Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.
2016-01-01
The frequently neglected and often misunderstood relationship between classical test theory and item response theory is discussed for the unidimensional case with binary measures and no guessing. It is pointed out that popular item response models can be directly obtained from classical test theory-based models by accounting for the discrete…
Reese, Lynda M.
This study extended prior Law School Admission Council (LSAC) research related to the item response theory (IRT) local item independence assumption into the realm of classical test theory. Initially, results from the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and two other tests were investigated to determine the approximate state of local item independence…
Wu, Ning; Zhang, Dahua
2005-01-01
A systematic method is developed to study classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, the formulation of gauge theory of gravity in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates is given. Then in spherical coordinates system, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the Schwarzschild solution. In gauge theory of gravity, the equation of motion of a classical mass point in gravitational gauge field is given by Ne...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eun Young Lim
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The results of the 64th and 65th Korean Medical Licensing Examination were analyzed according to the classical test theory and item response theory in order to know the possibility of applying item response theory to item analys and to suggest its applicability to computerized adaptive test. The correlation coefficiency of difficulty index, discriminating index and ability parameter between two kinds of analysis were got using computer programs such as Analyst 4.0, Bilog and Xcalibre. Correlation coefficiencies of difficulty index were equal to or more than 0.75; those of discriminating index were between - 0.023 and 0.753; those of ability parameter were equal to or more than 0.90. Those results suggested that the item analysis according to item response theory showed the comparable results with that according to classical test theory except discriminating index. Since the ability parameter is most widely used in the criteria-reference test, the high correlation between ability parameter and total score can provide the validity of computerized adaptive test utilizing item response theory.
Subscores Based on Classical Test Theory: To Report or Not to Report
Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby; Puhan, Gautam
2007-01-01
There is an increasing interest in reporting subscores, both at examinee level and at aggregate levels. However, it is important to ensure reasonable subscore performance in terms of high reliability and validity to minimize incorrect instructional and remediation decisions. This article employs a statistical measure based on classical test theory…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, by using Mathematica, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution. Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion, the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced. Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field, we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity, including the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun. It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.
Sharkness, Jessica; DeAngelo, Linda
2011-01-01
This study compares the psychometric utility of Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) for scale construction with data from higher education student surveys. Using 2008 Your First College Year (YFCY) survey data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program at the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, two scales…
Classical and quantum effective theories
Polonyi, Janos
2014-01-01
A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the Closed Time Path (CTP) scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions which describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their CTP extension is briefly discussed and few qualitative examples are mentioned.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning; ZHANG Da-Hua
2007-01-01
A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field.First,by using Mathematica,a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained,which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution.Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion,the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced.Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field,we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity,including the deflection of light by the sun,the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun.It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.
Identity from classical invariant theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple derivation is given of a well-known relation involving the so-called Cayley Operator of classical invariant theory. The proof is induction-free and independent of Capelli's identity; it makes use only of a known-theorem in the theory of determinants and some elementary combinatorics
Classical theory of algebraic numbers
Ribenboim, Paulo
2001-01-01
Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...
Classical theory of radiating strings
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
1990-01-01
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
Advances In Classical Field Theory
Yahalom, Asher
2011-01-01
Classical field theory is employed by physicists to describe a wide variety of physical phenomena. These include electromagnetism, fluid dynamics, gravitation and quantum mechanics. The central entity of field theory is the field which is usually a multi component function of space and time. Those multi component functions are usually grouped together as vector fields as in the case in electromagnetic theory and fluid dynamics, in other cases they are grouped as tensors as in theories of gravitation and yet in other cases they are grouped as complex functions as in the case of quantum mechanic
Applications of classical detonation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, W.C.
1994-09-01
Classical detonation theory is the basis for almost all calculations of explosive systems. One common type of calculation is of the detailed behavior of inert parts driven by explosive, predicting pressures, velocities, positions, densities, energies, etc as functions of time. Another common application of the theory is predicting the detonation state and expansion isentrope of a new explosive or mixtures, perhaps an explosive that has not yet been made. Both types of calculations are discussed.
Classical isodual theory of antimatter
Santilli, R M
1997-01-01
An inspection of the contemporary physics literature reveals that, while matter is treated at all levels of study, from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory, antimatter is solely treated at the level of second quantization. For the purpose of initiating the restoration of full equivalence in the treatments of matter and antimatter in due time, in this paper we present a classical representation of antimatter which begins at the primitive Newtonian level with expected images at all subsequent levels. By recalling that charge conjugation of particles into antiparticles is anti-automorphic, the proposed theory of antimatter is based on a new map, called isoduality, which is also anti-automorphic, yet it is applicable beginning at the classical level and then persists at the quantum level. As part of our study, we present novel anti-isomorphic isodual images of the Galilean, special and general relativities and show the compatibility of their representation of antimatter with all available classical experi...
Classical Electron Theory and Conservation Laws
Kiessling, Michael K. -H.
1999-01-01
It is shown that the traditional conservation laws for total charge, energy, linear and angular momentum, hold jointly in classical electron theory if and only if classical electron spin is included as dynamical degree of freedom.
Three Approaches to Classical Thermal Field Theory
Gozzi, E.; Penco, R.
2010-01-01
In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three well-known different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the Closed-Time Path (CTP) formalism, the Thermofield Dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.
Three approaches to classical thermal field theory
Gozzi, E.; Penco, R.
2011-04-01
In this paper we study three different functional approaches to classical thermal field theory, which turn out to be the classical counterparts of three well-known different formulations of quantum thermal field theory: the closed-time path (CTP) formalism, the thermofield dynamics (TFD) and the Matsubara approach.
Classical-field theory of thermal radiation
Rashkovskiy, Sergey A
2016-01-01
In this paper, using the viewpoint that quantum mechanics can be constructed as a classical field theory without any quantization I build a fully classical theory of thermal radiation. Planck's law for the spectral energy density of thermal radiation and the Einstein A-coefficient for spontaneous emission are derived in the framework of classical field theory without using the concept of "photon". It is shown that the spectral energy density of thermal radiation is apparently not a universal function of frequency, as follows from the Planck's law, but depends weakly on the nature of atoms, while Planck's law is valid only as an approximation in the limit of weak excitation of atoms.
Chen, Xuelian; Schröder, Jan; Hauschild, Stephan; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Dulle, Martin; Förster, Stephan
2015-10-27
Despite the increasing interest in the applications of functional nanoparticles, a comprehensive understanding of the formation mechanism starting from the precursor reaction with subsequent nucleation and growth is still a challenge. We for the first time investigated the kinetics of gold nanoparticle formation systematically by means of a lab-based in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)/UV-vis absorption spectroscopy experiment using a stopped-flow apparatus. We thus could systematically investigate the influence of all major factors such as precursor concentration, temperature, the presence of stabilizing ligands and cosolvents on the temporal evolution of particle size, size distribution, and optical properties from the early prenucleation state to the late growth phase. We for first time formulated and numerically solved a closed nucleation and growth model including the precursor reaction. We observe that the results can be well described within the framework of classical nucleation and growth theory, including also results of previous studies by other research groups. From the analysis, we can quantitatively derive values for the rate constants of precursor reaction and growth together with their activation free enthalpies. We find the growth process to be surface-reaction limited with negligible influence of Ostwald ripening yielding narrow disperse gold nanoparticles. PMID:26393805
Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields
Good, Roland H
1971-01-01
Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma
Classical Electrodynamics in a Unified Theory
Ghose, Partha
2016-01-01
Some consequences of a fully classical unified theory of gravity and electromagnetism are worked out for the electromagnetic sector such as the occurrence of classical light beams with spin and orbital angular momenta that are topologically quantized in units of $q_e q_m=\\sigma$, independent of the beam size. Empirical fits require $\\sigma = \\hbar$. The theory also predicts a generalized coherency matrix whose consequences are testable.
Quantum feedback control and classical control theory
Doherty, Andrew C.; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt; Mabuchi, Hideo; Tan, Sze M.
1999-01-01
We introduce and discuss the problem of quantum feedback control in the context of established formulations of classical control theory, examining conceptual analogies and essential differences. We describe the application of state-observer-based control laws, familiar in classical control theory, to quantum systems and apply our methods to the particular case of switching the state of a particle in a double-well potential.
Yelboga, Atilla; Tavsancil, Ezel
2010-01-01
In this research, the classical test theory and generalizability theory analyses were carried out with the data obtained by a job performance scale for the years 2005 and 2006. The reliability coefficients obtained (estimated) from the classical test theory and generalizability theory analyses were compared. In classical test theory, test retest…
FROM CLASSICAL TO EPISTEMIC GAME THEORY
ANDRÉS PEREA
2014-01-01
In this paper, we give a historical overview of the transition from classical game theory to epistemic game theory. To that purpose we will discuss how important notions such as reasoning about the opponents, belief hierarchies, common belief, and the concept of common belief in rationality arose, and gradually entered the game theoretic picture, thereby giving birth to the field of epistemic game theory. We will also address the question why it took game theory so long before it finally inco...
A Classical Introduction to Galois Theory
Newman, Stephen C
2012-01-01
This book provides an introduction to Galois theory and focuses on one central theme - the solvability of polynomials by radicals. Both classical and modern approaches to the subject are described in turn in order to have the former (which is relatively concrete and computational) provide motivation for the latter (which can be quite abstract). The theme of the book is historically the reason that Galois theory was created, and it continues to provide a platform for exploring both classical and modern concepts. This book examines a number of problems arising in the area of classical mathematic
Wan, Chonghua; Li, Hezhan; Fan, Xuejin; Yang, Ruixue; Pan, Jiahua; Chen, Wenru; Zhao, Rong
2014-01-01
Background Quality of life (QOL) for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is now concerned worldwide with the specific instruments being seldom and no one developed by the modular approach. Objectives This paper is aimed to develop the CHD scale of the system of Quality of Life Instruments for Chronic Diseases (QLICD-CHD) by the modular approach and validate it by both classical test theory and Generalizability Theory. Methods The QLICD-CHD was developed based on programmed decision pro...
Beam structures classical and advanced theories
Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco
2011-01-01
Beam theories are exploited worldwide to analyze civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures. Many beam approaches have been proposed during the last centuries by eminent scientists such as Euler, Bernoulli, Navier, Timoshenko, Vlasov, etc. Most of these models are problem dependent: they provide reliable results for a given problem, for instance a given section and cannot be applied to a different one. Beam Structures: Classical and Advanced Theories proposes a new original unified approach to beam theory that includes practically all classical and advanced models for be
Prototype Theory and Classical Theory:An Explanation and Comparison
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘莹
2014-01-01
This paper discusses two different ways to understand categorization, which are classical theory and prototype theory. There is a deep exploration on how to understand categories, and different theoretical backgrounds of the two categorization the⁃ories. Furthermore, it reviews the limitations and advantages of both theories. And the comparison of the theories gives a clearer angle to understand their similarities and differences.
Thibodeau, Michel A; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Riemann, Bradley C
2015-12-01
The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a promising measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms but has received minimal psychometric attention. We evaluated the utility and reliability of DOCS scores. The study included 832 students and 300 patients with OCD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the originally proposed four-factor structure. DOCS total and subscale scores exhibited good to excellent internal consistency in both samples (α = .82 to α = .96). Patient DOCS total scores reduced substantially during treatment (t = 16.01, d = 1.02). DOCS total scores discriminated between students and patients (sensitivity = 0.76, 1 - specificity = 0.23). The measure did not exhibit gender-based differential item functioning as tested by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests. Expected response options for each item were plotted as a function of item response theory and demonstrated that DOCS scores incrementally discriminate OCD symptoms ranging from low to extremely high severity. Incremental differences in DOCS scores appear to represent unbiased and reliable differences in true OCD symptom severity. PMID:25422521
Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics
Hajicek, Petr
2012-01-01
Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is ...
Experimental assessment of unvalidated assumptions in classical plasticity theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Burghardt, Jeffrey A. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Bauer, Stephen J.; Bronowski, David R.
2009-01-01
This report investigates the validity of several key assumptions in classical plasticity theory regarding material response to changes in the loading direction. Three metals, two rock types, and one ceramic were subjected to non-standard loading directions, and the resulting strain response increments were displayed in Gudehus diagrams to illustrate the approximation error of classical plasticity theories. A rigorous mathematical framework for fitting classical theories to the data, thus quantifying the error, is provided. Further data analysis techniques are presented that allow testing for the effect of changes in loading direction without having to use a new sample and for inferring the yield normal and flow directions without having to measure the yield surface. Though the data are inconclusive, there is indication that classical, incrementally linear, plasticity theory may be inadequate over a certain range of loading directions. This range of loading directions also coincides with loading directions that are known to produce a physically inadmissible instability for any nonassociative plasticity model.
Lagrangian formulation of classical BMT-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The most popular classical theory of electron has been formulated by Bargmann, Michel and Telegdi (BMT) in 1959. The BMT equations give classical relativistic description of a charged particle with spin and anomalous magnetic momentum moving in homogeneous electro-magnetic field. This allows to study spin dynamics of polarized beams in uniform fields. In particular, first experimental measurements of muon anomalous magnetic momentum were done using changing of helicity predicted by BMT equations. Surprisingly enough, a systematic formulation and the analysis of the BMT theory are absent in literature. In the present work we particularly fill this gap by deducing Lagrangian formulation (variational problem) for BMT equations. Various equivalent forms of Lagrangian will be discussed in details. An advantage of the obtained classical model is that the Lagrangian action describes a relativistic spinning particle without Grassmann variables, for both free and interacting cases. This implies also the possibility of canonical quantization. In the interacting case, an arbitrary electromagnetic background may be considered, which generalizes the BMT theory formulated to the case of homogeneous fields. The classical model has two local symmetries, which gives an interesting example of constrained classical dynamics. It is surprising, that the case of vanishing anomalous part of the magnetic momentum is naturally highlighted in our construction. (author)
Classical theory of the hydrogen atom
Rashkovskiy, Sergey
2016-01-01
It is shown that all of the basic properties of the hydrogen atom can be consistently described in terms of classical electrodynamics instead of taking the electron to be a particle; we consider an electrically charged classical wave field, an "electron wave", which is held in a limited region of space by the electrostatic field of the proton. It is shown that quantum mechanics must be considered to be not a theory of particles but a classical field theory in the spirit of classical electrodynamics. In this case, we are not faced with difficulties in interpreting the results of the theory. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, all of the well-known regularities of the spontaneous emission of the hydrogen atom are obtained, which is usually derived in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that there are no discrete states and discrete energy levels of the atom: the energy of the atom and its states change continuously. An explanation of the conventional corpuscular-statistical interpre...
"Scars" connect classical and quantum theory
Monteiro, T
1990-01-01
Chaotic systems are unstable and extremely sensitive to initial condititions. So far, scientists have been unable to demonstrate that the same kind of behaviour exists in quantum or microscopic systems. New connections have been discovered though between classical and quantum theory. One is the phenomena of 'scars' which cut through the wave function of a particle (1 page).
The classical theory of fields electromagnetism
Helrich, Carl S
2012-01-01
The study of classical electromagnetic fields is an adventure. The theory is complete mathematically and we are able to present it as an example of classical Newtonian experimental and mathematical philosophy. There is a set of foundational experiments, on which most of the theory is constructed. And then there is the bold theoretical proposal of a field-field interaction from James Clerk Maxwell. This textbook presents the theory of classical fields as a mathematical structure based solidly on laboratory experiments. Here the student is introduced to the beauty of classical field theory as a gem of theoretical physics. To keep the discussion fluid, the history is placed in a beginning chapter and some of the mathematical proofs in the appendices. Chapters on Green’s Functions and Laplace’s Equation and a discussion of Faraday’s Experiment further deepen the understanding. The chapter on Einstein’s relativity is an integral necessity to the text. Finally, chapters on particle motion and waves in a dis...
Quantum field theory from classical statistics
Wetterich, C
2011-01-01
An Ising-type classical statistical model is shown to describe quantum fermions. For a suitable time-evolution law for the probability distribution of the Ising-spins our model describes a quantum field theory for Dirac spinors in external electromagnetic fields, corresponding to a mean field approximation to quantum electrodynamics. All quantum features for the motion of an arbitrary number of electrons and positrons, including the characteristic interference effects for two-fermion states, are described by the classical statistical model. For one-particle states in the non-relativistic approximation we derive the Schr\\"odinger equation for a particle in a potential from the time evolution law for the probability distribution of the Ising-spins. Thus all characteristic quantum features, as interference in a double slit experiment, tunneling or discrete energy levels for stationary states, are derived from a classical statistical ensemble. Concerning the particle-wave-duality of quantum mechanics, the discret...
Optimal search behavior and classic foraging theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Random walk methods and diffusion theory pervaded ecological sciences as methods to analyze and describe animal movement. Consequently, statistical physics was mostly seen as a toolbox rather than as a conceptual framework that could contribute to theory on evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the existence of mechanistic relationships and feedbacks between behavioral processes and statistical patterns of movement suggests that, beyond movement quantification, statistical physics may prove to be an adequate framework to understand animal behavior across scales from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Recently developed random search theory has served to critically re-evaluate classic ecological questions on animal foraging. For instance, during the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether search behavior can include traits that improve success by optimizing random (stochastic) searches. Here, we stress the need to bring together the general encounter problem within foraging theory, as a mean for making progress in the biological understanding of random searching. By sketching the assumptions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) and by summarizing recent results on random search strategies, we pinpoint ways to extend classic OFT, and integrate the study of search strategies and its main results into the more general theory of optimal foraging.
Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is no such disturbance, one finds a new interpretation of von Neumann's 'first kind of dynamics', and so a new way to a solution of the quantum measurement problem. The present paper gives a very short review of this work.
Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics
Hájíček, P.
2012-05-01
Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is no such disturbance, one finds a new interpretation of von Neumann's "first kind of dynamics", and so a new way to a solution of the quantum measurement problem. The present paper gives a very short review of this work.
Classical solutions in quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum field theories are difficult to solve because they are governed by nonlinear operator equations. A one-dimensional example, termed the kink, is presented of a classical solution. Topological and nontopological solitons in more than one spatial dimension are also discussed. Euclidean solutions and barrier penetration are also reviewed, focusing on vacuum decay by tunneling, Yang-Mills Instantons, the physical consequences of vacuum tunneling, and thermal fluctuations and sphalerons. 119 refs., 2 figs
HCI Theory Classical, Modern, and Contemporary
Rogers, Yvonne
2012-01-01
Theory is the bedrock of many sciences, providing a rigorous method toadvance knowledge through testing and falsifying hypotheses aboutobservable phenomena. To begin with, the nascent field of HCI followedsuit, borrowing theories from cognitive science to test theories aboutuser performance at the interface.But HCI has emerged as an eclectic interdiscipline rather than a welldefinedscience. It now covers all aspects of human life, from birth tobereavement, through all manner of computing, from device ecologiesto nanotechnology. It comes as no surprise that the role of theory in HCIhas also gre
Introduction to classical and quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the first introductory textbook on quantum field theory to be written from the point of view of condensed matter physics. As such, it presents the basic concepts and techniques of statistical field theory, clearly explaining how and why they are integrated into modern quantum (and classical) field theory, and includes the latest developments. Written by an expert in the field, with a broad experience in teaching and training, it manages to present such substantial topics as phases and phase transitions or solitons and instantons in an accessible and concise way. Divided into three parts, the first part covers fundamental physics and the mathematics background needed by students in order to enter the field, while the second part introduces more advanced concepts and techniques. Part III discusses applications of quantum field theory to a few basic problems. The emphasis here lies on how modern concepts of quantum field theory are embedded in these approaches, and also on the limitations of standard quantum field theory techniques in facing, 'real' physics problems. Throughout there are numerous end-of-chapter problems, and a free solutions manual is available for lecturers. (orig.)
Differential formalism aspects of the gauge classical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical aspects of the gauge theories are shown using differential geometry as fundamental tool. Somme comments are done about Maxwell Electro-dynamics, classical Yang-Mills and gravitation theories. (L.C.)
RELEVANCE OF CLASSICALAND NEO-CLASSICAL THEORIES IN PRESENT WORLD
Heena Kashyap
2015-01-01
This paper attempts to explain the impact of various management theories on Modern organisations. Primary purpose of this paper is to explain the relevance of studying Classical and Neo classical theories in the present world. Though these theories don’t consider external environmental changes in Management of Organisation, but they still hold significant place in present scenario. Classical and Neo Classical theories provide foundations for understanding continuous changes in ...
Polynomial Invariant Theory of the Classical Groups
Westrich, Quinton
2011-01-01
The goal of invariant theory is to find all the generators for the algebra of representations of a group that leave the group invariant. Such generators will be called \\emph{basic invariants}. In particular, we set out to find the set of basic invariants for the classical groups GL$(V)$, O$(n)$, and Sp$(n)$ for $n$ even. In the first half of the paper we set up relevant definitions and theorems for our search for the set of basic invariants, starting with linear algebraic groups and then discussing associative algebras. We then state and prove a monumental theorem that will allow us to proceed with hope: it says that the set of basic invariants is finite if $G$ is reductive. Finally we state without proof the First Fundamental Theorems, which aim to list explicitly the relevant sets of basic invariants, for the classical groups above. We end by commenting on some applications of invariant theory, on the history of its development, and stating a useful theorem in the appendix whose proof lies beyond the scope ...
Robust topological degeneracy of classical theories
Vaezi, Mohammad-Sadegh; Ortiz, Gerardo; Nussinov, Zohar
2016-05-01
We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display nonlocal entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, display a ground state entropy (and those of all levels) that is "holographic", i.e., extensive in the system boundary. We find that clock and U (1 ) gauge theories display topological (in addition to gauge) degeneracies.
An approximate classical unimolecular reaction rate theory
Zhao, Meishan; Rice, Stuart A.
1992-05-01
We describe a classical theory of unimolecular reaction rate which is derived from the analysis of Davis and Gray by use of simplifying approximations. These approximations concern the calculation of the locations of, and the fluxes of phase points across, the bottlenecks to fragmentation and to intramolecular energy transfer. The bottleneck to fragment separation is represented as a vibration-rotation state dependent separatrix, which approximation is similar to but extends and improves the approximations for the separatrix introduced by Gray, Rice, and Davis and by Zhao and Rice. The novel feature in our analysis is the representation of the bottlenecks to intramolecular energy transfer as dividing surfaces in phase space; the locations of these dividing surfaces are determined by the same conditions as locate the remnants of robust tori with frequency ratios related to the golden mean (in a two degree of freedom system these are the cantori). The flux of phase points across each dividing surface is calculated with an analytic representation instead of a stroboscopic mapping. The rate of unimolecular reaction is identified with the net rate at which phase points escape from the region of quasiperiodic bounded motion to the region of free fragment motion by consecutively crossing the dividing surfaces for intramolecular energy exchange and the separatrix. This new theory generates predictions of the rates of predissociation of the van der Waals molecules HeI2, NeI2 and ArI2 which are in very good agreement with available experimental data.
Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
RAJAGOPAL A K; GHOSE PARTHA
2016-06-01
Classical electrodynamics is reformulated in terms of wave functions in the classical phase space of electrodynamics, following the Koopman–von Neumann–Sudarshan prescription for classical mechanics on Hilbert spaces sans the superselection rule which prohibits interference effects in classical mechanics. This is accomplished by transforming from a set of commutingobservables in one Hilbert space to another set of commuting observables in a larger Hilbert space. This is necessary to clarify the theoretical basis of the much recent work on quantum-like features exhibited by classical optics. Furthermore, following Bondar et al, {\\it Phys. Rev.} A 88, 052108 (2013), it is pointed out that quantum processes that preserve the positivity or nonpositivity of theWigner function can be implemented by classical optics. This may be useful in interpreting quantum information processing in terms of classical optics.
Confining properties of the classical SU(3) Yang - Mills theory
Dzhunushaliev, V D
1996-01-01
The spherically and cylindrically symmetric solutions of the $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory are obtained. The corresponding gauge potential has the confining properties. It is supposed that: a) the spherically symmetric solution is a field distribution of the classical ``quark'' and in this sense it is similar to the Coulomb potential; b) the cylindrically symmetric solution describes a classical field ``string'' (flux tube) between two ``quarks''. It is noticed that these solutions are typically for the classical $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory in contradiction to monopole that is an exceptional solution. This allows to conclude that the confining properties of the classical $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory are general properties of this theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyer François
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients-Reported Outcomes (PRO are increasingly used in clinical and epidemiological research. Two main types of analytical strategies can be found for these data: classical test theory (CTT based on the observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT. However, whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to analyse PRO data remains unknown. The statistical properties of CTT and IRT, regarding power and corresponding effect sizes, were compared. Methods Two-group cross-sectional studies were simulated for the comparison of PRO data using IRT or CTT-based analysis. For IRT, different scenarios were investigated according to whether items or person parameters were assumed to be known, to a certain extent for item parameters, from good to poor precision, or unknown and therefore had to be estimated. The powers obtained with IRT or CTT were compared and parameters having the strongest impact on them were identified. Results When person parameters were assumed to be unknown and items parameters to be either known or not, the power achieved using IRT or CTT were similar and always lower than the expected power using the well-known sample size formula for normally distributed endpoints. The number of items had a substantial impact on power for both methods. Conclusion Without any missing data, IRT and CTT seem to provide comparable power. The classical sample size formula for CTT seems to be adequate under some conditions but is not appropriate for IRT. In IRT, it seems important to take account of the number of items to obtain an accurate formula.
The Possibility of Reconciling Quantum Mechanics with Classical Probability Theory
Slavnov, D. A.
2007-01-01
We describe a scheme for constructing quantum mechanics in which a quantum system is considered as a collection of open classical subsystems. This allows using the formal classical logic and classical probability theory in quantum mechanics. Our approach nevertheless allows completely reproducing the standard mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and identifying its applicability limits. We especially attend to the quantum state reduction problem.
Introducing quantum effects in classical theories
Fabris, J C; Rodrigues, D C; Daouda, M H
2015-01-01
In this paper, we explore two different ways of implementing quantum effects in a classical structure. The first one is through an external field. The other one is modifying the classical conservation laws. In both cases, the consequences for the description of the evolution of the universe are discussed.
Gauge-fields and integrated quantum-classical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Physical situations in which quantum systems communicate continuously to their classically described environment are not covered by contemporary quantum theory, which requires a temporary separation of quantum degrees of freedom from classical ones. A generalization would be needed to cover these situations. An incomplete proposal is advanced for combining the quantum and classical degrees of freedom into a unified objective description. It is based on the use of certain quantum-classical structures of light that arise from gauge invariance to coordinate the quantum and classical degrees of freedom. Also discussed is the question of where experimenters should look to find phenomena pertaining to the quantum-classical connection. 17 refs
Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by a Computational Experiment
Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel
2014-01-01
We propose an in silico experiment to introduce the classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely on abstract concepts that are nonintuitive; however, they are at the heart of powerful tools and active fields of research in both physics and chemistry. They led to the 1998 Nobel Prize in…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mills, R.L. [BlackLight Power, Inc., Cranbury, NJ (United States)
2001-10-01
addressed. It is time for the physical rather than the mathematical nature of the wave function to be determined. A theory of classical quantum mechanics (CQM) was derived from first principles by Mills (The grand unified theory of classical quantum mechanics. January 2000 ed; Cranbury, NJ, 2000, BlackLight Power, Inc., (Distributed by Amazon.com; Posted at www.blacklightpower.com)) that successfully applies physical laws on all scales. Using the classical wave equation with the constraint of nonradiation based on Maxwell's equations, CQM gives closed form physical solutions for the electron in atoms, the free electron, and the free electron in superfluid helium. The prediction of fractional principal quantum energy states of the electron in liquid helium match the photoconductivity and mobility observations without requiring that the electron is divisible. (author)
Dense matter theory a simple classical approach
Savic, P
1998-01-01
In the sixties,the first author and R.Kasanin have started developing a mean field theory of dense matter.This paper presents a short review of the basic ideas of the theory,and discusses some examples of its applications,which range from DAC experiments to modelling of planetary interiors.
Functional Approach to Classical Yang-Mills Theories
Carta, P
2002-01-01
Sometime ago it was shown that the operatorial approach to classical mechanics, pioneered in the 30's by Koopman and von Neumann, can have a functional version. In this talk we will extend this functional approach to the case of classical field theories and in particular to the Yang-Mills ones. We shall show that the issues of gauge-fixing and Faddeev-Popov determinant arise also in this classical formalism.
Classical conformality in the Standard Model from Coleman's theory
Kawana, Kiyoharu
2016-01-01
The classical conformality is one of the possible candidates for explaining the gauge hierarchy of the Standard Model. We show that it is naturally obtained from the Coleman's theory on baby universe.
Classical gravity coupled to Liouville theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the two dimensional Jackiw-Teitelboim model of gravity. We first couple the model to the Liouville action and c scalar fields and show, treating the combined system as a non linear sigma model, that the resulting theory can be interpreted as a critical string moving in a target space of dimension D = c + 2. We then analyse perturbatively a generalized model containing a kinetic term and an arbitrary potential for the auxiliary field. We use the background field method and work covariant gauges. We show that the renormalizability of the theory depends on the form of the potential. For a general potential, the theory can be renormalized as a non linear sigma model. In the particular case of a Liouville-like potential, the theory is renormalized in the usual sense. (author). 31 refs
Classical gravity coupled to Liouville theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the two dimensional Jackiw-Teitelboim model of gravity. We first couple the model to the Liouville action and c scalar fields and show, treating the combined system as a non linear sigma model, that the resulting theory can be interpreted as a critical string moving in a target space of dimension D=c+2. We then analyze the model from a perturbative point of view. We show in particular that the results of conformal field theory are exactly reproduced at the one-loop level. We also show that the theory is one loop finite if the cosmological constant Λ is equal to zero. When Λ is different from zero the one loop divergences are gauge-fixing dependent even on-shell. However, the theory can be renormalized as a non linear sigma model if a kinetic term is included for the auxiliary field. (author). 27 refs
Conformal Invariance in Classical Field Theory
Grigore, D. R.
1993-01-01
A geometric generalization of first-order Lagrangian formalism is used to analyse a conformal field theory for an arbitrary primary field. We require that global conformal transformations are Noetherian symmetries and we prove that the action functional can be taken strictly invariant with respect to these transformations. In other words, there does not exists a "Chern-Simons" type Lagrangian for a conformally invariant Lagrangian theory.
The semi classical laser theory and some applications of laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The semi classical laser theory is concerned with the interaction between light and matter in such a way that the matter is treated quantum-mechanically whereas light is treated in terms of the classical electromagnetic equations. In this work the Maxwell-Bloch equations are employed to describe the interaction between light and matter. Applications of the theory as well as different types of lasers are reviewed. (Author)
Vibration of Timoshenko Beams Using Non-classical Elasticity Theories
J.V. Araújo dos Santos; J.N. Reddy
2012-01-01
This paper presents a comparison among classical elasticity, nonlocal elasticity, and modified couple stress theories for free vibration analysis of Timoshenko beams. A study of the influence of rotary inertia and nonlocal parameters on fundamental and higher natural frequencies is carried out. The nonlocal natural frequencies are found to be lower than the classical ones, while the natural frequencies estimated by the modified couple stress theory are higher. The modified couple stress theor...
Classical irregular block, N=2 pure gauge theory and Mathieu equation
Piatek, Marcin
2014-01-01
Combining the semiclassical/Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the AGT conjecture and the Bethe/gauge correspondence results in a triple correspondence which identifies classical conformal blocks with twisted superpotentials and then with Yang-Yang functions. In this paper the triple correspondence is studied in the simplest, yet not completely understood case of pure SU(2) super-Yang-Mills gauge theory. A missing element of that correspondence is identified with the classical irregular block. Explicit tests provide a convincing evidence that such a function exists. In particular, it has been shown that the classical irregular block can be recovered from classical blocks on the torus and sphere in suitably defined decoupling limits of classical external conformal weights. These limits are "classical analogues" of known decoupling limits for corresponding quantum blocks. An exact correspondence between the classical irregular block and the SU(2) gauge theory twisted superpotential has been obtained as a result of a...
