M.; Craievich, P.; Danailov, M.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Ferrando, O.; Ferry, S.; Iazzourene, F.; Milton, S. V.; Penco, G.; Spampinati, S.; Trovo', M.; Veronese, M.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Sonnad, K. G.; Venturini, M.; Warnock, R.; Zholents, A. A.; Pogorelov, I. V.; Borland, M.; Bassi, G.; Ellison, J. A.; Heinemann, K.; Fiorito, R.; Shkvarunets, A.; Tobin, J. C.

    2009-09-01

    FERMI@elettra is a fourth-generation light source user facility under construction at the Elettra Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. The high-quality 1.2 GeV electron beam drives two-seeded Free Electron Lasers (FELs) in the wavelength range 100-10 nm. Wavelength tunability, variable polarization and higher electron beam energies to reach even shorter output wavelengths are also in the machine delivery plan. This paper describes the physics processes that have been modelled to simulate FERMI@elettra and the computer codes used to optimize the machine design. The paper focuses on several design challenges and how these translate into modelling and simulation challenges.

  5. Structural Design Challenges in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.; Braverman, J.; Wei, X.; Hofmayer, C.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are confined within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of structural design chal- lenges encountered in recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  6. Challenges of randomized controlled trial design in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Herrera, Fernando A; Hassanein, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard of evidence-based medicine. In the field of plastic surgery, designing these studies is much more challenging than in pharmaceutical medicine. Randomized trials in plastic surgery encompass several road blocks including problems shared with other surgical trials: equipoise, high cost, placebo issues and learning curves following the establishment of a novel approach. In addition, plastic surgery has more subjective outcomes, thus making study design even more difficult in assessing the end result.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF HIGHWAY LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS AND THEIR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Vitrinskaya, I.

    2009-01-01

    The constituent elements of highway landscape are determined. Six models of highway landscape are offered. Recommendations concerning effective landscape design for application in highway construction are presented.

  8. Automatic design of robot swarms: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero eFrancesca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Automatic design is a promising approach to the design of control software for robot swarms. In an automatic design method, the design problem is cast into an optimization problem and is addressed using an optimization algorithm. In this article, we review studies in which automatic design methods are successfully applied. In particular, we focus our attention on how automatic methods are empirically assessed. An apparent issue that emerges from our review is that a solid, well- established, and consistently applied empirical practice is still missing. For example, studies that propose new methods and ideas do not typically provide any comparison with existing ones. We maintain that the lack of a proper empirical practice hinders the progress of the domain. In this article, we pursue two goals: we highlight the notable achievements in the automatic design of control software for robot swarms and we discuss the challenges to be overcome to establish a proper empirical practice for the domain.

  9. Challenges and Perspectives in Designing Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Yan, Runyu; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-07-11

    The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting and CO2 reduction on a large scale for practical applications is the ultimate goal towards worldwide sustainability. This Concept highlights the state-of-the-art research trends of artificial photosynthesis concepts and designs from some new perspectives. Particularly, it is focused on five important aspects for the design of promising artificial photosynthetic systems: 1) catalyst development, 2) architecture design, 3) device buildup 4) mechanism exploration, and 5) theoretical investigations. Some typical progress and challenges, the most significant milestones achieved to date, as well as possible future directions are illustrated and discussed. This Concept article presents a selection of new developments to highlight new trends and possibilities, main barriers, or challenges; with this, we hope to inspire more advances in the field of artificial photosynthesis.

  10. Challenges and Perspectives in Designing Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Yan, Runyu; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-07-11

    The development of artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting and CO2 reduction on a large scale for practical applications is the ultimate goal towards worldwide sustainability. This Concept highlights the state-of-the-art research trends of artificial photosynthesis concepts and designs from some new perspectives. Particularly, it is focused on five important aspects for the design of promising artificial photosynthetic systems: 1) catalyst development, 2) architecture design, 3) device buildup 4) mechanism exploration, and 5) theoretical investigations. Some typical progress and challenges, the most significant milestones achieved to date, as well as possible future directions are illustrated and discussed. This Concept article presents a selection of new developments to highlight new trends and possibilities, main barriers, or challenges; with this, we hope to inspire more advances in the field of artificial photosynthesis. PMID:27138858

  11. Possibilities and Challenges designing low-carbon-energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological......Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken into...... account to be able to achieve efficient reductions of energy and CO2 emissions and at the same time design a product attractive for the consumer, in terms of price, level of service and aesthetical demands, to ensure its strategic implementation. This paper takes the Danish office lighting sector as a...

  12. Synthetic aperture radar system design for random field classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harger, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    An optimum design study is carried out for synthetic aperture radar systems intended for classifying randomly reflecting areas (such as agricultural fields) characterized by a reflectivity density spectral density. The problem solution is obtained, neglecting interfield interference and assuming areas of known configuration and location, as well as a certain Gaussian signal field property. The optimum processor is nonlinear, but includes conventional matched filter processing. A set of summary design curves is plotted, and is applied to the design of a satellite synthetic aperture radar system.

  13. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO. The global Floating LNG (FLNG market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  14. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  15. Cross-organizational workflows: A classification of design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van Pascal; Yamamoto, Rieko; Gordijn, Jaap; Wieringa, Roel; Belo, O.; Eder, J.; Pastor, O.; Falcao e Cunha, J.

    2005-01-01

    Web service technology enables organizations to open up their business processes and engage in tightly coupled business networks to jointly offer goods and services. This paper systematically investigates all decisions that have to be made in the design of such networks and the processes carried out

  16. Cross-organizational workflows: a classification of design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van Pascal; Yamamoto, Rieko; Gordijn, Jaap; Wieringa, Roel; Funabashi, Matohisa; Grzech, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Web service technology enables organizations to open up their business processes and engage in tightly coupled business networks to jointly offer goods and services. This paper systematically investigates all decisions that have to be made in the design of such networks and the processes carried out

  17. Nanomedical device and systems design challenges, possibilities, visions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedical Device and Systems Design: Challenges, Possibilities, Visions serves as a preliminary guide toward the inspiration of specific investigative pathways that may lead to meaningful discourse and significant advances in nanomedicine/nanotechnology. This volume considers the potential of future innovations that will involve nanomedical devices and systems. It endeavors to explore remarkable possibilities spanning medical diagnostics, therapeutics, and other advancements that may be enabled within this discipline. In particular, this book investigates just how nanomedical diagnostic and

  18. Usability standards meet scenario-based design: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher J; Blandford, Ann

    2015-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on the challenges and opportunities presented by developing scenarios of use for interactive medical devices. Scenarios are integral to the international standard for usability engineering of medical devices (IEC 62366:2007), and are also applied to the development of health software (draft standard IEC 82304-1). The 62366 standard lays out a process for mitigating risk during normal use (i.e. use as per the instructions, or accepted medical practice). However, this begs the question of whether "real use" (that which occurs in practice) matches "normal use". In this paper, we present an overview of the product lifecycle and how it impacts on the type of scenario that can be practically applied. We report on the development and testing of a set of scenarios intended to inform the design of infusion pumps based on "real use". The scenarios were validated by researchers and practitioners experienced in clinical practice, and their utility was assessed by developers and practitioners representing different stages of the product lifecycle. These evaluations highlighted previously unreported challenges and opportunities for the use of scenarios in this context. Challenges include: integrating scenario-based design with usability engineering practice; covering the breadth of uses of infusion devices; and managing contradictory evidence. Opportunities included scenario use beyond design to guide marketing, to inform purchasing and as resources for training staff. This study exemplifies one empirically grounded approach to communicating and negotiating the realities of practice. PMID:25460202

  19. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  20. Design and evaluation of neural classifiers application to skin lesion classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintz-Madsen, Mads; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan;

    1995-01-01

    Addresses design and evaluation of neural classifiers for the problem of skin lesion classification. By using Gauss Newton optimization for the entropic cost function in conjunction with pruning by Optimal Brain Damage and a new test error estimate, the authors show that this scheme is capable...

  1. 75 FR 33169 - Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...-AG21 Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation of Special Controls for Dental Amalgam, Mercury, and Amalgam Alloy; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food... classified dental amalgam as a class II device, reclassified dental mercury from class I to class II,...

  2. DIY design: How crowdsourcing sites are challenging traditional graphic design practice

    OpenAIRE

    Massanari, Adrienne L

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current debate over crowdsourced/do–it–yourself (DIY) design. Specifically, it highlights underlying tensions between discourse within the professional graphic design field and an increasingly sophisticated and global community of DIY designers who are challenging their professional norms and practices. Through an exploration of these sites’ approach to intellectual property, design education, compensation, and community, this research explain how cro...

  3. Soil mapping and classification in the Alps: Current state and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian; Geitner, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Soil is an essential, non-renewable resource, which fundamentally needs sustainable management. Soils in mountain regions like the Alps have a diverse small-scale distribution and they are characterized by a slow soil development and multilayer profiles. This is mainly caused by high process dynamics and harsh climate conditions. Therefore, soils are particularly vulnerable and require a sustainable management approach. Furthermore, the global change, especially the climate and land use change, leads to new demands on the soil. Thus, high-resolution spatial informations on soil properties are required to protect this resource and to consider its properties in spatial planning and decision making. In the Alpine region soil maps are mostly confined to small (mostly agriculture) areas. Especially, in higher altitudes of the Alps pedologic research and data collection are lacking. However, nowadays and in the future systematic soil mapping works are and will be no longer applied. Another methodical problem arises because each Alpine country has its own national soil mapping and classification system which are not adapted to Alpine areas. Therefore, appropriate methods of working practices for the Alpine region are mostly missing. The central aim of the research project "ReBo - Terrain Classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol, is to develop and verify a concept, which allows the collection of soil data through an optimized interaction of soil mapping and geomorphometric analysis. The test sites are located in South Tyrol (Italy). The workflow shall minimise the required pedologic field work and shall provide a reliable strategy for transferring punctual soil informations into spatial soil maps. However, for a detailed analysis a systematic pedologic field work is still indispensable. As in the Alps reliable soil mapping and classification standards are lacking

  4. Design Challenges in High Power Free-Electron Laser Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, S V

    2005-01-01

    Several FELs have now demonstrated high power lasing and several projects are under construction to deliver higher power or shorter wavelengths. This presentation will summarize progress in upgrading FEL oscillators towards higher power and will discuss some of the challenges these projects face. The challenges fall into three categories: 1. energy recovery with large exhaust energy spread, 2. output coupling and maintaining mirror figure in the presence of high intracavity power loading, and 3. high current operation in an energy recovery linac (ERL). Progress in all three of these areas has been made in the last year. Energy recovery of over 12% of exhaust energy spread has been demonstrated and designs capable of accepting even larger energy spreads have been proposed. Cryogenic transmissive output couplers for narrow band operation and both hole and scraper output coupling have been developed. Investigation of short Rayleigh range operation has started as well. Energy recovery of over 20 mA CW has been de...

  5. Medical Classification and Terminology Systems in a Secondary Use Context: Challenges and Perils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Hauke; Gerth, Sven; Katus, Hugo A; Fegeler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of diagnosis-related groups in the German healthcare system, classifying patient diagnosis and procedures with controlled vocabularies have become mandatory and thus creating a large dataset for secondary use in biomedical research. In this paper we present the analysis of an ICD dataset with regards to potentially reimbursement motivated classification and the effects on precision and recall when considering the change history of ICD codes. PMID:27577411

  6. One-Class SVMs Challenges in Audio Detection and Classification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Ellouze

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machines (SVMs have gained great attention and have been used extensively and successfully in the field of sounds (events recognition. However, the extension of SVMs to real-world signal processing applications is still an ongoing research topic. Our work consists of illustrating the potential of SVMs on recognizing impulsive audio signals belonging to a complex real-world dataset. We propose to apply optimized one-class support vector machines (1-SVMs to tackle both sound detection and classification tasks in the sound recognition process. First, we propose an efficient and accurate approach for detecting events in a continuous audio stream. The proposed unsupervised sound detection method which does not require any pretrained models is based on the use of the exponential family model and 1-SVMs to approximate the generalized likelihood ratio. Then, we apply novel discriminative algorithms based on 1-SVMs with new dissimilarity measure in order to address a supervised sound-classification task. We compare the novel sound detection and classification methods with other popular approaches. The remarkable sound recognition results achieved in our experiments illustrate the potential of these methods and indicate that 1-SVMs are well suited for event-recognition tasks.

  7. IHE cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging: design challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-03-01

    Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) has recently published a new integration profile for sharing documents between multiple enterprises. The Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing Integration Profile (XDS) lays the basic framework for deploying regional and national Electronic Health Record (EHR). This profile proposes an architecture based on a central Registry that holds metadata information describing published Documents residing in one or multiple Documents Repositories. As medical images constitute important information of the patient health record, it is logical to extend the XDS Integration Profile to include images. However, including images in the EHR presents many challenges. The complete image set is very large; it is useful for radiologists and other specialists such as surgeons and orthopedists. The imaging report, on the other hand, is widely needed and its broad accessibility is vital for achieving optimal patient care. Moreover, a subset of relevant images may also be of wide interest along with the report. Therefore, IHE recently published a new integration profile for sharing images and imaging reports between multiple enterprises. This new profile, the Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I), is based on the XDS architecture. The XDS-I integration solution that is published as part of the IHE Technical Framework is the result of an extensive investigation effort of several design solutions. This paper presents and discusses the design challenges and the rationales behind the design decisions of the IHE XDS-I Integration Profile, for a better understanding and appreciation of the final published solution.

  8. Challenges in Designing and Scaling up Community Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on two European Union-funded projects: Life 2.0, which was recently completed, and My Neighbourhood, which is still ongoing. The goal of the former was to create location-based and socially networked services to support elderly people in living independently. The aim....... While several analogies can be found between the existing generation of social networking platforms and the services proposed in these projects, there are also several important differences that challenge the way local and individual services should be designed in the perspective of being scaled up...

  9. Challenges and approaches to statistical design and inference in high-dimensional investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury, Gary L; Garrett, Karen A; Allison, David B

    2009-01-01

    Advances in modern technologies have facilitated high-dimensional experiments (HDEs) that generate tremendous amounts of genomic, proteomic, and other "omic" data. HDEs involving whole-genome sequences and polymorphisms, expression levels of genes, protein abundance measurements, and combinations thereof have become a vanguard for new analytic approaches to the analysis of HDE data. Such situations demand creative approaches to the processes of statistical inference, estimation, prediction, classification, and study design. The novel and challenging biological questions asked from HDE data have resulted in many specialized analytic techniques being developed. This chapter discusses some of the unique statistical challenges facing investigators studying high-dimensional biology and describes some approaches being developed by statistical scientists. We have included some focus on the increasing interest in questions involving testing multiple propositions simultaneously, appropriate inferential indicators for the types of questions biologists are interested in, and the need for replication of results across independent studies, investigators, and settings. A key consideration inherent throughout is the challenge in providing methods that a statistician judges to be sound and a biologist finds informative.

  10. Challenges and opportunities in integration of design and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    Process synthesis and design of plant operation are related topics but current industrial practice solves these problems sequentially. The implication of this sequential strategy may result in design of processing systems which are very hard to control. This paper presents a discussion on drivers...... for an integrated approach and outlines the challenges in formulation of such a multi-objective synthesis problem. This discussion is viewed in relation to some of the changing trends in the industry. Significant results have been published which in different ways seek to handle the integrated problem. Further......, advancements in control algorithms and software have widened the range of feasible operation and control for strongly interconnected production systems. In light of these advances in different areas of the field, recommendations for further research and initiatives for development of an integrated approach...

  11. STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Phil [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Hojjati, Alireza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Linder, Eric, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.

  12. Solar Probe Plus: Mission design challenges and trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanping

    2010-11-01

    NASA plans to launch the first mission to the Sun, named Solar Probe Plus, as early as 2015, after a comprehensive feasibility study that significantly changed the original Solar Probe mission concept. The original Solar Probe mission concept, based on a Jupiter gravity assist trajectory, was no longer feasible under the new guidelines given to the mission. A complete redesign of the mission was required, which called for developing alternative trajectories that excluded a flyby of Jupiter. Without the very powerful gravity assist from Jupiter it was extremely difficult to get to the Sun, so designing a trajectory to reach the Sun that is technically feasible under the new mission guidelines became a key enabler to this highly challenging mission. Mission design requirements and challenges unique to this mission are reviewed and discussed, including various mission scenarios and six different trajectory designs utilizing various planetary gravity assists that were considered. The V 5GA trajectory design using five Venus gravity assists achieves a perihelion of 11.8 solar radii ( RS) in 3.3 years without any deep space maneuver (DSM). The V 7GA trajectory design reaches a perihelion of 9.5 RS using seven Venus gravity assists in 6.39 years without any DSM. With nine Venus gravity assists, the V 9GA trajectory design shows a solar orbit at inclination as high as 37.9° from the ecliptic plane can be achieved with the time of flight of 5.8 years. Using combined Earth and Venus gravity assists, as close as 9 RS from the Sun can be achieved in less than 10 years of flight time at moderate launch C3. Ultimately the V 7GA trajectory was chosen as the new baseline mission trajectory. Its design allowing for science investigation right after launch and continuing for nearly 7 years is unprecedented for interplanetary missions. The redesigned Solar Probe Plus mission is not only feasible under the new guidelines but also significantly outperforms the original mission concept

  13. EPR design features to mitigate severe accident challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor (PWR), is a 4300-4500 MWth that incorporates proven technology within an optimized configuration to enhance safety. EPR was originally developed through a joint effort between Framatome ANP and Siemens by incorporating the best technological features from the French and German nuclear reactor fleets into a cost-competitive product. Commercial EPR units are currently being built in Finland at the Olkiluoto site, and planned for France at the Flamanville site. In recent months, Framatome ANP announced their intention to market the EPR units to China in response to a request for vendor bids as well as their intent to pursue design certification in the United States under 10CFR52. The EPR safety philosophy is based on a deterministic consideration of defense-in-depth complemented by probabilistic analyses. Not only is the EPR designed to prevent and mitigate design basis accidents (DBAs), it employs an extra level of safety associated with severe accident response. Therefore, as a design objective, features are included to ensure that radiological consequences are limited such that the need for stringent counter measures, such as evacuation and relocation of the nearby population, can be reasonably excluded. This paper discusses some of the innovative features of the EPR to address severe accident challenges. (author)

  14. Feasibility Study on a Portable Field Pest Classification System Design Based on DSP and 3G Wireless Communication Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Liu; Ruizhen Han; Yong He

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classif...

  15. Challenges And Results of the Applications of Fuzzy Logic in the Classification of Rich Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Girola Schneider, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    The fuzzy logic is a branch of the artificial intelligence founded on the concept that 'everything is a matter of degree.' It intends to create mathematical approximations on the resolution of certain types of problems. In addition, it aims to produce exact results obtained from imprecise data, for which it is particularly useful for electronic and computer applications. This enables it to handle vague or unspecific information when certain parts of a system are unknown or ambiguous and, therefore, they cannot be measured in a reliable manner. Also, when the variation of a variable can produce an alteration on the others.The main focus of this paper is to prove the importance of these techniques formulated from a theoretical analysis on its application on ambiguous situations in the field of the rich clusters of galaxies. The purpose is to show its applicability in the several classification systems proposed for the rich clusters, which are based on criteria such as the level of richness of the cluster, the distribution of the brightest galaxies, whether there are signs of type-cD galaxies or not or the existence of sub-clusters.Fuzzy logic enables the researcher to work with “imprecise” information implementing fuzzy sets and combining rules to define actions. The control systems based on fuzzy logic join input variables that are defined in terms of fuzzy sets through rule groups that produce one or several output values of the system under study. From this context, the application of the fuzzy logic’s techniques approximates the solution of the mathematical models in abstractions about the rich galaxy cluster classification of physical properties in order to solve the obscurities that must be confronted by an investigation group in order to make a decision.

  16. Design Challenges for a Wide-Aperture Insertion Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Russenschuck, S; Perez, J C; Ramos, D; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Kirby, G; Sahner, T; Schwerg, N

    2011-01-01

    The design and development of a superconducting (Nb-Ti) quadrupole with 120 mm aperture, for an upgrade of the LHC insertion region, faces challenges arising from the LHC beam optics requirements and the heat-deposition. The first triggered extensive studies of coil alternatives with four and six coil-blocks in view of field quality and operation margins. The latter requires more porous insulation schemes for both the cables and the ground-plane. This in turn necessitates extensive heatpropagation and quench-velocity studies, as well as more efficient quench heaters. The engineering design of the magnet includes innovative features such as self-locking collars, which will enable the collaring to be performed with the coils on a horizontal assembly bench, a spring-loaded and collapsible assembly mandrel, tuning-shims for field quality, porous collaring-shoes, and coil end-spacer design based on differential geometry methods. The project also initiated code extensions in the quench-simulation and CAD/CAM module...

  17. Challenges in the design of linear accelerator tunnels and services

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, John

    2008-01-01

    Studies are well underway for the next generation of linear accelerators. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is working towards a maximum collision energy of 1 TeV and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) even higher at 3 TeV. Although the accelerating technologies are very different, many similarities can be found between the two projects from a civil engineering and technical services point of view. Both projects would require a site of approximately 50 km in length with stable geological conditions. CERN has been selected as one of the sample sites for the preliminary studies. The aim of this paper is to present the key challenges in the design of civil engineering and technical services such as cooling, ventilation and electricity that need to be overcome to realise such large scale projects in the future.

  18. Design challenges and safety concept for the AVANTI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaias, G.; Ardaens, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    AVANTI is a formation-flight experiment involving two noncooperative satellites. After a brief overview of the challenges that experiment design and scenario induce, this paper presents the safety concept retained to guarantee the safety of the formation. The peculiarity of the proposed approach is that it does not rely on the continuous availability of tracking data of the client spacecraft but rather exploits the concept of passive safety of special relative trajectories. To this end, the formation safety criterion based on the minimum distance normal to the flight direction has been extended in order to be applicable also to drifting relative orbits, resulting from non-vanishing relative semi-major axis encountered during a rendezvous or produced by the action of the differential aerodynamic drag.

  19. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the opening of a national kids' baseball coin design challenge on April...

  20. Design Hybrid method for intrusion detection using Ensemble cluster classification and SOM network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Rathore

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In current scenario of internet technology security is big challenge. Internet network threats by various cyber-attack and loss the system data and degrade the performance of host computer. In this sense intrusion detection are challenging field of research in concern of network security based on firewall and some rule based detection technique. In this paper we proposed an Ensemble Cluster Classification technique using som network for detection of mixed variable data generated by malicious software for attack purpose in host system. In our methodology SOM network control the iteration of distance of different parameters of ensembling our experimental result show that better empirical evaluation on KDD data set 99 in comparison of existing ensemble classifier.

  1. Application of Convolutional Neural Network for Image Classification on Pascal VOC Challenge 2012 dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Suyash

    2016-01-01

    In this project we work on creating a model to classify images for the Pascal VOC Challenge 2012. We use convolutional neural networks trained on a single GPU instance provided by Amazon via their cloud service Amazon Web Services (AWS) to classify images in the Pascal VOC 2012 data set. We train multiple convolutional neural network models and finally settle on the best model which produced a validation accuracy of 85.6% and a testing accuracy of 85.24%.

  2. Neutronic challenges of advanced boiling water reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement of Boiling Water Reactor technology has been under investigation at the Center for Advance Nuclear Energy Systems at MIT. The advanced concepts under study provide economic incentives through enabling further power uprates (i.e. increasing vessel power density) or better fuel cycle uranium utilization. The challenges in modeling of three advanced concepts with focus on neutronics are presented. First, the Helical Cruciform Fuel rod has been used in some Russian reactors, and studied at MIT for uprating the power in LWRs through increased heat transfer area per unit core volume. The HCF design requires high fidelity 3D tools to assess its reactor physics behavior as well as thermal and fuel performance. Second, an advanced core design, the BWR-HD, was found to promise 65% higher power density over existing BWRs, while using current licensing tools and existing technology. Its larger assembly size requires stronger coupling between neutronics and thermal hydraulics compared to the current practice. Third is the reduced moderation BWRs, which had been proposed in Japan to enable breeding and burning of fuel as an alternative to sodium fast reactors. Such technology suffers from stronger sensitivity of its neutronics to the void fraction than the traditional BWRs, thus requiring exact modeling of the core conditions such as bypass voiding, to correctly characterize its performance. (author)

  3. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Water Quality Standards - Table G Lake Classifications and Use Designations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains Missouri Water Quality Standards (WQS) lake classifications and use designations described in the Missouri Code of State Regulations (CSR),...

  4. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the Bothriocephalidea (Cestoda): molecular data challenge morphological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the relationships of the cestode order Bothriocephalidea, parasites of marine and freshwater bony fish, were assessed using multi-gene molecular phylogenetic analyses. The dataset included 59 species, covering approximately 70% of currently recognised genera, a sample of bothriocephalidean biodiversity gathered through an intense 15year effort. The order as currently circumscribed, while monophyletic, includes three non-monophyletic and one monophyletic families. Bothriocephalidae is monophyletic and forms the most derived lineage of the order, comprised of a single freshwater and several marine clades. Biogeographic patterns within the freshwater clade are indicative of past radiations having occurred in Africa and North America. The earliest diverging lineages of the order comprise a paraphyletic Triaenophoridae. The Echinophallidae, consisting nearly exclusively of parasites of pelagic fish, was also resolved as paraphyletic with respect to the Bothriocephalidae. Philobythoides sp., the only representative included from the Philobythiidae, a unique family of parasites of bathypelagic fish, was sister to the genus Eubothrium, the latter constituting one of the lineages of the paraphyletic Triaenophoridae. Due to the weak statistical support for most of the basal nodes of the Triaenophoridae and Echinophallidae, as well as the lack of obvious morphological synapomorphies shared by taxa belonging to the statistically well-supported lineages, the current family-level classification, although mostly non-monophyletic, is provisionally retained, with the exception of the family Philobythiidae, which is recognised as a synonym of the Triaenophoridae. In addition, Schyzocotyle is resurrected to accommodate the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934) n. comb. (syn. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934), which is of veterinary importance, and Schyzocotyle nayarensis (Malhotra, 1983) n. comb. (syn. Ptychobothrium

  6. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA study: Design challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Cristan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone to the effect of the first (stimulant. We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic. Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual

  7. Neuromechanical Control for Hexapedal Robot Walking on Challenging Surfaces and Surface Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    are achieved by only changing the stiffness parameters of the VAAMs. In addition, six surfaces can be also classified by observing the motor signals generated by the controller. The performance of the controller is tested on a physical hexapod robot. Experimental results show that it can effectively walk......The neuromechanical control principles of animal locomotion provide good insights for the development of bio-inspired legged robots for walking on challenging surfaces. Based on such principles, we developed a neuromechanical controller consisting of a modular neural network (MNN) and of virtual...... agonist–antagonist muscle mechanisms (VAAMs). The controller allows for variable compliant leg motions of a hexapod robot, thereby leading to energy-efficient walking on different surfaces. Without any passive mechanisms or torque and position feedback at each joint, the variable compliant leg motions...

  8. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition......, a good metric is required to measure distance or similarity between feature points so that the classification becomes feasible. Furthermore, in order to build a successful classifier, one needs to deeply understand how classifiers work. This thesis focuses on these three aspects of classification...... and explores these challenging areas. The first focus of the thesis is to properly combine different local feature experts and prior information to design an effective classifier. The preliminary classification results, provided by the experts, are fused in order to develop an automatic segmentation method...

  9. Designing and Developing Game-Like Learning Experience in Virtual Worlds: Challenges and Design Decisions of Novice Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Turkan Karakus; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    Many virtual worlds have been adopted for implementation within educational settings because they are potentially useful for building effective learning environments. Since the flexibility of virtual worlds challenges to obtain effective and efficient educational outcomes, the design of such platforms need more attention. In the present study, the…

  10. Teaching habitat and animal classification to fourth graders using an engineering-design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Background: The motivation for this work is built upon the premise that there is a need for research-based materials for design-based science instruction. In this paper, a small portion of our work investigating the impact of a LEGOTM engineering unit on fourth grade students' preconceptions and understanding of animals is presented. Purpose: The driving questions for our work are: (1) What is the impact of an engineering-design-based curricular module on students' understanding of habitat and animal classification? (2) What are students' misconceptions regarding animal classification and habitat? Sample: The study was conducted in an inner-city K-8 school in the northeastern region of the United States. There were two fourth grade classrooms in the school. The first classroom included seven girls and nine boys, whereas the other classroom included eight girls and eight boys. All fourth grade students participated in the study. Design and methods: In answering the research questions mixed-method approaches are used. Data collection methods included pre- and post-tests, pre- and post-interviews, student journals, and classroom observations. Identical pre- and post-tests were administered to measure students' understanding of animals. They included four multiple-choice and six open-ended questions. Identical pre- and post-interviews were administered to explore students' in-depth understanding of animals. Results: Our results show that students significantly increased their performance after instruction on both the multiple-choice questions (t = -3.586, p = .001) and the open-ended questions (t = -5.04, p = .000). They performed better on the post interviews as well. Also, it is found that design-based instruction helped students comprehend core concepts of a life science subject, animals. Conclusions: Based on these results, the main argument of the study is that engineering design is a useful framework for teaching not only physical science-related subjects, but

  11. Prometheus unbound - challenges of risk evaluation, risk classification, and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1999-11-01

    For dealing with risks in a rational fashion, it is necessary to characterize risks and use the parameters of characterization as tools for designing appropriate actions. This reports suggests a set of criteria that one can use in evaluating risks. These criteria include: - Damage potential, i.e. the amount of damage that the hazard can cause; - probability of occurrence, i.e. the likelihood that a specific damage will occur; - incertitude, i.e., the remaining uncertainties that are not covered by the assessment of probabilities (subdivided in statistical uncertainties, genuine uncertainty, and ignorance); - ubiquity which defines the geographic dispersion of potential damages (intragenerational justice); - persistency which defines the temporal extension of potential damages (intergenerational justice); - irreversibility which describes the impossible restoration of the situation to the state before the damage occurred (possible restoration are e.g. reforestation and cleaning of water); - delay effects which characterize the time of latency between the initial event and the actual impact of damage. The time of latency could be of physical, chemical or biological nature; and - potential of mobilization which is understood as violation of individual, social or cultural interests and values generating social conflicts and psychological reactions by affected people. (orig.)

  12. Towards automation of control software: a review of challenges in mechatronic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Cabrera, A.A.; Foeken, M.J.; Tekin, O.A.; Woestenenk, K.; Erden, M.S.; De Schutter, B.; Tooren, M.J.L.; Babuska, R.; Houten, van F.J.A.M.; Tomiyama, T.

    2010-01-01

    Development of mechatronic systems requires collaboration among experts from different design domains. In this paper the authors identify a set of challenges related to the design of mechatronic systems. The challenges are mostly related to integration of design and analysis tools, and automation of

  13. iPad Learning Ecosystem: Developing Challenge-Based Learning Using Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Catalina; Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking,…

  14. Design, recruitment, and microbiological considerations in human challenge studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Blohmke, Christoph J; Moorthy, Vasee S; Altmann, Daniel M; Hayden, Frederick G; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Adrian V S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research. A range of challenge models and practical approaches to generate important data exist and are used to expedite vaccine and therapeutic development and to support public health modelling and interventions. Although human challenge studies provide a unique opportunity to address complex research questions, participant and investigator safety is paramount. To increase the collaborative effort and future success of this area of research, we recommend the development of consensus frameworks and sharing of best practices between investigators. Furthermore, standardisation of challenge procedures and regulatory guidance will help with the feasibility for using challenge models in clinical testing of new disease intervention strategies.

  15. The Experience City and challenges for Architects and Urban Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    emphasise experiences that challenge, that urge reflection and that contain elements of learning just as the Nordic welfare city must strive for a socially and culturally inclusive urban life which includes offers for many different lifestyles and cultures in its diversity.     Consequently......The article discusse the challenges of the experience economy from a Nordic welfare perspective. It argues that the challenges of the experience economy must be combined with the ambition that our cities are not reduced to entertainment engines. The urban life in the Nordic "welfare cities" must...

  16. Design of Transparent Distributed IMS Network: Security Challenges Risk and Signaling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Allouch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The IP Multimedia subsystem (IMS based on SIP as mechanism signalling and interfaces with otherservers using OSA (Open Service Access and CAMEL (Customized Applications for Mobile networkEnhanced Logic.Is responsible for the interconnection of IP packets with other network, IMS support datacommunication services, voice, video, messaging and web-based technologies. In this work we present adistributed design of architecture that turns up some challenges of transparent mobility on the secured IMSarchitecture. We introduced the architecture with clustering database HSS and automatic storage of datafiles that give a secure access to database. This paper gives an overview of classification of security in IMSnetwork and we show delay analysis comparison in signalling interworking with and without securingGateway (SEG in the registration of any UE in access network based IMS. We show that there is a tradeoffbetween the level of increasing system security and the potential delay incurred by mobility in AccessNetwork .we conclude that this architecture is suitable for operators and services providers for the newbusiness models delivering ,the services based IMS Everywhere, anytime and with any terminals.