From Classical to Quantum Shannon Theory
Wilde, Mark M
2011-01-01
The aim of this book is to develop "from the ground up" all of the major, exciting, pre- and post-millenium developments in the general area of study known as quantum Shannon theory. As such, we spend a significant amount of time on quantum mechanics for quantum information theory (Part II), we give a careful study of the important unit protocols of teleportation, super-dense coding, and entanglement distribution (Part III), and we develop many of the tools necessary for understanding information transmission or compression (Part IV). Parts V and VI are the culmination of this book, where all of the tools developed come into play for understanding many of the important results in quantum Shannon theory.
[The establishment, contributions, and final results of classical medical theories].
Wang, Tai
2013-01-01
In countries with ancient civilization of both Eastern world and Western world, after the accumulation of clinical experiences of "empirical medicine" to a sufficient amount; in accordance of their primitive philosophical thoughts, classical medical theories were established to play an important role in guiding the clinical practice of "empirical medicine". Because of the similarity of philosophical thoughts all over the ancient world, their medical theories were also very similar to each other. After the scientific evaluation and improvement, Greek classical medical theories were inherited, refined or abandoned, and then eventually finished their historical mission. Chinese classical medical theories also need the similar scientific identification and improvement for flowing into the authorized main stream of modern medical theory systems to continuously apply their guiding roles in clinical practice. Scholars would better consider the developmental principles of cultures and sciences with a historical viewpoint and an open mind to avoid making mistakes from haughty and prejudice. PMID:23596779
Classical Coupled Mode Theory of Optomechanical Crystals
Khorasani, Sina
2016-01-01
Acousto-optic interaction in optomechanical crystals allows unidirectional control of elastic waves over optical waves. However, as a result of this nonlinear interaction, infinitely many optical modes are born. This article presents an exact formulaion of coupled mode theory for interaction between elastic Bloch wave waves and photonic Bloch waves moving in a phonotonic waveguide. In general, an optical wavefront is strongly diffracted by an elastic wave in frequency and wavevector, and thus infinite modes with different frequencies and wavevectors appear. We discuss resonance and mode conversion conditions, and present a rigorous method to derive coupling rates and mode profiles. We also find a conservation law which rules over total optical power from interacting individual modes. Modifications of the theory to phonotonic cavities are also discussed. We present application examples including switch, frequency shifter, and reflector.
Satin, Seema
2015-01-01
We attempt to introduce an new approach towards study of certain interesting issues in classical gravity. This can be done for few confined, but interesting and meaningful physical situations, which can be modeled by a classical stochastic Einstein equation. The Einstein equation can be looked upon as an equation of motion, while introducing to it a classical stochastic source or classical fluctuations as driving source. This is analogous to the Langevin equation formalism, in Brownian motion studies. A justification for the validity of such an ansatz for classical gravity is given. The regime of validity of such an approach and the consequences and possible outcomes of this formulation are discussed. We also mention, further relevant directions and applications of the same,that act as motivation towards the new proposal. This field of study can be seen to emerge out of well established ideas and results in Brownian motion theory as well as the Stochastic Semiclassical Gravity (which is already an active area...
Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by Computational Experiment
Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel
2014-01-01
We present here an introductory practical course to classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely largely on nonintuitive abstract concepts and applied mathematics. They are nevertheless a powerful tool and an active field of research in physics and chemistry that led to the 1998 Nobel prize in chemistry. We here illustrate the DFT in its most mathematically simple and yet physically relevant form: the classical density functional theory of an ideal fluid in an external field, as applied to the prediction of the structure of liquid neon at the molecular scale. This introductory course is built around the production of a cDFT code written by students using the Mathematica language. In this way, they are brought to deal with (i) the cDFT theory itself, (ii) some basic concepts around the statistical mechanics of simple fluids, (iii) the underlying mathematical and numerical problem of functional minimization, and (iv) a functional programming languag...
Lectures on Classical and Quantum Theory of Fields
Arodź, Henryk
2010-01-01
This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course.
Lectures on classical and quantum theory of fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course. (orig.)
The Jackiw-Pi model: Classical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: One of the central problems in the framework of gauge field theories is the issue of gauge field mass. Gauge symmetry is not, in principle, conflicting with the presence of a massive gauge boson. In two space-time dimensions, the well-known Schwinger model puts in evidence the presence of a massive photon without the breaking of gauge symmetry. Another evidence for the compatibility between gauge symmetry and massive vector fields comes from the study of three-dimensional gauge theories. A topological mass term referred to as the Chern-Simons Lagrangian, once added to the Yang-Mills term, shifts the photon mass to a non-vanishing value without breaking gauge invariance, however parity symmetry is lost. In 1997, a massive even-parity non- Abelian gauge model in three space-time dimensions has been proposed by Jackiw and Pi, which is studied, at the tree-level, in this work. The propagators are computed and the spectrum consistency is analyzed, besides, the symmetries of the model are collected and established through BRS invariance and Slavnov-Taylor identity. In the Landau gauge, thanks to the antighost equations and the Slavnov-Taylor identity, two rigid symmetries are identified by means of Ward identities. It is presented here a promising path for perturbatively quantization of the Jackiw-Pi model and a hint concerning its possible quantum scale invariance is also pointed out. (author)
Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G
2016-01-01
This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a detailed numerical comparison of the high-harmonic generation (HHG) from free electrons in intense laser fields in both classical and semi-classical frameworks has been presented. These two frameworks have been widely used in the literature. It has been found that the HHG spectra display distinct quantitative differences for high-energy electrons. In some special situations, qualitative differences appear. Even if the radiation reaction is included in the electron classical dynamics, no consistent result can be obtained. Hence it should be of critical importance to submit the present HHG theory for high-precision experimental tests, which can help us not only to justify the present theories, but also to check the QED predictions in the high-intensity regime. (paper)
Classical Solutions in Quantum Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum field theory has evolved from its early beginnings as a tool for understanding the interaction of light with matter into a rather formidable technical paradigm, one that has successfully provided the mathematical underpinnings of all non-gravitational interactions. Over the eight decades since it was first contemplated the methods have become increasingly more streamlined and sophisticated, yielding new insights into our understanding of the subatomic world and our abilities to make clear and precise predictions. Some of the more elegant methods have to do with non-perturbative and semiclassical approaches to the subject. The chief players here are solitons, instantons, and anomalies. Over the past three decades there has been a steady rise in our understanding of these objects and of our ability to calculate their effects and implications for the rest of quantum field theory. This book is a welcome contribution to this subject. In 12 chapters it provides a clear synthesis of the key developments in these subjects at a level accessible to graduate students that have had an introductory course to quantum field theory. In the author's own words it provides both 'a survey and an overview of this field'. The first half of the book concentrates on solitons-–kinks, vortices, and magnetic monopoles-–and their implications for the subject. The reader is led first through the simplest models in one spatial dimension, into more sophisticated cases that required more advanced topological methods. The author does quite a nice job of introducing the various concepts as required, and beginning students should be able to get a good grasp of the subject directly from the text without having to first go through the primary literature. The middle part of the book deals with the implications of these solitons for both cosmology and for duality. While the cosmological discussion is quite nice, the discussion on BPS solitons, supersymmetry and duality is
Classical theory of nonlinear Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The covariant dynamics of a single electron subjected to the electromagnetic field of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse in vacuum is studied theoretically at arbitrary intensities, in the context of the Dirac-Lorentz equation, which has long been suggested as a possible theory including the radiative reaction due to the electron self-interaction. A brief review of the Lorentz-Maxwell electrodynamics including canonical invariants and scattered light spectra will be given, with a special emphasis on frequency modulation effects associated to the nonlinear relativistic Doppler shift induced by radiation pressure on the backscattered radiation. For circular polarization, an exact analytical expression for the full nonlinear spectrum is derived, and is presented. It is found that the scattering of coherent light by an electron describing a well-behaved trajectory can yield chaotic spectra when the laser ponderomotive force strongly modulates the electron's proper time. The Dirac-Lorentz equation is then derived and integrated numerically backward in time to ensure convergence towards the unique acausal solution satisfying the Dirac-Rohrlich asymptotic conditions (no runaway, law of inertia), and its consequences are investigated in terms of nonlinear Compton scattering. The relevance of this work to laser acceleration, as well as ongoing nonlinear Compton scattering experiments at SLAC and to the proposed γ-γ collider will also be discussed
A classical theory of continuous spin and hidden gauge invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a classical higher derivative point particle theory whose quantization gives Wigner's continuous spin representation of the Poincare group. Although the theory is not reparameterization invariant in the usual sense, it does possess a hidden gauge invariance that provides a non-local representation of the reparameterization group. The Hamiltonian of the theory does not vanish and its value is the continuous spin parameter. The theory presented here represents the simplest example of a wide class of higher derivative theories possessing a hidden gauge invariance
A classical theory of continuous spin and hidden gauge invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zoller, D.
1991-01-01
We present a classical higher derivative point particle theory whose quantization gives Wigner's continuous spin representation of the Poincare group. Although the theory is not reparameterization invariant in the usual sense, it does possess a hidden gauge invariance that provides a non-local representation of the reparameterization group. The Hamiltonian of the theory does not vanish and its value is the continuous spin parameter. The theory presented here represents the simplest example of a wide class of higher derivative theories possessing a hidden gauge invariance.
A classical theory of continuous spin and hidden gauge invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zoller, D.
1991-12-31
We present a classical higher derivative point particle theory whose quantization gives Wigner`s continuous spin representation of the Poincare group. Although the theory is not reparameterization invariant in the usual sense, it does possess a hidden gauge invariance that provides a non-local representation of the reparameterization group. The Hamiltonian of the theory does not vanish and its value is the continuous spin parameter. The theory presented here represents the simplest example of a wide class of higher derivative theories possessing a hidden gauge invariance.
Quantum Mind from a Classical Field Theory of the Brain
Zizzi, Paola
2011-01-01
We suggest that, with regard to a theory of quantum mind, brain processes can be described by a classical, dissipative, non-abelian gauge theory. In fact, such a theory has a hidden quantum nature due to its non-abelian character, which is revealed through dissipation, when the theory reduces to a quantum vacuum, where temperatures are of the order of absolute zero, and coherence of quantum states is preserved. We consider in particular the case of pure SU(2) gauge theory with a special anzat...
Quantum fermions and quantum field theory from classical statistics
Wetterich, C.
2012-01-01
An Ising-type classical statistical ensemble can describe the quantum physics of fermions if one chooses a particular law for the time evolution of the probability distribution. It accounts for the time evolution of a quantum field theory for Dirac particles in an external electromagnetic field. This yields in the non-relativistic one-particle limit the Schr\\"odinger equation for a quantum particle in a potential. Interference or tunneling arise from classical probabilities.
Resonances and adiabatic invariance in classical and quantum scattering theory
Jain, S R
2004-01-01
We discover that the energy-integral of time-delay is an adiabatic invariant in quantum scattering theory and corresponds classically to the phase space volume. The integral thus found provides a quantization condition for resonances, explaining a series of results recently found in non-relativistic and relativistic regimes. Further, a connection between statistical quantities like quantal resonance-width and classical friction has been established with a classically deterministic quantity, the stability exponent of an adiabatically perturbed periodic orbit. This relation can be employed to estimate the rate of energy dissipation in finite quantum systems.
Classical theory of atomic collisions - The first hundred years
Grujić, Petar V.
2012-05-01
Classical calculations of the atomic processes started in 1911 with famous Rutherford's evaluation of the differential cross section for α particles scattered on foil atoms [1]. The success of these calculations was soon overshadowed by the rise of Quantum Mechanics in 1925 and its triumphal success in describing processes at the atomic and subatomic levels. It was generally recognized that the classical approach should be inadequate and it was neglected until 1953, when the famous paper by Gregory Wannier appeared, in which the threshold law for the single ionization cross section behaviour by electron impact was derived. All later calculations and experimental studies confirmed the law derived by purely classical theory. The next step was taken by Ian Percival and collaborators in 60s, who developed a general classical three-body computer code, which was used by many researchers in evaluating various atomic processes like ionization, excitation, detachment, dissociation, etc. Another approach was pursued by Michal Gryzinski from Warsaw, who started a far reaching programme for treating atomic particles and processes as purely classical objects [2]. Though often criticized for overestimating the domain of the classical theory, results of his group were able to match many experimental data. Belgrade group was pursuing the classical approach using both analytical and numerical calculations, studying a number of atomic collisions, in particular near-threshold processes. Riga group, lead by Modris Gailitis [3], contributed considerably to the field, as it was done by Valentin Ostrovsky and coworkers from Sanct Petersbourg, who developed powerful analytical methods within purely classical mechanics [4]. We shall make an overview of these approaches and show some of the remarkable results, which were subsequently confirmed by semiclassical and quantum mechanical calculations, as well as by the experimental evidence. Finally we discuss the theoretical and
Introduction to classical and quantum Lagrangian field theory. 9
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The basic principles of relativistic Lagrangian field theory are introduced, first in the classical context and later in the quantized form. Various free fields are discussed, their quantization, Lorentz invariance and the important discrete symmetries. Going on to interacting quantum fields, the invariant perturbation theory and Feynman graphs are succinctly discussed. Renormalizability and renormalization methods are covered with emphasis on the method of dimensional regularization. (author).3 refs.; 7 figs
Classical electromagnetic field theory in the presence of magnetic sources
Chen, W J; Naón, C M; Chen, Wen-Jun; Li, Kang
2001-01-01
Using two new well defined 4-dimensional potential vectors, we formulate the classical Maxwell's field theory in a form which has manifest Lorentz covariance and SO(2) duality symmetry in the presence of magnetic sources. We set up a consistent Lagrangian for the theory. Then from the action principle we get both Maxwell's equation and the equation of motion of a dyon moving in the electro-magnetic field.
Classical Electromagnetic Field Theory in the Presence of Magnetic Sources
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Kang(李康); CHEN Wen-Jun(陈文俊); NAON Carlos M.
2003-01-01
Using two new well-defined four-dimensional potential vectors, we formulate the classical Maxwell field theory in a form which has manifest Lorentz covariance and SO(2) duality symmetry in the presence of magnetic sources.We set up a consistent Lagrangian for the theory. Then from the action principle we obtain both Maxwell's equation and the equation of motion of a dyon moving in the electromagnetic field.
Representational Realism, Closed Theories and the Quantum to Classical Limit
de Ronde, Christian
2016-01-01
In this paper we discuss the representational realist stance as a pluralist ontic approach to inter-theoretic relationships. Our stance stresses the fact that physical theories require the necessary consideration of a conceptual level of discourse which determines and configures the specific field of phenomena discussed by each particular theory. We will criticize the orthodox line of research which has grounded the analysis about QM in two (Bohrian) metaphysical presuppositions -accepted in the present as dogmas that all interpretations must follow. We will also examine how the orthodox project of "bridging the gap" between the quantum and the classical domains has constrained the possibilities of research, producing only a limited set of interpretational problems which only focus in the justification of "classical reality" and exclude the possibility of analyzing the possibilities of non-classical conceptual representations of QM. The representational realist stance introduces two new problems, namely, the ...
Revision of the classical nucleation theory for supersaturated solutions
Borisenko, Alexander
2015-01-01
During the processes of nucleation and growth of a precipitate cluster from a supersaturated solution, the diffusion flux between the cluster and the solution changes the solute concentration near the cluster-solution interface from its average bulk value. This feature affects the rates of attachment and detachment of solute atoms at the interface and, therefore, alters the entire nucleation kinetics. Unless quite obvious, this effect has been ignored in the classical nucleation theory. To illustrate the results of this new approach, for the case of homogeneous nucleation, we calculate the total solubility (including the contribution from heterophase fluctuations) and the nucleation rate as functions of two parameters of the model and compare these results to the classical ones. One can conclude that discrepancies with the classical nucleation theory are great in the diffusion-limited regime, when the bulk diffusion mobility of solute atoms is small compared to the interfacial one, while in the opposite inter...
On the variational formulation of classical Abelian gauge field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown how one can formulate an action principle for classical Abelian gauge theories not by means of gauge potentials and currents but in terms of the gauge invariant field strengths and gauge variant stream potentias. The discussion is on a general formal level in n=s+t space-time dimensions and uses, for brevity, the language of differential forms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Li-Li; WU Ning; HU Juan-Mei; WU Feng-Min
2008-01-01
For a long time, it has been generally believed that spin-spin interactions can only exist in a theory where Lorentz symmetry is gauged, and a theory with spin-spin interactions is not perturbatively renormalizable. But this is not true. By studying the motion of a spinning particle in gravitational field, it is found that there exist spin-spin interactions in gauge theory of gravity. Its mechanism is that a spinning particle will generate gravitomagnetic field in space-time, and this gravitomagnetic field will interact with the spin of another particle, which will cause spin-spin interactions. So, spin-spin interactions are transmitted by gravitational field. The form of spin-spin interactions in post Newtonian approximations is deduced. This result can also be deduced from the Papapetrou equation. This kind of interaction will not affect the renormalizability of the theory. The spin-spin interactions will violate the weak equivalence principle, and the violation effects are detectable. An experiment is proposed to detect the effects of the violation of the weak equivalence principle.
Theory of Optimal Currency Zones: from Classics until Today
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pinchuk Anastasiya K.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article analyses evolution of the theory of optimal currency zones (OCZ, starting from its classical provisions until moder developments. Based on the critical analysis of classical criteria of OCZ, the article develops a scheme of selection of the currency mode by the Robert Mundell theory. It considers achievements of the alternative OCZ theory, the main provisions of which are shown schematically in the form of illustrations of evolution of the theory of optimal currency zones. In the result of analysis of classical criteria of optimal currency zones and generalisation of developments of the new OCZ theory, the article develops a universal algorithm of identification of optimal conditions for an efficient currency zone. Using this algorithm allows identification of a system of quantitative indicators of expediency of regional joining the OCZ, on the basis of which one can build an economic model of an optimal currency zone, which reflects the degree of readiness of any country to join or develop the OCZ. Development of this model is necessary for many countries that face the need to select the currency integration. This model is of special importance for Ukraine, for which it is important to select the course of external integration, since various directions of foreign policy significantly influence efficiency of the domestic economic policy in the country.
Momentum Maps and Classical Relativistic Fields; 1, Covariant Field Theory
Gotay, M J; Marsden, J E; Gotay, Mark J.; Isenberg, James; Marsden, Jerrold E.
1998-01-01
This is the first paper of a four part work in which we study the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian structure of classical field theories with constraints. Our goal is to explore some of the connections between initial value constraints and gauge transformations in such theories (either relativistic or not). To do this, in the course of these four papers, we develop and use a number of tools from symplectic and multisymplectic geometry. Of central importance in our analysis is the notion of the ``energy-momentum map'' associated to the gauge group of a given classical field theory. We hope to demonstrate that many different and apparently unrelated facets of field theories can be thereby tied together and understood in an essentially new way. In Part I we develop some of the basic theory of classical fields from a spacetime covariant viewpoint. We begin with a study of the covariant Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, on jet bundles and multisymplectic manifolds, respectively. Then we discuss symmetries, conserva...
Classical Bianchi Type I Cosmology in K-Essence Theory
2014-01-01
We use one of the simplest forms of the K-essence theory and we apply it to the classical anisotropic Bianchi type I cosmological model, with a barotropic perfect fluid ( p=γρ ) modeling the usual matter content and with cosmological constant Λ . Classical exact solutions for any γ≠1 and Λ=0 are found in closed form, whereas solutions for Λ≠0 are found for particular values in the barotropic parameter. We present the possible isotropization of the cosmological model Bianchi I using the ratio ...
THE NEW CLASSICAL THEORY AND THE REAL BUSINESS CYCLE MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oana Simona HUDEA (CARAMAN
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The present paper aims at describing some key elements of the new classical theory-related model, namely the Real Business Cycle, mainly describing the economy from the perspective of a perfectly competitive market, characterised by price, wage and interest rate flexibility. The rendered impulse-response functions, that help us in revealing the capacity of the model variables to return to their steady state under the impact of a structural shock, be it technology or monetary policy oriented, give points to the neutrality of the monetary entity decisions, therefore confirming the well-known classical dichotomy existing between the nominal and the real factors of the economy.
Classic Grounded Theory to Analyse Secondary Data: Reality and Reflections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorraine Andrews
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper draws on the experiences of two researchers and discusses how they conducted a secondary data analysis using classic grounded theory. The aim of the primary study was to explore first-time parents’ postnatal educational needs. A subset of the data from the primary study (eight transcripts from interviews with fathers was used for the secondary data analysis. The objectives of the secondary data analysis were to identify the challenges of using classic grounded theory with secondary data and to explore whether the re-analysis of primary data using a different methodology would yield a different outcome. Through the process of re-analysis a tentative theory emerged on ‘developing competency as a father’. Challenges encountered during this re-analysis included the small dataset, the pre-framed data, and limited ability for theoretical sampling. This re-analysis proved to be a very useful learning tool for author 1(LA, who was a novice with classic grounded theory.
Quantum Mind from a Classical Field Theory of the Brain
Zizzi, Paola
2011-01-01
We suggest that, with regard to a theory of quantum mind, brain processes can be described by a classical, dissipative, non-abelian gauge theory. In fact, such a theory has a hidden quantum nature due to its non-abelian character, which is revealed through dissipation, when the theory reduces to a quantum vacuum, where temperatures are of the order of absolute zero, and coherence of quantum states is preserved. We consider in particular the case of pure SU(2) gauge theory with a special anzatz for the gauge field, which breaks Lorentz invariance. In the ansatz, a contraction mapping plays the role of dissipation. In the limit of maximal dissipation, which corresponds to the attractive fixed point of the contraction mapping, the gauge fields reduce, up to constant factors, to the Pauli quantum gates for one-qubit states. Then tubuline-qubits can be processed in the quantum vacuum of the classical field theory of the brain, where decoherence is avoided due to the extremely low temperature. Finally, we interpret...
Classical field theory on electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation
Scheck, Florian
2012-01-01
The book describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes wit...
Zatloukal, Václav
2016-04-01
Classical field theory is considered as a theory of unparametrized surfaces embedded in a configuration space, which accommodates, in a symmetric way, spacetime positions and field values. Dynamics is defined by a (Hamiltonian) constraint between multivector-valued generalized momenta, and points in the configuration space. Starting from a variational principle, we derive local equations of motion, that is, differential equations that determine classical surfaces and momenta. A local Hamilton-Jacobi equation applicable in the field theory then follows readily. The general method is illustrated with three examples: non-relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics, De Donder-Weyl scalar field theory, and string theory.
Quiver Theories for Moduli Spaces of Classical Group Nilpotent Orbits
Hanany, Amihay
2016-01-01
We approach the topic of Classical group nilpotent orbits from the perspective of their moduli spaces, described in terms of Hilbert series and generating functions. We review the established Higgs and Coulomb branch quiver theory constructions for A series nilpotent orbits. We present systematic constructions for BCD series nilpotent orbits on the Higgs branches of quiver theories defined by canonical partitions; this paper collects earlier work into a systematic framework, filling in gaps and providing a complete treatment. We find new Coulomb branch constructions for above minimal nilpotent orbits, including some based upon twisted affine Dynkin diagrams. We also discuss aspects of 3d mirror symmetry between these Higgs and Coulomb branch constructions and explore dualities and other relationships, such as HyperKahler quotients, between quivers. We analyse all Classical group nilpotent orbit moduli spaces up to rank 4 by giving their unrefined Hilbert series and the Highest Weight Generating functions for ...
Quantum to classical transition in quantum field theory
Lombardo, F C
1998-01-01
We study the quatum to classical transition process in the context of quantum field theory. Extending the influence functional formalism of Feynman and Vernon, we study the decoherence process for self-interacting quantum fields in flat space. We also use this formalism for arbitrary geometries to analyze the quantum to classical transition in quantum gravity. After summarizing the main results known for the quantum Brownian motion, we consider a self-interacting field theory in Minkowski spacetime. We compute a coarse grained effective action by integrating out the field modes with wavelength shorter than a critical value. From this effective action we obtain the evolution equation for the reduced density matrix (master equation). We compute the diffusion coefficients for this equation and analyze the decoherence induced on the long-wavelength modes. We generalize the results to the case of a conformally coupled scalar field in de Sitter spacetime. We show that the decoherence is effective as long as the cri...
Classical nucleation theory for cavitation processes in water
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František
Antalya : HEFAT, 2010 - (Meyer, J.), s. 2035-2040 ISBN 978-1-86854-818-7. [International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics (HEFAT2010) /7./. Antalya (TR), 19.07.2010-21.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/0557; GA ČR GAP101/10/1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cavitation * classical nucleation theory * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics
THE NEW CLASSICAL THEORY AND THE REAL BUSINESS CYCLE MODEL
Oana Simona HUDEA (CARAMAN); Sorin George TOMA; Marin BURCEA
2014-01-01
The present paper aims at describing some key elements of the new classical theory-related model, namely the Real Business Cycle, mainly describing the economy from the perspective of a perfectly competitive market, characterised by price, wage and interest rate flexibility. The rendered impulse-response functions, that help us in revealing the capacity of the model variables to return to their steady state under the impact of a structural shock, be it technology or monetary policy oriented, ...
On Covariant Poisson Brackets in Classical Field Theory
Forger, Michael; Salles, Mário O.
2015-01-01
How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem - as testified by the extensive literature on "multisymplectic Poisson brackets", together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls - De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well unde...
A magnetic condensate solution of the classical electroweak theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
According to the electroweak theory a large homogeneous magnetic field exceeding m2w/e is unstable. We present a different solution of the classical electroweak field equations which is a condensate of magnetic fluxes induced by an anti-Lenz current of the charged vector bosons. The anti-Lenz mechanism is a consequence of asymptotic freedom. The range of validity of this solution depends on the Weinberg angle θ. (orig.)
A New Fuzzy Set Theory Satisfying All Classical Set Formulas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qing-Shi Gao; Xiao-Yu Gao; Yue Hu
2009-01-01
A new fuzzy set theory, C-fuzzy set theory, is introduced in this paper. It is a particular case of the classical set theory and satisfies all formulas of the classical set theory. To add a limitation to C-fuzzy set system, in which all fuzzy sets must be "non-uniform inclusive" to each other, then it forms a family of sub-systems, the Z-fuzzy set family. It can be proved that the Z0-fuzzy set system, one of Z-fuzzy set systems, is equivalent to Zadeh's fuzzy set system. Analysis shows that 1) Zadeh's fuzzy set system defines the relations A = B and A ∈B between two fuzzy sets A and B as "Vu e U,(u A E (u)=μB(U))" and "Au ∈ U, (μA(U) ≤μB(μ))" respectively is inappropriate, because it makes all fuzzy sets be "non-uniformly inclusive"; 2) it is also inappropriate to define two fuzzy sets' union and intersection operations as the max and rain of their grades of membership, because this prevents fuzzy set's ability to correctly reflect different kinds of fuzzy phenomenon in the natural world. Then it has to work around the problem by invent unnatural functions that are hard to understand, such as augmenting max and min for union and intersection to min{a + b, 1} and max{a + b - 1, 0}, but these functions are incorrect on inclusive case. If both pairs of definitions are used together, not only are they unnatural, but also they are still unable to cover all possible set relationships in the natural world; and 3) it is incorrect to define the set complement as 1 -μA(μ), because it can be proved that set complement cannot exist in Zadeh's fuzzy set, and it causes confusion in logic and thinking. And it is seriously mistaken to believe that logics of fuzzy sets necessarily go against classical and normal thinking, logic, and conception. The C-fuzzy set theory proposed in this paper overcomes all of the above errors and shortcomings, and more reasonably reflects fuzzy phenomenon in the natural world. It satisfies all relations, formulas, and operations of the
Geometric aspects in extended approach of equilibrium classical fluctuation theory
Velazquez, L.
2011-11-01
Previously, an extended approach of equilibrium classical fluctuation theory was developed compatible with the existence of anomalous response functions, e.g. states with negative heat capacities. Now, the geometric aspects associated with this new framework are analyzed. The analysis starts from the so-called reparametrization invariance: a special symmetry of distribution functions dp (I|θ) employed in classical equilibrium statistical mechanics that allows us to express the thermo-statistical relations in the same mathematical appearance in different coordinate representations. The existence of reparametrization invariance can be related to three different geometric frameworks: (1) a non-Riemannian formulation for classical fluctuation theory based on the concept of reparametrization dualities; (2) a Riemannian formulation defined on the manifold {P} of control parameters θ, where the main theorems of inference theory appear as dual counterparts of general fluctuation theorems, and Boltzmann-Gibbs distributions ωBG(I|θ) = exp(-θiIi)/Z(θ) admit a geometric generalization; and finally, (3) a Riemannian formulation defined on the manifold {M}_{\\theta } of macroscopic observables I, which appears as a counterpart approach of inference geometry.
Self-consistent nonperturbative theory for classical systems.
Mederos, L; Navascués, G; Velasco, E
2002-01-01
We construct a self-consistent nonperturbative theory for the structure and thermodynamics of a classical system of particles that goes beyond the usual approaches based on perturbation theory. Our theory, which gives accurate predictions for the phase diagram, is based on two ingredients: first, use is made of an exact expression for the free energy of a many-body system in terms of a reference system and a coupling integral connecting the latter to the final system; second, correlation functions may be very accurately approximated using a number of sum rules relating the radial distribution function with thermodynamic quantities. Consistency between the coupling integral expression and the sum rules may be achieved by means of a self-consistent process. PMID:11800760
On some classical problems of descriptive set theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The centenary of P.S. Novikov's birth provides an inspiring motivation to present, with full proofs and from a modern standpoint, the presumably definitive solutions of some classical problems in descriptive set theory which were formulated by Luzin [Lusin] and, to some extent, even earlier by Hadamard, Borel, and Lebesgue and relate to regularity properties of point sets. The solutions of these problems began in the pioneering works of Aleksandrov [Alexandroff], Suslin [Souslin], and Luzin (1916-17) and evolved in the fundamental studies of Goedel, Novikov, Cohen, and their successors. Main features of this branch of mathematics are that, on the one hand, it is an ordinary mathematical theory studying natural properties of point sets and functions and rather distant from general set theory or intrinsic problems of mathematical logic like consistency or Goedel's theorems, and on the other hand, it has become a subject of applications of the most subtle tools of modern mathematical logic
Statistical test theory for the behavioral sciences
de Gruijter, Dato N M
2007-01-01
Since the development of the first intelligence test in the early 20th century, educational and psychological tests have become important measurement techniques to quantify human behavior. Focusing on this ubiquitous yet fruitful area of research, Statistical Test Theory for the Behavioral Sciences provides both a broad overview and a critical survey of assorted testing theories and models used in psychology, education, and other behavioral science fields. Following a logical progression from basic concepts to more advanced topics, the book first explains classical test theory, covering true score, measurement error, and reliability. It then presents generalizability theory, which provides a framework to deal with various aspects of test scores. In addition, the authors discuss the concept of validity in testing, offering a strategy for evidence-based validity. In the two chapters devoted to item response theory (IRT), the book explores item response models, such as the Rasch model, and applications, incl...
Common Axioms for Inferring Classical Ensemble Dynamics and Quantum Theory
Parwani, R R
2005-01-01
Within a hamiltonian framework, the same set of physically motivated axioms is used to construct both the classical ensemble Hamilton-Jacobi equation and Schrodingers equation. Crucial roles are played by the assumptions of universality and simplicity (Occam's Razor) which restrict the number and type of of arbitrary constants that appear in the hamiltonian. In this approach, non-relativistic quantum theory is seen as the unique single parameter extension of the classical ensemble dynamics. The method is contrasted with other related constructions in the literature. Possible generalisation to the relativistic case, and some consequences of relaxing the axioms, are also discussed: for example, simple extensions of the linear Schrodinger equation lead to higher-derivative nonlinear corrections that are possibly related to gravity.
The theory of variational hybrid quantum-classical algorithms
McClean, Jarrod R; Babbush, Ryan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-01-01
Many quantum algorithms have daunting resource requirements when compared to what is available today. To address this discrepancy, a quantum-classical hybrid optimization scheme known as "the quantum variational eigensolver" was developed with the philosophy that even minimal quantum resources could be made useful when used in conjunction with classical routines. In this work we extend the general theory of this algorithm and suggest algorithmic improvements for practical implementations. Specifically, we develop a variational adiabatic ansatz and explore unitary coupled cluster where we establish a connection from second order unitary coupled cluster to universal gate sets through relaxation of exponential splitting. We introduce the concept of quantum variational error suppression that allows some errors to be suppressed naturally in this algorithm on a pre-threshold quantum device. Additionally, we analyze truncation and correlated sampling in Hamiltonian averaging as ways to reduce the cost of this proced...
A critical experimental study of the classical tactile threshold theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Medina Leonel E
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tactile sense is being used in a variety of applications involving tactile human-machine interfaces. In a significant number of publications the classical threshold concept plays a central role in modelling and explaining psychophysical experimental results such as in stochastic resonance (SR phenomena. In SR, noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli and the phenomenon is explained stating that the required amplitude to exceed the sensory threshold barrier can be reached by adding noise to a sub-threshold stimulus. We designed an experiment to test the validity of the classical vibrotactile threshold. Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as the classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance level. Nevertheless, our experimental results are above that chance level contradicting the definition of the classical tactile threshold. Results We performed a three alternative forced choice detection experiment on 6 subjects asking them first and second choices. In each trial, only one of the intervals contained a stimulus and the others contained only noise. According to the classical threshold assumptions, a correct second choice response corresponds to a guess attempt with a statistical frequency of 50%. Results show an average of 67.35% (STD = 1.41% for the second choice response that is not explained by the classical threshold definition. Additionally, for low stimulus amplitudes, second choice correct detection is above chance level for any detectability level. Conclusions Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as a classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance
Fluctuations, temperature, and detailed balance in classical nucleation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGraw, R. [Environmental Chemistry Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); LaViolette, R.A. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)
1995-06-08
The role of temperature in classical nucleation theory is examined. It is shown that while even small clusters are assigned a temperature in the classical theory, this must be a fluctuating quantity. Stochastic simulations of cluster evaporation and growth are presented to track the temperature fluctuations in time. The relation {l_angle}{vert_bar}{delta}{ital T}{vert_bar}{sup 2}{r_angle}={ital kT}{sup @2}{ital d}0/{ital C}{sub {nu}} for the mean square temperature fluctuation is confirmed, where {ital k} is the Boltzmann constant, {ital C}{sub {nu}} is the cluster heat capacity, and {ital T}{sub 0} is the bath temperature. For small capillary drops (50--100 molecules), the resulting rms temperature fluctuations of 10{degree}--20{degree} might be expected to have a significant effect on the nucleation rate. However, the simulations reveal a cluster temperature distribution that is centered several degrees below {ital T}{sub 0}. A theory is presented to explain this effect. To first order, which includes Gaussian fluctuations of the cluster temperature {ital T}, we find that the effective temperature for cluster evaporation is {ital T}{minus}{ital h}/2{ital C}{sub {nu}}, where {ital h} is the latent heat. This temperature correction is precisely that required by detailed balance and results both in a centering of the cluster temperature distribution on {ital T}{sub 0} and a cancellation of any significant effect of temperature fluctuations on the nucleation rate.
BOOK REVIEW: Classical Solutions in Quantum Field Theory Classical Solutions in Quantum Field Theory
Mann, Robert
2013-02-01
Quantum field theory has evolved from its early beginnings as a tool for understanding the interaction of light with matter into a rather formidable technical paradigm, one that has successfully provided the mathematical underpinnings of all non-gravitational interactions. Over the eight decades since it was first contemplated the methods have become increasingly more streamlined and sophisticated, yielding new insights into our understanding of the subatomic world and our abilities to make clear and precise predictions. Some of the more elegant methods have to do with non-perturbative and semiclassical approaches to the subject. The chief players here are solitons, instantons, and anomalies. Over the past three decades there has been a steady rise in our understanding of these objects and of our ability to calculate their effects and implications for the rest of quantum field theory. This book is a welcome contribution to this subject. In 12 chapters it provides a clear synthesis of the key developments in these subjects at a level accessible to graduate students that have had an introductory course to quantum field theory. In the author's own words it provides both 'a survey and an overview of this field'. The first half of the book concentrates on solitons--kinks, vortices, and magnetic monopoles--and their implications for the subject. The reader is led first through the simplest models in one spatial dimension, into more sophisticated cases that required more advanced topological methods. The author does quite a nice job of introducing the various concepts as required, and beginning students should be able to get a good grasp of the subject directly from the text without having to first go through the primary literature. The middle part of the book deals with the implications of these solitons for both cosmology and for duality. While the cosmological discussion is quite nice, the discussion on BPS solitons, supersymmetry and duality is rather condensed. It is
Motion of small bodies in classical field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I show how prior work with R. Wald on geodesic motion in general relativity can be generalized to classical field theories of a metric and other tensor fields on four-dimensional spacetime that (1) are second-order and (2) follow from a diffeomorphism-covariant Lagrangian. The approach is to consider a one-parameter-family of solutions to the field equations satisfying certain assumptions designed to reflect the existence of a body whose size, mass, and various charges are simultaneously scaled to zero. (That such solutions exist places a further restriction on the class of theories to which our results apply.) Assumptions are made only on the spacetime region outside of the body, so that the results apply independent of the body's composition (and, e.g., black holes are allowed). The worldline 'left behind' by the shrinking, disappearing body is interpreted as its lowest-order motion. An equation for this worldline follows from the 'Bianchi identity' for the theory, without use of any properties of the field equations beyond their being second-order. The form of the force law for a theory therefore depends only on the ranks of its various tensor fields; the detailed properties of the field equations are relevant only for determining the charges for a particular body (which are the ''monopoles'' of its exterior fields in a suitable limiting sense). I explicitly derive the force law (and mass-evolution law) in the case of scalar and vector fields, and give the recipe in the higher-rank case. Note that the vector force law is quite complicated, simplifying to the Lorentz force law only in the presence of the Maxwell gauge symmetry. Example applications of the results are the motion of 'chameleon' bodies beyond the Newtonian limit, and the motion of bodies in (classical) non-Abelian gauge theory. I also make some comments on the role that scaling plays in the appearance of universality in the motion of bodies.
Local gauge invariant Lagrangeans in classical field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the most general local gauge invariant Lagrangean in the framework of classical field theory. We rederive esentially Utiyama's result with a slight generalization. Our proof makes clear the importance of the so called current conditions, i.e. the requirement that the Noether currents are different from zero. This condition is of importance both in the general motivation for the introduction of the Yang-Mills fields and for the actual proof. Some comments are made about the basic mathematical structure of the problem - the gauge group. (author)
Lie Groupoids in Classical Field Theory I: Noether's Theorem
Costa, Bruno T; Pêgas, Luiz Henrique P
2015-01-01
In the two papers of this series, we initiate the development of a new approach to implementing the concept of symmetry in classical field theory, based on replacing Lie groups/algebras by Lie groupoids/algebroids, which are the appropriate mathematical tools to describe local symmetries when gauge transformations are combined with space-time transformations. Here, we outline the basis of the program and, as a first step, show how to (re)formulate Noether's theorem about the connection between symmetries and conservation laws in this approach.
Emergence Of A Classical World From Within Quantum Theory
Poulin, D
2005-01-01
The starting point of this dissertation is that a quantum state represents the observer's knowledge about the system of interest. As it has been pointed out several times by the opponents of this epistemic interpretation, it is difficult to reconcile this point of view with our common notion of “physical reality”, which exists independently of our monitoring, and can be discovered without disturbance. Indeed, if quantum theory is correct, it should apply to classical systems—including measurement devices—as well as to any other system. In this dissertation, we will study the quantum mechanisms responsible for our perception of the world and demonstrate how they lead to the emergence of an operational objective reality from within quantum theory: several observers gathering information through these mechanisms will arrive at a common consensus about the properties of the world. The two mechanisms we study in great detail are the redundant proliferation of information in ...
Stochastic theory for classical and quantum mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From first principles a theory of stochastic processes in configuration space is formulated. The fundamental equations of the theory are an equation of motion which generalizes Newton's second law and an equation which expresses the condition of conservation of matter. Two types of stochastic motion are possible, both described by the same general equations, but leading in one case to classical Brownian motion behavior and in the other to quantum mechanical behavior. The Schroedinger equation, which is derived with no further assumption, is thus shown to describe a specific stochastic process. It is explicitly shown that only in the quantum mechanical process does the superposition of probability amplitudes give rise to interference phenomena; moreover, the presence of dissipative forces in the Brownian motion equations invalidates the superposition principle. At no point are any special assumptions made concerning the physical nature of the underlying stochastic medium, although some suggestions are discussed in the last section
Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara Yalof
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Classic grounded theory (CGT was used to identify a main concern of online students in higher education. One of the main impediments to studying online is a sense of isolation and lack of access to support systems as students navigate through complex requirements of their online programs. Hypothetical probability statements illustrate the imbalance between heightened needs of virtual learners and perceived inadequate support provided by educational institutions. The core variable, marshaling resources, explains how peer supports sustain motivation toward successful program completion. Understanding the critical contribution virtual interpersonal networks make towards maximizing resources by group problem solving is a significant aspect of this theory. Keywords: Online learning, e-learning, personal learning networks, peer networks
Quasiperiodical orbits in the scalar classical lambdaphi4 field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
New numerical and theoretical results of resonance kink-antikink (Kanti K) interactions in the classical one-dimentional space Higgs theory are presented. Earlier studies of these interactions revealed nine initial relative velocity-intervals with two-bounce Kanti K-collisions followed by the escape of kinks to infinite separations, the breathing solution was formed outside those intervals. Two-bounce Kanti K-interactions with the number of small oscillations between Kanti K-bounces up to 35 in the initial kink velocity interval 0.18 <= Vsub(infinite) <= 0.26 were found. Several examples for n-bounces Kanti K-interaction (n <= 6) are also found. The observed phenomenon can be explaned by the existence of quasi-two-periodical solutions of the nonlinear wave equation. The simple Hamiltonian with two degrees of freedom is studied. This model supplies quantitative descrtiptions of all numerical results for the field theory considered above. The considered phenomenon may be called ''autoquantization'' of a nonlinear classical scalar selfinteracting field
Emergence of a classical world from within quantum theory
Poulin, David
The starting point of this dissertation is that a quantum state represents the observer's knowledge about the system of interest. As it has been pointed out several times by the opponents of this epistemic interpretation, it is difficult to reconcile this point of view with our common notion of "physical reality", which exists independently of our monitoring, and can be discovered without disturbance. Indeed, if quantum theory is correct, it should apply to classical systems---including measurement devices---as well as to any other system. In this dissertation, we will study the quantum mechanisms responsible for our perception of the world and demonstrate how they lead to the emergence of an operational objective reality from within quantum theory: several observers gathering information through these mechanisms will arrive at a common consensus about the properties of the world. The two mechanisms we study in great detail are the redundant proliferation of information in the environment and the direct measurement of a macroscopic observable. An example of the first mechanism is the photon environment which provides us with our visual data about the world. Several independent observers learning about their surroundings in this indirect fashion will agree on their findings. An example of the second mechanism is our tactile information: when the tip of our finger touches an object, it interacts collectively with a very large number of molecules. Again, under realistic assumptions, this type of information acquisition will lead to a classical perception of the world.
Complex analysis fundamentals of the classical theory of functions
Stalker, John
1998-01-01
This clear, concise introduction to the classical theory of one complex variable is based on the premise that "anything worth doing is worth doing with interesting examples." The content is driven by techniques and examples rather than definitions and theorems. This self-contained monograph is an excellent resource for a self-study guide and should appeal to a broad audience. The only prerequisite is a standard calculus course. The first chapter deals with a beautiful presentation of special functions. . . . The third chapter covers elliptic and modular functions. . . in much more detail, and from a different point of view, than one can find in standard introductory books. . . . For [the] subjects that are omitted, the author has suggested some excellent references for the reader who wants to go through these topics. The book is read easily and with great interest. It can be recommended to both students as a textbook and to mathematicians and physicists as a useful reference. ---Mathematical Reviews Mainly or...
Non-linear coupling of quantum theory and classical gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The possibility that the non-linear evolution proposed earlier for a relativistic quantum field theory may be related to its coupling to a classical gravitational field is discussed. Formally, in the Schroedinger picture, it is shown how both the Schroedinger equation and Einstein's equations (with the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor on the right) can be derived from a variational principle. This yields a non-linear quantum evolution. Other terms can be added to the action integral to incorporate explicit non-linearities of the type discussed previously. The possibility of giving a meaning to the resulting equation in a Heisenberg or interaction-like picture, is briefly discussed. (author)
Deformation Quantization of Principal Fibre Bundles and Classical Gauge Theories
Wei\\ss, Stefan
2010-01-01
In this dissertation the notion of deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles is established and investigated in order to find a geometric formulation of classical gauge theories on noncommutative space-times. As a generalization, the notion of deformation quantization of surjective submersions is also discussed. It is shown that deformation quantizations of surjective submersions and principal fibre bundles always exist and are unique up to equivalence. These statements concerning complex-valued functions are moreover formulated and proved for sections of arbitrary vector bundles over the total space, in particular equivariant vector bundles. The commutants of the deformed right module structures within the differential operators, playing an inportant role with regard to the infinitesimal gauge transformations, are computed explicitly in each case. Depending on the choice of specific covariant derivatives and connections the commutants are isomorphic to the formal power series of the respective vert...
Geometry of Lagrangian first-order classical field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a lagrangian geometric formulation for first-order field theories using the canonical structures of first-order jet bundles, which are taken as the phase spaces of the systems in consideration. First of all, we construct all the geometric structures associated with a first-order jet bundle and, using them, we develop the lagrangian formalism, defining the canonical forms associated with a lagrangian density and the density of lagrangian energy, obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations in two equivalent ways: as the result of a variational problem and developing the jet field formalism (which is a formulation more similar to the case of mechanical systems). A statement and proof of Noether's theorem is also given, using the latter formalism. Finally, some classical examples are briefly studied. (orig.)
Latfield2: A c++ library for classical lattice field theory
David, Daverio; Bevis, Neil
2015-01-01
latfield2 is a C++ library designed to simplify writing parallel codes for solving partial differen- tial equations, developed for application to classical field theories in particle physics and cosmology. It is a significant rewrite of the latfield framework, moving from a slab domain decomposition to a rod decomposition, where the last two dimension of the lattice are scattered into a two dimensional process grid. Parallelism is implemented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard, and hidden in the basic objects of grid-based simulations: Lattice, Site and Field. It comes with an integrated parallel fast Fourier transform, and I/O server class permitting computation to continue during the writing of large files to disk. latfield2 has been used for production runs on tens of thousands of processor elements, and is expected to be scalable to hundreds of thousands.
Geometry of Lagrangian first-order classical field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Echeverria-Enriquez, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica; Munoz-Lecanda, M.C. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica; Roman-Roy, N. [Univ. Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Telematica
1996-10-01
We construct a lagrangian geometric formulation for first-order field theories using the canonical structures of first-order jet bundles, which are taken as the phase spaces of the systems in consideration. First of all, we construct all the geometric structures associated with a first-order jet bundle and, using them, we develop the lagrangian formalism, defining the canonical forms associated with a lagrangian density and the density of lagrangian energy, obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations in two equivalent ways: as the result of a variational problem and developing the jet field formalism (which is a formulation more similar to the case of mechanical systems). A statement and proof of Noether`s theorem is also given, using the latter formalism. Finally, some classical examples are briefly studied. (orig.)
On the Classical String Solutions and String/Field Theory Duality
Aleksandrova, D.; Bozhilov, P.
2003-01-01
We classify almost all classical string configurations, considered in the framework of the semi-classical limit of the string/gauge theory duality. Then, we describe a procedure for obtaining the conserved quantities and the exact classical string solutions in general string theory backgrounds, when the string embedding coordinates depend non-linearly on the worldsheet time parameter.
Semi-classical theory of quiet lasers. I: Principles
Arnaud, J; Philippe, F; Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice
2006-01-01
When light originating from a laser diode driven by non-fluctuating electrical currents is incident on a photo-detector, the photo-current does not fluctuate much. Precisely, this means that the variance of the number of photo-electrons counted over a large time interval is much smaller that the average number of photo-electrons. At non-zero Fourier frequency $\\Omega$ the photo-current power spectrum is of the form $\\Omega^2/(1+\\Omega^2)$ and thus vanishes as $\\Omega\\to 0$, a conclusion equivalent to the one given above. The purpose of this paper is to show that results such as the one just cited may be derived from a (semi-classical) theory in which neither the optical field nor the electron wave-function are quantized. We first observe that almost any medium may be described by a circuit and distinguish (possibly non-linear) conservative elements such as pure capacitances, and conductances that represent the atom-field coupling. The theory rests on the non-relativistic approximation. Nyquist noise sources (...
A course in mathematical physics 2 classical field theory
Thirring, Walter
1978-01-01
In the past decade the language and methods ofmodern differential geometry have been increasingly used in theoretical physics. What seemed extravagant when this book first appeared 12 years ago, as lecture notes, is now a commonplace. This fact has strengthened my belief that today students of theoretical physics have to learn that language-and the sooner the better. Afterall, they willbe the professors ofthe twenty-first century and it would be absurd if they were to teach then the mathematics of the nineteenth century. Thus for this new edition I did not change the mathematical language. Apart from correcting some mistakes I have only added a section on gauge theories. In the last decade it has become evident that these theories describe fundamental interactions, and on the classical level their structure is suffi cientlyclear to qualify them for the minimum amount ofknowledge required by a theoretician. It is with much regret that I had to refrain from in corporating the interesting developments in Kal...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A second order classical perturbation theory is developed to calculate the sticking probability of a particle scattered from an uncorrugated thermal surface. An analytic expression for the temperature dependent energy loss of the particle to the surface is derived by employing a one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation. The surface temperature reduces the energy loss, since the thermal surface transfers energy to the particle. Using a Gaussian energy loss kernel and the multiple collision theory of Fan and Manson [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 064703 (2009)], enables the determination of the fraction of particles trapped on the surface after subsequent momentum reversals of the colliding particle. This then leads to an estimate of the trapping probability. The theory is tested for the model scattering of Ar on a LiF(100) surface. Comparison with numerical simulations shows excellent agreement of the analytical theory with simulations, provided that the energy loss is determined by the second order perturbation theory
New views on classical and quantum Brans-Dicke theory
Fabris, Júlio C; Rodrigues, Davi C; Almeida, Carla R; Piattella, Oliver F
2016-01-01
The Brans-Dicke action is one of the most natural extensions of the Einstein-Hilbert action. It is based on the introduction of a fundamental scalar field that effectively incorporates a dynamics to the gravitational coupling $G$. In spite of the diverse motivations and the rich phenomenology that comes from its solutions, Solar System tests impose strong constraints on the Brans-Dicke theory, rendering it indistinguishable from General Relativity. In the present text, new perspectives for the Brans-Dicke theory are presented, based on the possibility that the scalar field presented in the BD theory can be external, as well as on the applications to black hole physics and the primordial universe.
Classical Nonminimal Lagrangians and Kinematic Tests of Special Relativity
Schreck, M
2016-01-01
This article gives a brief summary on recently obtained classical lagrangians for the nonminimal fermion sector of the Standard-Model Extension (SME). Such lagrangians are adequate descriptions of classical particles that are subject to a Lorentz-violating background field based on the SME. Explicitly, lagrangians were obtained for the leading nonminimal contributions of the m, a, c, e, and f coefficients. These results were then used to interpret classical, kinematic tests of Special Relativity in the framework of the nonminimal SME. This led to new constraints on certain nonminimal controlling coefficients. Although the experiments were very sophisticated in the era when they were carried out, their sensitivities for detecting Lorentz violation were still far away from the Planck scale. Obtaining the novel constraints can be considered as a proof-of-principle demonstrating the applicability of the classical lagrangians computed.
Universality principle and the development of classical density functional theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周世琦; 张晓琪
2002-01-01
The universality principle of the free energy density functional and the ‘test particle' trick by Percus are combined to construct the approximate free energy density functional or its functional derivative. Information about the bulk fluid ralial distribution function is integrated into the density functional approximation directly for the first time in the present methodology. The physical foundation of the present methodology also applies to the quantum density functional theory.
Plimak, L. I.; Ivanov, Misha; Aiello, A.; Stenholm, S.
2015-08-01
Quantum electrodynamics under conditions of distinguishability of interacting matter entities, and of controlled actions and back-actions between them, is considered. Such "mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics" is shown to share its dynamical structure with the classical stochastic electrodynamics. In formal terms, we demonstrate that all general relations of the mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics may be recast in a form lacking Planck's constant. Mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics is therefore subject to "doing quantum electrodynamics while thinking classically," allowing one to substitute essentially classical considerations for quantum ones without any loss in generality. Implications of these results for the quantum measurement theory are discussed.
Chakrabartty, Satyendra Nath; Wang, Kangrui; Chakrabarty, Dalia
2015-01-01
As with all measurements, the measurement of examinee ability, in terms of scores that the examinee obtains in a test, is also error-ridden. The quantification of such error or uncertainty in the test score data--or rather the complementary test reliability--is pursued within the paradigm of Classical Test Theory in a variety of ways, with no existing method of finding reliability, isomorphic to the theoretical definition that parametrises reliability as the ratio of the true score variance a...
On Classical de Sitter Vacua in String Theory
Wrase, Timm
2010-01-01
We review the prospect of obtaining tree-level de Sitter (dS) vacua and slow-roll inflation models in string compactifications. Restricting ourselves to the closed string sector and assuming the absence of NSNS-sources, we classify the minimal classical ingredients that evade the simplest no-go theorems against dS vacua and inflation. Spaces with negative integrated curvature together with certain combinations of low-dimensional orientifold planes and low-rank RR-fluxes emerge as the most promising setups of this analysis. We focus on two well-controlled classes that lead to an effective 4D, N=1 supergravity description: Type IIA theory on group or coset manifolds with SU(3)-structure and O6-planes, as well as type IIB compactifications on SU(2)-structure manifolds with O5- and O7-planes. While fully stabilized AdS vacua are generically possible, a number of problems encountered in the search for dS vacua are discussed.
On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forger, Michael [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66281, BR–05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salles, Mário O. [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66281, BR–05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário – Lagoa Nova, BR–59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)
2015-10-15
How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on “multisymplectic Poisson brackets,” together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls–De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic “multisymplectic Poisson bracket” already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls–De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra.
On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on “multisymplectic Poisson brackets,” together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls–De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic “multisymplectic Poisson bracket” already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls–De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra
On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory
Forger, Michael; Salles, Mário O.
2015-10-01
How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on "multisymplectic Poisson brackets," together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls-De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic "multisymplectic Poisson bracket" already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls-De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra.
Portfolio Theory Forward Testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcus Davidsson
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Portfolio Theory has during many decades been considered as the holy grail of investment despite the fact that very few empirical studies in the public domain have shown that portfolio theory outperforms a random equal weighted portfolio. We will in this paper empirically investigate how successful portfolio theory is when it comes to generating large positive returns with low return volatility. The dataset that is used consists of approximately 4000 US stocks. We find weak support that portfolio theory by itself would have generated any returns different than a random portfolio allocation. In general optimized historical cumulative returns are not the same as forward cumulative returns.
Qian, Xiao-Feng; Howell, John C; Eberly, J H
2015-01-01
The growing recognition that entanglement is not exclusively a quantum property, and does not even originate with Schr\\"odinger's famous remark about it [Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. {\\bf 31}, 555 (1935)], prompts examination of its role in marking the quantum-classical boundary. We have done this by subjecting correlations of classical optical fields to new Bell-analysis experiments, and report here values of the Bell parameter greater than ${\\cal B} = 2.54$. This is many standard deviations outside the limit ${\\cal B} = 2$ established by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 23}, 880 (1969)], in agreement with our theoretical classical prediction, and not far from the Tsirelson limit ${\\cal B} = 2.828...$. These results cast a new light on the standard quantum-classical boundary description, and suggest a reinterpretation of it.
Theory of Test Translation Error
Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel
2009-01-01
In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reinterpretation of the BRS equations of Quantum Field Theory as the Maurer Cartan equation of a classical principal fiber bundle leads to a simple gauge invariant classification of the anomalies in Yang Mills theory and gravity
Restrictions imposed on relativistic two-body interactions by classical relativistic field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that various relativistic potential models (all sharing exact relativistic two-body kinematics and a common nonrelativistic limit) can be distinguished by agreement or disagreement with relativistic corrections produced by classical field theory. We find that the only one of these models whose relativisic corrections duplicate those of classical field theory is the minimal Todorov equation. Conversely, we derive the Todorov equation from the semirelativistic dynamics of classical field theory, thus exposing the classical field-theoretic origins of its characteristic minimal potential structures and dependences on effective one-body variables
A reappraisal of classical archetype theory and its implications for theory and practice.
Merchant, John
2009-06-01
This paper begins with an overview of contemporary approaches to archetype theory and notes the radical nature of certain deductions. Some argue that there is no 'archetype-as-such' as a pre-existing entity at the core of a complex driving its formation whilst the findings of current neuroscience are calling into question one very thing on which the classical theory is built--innatism. Knox's argument for image schemas raises the question as to the extent to which archetypes can be conceived in any preformationist sense. The question is then posed--to what extent can Jung's classical theory of archetypes be read in light of these current models? The case examples Jung uses to evidence the existence of archetypes, his explications of synchronicity and his own Philemon experience are then reappraised. The conclusion is drawn that it is difficult to evidence the existence of autonomous archetypes unrelated to personal affective experience. Not only would this be expected by emergent/developmental models of archetype but it can explain many of Jung's disjunctive statements about archetype constellation; the difficulties in separating personal and collective psychic content and Jung's apparent Lamarckianism. The implications of these models for theory, clinical practice and analyst training are then offered for discussion. PMID:19531124
Motion in classical field theories and the foundations of the self-force problem
Harte, Abraham I
2014-01-01
This article serves as a pedagogical introduction to the problem of motion in classical field theories. The primary focus is on self-interaction: How does an object's own field affect its motion? General laws governing the self-force and self-torque are derived using simple, non-perturbative arguments. The relevant concepts are developed gradually by considering motion in a series of increasingly complicated theories. Newtonian gravity is discussed first, then Klein-Gordon theory, electromagnetism, and finally general relativity. Linear and angular momenta as well as centers of mass are defined in each of these cases. Multipole expansions for the force and torque are then derived to all orders for arbitrarily self-interacting extended objects. These expansions are found to be structurally identical to the laws of motion satisfied by extended test bodies, except that all relevant fields are replaced by effective versions which exclude the self-fields in a particular sense. Regularization methods traditionally ...
Force-Field Functor Theory: Classical Force-Fields which Reproduce Equilibrium Quantum Distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryan eBabbush
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Feynman and Hibbs were the first to variationally determine an effective potential whose associated classical canonical ensemble approximates the exact quantum partition function. We examine the existence of a map between the local potential and an effective classical potential which matches the exact quantum equilibrium density and partition function. The usefulness of such a mapping rests in its ability to readily improve Born-Oppenheimer potentials for use with classical sampling. We show that such a map is unique and must exist. To explore the feasibility of using this result to improve classical molecular mechanics, we numerically produce a map from a library of randomly generated one-dimensional potential/effective potential pairs then evaluate its performance on independent test problems. We also apply the map to simulate liquid para-hydrogen, finding that the resulting radial pair distribution functions agree well with path integral Monte Carlo simulations. The surprising accessibility and transferability of the technique suggest a quantitative route to adapting Born-Oppenheimer potentials, with a motivation similar in spirit to the powerful ideas and approximations of density functional theory.
Theory testing using case studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina
Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus on...... the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications...... for research design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes...
Traffic breakdown at a signal: classical theory versus the three-phase theory of city traffic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Physical reasons for a crucial difference between the results of a three-phase theory developed recently (Kerner 2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 045102(R); 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 28010; 2014 Physica A 397 76) and the classical theory are explained. Microscopic characteristics of traffic passing a traffic signal during the green signal phase and their dependence on the duration of the green phase have been found. It turns out that a moving synchronized flow pattern (MSP), which occurs in under-saturated traffic at the signal, causes ‘compression’ of traffic flow: the rate of MSP discharge can be considerably larger than the saturation flow rate of the classical traffic theory of city traffic. This leads to a considerably larger rate of traffic passing the signal in comparison with the saturation flow rate. This effect together with traffic behavior at the upstream queue front explains the metastability of under-saturated traffic with respect to a random time-delayed traffic breakdown. (paper)
Traffic breakdown at a signal: classical theory versus the three-phase theory of city traffic
Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Schreckenberg, Michael
2014-03-01
Physical reasons for a crucial difference between the results of a three-phase theory developed recently (Kerner 2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 045102(R); 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 28010; 2014 Physica A 397 76) and the classical theory are explained. Microscopic characteristics of traffic passing a traffic signal during the green signal phase and their dependence on the duration of the green phase have been found. It turns out that a moving synchronized flow pattern (MSP), which occurs in under-saturated traffic at the signal, causes ‘compression’ of traffic flow: the rate of MSP discharge can be considerably larger than the saturation flow rate of the classical traffic theory of city traffic. This leads to a considerably larger rate of traffic passing the signal in comparison with the saturation flow rate. This effect together with traffic behavior at the upstream queue front explains the metastability of under-saturated traffic with respect to a random time-delayed traffic breakdown.
Silvio F Soler Cárdenas
2008-01-01
OBJETIVO: evaluar la confiabilidad en el marco de la teoría clásica de los tests y precisar las condiciones bajo las cuales el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach constituye la mejor alternativa. DESARROLLO: el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach es el recurso numérico más utilizado para evaluar la confiabilidad de instrumentos escritos. Como prueba de esto, baste decir que desde su publicación en 1951 hasta la fecha, ha sido citado más de 5 590 veces. Sin embargo, se ha comprobado que en no pocas situacio...
Classical tests of General Relativity in thick branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahia, F. [Univ. Fed. da Paraiba, Department of Physics, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Albuquerque Silva, Alex de [Univ. Fed. de Campina Grande, Department of Physics, Sume, Paraiba (Brazil)
2015-02-01
Classical tests of General Relativity in braneworld scenarios have been investigated recently with the purpose of posing observational constraints on the parameters of some models of infinitely thin brane. Here we consider the motion of test particles in a thick brane scenario that corresponds to a regularized version of the Garriga-Tanaka solution, which describes a black hole solution in RSII model, in the weak field regime. By adapting a mechanism previously formulated in order to describe the confinement of massive tests particles in a domain wall (which simulates classically the trapping of the Dirac field in a domain wall), we study the influence of the brane thickness on the four-dimensional (4D) path of massless particles. Although the geometry is not warped and, therefore, the bound motion in the transverse direction is not decoupled from the movement in the 4D-world, we can find an explicit solution for the light deflection and the time delay, if the motion in the fifth direction is a high frequency oscillation. We verify that, owing to the transverse motion, the light deflection and the time delay depend on the energy of the light rays. This feature may lead to the phenomenon of gravitational rainbow. We also consider the problem from a semi-classical perspective, investigating the effects of the brane thickness on the motion of the zero-mode in the 4D-world. (orig.)
Classical tests of General Relativity in thick branes
Dahia, F.; de Albuquerque Silva, Alex
2015-02-01
Classical tests of General Relativity in braneworld scenarios have been investigated recently with the purpose of posing observational constraints on the parameters of some models of infinitely thin brane. Here we consider the motion of test particles in a thick brane scenario that corresponds to a regularized version of the Garriga-Tanaka solution, which describes a black hole solution in RSII model, in the weak field regime. By adapting a mechanism previously formulated in order to describe the confinement of massive tests particles in a domain wall (which simulates classically the trapping of the Dirac field in a domain wall), we study the influence of the brane thickness on the four-dimensional (4D) path of massless particles. Although the geometry is not warped and, therefore, the bound motion in the transverse direction is not decoupled from the movement in the 4D-world, we can find an explicit solution for the light deflection and the time delay, if the motion in the fifth direction is a high frequency oscillation. We verify that, owing to the transverse motion, the light deflection and the time delay depend on the energy of the light rays. This feature may lead to the phenomenon of gravitational rainbow. We also consider the problem from a semi-classical perspective, investigating the effects of the brane thickness on the motion of the zero-mode in the 4D-world.