  17. A neural network-based optimal spatial filter design method for motor imagery classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Yuksel

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel spatial filter design method is introduced. Spatial filtering is an important processing step for feature extraction in motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces. This paper introduces a new motor imagery signal classification method combined with spatial filter optimization. We simultaneously train the spatial filter and the classifier using a neural network approach. The proposed spatial filter network (SFN is composed of two layers: a spatial filtering layer and a classifier layer. These two layers are linked to each other with non-linear mapping functions. The proposed method addresses two shortcomings of the common spatial patterns (CSP algorithm. First, CSP aims to maximize the between-classes variance while ignoring the minimization of within-classes variances. Consequently, the features obtained using the CSP method may have large within-classes variances. Second, the maximizing optimization function of CSP increases the classification accuracy indirectly because an independent classifier is used after the CSP method. With SFN, we aimed to maximize the between-classes variance while minimizing within-classes variances and simultaneously optimizing the spatial filter and the classifier. To classify motor imagery EEG signals, we modified the well-known feed-forward structure and derived forward and backward equations that correspond to the proposed structure. We tested our algorithm on simple toy data. Then, we compared the SFN with conventional CSP and its multi-class version, called one-versus-rest CSP, on two data sets from BCI competition III. The evaluation results demonstrate that SFN is a good alternative for classifying motor imagery EEG signals with increased classification accuracy.

  18. A wireless sensor network design and implementation for vehicle detection, classification, and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaafreh, A.; Al Assaf, A.

    2013-05-01

    Vehicle intrusion is considered a significant threat for critical zones specially the militarized zones and therefore vehicles monitoring has a great importance. In this paper a small wireless sensor network for vehicle intrusion monitoring consists of a five inexpensive sensor nodes distributed over a small area and connected with a gateway using star topology has been designed and implemented. The system is able to detect a passage of an intrusive vehicle, classify it either wheeled or tracked, and track the direction of its movement. The approach is based on Vehicle's ground vibrations for detection, vehicle's acoustic signature for classification and the Energy- based target localization for tracking. Detection and classification are implemented by using different algorithms and techniques including Analog to Digital Conversion, Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Neural Network .All of these algorithms and techniques are implemented locally in the sensor node using Microchip dsPIC digital signal controller. Results are sent from the sensor node to the gateway using ZigBee technology and then from the gateway to a web server using GPRS technology.

  19. Constellation Program Design Challenges as Opportunities for Educational Outreach- Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC) and the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Education Office both have programs that present design challenges for university senior design classes that offer great opportunities for educational outreach and workforce development. These design challenges have been identified by NASA engineers and scientists as actual design problems faced by the Constellation Program in its exploration missions and architecture. Student teams formed in their senior design class select and then work on a design challenge for one or two semesters. The senior design class follows the requirements set by their university, but it must also comply with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in order to meet the class academic requirements. Based on a one year fellowship at a TSGC university under the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) and several years of experience, lessons learned are presented on the NASA Design Challenge Program.

  20. A Novel System for Non-Invasive Method of Animal Tracking and Classification in Designated Area Using Intelligent Camera System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matuska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a novel system for non-invasive method of animal tracking and classification in designated area. The system is based on intelligent devices with cameras, which are situated in a designated area and a main computing unit (MCU acting as a system master. Intelligent devices track animals and then send data to MCU to evaluation. The main purpose of this system is detection and classification of moving animals in a designated area and then creation of migration corridors of wild animals. In the intelligent devices, background subtraction method and CAMShift algorithm are used to detect and track animals in the scene. Then, visual descriptors are used to create representation of unknown objects. In order to achieve the best accuracy in classification, key frame extraction method is used to filtrate an object from detection module. Afterwards, Support Vector Machine is used to classify unknown moving animals.

  1. Analysis and design of VEK for extreme events - a challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For analysis and design of the VEK building - especially for design against earthquake and airplane crash - a 3D-integral-model had been developed, being able of yielding any global response quantities - displacements, accelerations, sectional forces, response spectra, global reinforcement - for any load actions from one mathematical model. Especially for airplane crash a so called dynamic design results in reinforcement quantities at every time step and so leads to a realistic and economic design. The advantages of the integral-model had been transferred to the design of the processing installation where the structural analysis of steel structures, vessels and piping had been dealt with in one integral mathematical model. (orig.)

  2. Design Innovations and Implementation Challenges - A Case of Smart Textiles in Future Hospital Interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2014-01-01

    Concerned with the overall challenges of implementing design innovations, this paper relates to the specific case of applying smart textiles in future hospital interiors. The methodological approach is inspired by design thinking and implementation processes, and through the scope of a developed...... strategic framework, the implementation challenges will be discussed from a holistic integrative design perspective. With this explorative initiative, our aim is to present specific approaches to progress the design innovation of smart textiles, and the implementation climate of future hospitals....

  3. Usability and Interaction Design - New Challenges for the Scandinavian Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Sundblad, Yngve

    2008-01-01

    tasks are done through a combination of specialized technologies. A wider repertoire of physical instruments is available than the keyboard and the mouse. Based on examples from recent research projects and a collage of concepts and solutions, we discuss how these recent developments challenge our...

  4. Fish Farm Challenge Provides STEM Design Experiences for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton , Robert L.; House, Patty L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Monsanto Corporation partnered with National 4-H Council to help inspire and develop professional skills among young agriculturalists. The Ohio State University created Fish Farm Challenge, which engaged more than 8,000 youth across eight states. Youth were taught about worldwide food insecurity and the importance of aquaculture. They…

  5. Design of a flexible tactile sensor for classification of rigid and deformable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Kootstra, Gert; Bilberg, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    to the resulting pressure. Based on a k-nearest neighbor classifier and using dynamic time warping to calculate the distance between different time series, the system is able to successfully classify objects. Our sensor demonstrates similar classification performance to the Weiss Robotics tactile sensor, while......For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a novel tactile-array sensor based on flexible piezoresistive rubber.We describe the design of the sensor...... and data acquisition system.We evaluate the sensitivity and robustness of the sensor, and show that it is consistent over time with little relaxation. Furthermore, the sensor has the benefit of being flexible, having a high resolution, it is easy to mount, and simple to manufacture. We demonstrate the use...

  6. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  7. Modernisation of Graphic Design: The Possibilities and Challenges of Digitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T.F. Poon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As inventions go, the contrivance of design as a dynamic, fluid, operational vehicle of human technology has always been subject to arguments and debates. The digitalisation of graphic design is a comparatively new field of research, a progressive process that evolves with technological developments. Undoubtedly, the evolution of design practices has transformed the entire design process in ways not deemed possible in the past. The advantages of digitalisation are particularly tangible in the range of possibilities generated by computer-based design tools. The main argument for the increase in “design capital” has been the accessibility of modern art tools to both design practitioners and the wider society, through mass digital culture absorption and the emerging technologies of production and reproduction. In presenting the fundamentals of digitalisation in design practices, this paper retraces the key cornerstones in the evolution of graphic design as an aesthetic medium from the 19th - to 21st -century, while pointing out the expanding, reflexive relationships between design and our environment. The researcher’s aim is to connect the socio-historical developmental frames of social progress and the practical uses of digitalisation in art and design today. The innovations in computermediated design work today grew from experimental platforms in the 20th -century, inasmuch as technological diffusion in the 21st -century Information Age derived from the widespread global embrace of the World Wide Web, multimedia and graphical computing systems. As a result of this development of the technological ‘canvas’, the production of design, aesthetic and cultural objects has shifted from the traditional artist-craftsman-specialist paradigm to reflect a more encompassing, diverse scope of ideas fostered by the exposure to different facets of creative capital and inspirations.

  8. Challenges in Design of an Orientation free Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (µDMFC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hales, Jan Harry

    2014-01-01

    the challenges in design and manufacturing of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) as the power generator in hearing aid devices is investigated. Among the different challenges in design for μDMFC, the CO2 bubble management and orientation independency of the cell are addressed by proposing a spring loaded...

  9. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  10. Benefits, challenges and obstacles of adaptive clinical trial designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Shein-Chung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, the use of adaptive design methods in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development has become popular due to its flexibility and efficiency for identifying potential signals of clinical benefit of the test treatment under investigation. The flexibility and efficiency, however, increase the risk of operational biases with resulting decrease in the accuracy and reliability for assessing the treatment effect of the test treatment under investigation. In its recent draft guidance, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA expresses regulatory concern of controlling the overall type I error rate at a pre-specified level of significance for a clinical trial utilizing adaptive design. The FDA classifies adaptive designs into categories of well-understood and less well-understood designs. For those less well-understood adaptive designs such as adaptive dose finding designs and two-stage phase I/II (or phase II/III seamless adaptive designs, statistical methods are not well established and hence should be used with caution. In practice, misuse of adaptive design methods in clinical trials is a concern to both clinical scientists and regulatory agencies. It is suggested that the escalating momentum for the use of adaptive design methods in clinical trials be slowed in order to allow time for development of appropriate statistical methodologies.

  11. Teacher Challenges to Implement Engineering Design in Secondary Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the current status of technology education teacher practices with respect to engineering design. This article is the third article in a three-part series presenting the results of this study. The first article in the series titled "Examination of Engineering Design Curriculum Content" highlighted the research…

  12. Challenges in Designing and Scaling-up Community Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    hidden or latent resources in neighbourhoods. Both the projects are based on the activities in four pilot locations. They are an application of service design to the public sector that provide interesting insights about designing and scaling up highly localised and personalised services and platforms...

  13. Automatic Dismantling Challenges in the Structural Design of LCD TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Many liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs) end up in the waste stream today. The combination of hazardous materials such as mercury and liquid crystal, and the labor-intensive disassembly of LCD TVs, make the recycling process interesting to automate. However, since there are so many manufacturers the variation of LCD TVs is high, making automation a challenge. Todays most common automatic process utilizes shredders, resulting in degradation of recycled material and possible decont...

  14. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    approach applied throughout design and organizational implementation. To pursue this aim we extend the iterative PD prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating...... improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing stepwise implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. The extended approach is exemplified through...

  15. Optimal design of neural networks for land-cover classification from multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvan-Cardenas, Jose L.

    2004-02-01

    It has long been shown the effectiveness of artificial neural networks to solve highly non-linear problems such as land-cover classification based on multispectral imagery. However, due to the large amount of data that is processed within this kind of applications, it is desirable to design networks with the lowest number of neurons that are capable to separate all of the given classes. At present, there are several methods intended to determine this optimal network. Most of them involve adjoining or pruning hidden neurons followed by further training in iterative fashion, which is generally a very slow process. As an alternative, the approach described in this paper is based on the computation of centroids of relevant clusters for each class samples through the well known clustering method ISODATA. A proper tessellation of the ISODATA centroids allows first the determination of the minimum number of neurons in the first hidden layer that are required to effectively separate all of the classes; and secondly, to compute weight and bias parameters for such neurons. Then, the minimum network required to perform the logic function that combines the halfspaces generated by the first layer into class-discriminant surfaces is determined via a logic function reduction method. This approach is much faster than that of current methods because it allows to determine the optimum network size and compute weight and bias parameters without further iterative adjustments. The procedure was tested with landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Results indicated that (1) the network exhibits good generalization behavior and (2) classification accuracies do not depend on the class boundary complexity but only on the class overlapping extent.

  16. Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge: I. Experimental Design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobler, Gregory; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Phillip J; Liao, Kai; Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric; Rumbaugh, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters as well as probe the dark matter (sub-)structure within the lens galaxy. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly as a result of some dedicated efforts; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ~1000 lens systems consisting of a foreground elliptical galaxy producing multiple images of a background quasar. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community to accurately measure the time delays in strong gravitational lens systems, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we invite the community to take part in a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of "ladders", each containing a group of simulated datasets to be analyzed blindly by participating independent analysis teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed le...

  17. Challenges and perspectives in Service Design curricula. The case of the Service Systems Design Master of Aalborg University in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Morelli, Nicola; Grani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the new Master program on Service Systems Design at Aalborg University in Copenhagen will be presented, focusing on the challenges of building such a curriculum and on its peculiar approach to Service Design through the Problem Based Learning methodology. All the semesters will be d......In this paper the new Master program on Service Systems Design at Aalborg University in Copenhagen will be presented, focusing on the challenges of building such a curriculum and on its peculiar approach to Service Design through the Problem Based Learning methodology. All the semesters...

  18. Review of Fin FET Technology and Circuit Design Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibin Lawrence R,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties in planar CMOS transistor scaling to secure an acceptable gate to channel control FinFET based multi-gate (MuGFET devices have been proposed as a technology option for replacing the existing technology. The desirability of FinFET that it’s operation principle is same as CMOS process. This permits to lengthening the gate scaling beyond the planar transistor limits, sustaining a steep subthreshold slope, better performance with bias voltage scaling and good matching due to low doping concentration in the channel. There are, still, several challenges and limitations that FinFET technology has to face to be competitive with other technology options: Fin shape, pitch, isolation, doping, crystallographic orientation and stressing as well as device parasitic, performance and patterning approaches will be discussed.

  19. Design Issues and Challenges of File Systems for Flash Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano, Michele; Di Carlo, Stefano; Prinetto, Paolo Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to properly address the issues of using NAND flash memories as mass-memory devices from the native file system standpoint. We hope that the ideas and the solutions proposed in this chapter will be a valuable starting point for designers of NAND flash-based mass-memory devices

  20. Universal Design for Learning: Policy Challenges and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Kim M.

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of universal design for learning (UDL) in the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act 2008 (HEA) demonstrates its escalating importance in the education field. UDL concepts and practices are not yet broadly integrated into all education policy. Policy has been slow to catch up to this quickly growing practice. To address that…

  1. Two Paper Airplane Design Challenges: Customizing for Different Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel Z.; Meyer, Allison Antink

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of scientific inquiry into college classrooms has steadily risen as faculty work to move away from exclusively didactic methods. One type of inquiry structure, the design task, produces a product rather than simply a conclusion. This offers students a context to apply their understanding of content in a tangible way that has…

  2. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  3. Activity theory as a challenge to systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests an improvement of the theoretical foundation of information systems research of the 1990s. This foundation is found in human activity theory. The paper deals with how human activity theory can help systems design change, theoretically and practically. Applying activity theory...

  4. Concept learning by direct current design challenges in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Breukelen, D.H.J.; De Vries, M.J.; Schure, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed methods study in which 77 students and 3 teachers took part, that investigated the practice of Learning by Design (LBD). The study is part of a series of studies, funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, that aims to improve student learning, teachi

  5. Curriculum Design Requirements and Challenges of the Learning Society Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Sedighe; Nasr, Ahmad-Reza; Sharif, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Entering the twenty-first century with the development of communities, they are faced with the necessity of moving towards a learning society. University must extend the learning opportunities and improve the quality of them with curriculum design by learning society approach to respond to the necessity. Researchers believe that some conditions…

  6. Designing Effective Serious Games: Opportunities and Challenges for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellotti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Serious Games represent an acknowledged potential for instruction, because they are able to strongly motivate learners. They can also provide immersive environments where advanced users can practice knowledge and skills, also exploiting multimodal interaction. They can combine the effectiveness of computer processing and data storage, with high levels of attractiveness. Our work has investigated the state of the art research on SGs, starting from the cognitive aspects, that are necessary in order to root technological development and applications in sound theoretical foundations. The paper discusses some key aspects about SG design and exploitation: choice of components-off-the-shelf or from-scratch design, tools and methodologies for development or adaptation, intelligent tutoring, virtual coaches and affective learning, living worlds, game mechanics, Human-Computer Interaction. While several SGs have been developed, still the literature stresses a lack of significant, extensive user tests. Further research is necessary to investigate in greater detail the real effectiveness of the various types of SGs. The paper proposes several research questions - that range from requirements elicitation to design and from deployment to use and evaluation - to be answered in order to avoid technology pushing and drive technological research according to the requirements of the end-users and stakeholders. We believe that deepening the analysis about these issues is key to strengthen the foundations of SG research, for which we identify four major directions: definition of metrics and learning progress evaluation tools; methodologies and tools for designing games from various topics and for various users; computing and communication architectures; technologies that can enhance the overall system performance.

  7. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  8. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  9. ARISE: A Challenging 25-m Space Antenna Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Hoferer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth). Future scientific and communications missions are conceptualizing using very large reflector antennas in space. The antenna dimensions are targeted from lOm to 25m beyond. Frequencies coveting L-band through W-band are being considered. these challenging missions, one may refer to ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth), which is projected to utilize a 25-m dual Gregorian optics operating from 8 GHz to 86 Gl-lz . An artist's renditions Gregorian antenna concept is shown . The objective of this mission is to create a space-based VLBI system (integrated with ground based antennas) for high resolution mapping of black holes. Successful realization of ARISE necessitates development of several technologies . The most crucial technology is that of the deployable 25-m reflector that must work at frequencies as high as 43 and 86 GHz. The current baseline selection for ARISE is an inflatable antenna, under development for several other applications in communications and remote sensing.

  10. Remarkable Computing - the Challenge of Designing for the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2004-01-01

    The vision of ubiquitous computing is floating into the domain of the household, despite arguments that lessons from design of workplace artefacts cannot be blindly transferred into the domain of the household. This paper discusses why the ideal of unremarkable or ubiquitous computing is too narrow...... with respect to the household. It points out how understanding technology use, is a matter of looking into the process of use and on how the specific context of the home, in several ways, call for technology to be remarkable rather than unremarkable....

  11. SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE DESIGN CHALLENGES IN AUTOMOTIVE EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Hegde

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern automotives integrate large amount of electronic devices to improve the driving safety andcomfort. This growing number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs with sophisticated software escalatesthe vehicle system design complexity. In this paper we explain the complexity of ECUs in terms ofhardware and software and also we explore the possibility of Common Object Request Broker Architecture(CORBA architecture for the integration of add-on software in ECUs. This reduces the complexity of theembedded system in vehicles and eases the ECU integration by reducing the total number of ECUs in thevehicles.

  12. SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE DESIGN CHALLENGES IN AUTOMOTIVE EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Hegde

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern auto motives integrate large amount of electronic devices to improve the driving safety and comfort. This growing number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs with sophisticated software escalates the vehicle system design complexity. In this paper we explain the complexity of ECUs in terms of hardware and software and also we explore the possibility of Common Object Request Broker Architecture(CORBA architecture for the integration of add-on software in ECUs. This reduces the complexity of the embedded system in vehicles and eases the ECU integration by reducing the total number of ECUs in the vehicles.

  13. Constructing delta realities; Joint Fact Finding challenges in Serious Game Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Pel (Bonno); M. Duijn (Michael); M.X. Janssen (Matti); J. Edelenbos (Jurian)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper addresses the challenges of Joint Fact Finding (JFF) in spatial planning and design. JFF is an important component of a deliberative planning practice: The construction of (problematic) realities is fundamental for the formulation of challenges and solutions.

  14. Co-design and implementation research: challenges and solutions for ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Goodyear-Smith, F; Jackson, C; Greenhalgh, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Implementation science research, especially when using participatory and co-design approaches, raises unique challenges for research ethics committees. Such challenges may be poorly addressed by approval and governance mechanisms that were developed for more traditional research approaches such as randomised controlled trials. Discussion Implementation science commonly involves the partnership of researchers and stakeholders, attempting to understand and encourage uptake of complet...

  15. Four categories of design challenges to building game-based business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus; Harpelund, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Building a business on the basis of designing and selling learning games is seldom a straightforward task. Often, such a project involves a diversity of competencies for handling a wide variety of challenges. On the basis of a longitudinal study of the game ChangeSetter, this chapter proposes...... a four-category approach to understanding such challenges. The four categories include 1) the learning game design, 2) didactic design on how the game is to be used, 3) organisational design for establishing both supply and demand, and finally 4) business design, which concerns the establishment...... of a business model that ensures continual rather than incidental income. While the four categories can be used for understanding the various challenges and what competencies they prompt for, the key argument of the chapter is to start with the business design as it is likely to cause extensive iterations...

  16. The art of spacecraft design: A multidisciplinary challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, F.; Ide, H.; Levine, M.; Austel, L.

    1989-01-01

    Actual design turn-around time has become shorter due to the use of optimization techniques which have been introduced into the design process. It seems that what, how and when to use these optimization techniques may be the key factor for future aircraft engineering operations. Another important aspect of this technique is that complex physical phenomena can be modeled by a simple mathematical equation. The new powerful multilevel methodology reduces time-consuming analysis significantly while maintaining the coupling effects. This simultaneous analysis method stems from the implicit function theorem and system sensitivity derivatives of input variables. Use of the Taylor's series expansion and finite differencing technique for sensitivity derivatives in each discipline makes this approach unique for screening dominant variables from nondominant variables. In this study, the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic and sensitivity derivative/optimization techniques are applied for a simple cone-type forebody of a high-speed vehicle configuration to understand basic aerodynamic/structure interaction in a hypersonic flight condition.

  17. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  18. CFD based extraction column design-Chances and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark W Hlawitschka; Menwer M Attarakih; Samer S Alzyod; Hans-Jrg Bart

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that one-dimensional (1-D) [and three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] simulations can replace the state-of-the-art usage of pseudo-homogeneous dispersion or back mixing models. This is based on standardized lab-scale cel experiments for the determination of droplet rise, breakage, coalescence and mass transfer parameters in addition to a limited number of additional mini-plant experiments with original fluids. Alternatively, the hydrodynamic parameters can also be derived using more sophisticated 3-D CFD simulations. Computational 1-D modeling served as a basis to replace pilot-plant experiments in any column geometry. The combination of 3-D CFD simulations with droplet population balance models (DPBM) increased the accuracy of the hydrodynamic simulations and gave information about the local droplet size. The high computational costs can be reduced by open source CFD codes when using a flexible mesh generation. First combined simulations using a three way coupled CFD/DPBM/mass-transfer solver pave the way for a safer design of industrial-sized columns, where no correlations are available.

  19. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course...

  20. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course contents and relevant teaching methods are discussed.

  1. Multiclass Classification by Adaptive Network of Dendritic Neurons with Binary Synapses using Structural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Shaista eHussain; Arindam eBasu

    2016-01-01

    The development of power-efficient neuromorphic devices presents the challenge of designing spike pattern classification algorithms which can be implemented on low-precision hardware and can also achieve state-of-the-art performance. In our pursuit of meeting this challenge, we present a pattern classification model which uses a sparse connection matrix and exploits the mechanism of nonlinear dendritic processing to achieve high classification accuracy. A rate-based structural learning rule f...

  2. Multiclass Classification by Adaptive Network of Dendritic Neurons with Binary Synapses Using Structural Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Shaista; Basu, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    The development of power-efficient neuromorphic devices presents the challenge of designing spike pattern classification algorithms which can be implemented on low-precision hardware and can also achieve state-of-the-art performance. In our pursuit of meeting this challenge, we present a pattern classification model which uses a sparse connection matrix and exploits the mechanism of nonlinear dendritic processing to achieve high classification accuracy. A rate-based structural learning rule f...

  3. SVM CLASSIFICATION :ITS CONTENTS AND CHALLENGES%SVM法分类:它的内容和挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳士弘; 李平; 郝沛毅

    2003-01-01

    SVM (support vector machines) have become an increasingly popular tool for machine learning tasks involving classification, regression or novelty detection. In particular,they exhibit good generalization performance on many real issues and the approach is properly motivated theoretically. There are relatively a few free parameters to adjust and the architecture of the learning machine does not need to be found by experimentation. In this paper,survey of the key contents on this subject, focusing on the most well-known models based on kernel substitution, namely SVM, as well as the activated fields at present and the development tendency ,is presented.

  4. Some Challenges in the Design of Human-Automation Interaction for Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Roth, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amounts of automation are being introduced to safety-critical domains. While the introduction of automation has led to an overall increase in reliability and improved safety, it has also introduced a class of failure modes, and new challenges in risk assessment for the new systems, particularly in the assessment of rare events resulting from complex inter-related factors. Designing successful human-automation systems is challenging, and the challenges go beyond good interface development (e.g., Roth, Malin, & Schreckenghost 1997; Christoffersen & Woods, 2002). Human-automation design is particularly challenging when the underlying automation technology generates behavior that is difficult for the user to anticipate or understand. These challenges have been recognized in several safety-critical domains, and have resulted in increased efforts to develop training, procedures, regulations and guidance material (CAST, 2008, IAEA, 2001, FAA, 2013, ICAO, 2012). This paper points to the continuing need for new methods to describe and characterize the operational environment within which new automation concepts are being presented. We will describe challenges to the successful development and evaluation of human-automation systems in safety-critical domains, and describe some approaches that could be used to address these challenges. We will draw from experience with the aviation, spaceflight and nuclear power domains.

  5. Challenges and Limitations of Applying an Emotion-driven Design Approach on Elderly Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper L.; Gudmundsson, Hjalte P.; Achiche, Sofiane;

    2011-01-01

    Population ageing is without parallel in human history and the twenty-first century will witness even more rapid ageing than did the century just past. Understanding the user needs of the elderly and how to design better products for this segment of the population is crucial, as it can offer....... To measure the emotional responses of the elderly, a questionnaire was designed and adapted from P.M.A. Desmet’s product-emotion measurement instrument: PrEmo. During the case study it was observed that there were several challenges when carrying out the user survey, and that those challenges particularly...... a competitive advantage for companies. In this paper, challenges of applying an emotion-driven design approach applied on elderly people, in order to identify their user needs towards walking frames, are discussed. The discussion will be based on the experiences and results obtained from the case study...

  6. Investigation of Classification and Design Requirements for Digital Software for Advanced Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the digital technology is being developed drastically, it is being applied to various industrial instrumentation and control (I and C) fields. In the nuclear power plants, I and C systems are also being installed by digital systems replacing their corresponding analog systems installed previously. There had been I and C systems constructed by analog technology especially for the reactor protection system in the research reactor HANARO. Parallel to the pace of the current trend for digital technology, it is desirable that all I and C systems including the safety critical and non-safety systems in an advanced research reactor is to be installed based on the computer based system. There are many attractable features in using digital systems against existing analog systems in that the digital system has a superior performance for a function and it is more flexible than the analog system. And any fruit gained from the newly developed digital technology can be easily incorporated into the existing digital system and hence, the performance improvement of a computer based system can be implemented conveniently and promptly. Moreover, the capability of high integrity in electronic circuits reduces the electronic components needed to construct the processing device and makes the electronic board simple, and this fact reveals that the hardware failure itself are unlikely to occur in the electronic device other than some electric problems. Balanced the fact mentioned above are the roles and related issues of the software loaded on the digital integrated hardware. Some defects in the course of software development might induce a severe damage on the computer system and plant systems and therefore it is obvious that comprehensive and deep considerations are to be placed on the development of the software in the design of I and C system for use in an advanced research reactor. The work investigates the domestic and international standards on the classifications of digital

  7. Investigation of Classification and Design Requirements for Digital Software for Advanced Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gee Young; Jung, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Park, C

    2005-06-15

    As the digital technology is being developed drastically, it is being applied to various industrial instrumentation and control (I and C) fields. In the nuclear power plants, I and C systems are also being installed by digital systems replacing their corresponding analog systems installed previously. There had been I and C systems constructed by analog technology especially for the reactor protection system in the research reactor HANARO. Parallel to the pace of the current trend for digital technology, it is desirable that all I and C systems including the safety critical and non-safety systems in an advanced research reactor is to be installed based on the computer based system. There are many attractable features in using digital systems against existing analog systems in that the digital system has a superior performance for a function and it is more flexible than the analog system. And any fruit gained from the newly developed digital technology can be easily incorporated into the existing digital system and hence, the performance improvement of a computer based system can be implemented conveniently and promptly. Moreover, the capability of high integrity in electronic circuits reduces the electronic components needed to construct the processing device and makes the electronic board simple, and this fact reveals that the hardware failure itself are unlikely to occur in the electronic device other than some electric problems. Balanced the fact mentioned above are the roles and related issues of the software loaded on the digital integrated hardware. Some defects in the course of software development might induce a severe damage on the computer system and plant systems and therefore it is obvious that comprehensive and deep considerations are to be placed on the development of the software in the design of I and C system for use in an advanced research reactor. The work investigates the domestic and international standards on the classifications of digital

  8. LTE and the evolution to 4G wireless design and measurement challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rumney, Moray

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide to LTE design, test and measurement, this new edition has been updated to include the latest developments This book presents the latest details on LTE from a practical and technical perspective. Written by Agilent's measurement experts, it offers a valuable insight into LTE technology and its design and test challenges. Chapters cover the upper layer signaling and system architecture evolution (SAE). Basic concepts such as MIMO and SC-FDMA, the new uplink modulation scheme, are introduced and explained, and the authors look into the challenges of verifying the

  9. Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming and Video On Demand Design Issues and its Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    K, Hareesh

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer Live streaming and Video on Demand is the most popular media applications over the Internet in recent years. These systems reduce the load on the server and provide a scalable content distribution. A new paradigm of P2P network collaborates to build large distributed video applications on existing networks .But, the problem of designing the system are at par with the P2P media streaming, live and Video on demand systems. Hence a comprehensive design comparison is needed to build such kind of system architecture. Therefore, in this paper we elaborately studied the traditional approaches for P2P streaming architectures, and its critical design issues, as well as practicable challenges. Thus, our studies in this paper clearly point the tangible design issues and its challenges, and other intangible issues for providing P2P VoD services.

  10. New Challenges for Design Participation in the Era of Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brereton, Margot; Buur, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Since the event of participatory design in the work democracy projects of the 1970’s and 1980’s in Scandinavia, computing technology and people’s engagement with it have undergone fundamental changes. Although participatory design continues to be a precondition for designing computing that aligns...... with human practices, the motivations to engage in participatory design have changed, and the new era requires formats that are different from the original ones. Through the analysis of three case studies this paper seeks to explain why participatory design must be brought to bear on the field of ubiquitous...... computing, and how this challenges the original participatory design thinking. In particular we will argue that more casual, exploratory formats of engagement with people are required, and rather than planning the all-encompassing systems development project, participatory design needs to move towards...

  11. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Manikandan; Srinivasan Subha

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and predi...

  12. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Suhaily,; Mohammad Jawaid; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil,; A. Rahman Mohamed; , F. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and te...

  13. Present day design challenges exemplified by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present day design challenges faced by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant engineer result from two causes. The first cause is aspiration to achieve a design that will operate at conditions which are desirable for future LMFBRs in order for them to achieve low power costs and good breeding. The second cause is the licensing impact. Although licensing the CRBRP won't eliminate future licensing effort, many licensing questions will have been resolved and precedents set for the future LMFBR industry

  14. What Values in Design? The Challenge of Incorporating Moral Values into Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders-Huits, N.L.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there is increased attention to the integration of moral values into the conception, design, and development of emerging IT. The most reviewed approach for this purpose in ethics and technology so far is Value-Sensitive Design (VSD). This article considers VSD as the prime candidate for im

  15. Environmentally Design; Barriers and Challenges in the Integrated Design Process Approch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    heating. The paper will shortly present the method of the Integrated Design Process (IDP). It describes the background and means for developing a new method for designing integrated architecture in an interdisciplinary approach between architecture and engineering. It also describes the barriers and the...

  16. Is classification necessary after Google?

    OpenAIRE

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine challenges facing bibliographic classification at both the practical and theoretical levels. At the practical level, libraries are increasingly dispensing with classifying books. At the theoretical level, many researchers, managers, and users believe that the activity of “classification” is not worth the effort, as search engines can be improved without the heavy cost of providing metadata. Design/methodology/approach – The basic issue in clas...

  17. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  18. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  19. Hybrid Societies: Challenges and Perspectives in the Design of Collective Behavior in Self-organizing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eHamann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid societies are self-organizing, collective systems composed of different components, for example, natural and artificial parts (bio-hybrid or human beings interacting with and through technical systems (socio-technical. Many different disciplines investigate methods and systems closely related to the design of hybrid societies. A~stronger collaboration between these disciplines could allow for re-use of methods and create significant synergies. We identify three main areas of challenges in the design of self-organizing hybrid societies. First, we identify the formalization challenge. There is an urgent need for a generic model that allows a description and comparison of collective hybrid societies. Second, we identify the system design challenge. Starting from the formal specification of the system, we need to develop an integrated design process. Third, we identify the challenge of interdisciplinarity. Current research on self-organizing hybrid societies stretches over many different fields and hence requires the re-use and synthesis of methods at intersections between disciplines. We then conclude by presenting our perspective for future approaches with high potential in this area.

  20. Curriculum Design Practices of a Vocational Community College in a Developing Context: Challenges and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albashiry, Nabeel M.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2015-01-01

    Aligning vocational curricula with the labor market needs is a common reported challenge in developing countries. Little is known, however, about how vocational community colleges in such contexts regularly review and redesign their curricula to ensure the quality and relevance of their programs. From a curriculum design (CD) perspective, this…

  1. Feasibility Study on a Portable Field Pest Classification System Design Based on DSP and 3G Wireless Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP, which uses a digital signal processor (DSP as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP. The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests’ pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture.

  2. Feasibility study on a portable field pest classification system design based on DSP and 3G wireless communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruizhen; He, Yong; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests' pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture. PMID:22736996

  3. Metalloprotein and metallo-DNA/RNAzyme design: current approaches, success measures, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-12-11

    Specific metal-binding sites have been found in not only proteins but also DNA and RNA molecules. Together these metalloenzymes consist of a major portion of the enzyme family and can catalyze some of the most difficult biological reactions. Designing these metalloenzymes can be both challenging and rewarding because it can provide deeper insights into the structure and function of proteins and cheaper and more stable alternatives for biochemical and biotechnological applications. Toward this goal, both rational and combinatorial approaches have been used. The rational approach is good for designing metalloenzymes that are well characterized, such as heme proteins, while the combinatorial approach is better at designing those whose structures are poorly understood, such as metallo-DNA/RNAzymes. Among the rational approaches, de novo design is at its best when metal-binding sites reside in a scaffold whose structure has been designed de novo (e.g., alpha-helical bundles). Otherwise, design using native scaffolds can be equally effective, allowing more choices of scaffolds whose structural stability is often more resistant to multiple mutations. In addition, computational and empirical designs have both enjoyed successes. Because of the limitation in defining structural parameters for metal-binding sites, a computational approach is restricted to mostly metal-binding sites that are well defined, such as mono- or homonuclear centers. An empirical approach, even though it is less restrictive in the metal-binding sites to be designed, depends heavily on one's knowledge and choice of templates and targets. An emerging approach is a combination of both computational and empirical approaches. The success of these approaches can be measured not only by three-dimensional structural comparison between the designed and target enzymes but also by the total amount of insight obtained from the design process and studies of the designed enzymes. One of the biggest advantages of

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Establishing Design as a Research Discipline in Civil and Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    faculty, research and education communities, conferences, and journals. However, design remains an emerging sub-discipline in civil and environmental engineering – practiced, valued, and taught but not subject to rigorous academic research. This paper presents some of the challenges associated...... with the establishment of design as a research discipline within civil and environmental engineering, some of the benefits and opportunities that will come from that establishment, and some evidence for the fact that this process has already begun.......There are a number of fields including architecture, industrial design, and urban planning and design, where design is the discipline upon which all research and teaching activities are based. In other fields such as aerospace and mechanical engineering, design is a sub-discipline with its own...

  5. Device and Circuit Design Challenges in the Digital Subthreshold Region for Ultralow-Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vaddi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, subthreshold operation has gained a lot of attention due to ultra low-power consumption in applications requiring low to medium performance. It has also been shown that by optimizing the device structure, power consumption of digital subthreshold logic can be further minimized while improving its performance. Therefore, subthreshold circuit design is very promising for future ultra low-energy sensor applications as well as high-performance parallel processing. This paper deals with various device and circuit design challenges associated with the state of the art in optimal digital subthreshold circuit design and reviews device design methodologies and circuit topologies for optimal digital subthreshold operation. This paper identifies the suitable candidates for subthreshold operation at device and circuit levels for optimal subthreshold circuit design and provides an effective roadmap for digital designers interested to work with ultra low-power applications.

  6. Challenges in the design of Waste Management Plant (WMP) for Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 500 MW, Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is being constructed by DAE at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu. Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF) is also being planned as an integrated facility in close proximity to PFBR to cater to the need of closing the fast reactor fuel cycle. The design of waste management plant of FRFCF is one of the important and challenging tasks in FRFCF. The high burn up, short cooling period and high fissile content of spent fuel input from fast Reactors to FRFCF are the main reasons for the difficulties / challenges posed in the management of wastes from FRFCF. Separation of actinides and Platinum Group Metals (PGM) from high level liquid wastes, higher waste oxide loading in vitrified waste product from high level liquid waste management, development of better sorbent and chemical treatment method for achieving higher decontamination factors in the treatment of low and intermediate level liquid wastes and separation of plutonium from spent / de-graded solvent waste are some of the challenges which are addressed in this paper. Solid waste management is also associated with major challenges because of high volume of alpha contaminated wastes. Proper segregation, assaying, conditioning and treatment for volume reduction are planned. Management of significant amount of solid wastes generated as fuel hardware components (alpha and non-alpha) through proper storage and retrieval for future conditioning / disposal are also addressed in this paper. This paper describes the challenges faced during the design and solutions provided for each system. (author)

  7. NANOPARTICLE DESIGN AND HANDLING--CHALLENGES FOR ENGINEERS AND PARTICLE TECHNOLOGISTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.; Einar; Kruis; Rakesh; K.; Joshi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the opportunities and challenges which future applications based on nanoparticles offer to engineers are described. New high-added value products induce us to rethink ways to control nanoparticle design and handling. Several challenges are described and typical solutions are given: (1) finding relevant engineering tasks outside traditional process industry; (2) the importance of mixing reactants; (3) obtaining monodisperse particles; (4) gaining efficient control via electric forces and (5) developing multi-step processes which allow more control over particle properties.

  8. The Design and Management of Medical Device Clinical Trials Strategies and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-aleem, Salah M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials tasks and activities are widely diverse and require certain skill sets to both plan and execute. This book provides professionals in the field of clinical research with valuable information on the challenging issues of the design, execution, and management of clinical trials, and how to resolve these issues effectively. It discusses key obstacles such as challenges to patient recruitment, investigator and study site selection, and dealing with compliance issues. Through practical examples, professionals working with medical device clinical trials will discover the appropriate s

  9. As-Built design specification for the CLASFYT program. [production of classification files - crop inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The CLASFYT program is described in detail. The program produces a one-channel universal-formatted classification file. Trajectory coefficients and a composite set of tolerance values are calculated from five acquisitions of radiance values in each of the training fields corresponding to up to ten agricultural products. These coefficients and tolerance values are used to classify each pixel in the test field of the same segment to be the same agricultural product as one of the training fields, none of the products or a screened pixel.

  10. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  11. Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend, J. G., II; Beßler, Y.; Klaus, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

  12. Integration of scholastic curriculum in computergames – impossible or a design challenge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    The present paper argues that integration of scholastic knowledge in computer games is a design challenge and one that will only work if you preserve the computer game as a game. This is important cause if you don’t adhere to or understand the dynamics of computer games you run the risk of destro......The present paper argues that integration of scholastic knowledge in computer games is a design challenge and one that will only work if you preserve the computer game as a game. This is important cause if you don’t adhere to or understand the dynamics of computer games you run the risk...... of destroying your own goal. In order to integrate the scholastic curriculum in computer games for a learning purpose it is and can not be stressed enough important to preserve the action-outcome circle inside the game world. Stated in simpler terms this means that users of learning games must see...

  13. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  14. HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipeline and riser design in Guanabara Bay: challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfimsilva, Carlos; Jorge, Joao Paulo Carrijo; Schmid, Dominique; Gomes, Rodrigo Klim [INTECSEA, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, Alexander Piraja [GDK, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Worldwide shipments of plastic pipes are forecasted to increase 5.2% per year since 2008, being commonly used for water supply and sewage disposal. The HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipes have been applied recently to deliver potable water and fire fighting water for the main pier of the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro. The system contains three sizes of pipe outside diameter, 110 mm and 160 mm for water supply, and 500 mm for the fire fighting system. The main design challenges of the pipeline system included providing on-bottom stability, a suitable installation procedure and a proper riser design. The on-bottom stability calculations, which are quite different from the conventional steel pipelines, were developed by designing concrete blocks to be assembled on the pipeline in a required spacing to assure long term stability, knowing that plastic pipes are buoyant even in flooded conditions. The installation procedure was developed considering the lay down methodology based on surface towing technique. The riser was designed to be installed together with additional steel support structure to allow the entire underwater system to have the same plastic pipe specification up to the surface. This paper presents the main challenges that were faced during the design of the HDPE pipelines for the LNG system in Guanabara Bay, addressing the solutions and recommendations adopted for the plastic underwater pipeline system.

  15. Classification of panic attack subtypes in patients and normal controls in response to biological challenge: implications for assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Norman B; Forsyth, John P; Santiago, Helen T; Trakowski, John H

    2002-01-01

    Panic attacks are symptomatically heterogeneous but efforts to describe such heterogeneity are relatively new. With regard to symptom presentation, at least three types of panic attack have been proposed based on the coupling or decoupling of verbal-cognitive and physiological symptoms: prototypic, cognitive, and nonfearful panic. The central aim of the present study was to address whether patients with panic disorder (PD) and nonclinical controls (NC) could be classified and discriminated (within and between groups) in terms of subtypes of panic attacks based on convergence and divergence of physiological and subjective arousal. Two samples of patients with PD (n = 94) and NC (n = 70) were exposed to single-breath vital capacity (VC) inhalations of 35% CO2/65% O2. Subjective anxiety and cardiovascular (heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DSP)) reactivity to the challenge were measured. For reactive participants, response patterns suggested the production of differentiated and stable panic attack subtypes described as: (1) prototypical (high subjective, high physiological), (2) cognitive (high subjective, low physiological), and (3) nonfearful (low subjective, high physiological). Subtype frequency differed between groups (prototypical: 33% PD, 8% NC; cognitive: 37% PD, 4% NC; nonfearful: 11% PD, 42% NC). A panic attack typology based on convergence and divergence of different response systems appears to reliably discriminate patients with panic disorder and may have relevance for predicting clinical characteristics, treatment modality, and prognosis. PMID:12405522

  16. Technology Transfer Challenges: A Case Study of User-Centered Design in NASA's Systems Engineering Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Stage (US) section of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ares I rocket will require internal access platforms for maintenance tasks performed by humans inside the vehicle. Tasks will occur during expensive critical path operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) including vehicle stacking and launch preparation activities. Platforms must be translated through a small human access hatch, installed in an enclosed worksite environment, support the weight of ground operators and be removed before flight - and their design must minimize additional vehicle mass at attachment points. This paper describes the application of a user-centered conceptual design process and the unique challenges encountered within NASA's systems engineering culture focused on requirements and "heritage hardware". The NASA design team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) initiated the user-centered design process by studying heritage internal access kits and proposing new design concepts during brainstorming sessions. Simultaneously, they partnered with the Technology Transfer/Innovative Partnerships Program to research inflatable structures and dynamic scaffolding solutions that could enable ground operator access. While this creative, technology-oriented exploration was encouraged by upper management, some design stakeholders consistently opposed ideas utilizing novel, untested equipment. Subsequent collaboration with an engineering consulting firm improved the technical credibility of several options, however, there was continued resistance from team members focused on meeting system requirements with pre-certified hardware. After a six-month idea-generating phase, an intensive six-week effort produced viable design concepts that justified additional vehicle mass while optimizing the human factors of platform installation and use. Although these selected final concepts closely resemble heritage internal access platforms, challenges from the application of the

  17. Classification of red wine based on its protected designation of origin (PDO) using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S; Rosales, J D; Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; Anzano, J; Caceres, J O

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on a simple and fast classification procedure for the quality control of red wines with protected designation of origin (PDO) by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique combined with Neural Networks (NN) in order to increase the quality assurance and authenticity issues. A total of thirty-eight red wine samples from different PDO were analyzed to detect fake wines and to avoid unfair competition in the market. LIBS is well known for not requiring sample preparation, however, in order to increase its analytical performance a new sample preparation treatment by previous liquid-to-solid transformation of the wine using a dry collagen gel has been developed. The use of collagen pellets allowed achieving successful classification results, avoiding the limitations and difficulties of working with aqueous samples. The performance of the NN model was assessed by three validation procedures taking into account their sensitivity (internal validation), generalization ability and robustness (independent external validation). The results of the use of a spectroscopic technique coupled with a chemometric analysis (LIBS-NN) are discussed in terms of its potential use in the food industry, providing a methodology able to perform the quality control of alcoholic beverages. PMID:27343593

  18. Product Classification in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lihong; Xu, Yaoxuan

    2010-01-01

    Oriflame is a famous international direct sale cosmetics company with complicated supply chain operation but it lacks of a product classification system. It is vital to design a product classification method in order to support Oriflame global supply planning and improve the supply chain performance. This article is aim to investigate and design the multi-criteria of product classification, propose the classification model, suggest application areas of product classification results and intro...

  19. Device reliability challenges for modern semiconductor circuit design – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlünder

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Product development based on highly integrated semiconductor circuits faces various challenges. To ensure the function of circuits the electrical parameters of every device must be in a specific window. This window is restricted by competing mechanisms like process variations and device degradation (Fig. 1. Degradation mechanisms like Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI or Hot Carrier Injection (HCI lead to parameter drifts during operation adding on top of the process variations.

    The safety margin between real lifetime of MOSFETs and product lifetime requirements decreases at advanced technologies. The assignment of tasks to ensure the product lifetime has to be changed for the future. Up to now technology development has the main responsibility to adjust the technology processes to achieve the required lifetime. In future, reliability can no longer be the task of technology development only. Device degradation becomes a collective challenge for semiconductor technologist, reliability experts and circuit designers. Reliability issues have to be considered in design as well to achieve reliable and competitive products. For this work, designers require support by smart software tools with built-in reliability know how. Design for reliability will be one of the key requirements for modern product designs.

    An overview will be given of the physical device damage mechanisms, the operation conditions within circuits leading to stress and the impact of the corresponding device parameter degradation on the function of the circuit. Based on this understanding various approaches for Design for Reliability (DfR will be described. The function of aging simulators will be explained and the flow of circuit-simulation will be described. Furthermore, the difference between full custom and semi custom design and therefore, the different required approaches will be discussed.

  20. Medial temporal lobe activity during semantic classification using a flexible fMRI design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Lazeron, R.H.C.; Jonker, C.

    2002-01-01

    n this study, we evaluated the use of a self-paced PORI design, to allow a flexible speed of responding with only four alternating stimulus blocks to minimize the influence of task switching on a group of young subjects. This was done in view of our intention to use such a design on groups of elderl

  1. Design requirements, challenges, and solutions for high-temperature falling particle receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford

    2016-05-01

    Falling particle receivers (FPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. Previous analysis for FPR systems include computational fluid dynamics (CFD), analytical evaluations, and experiments to determine the feasibility and achievability of this CSP technology. Sandia National Laboratories has fabricated and tested a 1 MWth FPR that consists of a cavity receiver, top hopper, bottom hopper, support structure, particle elevator, flux target, and instrumentation. Design requirements and inherent challenges were addressed to enable continuous operation of flowing particles under high-flux conditions and particle temperatures over 700 °C. Challenges include being able to withstand extremely high temperatures (up to 1200°C on the walls of the cavity), maintaining particle flow and conveyance, measuring temperatures and mass flow rates, filtering out debris, protecting components from direct flux spillage, and measuring irradiance in the cavity. Each of the major components of the system is separated into design requirements, associated challenges and corresponding solutions. The intent is to provide industry and researchers with lessons learned to avoid pitfalls and technical problems encountered during the development of Sandia's prototype particle receiver system at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF).

  2. Achieving Transmission Fairness in Distributed Medium Access Wireless Mesh Networks: Design Challenges, Guidelines and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salitha Priyanka Undugodage

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networking gained an international interest over the years as a result to high recognition inthe wireless industry as a cost effective, scalable, wider coverage and capacity capable wireless technology.The contention based distributed medium access in wireless networks has advanced not only in supportingthe quality of multimedia but also achieving high throughput and to minimize packet delay overheads inlegacy systems. Unfortunately, the impact of such enhancement has not been fully justified with meshnetwork environments yet. The medium access framesare required to be contended over multi-hops toovercome the challenges of improving overall systemperformance through concurrent transmissions. Thegoal of this paper is to discuss the issues and challenges of transmission fairness and the effect ofconcurrent transmission on system performance. To mitigate transmission fairness issues, we reviewexisting open literature on mesh networking and provide guidelines for better system design anddeployment. Finally, we conclude the paper with future research directions. This study may help networkdesigner and planner to overcome the remaining challenging issues in the design and deployment of WMNsworldwide.

  3. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the contemporary expectations to engineers and their training at engineering schools. But what is entrepreneurship? We propose three different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship in engineering and design programs. They are: (1) the technology-driven promotion response...... centered in technological development; (2) the business selection response strategy centered in business skills (which should be additional to the technical skills); and (3) the design intervention response strategy focused on a network approach to technology, business and society. These conceptualizations...... are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academicreform and the international accreditation...

  4. Entrepreneurship and response strategies to challenges in engineering and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the contemporary expectations to engineers and their training at engineering schools. But what is entrepreneurship? We propose three different conceptualizations of entrepreneurship in engineering and design programs. They are: (I) the technology-driven promotion response...... centered in technological development; (2) the business selection response strategy centered in business skills (which should be additional to the technical skills); and (3) the design intervention response strategy focused on a network approach to technology, business and society. These conceptualizations...... are response strategies from engineering communities, professors and institutions to perceived challenges. We argue that all engineering educators deal in one way or another with the three response strategies when approaching issues of curricular design, academic reform and the international accreditation...

  5. Mechatronic futures challenges and solutions for mechatronic systems and their designers

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, David

    2016-01-01

    Offering a comprehensive overview of the challenges, risks and options facing the future of mechatronics, this book provides insights into how these issues are currently assessed and managed. Building on the previously published book ‘Mechatronics in Action,’ it identifies and discusses the key issues likely to impact on future mechatronic systems. It supports mechatronics practitioners in identifying key areas in design, modeling and technology and places these in the wider context of concepts such as cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things. For educators it considers the potential effects of developments in these areas on mechatronic course design, and ways of integrating these. Written by experts in the field, it explores topics including systems integration, design, modeling, privacy, ethics and future application domains. Highlighting novel innovation directions, it is intended for academics, engineers and students working in the field of mechatronics, particularly those developing new conc...

  6. Molecular phylogeny of Arcoidea with emphasis on Arcidae species (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia) along the coast of China: challenges to current classification of arcoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanwei; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng

    2015-04-01

    The current classifications of arcoids are based on phenetic similarity, which display considerable convergence in several shell and anatomical characters, challenging phylogenetic analysis. Independent molecular analysis of DNA sequences is often necessary for accurate taxonomic assignments of arcoids, especially when morphological characters are equivocal. Here we present molecular evidence of the phylogenetic relationships among arcoid species based on Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of three nuclear genes (18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, and histone H3) and two mitochondrial genes (COI and 12S). Tree topologies are discussed by considering traditional arrangements of taxonomic units and previous molecular studies. The results confirm the monophyly of the order Arcoida, the family Noetiidae, and the subfamilies Anadarinae and Striarcinae, with support for the inclusion of the Glycymerididae in the Arcoidea. The subfamily Arcinae and the genera Arca, Barbatia, Scapharca, Anadara, and Glycymeris are non-monophyletic, suggesting that taxonomic issues still remain. The families Noetiidae, Cucullaeidae, and Glycymerididae appear as subgroups within, rather than sister groups to, the Arcidae. This study strongly suggests the need to carry out a taxonomic revision of the Arcoidea, especially the Arcidae, through combined analysis of morphological, paleontological, and molecular data.

  7. Design and test challenges in Nano-scale analog and mixed CMOS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Karmani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of integration densities in Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOStechnology has driven the rapid growth of very large scale integrated (VLSI circuit for today's high-techelectronics industries from consumer products to telecommunications and computers. As CMOStechnologies are scaled down into the nanometer range, analog and mixed integrated circuit (IC design andtesting have become a real challenge to ensure the functionality and quality of the product. The first part ofthe paper presents the CMOS technology scaling impact on design and reliability for consumer and criticalapplications. We then propose a discussion on the role and challenges of testing analog and mixed devicesin the nano-scale era. Finally we present the IDDQ testing technique used to detect the most likely defects ofbridging type occurring in analog CMOS circuits during the manufacturing process and creating a resistivepath between VDD supply and the ground.To prove the efficiency of the proposed technique we design a CMOS 90nm operational amplifier (Opamp and a Built in Current Sensor (BICS to validate the technique and correlate it with post layoutsimulation results.

  8. IPAD LEARNING ECOSYSTEM: Developing Challenge-Based Learning using Design Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina MARIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and provides an overview of the pilot implementation of the course. The course achieved its goals to a great extent in that learners felt that they were beginning to help build a better college community by sharing stories of their learning experience and their insights about the essential question they chose with other students and with other teachers. The course also helped the students discover the use of English as they found ways to reach out to the broader college community and held meaningful conversations with teachers, librarians, managers, and staff from different departments and other students. The course transformed the teacher/researcher into an observer of learning and a guide, thus flipping the classroom and allowing the learners to take responsibility and steer their own learning experiences. Further development is needed in the areas of CBL assessment rubric development in English Language Teaching (ELT and the analysis of student generated content through iPad applications.

  9. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  10. Design to Process Capabilities: challenges for the use of Process Capability Databases (PCDBs) in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Göhler, Simon Moritz; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    capabilities may lead to low yields and a cost/time overrun, conservatively underestimated capabilities affect quality through the reduced design space, or through increased play, rattle/noise, size or weight. A possibility to overcome the subjective assessment of variation in development projects is a Process...... Capability Data Base (PCDB) offering valuable insight into the actual or expected performance of production processes (Tata and Thornton, 1999). But although the potential benefits as well as initial challenges for the use of PCDBs have been addressed in earlier research, e. g. by Delaney and Phelan (2008...

  11. 14 CFR 21.93 - Classification of changes in type design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of this chapter does not apply, or (ii) Designated for dispensing fire fighting materials to which... January 1, 1955 or (iv) Land configured aircraft reconfigured with floats or skis. This reconfiguration... 1, 1966; (B) For dispensing fire fighting materials; or (C) For carrying external loads, as...

  12. Soil and rock classification according to thermal conductivity: Design of ground-coupled heat pump systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, L.A.; Marlowe, J.I.

    1989-08-01

    This study establishes the ranges of values of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the various soils and rocks in the United States and provides this information in a form that can be used in the design of ground-coupled heat pump systems. It presents a simple classification system for use in the identification of soils and rocks by persons not trained in soil mechanics or petrology. This technical document is given practical application in a companion field manual for the identification and classification of thermal conductivity of the various soils and rocks that can be encountered in the United States. The field manual, supported by EPRI, was published by the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association. The soil study provides a correlation between thermal resistivity and moisture content. It examines temporal behavior of ambient soil moisture and influence of environmental factors on soil moisture content. It cites factors known to influence soil moisture content, and the National Soil Moisture Study, which provided ambient soil moisture data for a four- to six-year period in six states. It discusses limit states of soil moisture content (field capacity and wilting point) and use of these states to define approximate extremes of ambient soil moisture levels. It proposes a new method of normalization of soil moisture content by its limit states -- the thermal moisture index -- and investigates some of its properties. It uses a mathematical simulator of soil/water hydraulics -- the EPIC model -- to illustrate effects of soil texture, precipitation, and soil temperature on soil moisture under more controlled conditions and with greater geographic coverage than is obtainable from National Soil Moisture Study data. Results of this study demonstrate that four general soil groups can be used to determine earth-loop size (pipe length) for ground-coupled heat pump systems. 48 refs., 162 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Classification of electrocaloric cooling device types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, P.; Raatz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The research on the electrocaloric effect (ECE), the materials and their application has significantly increased in the last years, which resulted in several different concepts and demonstrators of electrocaloric (EC) cooling devices. The aim of this paper is to give a systematic overview of possible design concepts of EC cooling devices and to provide a method for their classification. Nine different device types could be distinguished. Each device type is being specified according to function principle, characteristic properties, technical challenges and technical readiness level. This classification and state of the art reveal areas requiring deeper research and can help researchers and engineers to select appropriate concepts for further investigation, improvement and application.

  14. Pattern recognition and classification an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition and classification is fundamental to many of the automated electronic systems in use today. However, despite the existence of a number of notable books in the field, the subject remains very challenging, especially for the beginner. Pattern Recognition and Classification presents a comprehensive introduction to the core concepts involved in automated pattern recognition. It is designed to be accessible to newcomers from varied backgrounds, but it will also be useful to researchers and professionals in image and signal processing and analysis, and in computer visi

  15. Design of Sustainable Biofuel Processes and Supply Chains: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G. Zaimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current methodological approach for developing sustainable biofuel processes and supply chains is flawed. Life cycle principles are often retrospectively incorporated in the design phase resulting in incremental environmental improvement rather than selection of fuel pathways that minimize environmental impacts across the life cycle. Further, designing sustainable biofuel supply chains requires joint consideration of economic, environmental, and social factors that span multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, traditional life cycle assessment (LCA ignores economic aspects and the role of ecological goods and services in supply chains, and hence is limited in its ability for guiding decision-making among alternatives—often resulting in sub-optimal solutions. Simultaneously incorporating economic and environment objectives in the design and optimization of emerging biofuel supply chains requires a radical new paradigm. This work discusses key research opportunities and challenges in the design of emerging biofuel supply chains and provides a high-level overview of the current “state of the art” in environmental sustainability assessment of biofuel production. Additionally, a bibliometric analysis of over 20,000 biofuel research articles from 2000-to-present is performed to identify active topical areas of research in the biofuel literature, quantify the relative strength of connections between various biofuels research domains, and determine any potential research gaps.

  16. DESIGN AN ADVANCE COMPUTER-AIDED TOOL FOR IMAGE AUTHENTICATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Teymourzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, advancements in the fields of digital image processing and artificial intelligence have been applied in solving many real-life problems. This could be seen in facial image recognition for security systems, identity registrations. Hence a bottleneck of identity registration is image processing. These are carried out in form of image preprocessing, image region extraction by cropping, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and image compression using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. Other processing include filtering and histogram equalization using contrast stretching is performed while enhancing the image as part of the analytical tool. Hence, this research work presents a universal integration image forgery detection analysis tool with image facial recognition using Black Propagation Neural Network (BPNN processor. The proposed designed tool is a multi-function smart tool with the novel architecture of programmable error goal and light intensity. Furthermore, its advance dual database increases the efficiency for high performance application. With the fact that, the facial image recognition will always, give a matching output or closest possible output image for every input image irrespective of the authenticity, the universal smart GUI tool is proposed and designed to perform image forgery detection with the high accuracy of ±2% error rate. Meanwhile, a novel structure that provides efficient automatic image forgery detection for all input test images for the BPNN recognition is presented. Hence, an input image will be authenticated before being fed into the recognition tool.

  17. Nominal classification

    OpenAIRE

    Senft, G.

    2007-01-01

    This handbook chapter summarizes some of the problems of nominal classification in language, presents and illustrates the various systems or techniques of nominal classification, and points out why nominal classification is one of the most interesting topics in Cognitive Linguistics.

  18. Assessing the effects of sampling design on water quality status classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charlotte; Freer, Jim; Johnes, Penny; Collins, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires continued reporting of the water quality status of all European waterbodies, with this status partly determined by the time a waterbody exceeds different pollution concentration thresholds. Routine water quality monitoring most commonly takes place at weekly to monthly time steps meaning that potentially important pollution events can be missed. This has the potential to result in the misclassification of water quality status. Against this context, this paper investigates the implications of sampling design on a range of existing water quality status metrics routinely applied to WFD compliance assessments. Previous research has investigated the effect of sampling design on the calculation of annual nutrient and sediment loads using a variety of different interpolation and extrapolation models. This work builds on this foundation, extending the analysis to include the effects of sampling regime on flow- and concentration-duration curves as well as threshold-exceedance statistics, which form an essential part of WFD reporting. The effects of sampling regime on both the magnitude of the summary metrics and their corresponding uncertainties are investigated. This analysis is being undertaken on data collected as part of the Hampshire Avon Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project; a DEFRA funded initiative investigating cost-effective solutions for reducing diffuse pollution from agriculture. The DTC monitoring platform is collecting water quality data at a variety of temporal resolutions and using differing collection methods, including weekly grab samples, daily ISCO autosamples and high resolution samples (15-30 min time step) using analysers in situ on the river bank. Datasets collected during 2011-2013 were used to construct flow- and concentration-duration curves. A bootstrapping methodology was employed to resample randomly the individual datasets and produce distributions of the curves in order to quantify the

  19. Challenges and Progress in Aerodynamic Design of Hybrid Wingbody Aircraft with Embedded Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kim, Hyoungjin; Liou, May-Fun

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the contributions to high-fidelity capabilities for analysis and design of hybrid wingbody (HWB) configurations considered by NASA. Specifically, we focus on the embedded propulsion concepts of the N2-B and N3-X configurations, some of the future concepts seriously investigated by the NASA Fixed Wing Project. The objective is to develop the capability to compute the integrated propulsion and airframe system realistically in geometry and accurately in flow physics. In particular, the propulsion system (including the entire engine core-compressor, combustor, and turbine stages) is vastly more difficult and costly to simulate with the same level of fidelity as the external aerodynamics. Hence, we develop an accurate modeling approach that retains important physical parameters relevant to aerodynamic and propulsion analyses for evaluating the HWB concepts. Having the analytical capabilities at our disposal, concerns and issues that were considered to be critical for the HWB concepts can now be assessed reliably and systematically; assumptions invoked by previous studies were found to have serious consequences in our study. During this task, we establish firmly that aerodynamic analysis of a HWB concept without including installation of the propulsion system is far from realistic and can be misleading. Challenges in delivering the often-cited advantages that belong to the HWB are the focus of our study and are emphasized in this report. We have attempted to address these challenges and have had successes, which are summarized here. Some can have broad implications, such as the concept of flow conditioning for reducing flow distortion and the modeling of fan stages. The design optimization capability developed for improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline HWB configurations is general and can be employed for other applications. Further improvement of the N3-X configuration can be expected by expanding the design space. Finally, the support of

  20. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-08-24

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases).

  1. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  2. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suhaily,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and technology. This research also discusses the need for biocomposite materials that do not depend on the growth of populations, but on the growth and development of the economy. This study focuses on globally available agro-based biocomposites, especially those from oil palm biomass: plywood, medium density fiberboard (MDF, wood plastic composite (WPC, laminated veneer lumber (LVL, oriented strand board (OSB, hardboards, and particleboard. Additional positive aspects of biocomposites are their environmentally friendly character, high quality, competitive design, and capacity to improve the value proposition of high-end products. These attributes increase the demand for agro-based biocomposite furniture on the international market.

  3. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Manikandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  4. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases). PMID:27563912

  5. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases). PMID:27563912

  6. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. PMID:26881271

  7. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Leobardo Herrera-May

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases.

  8. Family-Centered Management of Sensory Challenges of Children With Autism: Single-Case Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effectiveness of a sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach to changing problematic routines for young children with autism. Three mothers of young children with autism, atypical sensory processing, and global developmental delay each participated in a single-case experimental ABA design study. Mothers selected a problematic daily routine linked to sensory challenges as the focus of four intervention sessions provided in the home. Changes in mothers' perceptions of the children's behavior were the primary outcome, measured daily on a visual analog scale. Visual and descriptive analyses were undertaken. The sensory-based, family-centered coaching approach showed promise for changing sensory-related problem behaviors of young children with autism, but the degree and maintenance of the intervention effect varied among participants. PMID:27548868

  9. The offshoring challenge strategic design and innovation for tomorrow’s organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bals, Lydia; Jensen, Peter; Larsen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The continuous search for efficiency gains and the goal of attaining a sustainable competitive advantage have steadily increased the volume of goods and services procured globally from third party vendors. In this context, named as “the next wave of globalization”, the offshoring phenomenon has stimulated research and political debates. With the rise of services offshoring, international value chain disaggregation for services has reached a formerly unknown scale. Also, it is increasingly complex transactions, requiring a higher degree of qualification, which are becoming subject to offshoring as well. The Offshoring Challenge: Strategic Design and Innovation for Tomorrow’s Organization features selected chapters by an international research community on the topic of offshoring. All potential business models from offshore outsourcing to third party providers are covered, from cooperative arrangements to internal organizational set-ups including captive offshore centers. Contributions have significant in...

  10. Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M

    2011-03-10

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was passed with the goal 'to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security.' Energy security and independence cannot be achieved unless the United States addresses the issue of energy consumption in the building sector and significantly reduces energy consumption in buildings. Commercial and residential buildings account for approximately 40% of the U.S. energy consumption and emit 50% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the U.S. which is more than twice the total energy consumption of the entire U.S. automobile and light truck fleet. A 50%-80% improvement in building energy efficiency in both new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings could significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption and mitigate climate change. Reaching these aggressive building efficiency goals will not happen without significant Federal investments in areas of computational and mathematical sciences. Applied and computational mathematics are required to enable the development of algorithms and tools to design, control and optimize energy efficient buildings. The challenge has been issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Dr. Steven Chu (emphasis added): 'We need to do more transformational research at DOE including computer design tools for commercial and residential buildings that enable reductions in energy consumption of up to 80 percent with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 10 years.' On July 8-9, 2010 a team of technical experts from industry, government and academia were assembled in Arlington, Virginia to identify the challenges associated with developing and deploying newcomputational methodologies and tools thatwill address building energy efficiency. These experts concluded that investments in fundamental applied and computational mathematics will be required to build enabling technology that can be used to realize the target of 80% reductions in energy

  11. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  12. Challenges in the Design and Fabrication of a Lab-on-a-Chip Photoacoustic Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Glière

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The favorable downscaling behavior of photoacoustic spectroscopy has provoked in recent years a growing interest in the miniaturization of photoacoustic sensors. The individual components of the sensor, namely widely tunable quantum cascade lasers, low loss mid infrared (mid-IR waveguides, and efficient microelectromechanical systems (MEMS microphones are becoming available in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS compatible technologies. This paves the way for the joint processes of miniaturization and full integration. Recently, a prototype microsensor has been designed by the means of a specifically designed coupled optical-acoustic model. This paper discusses the new, or more intense, challenges faced if downscaling is continued. The first limitation in miniaturization is physical: the light source modulation, which matches the increasing cell acoustic resonance frequency, must be kept much slower than the collisional relaxation process. Secondly, from the acoustic modeling point of view, one faces the limit of validity of the continuum hypothesis. Namely, at some point, velocity slip and temperature jump boundary conditions must be used, instead of the continuous boundary conditions, which are valid at the macro-scale. Finally, on the technological side, solutions exist to realize a complete lab-on-a-chip, even if it remains a demanding integration problem.