Classical tests of General Relativity in thick branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Classical tests of General Relativity in braneworld scenarios have been investigated recently with the purpose of posing observational constraints on the parameters of some models of infinitely thin brane. Here we consider the motion of test particles in a thick brane scenario that corresponds to a regularized version of the Garriga-Tanaka solution, which describes a black hole solution in RSII model, in the weak field regime. By adapting a mechanism previously formulated in order to describe the confinement of massive tests particles in a domain wall (which simulates classically the trapping of the Dirac field in a domain wall), we study the influence of the brane thickness on the four-dimensional (4D) path of massless particles. Although the geometry is not warped and, therefore, the bound motion in the transverse direction is not decoupled from the movement in the 4D-world, we can find an explicit solution for the light deflection and the time delay, if the motion in the fifth direction is a high frequency oscillation. We verify that, owing to the transverse motion, the light deflection and the time delay depend on the energy of the light rays. This feature may lead to the phenomenon of gravitational rainbow. We also consider the problem from a semi-classical perspective, investigating the effects of the brane thickness on the motion of the zero-mode in the 4D-world. (orig.)
Theory Testing Using Case Studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille
2014-01-01
The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...
On the concept of Bell’s local causality in local classical and quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this paper is to implement Bell’s notion of local causality into a framework, called local physical theory. This framework, based on the axioms of algebraic field theory, is broad enough to integrate both probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts and also classical and quantum theories. Bell’s original idea of local causality will arise as the classical case of our definition. Classifying local physical theories by whether they obey local primitive causality, a property rendering the dynamics of the theory causal, we then investigate what is needed for a local physical theory to be locally causal. Finally, comparing local causality with the common cause principles and relating both to the Bell inequalities we find a nice parallelism: Bell inequalities cannot be derived neither from local causality nor from a common cause unless the local physical theory is classical or the common cause is commuting, respectively
Turesson, Martin; Szparaga, Ryan; Ma, Ke; Woodward, Clifford E; Forsman, Jan
2014-05-14
A new classical density functional approach is developed to accurately treat a coarse-grained model of room temperature aromatic ionic liquids. Our major innovation is the introduction of charge-charge correlations, which are treated in a simple phenomenological way. We test this theory on a generic coarse-grained model for aromatic RTILs with oligomeric forms for both cations and anions, approximating 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazoliums and BF₄⁻, respectively. We find that predictions by the new density functional theory for fluid structures at charged surfaces are very accurate, as compared with molecular dynamics simulations, across a range of surface charge densities and lengths of the alkyl chain. Predictions of interactions between charged surfaces are also presented. PMID:24718295
Quantization, Classical and Quantum Field Theory and Theta - Functions
Tyurin, Andrey N.
2002-01-01
In the abelian case (the subject of several beautiful books) fixing some combinatorial structure (so called theta structure of level k) one obtains a special basis in the space of sections of canonical polarization powers over the jacobians. These sections can be presented as holomorphic functions on the "abelian Schottky space". This fact provides various applications of these concrete analytic formulas to the integrable systems, classical mechanics and PDE's. Our practical goal is to do the...
On inert properties of particles in classical theory
Kosyakov, B. P.
2002-01-01
This is a critical review of inert properties of classical relativistic point objects. The objects are classified as Galilean and non-Galilean. Three types of non-Galilean objects are considered: spinning, rigid, and dressed particles. In the absence of external forces, such particles are capable of executing not only uniform motions along straight lines but also Zitterbewegungs, self-accelerations, self-decelerations, and uniformly accelerated motions. A free non-Galilean object possesses th...
Antigravity and classical solutions of five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pollard, D. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)
1983-02-21
Classical solutions are exhibited of a graviton-graviphoton-graviscalar field theory which are antigravitating in the weak-field approximation. The theory itself is obtained by a Kaluza-Klein type reduction from five to four dimensions. The solutions are dyonic black holes with scalar charge. They share some similarities with the extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory.
Hyperdense coding and superadditivity of classical capacities in hypersphere theories
Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Pitalúa-García, Damián
2015-01-01
In quantum superdense coding, two parties previously sharing entanglement can communicate a two bit message by sending a single qubit. We study this feature in the broader framework of general probabilistic theories. We consider a particular class of theories in which the local state space of the communicating parties corresponds to Euclidean hyperballs of dimension n (the case n = 3 corresponds to the Bloch ball of quantum theory). We show that a single n-ball can encode at most one bit of i...
Lange, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
This article argues that sociology has been a foundational discipline for the field of adult education, but it has been largely implicit, until recently. This article contextualizes classical theories of sociology within contemporary critiques, reviews the historical roots of sociology and then briefly introduces the classical theories…
Quantum Electrodynamics Basis of Classical-Field High-Harmonic Generation Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王兵兵; 高靓辉; 傅盘铭; 郭东升; R. R. Freeman
2001-01-01
From the nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory, we derive the Landau-Dykhne formula which represents the quantum-mechanical formulation of the three-step model. These studies provide a basis for the classical-field approaches to high-order harmonic generation and justify some assumptions used in classical-field modelling.
Classical tests of General Relativity in thick branes
Dahia, F
2014-01-01
Classical tests of General Relativity in braneworld scenarios have been investigated recently with the purpose of posing observational constraints on parameters of some models of infinitely thin brane. Here we consider the motion of test particles in a thick brane scenario that corresponds to a regularized version of the Garriga-Tanaka solution, which describes a black hole solution in RSII model, in the weak field regime. By adapting a mechanism previously formulated in order to describe the confinement of massive tests particles in a domain wall (that simulates classically the trapping of the Dirac field in a domain wall), we study the influence of the brane thickness on the four-dimensional (4D) path of massless particles. Although the geometry is not warped and, therefore, the bound motion in the transverse direction is not decoupled from the movement in the 4D-world, we can find an explicit solution for the light deflection and the time delay, if the motion in the fifth direction is a high frequency osci...
The Poisson algebra of classical Hamiltonians in field theory and the problem of its quantization
Stoyanovsky, A.
2010-01-01
We construct the commutative Poisson algebra of classical Hamiltonians in field theory. We pose the problem of quantization of this Poisson algebra. We also make some interesting computations in the known quadratic part of the quantum algebra.
A2: Mathematical relativity and other progress in classical gravity theory - a session report
Chruściel, Piotr T.; Paetz, Tim-Torben
2013-01-01
We report on selected oral contributions to the A2 session "Mathematical relativity and other progress in classical gravity theory" of "The 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR20)" in Warsaw.
Classical Belief Conditioning and its Generalization to DSm Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Daniel, Milan
2008-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 4 (2008), s. 267-279. ISSN 1752-8917 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * belief conditioning * DSm theory * overlapping elements * hyper-power set * DSm model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.worldacademicunion.com/journal/jus/jusVol02No4paper04.pdf
On one classical problem in the radial orbit instability theory
Polyachenko, E. V.; Shukhman, I. G.
2016-02-01
Antonov's classical problem of stability of a collisionless sphere with a purely radial motion of stars is considered as a limit of the problem in which stars move in nearly radial orbits. We provide the proper limiting equations that take into account the singularity in the density distribution at the sphere center and give their solutions. We show that there is instability for even and odd spherical harmonics, with all unstable modes being not slow. The growth rates of aperiodic even modes increase indefinitely when approaching purely radial models. The physics of the radial orbit instability is discussed.
Scattering theory for the quantum envelope of a classical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Classical dynamics, reformulated in terms of its quantum envelope is studied for the stationary states of the interacting system. The dynamical variable of ''elapsed time'' plays a crucial role in this study. It is shown that the perturbation series for the elapsed time can be summed in various simple cases even when standard perturbation series diverge. For the special class of systems where the interactions fall off sufficiently fast at infinity one could define ''in'' and ''out'' states; and consequently the wave matrices and scattering matrices. The scattering phase shifts bear a simple relation to the time delay in scattering
Classical optics in generalized Maxwell Chern-Simons theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional polarizable medium endowed with Chern-Simons terms. The dispersion relation (refractive index) of the waves is computed and the existence of linear birefringence and anomalous dispersion is shown. When absorption is taken into account, the classic signature of a Voigt effect is found. In the case where linearly-polarized, three-dimensional waves pass through a two-dimensional plane, it is shown that there is optical activity, and the analogue of Verdet's constant is computed. 19 refs., 2 figs
On inert properties of particles in classical theory
Kosyakov, B P
2002-01-01
This is a critical review of inert properties of classical relativistic point objects. The objects are classified as Galilean and non-Galilean. Three types of non-Galilean objects are considered: spinning, rigid, and dressed particles. In the absence of external forces, such particles are capable of executing not only uniform motions along straight lines but also Zitterbewegungs, self-accelerations, self-decelerations, and uniformly accelerated motions. A free non-Galilean object possesses the four-velocity and the four-momentum which are in general not collinear, therefore, its inert properties are specified by two, rather than one, invariant quantities. It is shown that a spinning particle need not be a non-Galilean object. The necessity of a rigid mechanics for the construction of a consistent classical electrodynamics in spacetimes of dimension D+1 is justified for D+1>4. The problem of how much the form of fundamental laws of physics orders four dimensions of our world is revised together with its soluti...
A course in mathematical physics 1 and 2 classical dynamical systems and classical field theory
Thirring, Walter
1992-01-01
The last decade has seen a considerable renaissance in the realm of classical dynamical systems, and many things that may have appeared mathematically overly sophisticated at the time of the first appearance of this textbook have since become the everyday tools of working physicists. This new edition is intended to take this development into account. I have also tried to make the book more readable and to eradicate errors. Since the first edition already contained plenty of material for a one semester course, new material was added only when some of the original could be dropped or simplified. Even so, it was necessary to expand the chap ter with the proof of the K-A-M Theorem to make allowances for the cur rent trend in physics. This involved not only the use of more refined mathe matical tools, but also a reevaluation of the word "fundamental. " What was earlier dismissed as a grubby calculation is now seen as the consequence of a deep principle. Even Kepler's laws, which determine the radii of the ...
Quantization of light energy directly from classical electromagnetic theory in vacuum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
She Wei-Long
2005-01-01
It is currently believed that light quantum or the quantization of light energy is beyond classical physics, and the picture of wave-particle duality, which was criticized by Einstein but has attracted a number of experimental researches, is necessary for the description of light. It is shown in this paper, however, that the quantization of light energy in vacuum, which is the same as that in quantum electrodynamics, can be derived directly from the classical electromagnetic theory through the consideration of statistics based on classical physics. Therefore, the quantization of energy is an intrinsic property of light as a classical electromagnetic wave and has no need of being related to particles.
3D gravity with dust: classical and quantum theory
Husain, Viqar
2015-01-01
We study the Einstein gravity and dust system in three spacetime dimensions as an example of a non-perturbative quantum gravity model with local degrees of freedom. We derive the Hamiltonian theory in the dust time gauge and show that it has a rich class of exact solutions. These include the Ba\\~nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, static solutions with naked singularities and travelling wave solutions with dynamical horizons. We give a complete quantization of the wave sector of the theory, including a definition of a self-adjoint spacetime metric operator. This operator is used to demonstrate the quantization of deficit angle and the fluctuation of dynamical horizons.
Classical Belief Conditioning and its Generalization to DSm Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Daniel, Milan
San Luis Obispo : California Polytechnic State University, 2007 - (Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X.), s. 596-603 ISSN 1539-2023. - (Series of Information & Management Sciences. 6). [International Conference on Information and Management Sciences /6./. Lhasa (CN), 01.06.2007-06.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * belief conditioning * DSm theory * overlapping elements * hyper-power set * DSm model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Topics in the theory of quantum and classical networks
Almaas, Eivind
We study both quantum and classical networks. The quantum networks consist of 1D and 2D arrays of Josephson junctions coupled to a resonant cavity. We derive dynamical equations for these arrays by applying the Heisenberg equations of motion to a model Hamiltonian. By means of a canonical transformation, we also show that, in the absence of an applied current and dissipation, our model reduces to one used to describe coupled qubits, and that the cavity-junction coupling corresponds to a capacitive coupling between the array and the cavity mode. From extensive numerical solutions of the model in both 1D and 2D, we find that the array locks into a coherent, periodic state above a critical number of active junctions, that the current-voltage characteristics of the array have self-induced resonant steps (SIRS's), that when N a active junctions are synchronized on a SIRS, the energy emitted into the resonant cavity is quadratic in Na, and that when a fixed number of junctions is biased on a SIRS, the energy is linear in the input power. All these results are in agreement with recent experiments. We conclude that most of the experimental data can be understood from classical equations of motion. Our study of classical networks is divided into two parts. In the first, we study the structural properties of 'small-world' networks (SWN)---networks that display properties of both regular and random graphs. We generalize the model for generating such networks that was first introduced by Watts and Strogatz. For this model, we study the distribution function for minimal paths, derive its general form and also discuss its scaling properties. Using this distribution function, we derive exact expressions for several network properties, like the average minimal distance, ℓ¯ and its variance, sigma2. These exact relations are independent of the 'degree distribution', i.e. the distribution of nearest-neighbor connections. In the second, we study how the structure of the network
k-Cosymplectic Classical Field Theories: Tulczyjew and Skinner–Rusk Formulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The k-cosymplectic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms of first-order classical field theories are reviewed and completed. In particular, they are stated for singular and almost-regular systems. Subsequently, several alternative formulations for k-cosymplectic first-order field theories are developed: First, generalizing the construction of Tulczyjew for mechanics, we give a new interpretation of the classical field equations. Second, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms are unified by giving an extension of the Skinner–Rusk formulation on classical mechanics.
Experimental tests of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author reviews the experimental tests of the Weinberg-Salam theory, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. These are studies of the V-A behaviour of weak charged currents, studies of weak neutral currents by measurement of parity violating asymmetries with special regards to deep inelastic ed scattering, neutrino-induced neutral-current interactions, charge asymmetry in deep inelastic muon scattering, and #betta#-Z interference in e+e--annihilation, which are related to the Weinberg-Salam theory, measurements of structure functions in deep inelastic scattering and jet studies in e+e--annihilation and inclusive hadronic processes which are related to quantum chromodynamics, and as tests of grand unified theories measurements of the proton decay. (HSI)
Foundations of the classical theory of partial differential equations
Egorov, Yu V
1998-01-01
From the reviews of the first printing, published as volume 30 of the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences: "... I think the volume is a great success and an excellent preparation for future volumes in the series. ... the introductory style of Egorov and Shubin is .. attractive. ... a welcome addition to the literature and I am looking forward to the appearance of more volumes of the Encyclopedia in the near future. ..." The Mathematical Intelligencer, 1993 "... According to the authors ... the work was written for nonspecialists and physicists but in my opinion almost every specialist will find something new ... in the text. The style is clear, the notations are chosen luckily. The most characteristic feature of the work is the accurate emphasis on the fundamental notions ..." Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum, 1993 "... On the whole, a thorough overview on the classical aspects of the topic may be gained from that volume." Monatshefte für Mathematik, 1993 "... It is comparable in scope with the great Coura...
Classical theory of thermal radiation from a solid.
Guo, Wei
2016-06-01
In this work, a solid at a finite temperature is modeled as an ensemble of identical atoms, each of which moves around a lattice site inside an isotropic harmonic potential. The motion of one such atom is studied first. It is found that the atom moves like a time-dependent current density and, thus, can emit electromagnetic radiation. Since all the atoms are identical, they can radiate, too. The resultant radiation from the atoms is the familiar thermal radiation from the solid. After its general expression is obtained, the intensity of the thermal radiation is discussed for its properties, and specifically calculated in the low-temperature limit. Both atomic motion and radiation are formulated in the classical domain. PMID:27409442
Classical instanton and wormhole solutions of Type IIB string theory
Kim, Jin Young; Lee, H. W.; Myung, Y. S.
1996-01-01
We study $p=-1$ D-brane in type IIB superstring theory. In addition to RR instanton, we obtain the RR charged wormhole solution in the Einstein frame. This corresponds to the ten-dimensional singular wormhole solution with infinite euclidean action.
Collaboration in classical political economy and noncooperative game theory.
McCain, Roger A
2014-06-01
This commentary suggests (1) that there are precedents for Smaldino's "collaboration" in the history of economic thought before 1900 and (2) that the distinction of collaboration from what is thought of as cooperation in game theory is less clear than Smaldino suggests. PMID:24970411
Regulating photon mass in classical 5D gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full Text:Off-shell electrodynamics, the local gauge theory associated with a covariant symplectic mechanics developed by Stueckelberg, describes instantaneous interactions between spacetime events, mediated by five massive gauge fields. Event evolution in this formalism is parameterized by an independent, monotonically increasing, Poincare-invariant parameter, and not by the proper time of the motion, and so one is led to a dynamical theory in which mass conservation is demoted from the status of an a priori constraint to that of a Noether current conserved for a certain class or interactions. While the total mass-energy of particles and fields is conserved, particles and photons may, in general, exchange mass. In the equilibrium limit, photons are pushed onto the Maxwell zero-mass shell, but during interaction, photons may acquire any mass, even pushing particle trajectories far into the spacelike region. We discuss a higher derivative correction to the photon kinetic term, which regulates the photon mass while preserving gauge invariance and Poincare covariance of the original theory. We discuss an information-theoretic interpretation of this mechanism, and demonstrate that the resulting quantum field theory is made super-renormalizable
Microscopic Surface Tension in the Classical Nucleation Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František
Praha : Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals ASCR, v.v , Czech Aerosol Society, 2009 - (Smolík, J.; O´Dowd, C.), s. 561-654 ISBN 978-80-02-12161-2. [International Conference Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosol /18./. Praha (CZ), 10.08.2009-14.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400760701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nucleation theory * multicomponent condensation * surface adsorption Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Opportunizing: A classic grounded theory study on business and management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ólavur Christiansen
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Opportunizing emerged as the core variable of this classic GT study on business and management. Opportunizing is the recurrent main concern that businesses have to continually resolve, and it explains how companies recurrently create, identify, seize or exploit situations to maintain their growth or survival. Opportunizing is the recurrent creation and re-creation of opportunities in business. Opportunizing is basically what business managers do and do all the time. The problematic nature of opportunizing is resolved by a core social process ofopportunizing and its attached sub-processes that account for change over time and for the variations of the problematic nature of its resolution.Opportunizing has five main facets. These are conditional befriending (confidence building & modifying behavior,prospecting (e.g. information gaining, weighing up (information appraisal & decision-making, moment capturing (quick intervention for seizing strategic opportunities, andconfiguration matching (adjusting the business organization to abet the other activities of opportunizing.On a more abstract level, opportunizing has three more organizational facets: the physically boundary-less, the valuehierarchical, and the physically bounded. The first of these called perpetual opportunizing. This emerges from the conjunction of conditional befriending and prospecting. The second facet is called triggering opportunizing. It arises from the coming together of weighing up and moment capturing. The final facet is called spasmodic opportunizing. This happens when moment capturing and configuration matching unite.
Semi-classical theory of fluctuations in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At intermediate energies the heavy ion collisions can be studied within the framework of a semi-classical approach based on the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) equation. Such an approach reduces the N-body problem to its description in terms of the one-body distribution function and constitutes the basis of several successful simulation models. Our aim in this work is to extend these average approaches to treat fluctuations. Within the framework of a linear approximation, we derived a Fokker-Planck transport equation in the one-body phase space. When it is reduced to its first moments, one recovers the VUU equation for the average dynamics together with the time evolution equation for the correlations. The collective transport coefficients are then obtained by projection on the one-body collective space. Independently, using a projection method introduced by Van Kampen, based on the constants of motion, we deduce the stationary expressions for the covariance matrix in phase space. We extract then, the equilibrium dispersions of one-body observables in a homogeneous case and in a spherical symmetric one. These results are compared with two types of simulation models in a relaxation time approximation. In the first one which is of Lagrangian type, the collective transport coefficients are directly extracted from the simulation and consequently the numerical fluctuations are washed out. The second model, due to its Eulerian character, allows us to make a microscopical comparison. (author)
A modification of Amiet's classical trailing edge noise theory for strictly two dimensional flows
Sandberg, Richard D.; Sandham, Neil D.
2007-01-01
The aim of this report is to derive theoretical expressions for the far-field pressure generated by disturbances convecting over a trailing edge. First, a general calculation of the far-field pressure is discussed. Then the classical theory of Amiet (1976b) is reviewed, listing the most relevant assumptions. Amiet's theory is then revised for two-dimensional flows.
Matrix Analogues to Some Classical Problems in Number Theory
Niwa, Masahiko
1996-01-01
The aim of this paper is to give a few results on some problems in the matrix ring Mn(R) over a commutative ring R analogous to some classical problems in number theory, which are handled in L. N. Vaserstein[4]. As for Matrix Goldbach Problem we can easily give an affirmative solution in Mn(R)(any n≧2), contrary to the difficulty of the original conjecture. As for Matrix Fermat Problem we will explain the connection of this problem with elements of finite order of the group GLn(R) of uni...
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary. (orig.)
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
Ruiz Ruiz, F.
2016-02-01
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary.
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz Ruiz, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)
2016-02-15
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary. (orig.)
On the Foundational Equations of the Classical Theory of Electrodynamics
Mansuripur, Masud
2014-01-01
A close examination of the Maxwell-Lorentz theory of electrodynamics reveals that polarization and magnetization of material media need not be treated as local averages over small volumes - volumes that nevertheless contain a large number of electric and/or magnetic dipoles. Indeed, Maxwell's macroscopic equations are exact and self-consistent mathematical relations between electromagnetic fields and their sources, which consist of free charge, free current, polarization, and magnetization. When necessary, the discrete nature of the constituents of matter and the granularity of material media can be handled with the aid of special functions, such as Dirac's delta-function. The energy of the electromagnetic field and the exchange of this energy with material media are treated with a single postulate that establishes the Poynting vector S = ExH as the rate of flow of electromagnetic energy under all circumstances. Similarly, the linear and angular momentum densities of the fields are simple functions of the Poy...
On a Gauge Invariant Quantum Formulation for Non-gauge Classical Theory
I.L. Buchbinder; Pershin, V. D.; Toder, G. B.
1996-01-01
We propose a method of constructing a gauge invariant canonical formulation for non-gauge classical theory which depends on a set of parameters. Requirement of closure for algebra of operators generating quantum gauge transformations leads to restrictions on parameters of the theory. This approach is then applied for illustration to bosonic string theory coupled to background tachyonic field. It is shown that within the proposed canonical formulation the known mass-shell condition for tachyon...
Methods of geometric function theory in classical and modern problems for polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper gives a survey of classical and modern theorems on polynomials, proved using methods of geometric function theory. Most of the paper is devoted to results of the author and his students, established by applying majorization principles for holomorphic functions, the theory of univalent functions, the theory of capacities, and symmetrization. Auxiliary results and the proofs of some of the theorems are presented. Bibliography: 124 titles.
Antigravity and classical solutions of five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Classical solutions are exhibited of a graviton-graviphoton-graviscalar field theory which are antigravitating in the weak-field approximation. The theory itself is obtained by a Kaluza-Klein type reduction from five to four dimensions. The solutions are dyonic black holes with scalar charge. They share some similarities with the extreme Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The one loop effective action in quantum field theory can be expressed as a quantum mechanical path integral over world lines, with internal symmetries represented by Grassmanian variables. In this paper, we develop a real time, many body, world line formalism for the one loop effective action. In particular, we study hot QCD and obtain the classical transport equations which, as Litim and Manuel have shown, reduce in the appropriate limit to the non-Abelian Boltzmann-Langevin equation first obtained by Boedeker. In the Vlasov limit, the classical kinetic equations are those that correspond to the hard thermal loop effective action. We also discuss the imaginary time world line formalism for a hot φ4 theory, and elucidate its relation to classical transport theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Jalilian-Marian, J; Venugopalan, R; Wirstam, J; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju; Wirstam, Jens
2000-01-01
The one loop effective action in quantum field theory can be expressed as a quantum mechanical path integral over world lines, with internal symmetries represented by Grassmanian variables. In this paper, we develop a real time, many body, world line formalism for the one loop effective action. In particular, we study hot QCD and obtain the classical transport equations which, as Litim and Manuel have shown, reduce in the appropriate limit to the non-Abelian Boltzmann-Langevin equation first obtained by Bödeker. In the Vlasov limit, the classical kinetic equations are those that correspond to the hard thermal loop effective action. We also discuss the imaginary time world line formalism for a hot $\\phi^4$ theory, and elucidate its relation to classical transport theory.
Treatise on classical elasticity theory and related problems
Teodorescu, Petre P
2013-01-01
Deformable solids have a particularly complex character; mathematical modeling is not always simple and often leads to inextricable difficulties of computation. One of the simplest mathematical models and, at the same time, the most used model, is that of the elastic body – especially the linear one. But, notwithstanding its simplicity, even this model of a real body may lead to great difficulties of computation. The practical importance of a work about the theory of elasticity, which is also an introduction to the mechanics of deformable solids, consists of the use of scientific methods of computation in a domain in which simplified methods are still used. This treatise takes into account the consideration made above, with special attention to the theoretical study of the state of strain and stress of a deformable solid. The book draws on the known specialized literature, as well as the original results of the author and his 50+ years experience as Professor of Mechanics and Elasticity at the University o...
Momentum relation and classical limit in the future-not-included complex action theory
Nagao, Keiichi
2013-01-01
Studying the time development of the expectation value in the future-not-included complex action theory we point out that the momentum relation (relation analogous to $p=\\frac{\\partial L}{\\partial \\dot{q}}$), which was derived via Feynman path integral and was shown to be right in the future-included theory in our previous papers, is not valid in the future-not-included theory. We provide the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory, and argue that the future-not-included classical theory is described by a certain real action. In addition we provide another way to understand the time development of the future-not-included theory by utilizing the future-included theory. Furthermore, applying the method used in our previous paper to the future-not-included theory properly by introducing a formal Lagrangian, we derive the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory.
A generalization of a classical model in contract theory: The agent behavior
Gutiérrez, Francisco; Moreno, Stefany
2011-01-01
We present a first approximation of agent behaviour in a generalized model in contract theory. This model relaxes some of the the assumptions of one of the classical models allowing to include a broader range of agents. We introduce the motivation for the agent and reinterpret the classical definition of risk perception. Besides, we analyze different scenarios for the relation between the effort exerted by the agent and the probability that he gets an especfic result.
Development of a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on classical plasticity theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUAN Ping; LIU ChangChun; L(U) HeXiang
2009-01-01
The traditional unified viscoplasticity constitutive model can be only applied to metal materials. The study of the unified constitutive theory for metal materials has discovered the correlation between the classical plasticity theory and the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, thus leading to the con-cepts of the classic plastic potential and yield surface in the unified constitutive model. Moreover, this research has given the continuous expression of the classical plastic multiplier and presented the corresponding constructive method, which extends its physical significance and lays down a good foundation for the application of the unified constitutive theory to the material analysis in more fields.This paper also introduces the unified constitutive model for metal materials and geo-materials. The numerical simulation indicates that the construction should be both reasonable and practical.
Development of a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on classical plasticity theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The traditional unified viscoplasticity constitutive model can be only applied to metal materials.The study of the unified constitutive theory for metal materials has discovered the correlation between the classical plasticity theory and the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model,thus leading to the con-cepts of the classic plastic potential and yield surface in the unified constitutive model.Moreover,this research has given the continuous expression of the classical plastic multiplier and presented the corresponding constructive method,which extends its physical significance and lays down a good foundation for the application of the unified constitutive theory to the material analysis in more fields.This paper also introduces the unified constitutive model for metal materials and geo-materials.The numerical simulation indicates that the construction should be both reasonable and practical.
Classical and quantum contents of solvable game theory on Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A simple and general formulation of the quantum game theory is presented, accommodating all possible strategies in the Hilbert space for the first time. The theory is solvable for the two strategy quantum game, which is shown to be equivalent to a family of classical games supplemented by quantum interference. Our formulation gives a clear perspective to understand why and how quantum strategies outmaneuver classical strategies. It also reveals novel aspects of quantum games such as the stone-scissor-paper phase sub-game and the fluctuation-induced moderation
A Test of Objectification Theory in Adolescent Girls.
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
2002-01-01
Tested the components of a model proposed by Objectification Theory in a sample of adolescent girls who did and did not study classical ballet. Participant surveys examined self-objectification, body shame, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating. There was no difference between groups on self-objectification or any of its proposed consequences.…
Neo-classical theory of competition or Adam Smith's hand as mathematized ideology
McCauley, Joseph L.
2001-10-01
Orthodox economic theory (utility maximization, rational agents, efficient markets in equilibrium) is based on arbitrarily postulated, nonempiric notions. The disagreement between economic reality and a key feature of neo-classical economic theory was criticized empirically by Osborne. I show that the orthodox theory is internally self-inconsistent for the very reason suggested by Osborne: lack of invertibility of demand and supply as functions of price to obtain price as functions of supply and demand. The reason for the noninvertibililty arises from nonintegrable excess demand dynamics, a feature of their theory completely ignored by economists.
a Classical Isodual Theory of Antimatter and its Prediction of Antigravity
Santilli, Ruggero Maria
An inspection of the contemporary physics literature reveals that, while matter is treated at all levels of study, from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory, antimatter is solely treated at the level of second quantization. For the purpose of initiating the restoration of full equivalence in the treatment of matter and antimatter in due time, and as the classical foundations of an axiomatically consistent inclusion of gravitation in unified gauge theories recently appeared elsewhere, in this paper we present a classical representation of antimatter which begins at the primitive Newtonian level with corresponding formulations at all subsequent levels. By recalling that charge conjugation of particles into antiparticles is antiautomorphic, the proposed theory of antimatter is based on a new map, called isoduality, which is also antiautomorphic (and more generally, antiisomorphic), yet it is applicable beginning at the classical level and then persists at the quantum level where it becomes equivalent to charge conjugation. We therefore present, apparently for the first time, the classical isodual theory of antimatter, we identify the physical foundations of the theory as being the novel isodual Galilean, special and general relativities, and we show the compatibility of the theory with all available classical experimental data on antimatter. We identify the classical foundations of the prediction of antigravity for antimatter in the field of matter (or vice-versa) without any claim on its validity, and defer its resolution to specifically identified experiments. We identify the novel, classical, isodual electromagnetic waves which are predicted to be emitted by antimatter, the so-called space-time machine based on a novel non-Newtonian geometric propulsion, and other implications of the theory. We also introduce, apparently for the first time, the isodual space and time inversions and show that they are nontrivially different than the conventional ones, thus
Guillemin, Ernst A
2013-01-01
An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.
Al-Safi, Sabri W.; Short, Anthony J.
2013-01-01
Many-party correlations between measurement outcomes in general probabilistic theories are given by conditional probability distributions obeying the non-signalling condition. We show that any such distribution can be obtained from classical or quantum theory, by relaxing positivity constraints on either the mixed state shared by the parties, or the local functions which generate measurement outcomes. Our results apply to generic non-signalling correlations, but in particular they yield two d...
Finite-Block-Length Analysis in Classical and Quantum Information Theory
Hayashi, Masahito
2016-01-01
This is a review article of finite-block-length analysis in classical and quantum information theory for non-specialist. Transmitting an information is a fundamental technology. However, there are several demands for this transmission. The research area to study such problems is called information theory. In the information transmission, the information is transmitted via a physical media. Hence, the analysis of this problem might depends on the property of the physical media. Indeed, while i...
Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment
Marcus, R. A.
1964-01-01
In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.
Uniting the Spheres: Modern Feminist Theory and Classic Texts in AP English
Drew, Simao J. A.; Bosnic, Brenda G.