  13. Challenges in the design and fabrication of a lab-on-a-chip photoacoustic gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glière, Alain; Rouxel, Justin; Brun, Mickael; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie; Nicoletti, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The favorable downscaling behavior of photoacoustic spectroscopy has provoked in recent years a growing interest in the miniaturization of photoacoustic sensors. The individual components of the sensor, namely widely tunable quantum cascade lasers, low loss mid infrared (mid-IR) waveguides, and efficient microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones are becoming available in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible technologies. This paves the way for the joint processes of miniaturization and full integration. Recently, a prototype microsensor has been designed by the means of a specifically designed coupled optical-acoustic model. This paper discusses the new, or more intense, challenges faced if downscaling is continued. The first limitation in miniaturization is physical: the light source modulation, which matches the increasing cell acoustic resonance frequency, must be kept much slower than the collisional relaxation process. Secondly, from the acoustic modeling point of view, one faces the limit of validity of the continuum hypothesis. Namely, at some point, velocity slip and temperature jump boundary conditions must be used, instead of the continuous boundary conditions, which are valid at the macro-scale. Finally, on the technological side, solutions exist to realize a complete lab-on-a-chip, even if it remains a demanding integration problem. PMID:24406858

  14. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  15. Challenges to the design of containment filtered venting systems at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents (SA) may result in pressure and temperature increase leading to containment failure and uncontrolled release of radioactive products to the environment. Containment over-pressurization can be prevented by the operation of a Containment Filter Venting System (CFVS) intended to actuate within the specific SA conditions. However, the particular design solution and especially the sizing of appropriate Containment Filter Venting System require precise information regarding the accident progression and parameters. Such information may be obtained only by detailed assessment of each phase of the severe accident considering the specific reactor technology. Therefore, a study was performed in order to evaluate the most challenging conditions and the most suitable solution for implementation of a system for filtered venting of the containment taking into account the uncertain nature of the accidents and the limitations of the mathematical simulations. The current paper presents the main results from the above mentioned study on the influence of the severe accident conditions, including the specific containment environment effects, to the design and sizing of Containment Filter Venting System. The study includes the selection of a bounding case and the initial conditions for simulation of a severe accident scenario which is expected to pose the most stringent requirements to the CFVS. Evaluation of the Molten Core Concrete Interaction (MCCI) parameters and analysis of system performance during the severe accident progression is furthermore performed. The main parameters of the accident scenario under evaluation are the timing of the vessel failure and the containment design limit pressure achievement, hydrogen production during the accident and its influence on the system operation. The accuracy of predictions of the severe accident parameters (containment pressure and temperature, fission product mass concentration at different stages of accident, modelling

  16. The challenges of designing a lightweight spacecraft structure for landing on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Timothy J.; Bassler, Julie; Cooper, Scott; Stephens, Vince; Ponnusamy, Devamanohar; Briere, Marc; Betenbaugh, Theresa

    2012-02-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been working with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on a lunar lander design that would take scientific measurements on the surface of the moon. This effort is part of NASA's Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) Development Project. The requirements imposed on the design of the lander are: (1) Provide a lightweight lander structure to minimize the launch costs and maximize the payload carrying capability, (2) Minimize the lander launch envelope to allow for launching multiple landers on a single launch vehicle, (3) Given specific approach velocities, design a lander with geometric properties (low center-of-gravity, etc.) that maximizes the chances for a controlled landing on the lunar surface, (4) Provide a stable platform for all of the various scientific instruments.The lightweight lander requirement originates from the desire to minimize the launch costs and possibly package multiple landers on a single launch vehicle. The use of lightweight composite materials and advanced manufacturing techniques are employed throughout the design and construction of the structure in order to minimize mass and maximize structural stiffness.Minimizing the launch envelope enables the potential packaging of several spacecraft into one launch vehicle shroud. By having multiple landers, the scientific return is enhanced. Multiple spacecraft on the lunar surface provides independent confirmation of science measurements taken and also highlights any variance in the science data taken at differing lunar latitudes. Naturally, the launch cost per lander is greatly reduced if more than one lander can be packaged on a single launch vehicle.The lunar lander vehicle must arrive at the lunar surface at an upright orientation. In order to accomplish this, the structure geometry must be designed to accommodate attitude errors in roll, pitch and yaw. In addition, the structure must be able to withstand various landing

  17. Milp-hyperbox classification for structure-based drug design in the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of SIRTUIN6

    OpenAIRE

    Tardu, Mehmet; Rahim, Fatih; Kavaklı, İbrahim Halil; Türkay, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Virtual screening of chemical libraries following experimental assays of drug candidates is a common procedure in structure-based drug discovery. However, virtual screening of chemical libraries with millions of compounds requires a lot of time for computing and data analysis. A priori classification of compounds in the libraries as low-and high-binding free energy sets decreases the number of compounds for virtual screening experiments. This classification also reduces the required computati...

  18. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    OpenAIRE

    Wendong Tao; James S. Bays; Daniel Meyer; Richard C. Smardon; Zeno F. Levy

    2014-01-01

    As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This ...

  19. Constructed wetlands for treatment of combined sewer overflow in the US: a review of design challenges and application status

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, W; Bays, J.S.; Meyer, D.; Smardon, R.C.; Levy, Z.F.

    2014-01-01

    International audience As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO). Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of c...

  20. 基于颜色特征的家居设计图分类%Classification of House-designing Image Based on Color Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娉婷; 石跃祥; 戴皇冠

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of emotional classification of the house-designing image based on color feature. A relationship model is built between the color features and emotional semantics based on the perceptual understanding of color. It uses the house- designing image as data, and the classification of house-designing image is performed by the extraction of global and local color feature combine with the classifier based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network(RBFNN). Experimental results show the availability of the classification.%提出一种基于颜色特征的家居设计图情感分类方法.通过人们对色彩的感知和理解,建立图像颜色特征与情感语义的关系模型.在此基础上,以家居设计图为数据源,提取图像的全局和局部颜色特征,结合基于RBF网络的分类器完成对家居设计图像的风格分类.实验结果证明了该方法的有效性.

  1. Design of experiments and data analysis challenges in calibration for forensics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forensic science aims to infer characteristics of source terms using measured observables. Our focus is on statistical design of experiments and data analysis challenges arising in nuclear forensics. More specifically, we focus on inferring aspects of experimental conditions (of a process to produce product Pu oxide powder), such as temperature, nitric acid concentration, and Pu concentration, using measured features of the product Pu oxide powder. The measured features, Y, include trace chemical concentrations and particle morphology such as particle size and shape of the produced Pu oxide power particles. Making inferences about the nature of inputs X that were used to create nuclear materials having particular characteristics, Y, is an inverse problem. Therefore, statistical analysis can be used to identify the best set (or sets) of Xs for a new set of observed responses Y. One can fit a model (or models) such as Y = f(X) + error, for each of the responses, based on a calibration experiment and ''invert'' to solve for the best set of Xs for a new set of Ys. This perspectives paper uses archived experimental data to consider aspects of data collection and experiment design for the calibration data to maximize the quality of the predicted Ys in the forward models; that is, we assume that well-estimated forward models are effective in the inverse problem. In addition, we consider how to identify a best solution for the inferred X, and evaluate the quality of the result and its robustness to a variety of initial assumptions, and different correlation structures between the responses. In addition, we also briefly review recent advances in metrology issues related to characterizing particle morphology measurements used in the response vector, Y

  2. Energy Transition: Missed Opportunities and Emerging Challenges for Landscape Planning and Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée M. de Waal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Making the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy seems inevitable. Because energy transition poses new challenges and opportunities to the discipline of landscape architecture, the questions addressed in this paper are: (1 what landscape architects can learn from successful energy transitions in Güssing, Jühnde and Samsø; and (2 to what extent landscape architecture (or other spatial disciplines contributed to energy transition in the aforementioned cases. An exploratory, comparative case study was conducted to identify differences and similarities among the cases, to answer the research questions, and to formulate recommendations for further research and practice. The comparison indicated that the realized renewable energy systems are context-dependent and, therefore, specifically designed to meet the respective energy demand, making use of the available potentials for renewable energy generation and efficiency. Further success factors seemed to be the presence of (local frontrunners and a certain degree of citizen participation. The relatively smooth implementation of renewable energy technologies in Jühnde and on Samsø may indicate the importance of careful and (partly institutionalized consideration of landscape impact, siting and design. Comparing the cases against the literature demonstrated that landscape architects were not as involved as they, theoretically, could have been. However, particularly when the aim is sustainable development, rather than “merely” renewable energy provision, the integrative concept of “sustainable energy landscapes” can be the arena where landscape architecture and other disciplines meet to pursue global sustainability goals, while empowering local communities and safeguarding landscape quality.

  3. Challenges and Opportunities for New Protein Crystallization Strategies in Structure-Based Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jessica; Thompson, David

    2010-01-01

    Structure-based drug design (SBDD) has emerged as a valuable pharmaceutical lead discovery tool, showing potential for accelerating the discovery process, while reducing developmental costs and boosting potencies of the drug that is ultimately selected. SBDD is a iterative, rational, lead compound sculpting process that involves both the synthesis of new derivatives and the evaluation of their binding to the target structure either through computational docking or elucidation of the target structure as a complex with the lead compound. This method heavily relies on the production of high-resolution (< 2Å) three-dimensional structures of the drug target, obtained through X-ray crystallographic analysis, in the presence or absence of the drug candidate. The lack of generalized methods for high quality crystal production is still a major bottleneck in the process of macromolecular crystallization. This review provides a brief introduction to SBDD and describes several macromolecular crystallization strategies, with an emphasis on advances and challenges facing researchers in the field today. Recent trends in the development of more universal macromolecular crystallization techniques, particularly nucleation-based techniques that are applicable to both soluble and integral membrane proteins, are also discussed. PMID:21116481

  4. Design, Development and Test Challenges: Separation Mechanisms for the Orion Pad Abort-1 Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsel, Alison; Morrey, Jeremy M.; OMalley, Patrick; Park, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    On May 6, 2010, NASA launched the first successful integrated flight test, Pad Abort-1, of the Orion Project from the White Sands Missile Range in Las Cruces, New Mexico. This test demonstrated the ability to perform an emergency pad abort of a full-scale 4.8 m diameter, 8200 kg crew capsule. During development of the critical separation mechanisms for this flight test, various challenges were overcome related to environments definition, installation complications, separation joint retraction speed, thruster ordnance development issues, load path validation and significant design loads increases. The Launch Abort System retention and release (LAS R&R) mechanism consisted of 6 discrete structural connections between the LAS and the crew module (CM) simulator, each of which had a preloaded tension tie, Superbolt torque-nut and frangible nut. During the flight test, the frangible nuts were pyrotechnically split, permitting the CM to separate from the LAS. The LAS separation event was the driving case in the shock environment for many co-located hardware items. During development testing, it was necessary to measure the source shock during the separation event so the predicted shock environment could be validated and used for certification testing of multiple hardware items. The Lockheed Martin test team measured the source separation shock due to the LAS R&R function, which dramatically decreased the predicted environment by 90% at 100 Hz. During development testing a hydraulic tensioner was used to preload the joint; however, the joint relaxation with the tensioner proved unsatisfactory so the design was modified to include a Superbolt torque-nut. The observed preload creep during lab testing was 4% after 30 days, with 2.5% occurring in the first 24 hours. The conversion of strain energy (preload) to kinetic energy (retraction) was measured to be 50-75%. Design features and careful monitoring of multiple strain gauges on each tension tie allowed a pure tensile load

  5. Lead-cooled system design and challenges in the frame of Generation IV International Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, Luciano; Smith, Craig F.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Mansani, Luigi; Reale, Marco; Sienicki, James J.

    2011-08-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Technology Roadmap identified the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) as a technology well suited for electricity generation, hydrogen production and actinide management in a closed fuel cycle. One of the most important features of the LFR is the fact that lead is a relatively inert coolant, a feature that conveys significant advantages in terms of safety, system simplification, and the consequent potential for economic performance. In 2004, the GIF LFR Provisional System Steering Committee was organized and began to develop the LFR System Research Plan. The committee selected two pool-type reactor concepts as candidates for international cooperation and joint development in the GIF framework: these are the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR); and the European Lead-cooled System (ELSY). The high boiling point (1745 °C) of lead has a beneficial impact to the safety of the system, whereas its high melting point (327.4 °C) requires new engineering strategies, especially for In-Service-Inspection and refuelling. Lead, especially at high temperatures, is also relatively corrosive towards structural materials. This necessitates that coolant purity and the level of dissolved oxygen be carefully controlled, in addition to the proper selection of structural materials. For the GIF LFR concepts, lead has been chosen as the coolant rather than Lead-Bismuth Eutectic primarily because of its greatly reduced generation of the alpha-emitting 210Po isotope formed in the coolant. This results in significantly reduced levels of radioactive contamination of the coolant while minimizing the effect of decay power in the coolant from such contaminants; an additional consideration is the desire to eliminate dependence on bismuth which might be a limited resource. This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the LFR, a summary of the advantages and challenges associated with heavy liquid metal coolants, and an

  6. Risks and challenges associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of a nuclear power plant project, considering the period prior to the operation of the plant, requires a very strict risk control to ensure compliance with a series of challenges. The present paper identifying the most important challenges facing the construct ability and license requirements of the process, identifying the interfaces and proposing a methodology of construction to meet the challenge of a construction process in 5 years.

  7. Addressing the Challenges of Inquiry-Based Learning Through Technology and Curriculum Design

    OpenAIRE

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Gordin, Douglas N.; Pea, Roy D.

    1999-01-01

    Inquiry experiences can provide valuable opportunities for students to improve their understanding of both science content and scientific practices. However, the implementation of inquiry learning in classrooms presents a number of significant challenges. We have been exploring these challenges through a program of research on the use of scientific visualization technologies to support inquiry-based learning in the geosciences. In this article, we describe 5 significant challenges to implemen...

  8. Recommendations for the Optimal Design of Exergame Interventions for Persons with Disabilities: Challenges, Best Practices, and Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wiemeyer, Josef; Deutsch, Judith; Malone, Laurie A.; Rowland, Jennifer L.; Swartz, Maria C.; Xiong, Jianjing; Zhang, Fang Fang

    2015-01-01

    A group discussion of individuals with expertise working in the field of exergaming and rehabilitation focused on the issue of designing exergames for persons with disabilities as well as appropriate interventions using exergames. The purpose of these discussions was to develop recommendations for the design, evaluation, and application of exergames in therapy serving as potential guidelines for researchers, developers, and therapists. The following key issues were addressed: (1) Challenges i...

  9. Design challenges and guidelines for free-space optical communication links using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing of multiple beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Alan E.; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Ren, Yongxiong; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, recent studies on the potential challenges for an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing system were reviewed. The design guideline for a practical OAM multiplexing system were investigated in term of (i) the power loss due to the beam divergence and limited-size receiver, and (ii) the channel crosstalk due to the misalignment between the transmitter and receiver.

  10. Critical Curriculum Design for Blended Learning in Higher Education: The Strategies, Principles and Challenges of Interactive Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurubacak, Gulsun

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to introduce a critical curriculum design approach for bringing curriculum change for Blended Learning in higher education. Furthermore, the strategies, principles and challenges of this approach are also presented. This paper provides a perspective on such serious concerns as whether curriculum change should…

  11. Challenges in the design of clinically useful brain-targeted drug nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, L; Boraschi, D; Eaton, M

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the delivery of drugs by means of intravenously administered nanosized drug carriers - polymerdrug conjugates, liposomes and micelles, is technically possible. These delivery systems are mainly designed for tumour therapy, and accumulate passively into tumours by means of the well known EPR effect. Targeted nanocarriers, that additionally contain ligands for receptors expressed on cell surfaces, are also widely studied but products of this kind are not marketed, and only a few are in clinical trial. Polymeric nanoparticles (Np) able to deliver drugs to the CNS were pioneered in 1995; a number of papers have been published dealing with brain-targeted drug delivery using polymeric Np able to cross the BBB, mainly for the treatment of brain tumours. At present, however, the translation potential of these Np seems to have been exceeded by targeted liposomes, a platform based on a proven technology. This drug delivery system entered clinical trials soon after its discovery, while the challenges in formulation, characterization and manufacturing of brain-targeted polymeric Np and the cost/benefit ratio could be the factors that have prevented their development. A key issue is that it is virtually impossible to define the in vivo fate of polymers, especially in the brain, which is a regulatory requirement; perhaps this is why no progress has been made. The most advanced Np for brain tumours treatment will be compared here with the published data available for those in clinical trial for tumours outside the CNS, to highlight the knowledge gaps that still penalise these delivery systems. At present, new approaches for brain tumours are emerging, such as lipid Np or the use of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-drug conjugates, which avoid polymers. The success or failure in the approval of the polymeric Np currently in clinical trials will certainly affect the field. At present, the chances of their approval appear to be very low.

  12. Classification of cultivated mussels from Galicia (Northwest Spain) with European Protected Designation of Origin using trace element fingerprint and chemometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in combination with different supervised chemometric approaches has been used to classify cultivated mussels in Galicia (Northwest of Spain) under the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). 158 mussel samples, collected in the five rias on the basis of the production, along with minor and trace elements, including high field strength elements (HFSEs) and rare earth elements (REEs), were used with this aim. The classification of samples was achieved according to their origin: Galician vs. other regions (from Tarragona, Spain, and Ethang de Thau, France) and between the Galician Rias. The ability of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) to classify the samples was investigated. Correct assignations for Galician and non-Galician samples were obtained when LDA and SIMCA were used. ANNs were more effective when a classification according to the ria of origin was to be applied.

  13. Dental devices: classification of dental amalgam, reclassification of dental mercury, designation of special controls for dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule classifying dental amalgam into class II, reclassifying dental mercury from class I to class II, and designating a special control to support the class II classifications of these two devices, as well as the current class II classification of amalgam alloy. The three devices are now classified in a single regulation. The special control for the devices is a guidance document entitled, "Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Dental Amalgam, Mercury, and Amalgam Alloy." This action is being taken to establish sufficient regulatory controls to provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of these devices. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of the guidance document that will serve as the special control for the devices.

  14. Classification of cultivated mussels from Galicia (Northwest Spain) with European Protected Designation of Origin using trace element fingerprint and chemometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costas-Rodriguez, M.; Lavilla, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, C., E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-04-07

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in combination with different supervised chemometric approaches has been used to classify cultivated mussels in Galicia (Northwest of Spain) under the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). 158 mussel samples, collected in the five rias on the basis of the production, along with minor and trace elements, including high field strength elements (HFSEs) and rare earth elements (REEs), were used with this aim. The classification of samples was achieved according to their origin: Galician vs. other regions (from Tarragona, Spain, and Ethang de Thau, France) and between the Galician Rias. The ability of linear discriminant analysis (LDA), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) to classify the samples was investigated. Correct assignations for Galician and non-Galician samples were obtained when LDA and SIMCA were used. ANNs were more effective when a classification according to the ria of origin was to be applied.

  15. Low Size-Complexity Inductive Logic Programming: The East-West Challenge Considered as a Problem in Cost-Sensitive Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Peter D.

    2002-01-01

    The Inductive Logic Programming community has considered proof-complexity and model-complexity, but, until recently, size-complexity has received little attention. Recently a challenge was issued "to the international computing community" to discover low size-complexity Prolog programs for classifying trains. The challenge was based on a problem first proposed by Ryszard Michalski, 20 years ago. We interpreted the challenge as a problem in cost-sensitive classificat...

  16. The Pediatric Home Care/Expenditure Classification Model (P/ECM): A Home Care Case-Mix Model for Children Facing Special Health Care Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    Case-mix classification and payment systems help assure that persons with similar needs receive similar amounts of care resources, which is a major equity concern for consumers, providers, and programs. Although health service programs for adults regularly use case-mix payment systems, programs providing health services to children and youth rarely use such models. This research utilized Medicaid home care expenditures and assessment data on 2,578 children receiving home care in one large sta...

  17. The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays on Solar Orbiter: Flight design, challenges and trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krucker, S.; Bednarzik, M.; Grimm, O.; Hurford, G. J.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Orleański, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skup, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    STIX is the X-ray spectral imaging instrument on-board the Solar Orbiter space mission of the European Space Agency, and together with nine other instruments will address questions of the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. STIX will study the properties of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission, addressing in particular the emission from flaring regions on the Sun. The design phase of STIX has been concluded. This paper reports the final flight design of the instrument, focusing on design challenges that were faced recently and how they were addressed.

  18. Overview of CEA's R&D on GFR fuel element design: from challenges to solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the period 2002-2012, CEA conducted some extensive R&D on the design of GFR fuel elements (together with related material and core/system studies). This paper reviews the challenges raised by this programme, the solutions proposed to address them, and the remaining issues. Studies were performed on the assembly duct, the pin bundle and the fuel pin. The main issues were related to the challenge of using silicon carbide composites (SiC/SiC) for the pin cladding and the assembly duct, as well as mixed uranium-plutonium carbide (UPuC) for the nuclear fuel. Emphasizing the pin design, key achievements are reviewed in this paper regarding such topics as fission product confinement and high burnup performance, for the sake of which original design options were recently patented. (author)

  19. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  20. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  1. Design and challenges for a tsunami early warning system in the Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioğlu, Öcal

    2016-01-01

    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes in Turkey, with a total affected population of around 7 million and direct losses of around 25 billion USD. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude Mw = 7.4, Parsons (J Geophys Res. 109, 2004) concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35 to 70 % in the next 30 years. According to a 2011 study, an earthquake with Mw = 7.25 on the Main Marmara Fault is expected to heavily damage or destroy 2 to 4 % of around 1,000,000 buildings in Istanbul with a population around 13 million, with 9 to 15 % of the buildings receiving medium damage and 20 to 34 % of the buildings damaged lightly (Erdik, Science 341:72, 2013). In the absence of adequate post-earthquake assembly areas especially in the heavily urbanized Istanbul, it is evident that after a major earthquake, especially in the coastal parts of the city, citizens would be storming to landfill assembly and recreational areas. Besides earthquakes, around 30 tsunamis have been reported by Altınok et al. (Natural Hazards Earth System Science 11:273-293, 2011) in the Marmara Sea. Among those, catastrophic earthquakes such as 1509, 1766, and 1894 resulted in considerable tsunamis and some damage. The latest tsunami observed in Marmara was due to a triggered submarine landslide of the 1999 Mw = 7.4 Kocaeli earthquake which led to reported run-up heights of 1-3 m in most places (Tinti et al., Marine Geology 225:311-330, 2006). In this study, I propose a design for a tsunami warning system specific for the Marmara region that is strongly coupled with the earthquake early warning system (due to the short arrival times of tsunami) and stakeholders of the tsunami mitigation activities, such as local and regional components of disaster and emergency management and civil protection units, to ensure that the citizens

  2. Short Text Classification: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosive growth of e-commerce and online communication, a new genre of text, short text, has been extensively applied in many areas. So many researches focus on short text mining. It is a challenge to classify the short text owing to its natural characters, such as sparseness, large-scale, immediacy, non-standardization. It is difficult for traditional methods to deal with short text classification mainly because too limited words in short text cannot represent the feature space and the relationship between words and documents. Several researches and reviews on text classification are shown in recent times. However, only a few of researches focus on short text classification. This paper discusses the characters of short text and the difficulty of short text classification. Then we introduce the existing popular works on short text classifiers and models, including short text classification using sematic analysis, semi-supervised short text classification, ensemble short text classification, and real-time classification. The evaluations of short text classification are analyzed in our paper. Finally we summarize the existing classification technology and prospect for development trend of short text classification

  3. Classification and designation systems for materials: A report on the present situation, an inventory of the systems in use, and comments on the future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Keith W.

    1996-01-01

    The different systems that are in use for the major classes of engineering materials are summarized. The work was carried out within the scope of the Versailles project on advanced materials and standards (VAMAS). An inventory of national and international standards that give specifications for the materials and international standards are included. Comments on the increasing knowledge of, and the increasing demand for, data concerning the materials performance are included. Recommendations for future activities in the standardization of classification and designation systems are given.

  4. The Road Ahead for Library Classification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses knowledge organization tools in the context of seven challenges facing library classification systems. Highlights include revisions to the Dewey Decimal Classification, the Windows-based CD-ROM version of Dewey, support for machine-assisted classification, multilingual use of Dewey, use of Dewey as a general knowledge organization and…

  5. Build a Band Hands-on Challenge: Investigate Sound with PBS's "Design Squad Nation"[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "Build a Band" hands-on activity from "Design Squad Nation," which allows kids to use simple materials to build a four-stringed instrument, then tune it and play a song. Kids explore frequency, pitch, and sound energy while following the steps of the engineering design process. By weaving "Design Squad Nation" episodes,…

  6. Evaluation of the ‘Be Innovative’ Design and Electronic Engineering Challenge 2014 and Chinese students’ response

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Paul; Holmes, Violeta; McDermott, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    UK and global economies need innovative graduates with cross-disciplinary knowledge and skills. In order to promote innovation and creativity among Chinese students ‘Be Innovative!’, an electronic engineering and design themed educational challenge, was created by the British Council in China. Partnering for this project were six UK universities: University of Central Lancashire, Coventry University, University of Huddersfield, Kingston University, Royal College of Art and Sheffield Hallam Un...

  7. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  8. Curriculum Design Practices of a Vocational Community College in a Developing Context: Challenges and Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albashiry, N.; Voogt, J.M.; Pieters, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aligning vocational curricula with the labor market needs is a common reported challenge in developing countries. Little is known, however, about how vocational community colleges in such contexts regularly review and redesign their curricula to ensure the quality and relevance of their programs. Fr

  9. Teaching Social Media Journalism: Challenges and Opportunities for Future Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the growing demand for digitally competent employees in the news media industry, journalism schools are cautiously integrating social media reporting into their curriculum. This study explores techniques for teaching news reporting on social media platforms focusing on challenges and opportunities for learning engagement that…

  10. The Challenges of Art Education in Designer Capitalism: Collaborative Practices in the (New Media) Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    jagodzinski, jan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the challenges to art education in the twenty-first century as art curricula around the world begin to change so as to meet the new emergent technological realities. It is argued that within a "control" society like ours, where the economic system of capitalism dictates the direction of education along with its…

  11. Leapfrogging Pedagogy: A Design Approach to Making Change in Challenging Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Susan

    2014-01-01

    At a time of substantial change, globalization, and ubiquitous access to information, educators struggle to change even the most basic aspects of their classrooms. This is especially true for those in challenging contexts where many perpetuate the "mind numbing" practice of rote instruction. This paper describes a collaborative…

  12. Energy Transition: Missed Opportunities and Emerging Challenges for Landscape Planning and Designing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, de R.M.; Stremke, S.

    2014-01-01

    Making the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy seems inevitable. Because energy transition poses new challenges and opportunities to the discipline of landscape architecture, the questions addressed in this paper are: (1) what landscape architects can learn from successful energy transitions

  13. Challenges of implementation and implementation research: Learning from an intervention study designed to improve tumor registry reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Walker, Daniel M; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Parides, Michael; Bickell, Nina A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Implementation of interventions designed to improve the quality of medical care often proceeds differently from what is planned. Improving existing conceptual models to better understand the sources of these differences can help future projects avoid these pitfalls and achieve desired effectiveness. To inform an adaptation of an existing theoretical model, we examined unanticipated changes that occurred in an intervention designed to improve reporting of adjuvant therapies for breast cancer patients at a large, urban academic medical center. Methods: Guided by the complex innovation implementation conceptual framework, our study team observed and evaluated the implementation of an intervention designed to improve reporting to a tumor registry. Findings were assessed against the conceptual framework to identify boundary conditions and modifications that could improve implementation effectiveness. Results: The intervention successfully increased identification of the managing medical oncologist and treatment reporting. During implementation, however, unexpected external challenges including hospital acquisitions of community practices and practices’ responses to government incentives to purchase electronic medical record systems led to unanticipated changes and associated threats to implementation. We present a revised conceptual model that incorporates the sources of these unanticipated challenges. Conclusion: This report of our experience highlights the importance of monitoring implementation over time and accounting for changes that affect both implementation and measurement of intervention impact. In this article, we use our study to examine the challenges of implementation research in health care, and our experience can help future implementation efforts.

  14. Classification of syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhorat, T H

    2000-01-01

    Syringomyelia poses special challenges for the clinician because of its complex symptomatology, uncertain pathogenesis, and multiple options of treatment. The purpose of this study was to classify intramedullary cavities according to their most salient pathological and clinical features. Pathological findings obtained in 175 individuals with tubular cavitations of the spinal cord were correlated with clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in a database of 927 patients. A classification system was developed in which the morbid anatomy, cause, and pathogenesis of these lesions are emphasized. The use of a disease-based classification of syringomyelia facilitates diagnosis and the interpretation of MR imaging findings and provides a guide to treatment. PMID:16676921

  15. Recommendations for the Optimal Design of Exergame Interventions for Persons with Disabilities: Challenges, Best Practices, and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Josef; Deutsch, Judith; Malone, Laurie A; Rowland, Jennifer L; Swartz, Maria C; Xiong, Jianjing; Zhang, Fang Fang

    2015-02-01

    A group discussion of individuals with expertise working in the field of exergaming and rehabilitation focused on the issue of designing exergames for persons with disabilities as well as appropriate interventions using exergames. The purpose of these discussions was to develop recommendations for the design, evaluation, and application of exergames in therapy serving as potential guidelines for researchers, developers, and therapists. The following key issues were addressed: (1) Challenges in exergame design for persons with disabilities, (2) adaptation of exergames for persons with disabilities, (3) exergame interventions, and (4) future research directions. It is the hope of the group that the results of these recommendations will help improve the quality of exergame design and interventions and thereby increase opportunities for persons with disabilities to engage sustainably in exergaming. PMID:26181682

  16. Textiles as Tangible Working Materials in Participatory Design Processes: Potentials and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative...... nature facilitating dialogue between different stakeholders and its ability to move stakeholder participation to the early stages of the design process. We have explored PD tools in a design process engaging architects and textile designers in designing textile products for Danish hospitals. From this we...... have realized a potential in dividing the materials into three types with different attributes, which should consequently be staged differently in a PD process. We have thereby seen that exploring PD in a textile design process improves the understanding of the role of tangible working materials in PD...

  17. Hubble Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A classification scheme for galaxies, devised in its original form in 1925 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), and still widely used today. The Hubble classification recognizes four principal types of galaxy—elliptical, spiral, barred spiral and irregular—and arranges these in a sequence that is called the tuning-fork diagram....

  18. New design challenges to widely implement 'Sustainable Product-Service Systems'

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzoli, C; CESCHIN, F.; Diehl, JC; Kohtala, C

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable Product-Service Systems (S.PSS) carry great potential to deliver social well-being and economic prosperity while operating within the limits of our planet. They can however be complex to design, test, implement and bring to the mainstream. To increase our understanding of the potential benefits, drivers and barriers in S.PSS design, the research community has been inspired to collect and analyse an extensive number of cases in diverse sectors and to develop and test several design...

  19. Human-Centred Design Projects and Co-Design in/outside the Turkish Classroom: Responses and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other professional group in modern history, designers have felt compelled to undertake the responsibility of addressing and engaging with societal problems in their practice. Initially, this liability involved concerns of form and production methods during the industrial revolution era, and developed into existential, ethical…

  20. Design Research with a Focus on Learning Processes: An Overview on Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Gravemeijer, Koeno; Confrey, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Design research continues to gain prominence as a significant methodology in the mathematics education research community. This overview summarizes the origins and the current state of design research practices focusing on methodological requirements and processes of theorizing. While recognizing the rich variations in the foci and scale of design…

  1. Grand Challenges and Opportunities in Supply Chain Network Analysis and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nagurney, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Pour visualiser la présentation cliquez sur le lien "En savoir plus sur cette publication" International audience Supply chain networks provide the backbones for our economies since they involve the production, storage, and distribution of products as varied as vaccines and medicines, food, high tech products, automobiles, clothing, and even energy. Many of the supply chains today are global in nature and time-sensitive and present challenging aspects for modeling and analysis. In this ...

  2. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Janke; Athaydes Leite; Marcell Nikolausz; Thomas Schmidt; Jan Liebetrau; Michael Nelles; Walter Stinner

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, an...

  3. Bosniak Classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Bosniak classification is a diagnostic tool for the differentiation of cystic changes in the kidney. The process of categorizing renal cysts may be challenging, involving a series of decisions that may affect the final diagnosis and clinical outcome such as surgical management....... Purpose: To investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement among experienced uroradiologists when categorizing complex renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. Material and Methods: The original categories of 100 cystic renal masses were chosen as “Gold Standard” (GS), established...... to the calculated weighted κ all readers performed “very good” for both inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Most variation was seen in cysts catagorized as Bosniak II, IIF, and III. These results show that radiologists who evaluate complex renal cysts routinely may apply the Bosniak classification...

  4. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of a

  5. Service design in information technology startups: Unpacking opportunities and challenges through three case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Avesta

    2014-01-01

    What is the role and value of service design in startup companies in the Information Technology (IT) industry? And how can service design help startups develop their services more effectively? Increased global competition forces new ventures to create useful and unique service experiences, as customers rarely make purchasing decisions based on function alone. The need to think and act differently has shifted the service innovation paradigm and significantly increased the role and relevanc...

  6. THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TEACHER IN THE DIGITAL AGE: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Silva de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the architectural education and models of education practiced in the schools of Architecture and Urbanism in Brazil, particularly in the disciplines of architectural design, through the insertion of information and communication technologies in everyday life of students and teachers. Aiming to discuss the effective use of resources in the design studio, made a brief analysis of the pedagogical practices applied in these disciplines in Brazilian schools nowadays. The aim is also to reflect on possible discrepancies between the evolution of tools to support design and development of teachers of design qualifications. Through these discussions and analysis is intended to contribute to an evaluation of the qualifications needed by teachers of design today - and those who act in the future- and pedagogical practices to be used at a time, now imminent, in which the use of virtual tools will predominate and that teachers need to talk with your student in compatible language. Keywords: Information Technology and Communication, Design Teaching, Architecture.

  7. Optimal design of microalgae-based biorefinery: Economics, opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have great potential as a feedstock for the production of a wide range of end-products under the broad concept of biorefinery. In an earlier work, we proposed a superstructure based optimization model to find the optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal...... biomass, and identified several challenges with the focus being on utilizing lipids extracted microalgal biomass for economic and environmentally friendly production of useful energy products. In this paper, we expand the previous optimization framework by considering the processing of microalgae residue...

  8. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  9. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  10. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study. PMID:26122631

  11. Designing a software for systematic registration of oral and maxillofacial diseases based on the latest update of the World Health Organization ICD-10 classification system in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mansorian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Classification is a fundamental issue in quantitative studies of any phenomenon and has been known as a necessity for the advancement of science. Using a standard record system for diseases is critical for research purposes and also could improve the quality of medical health services. In this study, after evaluating current codding systems in oral medicine, we designed a software for systematic coding and registration of Oral and Maxillofacial diseases based on the latest update of the World Health Organization ICD-10 classification system in 2010.   Materials and Methods: Based on the latest WHO ICD-10 update in 2010 and by using software s as: vb.net, net framework, SQL Server and Microsoft Visual Studio, standard coding software for recording patient's data at the department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences was designed. Data from all patients were codded by standard ICD-10 codes and registered by the software. Also an online portal for recording patient's data which could be used nationwide was designed. By d esigning this software the process of forming and registering patient's records, and their treatment process is facilitated . An archive of patient data was also stablished .   Conclusion: As a result , this software in addition to maintaining patient data , facilitate studies and research projects greatly. It’s recommended that the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education as the concessioner of this software, improves codding and registration systems of oral diseases at the dental schools by developing this software.

  12. New market, new challenge, new opportunity (1)--overview of China rural healthcare & design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiehui, Jiang; Kandachar, Prabhu

    2008-01-01

    China has a largest population in the world (1.3Billion) and 0.9 Billion is rural population. Most of rural people earn less than US$3/day, and they are called 'Base of the economic pyramid (BoP)'. Compared with high level market, BoP is a new market, which means a low individual profit, but a large population. This paper discusses the healthcare issues in rural China (BoP) and study their healthcare needs through field study and case studies. This research is carried out within the framework of 'Design for Sustainability at Base-of-the-Pyramid (BoP)' programme of the School of Industrial Design Engineering at Delft University of Technology. And the aim of this research is to provide a low cost advanced healthcare product design, which will meet poor's needs and create a business case for commercial partners.

  13. 面向产品创新设计的专利文本分类研究%Study on patent text classification for product innovative design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳红; 檀润华; 马建红

    2013-01-01

    为提高专利知识在产品创新设计中的应用价值,以打破思维定势、激发创新灵感,提出了一种面向创新设计的专利文本分类的思路及方法.基于发明问题解决理论(TRIZ),应用文本挖掘和自然语言理解等先进的技术手段,以TRIZ发明原理为分类标准对专利文本进行了自动分类的研究.以美国专利为数据源,将发明原理的知识表示与文本挖掘策略相融合,抽取专利特征信息,建立统一的专利特征表示模型,并使用VC++开发出了相应的软件系统.最后分析了该软件挖掘出的相关专利,对造纸机进行了创新设计,辅助得到了新的原理方案,验证了该方法的有效性.%To obtain knowledge from patent documents to inspire the creative thinking in product innovative design, and to improve product innovation capability, a method of patent text classification oriented to product innovation was proposed. With the application of text mining and natural language understanding, patent text classification based on TRIZ Inventive Principles was studied. Taking United States Patents as data source, by integrating knowledge expression of Invention Principles and text mining, patent characteristics information was extracted. And a uniform patent characteristic representation model was set up. On this basis, visualization software for patent classification was developed with VCH—h Finally, relevant patents mined by this software were analyzed. Innovative design of paper machine was conducted and new innovative design schemes were also obtained. And the method was proved to be effective.

  14. Los Alamos national Laboratory overview of the SAVY-4000 design: meeting the challenge for worker safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-06-12

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based storage container design, the SAVY-4000. The SAVY-4000 is the first vented general use nuclear material container demonstrated to meet the requirements of DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. The SAVY-4000 is an innovative and creative design demonstrated by the fact that it can be opened and closed in a few seconds without torque wrenches or other tools; has a built-in, fire-rated filter that prevents the build-up of hydrogen gas, yet retains 99.97% of plutonium particulates, and prevents release of material even in a 12 foot drop. Finally, it has been tested to 500C for 2 hours, and will reduce the risk to the public in the event of an earthquake/fire scenario. This will allow major nuclear facilities to credit the container towards source term Material at Risk (MAR) reduction. The container was approved for nuclear material storage in theTA-55 Plutonium Facility on March 15, 2011, and the first order of 79 containers was received at LANL on March 21, 2011. The first four SAVY-4000 containers were packaged with plutonium on August 2, 2011. Key aspects ofthe SAVY-4000 vented storage container design will be discussed which include design qualification and testing, implementation plan development and status, risk ranking methodology for re-packaging, in use implementation with interface to LANMAS, surveillance strategy, the design life extension program as enhanced by surveillance activities and production status with the intent to extend well beyond the current five year design life.

  15. Challenges in designing a national surveillance program for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Millie D; Hutfless, Susan; Kappelman, Michael D; Khalili, Hamed; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Bernstein, Charles N; Colombel, Jean Frederic; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Herrinton, Lisa; Velayos, Fernando; Loftus, Edward V; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Chan, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S; Atreja, Ashish; Shah, Samir A; Rothman, Kenneth J; Leleiko, Neal S; Bright, Renee; Boffetta, Paolo; Myers, Kelly D; Sands, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    This review describes the history of U.S. government funding for surveillance programs in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), provides current estimates of the incidence and prevalence of IBD in the United States, and enumerates a number of challenges faced by current and future IBD surveillance programs. A rationale for expanding the focus of IBD surveillance beyond counts of incidence and prevalence, to provide a greater understanding of the burden of IBD, disease etiology, and pathogenesis, is provided. Lessons learned from other countries are summarized, in addition to potential resources that may be used to optimize a new form of IBD surveillance in the United States. A consensus recommendation on the goals and available resources for a new model for disease surveillance are provided. This new model should focus on "surveillance of the burden of disease," including (1) natural history of disease and (2) outcomes and complications of the disease and/or treatments.

  16. Evolving from Planning and Scheduling to Real-Time Operations Support: Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Ludowise, Melissa; McCurdy, Michael; Li, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Versions of Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration (SPIFe) have supported a variety of mission operations across NASA. This software tool has evolved and matured over several years, assisting planners who develop intricate schedules. While initially conceived for surface Mars missions, SPIFe has been deployed in other domains, where people rather than robotic explorers, execute plans. As a result, a diverse set of end-users has compelled growth in a new direction: supporting real-time operations. This paper describes the new needs and challenges that accompany this development. Among the key features that have been built for SPIFe are current time indicators integrated into the interface and timeline, as well as other plan attributes that enable execution of scheduled activities. Field tests include mission support for the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) campaigns.

  17. Game Design & Development: Using Computer Games as Creative and Challenging Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Cheryl; Hundley, Jacqueline; Montgomery, Lacey Strange

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a game design and development course. The rationale for forming this class was to use student excitement with video games as an intrinsic motivation over traditional courses. Today's students have grown up exposed to gaming, interactive environments, and vivid 3D. Computer gaming has the capacity to attract many new students…

  18. Challenging the Curriculum: Exploring the Discipline Boundaries in Art, Design and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareing, Shan

    2011-01-01

    This review of the 5th International Conference held by the University of the Arts London's Centre for Learning and Teaching in Art and Design, 12 and 13 April 2010 at the Novotel, Tiergarten, Berlin, briefly summarizes the contributions of three keynote speakers, and considers some of the issues they raised. (Contains 1 note.)

  19. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Thermal Protection Systems. EP-2008-09-122-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick; McWilliams, Harold; Wagoner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center, and their partners at other NASA centers and in private industry, are designing and beginning to develop the next generation of spacecraft to transport cargo, equipment, and human explorers to space. These vehicles--the Ares I and Ares V launch…

  20. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Spacecraft Structures. EP-2008-09-121-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick; McWilliams, Harold; Wagoner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center along with their partners at other NASA centers, and in private industry, are designing and beginning to develop the next generation of spacecraft to transport cargo, equipment, and human explorers to space. These vehicles are part of the Constellation…

  1. Challenges in designing for horizontal learning in the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Marianne; Bergstedt, Palle; Jørgensen, Claus Bo;

    2016-01-01

    As part of an on-going research project (2015-2017) at The National Centre for Vocational Pedagogy, Metropolitan University College, we are studying why and how vocational teachers understand and design for boundary crossing through the use of ICT-based artefacts. The research project is based on...

  2. Trial Design Challenges when Combining Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McCracken, James T.; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Swiezy, Naomi; Mulick, James; Stigler, Kimberly; Bearss, Karen; Ritz, Louise; Wagner, Ann; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for a 24-week, randomized trial designed to test whether risperidone plus structured parent training would be superior to risperidone only on measures of noncompliance, irritability and adaptive functioning. In this model, medication reduces tantrums, aggression and self-injury; parent training promotes…

  3. Engineering Design and Manufacturing Challenges for a Wide-Aperture, Superconducting Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Bielert, E; Fessia, P; Karppinen, M; Lepoittevin, B; Lorin, C; Luzieux, S; Perez, J C; Russenschuck, S; Sahner, T; Smekens, D; Segreti, M; Durante, M

    2012-01-01

    The design and construction of a wide-aperture, superconducting quadrupole magnet for the LHC insertion region is part of a study towards a luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN. The engineering design of components and tooling, the procurement, and the construction work presented in this paper includes innovative features such as more porous cable insulation, a new collar structure allowing horizontal assembly with a hydraulic collaring press, tuning shims for the adjustment of field quality, a fishbone like structure for the ground-plane insulation, and an improved quench-heater design. Rapid prototyping of coil-end spacers and trial-coil winding led to improved shapes, thus avoiding the need to impregnate the ends with epoxy resin, which would block the circulation of helium. The magnet construction follows established procedures for the curing and assembly of the coils, in order to match the workflow established in CERN’s ”large magnet facility.” This requirement led to the design and procurement of...

  4. Drawing a Roadmap: Barriers and Challenges to Designing the Ideal Virtual World for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this article is to draw a roadmap for designing an "ideal" virtual world for higher education, pointing decision-makers in a general direction for implementing virtual worlds and noting various barriers along the way. When using a roadmap, one can take many different paths to reach a desired destination. Similarly, institutions can…

  5. Superconducting Cavity Cryomodule Designs for the Next Generation of CW Linacs: Challenges and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, Thomas [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    The designs of nearly all superconducting RF (SRF) linacs over the last several years, with one notable exception being CEBAF at Jefferson Lab, have assumed pulsed beam operation with relatively low duty factors. These include the XFEL at DESY, the ILC, the original configuration for Project X at Fermilab, as well as several others. Recently proposed projects, on the other hand, including the LCLS-II at SLAC, the newly configured low and medium energy sections for Project X, and FRIB at Michigan State, to name a few, assume continuous wave or CW operation on quite a large scale with ambitious gradients and cavity performance requirements. This has implications in the cavity design as well as in many parts of the overall cryomodule due to higher dynamic heat loads in the cavities themselves and higher heat loads in the input and high-order-mode (HOM) couplers. Piping internal to the cryomodule, the effectiveness of thermal intercepts, the size of integrated heat exchangers, and many other aspects of the overall design are also affected. This paper will describe some of these design considerations as we move toward the next generation of accelerator projects.

  6. Toward Disciplinary Literacy: Dilemmas and Challenges in Designing History Curriculum to Support Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhaylongsod, Leslie; Snow, Catherine E.; Selman, Robert L.; Donovan, M. Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Leslie Duhaylongsod, Catherine E. Snow, Robert L. Selman, and M. Suzanne Donovan describe the principles behind the design of curricular units that offer disciplinary literacy support in the subject of history for middle school students who represent a wide range of reading levels, and for their teachers, whose own subject matter…

  7. Teacher Beliefs about Motivating and Teaching Students to Carry out Engineering Design Challenges: Some Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haneghan, James P.; Pruet, Susan A.; Neal-Waltman, Rhonda; Harlan, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines middle school teachers' beliefs about seven learning outcomes related to a project that involves developing and examining the effects of a set of engineering design modules constructed for use by middle school math and science teachers. Overall, the teachers involved in the intervention appear to believe they have the…

  8. Urban Planning for a Renewable Energy Future: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities from a Design Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Vandevyvere

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning for a renewable energy future requires the collaboration of different disciplines both in research and practice. In the present article, the planning of a renewable energy future is approached from a designer’s perspective. A framework for analysis of the planning questions at hand is first proposed. The framework considers two levels of inquiry: the technical environmental aspect, and its wider embedding in sustainable development. Furthermore, life cycle analysis and exergy studies are discussed for their application potential in design. An altered trias energetica as proposed in earlier publications appears to remain a robust concept for low exergy, renewable energy based urban design. When considering sustainable development, environmental assessments shall be completed by an inquiry of the socio-cultural, economical, juridical, aesthetical and ethical aspects characterizing the planning or decision process. The article then presents a number of practical design principles that can help envisioning a built environment that can be sustained on the basis of renewable energy sources. In accordance with the altered trias energetica concept, elements of passive urban energy design, exergetic optimization of energy provision systems and the sourcing of renewable energy are identified, and their respective potentials assessed.

  9. Yaw Systems for wind turbines – Overview of concepts, current challenges and design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking at the upscaling of the rotor diameter not only the loss in power production but the aerodynamic loads arising from yaw misalignment will have an increasing impact on the yaw system design in future wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of yaw systems used in current wind turbines and a review of patents with regards to the yaw system. The current state of the art of yaw systems has been analyzed through a systematic literature review. Further a patent analysis has been done through the European Patent Office. Todays design and strength requirements as per IEC and GL standards will be reviewed and alternative design calculations will be discussed. Over 100 patents have been identified as relevant to the yaw system and have been analyzed. It has been found that most patents are dealing with load reduction possibilities on the yaw system, where fatigue loads seem more of a problem than ultimate loads. Most of these patents concern especially the yaw actuator, which consists of multiple electrical motors, reduction gears and shaft pinions. This is due to the nature of the gearing in the actuator and the gearing between the shaft pinion and the ring gear. This coincides with the patents for yaw brakes, which mostly aim to reduce the fatigue loads during yaw maneuverer and during nacelle standstill. Patents for the yaw bearing are incorporating the reduction of loads through the usage of friction bearings or different bearing arrangement approaches. The paper shows that the conventional yaw system designs are still trying to meet the high requirements regarding the lifetime of a wind turbine and turbulent wind loads. New designs for yaw systems in general are hard to find. Many patents concentrate on control algorithms that depend on additional instruments and incorporate electromechanical systems

  10. Epitope-driven DNA vaccine design employing immunoinformatics against B-cell lymphoma: a biotech's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurescia, Sandra; Fioretti, Daniela; Fazio, Vito Michele; Rinaldi, Monica

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccination has been widely explored to develop new, alternative and efficient vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. DNA vaccines offer several benefits such as specific targeting, use of multiple genes to enhance immunity and reduced risk compared to conventional vaccines. Rapid developments in molecular biology and immunoinformatics enable rational design approaches. These technologies allow construction of DNA vaccines encoding selected tumor antigens together with molecules to direct and amplify the desired effector pathways, as well as highly targeted vaccines aimed at specific epitopes. Reliable predictions of immunogenic T cell epitope peptides are crucial for rational vaccine design and represent a key problem in immunoinformatics. Computational approaches have been developed to facilitate the process of epitope detection and show potential applications to the immunotherapeutic treatment of cancer. In this review a number of different epitope prediction methods are briefly illustrated and effective use of these resources to support experimental studies is described. Epitope-driven vaccine design employs these bioinformatics algorithms to identify potential targets of vaccines against cancer. In this paper the selection of T cell epitopes to develop epitope-based vaccines, the need for CD4(+) T cell help for improved vaccines and the assessment of vaccine performance against tumor are reviewed. We focused on two applications, namely prediction of novel T cell epitopes and epitope enhancement by sequence modification, and combined rationale design with bioinformatics for creation of new synthetic mini-genes. This review describes the development of epitope-based DNA vaccines and their antitumor effects in preclinical research against B-cell lymphoma, corroborating the usefulness of this platform as a potential tool for cancer therapy. Achievements in the field of DNA vaccines allow to overcome hurdles to clinical translation. In a scenario where the vaccine

  11. Meeting the criteria of a nursing diagnosis classification: Evaluation of ICNP, ICF, NANDA and ZEFP.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller-Staub, M.; Lavin, M.A.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies described nursing diagnosis classification criteria and how classifications meet these criteria. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to identify criteria for nursing diagnosis classifications and to assess how these criteria are met by different classifications. DESIGN/METHODS: First

  12. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  13. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  14. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IV&V portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IV&V projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IV&V techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. Additionally, the role FM has with regard to strengthened security requirements, with potential to advance overall asset protection of flight software systems, is being addressed with the development of an adverse conditions database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities. Capitalizing on the established framework, this TR suite provides assurance capability for a variety of FM architectures and varied development approaches. Research results are being disseminated across NASA, other agencies, and the

  15. Trial Design Challenges When Combining Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    SCAHILL, LAWRENCE; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McCracken, James T.; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Sukhodolsky, Denis; Swiezy, Naomi; MULICK, JAMES; Stigler, Kimberly; Bearss, Karen; Ritz, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for a 24-week, randomized trial designed to test whether risperidone plus structured parent training would be superior to risperidone only on measures of noncompliance, irritability and adaptive functioning. In this model, medication reduces tantrums, aggression and self-injury; parent training promotes improvement in noncompliance and adaptive functioning. Thus, medication and parent training target related, but separate, outcomes. At week 24, the medication...

  16. Research and Development Projects with ICT and students as learning designers in Primary Schools: A methodological challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Tosca, Susana;

    In this paper we present some methodological challenges that emerged during the process of shaping the research design for the comprehensive and complex research project Children as learning designers in a digital school. The project is the realization of our proposal to a research call from...... the use of ICT in the Danish primary school from 2012-2015 combined with an increased focus on fulfilling learning objectives and to build competencies. This effort is on the one side due to a decade of disappointing Danish PISA results regarding reading, writing and math; on the other side due...... the Danish Ministry of Education named Development projects and pilot school experiments (Udviklingsprojekter med demonstrationsskoleforsøg vedr. it i folkeskolen – see Undervisningsministeriet 2013) in the spring 2013. The call was based on a governmental decision to allocate 500 million DKR to increase...

  17. Advances and Challenges in the Implementation of DiD in Siting, Design, and Construction of Nuclear Installations in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam is embarking on a development of a nuclear power program. The main focus is now on the initial 1000 MWe x 2 units of the nuclear power plant in Ninh Thuan province. Now, the nuclear projects of Vietnam are in the phase of siting approval and investment projects approval. The design assessment will be performed in 2013-2014; the construction and installation will be performed from now until the operating licensing is obtained in 2020-2021. With state of development of a nuclear power program in Vietnam, this paper only focuses on advances and challenges in the implementation of Defence in Depth (DID) in siting, design, and construction of nuclear installations in Vietnam. (author)

  18. Inter-regional Knowledge Management Workshop on Life-cycle Management of Design Basis Information – Issues, Challenges, Approaches. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Workshop had a strategic focus on identifying and clarifying long-term issues and objectives related to our collective responsibilities to ensure that both existing nuclear facilities and future new build projects properly address life-cycle management of plant design basis knowledge (i.e. from design to decommissioning). The workshop attempted to bring together key stakeholders and build a better collective understanding, recognizing that very different perspectives exist and there are a wide range of national contexts and approaches. The various issues and challenges related to this topic and facing the nuclear energy sector both today and in the long-term were discussed in a senior management context and at strategic level

  19. An overview of challenges limiting the design of protective mucosal vaccines for finfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in mucosal vaccination in finfish has gained prominence in the last decade in pursuit of mucosal vaccines that would lengthen the duration of protective immunity in vaccinated fish. However, injectable vaccines have continued to dominate in the vaccination of finfish because they are perceived to be more protective than mucosal vaccines. Therefore, it has become important to identify the factors that limit developing protective mucosal vaccines in finfish as an overture to identifying key areas that require optimization in mucosal vaccine design. Some of the factors that limit the success for designing protective mucosal vaccines for finfish identified in this review include the lack optimized protective antigen doses for mucosal vaccines, absence of immunostimulants able to enhance the performance of non-replicative mucosal vaccines, reduction of systemic antibodies due to prolonged exposure to oral vaccination and the lack of predefined correlates of protective immunity for use in the optimization of newly developed mucosal vaccines. This review also points out the need to develop prime-boost vaccination regimes able to induce long-term protective immunity in vaccinated fish. By overcoming some of the obstacles identified herein it is anticipated that future mucosal vaccines shall be designed to induce long-term protective immunity in finfish.

  20. Challenges in the Design of a T Cell Vaccine in the Context of HIV-1 Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Tongo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary variability of HIV-1 poses a major obstacle to vaccine development. The effectiveness of a vaccine is likely to vary dramatically in different populations infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, unless innovative vaccine immunogens are developed to protect against the range of HIV-1 diversity. Immunogen design for stimulating neutralizing antibody responses focuses on “breadth” – the targeting of a handful of highly conserved neutralizing determinants on the HIV-1 Envelope protein that can recognize the majority of viruses across all HIV-1 subtypes. An effective vaccine will likely require the generation of both broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies and non-neutralizing antibodies, as well as broadly cross-reactive T cells. Several approaches have been taken to design such broadly-reactive and cross-protective T cell immunogens. Artificial sequences have been designed that reduce the genetic distance between a vaccine strain and contemporary circulating viruses; “mosaic” immunogens extend this concept to contain multiple potential T cell epitope (PTE variants; and further efforts attempt to focus T cell immunity on highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 genome. Thus far, a number of pre-clinical and early clinical studies have been performed assessing these new immunogens. In this review, the potential use of these new immunogens is explored.

  1. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016.

  2. Technical Reference Suite Addressing Challenges of Providing Assurance for Fault Management Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda; Whitman, Gerek

    2016-01-01

    Research into complexities of software systems Fault Management (FM) and how architectural design decisions affect safety, preservation of assets, and maintenance of desired system functionality has coalesced into a technical reference (TR) suite that advances the provision of safety and mission assurance. The NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Program, with Software Assurance Research Program support, extracted FM architectures across the IVV portfolio to evaluate robustness, assess visibility for validation and test, and define software assurance methods applied to the architectures and designs. This investigation spanned IVV projects with seven different primary developers, a wide range of sizes and complexities, and encompassed Deep Space Robotic, Human Spaceflight, and Earth Orbiter mission FM architectures. The initiative continues with an expansion of the TR suite to include Launch Vehicles, adding the benefit of investigating differences intrinsic to model-based FM architectures and insight into complexities of FM within an Agile software development environment, in order to improve awareness of how nontraditional processes affect FM architectural design and system health management.

  3. Disposal of SNL-designed electronics assemblies associated with the nuclear weapons program - challenges and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the common waste streams generated throughout the nuclear weapon complex is 'hardware' originating from the nuclear weapons program. The activities associated with this hardware at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) include design and development, environmental testing, reliability and stockpile surveillance testing, and military liaison training. SNL-designed electronic assemblies include radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems, Waste stream characterization using process knowledge is difficult due to the age of some components and lack of design information oriented towards hazardous constituent identification. Chemical analysis methods such as the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) are complicated by the inhomogeneous character of these components and the fact that many assemblies have aluminum or stainless steel cases, with the electronics encapsulated in a foam or epoxy matrix. In addition, some components may contain explosives, radioactive materials, toxic substances (PCBs, asbestos), and other regulated or personnel hazards which must be identified prior to handling and disposal. In spite of the above difficulties, we have succeeded in characterizing a limited number of weapon components using a combination of process knowledge and chemical analysis. For these components, we have shown that if the material is regulated as RCRA hazardous waste, it is because the waste exhibits one or more hazardous characteristics; primarily reactivity and/or toxicity (Pb, Cd). (author)

  4. Technical and engineering challenges faced in design of the Gelugor Mainline, Penang, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairiri, A.; Ghani, A. [PETRONAS GAS BERHAD, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    The design of the Gelugor Mainline pipeline in Malaysia faced several obstacles of major importance. The Gelugor Mainline is part of the Peninsular Gas Utilization Project - Stage III. This NPS 24 gas pipeline is approximately 7 km in length and runs from Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) Prai Power Plant of the main line to TNB Gelugor Power Plant on Penang Island. Operating at high pressure, the route runs through complex terrain with varied seabed lithology with depth up to 16 m. It will cross active shipping lanes, zones of live electrical cables, an extensive system of submarine pipeline, mudbank and areas susceptible to mass gravity flows. The development of a Light Rapid Transportation system and the proposed development of a Vision City are both within a few meters of the route of the pipeline. In addition, the pipeline traverses an environmentally sensitive region which includes the rearing of caged fishing activities. A risk assessment study was performed to determine the mitigation actions required and appropriate evasion procedures. The busy shipping strait became the site of a detailed survey of its activities. The different phases of the design process were explained in the presentation as well as an outline of the techniques employed in the design of the pipeline. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. 基于直方图统计分类隐写检测算法设计%THE STEGANOGRAPHY DETECTION ALGORITHM DESIGN BASED ON HISTOGRAM STATISTICAL CLASSIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱志宏

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the detection performance of steganography detection algorithm,in this paper we put forward a steganography detection algorithm which is based on histogram statistical classification.Through extracting the histogram characteristic parameters of the image information and using the classification mode which is constructed based on artificial neural networks,this algorithm achieves accurate judgement on images embedded with steganography information.We analyse in detail the design,principle and process of this steganography algorithm,and at last construct the experimental test environment.Test results indicate that the detection success rate and the false alarm rate of the steganography detection algorithm designed in the paper are better than those of Ezstego detection tool.%为了提高隐写检测算法的检测性能,提出基于直方图统计分类的隐写检测算法.通过对图片信息的直方图特征参数的提取,使用构建基于人工神经网络的分类模式,实现对嵌入隐写信息的图片准确判定.详细分析基于直方图统计分类隐写算法的设计原理和过程,最后构建实验测试环境.测试结果表明,该隐写检测算法的检测成功率和误检率均优于Ezstego检测工具.

  6. 容错并行算法的分类和设计%Classification and design of fault-tolerant parallel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜云飞; 唐玉华

    2011-01-01

    The design of fault-tolerant parallel algorithm (FTPA) is to partition a program into program sections, and manipulate each program section into a fault-tolerant program section with the insertion of a data saving section, a failure detection section, and a recovery section. First, according to the design methodology, the classification of FTPA was given and the characters of all classifications of FTPA were analyzed. Second, the FTPAs for matrix triangular decomposition were fast Fourier transformation. Finally, the performance of FTPAs was evaluated on a cluster with 256 nodes. The experimental results show that FTPA can achieve a low fault-tolerant overhead.%鉴于容错并行算法的设计是影响其容错性能的关键因素,首先,根据容错并行算法的设计方法,给出了容错并行算法的分类,并对各类算法的特点进行了分析;然后,根据分类方法选择了并行矩阵三角分解和快速傅里叶变换2种典型的并行算法,设计出2类并行算法应用所对应的容错并行算法;最后,在一个256结点的机群系统上对设计的容错并行算法的性能进行了测试,结果表明容错并行算法可以实现很低的容错开销.

  7. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2014 Water Quality Standards - Table H Stream Classifications and Use Designations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains Missouri's use designations for streams listed in Table H of the Water Quality Standards rule published in the Missouri Code of State...

  8. Towards Automatic Classification of Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Armañanzas, Rubén; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of neurons into types has been much debated since the inception of modern neuroscience. Recent experimental advances are accelerating the pace of data collection. The resulting information growth of morphological, physiological, and molecular properties encourages efforts to automate neuronal classification by powerful machine learning techniques. We review state-of-the-art analysis approaches and availability of suitable data and resources, highlighting prominent challenge...

  9. Challenges of clinical trial design for targeted agents against pediatric leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Jay Mussai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 40 years have seen significant improvements in both event-free and overall survival for children with acute lymphoblastic or acute myeloid leukemia (ALL or AML respectively. Serial national and international clinical trials have optimised the use of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and, along with improvements in supportive care that have enabled the delivery of more intensive regimens, have been responsible for the major improvements in patient outcome seen over the past few decades,. The benefits of dose intensification, however, have likely now been maximised, and over the same period, the identification of new cytotoxic drugs has been limited.As the biology of leukemogenesis has become better understood, key molecules and intracellular pathways have been identified that offer the possibility of targeting directly the leukemia cells whilst sparing normal cells. Consequently, there is now a drive to develop novel leukemia-specific or ‘targeted’ therapies. These new classes of drugs will have mechanisms of action, toxicities and therapeutic indices quite different from conventional cytotoxic drugs previously encountered, thus rendering current clinical trial methodologies inappropriate; clinical trial methods will need to be adapted to accommodate these features of these new classes of drugs. This review will address the challenges and some of the techniques for developing clinical trials for targeted therapies.

  10. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5-181 Nm³·tonFM(-1)), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  11. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Janke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1, mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year.

  12. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-08-31

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5-181 Nm³·tonFM(-1)), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year.

  13. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. PMID:26929197

  14. R&D Challenges for SFR Design and Safety Analysis: Opportunities for International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the R&D in the safety domain in support of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design and safety analysis. Examples are provided, in particular in the fields of reactivity and decay heat removal control, severe accident analysis, in-service inspection and repair, and chemical risks. It is highlighted that these activities are relevant for international cooperation, especially benchmarks and sharing of experimental facilities. Different frameworks are available for cooperation, such as the Generation IV International Forum, the IAEA (in particular through its coordinated research projects), the European Commission Framework Programme and also bilateral cooperation. (author)

  15. Design Guidelines to Address Global Challenges: Lessons from Global Action Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Waddell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional organizations appear to be incapable of adequately addressing critical global issues such as war, climate change, and economic inequality. Addressing these issues suggests the need for organizational innovation to develop global social contracts. Successful innovation must address four integration imperatives: (1 integrate effort and resources across organizational sectors (business, government, civil society and sense-making, (2 create successful individual to global aggregations, (3 integrate the short and long term, and (4 integrate major issue areas. A new type of organization, Global Action Networks, aims for this integration. Based upon analysis of this new type of organization, five design principles for global social contract organizations are proposed.

  16. Analysis of Nordic educational projects designed to meet challenges in society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Manninen, Jyri; Àrnason, Hróbjartur;

    needs and prob-lems, which are recognized and systematically analysed providing tailor-made solutions. 5.New role for institutions: The project includes innovative new roles for training organizations which have traditionally been working in different fields of education. 6.Getting new groups involved......: Programme motivates new groups of participants, who have usually been non-participants, or are a new target group for the training organization. Aiming at new groups fosters innovation in the training organisation. 7.Community as pedagogical strategy: The pedagogical design of learning interventions aims...

  17. Featherweight Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  18. The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Design Challenge for Scientific Spacecraft Powered by a Stirling Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    2001-01-01

    A 55 We free-piston Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) has been tested as part of an evaluation to determine its feasibility as a means for significantly reducing the amount of radioactive material required compared to Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to support long-term space science missions. Measurements were made to quantify the low frequency magnetic and electric fields radiated from the Stirling's 80 Hertz (Hz) linear alternator and control electronics in order to determine the magnitude of reduction that will be required to protect sensitive field sensors aboard some science missions. One identified "Solar Probe" mission requires a 100 dB reduction in the low frequency magnetic field over typical military standard design limits, to protect its plasma wave sensor. This paper discusses the electromagnetic interference (EMI) control options relative to the physical design impacts for this power system, composed of 3 basic electrical elements. They are (1) the Stirling Power Convertor with its linear alternator, (2) the power switching and control electronics to convert the 90 V, 80 Hz alternator output to DC for the use of the spacecraft, and (3) the interconnecting wiring including any instrumentation to monitor and control items 1 and 2.