2008-01-01
High school teachers Simao J. A. Drew and Brenda G. Bosnic help familiarize students with gender role analysis and feminist theory. Students examine classic literature and contemporary texts, considering characters' historical, literary, and social contexts while expanding their understanding of how patterns of identity and gender norms exist and…
Comparison of Classic Sweat Test and Crystallization Test in Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis
Fatemeh Farahmand; Nooshin Sadjadei; Mohammad-Taghi Haghi-Ashtiani; Vajiheh Modaresi; Nima Rezaei; Bahar Pakseresht
2012-01-01
Objective: Sweat chloride measurement is considered a standard diagnostic tool for cystic fibrosis (CF). This study was performed to compare sweat chloride values obtained by quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis (classic test) with sweat crystallization detected by direct observation of a drop of perspiration under light microscopy in patients with and without CF.Methods: The tests using both techniques were performed simultaneously in patients with and without CF. Cutoff values of ≥60 mmol...
The Master Ward Identity and generalized Schwinger-Dyson Equation in classical field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of perturbative quantum field theory a new, universal renormalization condition (called Master Ward Identity) was recently proposed by one of us (M.D.) in a joint paper with F.-M. Boas. The main aim of the present paper is to get a better understanding of the Master Ward Identity by analyzing its meaning in classical field theory. It turns out that it is the most general identity for classical local fields which follows from the field equations. It is equivalent to a generalization of the Schwinger-Dyson Equation and is closely related to the Quantum Action Principle of Lowenstein and Lam. The validity of the Master Ward Identity makes possible a local construction of quantum gauge theories. (orig.)
A New Conformal Theory of Semi-Classical Quantum General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available We consider a new four-dimensional formulation of semi-classical quantum general relativity in which the classical space-time manifold, whose intrinsic geometric properties give rise to the effects of gravitation, is allowed to evolve microscopically by means of a conformal function which is assumed to depend on some quantum mechanical wave function. As a result, the theory presented here produces a unified field theory of gravitation and (microscopic electromagnetism in a somewhat simple, effective manner. In the process, it is seen that electromagnetism is actually an emergent quantum field originating in some kind of stochastic smooth extension (evolution of the gravitational field in the general theory of relativity.
Ice Nucleation on Carbon Surface Supports the Classical Theory for Heterogeneous Nucleation
Cabriolu, Raffaela
2015-01-01
The prevalence of heterogeneous nucleation in nature was explained qualitatively by the classical theory for heterogeneous nucleation established over more than 60 years ago, but the quantitative validity and the key conclusions of the theory have remained unconfirmed. Employing the forward flux sampling method and the coarse-grained water model mW, we explicitly computed the heterogeneous ice nucleation rates in the supercooled water on a graphitic surface at various temperatures. The independently calculated ice nucleation rates were found to fit well according to the classical theory for heterogeneous nucleation. The fitting procedure further yields the estimate of the potency factor which measures the ratio of the heterogeneous nucleation barrier to the homogeneous nucleation barrier. Remarkably, the estimated potency factor agrees quantitatively with the volumetric ratio of the critical nuclei between the heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation. Our numerical study thus provides a strong support to the ...
An analogue of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation in prequantum classical field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT) is a model that provides the possibility of representing averages of quantum observables, including correlations of observables on subsystems of a composite system, as averages with respect to fluctuations of classical random fields. PCSFT is a classical model of wave type. For example, 'electron' is described by electronic field. In contrast to quantum mechanics (QM), this field is a real physical field and not a field of probabilities. An important point is that the prequantum field of , for example, an electron contains the irreducible contribution of the background field vacuum fluctuations. In principle, the traditional QM-formalism can be considered as a special regularization procedure: subtraction of averages with respect to vacuum fluctuations. In this paper, we derive a classical analogue of the Heisenberg-Robertson inequality for dispersions of functionals of classical (prequantum) fields. The PCSFT Robertson-like inequality provides a restriction on the product of classical dispersions. However, this restriction is not so rigid as in QM.
Sokolov, Igor V
2015-01-01
A theory of Symplectic Manifold with Contact Degeneracies (SMCD) was developed in [Zot'ev,2007]. The symplectic geometry uses an anti-symmetric tensor (closed differential form) such as a field tensor used in the classical field theory. The SMCD theory studies degeneracies of such form. In [Zot'ev,2011] the SMCD theory was applied to study a front of an electromagnetic pulsed field propagating into a region with no field. Here, the result of [Zot'ev,2011] is compared with the problem solution obtained using the well-known method presented in Witham, G.B., Linear and nonlinear waves, 1974. It is shown that the SMCD theory prediction is not supported by the result obtained with the Witham method.
Zarei, Mohammad Hossein
2016-01-01
Although creating a unified theory in Elementary Particles Physics is still an open problem, there are a lot of attempts for unifying other fields of physics. Following such unifications, we regard a two dimensional (2D) classical $\\Phi^{4}$ field theory model to study several field theories with different symmetries in various dimensions. While the completeness of this model has been already proved by a mapping between statistical mechanics and quantum information theory, here, we take into account a fundamental systematic approach with purely mathematical basis to re-derive such completeness in a general manner. Due to simplicity and generality, we believe that our method leads to a general approach which can be understood by other physical communities as well as quantum information theorists. Furthermore, our proof of the completeness is not only a proof-of-principle, but also an interesting algorithmic proof. We consider a discrete version of a general field theory as an arbitrary polynomial function of f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have computed the surface self-diffusion constants on four different crystal faces [fcc(111), fcc(100), bcc(110), and bcc(211)] using classical transition state theory methods. These results can be compared directly with previous classical-trajectory results which used the same Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential and template model; the agreement is good, though dynamical effects are evident for the fcc(111) and bcc(110) surfaces. Implications are discussed for low-temperature diffusion studies, which are inaccessible to direct molecular dynamics, and the use of ab initio potentials rather than approximate pairwise potentials
Experimental Device-independent Tests of Classical and Quantum Dimensions
Badziag, Johan Ahrens Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed
2011-01-01
A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. Information encoded in a classical system is limited by the dimension d_c of the system, i.e., the number of distinguishable states. A system with d_c=2^n classical states can carry n bits of classical information. Information encoded in a quantum system is limited by the dimension d_q of the Hilbert space of the system, i.e., the number of perfectly distinguishable quantum states. A system with d_q=2^n perfectly distinguishable quantum states can carry n qubits of quantum information. Physical systems of higher dimensions may enable more efficient and powerful information processing protocols. The dimension is fundamental in quantum cryptography and random number generation, where the security of many schemes [1,2,3] crucially relies on the system's dimension. From a fundamental perspective, the dimension can be used to quantify the non-classicality of correlations, since class...
The Classical Theory of Light Colors: a Paradigm for Description of Particle Interactions
Mazilu, Nicolae; Agop, Maricel; Gatu, Irina; Iacob, Dan Dezideriu; Butuc, Irina; Ghizdovat, Vlad
2016-06-01
The color is an interaction property: of the interaction of light with matter. Classically speaking it is therefore akin to the forces. But while forces engendered the mechanical view of the world, the colors generated the optical view. One of the modern concepts of interaction between the fundamental particles of matter - the quantum chromodynamics - aims to fill the gap between mechanics and optics, in a specific description of strong interactions. We show here that this modern description of the particle interactions has ties with both the classical and quantum theories of light, regardless of the connection between forces and colors. In a word, the light is a universal model in the description of matter. The description involves classical Yang-Mills fields related to color.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive the fundamental equations of an optimal control theory for systems containing both quantum electrons and classical ions. The system is modeled with Ehrenfest dynamics, a non-adiabatic variant of molecular dynamics. The general formulation, that needs the fully correlated many-electron wavefunction, can be simplified by making use of time-dependent density-functional theory. In this case, the optimal control equations require some modifications that we will provide. The abstract general formulation is complemented with the simple example of the H2+ molecule in the presence of a laser field. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By introducing the concepts of 'superclassicality' and 'relational causality', it is shown here that the velocity field emerging from an n-slit system can be calculated as an average classical velocity field with suitable weightings per channel. No deviation from classical probability theory is necessary in order to arrive at the resulting probability distributions. In addition, we can directly show that when translating the thus obtained expression for said velocity field into a more familiar quantum language, one immediately derives the basic postulate of the de Broglie-Bohm theory, i.e. the guidance equation, and, as a corollary, the exact expression for the quantum mechanical probability density current. Some other direct consequences of this result will be discussed, such as an explanation of Born's rule and Sorkin's first and higher order sum rules, respectively.
[Athens and Mycenea. On the integration of classical and recent psychoanalytic theory].
Whitebook, J
1995-03-01
The relation between zeitgeist and psychoanalytic theory formation can be illustrated with reference to the transition from neurosis to psychosis. The author regards Freud as an oedipal thinker in two respects, first as the psychologist who "discovered" the father complex, and secondly as a scholar in the positivist tradition of the nineteenth century with its claims to be able to distinguish clearly between subject and object, hallucination and perception. The pre-oedipal, narcissistic disturbances described and discussed since the beginning of the First World War allow the conclusion that this period saw the onset of a zeitgeist increasingly prepared to countenance archaic dimensions of the psyche and an intermingling of subject and object. In the author's view, the difficulty of reconciling classical and post-classical psychoanalytic theory lies in the fact that this involves completely re-thinking our ideas on the bourgeois individual and challenging the concepts we have of such things as objectivity, normality, autonomy and individuation. PMID:7708949
Uporov, Igor V.; Forlemu, Neville Y.; Rahul Nori; Tsvetan Aleksandrov; Sango, Boris A.; Yvonne E. Bongfen Mbote; Sandeep Pothuganti; Thomasson, Kathryn A.
2015-01-01
The dipole interaction model is a classical electromagnetic theory for calculating circular dichroism (CD) resulting from the π-π* transitions of amides. The theoretical model, pioneered by J. Applequist, is assembled into a package, DInaMo, written in Fortran allowing for treatment of proteins. DInaMo reads Protein Data Bank formatted files of structures generated by molecular mechanics or reconstructed secondary structures. Crystal structures cannot be used directly with DInaMo; they either...
A classically stable state in a broken SU(2) gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The probable existence of a classically stable state is demonstrated in the case of a broken SU(2) gauge theory with a doublet Higgs field and no fermions. The state is quantum mechanically unstable and its energy is less than 4π/e2m(subv)x0.755 where m(subv) is a vector boson mass and e is the coupling constant. (Auth.)
Kuwahara, Y; Nakamura, Y; Yamanaka, Y
2013-01-01
The $2 \\times 2$-matrix structure of Green's functions is a common feature for the real-time formalisms of quantum field theory under thermal situations, such as the closed time path formalism and Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It has been believed to originate from quantum nature. Recently, Galley has proposed the Hamilton's principle with initial data for nonconservative classical systems, doubling each degree of freedom [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 174301 (2013)]. We show that the Galley's Hamilto...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A physical interpretation of translation-invariant polarons and bipolarons is presented, some results of their existence are discussed. Consideration is given to the problem of quantization in the vicinity of the classical solution in the quantum field theory. The lowest variational estimate is obtained for the bipolaron energy E(η) with E(0) = -0.440636α2, where α is a constant of electron-phonon coupling, η is a parameter of ion binding
Relativistic semi-classical theory of atom ionization in ultra-intense laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A relativistic semi-classical theory (RSCT) of H-atom ionizationin ultra-intense laser (UIL) is proposed. A relativistic analytical expression for ionization probability of H-atom in its ground state is given. This expression, compared with non-relativistic expression, clearly shows the effects of the magnet vector in the laser, the non-dipole approximation and the relativistic mass-energy relation on the ionization processes. At the same time, we show that under some conditions the relativistic expression reduces to the non-relativistic expression of non-dipole approximation. At last, some possible applications of the relativistic theory are briefly stated.
Charged free fermions, vertex operators and the classical theory of conjugate nets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doliwa, Adam [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw (Poland); Manas, Manuel [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, EUIT Aeronautica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Martinez Alonso, Luis; Medina, Elena [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain); Santini, Paolo Maria [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy)
1999-02-19
We show that the quantum field theoretical formulation of the {tau}-function theory has a geometrical interpretation within the classical transformation theory of conjugate nets. In particular, we prove that (i) the partial charge transformations preserving the neutral sector are Laplace transformations, (ii) the basic vertex operators are Levy and adjoint Levy transformations and (iii) the diagonal soliton vertex operators generate fundamental transformations. We also show that the bilinear identity for the multicomponent Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy becomes, through a generalized Miwa map, a bilinear identity for the multidimensional quadrilateral lattice equations. (author)
Kuwahara, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamanaka, Y.
2013-12-01
The 2×2-matrix structure of Green's functions is a common feature for the real-time formalisms of quantum field theory under thermal situations, such as the closed time path formalism and Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It has been believed to originate from quantum nature. Recently, Galley has proposed the Hamilton's principle with initial data for nonconservative classical systems, doubling each degree of freedom [1]. We show that the Galley's Hamilton formalism can be extended to quantum field and that the resulting theory is naturally identical with nonequilibrium TFD.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuwahara, Y., E-mail: a.kuwahara1224@asagi.waseda.jp; Nakamura, Y., E-mail: nakamura@aoni.waseda.jp; Yamanaka, Y., E-mail: yamanaka@waseda.jp
2013-12-09
The 2×2-matrix structure of Green's functions is a common feature for the real-time formalisms of quantum field theory under thermal situations, such as the closed time path formalism and Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It has been believed to originate from quantum nature. Recently, Galley has proposed the Hamilton's principle with initial data for nonconservative classical systems, doubling each degree of freedom. We show that the Galley's Hamilton formalism can be extended to quantum field and that the resulting theory is naturally identical with nonequilibrium TFD.
Charged free fermions, vertex operators and the classical theory of conjugate nets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the quantum field theoretical formulation of the τ-function theory has a geometrical interpretation within the classical transformation theory of conjugate nets. In particular, we prove that (i) the partial charge transformations preserving the neutral sector are Laplace transformations, (ii) the basic vertex operators are Levy and adjoint Levy transformations and (iii) the diagonal soliton vertex operators generate fundamental transformations. We also show that the bilinear identity for the multicomponent Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy becomes, through a generalized Miwa map, a bilinear identity for the multidimensional quadrilateral lattice equations. (author)
Homotopy Theory of Probability Spaces I: Classical independence and homotopy Lie algebras
Park, Jae-Suk
2015-01-01
This is the first installment of a series of papers whose aim is to lay a foundation for homotopy probability theory by establishing its basic principles and practices. The notion of a homotopy probability space is an enrichment of the notion of an algebraic probability space with ideas from algebraic homotopy theory. This enrichment uses a characterization of the laws of random variables in a probability space in terms of symmetries of the expectation. The laws of random variables are reinterpreted as invariants of the homotopy types of infinity morphisms between certain homotopy algebras. The relevant category of homotopy algebras is determined by the appropriate notion of independence for the underlying probability theory. This theory will be both a natural generalization and an effective computational tool for the study of classical algebraic probability spaces, while keeping the same central limit. This article is focused on the commutative case, where the laws of random variables are also described in t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Yun, E-mail: zhou.yun.x@gmail.com; Pollak, Eli, E-mail: eli.pollak@weizmann.ac.il [Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Miret-Artés, Salvador, E-mail: s.miret@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2014-01-14
A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.
A High Order Theory for Linear Thermoelastic Shells: Comparison with Classical Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Zozulya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A high order theory for linear thermoelasticity and heat conductivity of shells has been developed. The proposed theory is based on expansion of the 3-D equations of theory of thermoelasticity and heat conductivity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. The first physical quantities that describe thermodynamic state have been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate. Thereby all equations of elasticity and heat conductivity including generalized Hooke's and Fourier's laws have been transformed to the corresponding equations for coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Then in the same way as in the 3D theories system of differential equations in terms of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. First approximation theory is considered in more detail. The obtained equations for the first approximation theory are compared with the corresponding equations for Timoshenko's and Kirchhoff-Love's theories. Special case of plates and cylindrical shell is also considered, and corresponding equations in displacements are presented.
Non-Noetherian symmetries for oscillators in classical mechanics and in field theory
Hojman, Sergio A.; Delajara, Jamie; Pena, Leda
1995-01-01
Infinitely many new conservation laws both for free fields as well as for test fields evolving on a given gravitational background are presented. The conserved currents are constructed using the field theoretical counterpart of a recently discovered non-Noetherian symmetry which gives rise to a new way of solving the classical small oscillations problem. Several examples are discussed.
Is That a Real Theory or Did You Just Make It Up? Teaching Classic Grounded Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The title of this paper was derived from an incident I observed some years ago while accompanying a highly talented musician-songwriter friend to a performance. During a break, an audience member approached him to compliment the last song he had performed. He had written both the music and the lyrics to the song, one of many he had written. The audience member queried, “Is that a real song, or did you just make it up?” A touch amused, and not knowing whether he should be flattered or insulted, he politely replied, “It is a real song and I made it up.”This episode puts in mind a similar attitude in the social sciences that Glaser and Strauss (1967 noted, in which a small number of ’theoretical capitalists’ originate what are considered to be “real” theories and others are relegated to the role of “proletariat” testers. The means by which these theorists derived their theories remained largely mysterious. Unleashing proletariat testers was one of the chief rationales behind Glaser and Strauss’ development of grounded theory. It brought a democratic option into the social sciences that enabled anyone who learned the methodology to generate theory. The democratic ethos of the methodology may also have inadvertently unleashed an abundance of aspiring remodelers of the methodology, who unfortunately have eroded its primary purpose—to generate theories that are fully grounded in data rather than speculation or ideology.
Múnera, Héctor A.
2016-07-01
It is postulated that there exists a fundamental energy-like fluid, which occupies the flat three-dimensional Euclidean space that contains our universe, and obeys the two basic laws of classical physics: conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of total energy; the fluid is described by the classical wave equation (CWE), which was Schrödinger's first candidate to develop his quantum theory. Novel solutions for the CWE discovered twenty years ago are nonharmonic, inherently quantized, and universal in the sense of scale invariance, thus leading to quantization at all scales of the universe, from galactic clusters to the sub-quark world, and yielding a unified Lorentz-invariant quantum theory ab initio. Quingal solutions are isomorphic under both neo-Galilean and Lorentz transformations, and exhibit nother remarkable property: intrinsic unstability for large values of ℓ (a quantum number), thus limiting the size of each system at a given scale. Unstability and scale-invariance together lead to nested structures observed in our solar system; unstability may explain the small number of rows in the chemical periodic table, and nuclear unstability of nuclides beyond lead and bismuth. Quingal functions lend mathematical basis for Boscovich's unified force (which is compatible with many pieces of evidence collected over the past century), and also yield a simple geometrical solution for the classical three-body problem, which is a useful model for electronic orbits in simple diatomic molecules. A testable prediction for the helicoidal-type force is suggested.
Borisenko, Alexander
2016-05-01
During the processes of nucleation and growth of a precipitate cluster from a supersaturated solution, the diffusion flux between the cluster and the solution changes the solute concentration near the cluster-solution interface from its average bulk value. This feature affects the rates of attachment and detachment of solute atoms at the interface, and, therefore, the entire nucleation-growth kinetics is altered. Unless quite obvious, this effect has been ignored in classical nucleation theory. To illustrate the results of this approach, for the case of homogeneous nucleation, we calculate the total solubility and the nucleation rate as functions of two parameters of the model (the reduced interface energy and the inverse second Damköhler number), and we compare these results to the classical ones. One can conclude that discrepancies with classical nucleation theory are great in the diffusion-limited regime, when the rate of bulk diffusion is small compared to the rate of interface reactions, while in the opposite interface-limited case they vanish.
Bruneton, Jean-Philippe
2006-01-01
Field theories whose full action is Lorentz invariant (or diffeomorphism invariant) can exhibit superluminal behaviors through the breaking of local Lorentz invariance. Quantum induced superluminal velocities are well-known examples of this effect. The issue of the causal behavior of such propagations is somewhat controversial in the literature and we intend to clarify it. We provide a careful analysis of the meaning of causality in classical relativistic field theories, and we stress the rol...
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-01-01
The scientific methodology based on two descriptive levels, ontic (reality as it is ) and epistemic (observational), is briefly presented. Following Schr\\"odinger, we point to the possible gap between these two descriptions. Our main aim is to show that, although ontic entities may be inaccessible for observations, they can be useful for clarification of the physical nature of operational epistemic entities. We illustrate this thesis by the concrete example: starting with the concrete ontic model preceding quantum mechanics (the latter is treated as an epistemic model), namely, prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), we propose the natural physical interpretation for the basic quantum mechanical entity - the quantum state ("wave function"). The correspondence PCSFT to QM is not straightforward, it couples the covariance operators of classical (prequantum) random fields with the quantum density operators. We use this correspondence to clarify the physical meaning of the pure quantum state and th...
Thermal flucatuations in a classical theory with shape degrees of freedom for heavy ion collisions
Samaddar, S. K.; Sperber, D.; Zielińska-Pfabe, M.; Sobel, M. I.; Garpman, S. I.
1981-02-01
We use a classical dynamical theory with shape degrees of freedom to describe deep inelastic scattering of heavy ions, and include thermal fluctuations by means of the Fokker-Planck equation. The degrees of freedom allow for neck formation, mass transfer, and stretching of the two-nucleus system. Inertias are calculated for these degrees of freedom, and dissipative and conservative forces are used. Fluctuations are calculated by considering the second moments of the distribution and determining a temperature from the excitation energy at each time. We calculate distributions in final energy, angle, charge, and mass, including some double differential cross sections. Results are in good agreement with data. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Classical dynamical model, shape degrees of freedom, Fokker-Planck equation, thermal fluctuations; angular, energy, mass, and charge distributions are calculated for the reactions 209Bi + 84Kr, 209Bi + 136Xe, and 197Au + 63Cu.
The Postmodern Turn: Shall Classic Grounded Theory Take That Detour? A Review Essay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vivian B. Martin, PhD
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Adherents to classic grounded theory have gotten used to spotting the pretenders working under the grounded theory banner. Some of these faux-GT researchers have worked in a fog, misunderstanding fundamentals of the method; these are the studies that leave us shaking our heads and wondering about the doctoral committee and peer reviewers who did not bother to find out more about the method they were evaluating. More infuriating are the authors who are claiming to improve on grounded theory, to reground it, to quote one notable British author who, lack of handson grounded theory experience aside, manages a booklength critique of the method. Two recent books in the“remaking grounded theory” genre are from sociologists with some years of grounded theory projects behind them. Adele E. Clarke, author of Situational Analysis, was a student and colleague of Anselm L. Strauss at the University of California San Francisco. Kathy Charmaz, author of Constructing Grounded Theory, is among the few grounded theorists who studied with Barney G. Glaser and Strauss at UCSF.
Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving
Kerner, Boris S
2016-01-01
In a mini-review [Physica A {\\bf 392} (2013) 5261--5282] it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown -- a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters o...
Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving
Kerner, Boris S.
2016-05-01
In a mini-review Kerner (2013) it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown - a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters of automatic driving vehicles can either decrease or increase the probability of the breakdown. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown, i.e., the deterioration of the performance of the traffic system can occur already at a small percentage (about 5%) of automatic driving vehicles. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown through automatic driving vehicles can be realized, even if any platoon of automatic driving vehicles satisfies condition for string stability.
Two-Component Theory of Classical Proca Fields in Curved Spacetimes with Torsionless Affinities
Santos Júnior, S. I.; Cardoso, J. G.
2016-04-01
The world formulation of the full theory of classical Proca fields in generally relativistic spacetimes is reviewed. Subsequently the entire set of field equations is transcribed in a straightforward way into the framework of one of the Infeld-van der Waerden formalisms. Some well-known calculational techniques are then utilized for deriving the wave equations that control the propagation of the fields allowed for. It appears that no interaction couplings between such fields and electromagnetic curvatures are ultimately carried by the wave equations at issue. What results is, in effect, that the only interactions which occur in the theoretical context under consideration involve strictly Proca fields and wave functions for gravitons.
AMMARI, Zied; Falconi, Marco
2016-01-01
In the mid Sixties Edward Nelson proved the existence of a consistent quantum field theory that describes the Yukawa-like interaction of a non-relativistic nucleon field with a relativistic meson field. Since then it is thought, despite the renormalization procedure involved in the construction, that the quantum dynamics should be governed in the classical limit by a Schr\\"odinger-Klein-Gordon system with Yukawa coupling. In the present paper we prove this fact in the form of a Bohr correspon...
Redundancy of constraints in the classical and quantum theories of gravitation.
Moncrief, V.
1972-01-01
It is shown that in Dirac's version of the quantum theory of gravitation, the Hamiltonian constraints are greatly redundant. If the Hamiltonian constraint condition is satisfied at one point on the underlying, closed three-dimensional manifold, then it is automatically satisfied at every point, provided only that the momentum constraints are everywhere satisfied. This permits one to replace the usual infinity of Hamiltonian constraints by a single condition which may be taken in the form of an integral over the manifold. Analogous theorems are given for the classical Einstein Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
Eu, Byung Chan
2010-01-01
In the kinetic theory of dense fluids the many-particle collision bracket integral is given in terms of a classical collision operator defined in the phase space. To find an algorithm to compute the collision bracket integrals, we revisit the eigenvalue problem of the Liouville operator and re-examine the method previously reported[Chem. Phys. 20, 93(1977)]. Then we apply the notion and concept of the eigenfunctions of the Liouville operator and knowledge acquired in the study of the eigenfun...
The classically perfect fixed point action for SU(3) gauge theory
DeGrand, T; Hasenfratz, A.; Hasenfratz, P.; Niedermayer, F.
1995-01-01
In this paper (the first of a series) we describe the construction of fixed point actions for lattice $SU(3)$ pure gauge theory. Fixed point actions have scale invariant instanton solutions and the spectrum of their quadratic part is exact (they are classical perfect actions). We argue that the fixed point action is even 1--loop quantum perfect, i.e. in its physical predictions there are no $g^2 a^n$ cut--off effects for any $n$. We discuss the construction of fixed point operators and presen...
The Energy-Momentum Tensor(s) in Classical Gauge Theories
Blaschke, Daniel N; Gieres, Francois; Reboud, Meril; Schweda, Manfred
2016-01-01
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from t...
He, Jing-Lin
2009-05-01
There are so many discussions on the body physiognomy in Huangdineijing (Huangdi's Inner Classic) that include not only the description of both difference of body physiognomy and its reasons, but also the discussions on physiological and pathological characteristics of different body physiognomy traits. Different physiological and pathological characteristics lead to different applicable therapeutic methods, so that Huangdineijing discusses the applicable therapeutic methods to different body physiognomy characteristics, especially elaborating on the difference between applicable acupuncture manipulation to those characteristics. Contents such as the above form the embryonic form of the theory of body physiognomy in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). PMID:19930931
The Energy-Momentum Tensor(s) in Classical Gauge Theories
Blaschke, Daniel N; Reboud, Meril; Schweda, Manfred
2016-01-01
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
Correlation effects in the theory of combined Doppler and pressure broadening. I - Classical theory
Ward, J.; Cooper, J.; Smith, E. W.
1974-01-01
An investigation is conducted of the combined effects of radiator-perturber collisions and radiator translational motion in the context of foreign gas broadening of optical transitions in neutral radiators. Questions concerning the speed-dependent collision frequency are considered and aspects of general theory are explored, taking into account the correlation function, the ensemble average, and the kinetic equation formalism. An elementary solution is discussed along with a one-perturber approximation, inverse power law model calculations, and a comparison with the Voigt profile.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For a quantum field coupled to a classical background gsub(μnu)-field we propose a recursive technique which relates the diagonal matrix element to its value at t=-infinity. We then employ the lowest non-trivial order to renormalize the semi-classical theory of gravity. The existence of two important classes of solutions of the linearized theory is briefly discussed. (author)
SLAC physicists develop test for string theory
Yajnik, Juhi
2006-01-01
"Under certain conditions, string theory solves many of the questions wracking the minds of physicists, but until recently it had one major flaw - it could not be tested. SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) scientists have found a way to test this revolutionary theory, which posits that there are 10 or 11 dimensions in our universe" (1 page)
Axiomatics of classical electrodynamics and its relation to gauge field theory
Gronwald, F; Nitsch, J; Gronwald, Frank; Hehl, Friedrich W.
2005-01-01
We give a concise axiomatic introduction into the fundamental structure of classical electrodynamics: It is based on electric charge conservation, the Lorentz force, magnetic flux conservation, and the existence of local and linear constitutive relations. The {\\it inhomogeneous} Maxwell equations, expressed in terms of $D^i$ and $H_i$, turn out to be a consequence of electric charge conservation, whereas the {\\it homogeneous} Maxwell equations, expressed in terms of $E_i$ and $B^i$, are derived from magnetic flux conservation and special relativity theory. The excitations $D^i$ and $H_i$, by means of constitutive relations, are linked to the field strengths $E_i$ and $B^i$. Eventually, we point out how this axiomatic approach is related to the framework of gauge field theory.
Vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability and the classic radiation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the fact that the vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability for the interaction of the Maxwell field Aμ(x) with a given current Jμ(x) represents the probability of no photons emitted by the current of a Poisson distribution, the average number of photons emitted of given energies for the underlying distribution is readily derived. From this the classical power of radiation of Schwinger of a relativistic charged particle follows. - Highlights: • Quantum viewpoint of radiation theory based on the vacuum-to-transition probabilities. • Mathematical method in handling radiation for extended and point sources. • Radiated energy and power for arbitrary source distribution obtained from the above. • Explicit power of radiation for point relativistic sources from the general theory
Mahajan, Gaurang
2007-01-01
The quantum theory of a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency arises in several important physical problems, especially in the study of quantum field theory in an external background. While the mathematics of this system is straightforward, several conceptual issues arise in such a study. We present a general formalism to address some of the conceptual issues like the emergence of classicality, definition of particle content, back reaction etc. In particular, we parametrize the wave function in terms of a complex number (which we call excitation parameter) and express all physically relevant quantities in terms it. Many of the notions -- like those of particle number density, effective Lagrangian etc., which are usually defined using asymptotic in-out states -- are generalized as time-dependent concepts and we show that these generalized definitions lead to useful and reasonable results. Having developed the general formalism we apply it to several examples. Exact analytic expressions are found ...
A semi-classical theory of multi-step nuclear reaction processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The master equation theory of precompound and compound nuclear reaction has been generalized to the inclusion of the conservation of angular momentum and parity. This improved semi-classical theory has been extended for application as an evaluation tool of the calculations of nucleon induced reaction cross sections and double differential cross sections. For structural materials at incident neutron energies below 20 MeV, it is demonstrated that the constructed model contains the Hauser-Feshbach, Weisskopf-Ewing as well as the exciton models as limiting cases. The unified treatment of pre-equilibrium processes includes a number of interesting features, such as the exciton state densities with the exact Pauli exclusion correction which are renormalized to the back-shifted Fermi-gas formula; the introduction of formation factors of composite particle in calculations of pick-up type composite particle emission and the double differential cross sections for all kinds of particles in terms of the leading particle model
Giordano, Peter J
2014-06-01
An important objective of personality psychology is to provide compelling descriptions and explanations of intraindividual personality dynamics that capture the unique qualities of persons. Among contemporary Western personality theories, the Five-Factor Model enjoys prominence in describing individual differences in personality traits. It falls short, however, in its ability to work with intraindividual personality function. This article argues that classical Confucianism, originating 2500 years ago in mainland China, offers Western personality psychologists important theoretical resources for capturing the complex and dynamic processes inherent in human personality. The Confucian perspective emphasizes a behaviorally anchored, continuous, stochastic, process-oriented understanding of the self as relationally constructed and proposes an elegant description of the relational virtuosity of exemplary persons. The article concludes with five characteristics of a Confucian inspired model of personality and questions the viability of a universal theory of personality. PMID:24101234
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús García-de-Madariaga
2011-10-01
Full Text Available There has been a lot of discussion about corporate social responsibility (CSR during these last decades. Neoclassical authors support the idea that CSR is not compatible with the objective of profit maximization, and defenders of CSR argue that, in these times of globalization and network economies, the idea of a company managed just to meet shareholders’ interests does not support itself. However, beyond this discussion, how can CSR affect firms’ market value? If we found a positive relationship between these variables, we could conclude that the two theories are reconcilable and the objective of profit maximization, perhaps, should satisfy not only shareholders’ interests, but also stakeholders’. We review previous literature and propose a model to analyze how CSR affects firms’ market value.