  19. The TAHMO sensor design challenge: unlocking and empowering local African talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2013-12-01

    The TAHMO initiative aims to develop and install 20.000 weather stations in sub Saharan Africa. The success of this endeavor greatly depends on using local knowledge, as well as support from local communities. A sensor design competition was held in which participants were asked to design a novel weather sensor. Promotion of the competition was focused on Africa and mainly African student teams responded. The best 15 out of 34 submission were send a 'maker package' containing the tools and materials to physically make their sensors. Winners of the maker packages were asked to upload a video of the process of building their sensors. Using these videos, 9 teams were invited to a final one-week workshop in which all teams worked together to connect all their sensors and automatically upload measurement readings to the internet. This goal was achieved on the last day of the workshop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOTPMp-13Bs The main results of this competition, the lessons learned and the road ahead for TAHMO will be presented.

  20. Alloy Design Challenge: Development of Low Density Superalloys for Turbine Blade Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Smialek, James L.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    New low density single crystal (LDS) alloys have been developed for turbine blade applications, which have the potential for significant improvements in the thrust to weight ratio over current production alloys. An innovative alloying strategy was identified to achieve high temperature creep resistance, alloy density reductions, microstructural stability, and cyclic oxidation resistance. The approach relies on the use of molybdenum (Mo) as a potent solid solution strengthener for the nickel (Ni)-base superalloy; Mo has a density much closer to Ni than other refractory elements, such as rhenium (Re) or tungsten (W). A host of testing and microstructural examinations was conducted on the superalloy single crystals, including creep rupture testing, microstructural stability, cyclic oxidation, and hot corrosion. The paper will provide an overview of the single crystal properties that were generated in this new superalloy design space. The paper will also demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative approach of low density single crystal superalloy design. It will be shown that the best LDS alloy possesses the best attributes of three generations of single crystal alloys: the low density of first-generation single crystal alloys, the excellent oxidation resistance of second-generation single crystal alloys, and a creep strength which exceeds that of second and third generation alloys.

  1. The unexpected structure of the designed protein Octarellin V.1 forms a challenge for protein structure prediction tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Maximiliano; Sleutel, Mike; Vandevenne, Marylene; Parvizi, Gregory; Attout, Sophie; Jacquin, Olivier; Vandenameele, Julie; Fischer, Axel W; Damblon, Christian; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Valerio-Lepiniec, Marie; Urvoas, Agathe; Durand, Dominique; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Minard, Philippe; Maes, Dominique; Meiler, Jens; Matagne, André; Martial, Joseph A; Van de Weerdt, Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Despite impressive successes in protein design, designing a well-folded protein of more 100 amino acids de novo remains a formidable challenge. Exploiting the promising biophysical features of the artificial protein Octarellin V, we improved this protein by directed evolution, thus creating a more stable and soluble protein: Octarellin V.1. Next, we obtained crystals of Octarellin V.1 in complex with crystallization chaperons and determined the tertiary structure. The experimental structure of Octarellin V.1 differs from its in silico design: the (αβα) sandwich architecture bears some resemblance to a Rossman-like fold instead of the intended TIM-barrel fold. This surprising result gave us a unique and attractive opportunity to test the state of the art in protein structure prediction, using this artificial protein free of any natural selection. We tested 13 automated webservers for protein structure prediction and found none of them to predict the actual structure. More than 50% of them predicted a TIM-barrel fold, i.e. the structure we set out to design more than 10years ago. In addition, local software runs that are human operated can sample a structure similar to the experimental one but fail in selecting it, suggesting that the scoring and ranking functions should be improved. We propose that artificial proteins could be used as tools to test the accuracy of protein structure prediction algorithms, because their lack of evolutionary pressure and unique sequences features.

  2. Development of the Pico Star Tracker ST-200 – Design Challenges and Road Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Segert, Tom; Engelen, Steven; Buhl, Matthias; Monna, Bert

    2011-01-01

    The Pico Star Tracker ST-200 under development by Berlin Space Technologies GmbH (BST) is specifically designed keeping the limitations of CubeSats in mind. It comes in a compact 29x29x37mm³ package. It weights 74g and has a power consumption of 220mW average (620mW peak). The ST-200 offers a set of standard interfaces (I²C, SPI, RS485, RS232) and accepts input voltages of 3.3 to 5V. It can detect stars with a limiting magnitude of 6 and has an accuracy of 30 arc seconds (~0.01°). Using its i...

  3. Biopiracy after the Nagoya Protocol: Problem Structure, Regime Design and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rabitz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the effectiveness of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD for addressing "biopiracy" of genetic resources; that is, their biotechnological utilization in violation of either the provider country legislation or mutually agreed contractual obligations. Biopiracy is defined as a problem resulting from a distributive conflict between provider and user countries, the practical difficulties of monitoring the utilization of genetic resources in a transnational context, and the pervasive scientific uncertainty about the nature and extent of the problem. The Nagoya Protocol predominantly focuses on compliance management while lacking the necessary enforcement provisions for deterring non-compliance through effective monitoring and sanctions. Using the example of recent European Union implementing legislation, this article underscores how parties may use the Protocol's legal ambiguities to soften its regulatory impact on domestic industry. As a result, in light of both problem structure and regime design, the Protocol only offers modest improvements over the status quo ante.

  4. Challenges in spent nuclear fuel final disposal:conceptual design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Ahmed RANA

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a long-standing issue in nuclear technology. Mainly, UO2 and metallic U are used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. Spent nuclear fuel contains fission products and transuranium elements, which would remain radioactive for 104 to 108 years. In this brief communication, essential concepts and engineering elements related to high-level nuclear waste disposal are described. Conceptual design models are described and discussed considering the long-time scale activity of spent nuclear fuel or high level waste. Notions of physical and chemical barriers to contain nuclear waste are highlightened. Concerns regarding integrity, self-irradiation induced decomposition and thermal effects of decay heat on the spent nuclear fuel are also discussed. The question of retrievability of spent nuclear fuel after disposal is considered.

  5. A New Modeling Approach for Future Challenges in Process and Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In this paper, a new technique for model reduction that is based on rearranging a part of the model representing the constitutive equations is presented. The rearrangement of the constitutive equations leads to the definition of a new set of pseudo-intensive variables, where the component composi...... formulations, the solution of integrated process/product design problem becomes simpler and more flexible....... compositions are replaced by reduction parameters in the process model. Since the number of components dominates the size of the traditional model equations, a significant reduction of the model size is obtained through this new technique. Some interesting properties of this new technique is that the model...... reduction does not introduce any approximations to the model, it does not change the physical location of the process variables and it provides a visualization of the process and operation that otherwise would not be possible. Furthermore by employing the recently introduced principle of reverse problem...

  6. A New Modeling Approach for Future Challenges in Process and Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Mario Richard; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique for model reduction that is based on rearranging a part of the model representing the constitutive equations is presented. The rearrangement of the constitutive equations leads to the definition of a new set of pseudo-intensive variables, where the component composi...... formulations, the solution of integrated process/product design problem becomes simpler and more flexible....... compositions are replaced by reduction parameters in the process model. Since the number of components dominates the size of the traditional model equations, a significant reduction of the model size is obtained through this new technique. Some interesting properties of this new technique is that the model...... reduction does not introduce any approximations to the model, it does not change the physical location of the process variables and it provides a, visualization of the process and operation that otherwise would not be possible. Furthermore by employing the recently introduced principle of reverse problem...

  7. Scaling laws for free piston Stirling engine design: Benefits and challenges of miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores the scaling effects for FPSE (free piston Stirling engines), which are known for their simple architecture and potentially high thermodynamic performances. Scaling laws are given and their potential for miniaturization is highlighted. A simple model which allows the design of the geometrical parameters of the heat exchangers, the regenerator and the masses of the pistons is proposed. It is based on the definition of six characteristic dimensionless groups. They are derived from the physics underlying the behavior of the free piston Stirling machine and their relevancy is backed up by comparisons between documented Stirling engines from the literature. Keeping constant values for each group throughout the scaling range theoretically ensures constant performance. The main losses of Stirling engine (heat conduction loss, reheat loss in the regenerator, pressure drop and gas-spring hysteresis) can be expressed as a function of the geometrical and operating parameters. Additionally, the consequences of leakage due to the manufacturing precision of pistons architectures are underlined. From the proposed scaling laws, potential power and efficiency of Stirling cycle engines at a millimeter scale can be anticipated. It appears that the power density increases with miniaturization. It is also shown that the dynamic masses related to the engine size are increased when scaling down and that the gap leakage presents the highest detrimental effects on the efficiency. These results call for dedicated architectures for micro-engines. - Highlights: • Similitude strategy is applied to Stirling engines and allows preliminary design. • New scaling laws are derived. • The power density can be increased with miniaturization. • The gap between the piston and casing is highly detrimental to the performances. • High engine operating pressure is required when miniaturizing

  8. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  9. 14 CFR 298.3 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 298.3 Section 298.3... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.3 Classification. (a) There is hereby established a classification of air carriers, designated as “air taxi operators,”...

  10. 14 CFR 1203.701 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1203.701 Section 1203.701... Government Information § 1203.701 Classification. (a) Foreign government information that is classified by a foreign entity shall either retain its original classification designation or be marked with a...

  11. Furniture design

    CERN Document Server

    Smardzewski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the principles of designing furniture as wooden structures, this book discusses issues related to the history of furniture structures, their classification and characteristics, ergonomic approaches to anthropometric requirements and safety of use. It presents key methods and highlights common errors in designing the characteristics of the materials, components, joints and structures, as well as looking at the challenges regarding developing associated design documentation. Including analysis of how designers may go about calculating the stiffness and endurance of parts, joints and whole structures, the book analyzes questions regarding the loss of furniture stability and the resulting threats to health of the user, putting forward a concept of furniture design as an engineering processes. Creating an attractive, functional, ergonomic and safe piece of furniture is not only the fruit of the work of individual architects and artists, but requires an effort of many people working ...

  12. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies – a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Kjeld

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. Methods A case study approach is used to describe naturally occurring organizational changes in four, large, Nordic intervention projects that ran 3–5 years, covered 3–52 worksites, cost 0.25 mill–2.2 mill €, and involved 3–7 researchers. Results In all four cases, high rates of closing, merging, moving, downsizing or restructuring was observed, and in all four cases at least one company/worksite experienced two or more re-organizations during the project period. If individual worksites remained, ownership or (for publicly owned administrative or legal base often shifted. Forthcoming closure led employees and managers to seek employment at other worksites participating in the studies. Key employees involved in the intervention process often changed. Conclusion Major changes were the rule rather than the exception. Frequent fundamental changes at worksites need to be taken into account when planning intervention studies and raises serious questions concerning design, analyses and interpretation of results. The frequent changes may also have deleterious implications for the potential effectiveness of many real life interventions directed toward worksites. We urge researchers and editors to prioritize this subject in order to improve the quality of future intervention research and preventive action.

  13. Tight Coupling Internetworking Between UMTS and WLAN: Challenges, Design Architectures and Simulation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Armi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To provide seamless internet connectivity anywhere at any time to the mobile users, there is astrong demand for the integration of wireless access networks for all-IP based Next GenerationNetworks (NGN. The Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN is capable of providing high data rateat low cost. However, its services are limited to a small geographical area. Universal MobileTelecommunications System (UMTS networks provide global coverage, however, cost is highand the provided data rate do not fulfill the requirements of bandwidth intensive applications. Byintegrating these two promising technologies; UMTS and WLAN several benefits can beachieved, i.e., load balancing, extension of coverage area, better Quality of Service (QoS,improved security features, etc. Therefore, the integration of these two technologies can provideubiquitous connectivity and high data rate at low cost to wireless clients. In this paper differentintegration mechanisms of UMTS and WLAN are investigated. More precisely, an integratedmechanism for the integration of UMTS and WLAN based on two different variations of tightcoupling, i.e., interconnecting WLAN with Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN and GatewayGPRS Support Node (GGSN is designed and analyzed. The simulated results reveal that theGGSN-WLAN integration performance is better than the SGSN-WLAN integration for all theapplied applications and measurement parameters.

  14. Design and evaluation of a molecular fingerprint involving the transformation of property descriptor values into a binary classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Godden, Jeffrey W; Stahura, Florence L; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    A new fingerprint design concept is introduced that transforms molecular property descriptors into two-state descriptors and thus permits binary encoding. This transformation is based on the calculation of statistical medians of descriptor distributions in large compound collections and alleviates the need for value range encoding of these descriptors. For binary encoded property descriptors, bit positions that are set off capture as much information as bit positions that are set on, different from conventional fingerprint representations. Accordingly, a variant of the Tanimoto coefficient has been defined for comparison of these fingerprints. Following our design idea, a prototypic fingerprint termed MP-MFP was implemented by combining 61 binary encoded property descriptors with 110 structural fragment-type descriptors. The performance of this fingerprint was evaluated in systematic similarity search calculations in a database containing 549 molecules belonging to 38 different activity classes and 5000 background molecules. In these calculations, MP-MFP correctly recognized approximately 34% of all similarity relationships, with only 0.04% false positives, and performed better than previous designs and MACCS keys. The results suggest that combinations of simplified two-state property descriptors have predictive value in the analysis of molecular similarity.

  15. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  16. State of the art, challenges and perspectives in the design of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B; Justo, Giselle Z; Haddad, Paula S

    2015-11-01

    Recently, an increasing number of publications have demonstrated the importance of the small molecule nitric oxide (NO) in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. NO acts as a key modulator in cardiovascular, immunological, neurological, and respiratory systems, and deficiencies in the production of NO or its inactivation has been associated with several pathologic conditions, ranging from hypertension to sexual dysfunction. Although the clinical administration of NO is still a challenge owing to its transient chemical nature, the combination of NO and nanocarriers based on biocompatible polymeric scaffolds has emerged as an efficient approach to overcome the difficulties associated with the biomedical administration of NO. Indeed, significant progress has been achieved by designing NO-releasing polymeric nanomaterials able to promote the spatiotemporal generation of physiologically relevant amounts of NO in diverse pharmacological applications. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the preparation of versatile NO-releasing nanocarriers based on polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers and micelles. Despite the significant innovative progress achieved using nanomaterials to tailor NO release, certain drawbacks still need to be overcome to successfully translate these research innovations into clinical applications. In this regard, this review discusses the state of the art regarding the preparation of innovative NO-releasing polymeric nanomaterials, their impact in the biological field and the challenges that need to be overcome. We hope to inspire new research in this exciting area based on NO and nanotechnology.

  17. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  18. Design of Radar Software Test Case Based on Classification Tree%基于分类树的雷达软件测试用例设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    职晓; 裴阿平; 张江华

    2014-01-01

    Owing to larger and larger scale of software size, it is less and less feasible to test every functional unit of modern radar software by using common combinatorial testing techniques in engineering. Aiming at solving defi-ciency of a large amount of redundant test cases generated by using the classification tree method ( CTM) designing test cases, the orthogonal experimental design method based on case set generated by CTM is used to simplify and optimize the testing so as to improve testing efficiency. The experimental results show that optimization of testing case based on orthogonal experimental test designing method can be used to reduce redundant test cases effectively and save test source and cost. It possesses applicable value in engineering.%现代雷达软件测试由于软件规模越来越大,利用常规的组合覆盖方法测试各功能单元工程上越来越不现实。文章针对分类树方法设计测试用例产生大量冗余测试用例的缺陷,提出了在分类树方法生成的用例集基础上,利用正交试验设计法对其进行精简优化,以提高测试效率。实验结果表明,基于正交试验设计法的测试用例优化,可以有效减少冗余测试用例,节省测试资源和成本,具有一定的工程应用价值。

  19. The challenge of the global management of plant design modifications. example of the new EJ system at Vandellos NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Fernando; Valdivia, Carlos; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Trueba, Pedro [Control Rooms and Simulation, Tecnatom, Avda. Montes de Oca, 1 - 28703 San Sebastian de los Reyes. Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    One of the most challenging areas in the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) is related to the management of plant design modifications. Plant modifications can be made to improve reliability, facilitate operation, improve safety or get better results. In any of these situations, plant modifications imply many different activities that have to be done in a coordinated manner. NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) shows a global approach to manage most of these activities. Although this approach is mainly focused on the design and construction of new plants, it can also be applied to plant modification management. Successful global management will require performing every activity in a specific order, taking advantage of the output coming from some tasks as input for others and finalizing every task when necessary. This will provide the best results in terms of quality, time required for implementation, safe and reliable operation and maintenance, and cost. Tecnatom is involved in most of the activities related to the operational areas and has applied a global approach to get advantages in terms of quality and cost, which is outlined in this paper. As an example of this approach, the Vandellos NPP experience is shown in this presentation. Vandellos NPP carried out an important design modification that consists of replacing an old essential service water system with a new one. This was a three-year project that implied the construction of new reservoirs, new buildings, the implementation of new equipment, and new panels in the main control room. This paper shows the way in which all of these activities were performed. (authors)

  20. Is classification necessary after Google?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine challenges facing bibliographic classification at both the practical and theoretical levels. At the practical level, libraries are increasingly dispensing with classifying books. At the theoretical level, many researchers, managers, and users beli...

  1. Small satellites for big science: the challenges of high-density design in the DLR Kompaktsatellit AsteroidFinder/SSB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimo Grundmann, Jan

    initiated the Kompaktsatellit line of development. It is intended to enable dedicated missions for science projects that would earlier have resulted in one full-scale scientific instrument among many sharing a ride on a large platform without the perspective of follow-on within an academic career lifetime. In an internal competition, the AsteroidFinder instrument dedicated to the search for small bodies orbiting the Sun interior to Earth's orbit has been selected as the payload to fly first on a Kompaktsatellit. Alongside, the Standard Satellite Bus kit, /SSB, is being developed, based on extensive re-use of experience, concepts, and components of the DLR satellites BIRD and TET. It is designed to avoid the overhead carried by pre-defined standard bus concepts while allowing for seamless integration of the payload into an organic spacecraft design. Challenges encountered and solutions found across the subsystems of AsteroidFinder/SSB will be presented.

  2. 76 FR 59031 - Classification Challenge Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... current CIA organizational structure and policies and practices, and to eliminate ambiguous, redundant and... current CIA organizational structure, record system configuration, and policies and practices and to... for part 1907 is revised to read as follows: Authority: Executive Order 13526 75 FR 707, 3 CFR...

  3. OS design challenges & research opportunities in real-time WSNs & approach for real time support in Nano-RK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Manjiri Pathak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor network has become an important research domain. WSNs were initially proposed in domains where ordinary networks (not necessarily wired are not convenient, either because of the missing infrastructures, or when numerous nodes (in the order of hundreds or thousands are needed to achieve the assigned task. Nowadays WSNs represent a new generation of distributed embedded systems with a broad range of real-time applications. Some of the applications include process control, fire monitoring, border surveillance, medical care, asset tracking, agriculture, highway traffic coordination etc. Such systems need heavy computations & must meet new kinds of timing constraints under severe resource limitations & limited communication capabilities in highly dynamic environments. Bounded end-to- end delay and guaranteed Quality of Service is also expected. So it is highly necessary to have a common software framework that allows smooth and speedy development of the wide range of proposed sensor applications. An operating system can serve this purpose. Operating systems for WSNs should comprise abstractions that handle digital and analog sensors, provide a communication protocol stack, and make efficient use of the system's limited energy capability. Moreover, OSs should provide an interface and a simple configuration system for application developers [2]. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design & research challenges in OS for WSNs in real time applications.

  4. Advances and Challenges In Uncertainty Quantification with Application to Climate Prediction, ICF design and Science Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Woodward, C. S.; Johannesson, G.; Domyancic, D.; Covey, C. C.; Lucas, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a critical field within 21st century simulation science that resides at the very center of the web of emerging predictive capabilities. The science of UQ holds the promise of giving much greater meaning to the results of complex large-scale simulations, allowing for quantifying and bounding uncertainties. This powerful capability will yield new insights into scientific predictions (e.g. Climate) of great impact on both national and international arenas, allow informed decisions on the design of critical experiments (e.g. ICF capsule design, MFE, NE) in many scientific fields, and assign confidence bounds to scientifically predictable outcomes (e.g. nuclear weapons design). In this talk I will discuss a major new strategic initiative (SI) we have developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to advance the science of Uncertainty Quantification at LLNL focusing in particular on (a) the research and development of new algorithms and methodologies of UQ as applied to multi-physics multi-scale codes, (b) incorporation of these advancements into a global UQ Pipeline (i.e. a computational superstructure) that will simplify user access to sophisticated tools for UQ studies as well as act as a self-guided, self-adapting UQ engine for UQ studies on extreme computing platforms and (c) use laboratory applications as a test bed for new algorithms and methodologies. The initial SI focus has been on applications for the quantification of uncertainty associated with Climate prediction, but the validated UQ methodologies we have developed are now being fed back into Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SSS) and ICF UQ efforts. To make advancements in several of these UQ grand challenges, I will focus in talk on the following three research areas in our Strategic Initiative: Error Estimation in multi-physics and multi-scale codes ; Tackling the "Curse of High Dimensionality"; and development of an advanced UQ Computational Pipeline to enable

  5. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  6. Multi-borders classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The number of possible methods of generalizing binary classification to multi-class classification increases exponentially with the number of class labels. Often, the best method of doing so will be highly problem dependent. Here we present classification software in which the partitioning of multi-class classification problems into binary classification problems is specified using a recursive control language.

  7. MULTI-LABEL CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCT REVIEWS USING STRUCTURED SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincy B. Chrystal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the text classification problems are associated with multiple class labels and hence automatic text classification is one of the most challenging and prominent research area. Text classification is the problem of categorizing text documents into different classes. In the multi-label classification scenario, each document is associated may have more than one label. The real challenge in the multi-label classification is the labelling of large number of text documents with a subset of class categories. The feature extraction and classification of such text documents require an efficient machine learning algorithm which performs automatic text classification. This paper describes the multi-label classification of product review documents using Structured Support Vector Machine.

  8. The role of structural dynamics in the design and operations of space systems: The history, the lessons, the technical challenges of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Structural dynamics and its auxiliary fields are the most progressive and challenging areas space system engineering design and operations face. Aerospace systems are dependent on structural dynamicists for their success. Past experiences (history) are colored with many dynamic issues, some producing ground or flight test failures. The innovation and creativity that was brought to these issues and problems are the aura from the past that lights the path to the future. Using this illumination to guide understanding of the dynamic phenomena and designing for its potential occurrence are the keys to successful space systems. Our great paradox, or challenge, is how we remain in depth specialists, yet become generalists to the degree that we make good team members and set the right priorities. This paper will deal with how we performed with acclaim in the past, the basic characteristics of structural dynamics (loads cycle, for example), and the challenges of the future.

  9. Triggering imagery with unattended seismic/magnetic sensing for vehicle classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, Ronald A.

    2004-09-01

    Acoustic sensing has traditionally been the preferred method for the detection and classification of ground vehicles. However, environmental conditions such as wind and rain pose a great challenge to prevent false detections and misclassifications. The recent work of McQ System Innovations has demonstrated the ability to successfully detect and classify vehicles with the fusion of seismic and magnetic sensing without false detections and only a small percentage of misclassifications. The algorithms developed were designed to detect single vehicles as well as vehicles in a convoy. Based on the classification of each vehicle, an imager can be triggered to find the best frame of the target, and store the image in onboard memory to send back to an operator display. The methodology of the algorithms designed for seismic/magnetic detection and classification of vehicles is shown, as well as results of testing the algorithms running in a remote sensor.

  10. The Importance of Classification to Business Model Research

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To bring to the fore the scientific significance of classification and its role in business model theory building. To propose a method by which existing classifications of business models can be analyzed and new ones developed. Design/Methodology/Approach: A review of the scholarly literature relevant to classifications of business models is presented along with a brief overview of classification theory applicable to business model research. Existing business model classification...

  11. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  12. Application of Data Mining in Protein Sequence Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprativ Saha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein sequence classification involves feature selection for accurate classification. Popular protein sequence classification techniques involve extraction of specific features from the sequences. Researchers apply some well-known classification techniques like neural networks, Genetic algorithm, Fuzzy ARTMAP,Rough Set Classifier etc for accurate classification. This paper presents a review is with three different classification models such as neural network model, fuzzy ARTMAP model and Rough set classifier model.This is followed by a new technique for classifying protein sequences. The proposed model is typicallyimplemented with an own designed tool and tries to reduce the computational overheads encountered by earlier approaches and increase the accuracy of classification.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Packet Classification Algorithms, with Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hediyeh AmirJahanshahi Sistani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available in a realm of ever-increasing Internet connectivity, together with swelling computer security threats, security-cognizant network applications technology is gaining widespread popularity. Packet classifiers are extensively employed for numerous network applications in different types of network devices such as Firewalls and Router, among others. Appreciating the tangible performance of recommended packet classifiers is a prerequisite for both algorithm creators and consumers. However, this is occasionally challenging to accomplish. Each innovative algorithm published is assessed from diverse perceptions and is founded on different suppositions. Devoid of a mutual foundation, it is virtually impossible to compare different algorithms directly. In the interim, it too aids the system implementers to effortlessly pick the most suitable algorithm for their actual applications. Electing an ineffectual algorithm for an application can invite major expenditures. This is particularly true for packet classification in network routers, as packet classification is fundamentally a tough problem and all current algorithms are constructed on specific heuristics and filter set characteristics. The performance of the packet classification subsystem is vital for the aggregate success of the network routers. In this study, we have piloted an advanced exploration of the existing algorithms to provide a comparative evaluation of a number of known classification algorithms that have been considered for both software and hardware implementation. We have explained our earlier suggested DimCut packet classification algorithm, and related it with the BV, HiCuts and HyperCuts decision tree-based packet classification algorithms with the comparative evaluation analysis. This comparison has been carried out on implementations based on the same principles and design choices from different sources. Performance measurements have been obtained by feeding the implemented

  14. The Hand Eczema Trial (HET): Design of a randomised clinical trial of the effect of classification and individual counselling versus no intervention among health-care workers with hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Agner, Tove; Hansen, Jane L.;

    2010-01-01

    strategies are needed to reduce occupational hand eczema. METHODS/DESIGN: We describe the design of a randomised clinical trial to investigate the effects of classification of hand eczema plus individual counselling versus no intervention. The trial includes health-care workers with hand eczema identified...... from a self-administered questionnaire delivered to 3181 health-care workers in three Danish hospitals. The questionnaire identifies the prevalence of hand eczema, knowledge of skin-protection, and exposures that can lead to hand eczema. At entry, all participants are assessed regarding: disease...

  15. From landscape to domain: Soils role in landscape classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil landscape classifications are designed to divide landscapes into units with significance for the provisioning and regulating of ecosystem services and the development of conservation plans for natural resources. More specifically, such classifications serve as the basis for stratifying manageme...

  16. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  17. Histopathological Image Classification Using Discriminative Feature-Oriented Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tiep Huu; Mousavi, Hojjat Seyed; Monga, Vishal; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, U K Arvind

    2016-03-01

    In histopathological image analysis, feature extraction for classification is a challenging task due to the diversity of histology features suitable for each problem as well as presence of rich geometrical structures. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature discovery framework via learning class-specific dictionaries and present a low-complexity method for classification and disease grading in histopathology. Essentially, our Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning (DFDL) method learns class-specific dictionaries such that under a sparsity constraint, the learned dictionaries allow representing a new image sample parsimoniously via the dictionary corresponding to the class identity of the sample. At the same time, the dictionary is designed to be poorly capable of representing samples from other classes. Experiments on three challenging real-world image databases: 1) histopathological images of intraductal breast lesions, 2) mammalian kidney, lung and spleen images provided by the Animal Diagnostics Lab (ADL) at Pennsylvania State University, and 3) brain tumor images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, reveal the merits of our proposal over state-of-the-art alternatives. Moreover, we demonstrate that DFDL exhibits a more graceful decay in classification accuracy against the number of training images which is highly desirable in practice where generous training is often not available.

  18. Web Content Classification: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Prabhjot

    2014-01-01

    As the information contained within the web is increasing day by day, organizing this information could be a necessary requirement.The data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Classification of web page content is essential to many tasks in web information retrieval such as maintaining web directories and focused crawling.The uncontrolled type of nature of web content presents additional challenges to web ...

  19. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  20. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  1. The Evolution of Art and Design Pedagogies in England: Influences of the Past, Challenges for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleles, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the historical evolution of instructional methods in art and design education in Britain to identify the influences that inform current practices and compare the latter against recent debates on what are design education and designer in the context of the global economy and the widespread use of information and communication…

  2. The 24 hour challenge: creating a multidiscipline environment for design and entrepreneurship in engineering and design. Enhancing Employability through Enterprise Education

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jess

    2014-01-01

    This Innovation and Creative Exchange (ICE) is an inter-school enterprise opportunity exclusively for second year Engineering and Design students at the University of Huddersfield. Its primary objective is to bring the best of innovative design and industry thinking into the undergraduate curriculum and to embed the latest innovation and design methodologies into the curriculum for engineering and design students – the next generation of employees for UK knowledge-based industries.

  3. Classification system to describe workpieces definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Macconnell, W R

    2013-01-01

    A Classification System to Describe Workpieces provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects and principles of coding. This book discusses the various applications of the classification system of coding.Organized into three chapters, this book begins with an overview of the requirements of a system of classification pertaining adequately and equally to design, production, and work planning. This text then examines the purpose of the classification system in production to determine the most suitable means of machining a component. Other chapters consider the optimal utilization of m

  4. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  5. The Biology Experimental Design Challenge: An Interactive Approach to Enhance Students’ Understanding of Scientific Inquiry in the Context of an Introductory Biology Course †

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific method serves as a procedural framework for advancing knowledge and discoveries in a number of fields, including the natural and life sciences.  Despite its essential role in these disciplines, students often perceive the scientific method to be a fact-driven, linear pursuit, rather than a dynamic process.  To address this concern, I developed the Biology Experimental Design Challenge (BEDC) game to reinforce students’ understanding of the scientific process.  Specifically, the...

  6. Design and challenges of a randomized controlled trial for reducing risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Mexican women through water intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Villanueva-Borbolla, María Ángeles; Unar, Mishel; Barquera, Simón; de Cossío, Teresita González; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design, methods, and challenges encountered during a randomized clinical trial aimed to promote water intake for reducing risks of metabolic syndrome in Mexican women. Materials and methods. In a randomized clinical trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico, overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] 25 39) women, 18- 45 years old with an intake of sugar-sweetened beverages 250 kilocalories per day (kcal/day) were randomly allocated to the water and education pr...

  7. Experience of three-dimensional vision in the era of digital interaction new devices : opportunity and challenges for applied mathematics and visual design

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Federico Alberto

    2014-01-01

    It will be soon presented to the public a new version of stereoscopic viewers designed for observing files and video projected images through a system of transparent optical prisms which allow the simultaneous perception of the surrounding environment. The real challenge for applied mathematics and visual design will be to prefigure how to use them and their applications, since these new devices can actually enable a deeper visual experience. A specific case study concerns the visualizations of the collisions at the LHC at CERN, selected to verify the traces of the boson theorized by Francois Englert and Peter Higgs, with Robert Brout, who recently (2013) received the Nobel Prize for their research.

  8. Towards the automatic classification of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armañanzas, Rubén; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2015-05-01

    The classification of neurons into types has been much debated since the inception of modern neuroscience. Recent experimental advances are accelerating the pace of data collection. The resulting growth of information about morphological, physiological, and molecular properties encourages efforts to automate neuronal classification by powerful machine learning techniques. We review state-of-the-art analysis approaches and the availability of suitable data and resources, highlighting prominent challenges and opportunities. The effective solution of the neuronal classification problem will require continuous development of computational methods, high-throughput data production, and systematic metadata organization to enable cross-laboratory integration. PMID:25765323

  9. Self Organizing Map-Based Classification of Cathepsin k and S Inhibitors with Different Selectivity Profiles Using Different Structural Molecular Fingerprints: Design and Application for Discovery of Novel Hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmaid, Saleh K; Ahmed, Hany E A; Zayed, Mohamed F; Abadleh, Mohammed M

    2016-01-30

    The main step in a successful drug discovery pipeline is the identification of small potent compounds that selectively bind to the target of interest with high affinity. However, there is still a shortage of efficient and accurate computational methods with powerful capability to study and hence predict compound selectivity properties. In this work, we propose an affordable machine learning method to perform compound selectivity classification and prediction. For this purpose, we have collected compounds with reported activity and built a selectivity database formed of 153 cathepsin K and S inhibitors that are considered of medicinal interest. This database has three compound sets, two K/S and S/K selective ones and one non-selective KS one. We have subjected this database to the selectivity classification tool 'Emergent Self-Organizing Maps' for exploring its capability to differentiate selective cathepsin inhibitors for one target over the other. The method exhibited good clustering performance for selective ligands with high accuracy (up to 100 %). Among the possibilites, BAPs and MACCS molecular structural fingerprints were used for such a classification. The results exhibited the ability of the method for structure-selectivity relationship interpretation and selectivity markers were identified for the design of further novel inhibitors with high activity and target selectivity.