Wigner's dynamical transition state theory in phase space: classical and quantum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop Wigner's approach to a dynamical transition state theory in phase space in both the classical and quantum mechanical settings. The key to our development is the construction of a normal form for describing the dynamics in the neighbourhood of a specific type of saddle point that governs the evolution from reactants to products in high dimensional systems. In the classical case this is the standard Poincaré–Birkhoff normal form. In the quantum case we develop a normal form based on the Weyl calculus and an explicit algorithm for computing this quantum normal form. The classical normal form allows us to discover and compute the phase space structures that govern classical reaction dynamics. From this knowledge we are able to provide a direct construction of an energy dependent dividing surface in phase space having the properties that trajectories do not locally 're-cross' the surface and the directional flux across the surface is minimal. Using this, we are able to give a formula for the directional flux through the dividing surface that goes beyond the harmonic approximation. We relate this construction to the flux–flux autocorrelation function which is a standard ingredient in the expression for the reaction rate in the chemistry community. We also give a classical mechanical interpretation of the activated complex as a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM), and further describe the structure of the NHIM. The quantum normal form provides us with an efficient algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and we relate this algorithm to the quantum version of the flux–flux autocorrelation function formalism. The significance of the classical phase space structures for the quantum mechanics of reactions is elucidated by studying the phase space distribution of scattering states. The quantum normal form also provides an efficient way of computing Gamov–Siegert resonances. We relate these resonances to the lifetimes of the quantum activated
Statistical tests of nonparametric hypotheses asymptotic theory
Pons, Odile
2013-01-01
An overview of the asymptotic theory of optimal nonparametric tests is presented in this book. It covers a wide range of topics: Neyman-Pearson and LeCam's theories of optimal tests, the theories of empirical processes and kernel estimators with extensions of their applications to the asymptotic behavior of tests for distribution functions, densities and curves of the nonparametric models defining the distributions of point processes and diffusions. With many new test statistics developed for smooth curves, the reliance on kernel estimators with bias corrections and the weak convergence of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scaling relations are developed for the number g* of molecules in the critical nucleus and the nucleation barrier height W*. Density functional (DF) calculations for vapor-liquid nucleation confirm these relations and show systematic departure of the ratio W*/g*Δμ from its classical value of 1/2 with increasing difference Δμ in the chemical potential between the supersaturated vapor and bulk condensed phase. Discrepancies between classical and DF nucleation theories and between the classical theory and experiment are interpreted using these results. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Plimak, L. I.; Ivanov, Misha; Aiello, A.; Stenholm, S.
2015-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics under conditions of distinguishability of interacting matter entities, and of controlled actions and back-actions between them, is considered. Such "mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics" is shown to share its dynamical structure with the classical stochastic electrodynamics. In formal terms, we demonstrate that all general relations of the mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics may be recast in a form lacking Planck's constant. Mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics is therefore...
Relativistic and nonrelativistic classical field theory on fivedimensional space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is a sequel to earlier ones in which, on the one hand, classical field theories were described on a curved Newtonian space-time, and on the other hand, the Newtonian gravitation theory was formulated on a fivedimensional space-time with a metric of signature and a covariantly constant vector field. Here we show that Lagrangians for matter fields are easily formulated on this extended space-time from simple invariance arguments and that stress-energy tensors can be derived from them in the usual manner so that four-dimensional space-time expressions are obtained that are consistent in the relativistic as well as in the Newtonian case. In the former the theory is equivalent to General Relativity. When the magnitude of the distinguished vector field vanishes equations for the (covariant) Newtonian limit follow. We demonstrate this here explicity in the case of the Klein-Gordon/Schroedinger and the Dirac field and its covariant nonrelativistic analogue, the Levy-Leblond field. Especially in the latter example the covariant Newtonian theory simplifies dramatically in this fivedimensional form
Oriols, X.
2016-03-01
Exact predictions for most quantum systems are computationally inaccessible. This is the so-called many body problem, which is present in most common interpretations of quantum mechanics. Therefore, predictions of natural quantum phenomena have to rely on some approximations (assumptions or simplifications). In the literature, there are different types of approximations, ranging from those whose justification is basically based on theoretical developments to those whose justification lies on the agreement with experiments. This last type of approximations can convert a quantum theory into an “unfalsifiable” quantum theory, true by construction. On the practical side, converting some part of a quantum theory into an “unfalsifiable” one ensures a successful modeling (i.e. compatible with experiments) for quantum engineering applications. An example of including irreversibility and dissipation in the Bohmian modeling of open systems is presented. On the ontological level, however, the present-day foundational problems related to controversial quantum phenomena have to avoid (if possible) being contaminated by the unfalsifiability originated from the many body problem. An original attempt to show how the Bohmian theory itself (minimizing the role of many body approximations) explains the transitions from a microscopic quantum system towards a macroscopic classical one is presented.
Dumas, H Scott
2014-01-01
This is a semi-popular mathematics book aimed at a broad readership of mathematically literate scientists, especially mathematicians and physicists who are not experts in classical mechanics or KAM theory, and scientific-minded readers. Parts of the book should also appeal to less mathematically trained readers with an interest in the history or philosophy of science. The scope of the book is broad: it not only describes KAM theory in some detail, but also presents its historical context (thus showing why it was a 'breakthrough'). Also discussed are applications of KAM theory (especially to celestial mechanics and statistical mechanics) and the parts of mathematics and physics in which KAM theory resides (dynamical systems, classical mechanics, and Hamiltonian perturbation theory). Although a number of sources on KAM theory are now available for experts, this book attempts to fill a long-standing gap at a more descriptive level. It stands out very clearly from existing publications on KAM theory because it ...
Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut
2010-08-01
Herein we provide a brief summary of the background, events and results/outcome of the CECAM workshop 'Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter held in Lausanne between October 21 and October 23 2009, which brought together two largely separately working communities, both of whom employ classical density functional techniques: the soft-matter community and the theoretical materials science community with interests in phase transformations and evolving microstructures in engineering materials. After outlining the motivation for the workshop, we first provide a brief overview of the articles submitted by the invited speakers for this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, followed by a collection of outstanding problems identified and discussed during the workshop. 1. Introduction Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a theoretical framework, which has been extensively employed in the past to study inhomogeneous complex fluids (CF) [1-4] and freezing transitions for simple fluids, amongst other things. Furthermore, classical DFT has been extended to include dynamics of the density field, thereby opening a new avenue to study phase transformation kinetics in colloidal systems via dynamical DFT (DDFT) [5]. While DDFT is highly accurate, the computations are numerically rather demanding, and cannot easily access the mesoscopic temporal and spatial scales where diffusional instabilities lead to complex solidification morphologies. Adaptation of more efficient numerical methods would extend the domain of DDFT towards this regime of particular interest to materials scientists. In recent years, DFT has re-emerged in the form of the so-called 'phase-field crystal' (PFC) method for solid-state systems [6, 7], and it has been successfully employed to study a broad variety of interesting materials phenomena in both atomic and colloidal systems, including elastic and plastic deformations, grain growth, thin film growth, solid
Notes on Collective Field Theory of Large N Vector Models as Classical Mechanics on the Siegel Disc
Agarwal, A
2004-01-01
We use deformation quantization to construct the large N limits of Bosonic vector models as classical dynamical systems on the Siegel disc and study the relation of this formulation to standard results of collective field theory. Special emphasis is paid to relating the collective potential of the large N theory to a particular cocycle of the symplectic group.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.K.Chhapkhane
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The laminate is a two or more lamina bonded together to act as an integral structural element. The laminae are combined to create a laminate. Classical lamination theory consists of a collection of mechanics of materials type of stress and deformation hypothesis. By use of classical lamination theory we can consistently proceed directly from the basic building block, the lamina, to the end result, a structural laminate. The classical lamination theory is very important in analysis of laminate because it will predict the stresses, strains, forces and moments relationships with reasonable accuracy. The composite materials are widely used in military aircraft, civil aircraft, space and automobile applications. ANSYS 11software is used for analysis of composite laminate. First order shear stress deformation theory is used for the analysis of laminate in finite element technique.
Barnum, Howard
2009-01-01
We review some of our recent results (with collaborators) on information processing in an ordered linear spaces framework for probabilistic theories. These include demonstrations that many "inherently quantum" phenomena are in reality quite general characteristics of non-classical theories, quantum or otherwise. As an example, a set of states in such a theory is broadcastable if, and only if, it is contained in a simplex whose vertices are cloneable, and therefore distinguishable by a single measurement. As another example, information that can be obtained about a system in this framework without causing disturbance to the system state, must be inherently classical. We also review results on teleportation protocols in the framework, and the fact that any non-classical theory without entanglement allows exponentially secure bit commitment in this framework. Finally, we sketch some ways of formulating our framework in terms of categories, and in this light consider the relation of our work to that of Abramsky, ...
Self psychology as a shift away from the paranoid strain in classical analytic theory.
Terman, David M
2014-12-01
Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother. PMID:25339303
Classical and quantum theories of proton disorder in hexagonal water ice
Benton, Owen; Sikora, Olga; Shannon, Nic
2016-03-01
It has been known since the pioneering work of Bernal, Fowler, and Pauling that common, hexagonal (Ih) water ice is the archetype of a frustrated material: a proton-bonded network in which protons satisfy strong local constraints (the "ice rules") but do not order. While this proton disorder is well established, there is now a growing body of evidence that quantum effects may also have a role to play in the physics of ice at low temperatures. In this paper, we use a combination of numerical and analytic techniques to explore the nature of proton correlations in both classical and quantum models of ice Ih. In the case of classical ice Ih, we find that the ice rules have two, distinct, consequences for scattering experiments: singular "pinch points," reflecting a zero-divergence condition on the uniform polarization of the crystal, and broad, asymmetric features, coming from its staggered polarization. In the case of the quantum model, we find that the collective quantum tunneling of groups of protons can convert states obeying the ice rules into a quantum liquid, whose excitations are birefringent, emergent photons. We make explicit predictions for scattering experiments on both classical and quantum ice Ih, and show how the quantum theory can explain the "wings" of incoherent inelastic scattering observed in recent neutron scattering experiments [Bove et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 165901 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.165901]. These results raise the intriguing possibility that the protons in ice Ih could form a quantum liquid at low temperatures, in which protons are not merely disordered, but continually fluctuate between different configurations obeying the ice rules.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jia-Lin; YU Hong-Wei
2005-01-01
@@ We show that the velocity and position dispersions of a test particle with a nonzero constant classical velocity undergoing Brownian motion caused by electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in a space with plane boundaries can be obtained from those of the static case by Lorentz transformation. We explicitly derive the Lorentz transformations relating the dispersions of the two cases and then apply them to the case of the Brownian motion of a test particle with a constant classical velocity parallel to the boundary between two conducting planes. Our results show that the influence of a nonzero initial velocity is negligible for nonrelativistic test particles.
Numerical study of chiral plasma instability within the classical statistical field theory approach
Buividovich, P. V.; Ulybyshev, M. V.
2016-07-01
We report on a numerical study of real-time dynamics of electromagnetically interacting chirally imbalanced lattice Dirac fermions within the classical statistical field theory approach. Namely, we perform exact simulations of the real-time quantum evolution of fermionic fields coupled to classical electromagnetic fields, which are in turn coupled to the vacuum expectation value of the fermionic electric current. We use Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian for fermions, and noncompact action for the gauge field. In general, we observe that the backreaction of fermions on the electromagnetic field prevents the system from acquiring chirality imbalance. In the case of chirality pumping in parallel electric and magnetic fields, the electric field is screened by the produced on-shell fermions and the accumulation of chirality is hence stopped. In the case of evolution with initially present chirality imbalance, axial charge tends to transform to helicity of the electromagnetic field. By performing simulations on large lattices we show that in most cases this decay process is accompanied by the inverse cascade phenomenon, which transfers energy from short-wavelength to long-wavelength electromagnetic fields. In some simulations, however, we observe a very clear signature of inverse cascade for the helical magnetic fields that is not accompanied by the axial charge decay. This suggests that the relation between the inverse cascade and axial charge decay is not as straightforward as predicted by the simplest form of anomalous Maxwell equations.
Kinetic theory of the shear viscosity of a strongly coupled classical one-component plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an approximation to the linearized collision operator or memory function of the exact kinetic equation obeyed by the correlation function of the phase-space density of a classical one-component plasma. This approximate collision operator generalizes the well known Balescu-Guernsey-Lenard (BGL) operator to finite wavelengths, finite frequencies, and finite coupling constants. It, moreover, satisfies the necessary symmetry relations, leads to appropriate conservation laws, and fulfills its first sum rule exactly. Next we use this operator to compute the shear viscosity eta for a series of coupling constants spanning the whole fluid phase. For weak coupling we make contact with the BGL theory, while for strong coupling we confirm, at least qualitatively, the results of Vieillefosse and Hansen, who predicted a minimum in eta as a function of temperature. We also demonstrate the important role played by the sum rules in the quantitative evaluation of a transport coefficient such as eta
Classical solutions in quantum field theory solitons and instantons in high energy physics
Weinberg, Erick J
2012-01-01
Classical solutions play an important role in quantum field theory, high energy physics and cosmology. Real-time soliton solutions give rise to particles, such as magnetic monopoles, and extended structures, such as domain walls and cosmic strings, that have implications for early universe cosmology. Imaginary-time Euclidean instantons are responsible for important nonperturbative effects, while Euclidean bounce solutions govern transitions between metastable states. Written for advanced graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, cosmology and related fields, this book brings the reader up to the level of current research in the field. The first half of the book discusses the most important classes of solitons: kinks, vortices and magnetic monopoles. The cosmological and observational constraints on these are covered, as are more formal aspects, including BPS solitons and their connection with supersymmetry. The second half is devoted to Euclidean solutions, with particular emphasis on ...
Chandrasekhar limit: an elementary approach based on classical physics and quantum theory
Pinochet, Jorge; Van Sint Jan, Michael
2016-05-01
In a brief article published in 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar made public an important astronomical discovery. In his article, the then young Indian astrophysicist introduced what is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit. This limit establishes the maximum mass of a stellar remnant beyond which the repulsion force between electrons due to the exclusion principle can no longer stop the gravitational collapse. In the present article, we create an elemental approximation to the Chandrasekhar limit, accessible to non-graduate science and engineering students. The article focuses especially on clarifying the origins of Chandrasekhar’s discovery and the underlying physical concepts. Throughout the article, only basic algebra is used as well as some general notions of classical physics and quantum theory.
Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Borgis, Daniel
2014-01-01
We report here how the hydration of complex surfaces can be efficiently studied thanks to recent advances in classical molecular density functional theory. This is illustrated on the example of the pyrophylite clay. After presenting the most recent advances, we show that the strength of this implicit method is that (i) it is in quantitative or semi-quantitative agreement with reference all-atoms simulations (molecular dynamics here) for both the solvation structure and energetics, and that (ii) the computational cost is two to three orders of magnitude less than in explicit methods. The method remains imperfect, in that it locally overestimates the polarization of water close to hydrophylic sites of the clay. The high numerical efficiency of the method is illustrated and exploited to carry a systematic study of the electrostatic and van der Waals components of the surface-solvant interactions within the most popular force field for clays, CLAYFF. Hydration structure and energetics are found to weakly depend u...
Classical and quantum theory of the massive spin-two field
Koenigstein, Adrian; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we review classical and quantum field theory of massive non-interacting spin-two fields. We derive the equations of motion and Fierz-Pauli constraints via three different methods: the eigenvalue equations for the Casimir invariants of the Poincaré group, a Lagrangian approach, and a covariant Hamilton formalism. We also present the conserved quantities, the solution of the equations of motion in terms of polarization tensors, and the tree-level propagator. We then discuss canonical quantization by postulating commutation relations for creation and annihilation operators. We express the energy, momentum, and spin operators in terms of the former. As an application, quark-antiquark currents for tensor mesons are presented. In particular, the current for tensor mesons with quantum numbers JPC =2-+ is, to our knowledge, given here for the first time.
Classical and quantum theory of the massive spin-two field
Koenigstein, Adrian; Rischke, Dirk H
2015-01-01
In this paper, we review classical and quantum field theory of massive non-interacting spin-two fields. We derive the equations of motion and Fierz-Pauli constraints via three different methods: the eigenvalue equations for the Casimir invariants of the Poincar\\'{e} group, a Lagrangian approach, and a covariant Hamilton formalism. We also present the conserved quantities, the solution of the equations of motion in terms of polarization tensors, and the tree-level propagator. We then discuss canonical quantization by postulating commutation relations for creation and annihilation operators. We express the energy, momentum, and spin operators in terms of the former. As an application, quark-antiquark currents for tensor mesons are presented. In particular, the current for tensor mesons with quantum numbers $J^{PC}=2^{-+}$ is, to our knowledge, given here for the first time.
Gauge bridges in classical field theory; Eichbruecken in der klassischen Feldtheorie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jakobs, S.
2009-03-15
In this thesis Poisson structures of two classical gauge field theories (Maxwell-Klein-Gordon- and Maxwell-Dirac-system) are constructed using the parametrix construction of Green's functions. Parametrices for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon- and Maxwell-Dirac-system are constructed in Minkowski space and this construction is later generalized to curved space times for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon-system. With these Green's functions Poisson brackets will be defined as Peierls brackets. Finally non-local, gauge invariant observables, the so-called 'gauge bridges'are constructed. Gauge bridges are the matrix elements of holonomy operators. It is shown, that these emerge from Poisson brackets of local, gauge invariant observables. (orig.)
Experimental tests of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This series of five lectures is intended to provide the experimental basis to the theoretical courses on gauge symmetries. The framework is the standard model. The experimental material is taken mainly from lepton-hadron and e+e--experiments. Choosing the Standard Model as framework offers the possibility of a simple and organized presentation of the rich material. The other advantage of the present form of the standard model concerns the formulation of the critical questions leading beyond the tested ground, for instance why are weak interactions lefthanded or is the multitude of quarks and leptons hinting at yet another substructure. (orig./HSI)
Power functional theory for the dynamic test particle limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For classical Brownian systems both in and out of equilibrium we extend the power functional formalism of Schmidt and Brader (2013 J. Chem. Phys. 138 214101) to mixtures of different types of particles. We apply the framework to develop an exact dynamical test particle theory for the self and distinct parts of the van Hove function, which characterize tagged and collective particle motion. The memory functions that induce non-Markovian dynamics are related to functional derivatives of the excess (over ideal) free power dissipation functional. The method offers an alternative to the recently found nonequilibrium Ornstein–Zernike relation for dynamic pair correlation functions. (paper)
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C
2015-01-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underly...
Charmaine Scrimnger-Christian; S. Wedzerai Musvoto
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study is to discuss a possible way forward in accounting measurement. It also highlights the importance of understanding the lack of appreciation given by the accounting researchers to the distinction between representation measurement theory and the axioms of quantity on which the classical theory of measurement is based. For long, research in measurement theory has classified representational measurement as nothing but applications of the axioms of quantity. It was belie...
Current-carrying plasma and the magnetic field ambiguity in classical MHD theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An ambiguity in the classical theoretical framework used for computing magnetohydrostatic equilibrium is pointed out and analyzed. This inconsistency implies that some proposed solutions of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations may not represent actual magnetic fields of plasma currents in the geometry considered. The root of the inconsistency is that the magnetostatic field equation and the magnetohydrostatic equations are not invariant under the same transformations. There are two types of problems where inconsistencies have arisen in the literature: (a) unphysical magnetic fields are postulated inside a plasma current; and (b) vacuum magnetic fields are postulated that are not gradient fields. In both cases, magnetic fields are obtained which cannot be created in the laboratory. This inconsistency is traced back to a mishandling of the mathematical structure of the magnetic field equation. The magnetic field rvec B is a vector potential for the current density distribution rvec j, just as rvec A is a vector potential for rvec B. Nevertheless, whereas a gauge transformation on rvec A is unobservable (gauge invariant), the analogous gauge transformation in the rvec B vector (gradient field transformation) is indeed observable and changes the Lorentz force. Following Alfven, the authors characterize plasmas mathematically through the field lines of the current density distribution vector. Classical MHD theory, by contrast, is concerned strictly with magnetic field lines. They show here how this magnetic field approach can lead to inconsistencies when applied to plasmas. A resolution of entrenched ambiguities is made possible by using the current fiber description to derive a corrected Grad-Shafranov plasma equilibrium equation
Structure Theory for Extended Kepler-Coulomb 3D Classical Superintegrable Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ernie G. Kalnins
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The classical Kepler-Coulomb system in 3 dimensions is well known to be 2nd order superintegrable, with a symmetry algebra that closes polynomially under Poisson brackets. This polynomial closure is typical for 2nd order superintegrable systems in 2D and for 2nd order systems in 3D with nondegenerate (4-parameter potentials. However the degenerate 3-parameter potential for the 3D extended Kepler-Coulomb system (also 2nd order superintegrable is an exception, as its quadratic symmetry algebra doesn't close polynomially. The 3D 4-parameter potential for the extended Kepler-Coulomb system is not even 2nd order superintegrable. However, Verrier and Evans (2008 showed it was 4th order superintegrable, and Tanoudis and Daskaloyannis (2011 showed that in the quantum case, if a second 4th order symmetry is added to the generators, the double commutators in the symmetry algebra close polynomially. Here, based on the Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz construction, we consider an infinite class of classical extended Kepler-Coulomb 3- and 4-parameter systems indexed by a pair of rational numbers (k_1,k_2 and reducing to the usual systems when k_1=k_2=1. We show these systems to be superintegrable of arbitrarily high order and work out explicitly the structure of the symmetry algebras determined by the 5 basis generators we have constructed. We demonstrate that the symmetry algebras close rationally; only for systems admitting extra discrete symmetries is polynomial closure achieved. Underlying the structure theory is the existence of raising and lowering constants of the motion, not themselves polynomials in the momenta, that can be employed to construct the polynomial symmetries and their structure relations.
Field-testing of the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maarbjerg, Stine; Sørensen, Morten Togo; Gozalov, Aydin; Bendtsen, Lars; Olesen, Jes
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to field-test the beta version of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The proposed beta draft of the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases...
Casanova, Aurora; Ariza, Javier; Rubio, Manuel; Masuet, Cristina; Díaz, Ramón
2009-01-01
The BrucellaCapt test is an immunocapture agglutination test suggested as a possible substitute for the Coombs test in the diagnosis of human brucellosis. Here it is compared with classical tests using 321 samples from 48 patients with brucellosis (6.9 ± 1.7 samples per patient), including 20 patients with focal disease and 8 patients with a total of 9 relapse episodes (mean follow-up, 18 months). The BrucellaCapt test was used according to the manufacturer's instructions, and we also used a ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Wen-Xue; Zhang Shu-Lian; Zhang Peng; Zeng Zhao-Li
2012-01-01
In this paper,we propose a semi-classical theory to successfully explain the polarization flipping in a single frequency laser. An experimental setup is built to verify this theory. The observed experimental phenomena are consistent with the theoretical analysis.We perform phase retardation measurements of birefringent components using this experimental system.The results show that the measurement repeatability is 0.12° and the measurement accuracy is 0.22°.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a semi-classical theory to successfully explain the polarization flipping in a single frequency laser. An experimental setup is built to verify this theory. The observed experimental phenomena are consistent with the theoretical analysis. We perform phase retardation measurements of birefringent components using this experimental system. The results show that the measurement repeatability is 0.12° and the measurement accuracy is 0.22°
Cremaschini, Claudio; 10.1140/epjp/i2011-11063-3
2012-01-01
A notorious difficulty in the covariant dynamics of classical charged particles subject to non-local electromagnetic (EM) interactions arising in the EM radiation-reaction (RR) phenomena is due to the definition of the related non-local Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. The lack of a standard Lagrangian/Hamiltonian formulation in the customary asymptotic approximation for the RR equation may inhibit the construction of consistent kinetic and fluid theories. In this paper the issue is investigated in the framework of Special Relativity. It is shown that, for finite-size spherically-symmetric classical charged particles, non-perturbative Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations in standard form can be obtained, which describe particle dynamics in the presence of the exact EM RR self-force. As a remarkable consequence, based on axiomatic formulation of classical statistical mechanics, the covariant kinetic theory for systems of charged particles subject to the EM RR self-force is formulated in Hamiltonian form....
Polar-solvation classical density-functional theory for electrolyte aqueous solutions near a wall
Warshavsky, Vadim; Marucho, Marcelo
2016-04-01
A precise description of the structural and dielectric properties of liquid water is critical to understanding the physicochemical properties of solutes in electrolyte solutions. In this article, a mixture of ionic and dipolar hard spheres is considered to account for water crowding and polarization effects on ionic electrical double layers near a uniformly charged hard wall. As a unique feature, solvent hard spheres carrying a dipole at their centers were used to model water molecules at experimentally known concentration, molecule size, and dipolar moment. The equilibrium ionic and dipole density profiles of this electrolyte aqueous model were calculated using a polar-solvation classical density-functional theory (PSCDFT). These profiles were used to calculate the charge density distribution, water polarization, dielectric permittivity function, and mean electric potential profiles as well as differential capacitance, excess adsorptions, and wall-fluid surface tension. These results were compared with those corresponding to the pure dipolar model and unpolar primitive solvent model of electrolyte aqueous solutions to understand the role that water crowding and polarization effects play on the structural and thermodynamic properties of these systems. Overall, PSCDFT predictions are in agreement with available experimental data.
Unification of classical nucleation theories via a unified Itô-Stratonovich stochastic equation.
Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A; Lutsko, James F
2015-09-01
Classical nucleation theory (CNT) is the most widely used framework to describe the early stage of first-order phase transitions. Unfortunately, the different points of view adopted to derive it yield different kinetic equations for the probability density function, e.g., Zeldovich-Frenkel or Becker-Döring-Tunitskii equations. Starting from a phenomenological stochastic differential equation, a unified equation is obtained in this work. In other words, CNT expressions are recovered by selecting one or another stochastic calculus. Moreover, it is shown that the unified CNT thus obtained produces the same Fokker-Planck equation as that from a recent update of CNT [J. F. Lutsko and M. A. Durán-Olivencia, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244908 (2013)10.1063/1.4811490] when mass transport is governed by diffusion. Finally, we derive a general induction-time expression along with specific approximations of it to be used under different scenarios, in particular, when the mass-transport mechanism is governed by direct impingement, volume diffusion, surface diffusion, or interface transfer. PMID:26465482
Anderson, Edward
2013-01-01
I already showed that Kendall's shape geometry work was the geometrical description of Barbour's relational mechanics' reduced configuration spaces (alias shape spaces). I now describe the extent to which Kendall's subsequent statistical application to such as the `standing stones problem' realizes further ideas along the lines of Barbour-type timeless records theories, albeit just at the classical level.
Anderson, Edward
2013-01-01
I previously showed that Kendall's work on shape geometry is in fact also the geometrical description of Barbour's relational mechanics' reduced configuration spaces (alias shape spaces). I now describe the extent to which Kendall's subsequent statistical application to e.g. the `standing stones problem' realizes further ideas along the lines of Barbour-type timeless records theories, albeit just at the classical level.
Foundations of a New Test Theory.
Mislevy, Robert J.
It is only a slight exaggeration to describe the test theory that dominates educational measurement today as the application of twentieth-century statistics to nineteenth-century psychology. Sophisticated estimation procedures, new techniques for missing-data problems, and theoretical advances into latent-variable modeling have appeared--all…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field theories with Lorentz (or diffeomorphism invariant) action can exhibit superluminal behavior through the breaking of local Lorentz invariance. Quantum induced superluminal velocities are well-known examples of this effect. The issue of the causal behavior of such propagation is somewhat controversial in the literature and we intend to clarify it. We provide a careful analysis of the meaning of causality in classical relativistic field theories and stress the role played by the Cauchy problem and the notion of chronology. We show that, in general, superluminal behavior threatens causality only if one assumes that a prior chronology in spacetime exists. In the case where superluminal propagation occurs, however, there are at least two nonconformally related metrics in spacetime and thus two available notions of chronology. These two chronologies are on equal footing, and it would thus be misleading to choose ab initio one of them to define causality. Rather, we provide a formulation of causality in which no prior chronology is assumed. We argue that this is the only way to deal with the issue of causality in the case where some degrees of freedom propagate faster than others. In that framework, then, it is shown that superluminal propagation is not necessarily noncausal, the final answer depending on the existence of an initial data formulation. This also depends on global properties of spacetime that we discuss in detail. As an illustration of these conceptual issues, we consider two field theories, namely, k-essence scalar fields and bimetric theories of gravity, and we derive the conditions imposed by causality. We discuss various applications such as the dark energy problem, modified-Newtonian-dynamics-like theories of gravity, and varying speed of light theories
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2015-12-17
The mixed quantum classical theory, MQCT, for inelastic scattering of two molecules is developed, in which the internal (rotational, vibrational) motion of both collision partners is treated with quantum mechanics, and the molecule-molecule scattering (translational motion) is described by classical trajectories. The resultant MQCT formalism includes a system of coupled differential equations for quantum probability amplitudes, and the classical equations of motion in the mean-field potential. Numerical tests of this theory are carried out for several most important rotational state-to-state transitions in the N2 + H2 system, in a broad range of collision energies. Besides scattering resonances (at low collision energies) excellent agreement with full-quantum results is obtained, including the excitation thresholds, the maxima of cross sections, and even some smaller features, such as slight oscillations of energy dependencies. Most importantly, at higher energies the results of MQCT are nearly identical to the full quantum results, which makes this approach a good alternative to the full-quantum calculations that become computationally expensive at higher collision energies and for heavier collision partners. Extensions of this theory to include vibrational transitions or general asymmetric-top rotor (polyatomic) molecules are relatively straightforward. PMID:26323089
Local and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests in classical measurement error models
Ma, Yanyuan
2010-09-14
We consider functional measurement error models, i.e. models where covariates are measured with error and yet no distributional assumptions are made about the mismeasured variable. We propose and study a score-type local test and an orthogonal series-based, omnibus goodness-of-fit test in this context, where no likelihood function is available or calculated-i.e. all the tests are proposed in the semiparametric model framework. We demonstrate that our tests have optimality properties and computational advantages that are similar to those of the classical score tests in the parametric model framework. The test procedures are applicable to several semiparametric extensions of measurement error models, including when the measurement error distribution is estimated non-parametrically as well as for generalized partially linear models. The performance of the local score-type and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests is demonstrated through simulation studies and analysis of a nutrition data set.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Xiang-Yun; YU Hong-Wei
2007-01-01
We study the random motion of a charged test particle with a normal classical constant velocity in a spacetime with a perfectly reflecting plane boundary and calculate both the velocity and position dispersions of the test particle. Our results show that the dispersions in the normal direction are weakened while those in the parallel directions are strengthened as compared to the classical static case when the test particle classically moves away from the boundary.However, if the classical motion reverses its direction, then the dispersions in the normal direction are reinforced while those in the parallel directions get weakened.
Sihvola, Ari
2005-03-01
' multipole theory. But then the focus is shifted to observables associated with the reflection of waves from a surface. And there the classical analysis fails. This gives the motivation for the following chapters where the transformed multipole theory is represented. As expected, the correct multipole balance restores the physicality of the results in the reflection problem. One of the healthy reminders for an electrical engineer-scientist reading the book is the fact that E and B are the primary electric and magnetic fields. The other two field quantities, D and H, are the response fields (which, by the way, are also shown to be origin-dependent and poorly\\endcolumn defined in the framework of classical multipole theory). In defence, however, for these poor latter quantities one can mention the many advantages of the engineering-type constitutive relations where D and B are expressed as responses to E and H. An example is the beautiful symmetry and complete analogy between the electric and magnetic quantities (voltage becomes current and vice versa in the duality transformation) which helps us write down solutions to electromagnetic problems from other known cases. From a pragmatic point of view we would also favour the use of quantities like Poynting vector and energy density (which require the H field). Another discussion-provoking question to the authors of the book might be whether their new multipole balance could be broken in the analysis of artificial materials. New nanotechnological discoveries and devices make it look like engineers can do anything. Perhaps in the design of complex media and metamaterials, a hot topic in todayÂ's materials science, such macroscopic responses can be tailored where a certain high-order multipole contribution dominates over other, more basic ones. Multiple Theory in Electromagnetism is suitable for a broad spectrum of readers: solid-state physicists, molecular chemists, theoretical and experimental optics scientists, radiophysics
Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sihvola, Ari [Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)
2005-03-11
everything seems to work well with the 'old' multipole theory. But then the focus is shifted to observables associated with the reflection of waves from a surface. And there the classical analysis fails. This gives the motivation for the following chapters where the transformed multipole theory is represented. As expected, the correct multipole balance restores the physicality of the results in the reflection problem. One of the healthy reminders for an electrical engineer-scientist reading the book is the fact that E and B are the primary electric and magnetic fields. The other two field quantities, D and H, are the response fields (which, by the way, are also shown to be origin-dependent and poorly defined in the framework of classical multipole theory). In defence, however, for these poor latter quantities one can mention the many advantages of the engineering-type constitutive relations where D and B are expressed as responses to E and H. An example is the beautiful symmetry and complete analogy between the electric and magnetic quantities (voltage becomes current and vice versa in the duality transformation) which helps us write down solutions to electromagnetic problems from other known cases. From a pragmatic point of view we would also favour the use of quantities like Poynting vector and energy density (which require the H field). Another discussion-provoking question to the authors of the book might be whether their new multipole balance could be broken in the analysis of artificial materials. New nanotechnological discoveries and devices make it look like engineers can do anything. Perhaps in the design of complex media and metamaterials, a hot topic in today?s materials science, such macroscopic responses can be tailored where a certain high-order multipole contribution dominates over other, more basic ones. Multiple Theory in Electromagnetism is suitable for a broad spectrum of readers: solid-state physicists, molecular chemists, theoretical and
Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
' multipole theory. But then the focus is shifted to observables associated with the reflection of waves from a surface. And there the classical analysis fails. This gives the motivation for the following chapters where the transformed multipole theory is represented. As expected, the correct multipole balance restores the physicality of the results in the reflection problem. One of the healthy reminders for an electrical engineer-scientist reading the book is the fact that E and B are the primary electric and magnetic fields. The other two field quantities, D and H, are the response fields (which, by the way, are also shown to be origin-dependent and poorly defined in the framework of classical multipole theory). In defence, however, for these poor latter quantities one can mention the many advantages of the engineering-type constitutive relations where D and B are expressed as responses to E and H. An example is the beautiful symmetry and complete analogy between the electric and magnetic quantities (voltage becomes current and vice versa in the duality transformation) which helps us write down solutions to electromagnetic problems from other known cases. From a pragmatic point of view we would also favour the use of quantities like Poynting vector and energy density (which require the H field). Another discussion-provoking question to the authors of the book might be whether their new multipole balance could be broken in the analysis of artificial materials. New nanotechnological discoveries and devices make it look like engineers can do anything. Perhaps in the design of complex media and metamaterials, a hot topic in today?s materials science, such macroscopic responses can be tailored where a certain high-order multipole contribution dominates over other, more basic ones. Multiple Theory in Electromagnetism is suitable for a broad spectrum of readers: solid-state physicists, molecular chemists, theoretical and experimental optics scientists, radiophysics experts
Classical Tests of General Relativity: Brane-World Sun from Minimal Geometric Deformation
Casadio, Roberto; Ovalle, Jorge; da Rocha, Roldao
2015-01-01
We consider a solution of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations, obtained from the General Relativistic Schwarzschild metric via the principle of Minimal Geometric Deformation, and investigate the corresponding signatures stemming from the possible existence of a warped extra dimension. In particular, we derive bounds on an extra-dimensional parameter, closely related with the fundamental gravitational length, from the experimental results of the classical tests of General Rela...
Classical tests of general relativity: Brane-world Sun from minimal geometric deformation
Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão
2015-05-01
We consider a solution of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations, obtained from the general relativistic Schwarzschild metric via the principle of minimal geometric deformation, and investigate the corresponding signatures stemming from the possible existence of a warped extra-dimension. In particular, we derive bounds on an extra-dimensional parameter, closely related with the fundamental gravitational length, from the experimental results of the classical tests of general relativity in the Solar system.
Classical Tests of General Relativity: Brane-World Sun from Minimal Geometric Deformation
Casadio, Roberto; da Rocha, Roldao
2015-01-01
We consider a solution of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations, obtained from the General Relativistic Schwarzschild metric via the principle of Minimal Geometric Deformation, and investigate the corresponding signatures stemming from the possible existence of a warped extra dimension. In particular, we derive bounds on an extra-dimensional parameter, closely related with the fundamental gravitational length, from the experimental results of the classical tests of General Relativity in the Solar system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for numerically simulating quantum systems is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional electron fluid at T = 0. This method maps quantum systems onto classical ones in the spirit of the classical-map hypernetted-chain theory and performs simulations on the latter. The results of the simulations are free from the assumption of the hypernetted-chain approximation and the neglect of the bridge diagrams. A merit of this method is the applicability to systems with geometrical complexity and finite sizes including the cases at finite temperatures. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations are performed corresponding to two previous proposals for the 'quantum' temperature and an improvement in the description of the diffraction effect. It is shown that one of these two proposals with the improved diffraction effect gives significantly better agreement with quantum Monte Carlo results reported previously for the range of 5≤rs≤40. These results may serve as the basis for the application of this method to finite non-periodic systems like quantum dots and systems at finite temperatures.
Sahyoun, Maher; Wex, Heike; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Nielsen, Niels W.; Finster, Kai; Sørensen, Jens H.; Stratmann, Frank; Korsholm, Ulrik S.
2016-08-01
Bacterial ice-nucleating particles (INP) are present in the atmosphere and efficient in heterogeneous ice-nucleation at temperatures up to -2 °C in mixed-phase clouds. However, due to their low emission rates, their climatic impact was considered insignificant in previous modeling studies. In view of uncertainties about the actual atmospheric emission rates and concentrations of bacterial INP, it is important to re-investigate the threshold fraction of cloud droplets containing bacterial INP for a pronounced effect on ice-nucleation, by using a suitable parameterization that describes the ice-nucleation process by bacterial INP properly. Therefore, we compared two heterogeneous ice-nucleation rate parameterizations, denoted CH08 and HOO10 herein, both of which are based on classical-nucleation-theory and measurements, and use similar equations, but different parameters, to an empirical parameterization, denoted HAR13 herein, which considers implicitly the number of bacterial INP. All parameterizations were used to calculate the ice-nucleation probability offline. HAR13 and HOO10 were implemented and tested in a one-dimensional version of a weather-forecast-model in two meteorological cases. Ice-nucleation-probabilities based on HAR13 and CH08 were similar, in spite of their different derivation, and were higher than those based on HOO10. This study shows the importance of the method of parameterization and of the input variable, number of bacterial INP, for accurately assessing their role in meteorological and climatic processes.
Tests of Chiral Perturbation Theory with COMPASS
Friedrich, Jan
2010-01-01
The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS studies with high precision pion-photon induced reactions via the Primakoff effect on nuclear targets. This offers the test of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) in various channels: Pion Compton scattering allows to clarify the long-standing question of the pion polarisabilities, single neutral pion production is related to the chiral anomaly, and for the two-pion production cross sections exist as yet untested ChPT predictions.
Tests of Chiral Perturbation Theory with COMPASS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The COMPASS experiment at CERN studies with high precision pion-photon induced reactions on nuclear targets via the Primakoff effect. This offers the possibility to test chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) in various channels: Pion Compton scattering allows to clarify the longstanding question of the pion polarisabilities, single neutral pion production is related to the chiral anomaly, and for the two-pion production cross sections exist as yet untested ChPT predictions.
Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuzinatto, R.R. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Pompeia, P.J. [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto de Fomento e Coordenacao Industrial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); De Montigny, M. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); University of Alberta, Campus Saint-Jean, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Khanna, F.C. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO box 1700, Victoria, BC (Canada); Silva, J.M.H. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)
2014-08-15
We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter b related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant b can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles. (orig.)
Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions
Cuzinatto, R R; de Montigny, M; Khanna, F C; da Silva, J M Hoff
2014-01-01
We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in details: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter $b$ related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant $b$ can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles.
"今枝, 国之助"; "イマエダ, クニノスケ"; Kuninosuke", "Imaeda
1985-01-01
"Quaternionic formulation of classical electrodynamics by using ""biq""(real part of a complex-quaternions) has been presented. Also, the solutions of Maxwell's equations have been given using regular functions of a biq variable."
Open and Closed String field theory interpreted in classical Algebraic Topology
Sullivan, Dennis
2003-01-01
There is an interpretation of open string field theory in algebraic topology. An interpretation of closed string field theory can be deduced from this open string theory to obtain as well the interpretation of open and closed string field theory combined.
Kerner, Boris S
2016-01-01
We show that the minimization of travel times in a network as generally accepted in classical traffic and transportation theories deteriorates the traffic system through a considerable increase in the probability of traffic breakdown in the network. We introduce a network characteristic {\\it minimum network capacity} that shows that rather than the minimization of travel times in the network, the minimization of the probability of traffic breakdown in the network maximizes the network throughput at which free flow persists in the whole network.
Jaco Gericke
2014-01-01
Contemporary analyses of אלהים as generic concept tend to be based on psychological theories of concepts. This article, by contrast, attempts to show what a philosophical analysis of the concept of generic אלהים in the Hebrew Bible is concerned with when approached from the perspective of the classical or definitionist view of conceptual structure. However, rather than offering a conceptual analysis of generic אלהים in any given context, the discussion features a general meta-conceptual overv...
Monnet, Grégoire O.
2015-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Since 1991, a long list of scholars has sought to write off Clausewitz as outdated and no longer worth study. In light of the past fifteen years and the absence of a strategic victory in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, however, Clausewitz’s early retirement is misguided, to say the least. Are the classical theories of Clausewitz on the nature of war—particularly concerning small wars and insurgencies—relevant to contemporary conflict...
Alonso Izquierdo, Alberto; González León, Miguel Ángel; Torre Mayado, Marina de la; Mateos Guilarte, Juan
2004-01-01
[EN ] Superpotentials in {\\cal N}=2 supersymmetric classical mechanics are no more than the Hamilton characteristic function of the Hamilton–Jacobi theory for the associated purely bosonic dynamical system. Modulo a global sign, there are several superpotentials ruling Hamilton–Jacobi separable supersymmetric systems, with a number of degrees of freedom greater than 1. Here, we explore how supersymmetry and separability are entangled in the quantum version of this kind of system. We also show...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the partition function of many classical models with continuous degrees of freedom, e.g. Abelian lattice gauge theories and statistical mechanical models, can be written as the partition function of an (enlarged) four-dimensional lattice gauge theory (LGT) with gauge group U(1). This result is very general in that it includes models in different dimensions with different symmetries. In particular, we show that a U(1) LGT defined in a curved spacetime can be mapped to a U(1) LGT with a flat background metric. The result is achieved by expressing the U(1) LGT partition function as an inner product between two quantum states
A Time-Dependent Classical Solution of C=1 String Field Theory and Non-Perturbative Effects
Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.
1993-01-01
We describe a real-time classical solution of $c=1$ string field theory written in terms of the phase space density, $u(p,q,t)$, of the equivalent fermion theory. The solution corresponds to tunnelling of a single fermion above the filled fermi sea and leads to amplitudes that go as $\\exp(- C/ \\gst)$. We discuss how one can use this technique to describe non-perturbative effects in the Marinari-Parisi model. We also discuss implications of this type of solution for the two-dimensional black hole.
A New Semi-Symmetric Uniﬁed Field Theory of the Classical Fields of Gravity and Electromagnetism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available We attempt to present a classical theoretical framework in which the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects in the space-time manifold. For this purpose, we first present the preliminary geometric considerations dealing with the metric differential geometry of Cartan connections. The unified field theory is then developed as an extension of the general theory of relativity based on a semi- symmetric Cartan connection which is meant to be as close as possible structurally to the symmetric connection of the Einstein-Riemann space-time.
Camilleri, Kristian
2015-01-01
Niels Bohr's doctrine of the primacy of "classical concepts" is arguably his most criticized and misunderstood view. We present a new, careful historical analysis that makes clear that Bohr's doctrine was primarily an epistemological thesis, derived from his understanding of the functional role of experiment. A hitherto largely overlooked disagreement between Bohr and Heisenberg about the movability of the "cut" between measuring apparatus and observed quantum system supports the view that, for Bohr, such a cut did not originate in dynamical (ontological) considerations, but rather in functional (epistemological) considerations. As such, both the motivation and the target of Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts are of a fundamentally different nature than what is understood as the dynamical problem of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis suggests that, contrary to claims often found in the literature, Bohr's doctrine is not, and cannot be, at odds with proposed solutions to the dynamical problem...
The Hamilton--Jacobi Theory and the Analogy between Classical and Quantum Mechanics
G. Marmo(Università di Napoli and INFN, Napoli, Italy); Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.
2009-01-01
We review here some conventional as well as less conventional aspects of the time-independent and time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) theory and of its connections with Quantum Mechanics. Less conventional aspects involve the HJ theory on the tangent bundle of a configuration manifold, the quantum HJ theory, HJ problems for general differential operators and the HJ problem for Lie groups.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For an arbitrary potential V with classical trajectories x-vector=g-vector(t) we construct localized oscillating three-dimensional wave lumps ψ(x-vector,t,g-vector) representing a single quantum particle. The crest of the envelope of the ripple follows the classical orbit g-vector(t) slightly modified due to potential V and ψ(x-vector,t;g-vector) satisfies the Schroedinger equation. The field energy, momentum and angular momentum calculated as integrals over all space are equal to particle energy, momentum and angular momentum. The relation to coherent states and to Schroedinger waves are also discussed. (author). 6 refs
Semi-classical theory for quantum quenches in the O(3) non-linear sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use the semi-classical approach to study the non-equilibrium dynamics of the O(3) non-linear sigma model. For a class of quenches defined in the text, we obtain the order-parameter dynamical correlator in the thermodynamic limit. In particular we predict quench-dependent relaxation times and correlation lengths. The approach developed for the O(3) non-linear sigma model can also be applied to the transverse field Ising chain, where the semi-classical results can be directly compared to both the exact and the numerical ones, revealing the limits of the method. (paper)
Quantum limits on optical phase estimation accuracy from classical rate-distortion theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nair, Ranjith [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3 (Singapore)
2014-12-04
The classical information-theoretic lower bound on the distortion of a random variable upon transmission through a noisy channel is applied to quantum-optical phase estimation. An approach for obtaining Bayesian lower bounds on the phase estimation accuracy is described that employs estimates of the classical capacity of the relevant quantum-optical channels. The Heisenberg limit for lossless phase estimation is derived for arbitrary probe state and prior distributions of the phase, and shot-noise scaling of the phase accuracy is established in the presence of nonzero loss for a parallel entanglement-assisted strategy with a single probe mode.
Coordinate independence of physical observables in the classical tests of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The coordinate-dependence or independence of various quantities in the physical processes of the classical tests of general relativity is investigated by solving the differential equations for the orbits in the post-post-Newtonian approximation. It is shown that the predictions of the physical observables, such as the perihelion advance, the deflection of light ray and the time delay of radar signals are independent of the choice of the coordinate systems. This is clarified by expressing the observables in terms of the constant of motion, namely, the energy of the system, the angular momentum and the impact parameter
la Camera, M
2008-01-01
We transform the classical confinement conditions of test particles to a brane universe in the absence of non-gravitational forces using the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The transformed conditions provide a direct criterion for selecting, in a cosmological scenario, 5D bulk manifolds wherein it is possible to obtain confinement purely due to classical gravitational effects of trajectories to 4D hypersurfaces.
La Camera, M.
The classical confinement condition of test particles to a brane universe in the absence of non-gravitational forces is transformed using the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The transformed condition provides a direct criterion for selecting in a cosmological scenario 5D bulk manifolds wherein it is possible to obtain confinement of trajectories to 4D hypersurfaces purely due to classical gravitational effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vera Barton-Caro Ph.D.,
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to explain the complex decision making process of heart failure (HF patients considering primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD therapy. Sudden cardiac death (SCD is the leading cause of death for people with HF as well as the primary cause of death in the United States (US. ICDs represent the standard of care as the only effective therapy for primary prevention of SCD. However, a significant proportion of qualifying HF patients declines this invasive, yet life-saving device. The grounded theory is of Embodied revelation. The threat of SCD for ICD candidates consists of four stages: living in conscious denial, heightening of awareness, sanctioning ICD therapy, and living in new assurance. The first stage ends abruptly with the critical juncture of grasping the threat of SCD. This grounded theory has implications for research, nursing and medical practice, as well as bioethical considerations.
Classical and quantum dynamics of a gravitational theory with absolute teleparallelism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamics of an alternative theory of gravitation with absolute teleparallelism is sustied. In the Cauchy problem of this theory four constraint relations are obtained, as in general relativity, because of the existence of the manifold mapping group. Propagation equations for the dynamical variables are also derived by applying Dirac's Hamiltonian methods. In addition, an algebra of generators related to the global Lorentz group and the correspondence principle leading to a quantum version of the theory are also discussed. (author)
Theory of hybrid systems; 1, The operator formulation of classical mechanics and semiclassical limit
Prvanovic, S
2001-01-01
The algebra of polynomials in operators that represent generalized coordinate and momentum and depend on the Planck constant is defined. The Planck constant is treated as the parameter taking values between zero and some nonvanishing $h_0$. For the second of these two extreme values, introduced operatorial algebra becomes equivalent to the algebra of observables of quantum mechanical system defined in the standard manner by operators in the Hilbert space. For the vanishing Planck constant, the generalized algebra gives the operator formulation of classical mechanics since it is equivalent to the algebra of variables of classical mechanical system defined, as usually, by functions over the phase space. In this way, the semiclassical limit of kinematical part of quantum mechanics is established through the generalized operatorial framework.
A concise course on the theory of classical liquids basics and selected topics
Santos, Andrés
2016-01-01
This short primer offers non-specialist readers a concise, yet comprehensive introduction to the field of classical fluids – providing both fundamental information and a number of selected topics to bridge the gap between the basics and ongoing research. In particular, hard-sphere systems represent a favorite playground in statistical mechanics, both in and out of equilibrium, as they represent the simplest models of many-body systems of interacting particles, and at higher temperature and densities they have proven to be very useful as reference systems for real fluids. Moreover, their usefulness in the realm of soft condensed matter has become increasingly recognized – for instance, the effective interaction among (sterically stabilized) colloidal particles can be tuned to almost perfectly match the hard-sphere model. These lecture notes present a brief, self-contained overview of equilibrium statistical mechanics of classical fluids, with special applications to both the structural and thermodynamic pr...
THE CLASSICAL BALLET METHODOLOGY AND THEIR POSSIBLE DIALOGUE WITH LABANIANAS THEORIES
Lanusse Sousa Jaime
2015-01-01
Establish a dialogue between a codified technique with other body techniques becomes a challenge when it comes to a tradition. Moths new avenues for the ballet teaching may move several problems found with respect to a hierarchy of knowledge. Ballet with its tradition and its stroked paths can be reorganized to build thinking and conscious bodies? The traditional classical technique transits other body language? Often there are more complex issues to think today in teaching and learning balle...
A Hamiltonian theory of adaptive resolution simulations of classical and quantum models of nuclei
Kreis, Karsten; Donadio, Davide; Kremer, Kurt; Potestio, Raffaello
2015-03-01
Quantum delocalization of atomic nuclei strongly affects the physical properties of low temperature systems, such as superfluid helium. However, also at room temperature nuclear quantum effects can play an important role for molecules composed by light atoms. An accurate modeling of these effects is possible making use of the Path Integral formulation of Quantum Mechanics. In simulations, this numerically expensive description can be restricted to a small region of space, while modeling the remaining atoms as classical particles. In this way the computational resources required can be significantly reduced. In the present talk we demonstrate the derivation of a Hamiltonian formulation for a bottom-up, theoretically solid coupling between a classical model and a Path Integral description of the same system. The coupling between the two models is established with the so-called Hamiltonian Adaptive Resolution Scheme, resulting in a fully adaptive setup in which molecules can freely diffuse across the classical and the Path Integral regions by smoothly switching their description on the fly. Finally, we show the validation of the approach by means of adaptive resolution simulations of low temperature parahydrogen. Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
Further tests of belief-importance theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K V Petrides
Full Text Available Belief-importance (belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.
a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!
Buttram, J. W.
2011-12-01
Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.
General Relativity Theory: Tests through Time
Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Alexandrov, A. N.; Vavilova, I. B.; Zhdanov, V. I.; Kudrya, Yu. N.; Parnovsky, S. L.; Fedorova, E.V .; Khmil, S. V.
2006-08-01
Theoretical basis of the General Relativity theory (GR), its experimental tests as well as GR applications were briefly summarized in the new textbook devoted to the World Year of Physics-2005 (authors - Yatskiv Ya.S., Alexandrov A.N., Vavilova I.B., Zhdanov V.I., Kudrya Yu.N., Parnovsky S.L., Fedorova E.V., Khmil S.V., Kyiv:Akademperiodika, 2005, 288 p.). The monograph addresses scientists, post-graduate students, and students specialized in the natural sciences as well as everyone who takes a great interest in GR. Special attention is paid on Relativistic Reference Systems, as an attachment to this book, including attachment to this book where the Resolution of the XXIV IAU General Assembly is given (in Ukrainian).
Critical Test Of Gamma Ray Burst Theories
Dado, Shlomo
2016-01-01
Long and precise follow-up measurements of the X-ray afterglow (AG) of very intense gamma ray bursts (GRBs) provide a critical test of GRB afterglow theories. Here we show that the power-law decline with time of X-ray AG of GRB 130427A, the longest measured X-ray AG of an intense GRB with the Swift, Chandra and XMM Newton satellites, and of all other well measured late-time X-ray afterglow of intense GRBs, is that predicted by the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs from their measured spectral index, while it disagrees with that predicted by the widely accepted fireball (FB) models of GRBs.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E.
2016-02-01
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E
2016-02-01
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost. PMID:26851913
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E., E-mail: tmarkland@stanford.edu [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2016-02-07
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.
Selected topics in the classical theory of functions of a complex variable
Heins, Maurice
2014-01-01
Elegant and concise, this text is geared toward advanced undergraduate students acquainted with the theory of functions of a complex variable. The treatment presents such students with a number of important topics from the theory of analytic functions that may be addressed without erecting an elaborate superstructure. These include some of the theory's most celebrated results, which seldom find their way into a first course. After a series of preliminaries, the text discusses properties of meromorphic functions, the Picard theorem, and harmonic and subharmonic functions. Subsequent topics incl
Masliukivska, A.
2013-01-01
The paper studies the evolution of the appearance of the term “innovation” and its classical definition. The study exposes the main provisions of innovation theory of Joseph Schumpeter and their modern understanding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Masliukivska
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The paper studies the evolution of the appearance of the term “innovation” and its classical definition. The study exposes the main provisions of innovation theory of Joseph Schumpeter and their modern understanding.
Proposing new experiments to test the quantum-to-classical transition
Bahrami, M.; Bassi, A.
2015-07-01
An open problem in modern physics is why microscopic quantum objects can be at two places at once (i.e. a superposed quantum state) while macroscpoic classical object never show such a behaviour. Collapse models provides a quantitative answer for this problem and explain how macroscopic classical world emerges out of microscopic quantum world. A universal noise field is postulated in collapse models, inducing appropriate Brownian- motion corrections to standard quantum dynamics. The strength of collapse-driven Brownian fluctuations depend on: (i) the parameters characterizing the system (e.g., mass, size, density), and (ii) two phenomenological parameters defining the statistical properties of the collapse noise. The collapse-driven Brownian motion works such that microscopic systems behave quantum mechanically, while macroscopic objects are classical. At the intermediate mesocopic scale, collapse models predict deviations from standard quantum predictions. This issue has been subject of experimental tests. All experiments to date have been at the scales where collapse effects are negligible for all practical purposes. However, recent experimental progress in revealing quantum features of larger objects, increases the hope for testing at unprecedented scales where collapse models can be falsified. Current experiments are mainly focused on the preparation of macroscopic systems in a spatial quantum superposition state. The collapse effects would then manifest as loss of visibility in the observed inference pattern. However, one needs a quantum interference with single particles of mass ∼ 1010amu for a decisive test of collapse models. Creating such massive superpositionsis quite challenging, and beyond currectstate-of-the-art. Quite recently, an alternative approach has been proposed where the collapse manifests in the fluctuating properties of light interacting with the quantum system. The great advantage of this new approach is that here there is no need for the
Classical Electron Model with Negative Energy Density in Einstein-Cartan Theory of Gravitation
Ray, Saibal; Bhadra, Sumana
2002-01-01
Experimental result regarding the maximum limit of the radius of the electron \\sim 10^{-16} cm and a few of the theoretical works suggest that the gravitational mass which is a priori a positive quantity in Newtonian mechanics may become negative in general theory of relativity. It is argued that such a negative gravitational mass and hence negative energy density also can be obtained with a better physical interpretation in the framework of Einstein-Cartan theory.
Popa, Alexandru
2013-01-01
Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. This is a reference to those working in the new field of relativistic optics, in topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles, and is based on 30 years of research. The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and correspon
THE CLASSICAL BALLET METHODOLOGY AND THEIR POSSIBLE DIALOGUE WITH LABANIANAS THEORIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lanusse Sousa Jaime
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Establish a dialogue between a codified technique with other body techniques becomes a challenge when it comes to a tradition. Moths new avenues for the ballet teaching may move several problems found with respect to a hierarchy of knowledge. Ballet with its tradition and its stroked paths can be reorganized to build thinking and conscious bodies? The traditional classical technique transits other body language? Often there are more complex issues to think today in teaching and learning ballet . These issues translate my need to research and experiment with new ways to teach this technique.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qin, Hong [PPPL; Burby, Joshua W [PPPL; Davidson, Ronald C [PPPL
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.
Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories
Shapiro, Irwin
1997-01-01
We are engaged in testing gravitational theory by means of observations of objects in the solar system. These tests include an examination of the Principle Of Equivalence (POE), the Shapiro delay, the advances of planetary perihelia, the possibility of a secular variation G in the "gravitational constant" G, and the rate of the de Sitter (geodetic) precession of the Earth-Moon system. These results are consistent with our preliminary results focusing on the contribution of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), which were presented at the seventh Marcel Grossmann meeting on general relativity. The largest improvement over previous results comes in the uncertainty for (eta): a factor of five better than our previous value. This improvement reflects the increasing strength of the LLR data. A similar analysis presented at the same meeting by a group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a similar result for (eta). Our value for (beta) represents our first such result determined simultaneously with the solar quadrupole moment from the dynamical data set. These results are being prepared for publication. We have shown how positions determined from different planetary ephemerides can be compared and how the combination of VLBI and pulse timing information can yield a direct tie between planetary and radio frames. We have continued to include new data in our analysis as they became available. Finally, we have made improvement in our analysis software (PEP) and ported it to a network of modern workstations from its former home on a "mainframe" computer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohmian mechanics is a quantum theory about particles in motion (i.e. about particle trajectories) that is empirically equivalent to orthodox quantum mechanics. Since also Newtonian mechanics is about particle trajectories, in Bohmian mechanics the question of the classical limit is as simple as it can possibly be: When do Bohmian trajectories look like Newtonian trajectories? As a first step towards an answer to this question we show, that the Bohmian trajectories belonging to a particular class of semiclassical wave packets become classical in an appropriate scaling limit. Furthermore, also the Bohmian trajectories of particles scattered on a short range potential become free in the classical sense: For large times their velocities tend to constants. We use this result to deduce the scattering cross section (the probability of detecting particles in a given solid angle) from first principles. In particular we show that, in the case of many particles, the collapse of the wave function due to the detection of one particle does not alter the remaining particles' detection statistics. (orig.)
Marsalek, Ondrej
2015-01-01
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ab initio ring polymer contraction (AI-RPC) scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive pro...
Babikov, Dmitri; Semenov, Alexander
2016-01-28
A mixed quantum/classical approach to inelastic scattering (MQCT) is developed in which the relative motion of two collision partners is treated classically, and the rotational and vibrational motion of each molecule is treated quantum mechanically. The cases of molecule + atom and molecule + molecule are considered including diatomics, symmetric-top rotors, and asymmetric-top rotor molecules. Phase information is taken into consideration, permitting calculations of elastic and inelastic, total and differential cross sections for excitation and quenching. The method is numerically efficient and intrinsically parallel. The scaling law of MQCT is favorable, which enables calculations at high collision energies and for complicated molecules. Benchmark studies are carried out for several quite different molecular systems (N2 + Na, H2 + He, CO + He, CH3 + He, H2O + He, HCOOCH3 + He, and H2 + N2) in a broad range of collision energies, which demonstrates that MQCT is a viable approach to inelastic scattering. At higher collision energies it can confidently replace the computationally expensive full-quantum calculations. At low collision energies and for low-mass systems results of MQCT are less accurate but are still reasonable. A proposal is made for blending MQCT calculations at higher energies with full-quantum calculations at low energies. PMID:26618533
AN OPEN LABEL PILOT STUDY TESTING THE ROLE OF CLASSICAL HOMEOPATHY IN CHRONIC ALLERGIC RHINITIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ghosh*, S. Das, M. Mundle Dishari Sengupta, Sk. Intaj Hossain, M. Koley and S. Saha
2013-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Purpose: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. India has an estimated number of 15-20 million patients with allergic bronchial asthma and 30-80% of these suffer from AR. So, AR is considered as a major chronic respiratory disease due to its prevalence, impact on quality of life (QoL, work/school performance and productivity, economic burden and links with asthma. This research aims at testing the role of classical homeopathy in bringing changes in serum immunoglobulin E (IgE level and absolute eosinophil count (primary outcome measures and symptoms score and WHOQOL-BREF score related to AR (secondary outcome measures by comparing the pre-trial and post-trial data.
Experimentally Testing the Mulitverse/Many-Worlds Theory
Tipler, Frank
2014-06-01
Many-Worlds quantum mechanics is NOT experimentally equivalent to standard quantum mechanics. I shall demonstrate this fact and investigate its consequences. I first show the Schrödinger equation is a special case of the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation, with |Ψ|2 being most naturally interpreted as a quantity proportional to the density of universes in the multiverse. I then show that with this interpretation for |Ψ|2, we can test the multiverse theory, because in the multiverse theory, the Born Interpretation is derived from this assumption, not merely assumed as in standard quantum theory, and the derivation gives us a means of computing how fast |Ψ|2 will build up from individual particles in an experiment, a computation I shall show cannot be done in standard quantum mechanics. In some types of experiments, the observed pattern will approach the final Born pattern as 1/N1/2, and in other types of experiments, the approach will be as 1/N, where N is the number of observed “particles.” The multiverse meaning of has other advantages over the standard probability amplitude meaning, because if is a universe density amplitude, need not be restricted to being a Hilbert space function. In particular, delta functions and plane waves are NOT functions in any Hilbert space, but they are both used extensively in quantum mechanics, though disallowed by the axioms of standard quantum mechanics. Finally, I shall show that multiverse experiments have important implications for cosmology. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for quantum gravity, applied to a spatially closed Friedman radiation universe in conformal time, is mathematically the Schrödinger equation for a simple harmonic oscillator. I show that if the wave function of the universe were a delta function at the initial singularity — I show that the universes being exactly classical now implies such a universal wave function — then we are overwhelmingly likely to find ourselves in a closed universe that is
Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Crushell, E
2009-06-01
Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.
Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical...... properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Derivation of the solutions to a number of basic problems of structural mechanics in a form suitable for later...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李世荣; 万泽青; 张静华
2014-01-01
The free vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) beams is studied based on both the classical and the first-order shear deformation beam theories. The equations of motion for the FGM beams are derived by considering the shear deforma-tion and the axial, transversal, rotational, and axial-rotational coupling inertia forces on the assumption that the material properties vary arbitrarily in the thickness direction. By using the numerical shooting method to solve the eigenvalue problem of the coupled ordinary differential equations with different boundary conditions, the natural frequen-cies of the FGM Timoshenko beams are obtained numerically. In a special case of the classical beam theory, a proportional transformation between the natural frequencies of the FGM and the reference homogenous beams is obtained by using the mathematical similarity between the mathematical formulations. This formula provides a simple and useful approach to evaluate the natural frequencies of the FGM beams without dealing with the tension-bending coupling problem. Approximately, this analogous transition can also be extended to predict the frequencies of the FGM Timoshenko beams. The numerical results obtained by the shooting method and those obtained by the analogous transformation are presented to show the effects of the material gradient, the slenderness ratio, and the boundary conditions on the natural frequencies in detail.