  10. Past and new challenges for malaria control and elimination: the role of operational research for innovation in designing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyant, Philippe; Corbel, Vincent; Guérin, Philippe J; Lautissier, Adeline; Nosten, François; Boyer, Sébastien; Coosemans, Marc; Dondorp, Arjen M; Sinou, Véronique; Yeung, Shunmay; White, Nicholas

    2015-07-17

    This meeting report presents the outcomes of a workshop held in Bangkok on December 1st 2014, where the following challenges were discussed: the threat of resistance to artemisinin and artemisinin-based combination therapy in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) and in Africa; access to treatment for most at risk and hard to reach population; insecticide resistance, residual and outdoors transmission. The role of operational research and the interactions between research institutions, National Malaria Control Programmes, Civil Society Organizations, and of financial and technical partners to address those challenges and to accelerate translation of research into policies and programmes were debated. The threat and the emergency of the artemisinin resistance spread and independent emergence in the GMS was intensely debated as it is now close to the border of India. The need for key messages, based on scientific evidence and information available and disseminated without delay, was highlighted as crucial for an effective and urgent response.

  11. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  12. Taking over someone else's e-learning design: challenges trigger change in e-learning beliefs and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As universities invest in the development of e-learning resources, e-learning sustainability has come under consideration. This has largely focused on the challenges and facilitators of organisational and technological sustainability and scalability, and professional development. Little research has examined the experience of a teacher dealing with e-learning sustainability when taking over a course with an e-learning resource and associated assessment. This research focuses on a teacher who was inexperienced with e-learning technology, yet took over a blended unit of study with an e-learning resource that accounted for one-fifth of the subject assessment and was directed towards academic skills development relevant to the degree program. Taking a longitudinal approach, this research examines the challenges faced by the new teacher and the way she changed the e-learning resource and its implementation over two years. A focus of the research is the way the teacher's reflections on the challenges and changes provided an opportunity and stimulus for change in her e-learning beliefs and practices. This research has implications for the way universities support teachers taking over another teacher's e-learning resource, the need for explicit documentation of underpinning beliefs and structured handover, the benefit of teamwork in developing e-learning resources, and provision of on-going support.

  13. Challenges of Designing New Urban Quality in Historical Environment: Based on Final Projects of BA Students of the Department of Urban Design, FA, VGTU

    OpenAIRE

    Dijokienė, Dalia

    2013-01-01

    Historical urban heritage represents not only the accumulation of the wealth of civilization but also a foundation for identity of urban communities. However, a town is still a living system, the existence of which is supported by its constant development, change and growth. Creating a new urban quality in a historical environment without prejudice to the existing harmony is a complex and challenging task. This article looks into and summarizes knowledge accumulated from the final projects of...

  14. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  15. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  16. Contextualizing Object Detection and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Song, Zheng; Dong, Jian; Huang, Zhongyang; Hua, Yang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how to iteratively and mutually boost object classification and detection performance by taking the outputs from one task as the context of the other one. While context models have been quite popular, previous works mainly concentrate on co-occurrence relationship within classes and few of them focus on contextualization from a top-down perspective, i.e. high-level task context. In this paper, our system adopts a new method for adaptive context modeling and iterative boosting. First, the contextualized support vector machine (Context-SVM) is proposed, where the context takes the role of dynamically adjusting the classification score based on the sample ambiguity, and thus the context-adaptive classifier is achieved. Then, an iterative training procedure is presented. In each step, Context-SVM, associated with the output context from one task (object classification or detection), is instantiated to boost the performance for the other task, whose augmented outputs are then further used to improve the former task by Context-SVM. The proposed solution is evaluated on the object classification and detection tasks of PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge (VOC) 2007, 2010 and SUN09 data sets, and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

  17. The sources of use knowledge: towards integrating the dynamics of technology use and design in the articulation of societal challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peine, A.; Herrmann, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews three strands of the innovation literature that have presented innovation as a distributed process that combines knowledge of designers and users: user innovations, Science and Technology Studies (STS), and domestication research. These literatures have explored different aspects

  18. An evidence gathering and assessment technique designed for a forest cover classification algorithm based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, David Lawrence

    This thesis presents a new approach for classifying Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery that utilizes digitally represented, non-spectral data in the classification step. A classification algorithm that is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is developed and tested for its ability to provide an accurate representation of forest cover on the ground at the Anderson et al (1976) level II. The research focuses on defining an objective, systematic method of gathering and assessing the evidence from digital sources including TM data, the normalized difference vegetation index, soils, slope, aspect, and elevation. The algorithm is implemented using the ESRI ArcView Spatial Analyst software package and the Grid spatial data structure with software coded in both ArcView Avenue and also C. The methodology uses frequency of occurrence information to gather evidence and also introduces measures of evidence quality that quantify the ability of the evidence source to differentiate the Anderson forest cover classes. The measures are derived objectively and empirically and are based on common principles of legal argument. The evidence assessment measures augment the Dempster-Shafer theory and the research will determine if they provide an argument that is mentally sound, credible, and consistent. This research produces a method for identifying, assessing, and combining evidence sources using the Dempster-Shafer theory that results in a classified image containing the Anderson forest cover class. Test results indicate that the new classifier performs with accuracy that is similar to the traditional maximum likelihood approach. However, confusion among the deciduous and mixed classes remains. The utility of the evidence gathering method and also the evidence assessment method is demonstrated and confirmed. The algorithm presents an operational method of using the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence for forest classification.

  19. Detecting relevant variables and interactions in supervised classification.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Morales, Dolores; Carrizosa, Emilio; Martin-Barragan, Belen

    2011-01-01

    The widely used Support Vector Machine (SVM) method has shown to yield good results in Supervised Classification problems. When the interpretability is an important issue, then classification methods such as Classification and Regression Trees (CART) might be more attractive, since they are designed to detect the important predictor variables and, for each predictor variable, the critical values which are most relevant for classification. However, when interactions between variables strongly ...

  20. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  1. Bridging the gap between selection decisions of facade systems at the early design phase: Issues, challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kassema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building facade has a significant impact on the environmental and economic performance of buildings and projects. The specification of their elements at the early design phase depends on numerous technical, environmental and economic factors and involves several stakeholders. The procurement and delivery of the facade work package from the early design phase, through detailed design and manufacture, to installation is a process with several inherent risk factors due to the involved cost, technical and engineering complexities and its position on the critical path in all projects. This research investigates the process of selection and specification of building facade elements at the early design phases with the overarching aim of identifying the issues affecting specification decisions, their root causes and impact on projects. The research utilizes a mixed research approach which combines a retrospective case study and an industry survey as two research methods that build on each other. The findings suggest that the complexity of specification at the early design phases is exacerbated by factors such as the inadequate technical knowledge of stakeholders involved in the decision making process, the non-involvement of building facade consultants, the late involvement of specialist facade subcontractors, and in a few cases by some commercial exclusivity agreements that restricts specification decisions. 

  2. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M;

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  3. Shape and Surface: The challenges and advantages of 3D techniques in innovative fashion, knitwear and product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendt, E.

    2016-07-01

    The presentation wants to show what kind of problems fashion and textile designers are facing in 3D-knitwear design, especially regarding fashionable flat-knit styles, and how they can use different kinds of techniques and processes to generate new types of 3D-designs and structures. To create really new things we have to overcome standard development methods and traditional thinking and should start to open our minds again for the material itself to generate new advanced textile solutions. This paper mainly introduces different results of research projects worked out in the master program “Textile Produkte” during lectures in “Innovative Product Design” and “Experimental Knitting”.

  4. Classification of articulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, A

    1980-03-01

    A simple classification in familiar terms with definite, clear characteristics can be adopted. This classification system is based on the number of records used and the adjustments necessary for the articulator to accept these records. The classification divides the articulators into nonadjustable, semiadjustable, and fully adjustable articulators (Table I). PMID:6928204

  5. Hybrid modeling for quality by design and PAT-benefits and challenges of applications in biopharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stosch, Moritz; Davy, Steven; Francois, Kjell; Galvanauskas, Vytautas; Hamelink, Jan-Martijn; Luebbert, Andreas; Mayer, Martin; Oliveira, Rui; O'Kennedy, Ronan; Rice, Paul; Glassey, Jarka

    2014-06-01

    This report highlights the drivers, challenges, and enablers of the hybrid modeling applications in biopharmaceutical industry. It is a summary of an expert panel discussion of European academics and industrialists with relevant scientific and engineering backgrounds. Hybrid modeling is viewed in its broader sense, namely as the integration of different knowledge sources in form of parametric and nonparametric models into a hybrid semi-parametric model, for instance the integration of fundamental and data-driven models. A brief description of the current state-of-the-art and industrial uptake of the methodology is provided. The report concludes with a number of recommendations to facilitate further developments and a wider industrial application of this modeling approach. These recommendations are limited to further exploiting the benefits of this methodology within process analytical technology (PAT) applications in biopharmaceutical industry.

  6. Facing Challenges in Differential Classical Conditioning Research: Benefits of a Hybrid Design for Simultaneous Electrodermal and Electroencephalographic Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M Carmen; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Junghöfer, Markus; Poy, Rosario; López, Raul; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS) processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG-EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+) were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (unconditioned stimulus) during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS-) remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS- during 368-600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS-. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS- identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry) in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS- differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre-post-learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral

  7. A unified Bayesian hierarchical model for MRI tissue classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dai; Liang, Dong; Tierney, Luke

    2014-04-15

    Various works have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue classification extensively to study a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Various noise characteristics and other artifacts make this classification a challenging task. Instead of splitting the procedure into different steps, we extend a previous work to develop a unified Bayesian hierarchical model, which addresses both the partial volume effect and intensity non-uniformity, the two major acquisition artifacts, simultaneously. We adopted a normal mixture model with the means and variances depending on the tissue types of voxels to model the observed intensity values. We modeled the relationship among the components of the index vector of tissue types by a hidden Markov model, which captures the spatial similarity of voxels. Furthermore, we addressed the partial volume effect by construction of a higher resolution image in which each voxel is divided into subvoxels. Finally, We achieved the bias field correction by using a Gaussian Markov random field model with a band precision matrix designed in light of image filtering. Sparse matrix methods and parallel computations based on conditional independence are exploited to improve the speed of the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. The unified model provides more accurate tissue classification results for both simulated and real data sets. PMID:24738112

  8. Energy-Efficient Context Classification With Dynamic Sensor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lawrence K.; Bui, Alex A. T.; Batalin, Maxim A.; Kaiser, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency has been a longstanding design challenge for wearable sensor systems. It is especially crucial in continuous subject state monitoring due to the ongoing need for compact sizes and better sensors. This paper presents an energy-efficient classification algorithm, based on partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). In every time step, POMDP dynamically selects sensors for classification via a sensor selection policy. The sensor selection problem is formalized as an optimization problem, where the objective is to minimize misclassification cost given some energy budget. State transitions are modeled as a hidden Markov model (HMM), and the corresponding sensor selection policy is represented using a finite-state controller (FSC). To evaluate this framework, sensor data were collected from multiple subjects in their free-living conditions. Relative accuracies and energy reductions from the proposed method are compared against naïve Bayes (always-on) and simple random strategies to validate the relative performance of the algorithm. When the objective is to maintain the same classification accuracy, significant energy reduction is achieved. PMID:23852981

  9. Pro duct Image Classification Based on Fusion Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hui; LIU Jing-jing; YANG Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Two key challenges raised by a product images classification system are classi-fication precision and classification time. In some categories, classification precision of the latest techniques, in the product images classification system, is still low. In this paper, we propose a local texture descriptor termed fan refined local binary pattern, which captures more detailed information by integrating the spatial distribution into the local binary pattern feature. We compare our approach with different methods on a subset of product images on Amazon/eBay and parts of PI100 and experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed approach is superior to the current existing methods. The highest classification precision is increased by 21%and the average classification time is reduced by 2/3.

  10. Towards automatic classification of all WISE sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kurcz, Agnieszka; Solarz, Aleksandra; Krupa, Magdalena; Pollo, Agnieszka; Małek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The WISE satellite has detected hundreds of millions sources over the entire sky. Classifying them reliably is however a challenging task due to degeneracies in WISE multicolour space and low levels of detection in its two longest-wavelength bandpasses. Here we aim at obtaining comprehensive and reliable star, galaxy and quasar catalogues based on automatic source classification in full-sky WISE data. This means that the final classification will employ only parameters available from WISE itself, in particular those reliably measured for a majority of sources. For the automatic classification we applied the support vector machines (SVM) algorithm, which requires a training sample with relevant classes already identified, and we chose to use the SDSS spectroscopic dataset for that purpose. By calibrating the classifier on the test data drawn from SDSS, we first established that a polynomial kernel is preferred over a radial one for this particular dataset. Next, using three classification parameters (W1 magnit...

  11. Object classification and detection with context kernel descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Context information is important in object representation. By embedding context cue of image attributes into kernel descriptors, we propose a set of novel kernel descriptors called Context Kernel Descriptors (CKD) for object classification and detection. The motivation of CKD is to use spatial co...... of CKD for object classification on the CIFAR-10 dataset, and for detection on a challenging chicken feet dataset....

  12. RFID Based Precise Classification and Management of Industrial Products on Software Design%基于RFID的零件精细分类管理系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 杨继全

    2012-01-01

    According to the precision and efficiency of mass products classification in the modem manufacture, the paper proposes Radio Frequency Identification technology. An integrated solution is proposed and applied in practice, which combines with Manufacturing Executive System, motion control and machine vision. In order to obtain such a fine, rapid and accurate system on in and out warehouse and classification of products, its software, user interface, and information process subsystem are developed. Moreover, its results and further development are discussed.%针对现代大规模制造业需要将产品精细准确分类的现状,提出了基于无线射频识别技术的产品精细分类管理方案,并结合制造执行系统、运动控制技术和图像识别技术构建了零件分类管理系统,进行了系统的软件设计和信息处理系统设计,将零件的信息实时显示在系统的界面上,从而实现了产品的入库、出库及分类的精细化、快速化和准确化管理功能.最后对该系统的应用效果和后续研发工作进行了讨论.

  13. Exploring Interdisciplinary Grand Challenges in ICT Design to Support Proactive Health and Wellbeing (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 14272)

    OpenAIRE

    Schraefel, M. C.; Churchill, Elizabeth F.

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant successes in ICT in eHealth. Examples include deploying mobile devices to improve drug adherence, designing Internet services to extend human expert contact, and developing devices and services that encourage engagement in proactive healthcare activities. From an infrastructure perspective, better supply-chain management has reduced healthcare and patient support costs. However, we believe that even greater benefits for improved Quality of Life (QoL) can be re...

  14. Disciplinary and Institutional Perspectives on Open Educational Practice in Art, Design and Media Studies:Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Sarah Anne; Casey, John; Follows, Chris; Mallinder, Stephen; Flint, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    This paper features reflective accounts from teams at two UK universities who are engaged in open education projects supported by national agencies (JISC and the HEA). Art, Design and Media (ADM) studies, by their nature, often feature an emphasis on practical studio and workshop based activities, with a pedagogic culture marked by an emphasis on mentoring, apprenticeship and peer support. In some ways the teaching of ADM subjects can be seen to represent the epitome of the traditional campus...

  15. Battling the challenges of training nurses to use information systems through theory-based training material design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani, Malatsi; Yu, Ping; Paas, Fred; Chandler, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The attempts to train nurses to effectively use information systems have had mixed results. One problem is that training materials are not adequately designed to guide trainees to gradually learn to use a system without experiencing a heavy cognitive load. This is because training design often does not take into consideration a learner's cognitive ability to absorb new information in a short training period. Given the high cost and difficulty of organising training in healthcare organisations, there is an urgent need for information system trainers to be aware of how cognitive overload or information overload affect a trainee's capability to acquire new knowledge and skills, and what instructional techniques can be used to facilitate effective learning. This paper introduces the concept of cognitive load and how it affects nurses when learning to use a new health information system. This is followed by the relevant strategies for instructional design, underpinned by the principles of cognitive load theory, which may be helpful for the development of effective instructional materials and activities for training nurses to use information systems.

  16. Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial of Tofacitinib Solution for Plaque Psoriasis: Challenges of the Intra-Subject Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ports, William C; Feldman, Steven R; Gupta, Pankaj; Tan, Huaming; Johnson, Theodore R; Bissonnette, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Intra-subject, left-right, randomized, controlled study designs are often used for proof-of-concept studies in dermatology. This design was used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a topical solution of tofacitinib (NCT00678561), a small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor under investigation for the topical and oral treatment of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Eighty-one patients, each with matched left and right target plaques, were randomized to 2%, 0.2%, or 0.02% tofacitinib or vehicle solution once or twice daily. Patients treated one plaque as per their randomization group (2%, 0.2%, 0.02% tofacitinib, or vehicle solution), and used vehicle to treat the contralateral plaque for 4 weeks. Except during clinic visits, study drug applications were performed unsupervised outside the clinical trial site. Intra-subject, vehicle-adjusted mean percent change from baseline in Target Plaque Severity Score at week 4 (primary efficacy endpoint) was not significantly different from baseline for any treatment group (P values of 0.28-0.68). However, skin biopsy analyses detected tofacitinib in both tofacitinib- and vehicle-treated plaques of some patients, suggesting cross-contamination or solution misapplication. Lack of efficacy with tofacitinib relative to vehicle may be due to the intra-subject study design with unsupervised applications. These findings have potential implications for future intra-subject studies of topical treatments.

  17. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  18. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pressler Taylor R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a

  19. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  20. Proactive and integrated primary care for frail older people: design and methodological challenges of the Utrecht primary care PROactive frailty intervention trial (U-PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleijenberg Nienke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, primary care for frail older people is reactive, time consuming and does not meet patients' needs. A transition is needed towards proactive and integrated care, so that daily functioning and a good quality of life can be preserved. To work towards these goals, two interventions were developed to enhance the care of frail older patients in general practice: a screening and monitoring intervention using routine healthcare data (U-PRIM and a nurse-led multidisciplinary intervention program (U-CARE. The U-PROFIT trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe the U-PROFIT trial design and to discuss methodological issues and challenges. Methods/Design The effectiveness of U-PRIM and U-CARE is being tested in a three-armed, cluster randomized trial in 58 general practices in the Netherlands, with approximately 5000 elderly individuals expected to participate. The primary outcome is the effect on activities of daily living as measured with the Katz ADL index. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, mortality, nursing home admission, emergency department and out-of-hours General Practice (GP, surgery visits, and caregiver burden. Discussion In a large, pragmatic trial conducted in daily clinical practice with frail older patients, several challenges and methodological issues will occur. Recruitment and retention of patients and feasibility of the interventions are important issues. To enable broad generalizability of results, careful choices of the design and outcome measures are required. Taking this into account, the U-PROFIT trial aims to provide robust evidence for a structured and integrated approach to provide care for frail older people in primary care. Trial registration NTR2288

  1. Challenging design and development of Ma_Miss, a miniaturised spectrometric instrument for Mars sub-soil analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, E.; Coradini, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Capanni, A.; Paolinetti, R.; Re, E.; Magnani, P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies), the miniaturized instrument for spectrometric and stratigraphic analysis of sub-soil developed by SELEX Galileo in the context of ESA ExoMars mission. The Ma_Miss experiment is coordinated by the Principal Investigator Angioletta Coradini (IFSI-INAF, Rome) and is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The exploration of Mars requires a detailed in-situ investigation of the Martian surface and sub-surface. Determining the composition of the Martian subsoil will provide a direct indication of the steps through which the sample material evolved along geological timescales. Ma_Miss is an instrument fully integrated in the Drill system (developed by SELEX Galileo) hosted by a Rover operating on Mars surface; Ma_Miss illuminates the wall of the drill borehole and acquires its reflectance signal in the Visible and Infrared (0.4-2.2 micron) range, analyzes it through a miniaturized spectrometer (20nm spectral resolution), and transmits the digital data to the Rover. The innovative instrument concept was driven by several key needs, related to challenging scientific requirements and extreme environmental constraints. Implementation of the concept has required a deep interdisciplinary concurrent development in order to solve critical aspects of engineering and manufacturing, covering miniaturized monolithic optics and novel concept for fiberoptic connectors capable to automatically mate/de-mate during the robotic assembly of the Drill elements on Mars.

  2. In-Plane Resonant Nano-Electro-Mechanical Sensors: A Comprehensive Study on Design, Fabrication and Characterization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Mizuta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The newly proposed in-plane resonant nano-electro-mechanical (IP R-NEM sensor, that includes a doubly clamped suspended beam and two side electrodes, achieved a mass sensitivity of less than zepto g/Hz based on analytical and numerical analyses. The high frequency characterization and numerical/analytical studies of the fabricated sensor show that the high vacuum measurement environment will ease the resonance detection using the capacitance detection technique if only the thermoelsatic damping plays a dominant role for the total quality factor of the sensor. The usage of the intrinsic junction-less field-effect-transistor (JL FET for the resonance detection of the sensor provides a more practical detection method for this sensor. As the second proposed sensor, the introduction of the monolithically integrated in-plane MOSFET with the suspended beam provides another solution for the ease of resonance frequency detection with similar operation to the junction-less transistor in the IP R-NEM sensor. The challenging fabrication technology for the in-plane resonant suspended gate field-effect-transistor (IP RSG-FET sensor results in some post processing and simulation steps to fully explore and improve the direct current (DC characteristics of the sensor for the consequent high frequency measurement. The results of modeling and characterization in this research provide a realistic guideline for these potential ultra-sensitive NEM sensors.

  3. Implementation of an Ebola virus disease vaccine clinical trial during the Ebola epidemic in Liberia: Design, procedures, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen B; Neaton, James D; Lane, H Clifford; Kieh, Mark W S; Massaquoi, Moses B F; Touchette, Nancy A; Nason, Martha C; Follmann, Dean A; Boley, Fatorma K; Johnson, Melvin P; Larson, Gregg; Kateh, Francis N; Nyenswah, Tolbert G

    2016-02-01

    The index case of the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa is believed to have originated in Guinea. By June 2014, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone were in the midst of a full-blown and complex global health emergency. The devastating effects of this Ebola epidemic in West Africa put the global health response in acute focus for urgent international interventions. Accordingly, in October 2014, a World Health Organization high-level meeting endorsed the concept of a phase 2/3 clinical trial in Liberia to study Ebola vaccines. As a follow-up to the global response, in November 2014, the Government of Liberia and the US Government signed an agreement to form a research partnership to investigate Ebola and to assess intervention strategies for treating, controlling, and preventing the disease in Liberia. This agreement led to the establishment of the Joint Liberia-US Partnership for Research on Ebola Virus in Liberia as the beginning of a long-term collaborative partnership in clinical research between the two countries. In this article, we discuss the methodology and related challenges associated with the implementation of the Ebola vaccines clinical trial, based on a double-blinded randomized controlled trial, in Liberia. PMID:26768572

  4. Evaluating Sex Classifications: The Search for Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marilyn S.

    1974-01-01

    The latest Supreme Court ruling on legislation mandating disparate treatment based on sex has left lower courts facing challenges to such laws as unsure of their analyses as they are confident of their results. Discusses 6 state and federal district court opinions on sex classifications. (Author/PG)

  5. A randomised controlled trial on hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: design and methodological challenges (the IMAGINE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flik Carla E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a common gastro-intestinal disorder in primary and secondary care, characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort, altered bowel habits and/or symptoms of bloating and distension. In general the efficacy of drug therapies is poor. Hypnotherapy as well as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and short Psychodynamic Therapy appear to be useful options for patients with refractory IBS in secondary care and are cost-effective, but the evidence is still limited. The IMAGINE-study is therefore designed to assess the overall benefit of hypnotherapy in IBS as well as comparing the efficacy of individual versus group hypnotherapy in treating this condition. Methods/Design The design is a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The study group consists of 354 primary care and secondary care patients (aged 18-65 with IBS (Rome-III criteria. Patients will be randomly allocated to either 6 sessions of individual hypnotherapy, 6 sessions of group hypnotherapy or 6 sessions of educational supportive therapy in a group (placebo, with a follow up of 9 months post treatment for all patients. Ten hospitals and four primary care psychological practices in different parts of The Netherlands will collaborate in this study. The primary efficacy parameter is the responder rate for adequate relief of IBS symptoms. Secondary efficacy parameters are changes in the IBS symptom severity, quality of life, cognitions, psychological complaints, self-efficacy as well as direct and indirect costs of the condition. Hypnotherapy is expected to be more effective than the control therapy, and group hypnotherapy is expected not to be inferior to individual hypnotherapy. Discussion If hypnotherapy is effective and if there is no difference in efficacy between individual and group hypnotherapy, this group form of treatment could be offered to more IBS patients, at lower costs. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN22888906

  6. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Design and legal considerations for North American emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When considering a multi-pollutant emissions trading system covering Mexico, the United States and Canada, several issues must be looked at. Such a system would result from the changing environment in the electricity sector. An understanding of the architectural elements involved in the design of an emissions trading regime was the stated goal for the preparation of this working paper. In the event of the implementation of a North American emissions trading system, some potential interface issues resulting from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were identified. An overview of the emissions trading systems currently in place in North America and their results was included in a background paper, as well as a description of architectural elements comprised in the design of an emissions trading system, the implications of cross-border harmonization taking into account environmental integrity and economic efficiency, and potential trade issues. This paper was circulated among a broad section of policy experts in environmental matters, and was then discussed at an informal workshop in December 2001, attended by 25 cross-sectoral experts. The author also identified several areas where further work is required. refs., 2 tabs

  7. Recursive heuristic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, David C.

    1994-01-01

    The author will describe a new problem-solving approach called recursive heuristic classification, whereby a subproblem of heuristic classification is itself formulated and solved by heuristic classification. This allows the construction of more knowledge-intensive classification programs in a way that yields a clean organization. Further, standard knowledge acquisition and learning techniques for heuristic classification can be used to create, refine, and maintain the knowledge base associated with the recursively called classification expert system. The method of recursive heuristic classification was used in the Minerva blackboard shell for heuristic classification. Minerva recursively calls itself every problem-solving cycle to solve the important blackboard scheduler task, which involves assigning a desirability rating to alternative problem-solving actions. Knowing these ratings is critical to the use of an expert system as a component of a critiquing or apprenticeship tutoring system. One innovation of this research is a method called dynamic heuristic classification, which allows selection among dynamically generated classification categories instead of requiring them to be prenumerated.

  8. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  9. Innovating Web Page Classification Through Reducing Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoli (李晓黎); SHI Zhongzhi(史忠植)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new method that eliminates noise in Web page classification. It first describes the presentation of a Web page based on HTML tags. Then through a novel distance formula, it eliminates the noise in similarity measure. After carefully analyzing Web pages, we design an algorithm that can distinguish related hyperlinks from noisy ones.We can utilize non-noisy hyperlinks to improve the performance of Web page classification (the CAWN algorithm). For any page, wecan classify it through the text and category of neighbor pages related to the page. The experimental results show that our approach improved classification accuracy.

  10. A review of wireless-photonic systems: Design methodologies and topologies, constraints, challenges, and innovations in electronics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsaei, Ahmadreza; Wang, Yun; Molavi, Reza; Jayatilleka, Hasitha; Caverley, Michael; Beikahmadi, Mohammad; Masnadi Shirazi, Amir Hossein; Jaeger, Nicolas; Chrostowski, Lukas; Mirabbasi, Shahriar

    2016-08-01

    Photonic networks form the backbone for data communications. In particular, in current and future wireless communication systems, photonic networks are becoming increasingly popular for data distribution between the central office and the remote antenna units at base stations. As wireless-photonic systems become in increasing demand, low-cost implementation of such systems will be desirable. This paper describes how integrated photonics and electronics, on silicon, can be used to design such systems. Various building blocks of such silicon-photonics systems are reviewed. The emphasis is on a 60 GHz wireless system which could be suitable for the emerging 5th-generation (5G) cellular networks. The implementation discussed here uses digital baseband optical transmission as opposed to the radio-over-fibre approach.

  11. Gender Classification by Fuzzy Inference System

    OpenAIRE

    Payman Moallem; B. Somayeh Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    Gender classification from face images has many applications and is thus an important research topic. This paper presents an approach to gender classification based on shape and texture information gathered to design a fuzzy decision making system. Beside face shape features, Zernik moments are applied as system inputs to improve the system output which is considered as the probability of being male face image. After parameters tuning of the proposed fuzzy decision making system, 85.05% class...

  12. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neu...

  13. Replacement of steam generators for Embalse NGS - the steam generator cartridge design and manufacturing issues, localization and site assembly challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embalse Nuclear Generating Station (Central Nuclear Embalse) was placed in service in 1983 and the outage for refurbishment is foreseen for 2011/2012. Embalse is equipped with four vertical inverted 'U' tube-type Steam Generators (SG) with integral preheater, I-800 tubes and carbon steel internals. Between 2002-2006, the owner assessed the potential for SG life extension; Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) and AECL and a number of actions were completed towards meeting this objective (i.e.: primary divider plate replacement, additional U Bend support and inspection port installation). However, degradation of the tube supports (carbon steel broached plate) and U-bend supports due to Flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) compromised the possibility for life extension of these Steam Generators. This issue, coupled with the plan to increase the plant power output during the life extension of the station, resulted in the strategic decision by NA-SA, to replace the Steam Generators. Several options were considered for SG replacement: In-situ replacement of the SG tube bundle, the original steam drum to be re-used; Removal and replacement of the entire SG (including the steam drum); and, Replacement of the bottom portion of the SG, i.e. the shell, the tube bundle, the tube sheet, the primary head and its internals and the primary nozzles with a factory assembled cartridge (collectively called the 'SG cartridge'). In this option, the original steam drum would be retained for the extended life. The final decision, based on the recommendations from the Life Assessment Study performed during the Pre-project Condition Assessment Process, is to replace only the Steam Generator cartridges. NA-SA requested AECL's support for the preparation of the Technical Specification for the replacement cartridges, allowing for the higher plant output. This paper presents the design basis for the technical requirements covered in the Technical Specification. The specified requirements include

  14. Fatigue classification of welded joints in orthotropic steel bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolstein, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research into fatigue classifications of welded joints in orthotropic steel bridge decks. These classifications are needed to calculate the fatigue life of these joints and should be included in the design codes. For years bridge design was mainly based on static loadi

  15. A Classification of BPEL Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kopp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL has emerged as de-facto standard for business processes implementation. This language is designed to be extensible for including additional valuable features in a standardized manner. There are a number of BPEL extensions available. They are, however, neither classified nor evaluated with respect to their compliance to the BPEL standard. This article fills this gap by providing a framework for classifying BPEL extensions, a classification of existing extensions, and a guideline for designing BPEL extensions.

  16. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  17. Classification of Itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ständer, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus has diverse forms of presentation and can appear not only on normal skin [International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) classification group II], but also in the company of dermatoses (IFSI classification group I). Scratching, a natural reflex, begins in response to itch. Enough damage can be done to the skin by scratching to cause changes in the primary clinical picture, often leading to a clinical picture predominated by the development of chronic scratch lesions (IFSI classification group III). An internationally recognized, standardized classification system was created by the IFSI to not only aid in clarifying terms and definitions, but also to harmonize the global nomenclature for itch. PMID:27578063

  18. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies...

  19. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy. Phylogenetic Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works. 1 Why phylogenetic tools in astrophysics? 1.1 History of classification The need for classifying living organisms is very ancient, and the first classification system can be dated back to the Greeks. The goal was very practical since it was intended to distinguish between eatable and toxic aliments, or kind and dangerous animals. Simple resemblance was used and has been used for centuries. Basically, until the XVIIIth...

  20. Employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to capture user feedback in the design and testing stage of development of home-based arm rehabilitation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andrew; O'Connor, Rory; Levesley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework to ensure that key aspects of user feedback are identified in the design and testing stages of development of a home-based upper limb rehabilitation system. Seventeen stroke survivors with residual upper limb weakness, and seven healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation, were enrolled in the user-centered design process. Through semi-structured interviews, they provided feedback on the hardware, software and impact of a home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. Members of the multidisciplinary clinical and engineering research team, based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centred design, developed the topic list for the interviews. Meaningful concepts were extracted from participants' interviews based on existing ICF linking rules and matched to categories within the ICF Comprehensive Core Set for stroke. Most of the interview concepts (except personal factors) matched the existing ICF Comprehensive Core Set categories. Personal factors that emerged from interviews e.g. gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorised within the ICF framework and hence could not be matched to a specific Core Set category. PMID:26852630

  1. Challenges of Designing a 13-Hz High-Load Vibration Isolation System with Tight Volume Constraints: Lessons Learned and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Stella; Ruebsamen, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a passive isolation system using D-struts (Registered TradeMark) to isolate an optical payload from aircraft-borne jitter with challenging stroke per volume requirements. It discusses the use of viscoelastic-coated D-struts® that meet the customer performance and outgassing specification, NASA-1124. The result was a relatively soft isolation system, (where the first mode was 13 Hz), with each individual strut capable of withstanding loads on the order of magnitude of 623 N (140 lbf), weighing less than 910 g (2 lbm), fitting in a volume 5.1 cm (2 inches) in diameter and 12-cm (4.7-inches) long and capable of performing up to 1000 Hz without nonlinearities.

  2. A MapReduce based Parallel SVM for Email Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Support Vector Machine (SVM is a powerful classification and regression tool. Varying approaches including SVM based techniques are proposed for email classification. Automated email classification according to messages or user-specific folders and information extraction from chronologically ordered email streams have become interesting areas in text machine learning research. This paper presents a parallel SVM based on MapReduce (PSMR algorithm for email classification. We discuss the challenges that arise from differences between email foldering and traditional document classification. We show experimental results from an array of automated classification methods and evaluation methodologies, including Naive Bayes, SVM and PSMR method of foldering results on the Enron datasets based on the timeline. By distributing, processing and optimizing the subsets of the training data across multiple participating nodes, the parallel SVM based on MapReduce algorithm reduces the training time significantly

  3. Design challenges of EO polymer based leaky waveguide deflector for 40 Gs/s all-optical analog-to-digital converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjloum, Massinissa; El Gibari, Mohammed; Li, Hongwu; Daryoush, Afshin S.

    2016-08-01

    Design challenges and performance optimization of an all-optical analog-to-digital converter (AOADC) is presented here. The paper addresses both microwave and optical design of a leaky waveguide optical deflector using electro-optic (E-O) polymer. The optical deflector converts magnitude variation of the applied RF voltage into variation of deflection angle out of a leaky waveguide optical beam using the linear E-O effect (Pockels effect) as part of the E-O polymer based optical waveguide. This variation of deflection angle as result of the applied RF signal is then quantized using optical windows followed by an array of high-speed photodetectors. We optimized the leakage coefficient of the leaky waveguide and its physical length to achieve the best trade-off between bandwidth and the deflected optical beam resolution, by improving the phase velocity matching between lightwave and microwave on one hand and using pre-emphasis technique to compensate for the RF signal attenuation on the other hand. In addition, for ease of access from both optical and RF perspective, a via-hole less broad bandwidth transition is designed between coplanar pads and coupled microstrip (CPW-CMS) driving electrodes. With the best reported E-O coefficient of 350 pm/V, the designed E-O deflector should allow an AOADC operating over 44 giga-samples-per-seconds with an estimated effective resolution of 6.5 bits on RF signals with Nyquist bandwidth of 22 GHz. The overall DC power consumption of all components used in this AOADC is of order of 4 W and is dominated by power consumption in the power amplifier to generate a 20 V RF voltage in 50 Ohm system. A higher sampling rate can be achieved at similar bits of resolution by interleaving a number of this elementary AOADC at the expense of a higher power consumption.

  4. Musings on galaxy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification schemes and their utility are discussed with a number of examples, particularly for cD galaxies. Data suggest that primordial turbulence rather than tidal torques is responsible for most of the presently observed angular momentum of galaxies. Finally, some of the limitations on present-day schemes for galaxy classification are pointed out. 54 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  5. Classification and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least nine classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (PsA that have been proposed and used in clinical studies. With the exception of the ESSG and Bennett rules, all of the other criteria sets have a good performance in identifying PsA patients. As the CASPAR criteria are based on a robust study methodology, they are considered the current reference standard. However, if there seems to be no doubt that they are very good to classify PsA patients (very high specificity, they might be not sensitive enough to diagnose patients with unknown early PsA. The vast clinical heterogeneity of PsA makes its assessment very challenging. Peripheral joint involvement is measured by 78/76 joint counts, spine involvement by the instruments used for ankylosing spondylitis (AS, dactylitis by involved digit count or by the Leeds dactylitis index, enthesitis by the number of affected entheses (several indices available and psoriasis by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Peripheral joint damage can be assessed by a modified van der Heijde-Sharp scoring system and axial damage by the methods used for AS or by the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI. As in other arthritides, global evaluation of disease activity and severity by patient and physician and assessment of disability and quality of life are widely used. Finally, composite indices that capture several clinical manifestations of PsA have been proposed and a new instrument, the Psoriatic ARthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS, is currently being developed.

  6. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  7. Improved motion description for action classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir eJain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the importance of explicitly integrating motion characteristics in video descriptions has been demonstrated by several recent papers on action classification, our current work concludes that adequately decomposing visual motion into dominant and residual motions, i.e.: camera and scene motion, significantly improves action recognition algorithms. This holds true both for the extraction of the space-time trajectories and for computation of descriptors.We designed a new motion descriptor – the DCS descriptor – that captures additional information on local motion patterns enhancing results based on differential motion scalar quantities, divergence, curl and shear features. Finally, applying the recent VLAD coding technique proposed in image retrieval provides a substantial improvement for action recognition. These findings are complementary to each other and they outperformed all previously reported results by a significant margin on three challenging datasets: Hollywood 2, HMDB51 and Olympic Sports as reported in (Jain et al. (2013. These results were further improved by (Oneata et al. (2013; Wang and Schmid (2013; Zhu et al. (2013 through the use of the Fisher vector encoding. We therefore also employ Fisher vector in this paper and we further enhance our approach by combining trajectories from both optical flow and compensated flow. We as well provide additional details of DCS descriptors, including visualization. For extending the evaluation, a novel dataset with 101 action classes, UCF101, was added.

  8. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  9. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...

  10. Information Classification on University Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    classification of 14 Danish and 14 Pakistani students and compares it with the information classification of their university website. Brainstorming, card sorting, and task exploration activities were used to discover similarities and differences in the participating students’ classification of website...

  11. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnadottir, H.; Hilding-Rydevik, T. [Nordregio, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented

  12. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; SwanII, J. Edward [Mississippi State University (MSU); Fitzpatrick, Patrick J. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Jankun-Kelly, T.J. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  13. Compressive image acquisition and classification via secant projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given its importance in a wide variety of machine vision applications, extending high-speed object detection and recognition beyond the visible spectrum in a cost-effective manner presents a significant technological challenge. As a step in this direction, we developed a novel approach for target image classification using a compressive sensing architecture. Here we report the first implementation of this approach utilizing the compressive single-pixel camera system. The core of our approach rests on the design of new measurement patterns, or projections, that are tuned to objects of interest. Our measurement patterns are based on the notion of secant projections of image classes that are constructed using two different approaches. Both approaches show at least a twofold improvement in terms of the number of measurements over the conventional, data-oblivious compressive matched filter. As more noise is added to the image, the second method proves to be the most robust. (paper)

  14. Classification of hydrological parameter sensitivity and evaluation of parameter transferability across 431 US MOPEX basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huiying; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Sun, Yu; Tesfa, Teklu; Ruby Leung, L.

    2016-05-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) represents physical, chemical, and biological processes of the terrestrial ecosystems that interact with climate across a range of spatial and temporal scales. As CLM includes numerous sub-models and associated parameters, the high-dimensional parameter space presents a formidable challenge for quantifying uncertainty and improving Earth system predictions needed to assess environmental changes and risks. This study aims to evaluate the potential of transferring hydrologic model parameters in CLM through sensitivity analyses and classification across watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) in the United States. The sensitivity of CLM-simulated water and energy fluxes to hydrological parameters across 431 MOPEX basins are first examined using an efficient stochastic sampling-based sensitivity analysis approach. Linear, interaction, and high-order nonlinear impacts are all identified via statistical tests and stepwise backward removal parameter screening. The basins are then classified according to their parameter sensitivity patterns (internal attributes), as well as their hydrologic indices/attributes (external hydrologic factors) separately, using Principal component analysis (PCA) and expectation-maximization (EM) - based clustering approach. Similarities and differences among the parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class), the hydrologic indices-based classification (H-Class), and the Koppen climate classification systems (K-Class) are discussed. Within each parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class) with similar parameter sensitivity characteristics, similar inversion modeling setups can be used for parameter calibration, and the parameters and their contribution or significance to water and energy cycling may also be more transferrable. This classification study provides guidance on identifiable parameters, and on parameterization and inverse model design for CLM but the

  15. Understanding the fabric of protein crystals: computational classification of biological interfaces and crystal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Guido; Duarte, Jose M; Baskaran, Kumaran; Bliven, Spencer; Somody, Joseph C

    2016-02-15

    Modern structural biology still draws the vast majority of information from crystallography, a technique where the objects being investigated are embedded in a crystal lattice. Given the complexity and variety of those objects, it becomes fundamental to computationally assess which of the interfaces in the lattice are biologically relevant and which are simply crystal contacts. Since the mid-1990s, several approaches have been applied to obtain high-accuracy classification of crystal contacts and biological protein-protein interfaces. This review provides an overview of the concepts and main approaches to protein interface classification: thermodynamic estimation of interface stability, evolutionary approaches based on conservation of interface residues, and co-occurrence of the interface across different crystal forms. Among the three categories, evolutionary approaches offer the strongest promise for improvement, thanks to the incessant growth in sequence knowledge. Importantly, protein interface classification algorithms can also be used on multimeric structures obtained using other high-resolution techniques or for protein assembly design or validation purposes. A key issue linked to protein interface classification is the identification of the biological assembly of a crystal structure and the analysis of its symmetry. Here, we highlight the most important concepts and problems to be overcome in assembly prediction. Over the next few years, tools and concepts of interface classification will probably become more frequently used and integrated in several areas of structural biology and structural bioinformatics. Among the main challenges for the future are better addressing of weak interfaces and the application of interface classification concepts to prediction problems like protein-protein docking.

  16. Brain Decoding-Classification of Hand Written Digits from fMRI Data Employing Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargholi, Elahe'; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali

    2016-01-01

    We are frequently exposed to hand written digits 0–9 in today's modern life. Success in decoding-classification of hand written digits helps us understand the corresponding brain mechanisms and processes and assists seriously in designing more efficient brain–computer interfaces. However, all digits belong to the same semantic category and similarity in appearance of hand written digits makes this decoding-classification a challenging problem. In present study, for the first time, augmented naïve Bayes classifier is used for classification of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measurements to decode the hand written digits which took advantage of brain connectivity information in decoding-classification. fMRI was recorded from three healthy participants, with an age range of 25–30. Results in different brain lobes (frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal) show that utilizing connectivity information significantly improves decoding-classification and capability of different brain lobes in decoding-classification of hand written digits were compared to each other. In addition, in each lobe the most contributing areas and brain connectivities were determined and connectivities with short distances between their endpoints were recognized to be more efficient. Moreover, data driven method was applied to investigate the similarity of brain areas in responding to stimuli and this revealed both similarly active areas and active mechanisms during this experiment. Interesting finding was that during the experiment of watching hand written digits, there were some active networks (visual, working memory, motor, and language processing), but the most relevant one to the task was language processing network according to the voxel selection. PMID:27468261

  17. Understanding the fabric of protein crystals: computational classification of biological interfaces and crystal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Guido; Duarte, Jose M; Baskaran, Kumaran; Bliven, Spencer; Somody, Joseph C

    2016-02-15

    Modern structural biology still draws the vast majority of information from crystallography, a technique where the objects being investigated are embedded in a crystal lattice. Given the complexity and variety of those objects, it becomes fundamental to computationally assess which of the interfaces in the lattice are biologically relevant and which are simply crystal contacts. Since the mid-1990s, several approaches have been applied to obtain high-accuracy classification of crystal contacts and biological protein-protein interfaces. This review provides an overview of the concepts and main approaches to protein interface classification: thermodynamic estimation of interface stability, evolutionary approaches based on conservation of interface residues, and co-occurrence of the interface across different crystal forms. Among the three categories, evolutionary approaches offer the strongest promise for improvement, thanks to the incessant growth in sequence knowledge. Importantly, protein interface classification algorithms can also be used on multimeric structures obtained using other high-resolution techniques or for protein assembly design or validation purposes. A key issue linked to protein interface classification is the identification of the biological assembly of a crystal structure and the analysis of its symmetry. Here, we highlight the most important concepts and problems to be overcome in assembly prediction. Over the next few years, tools and concepts of interface classification will probably become more frequently used and integrated in several areas of structural biology and structural bioinformatics. Among the main challenges for the future are better addressing of weak interfaces and the application of interface classification concepts to prediction problems like protein-protein docking. PMID:26508758

  18. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Summary form only given. Embedded systems are everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded systems. Over 99% of the microprocessors produced today are used in embedded systems, and recently the number of embedded systems...

  19. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  20. Dental devices: classification of dental amalgam, reclassification of dental mercury, designation of special controls for dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy; technical amendment. Final rule; technical amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a final rule in the Federal Register of August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38686) which classified dental amalgam as a class II device, reclassified dental mercury from class I to class II, and designated special controls for dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy. The effective date of the rule was November 2, 2009. The final rule was published with an inadvertent error in the codified section. This document corrects that error. This action is being taken to ensure the accuracy of the agency's regulations.

  1. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  2. Supervised Material Classification in Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Gabor Filter Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael L.

    RIT's Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool allows modeling of real world scenes to create synthetic imagery for sensor design and analysis, trade studies, algorithm validation, and training image analysts. To increase model construction speed, and the diversity and size of synthetic scenes which can be generated it is desirable to automatically segment real world imagery into different material types and import a material classmap into DIRSIG. This work contributes a methodology based on standard texture recognition techniques to supervised classification of material types in oblique aerial imagery. Oblique imagery provides many challenges for texture recognition due to illumination changes with view angle, projective distortions, occlusions and self shadowing. It is shown that features derived from a set of rotationally invariant bandpass filters fused with color channel information can provide supervised classification accuracies up to 70% with minimal training data.

  3. Comunidades virtuales, grupos y proyectos de investigación sobre ims learning design. Status quo, factores clave y retos inmediatos [Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burgos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We carry out a report showing the state of the art about virtual communities, research groups and projects focused on the e-learning specification IMS Learning Design or directly related to it. This specification is currently becoming the most flexible and supported de facto standard for modelling full learning processes, as a complement for any structure of educational contents. Afterwards, as a consequence of the previous study, we develop a reading and a further analysis of the current panorama, and describe the key factors that show the relevance and impact of IMS Learning Design and also the main forthcoming challenges. Realizamos una descripción del estado del arte sobre las comunidades virtuales, los grupos de trabajo y los proyectos de investigación centrados en la especificación de e-learning IMS Learning Design o desarrollados en torno a ella. Esta especificación se está convirtiendo de facto en el estándar más versátil y respaldado para modelar procesos completos de aprendizaje como complemento de estructuras de contenidos educativos. Posteriormente, y como consecuencia del estudio, desarrollamos un análisis y lectura del panorama actual con una indicación de los factores clave que muestran su impacto y relevancia y los principales retos a abordar en un futuro inmediato.

  4. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were......%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. CONCLUSION: We find that the classification...

  5. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U.

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classif...

  6. Classification of Error-Diffused Halftone Images Based on Spectral Regression Kernel Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigao Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel algorithm to solve the challenging problem of classifying error-diffused halftone images. We firstly design the class feature matrices, after extracting the image patches according to their statistics characteristics, to classify the error-diffused halftone images. Then, the spectral regression kernel discriminant analysis is used for feature dimension reduction. The error-diffused halftone images are finally classified using an idea similar to the nearest centroids classifier. As demonstrated by the experimental results, our method is fast and can achieve a high classification accuracy rate with an added benefit of robustness in tackling noise.

  7. Chemical Classification of Space Debris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunlai; ZUO Wei; LIU Jianjun; OUYANG Ziyuan

    2004-01-01

    Space debris, here referring to all non-operating orbital objects, has steadily increased in number so that it has become a potential barrier to the exploration of space. The ever-increasing number of space debris pieces in space has created an increasingly threatening hazard to all on-the-orbit spacecraft, and all future space exploration activities have to be designed and operated with respect to the increasing threat posed by space debris. Generally, space debris is classified as large, medium and small debris pieces based on their sizes. The large debris piece is easily catalogued, but medium to small debris pieces are very difficult to track and also quite different in damage mechanisms from the large ones. In this paper, a scheme of chemical classification of space debris is developed. In our scheme, the first-order classification is employed to divide space debris into two groups: natural micrometeoroids and artificial space debris.The second-order classification is based on their chemical patterns and compositions. The natural micrometeoroids are further divided into three types, namely maric, metal and phyllosilicate micrometeorites, while the artificial space debris is divided into seven types, which are polymers, non-metal debris, metals and their alloys, oxides, sulphides and their analogs, halides and carbides. Of the latter seven types, some can also be further divided into several sub-types. Chemical classification of space debris is very useful for the study of the chemical damage mechanism of small debris pieces, and also is of great significance in constraining the origin and source of space debris and assessing their impact on spacecraft and human space activities.

  8. Antigen Gene Cloning and Expression of HIV-1 Toward AIDS Vaccine Design Ⅱ. Subtype Classification and Quasi-species Identification of HIV-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qingping (曾庆平); YANG Ruiyi (杨瑞仪); FENG Liling (冯丽玲); CHEN Zhuhua (陈竹华); ZENG Changhong (曾常红)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze subtypes and quasi-species of isolatedviruses from HIV-1 infected individuals among the populationof Guangdong Province, for understanding the molecularepidemioiogical dynamics of local HIV-1 isolates, thus laying afoundation for designing a candidate AIDS vaccine.Methods: By hetero-duplex mobility assay (HMA) andsingle strand conformation poly- morphism (SSCP) analysison amplicons from single-primed polymerase chain reaction(SP-PCR), subtypes and quasi-species of tested HIV-1 isolateswere elucidated, and amplicons were sequenced forconfirmation.Results: Specific amplicons from different subtypes andquasi-species of HIV-1 could be discernible by HMA andSSCP analysis.Conclusion: HIV-1 isolates from different patients might beeither a different subtype or an identical subtype, and HIV-1isolates from an individual were present in a population ofquasi-species.

  9. Production Line Design for Thermometer Calibration and Classification%体温表标定分号生产线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宏雷; 李光玲; 潘永惠

    2011-01-01

    The automated production line,used for calibrating benchmark temperature lines on mercury thermometers and classing thermometer, is designed based on industry design requirements. It can automatically mark two base lines at 37℃ and 41℃. Based on the distance between two baselines with an error limit of 0.25 mm,the defective thermometers are sorted out gradually and grouped automatically. This line consists of control system, heating device, image recognition system, fixture, transmission device, automatic calibration and engraving device, automatic sorting device and thermostat. Application result shows that the method and the device can effectively reduce production error and improve the production quality.%根据企业要求设计的体温表基准温度刻度标定及分号自动生产线,能自动在每个体温表上将37℃和41℃二条基准线画出;自动将每个体温表按其两基准线间距离以0.25 mm的误差作为一个档次逐一分拣出来,并将不合格体温表编组捡出.该自动生产线由以下几部分组成:控制系统、恒温加热装置、图像识别系统、随行夹具、输送装置、自动标定刻线装置和自动分类分拣装置.应用表明,该方法和装置能有效减少生产误差,提高产量品质.

  10. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... process in March 2012 (77 FR 5379). When verified by a futures classification, Smith-Doxey data serves as... Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known...

  11. Photometric Supernova Classification with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Michelle; McEwen, Jason D.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K.

    2016-08-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  12. SOC中Data-Path布图设计面临的挑战%Challenges to Data-Path Physical Design Inside SOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    经彤; 洪先龙; 蔡懿慈; 许静宇; 杨长旗; 张轶谦; 周强; 吴为民

    2002-01-01

    目前所设计的系统级芯片(SOC)包含有多个data-path模块,这使得data-path成为整个G大规模集成电路(GSI)设计中最关键的部分.以往的布图理论及算法在许多方面已不能满足data-path布图设计的需要,这主要是由于传统的布图工具没有考虑data-path所特有的电路结构特点.Data-path具有规整的位片结构,具有很高的性能指标要求,如对于时延、耦合效应和串扰等性能都有严格的要求.此外,data-path中还存在大量成束状结构的BUS线网.文中提出了data-path布图设计所面临的挑战.从介绍data-path布图的基本问题入手,重点分析了data-path布图设计中的关键技术,并在讨论已有研究工作的基础上针对不同的布图阶段提出了可行的技术路线与设想.%Previously,a single data-path stack was adequate for data-path chips,and the complexity and size of the data-path was comparatively small.As current data-path chips,such as system-on-a-chip (SOC),become more complex,multiple data-path stacks are required to implement the entire data-path.As more data-path stacks are integrated into SOC,data-path is becoming a critical part of the whole giga-scale integrated circuits (GSI) design.The traditional physical design methodology can not satisfy the data-path performance requirements,because it can not accommodate the data-path bit-sliced structure and the strict performance (such as timing,coupling,and crosstalk) constraints.Challenges in the data-path physical design are addressed.The fundamental problems and key technologies in data-path physical design are analysed.The corresponding researches and solutions in this research field are also discussed.

  13. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  14. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  15. Augmented reality as a design tool for mobile interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Nielsen, Christina

    2000-01-01

    This paper challenges user interface paradigms for mobile devices, by using the technical classification of augmented reality interfaces as a thinking tool to develop ideas for interaction with mobile devices. The paper presents future work scenarios from a wastewater treatment plant embodying PDA...... applications derived from the classification of augmented reality interfaces. The focus on physical interaction with objects of work and with the mobile device provides us with a range of interaction styles, based on e.g. gestures and manipulation of objects. Furthermore, issues of transparency and directness...... are addressed. The future scenarios indicate that the concepts of augmented reality support solving context problems in mobile design....

  16. A novel pattern classification scheme using the Baker's map

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Alan; Keating, John; Shorten, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel application of nonlinear systems in the design of pattern classification systems. We show that pattern classification systems can be designed based upon training algorithms designed to control the qualitative behaviour of a nonlinear system. Our paradigm is illustrated by means of a simple chaotic system-the Baker's map. Algorithms for training the system are presented and examples are given to illustrate the operation and learning of the system for pattern classificati...

  17. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  18. Classification of Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Thorpy

    2012-01-01

    The classification of sleep disorders is necessary to discriminate between disorders and to facilitate an understanding of symptoms, etiology, and pathophysiology that allows for appropriate treatment. The earliest classification systems, largely organized according to major symptoms (insomnia, excessive sleepiness, and abnormal events that occur during sleep), were unable to be based on pathophysiology because the cause of most sleep disorders was unknown. These 3 symptom-based categories ar...

  19. Inhibition in multiclass classification

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Ramón; Vembu, Shankar; Amigó, José M.; Nowotny, Thomas; Elkan, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The role of inhibition is investigated in a multiclass support vector machine formalism inspired by the brain structure of insects. The so-called mushroom bodies have a set of output neurons, or classification functions, that compete with each other to encode a particular input. Strongly active output neurons depress or inhibit the remaining outputs without knowing which is correct or incorrect. Accordingly, we propose to use a classification function that embodies unselective inhibition and ...

  20. Classification of Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Johan; Linder, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In a comparing survey this thesis investigates classification systems for dams in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Switzerland, Canada and USA. The investigation is aiming at an understanding of how potential consequences of a dam failure are taken into account when classifying dams. Furthermore, the significance of the classification, regarding the requirements on the dam owner and surveillance authorities concerning dam safety is considered and reviewed. The thesis is pointing out similarities and ...

  1. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  2. Nonparametric Transient Classification using Adaptive Wavelets

    OpenAIRE

    Varughese, Melvin; von Sachs, Rainer; Stephanou, Michael; Bassett, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Classifying transients based on the multi band light curves is a challenging but crucial problem in the era of GAIA and LSST since the sheer volume of transients will make spectroscopic classification unfeasible. Here we present a nonparametric classier that uses the transient's light curve measurements to predict its class given training data. It implements two novel components: the first is the use of the BAGIDIS wavelet methodology - a method of characterizing functional data using hierarc...

  3. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnadottir, H.; Hilding-Rydevik, T. [Nordregio, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented

  4. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Some unresolved issues and challenges in the design and implementation of the forthcoming planning and EIA processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to highlight some unresolved and challenging issues in the forthcoming approximately six year long Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and planning process of the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. Different international and Nordic experiences of the processes for final disposal as well as from other development of similar scope, where experiences assumed to be of importance for final disposal of nuclear waste, have been described. Furthermore, issues relating to 'good EIA practice' as well as certain aspects of planning theory have also been presented. The current Swedish situation for the planning and EIA process of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was also been summarized. These different 'knowledge areas' have been compared and measured against our perception of the expectations towards the forthcoming process, put forward by different Swedish actors in the field. The result is a presentation of a number of questions and identification issues that the authors consider need special attention in the design and conduction of the planning and EIA process. The study has been realized through a literature survey and followed by reading and analysis of the written material. The main focus of the literature search was on material describing planning processes, actor perspectives and EIA. Material and literature on the technical and scientific aspects of spent nuclear fuel disposal was however deliberately avoided. There is a wealth of international and Swedish literature concerning final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - concerning both technical issues and issues concerning for example public participation and risk perception. But material of a more systematic and comparative nature (relating to both empirical and theoretical issues, and to practical experiences) in relation to EIA processes and communicative planning for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel seems to be more sparsely represented. Our perception of

  5. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  6. Do waterbody classifications predict water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Janet R; Tripp, Hannah; Bellucci, Christopher J; Warner, Glenn; Helton, Ashley M

    2016-12-01

    Many states classify waterbodies according to groups of designated uses, which suggests that classifications may be correlated with water quality. The primary assessments of water quality in the United States (the Biennial Integrated Water Quality Reports) do not consider classification, so the relationship between classification and water quality is untested. Additionally, water quality has been shown to be influenced by watershed land use; however, land use is not typically part of waterbody classification systems. To determine the relationships between waterbody classification, water quality, watershed land cover, and forest fragmentation, we analyzed existing water quality data for the State of Connecticut from the United States Geological Survey and the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and land cover data from the National Land Cover Dataset. Connecticut uses a unique classification system that includes separation of drinking water sources (Class AA) and waterbodies receiving waste water discharges (Class B). Using a comparison of multiple means, we found that Class B waters had higher levels of nitrogen, solids, chloride, sodium, dissolved copper, total iron, and dissolved manganese than Class AA waters. Watersheds upstream of Class B segments had less forest cover, more development and more impervious cover than watersheds upstream of Class AA segments. Class A sites had some similarities in water quality and land cover with Class AA sites and some with Class B sites. The subset of Class B waterbodies with "Class AA-like" water quality also had "Class AA-like" land cover. Based on this and a multiple linear regression analysis, we found that water quality is more closely related to watershed land cover and forest fragmentation than to waterbody classification. Our results suggest that watershed land cover likely is a better proxy for water quality than waterbody classification. PMID:27621038

  7. Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Arumugam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is used to identify the person’s emotional state through facial expression such as angry, disgust, happy. This can be done with different age group of people with different situation. We Used a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN for classification and Fisher’s Linear Discriminant (FLD, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for feature selection.

  8. Design of war materials management system of classification and transport%战备物资分类转运体系的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍; 张鹏; 荆斌; 周双勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To design a war preparedness warehouse management and distribution system, speeding up emergency aid distribution, transport efficiency and reduceing emergency response time. Method: Combine warehouse, RFID management systems with industrial automation network technology, signals collectted by computer control system is send and received, which aims to control the transportation and distribution by computer terminal. Results: This system's intelligent analysis of the collected signal can improve the diagnostic rate of related diseases. Conclusion: This system has low investment, high efficiency, which provides a new way of thinking to the transport of war materials and management.%目的:设计一种战备库房仓储管理及分发系统,加快急救物资发放、转运效率,缩短应急响应时间。方法:把立体仓库、RFID管理系统、自动化工控网络技术结合起来,由计算机系统将采集到的控制信号进行发送和接收,由计算机终端进行物资转运控制。结果:本系统实现了采集信号的智能分析,提高了物资调配的效率。结论:本系统具有投资小、效率高的特点,为战备物资的转运及管理提供一种新的思路。

  9. Hierarchical classification of social groups

    OpenAIRE

    Витковская, Мария

    2001-01-01

    Classification problems are important for every science, and for sociology as well. Social phenomena, examined from the aspect of classification of social groups, can be examined deeper. At present one common classification of groups does not exist. This article offers the hierarchical classification of social group.

  10. Multiclass Classification by Adaptive Network of Dendritic Neurons with Binary Synapses Using Structural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaista; Basu, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    The development of power-efficient neuromorphic devices presents the challenge of designing spike pattern classification algorithms which can be implemented on low-precision hardware and can also achieve state-of-the-art performance. In our pursuit of meeting this challenge, we present a pattern classification model which uses a sparse connection matrix and exploits the mechanism of nonlinear dendritic processing to achieve high classification accuracy. A rate-based structural learning rule for multiclass classification is proposed which modifies a connectivity matrix of binary synaptic connections by choosing the best "k" out of "d" inputs to make connections on every dendritic branch (k classification problem, a two-step solution is proposed. First, an adaptive approach is proposed which scales the relative size of the dendritic trees of neurons for each class. It works by progressively adding dendrites with fixed number of synapses to the network, thereby allocating synaptic resources as per the complexity of the given problem. As a second step, theoretical capacity calculations are used to convert each neuronal dendritic tree to its optimal topology where dendrites of each class are assigned different number of synapses. The performance of the model is evaluated on classification of handwritten digits from the benchmark MNIST dataset and compared with other spike classifiers. We show that our system can achieve classification accuracy within 1 - 2% of other reported spike-based classifiers while using much less synaptic resources (only 7%) compared to that used by other methods. Further, an ensemble classifier created with adaptively learned sizes can attain accuracy of 96.4% which is at par with the best reported performance of spike-based classifiers. Moreover, the proposed method achieves this by using about 20% of the synapses used by other spike algorithms. We also present results of applying our algorithm to classify the MNIST-DVS dataset collected from a

  11. Examining Literary Warrant in Ancient Chinese Book Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chen Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the application of literary warrant—a key principle in modern classification theory—in traditional Chinese bibliographic classifications for the purpose of improving the understanding of classification theory in the Chinese tradition. The concept of literary warrant is first briefly discussed. Next, the author analyzes a number of selected book classification systems from premodern China to determine whether literary warrant is a factor in their design and how it is applied. This paper concludes with a summary of the findings. [Article content in Chinese

  12. Fission--fusion systems: classification and critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful classification scheme for hybrid systems is described and some common features that the scheme makes apparent are pointed out. The early history of fusion-fission systems is reviewed. Some designs are described along with advantages and disadvantages of each. The extension to low and moderate Q devices is noted. (U.S.)

  13. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...

  14. New challenges in dietary pattern analysis: combined dietary patterns and calorie adjusted factor analysis in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa; Nikoo, Mohsen Khoshniat

    2014-01-01

    Background Some variability for dietary pattern analysis due to subjective procedures (e.g. arbitrary food categorization and number of factors extraction) was reported. The aim of this study was to present or design a new approach to challenge the conventional dietary pattern analysis through new classification of dietary patterns according to the possibility of the high adherence to more than one dietary pattern and calorie adjusted factor extracting. Methods This cross-sectional study cond...

  15. Hierarchical Coding Vectors for Scene Level Land-Use Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Wu; Baozhen Liu; Weihua Su; Wenchang Zhang; Jinggong Sun

    2016-01-01

    Land-use classification from remote sensing images has become an important but challenging task. This paper proposes Hierarchical Coding Vectors (HCV), a novel representation based on hierarchically coding structures, for scene level land-use classification. We stack multiple Bag of Visual Words (BOVW) coding layers and one Fisher coding layer to develop the hierarchical feature learning structure. In BOVW coding layers, we extract local descriptors from a geographical image with densely samp...

  16. Egocentric visual event classification with location-based priors

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Sudeep; Mayol-Cuevas, Walterio

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for visual classification of actions and events captured from an egocentric point of view. The method tackles the challenge of a moving camera by creating deformable graph models for classification of actions. Action models are learned from low resolution, roughly stabilized difference images acquired using a single monocular camera. In parallel, raw images from the camera are used to estimate the user's location using a visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) ...

  17. Product Classification in E-Commerce using Distributional Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vivek; Karnick, Harish; Bansal, Ashendra; Jhala, Pradhuman

    2016-01-01

    Product classification is the task of automatically predicting a taxonomy path for a product in a predefined taxonomy hierarchy given a textual product description or title. For efficient product classification we require a suitable representation for a document (the textual description of a product) feature vector and efficient and fast algorithms for prediction. To address the above challenges, we propose a new distributional semantics representation for document vector formation. We also d...

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF BIG POINT CLOUD DATA USING CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, K.; J. Boehm

    2015-01-01

    Point cloud data plays an significant role in various geospatial applications as it conveys plentiful information which can be used for different types of analysis. Semantic analysis, which is an important one of them, aims to label points as different categories. In machine learning, the problem is called classification. In addition, processing point data is becoming more and more challenging due to the growing data volume. In this paper, we address point data classification in a big data co...

  19. CADASTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE LAND PLOTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRICHEK Yu. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Work concerns development of national system of classification of the land plots. The developed classification will allow to solve correctly a number of the corresponding cadastral, land management, estimated and other tasks. The analysis of classifications of lands, improvements and real estate in general is made. The created offers concerning creation of a new classification of the land plots in Ukraine. Today the Ukrainian real estate market has no single system that separates the system property groups, classes and types. This significantly complicates the work and can not fully be aware of the specific situation of real estate market. This task is designed to solve classification properties, it is used to transition from a diversity of individual properties to a limited number of classes of evaluation objects. The classification is different functional purpose (use facilities assessment, which determines the difference in value.

  20. A Way Forward for Ship Classification and Technical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam-Bee Goh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Classification societies are one of key organizations that promote the highest standards in ship safety and quality shipping. The paper reviews the ship classification industry and identifies what the classification societies can do to add value to the maritime industry more effectively. To meet this objective, an analysis of the five competitive forces is carried out, together with an opinion survey performed on some of the leading shipping companies, to assess and to establish some of the key factors which should be considered when formulating an overall business strategy for the growth of the classification services business. The findings from the study are discussed with the strategic options and choices. A classification services industrial value chain analysis together with ship management and operation is undertaken to explore the opportunities for classification societies. These findings also provide guidance to policy-makers who design and seek to implement more effective international shipping policies.