What can we learn from the classical theory of Yang-Mills and Dirac fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minimally coupled classical Yang-Mills and Dirac fields in the Minkowski space-time and in spatially bounded domains are investigated. The extended phase space, defined as the space of the Cauchy data admitting solutions of the evolution equations, is identified. The structure of the gauge symmetry group, defined as the group of all gauge transformations acting in the extended phase space is analysed. In the Minkowski space-time the Lie algebra of infinitesimal gauge symmetries has an ideal giving rise to the constraints. The quotient algebra, isomorphic to the structure algebra, labels the conserved colour charges. In the case of spatially bounded domains, each set of the boundary data gives rise to an extended phase space in which the evolution is Hamiltonian. The problem of a physical interpretation of the boundary data is discussed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paredes J.C.M.
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.
On the limits of quantum theory: Contextuality and the quantum–classical cut
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is based on four assumptions: 1. Physical reality is made of linearly behaving components combined in non-linear ways. 2. Higher level behaviour emerges from this lower level structure. 3. The way the lower level elements behaves depends on the context in which they are embedded. 4. Quantum theory applies to the lower level entities. An implication is that higher level effective laws, based on the outcomes of non-linear combinations of lower level linear interactions, will generically not be unitary; hence the applicability of quantum theory at higher levels is strictly limited. This leads to the view that both state vector preparation and the quantum measurement process are crucially based on top-down causal effects, and helps provide criteria for the Heisenberg cut that challenge some views on Schrödinger’s cat. - Highlights: ► Gives a framework for looking at emergence based on quantum theory. ► Considers how the linearity of quantum theory relates to complex systems. ► Emphasizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down causation. ► Uses this to discuss the classical–quantum cut. ► Applies this to Schrödinger’s cat.
Hamiltonian approach to GR - Part 1: covariant theory of classical gravity
Cremaschini, Claudio
2016-01-01
A challenging issue in General Relativity concerns the determination of the manifestly-covariant continuum Hamiltonian structure underlying the Einstein field equations and the related formulation of the corresponding covariant Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The task is achieved by adopting a synchronous variational principle requiring distinction between the prescribed deterministic metric tensor $\\hat{g}(r)\\equiv \\left\\{ \\hat{g}_{\\mu \
N=4 super-Yang-Mills in LHC superspace. Part I: Classical and quantum theory
Chicherin, Dmitry
2016-01-01
We present a formulation of the maximally supersymmetric N=4 gauge theory in Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace. It is closely related to the twistor formulation of the theory but employs the simpler notion of Lorentz harmonic variables. They parametrize a two-sphere and allow us to handle efficiently infinite towers of higher-spin auxiliary fields defined on ordinary space-time. In this approach the chiral half of N=4 supersymmetry is manifest. The other half is realized non-linearly and the algebra closes on shell. We give a straightforward derivation of the Feynman rules in coordinate space. We show that the LHC formulation of the N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory is remarkably similar to the harmonic superspace formulation of the N=2 gauge and hypermultiplet matter theories. In the twin paper \\cite{twin} we apply the LHC formalism to the study of the non-chiral multipoint correlation functions of the N=4 stress-tensor supermultiplet.
FEATURES OF INVESTMENT PROCESS UNDERSTANDING BY A. SMITH AS THE FOUNDER OF CLASSICAL THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Ovcharenko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The paper examines the essence and the nature of the concept of “investment”. The main conceptual elements of a scientific theory of Adam Smith are defined. The features of the investment process by Adam Smith as the driving mechanism for social and economic development of a society are revealed.
Comparison of 3D Classical Trajectory and Transition-State Theory Reaction Cross Sections
Koeppl, G. W.; Karplus, Martin
1970-10-01
Although there is excellent agreement for a system such as H+H{sub 2} --> H{sub 2}+H, in which both the potential and the particle masses are symmetric, significant deviations occur for more asymmetric reactions. A detailed analysis show that the calculated differences are from the violation of two assumptions of transition-state theory.
Philosophical Roots of Classical Grounded Theory: Its Foundations in Symbolic Interactionism
Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Le Navenec, Carole-Lynne
2011-01-01
Although many researchers have discussed the historical relationship between the Grounded Theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism, they have not clearly articulated the congruency of their salient concepts and assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion of this congruency. A hypothetical example about smoking…
Classical and quantum dynamics of two-dimensional nonlinear field theories: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Progress in understanding and solving a large class of two-dimensional nonlinear quantum field theories is reviewed. The discovery and development of the inverse scattering method for solving partial differential equations, and development of new perturbative methods are discussed. The generalized Bethe-ansatz method and its application to exactly diagonalize a fermionic problem are covered. 52 references
Sexual selection and hermaphroditic organisms: Testing theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Janet L.LEONARD
2013-01-01
Sexual selection is widespread if not ubiquitous in hermaphroditic organisms.Although many phenomena that have been described as sexual selection in gonochores,(e.g.harem polygamy,multiple mating,elaborate courtship,even secondary sexual characters) can be found in some hermaphrodites,what is more interesting is the ways in which sexual selection in hermaphrodites may differ from dioecious taxa.In hermaphrodites,an individual's mating success includes its success from both sexual roles.Secondly,in many simultaneously hermaphroditic taxa there is strong evidence of sexual selection and yet the operational sex ratio is 1:1,by definition.Many simultaneous hermaphrodites have elaborate courtship and genital anatomy,suggesting sexual selection plays an important role in reproductive success.Sperm competition and cryptic female choice mean that the number of mates acquired is not necessarily a predictor of reproductive success.Even in simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal mating,variance in reproductive success through the male role and through the female role may differ in a population.Moreover hermaphrodites may choose to emphasize one sexual role over the other.Data suggest that the preferred role varies in hermaphrodites,which creates an opportunity to test fundamental predictions and assumptions of sexual selection theory.Hermaphrodites may vary their emphasis on one sexual role over the other either developmentally or behaviorally in response to environmental or social parameters.How they use this capability in acquiring more or higher quality mates still requires study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2013-11-01
We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct. PMID:24206288
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benhassine, B. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)
1994-01-14
At intermediate energies the heavy ion collisions can be studied within the framework of a semi-classical approach based on the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) equation. Such an approach reduces the N-body problem to its description in terms of the one-body distribution function and constitutes the basis of several successful simulation models. Our aim in this work is to extend these average approaches to treat fluctuations. Within the framework of a linear approximation, we derived a Fokker-Planck transport equation in the one-body phase space. When it is reduced to its first moments, one recovers the VUU equation for the average dynamics together with the time evolution equation for the correlations. The collective transport coefficients are then obtained by projection on the one-body collective space. Independently, using a projection method introduced by Van Kampen, based on the constants of motion, we deduce the stationary expressions for the covariance matrix in phase space. We extract then, the equilibrium dispersions of one-body observables in a homogeneous case and in a spherical symmetric one. These results are compared with two types of simulation models in a relaxation time approximation. In the first one which is of Lagrangian type, the collective transport coefficients are directly extracted from the simulation and consequently the numerical fluctuations are washed out. The second model, due to its Eulerian character, allows us to make a microscopical comparison. (author) 58 refs.
Žižek, Suzana; Zidar, Primož
2013-07-01
Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. Despite its extensive use, the effects of lasalocid on non-target soil organisms are poorly explored. We used classical subleathal ecotoxicity tests to assess the effects of lasalocid on earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and isopods (Porcellio scaber) and compared the results with tests using avoidance behaviour as the endpoint. The results showed that avoidance is a much more sensitive endpoint. For earthworms, EC50 for avoidance (12.3 mg kg(-1) dry soil) was more than five times lower than EC50 for reproduction (69.6 mg kg(-1) dry soil). In isopods the sensitivity of the behavioural response test was even higher. While the highest lasalocid concentration 202 mg kg(-1) had no significant effects on isopod growth or survival, already the lowest used concentration in the behavioural assay (4.51 mg kg(-1)) caused significant impact on isopod behaviour. Using the avoidance test results for calculating the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of lasalocid to soil invertebrates, the value is close to the predicted environmental concentration (PEC). This indicates that the use of lasalocid-contaminated manure could potentially impair the habitat function of agricultural soils. PMID:23635534
New techniques for classic and quantum investigations on supersymmetry and supergravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspects on supersymmetry and supergravity are studied. The superfield Feynman rules are obtained, where global supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by F-terms. The complete superspace dependence of superpropagators is factored out, which are used to discuss corrections for the effective action and the non-renormalization theorems. The external gauge superfield coupling, taking in account the finite matter contributions to the gauging mass and the Fayet-Illiopoulos term, is discussed. By considering, the arbitrary globally supersymmetric Abelian gauge theory, the most general shifts on the matter and gauge superfields are carried out. The superpropagators are derived and used to discuss the structure of the terms generated into the effective action. An algorithm to obtain the minimal set of auxiliary field for the femionic of supergravity theories. Explicit examples are shown as illustrations and the N=1, N=10, studied in detail. (M.C.K.)
Young, Matthew B
2016-01-01
We introduce a new class of representations of the cohomological Hall algebras of Kontsevich and Soibelman which we call cohomological Hall modules, or CoHM for short. These representations are constructed from self-dual representations of a quiver with contravariant involution $\\sigma$ and provide a mathematical model for the space of BPS states in orientifold string theory. We use the CoHM to define a generalization of cohomological Donaldson-Thomas theory of quivers which allows the quiver representations to have orthogonal and symplectic structure groups. The associated invariants are called orientifold Donaldson-Thomas invariants. We prove the integrality conjecture for orientifold Donaldson-Thomas invariants of $\\sigma$-symmetric quivers. We also formulate precise conjectures regarding the geometric meaning of these invariants and the freeness of the CoHM of a $\\sigma$-symmetric quiver. We prove the freeness conjecture for disjoint union quivers, loop quivers and the affine Dynkin quiver of type $\\widet...
Vasques, Richard
2013-01-01
This paper extends a recently introduced theory describing particle transport for random statistically homogeneous systems in which the distribution function p(s) for chord lengths between scattering centers is non-exponential. Here, we relax the previous assumption that p(s) does not depend on the direction of flight \\Omega; this leads to an extended generalized linear Boltzmann equation that includes angular-dependent cross sections, and to an extended generalized diffusion equation that accounts for anisotropic behavior resulting from the statistics of the system.
Equations of motion in Double Field Theory: from classical particles to quantum cosmology
Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2012-01-01
The equation of motion for a point particle in the background field of double field theory is considered. We find that the motion is described by a geodesic flow in the doubled geometry. Inspired by analysis on the particle motion, we propose a modified model of quantum string cosmology, which includes two scale factors. The report is based on Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) 124049 [arXiv:1108.5795].
Cisne, John L.; Ziomkowski, Robert M.; Schwager, Steven J.
2010-01-01
Philologists reconstructing ancient texts from variously miscopied manuscripts anticipated information theorists by centuries in conceptualizing information in terms of probability. An example is the editorial principle difficilior lectio potior (DLP): in choosing between otherwise acceptable alternative wordings in different manuscripts, “the more difficult reading [is] preferable.” As philologists at least as early as Erasmus observed (and as information theory's version of the second law o...
Sidles, J A; Dougherty, W M; Chao Shang Huang
2000-01-01
A general theory of thermal magnetic fluctuations near conductive materials is developed; such fluctuations are the magnetic analog of Johnson noise. For realistic experiments in quantum computing and magnetic resonance force microscopy, the predicted relaxation can be rapid enough that substantial experimental care should be taken to minimize it. The same Hamiltonian matrix elements that govern fluctuation and dissipation are shown to also govern entanglement and renormalization, and a specific example of a fluctuation-dissipation-entanglement theorem is constructed.
Information-theory-based solution of the inverse problem in classical statistical mechanics
D'Alessandro, Marco; Cilloco, Francesco
2010-01-01
We present a procedure for the determination of the interaction potential from the knowledge of the radial pair distribution function. The method, realized inside an inverse Monte Carlo simulation scheme, is based on the application of the Maximum Entropy Principle of information theory and the interaction potential emerges as the asymptotic expression of the transition probability. Results obtained for high density monoatomic fluids are very satisfactory and provide an accurate extraction of...
Testing General Free Functions in Preferred Scale Theories
Mozaffari, Ali
2016-01-01
Building on previous work, we explore the parameter space of general free functions in non-relativistic modified gravity theories motivated by k-essence and other scalar-tensor theories. Using a few proposed tests, we aim to update Solar System based constraints on these ideas in line with previous theories and suggest their utility in constraining modification to GR, potentially even being able to test k-essence type theories.
Dahms, Rainer N.
2016-04-01
A generalized framework for multi-component liquid injections is presented to understand and predict the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions. The analysis focuses on the thermodynamic structure and the immiscibility state of representative gas-liquid interfaces. The most modern form of Helmholtz energy mixture state equation is utilized which exhibits a unique and physically consistent behavior over the entire two-phase regime of fluid densities. It is combined with generalized models for non-linear gradient theory and for liquid injections to quantify multi-component two-phase interface structures in global thermal equilibrium. Then, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized which determines the interfacial species distribution as a consequence. This minimal free energy state is demonstrated to validate the underlying assumptions of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization. However, under certain engine-relevant conditions for which corroborating experimental data are presented, this requirement for interfacial thermal equilibrium becomes unsustainable. A rigorously derived probability density function quantifies the ability of the interface to develop internal spatial temperature gradients in the presence of significant temperature differences between injected liquid and ambient gas. Then, the interface can no longer be viewed as an isolated system at minimal free energy. Instead, the interfacial dynamics become intimately connected to those of the separated homogeneous phases. Hence, the interface transitions toward a state in local equilibrium whereupon it becomes a dense-fluid mixing layer. A new conceptual view of a transitional liquid injection process emerges from a transition time scale analysis. Close to the nozzle exit, the two-phase interface still remains largely intact and more classic two-phase processes prevail as a consequence. Further downstream, however, the transition to dense-fluid mixing
Wiesendanger, C.
2011-01-01
Viewing gravitational energy-momentum $p_G^\\mu$ as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum $p_I^\\mu$ naturally leads to the gauge theory of volume-preserving diffeormorphisms of an inner Minkowski space ${\\bf M}^{\\sl 4}$. To extract its physical content the full gauge group is reduced to its Poincar\\'e subgroup. The respective Poincar\\'e gauge fields, field strengths and Poincar\\'e-covariant field equations are obtained and point-particle source currents a...
Classical self-dual strings in d=6, (2,0) theory from afar
Gustavsson, Andreas(Physics Department, University of Seoul, Seoul, 130-743, Korea)
2002-01-01
We show how one can get solitonic strings in a six-dimensional (2,0) supersymmetric theory by incorporating a nonlinear interaction term. We derive a zero force condition between parallel strings, and compute a metric on a moduli space which is $R^4$ when the strings are far apart. When compactifying the strings on a two-torus we show that, in the limit of vanishing two-torus, one regains the moduli space of two widely separated dyons of equal magnetic charges in four dimensions.
Interpreting nowhere dense graph classes as a classical notion of model theory
Adler, H; Adler, I
2014-01-01
A class of graphs is nowhere dense if for every integer r there is a finite upper bound on the size of complete graphs that occur as r-minors. We observe that this recent tameness notion from (algorithmic) graph theory is essentially the earlier stability theoretic notion of superflatness. For subgraph-closed classes of graphs we prove equivalence to stability and to not having the independence property. Expressed in terms of PAC learning, the concept classes definable in first-order logic in...
Planck-scale Lorentz-symmetry test theories
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2004-01-01
In the recent quantum-gravity literature there has been strong interest in the possibility of Planck-scale departures from Lorentz symmetry, including possible modifications of the energy/momentum dispersion relation. I stress that a meaningful characterization of the progress of experimental bounds on these Planck-scale effects requires the analysis of some reference test theories, and I propose to focus on two ``minimal'' test theories, a pure-kinematics test theory and an effective-field-t...
Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the last decade decoherence has become a very popular topic mainly due to the progress in experimental techniques which allow monitoring of the process of decoherence for single microscopic or mesoscopic systems. The other motivation is the rapid development of quantum information and quantum computation theory where decoherence is the main obstacle in the implementation of bold theoretical ideas. All that makes the second improved and extended edition of this book very timely. Despite the enormous efforts of many authors decoherence with its consequences still remains a rather controversial subject. It touches on, namely, the notoriously confusing issues of quantum measurement theory and interpretation of quantum mechanics. The existence of different points of view is reflected by the structure and content of the book. The first three authors (Joos, Zeh and Kiefer) accept the standard formalism of quantum mechanics but seem to reject orthodox Copenhagen interpretation, Giulini and Kupsch stick to both while Stamatescu discusses models which go beyond the standard quantum theory. Fortunately, most of the presented results are independent of the interpretation and the mathematical formalism is common for the (meta)physically different approaches. After a short introduction by Joos followed by a more detailed review of the basic concepts by Zeh, chapter 3 (the longest chapter) by Joos is devoted to the environmental decoherence. Here the author considers mostly rather 'down to earth' and well-motivated mechanisms of decoherence through collisions with atoms or molecules and the processes of emission, absorption and scattering of photons. The issues of decoherence induced superselection rules and localization of objects including the possible explanation of the molecular structure are discussed in details. Many other topics are also reviewed in this chapter, e.g., the so-called Zeno effect, relationships between quantum chaos and decoherence, the role of
The Super-Natural Supersymmetry and Its Classic Example: M-Theory Inspired NMSSM
Li, Tianjun; Wang, Xiao-Chuan
2015-01-01
We briefly review the super-natural supersymmetry (SUSY), which provides a most promising solution to the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning problem. In particular, we address its subtle issues as well. Unlike the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard model (MSSM), the Next to MSSM (NMSSM) can be scale invariant and has no mass parameter in its Lagrangian before SUSY and gauge symmetry breakings. Therefore, the NMSSM is a perfect framework for super-natural SUSY. To give the SUSY breaking soft mass to the singlet, we consider the moduli and dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenarios in M-theory on $S^1/Z_2$. In these scenarios, SUSY is broken by one and only one $F$-term of moduli or dilaton, and the SUSY breaking soft terms can be determined via the K\\"ahler potential and superpotential from Calabi-Yau compactification of M-theory on $S^1/Z_2$. Thus, as predicted by super-natural SUSY, the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning measure is of unity order. In the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the right-handed sleptons are r...
Wrochna, Michał
2014-01-01
We investigate linearized gauge theories on globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the BRST formalism. A consistent definition of the classical phase space and of its Cauchy surface analogue is proposed. We prove it is isomorphic to the phase space in the subsidiary condition approach of Hack and Schenkel in the case of Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Rarita-Schwinger fields. Defining Hadamard states in the BRST formalism in a standard way, their existence in the Maxwell and Yang-Mills case is concluded from known results in the subsidiary condition (or Gupta-Bleuler) formalism. Within our framework, we also formulate criteria for non-degeneracy of the phase space in terms of BRST cohomology and discuss special cases. These include an example in the Yang-Mills case, where degeneracy is not related to a non-trivial topology of the Cauchy surface.
Revisiting Classical Theories on Quality Management%质量管理经典理论再启示
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
牟慈
2015-01-01
质量是企业的立身之本。重温质量管理经典理论，为增强企业整体质量管理意识，创新管理理念，提升全员质量管理水平夯实理论基础，让中国石化“质量永远领先一步”。%Quality is fundamental to the development of companies. Revisiting classical theories on quality management can facilitate a more solid theoretical basis for the company’s efforts to improve its overall quality management awareness, innovate management philosophies and elevate total quality management level, thereby always keeping SINOPEC“a step ahead in quality”.
Core structure of a screw dislocation in Ti from density functional theory and classical potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous density functional theory (DFT) studies of the 1/3 〈12¯10〉 screw dislocation in titanium have shown metastable core structures depending on the initial position of the dislocation line. We investigate this problem by modeling a screw dislocation with two initial positions using both DFT and a modified embedded atom (MEAM) potential for Ti with flexible boundary conditions. Both DFT and MEAM produce initial-position-dependent core structures. The MEAM potential stacking fault energies and core structures are in good agreement with DFT. MEAM potential computes the core energies and shows the behavior of both cores under applied strain. We found that the higher-energy core always reconstructs into the lower-energy one independent of the applied strain direction. Transformation from low- to high-energy core was not observed. Therefore, at T = 0 K, only the low-energy core is stable under applied strain.
On the limits of quantum theory: contextuality and the quantum-classical cut
Ellis, George F R
2011-01-01
This paper is based on four assumptions: 1. Physical reality is made of linearly behaving components combined in non-linear ways. 2. Higher level behaviour emerges from this lower level structure. 3. The way the lower level elements behaves depends on the context in which they are imbedded. 4. Quantum theory applies to the lower level entities. An implication is that higher level effective laws, based in the outcomes of non-linear combinations of lower level linear interactions, will generically not be unitary. This leads to the view that both state vector preparation and the quantum measurement process are crucially based in top-down causal effects, supports the contention that the flow of time is real, and helps provide criteria for the Heisenberg cut that challenge some views on Schroedinger's cat and the existence of the wave function of the universe.
Dynamical systems with classical spin in the Einstein-Maxwell-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By using variational precedures, spinning charged particles and fluids, with magnetic dipole moment, are analysed. Electromagnetic and gravitational interactions are also dynamically considered. A relativistic formalism which describes the space-time as a Riemann-Cartan manifold caraccterized by curvature and torsion tensors was adopted. The specific features of the Einstein-Maxell-Cartan theory have been analised in detail for the considered models. Also the holonomy of the local Lorentz Frames and constraints has been studied, and as a consequence it has been possible to generate new equations of motion for particles with spin. It has also been possible to derive the complete differential system which includes the fluid, the electromagnetic, the curvature and the torsion fields. (author)
Supernatural supersymmetry and its classic example: M-theory inspired NMSSM
Li, Tianjun; Raza, Shabbar; Wang, Xiao-Chuan
2016-06-01
We briefly review the supernatural supersymmetry (SUSY), which provides a most promising solution to the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning problem. In particular, we address its subtle issues as well. Unlike the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the next to MSSM (NMSSM) can be scale invariant and has no mass parameter in its Lagrangian before SUSY and gauge symmetry breakings. Therefore, the NMSSM is a perfect framework for supernatural SUSY. To give the SUSY breaking soft mass to the singlet, we consider the moduli and dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenarios in M-theory on S1/Z2. In these scenarios, SUSY is broken by one and only one F term of moduli or dilaton, and the SUSY breaking soft terms can be determined via the Kähler potential and superpotential from Calabi-Yau compactification of M-theory on S1/Z2. Thus, as predicted by supernatural SUSY, the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning measure is of unity order. In the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the right-handed sleptons are relatively light around 1 TeV, stau can even be as light as 580 GeV and degenerate with the lightest neutralino, chargino masses are larger than 1 TeV, the light stop masses are around 2 TeV or larger, the first two-generation squark masses are about 3 TeV or larger, and gluinos are heavier tha.n squarks. In the dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the qualitative picture remains the same but we have heavier spectra as compared to the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario. In addition to it, we have Higgs H2/A1-resonance solutions for dark matter (DM). In both scenarios, the minimal value of DM relic density is about 0.2. To obtain the observed DM relic density, we can consider the dilution effect from supercritical string cosmology or introduce the axino as the lightest supersymmetric particle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John L Cisne
Full Text Available Philologists reconstructing ancient texts from variously miscopied manuscripts anticipated information theorists by centuries in conceptualizing information in terms of probability. An example is the editorial principle difficilior lectio potior (DLP: in choosing between otherwise acceptable alternative wordings in different manuscripts, "the more difficult reading [is] preferable." As philologists at least as early as Erasmus observed (and as information theory's version of the second law of thermodynamics would predict, scribal errors tend to replace less frequent and hence entropically more information-rich wordings with more frequent ones. Without measurements, it has been unclear how effectively DLP has been used in the reconstruction of texts, and how effectively it could be used. We analyze a case history of acknowledged editorial excellence that mimics an experiment: the reconstruction of Lucretius's De Rerum Natura, beginning with Lachmann's landmark 1850 edition based on the two oldest manuscripts then known. Treating words as characters in a code, and taking the occurrence frequencies of words from a current, more broadly based edition, we calculate the difference in entropy information between Lachmann's 756 pairs of grammatically acceptable alternatives. His choices average 0.26+/-0.20 bits higher in entropy information (95% confidence interval, P = 0.005, as against the single bit that determines the outcome of a coin toss, and the average 2.16+/-0.10 bits (95% of (predominantly meaningless entropy information if the rarer word had always been chosen. As a channel width, 0.26+/-0.20 bits/word corresponds to a 0.790.79(+0.09 (-0.15 likelihood of the rarer word being the one accepted in the reference edition, which is consistent with the observed 547/756 = 0.72+/-0.03 (95%. Statistically informed application of DLP can recover substantial amounts of semantically meaningful entropy information from noise; hence the extension copiosior
Tests of alternative quantum theories with neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sponar, S.; Durstberger-Rennhofer, K.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, Y. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Klepp, J. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (Austria); Schmitzer, C.; Bartosik, H. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland)
2014-12-04
According to Bell’s theorem, every theory based on local realism is at variance with certain predictions of quantum mechanics. A theory that maintains realism but abandons reliance on locality, which has been proposed by Leggett, is incompatible with experimentally observable quantum correlations. In our experiment correlation measurements of spin-energy entangled single-neutrons violate a Leggett-type inequality by more than 7.6 standard deviations. The experimental data falsify the contextual realistic model and are fully in favor of quantum mechanics.
Durt, Thomas
2010-01-01
According to the so-called Quantum Darwinist approach, the emergence of "classical islands" from a quantum background is assumed to obey a (selection) principle of maximal information. We illustrate this idea by considering the coupling of two oscillators (modes). As our approach suggests that the classical limit could have emerged throughout a long and progressive Evolution mechanism, it is likely that primitive living organisms behave in a "more quantum", "less classical" way than more evolved ones. This brings us to seriously consider the possibility to measure departures from classicality exhibited by biological systems. We describe an experimental proposal the aimed at revealing the presence of entanglement in the biophotonic radiation emitted by biological sources.
Precision Study of Positronium: Testing Bound State QED Theory
Karshenboim, Savely G.
2003-01-01
As an unstable light pure leptonic system, positronium is a very specific probe atom to test bound state QED. In contrast to ordinary QED for free leptons, the bound state QED theory is not so well understood and bound state approaches deserve highly accurate tests. We present a brief overview of precision studies of positronium paying special attention to uncertainties of theory as well as comparison of theory and experiment. We also consider in detail advantages and disadvantages of positro...
Theory-Based University Admissions Testing for a New Millennium
Sternberg, Robert J.
2004-01-01
This article describes two projects based on Robert J. Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence and designed to provide theory-based testing for university admissions. The first, Rainbow Project, provided a supplementary test of analytical, practical, and creative skills to augment the SAT in predicting college performance. The Rainbow…
Quantum Gravity Testing Time for Theories
Ahluwalia, D V
1999-01-01
The extreme smallness of both the Planck length, on the one side, and the ratio of the gravitational to the electrical forces between, say, two electrons, on the other side has led to a widespread belief that the realm of quantum gravity is beyond terrestrial experiments. A series of classical and quantum arguments are put forward to dispel this view. It is concluded that whereas the smallness of the Planck length and the ratio of gravitational to electrical forces, does play its own essential role in nature, it does not make quantum gravity a science where humans cannot venture to probe her secrets. In particular attention is drawn to the latest neutron and atomic interferometry experiments, and to gravity wave interferometers. The latter, as Giovanni Amelino-Camelia argues [Nature 398, 216 (1999)], can be treated as probes of space-time fuzziness down to Planck length for certain quantum-gravity models.
Henderson, R. L.
1974-01-01
The partial structure factors of classical simple liquid mixtures near phase separation are dicussed. The theory is developed for particles interacting through pair potentials, and is thus appropriate both to insulating fluids, and also to metallic systems if these may be described by an effective ion-ion pair interaction. The motivation arose from consideration of metallic liquid mixtures, in which resistive anomalies have been observed near phase separation. A mean field theory correction appropriate to 3 pair potential for the effects of correlated motions in the reference fluid is studied. The work is cast in terms of functions which are closely related to the direct correlation functions of Ornstein and Zernike. The results are qualitatively in accord with physical expectations. Quantitative agreement with experiment seems to turn on the selection of the hard core reference potential in terms of the metallic effective pair potential. It is suggested that the present effective pair potentials are perhaps not properly used to calculate the metallic structure factors at long wavelength.
Relativistic semi-classical theory of atom ionization in ultra-intense laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN; Baozhen
2001-01-01
［1］Schoch, A., Seitliche Versetzung eines total reflektierten strahles bei Utraschallwellen, Acustica, 1952, 2: 17.［2］Neubauer, W. G., Ultrasonic reflection of a bounded beam at Rayleigh and critical angles for a plane liquid-solid interface, J. Appl. Phys., 1973, 44: 48.［3］Ngoc, T. D. K., Mayer, W. G., Numerical integration method for reflected beam profiles near Rayleigh angle, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1980, 67, 1149.［4］Nagy, P. B., Cho, K., Focal shift of convergent ultrasonic beams reflected from a liquid-solid interface, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1987, 81(4): 835.［5］Bertoni, H. L., Hsue, C. W., Tamir, T., Non-specular reflection of convergent beams from liquid-solid interface, Traitement du Signal, 1985, 2: 201.［6］Zhu Guozhen, Liu Liang, Fu Deyong, Reflected beam displacements of a slightly divergent ultrasonic Gaussian beam on a water-glass interface near Rayleigh angle incidence, Chinese Physics Letters, 1999, 16(11): 819.［7］Bertoni, H. L., Tamir, T., Unified theory of Rayleigh-angle phenomena for acoustic beams onto liquid-solid interface, Appl. Phys., 1973, 2: 157.［8］Zeroug, S., Felsen, L. B., Nonspecular reflection of two- and three-dimensional acoustic beams from fluid-immersed plane-layered elastic structures, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1994, 95: 3075.［9］Chimenti, D. E., Zeroug, S. et al., Interaction of acoustic beams with fluid-loaded elastic structures, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1994, 95(1): 45.［10］Breazeale, M. A. L., Adler, L., Scott, G. W., Interaction of ultrasonic waves incident at the Rayleigh angle onto a liquid-solid interface, J. Appl. Phys., 1977, 48(2): 530.［11］Ngoc, T. D. K., Mayer, W. G., General description of ultrasonic nonspecular reflection and transmission effects for layered media, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason., 1980, SU-27: 229.［12］Martin, F. D., Breazeale, M. A., J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1971, 49: 1668.［13］Gunarathne, G. P. P., Szilard, J., A new stroboscope for Schlieren and photoelastic visualization
The Impact of Technology and Distance Education: A Classical Learning Theory Viewpoint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herb Thompson
1999-01-01
Full Text Available For the past two years the author has been teaching economics (History of Economic Thought and Economic Development at the tertiary level via the Internet and computer-mediation. This is done primarily for students who are unable or who do not wish to attend classes on campus, but desire an education as good, if not better, as the campus based enterprise. This paper provides a reflective analysis of the theoretical content of that practice. Teaching online is a vastly different enterprise than face-to-face exercises, thereby demanding a revaluation of ones pedagogical theory and praxis. In The German Ideology, Marx and Engels articulated their claim that historically dominant classes embody their ideas in essential forms, representing them as universally valid. It is within this framework that we begin to examine what it means to "know" in economics. How knowledge is legitimated in universities continues to be under-theorised, particularly with regard to electronic transmission. The mechanism of transmission of particular concern here is that which is computer-mediated. Landow represents hypertext as the latest flowering in a long march of democratic processes originating in the displacement of Platonic authority by the lesser authority of the written word. It is argued here that the determinism of the "progressive narrative" within and around the "hypertext revolution" deserves careful scrutiny, particularly in its application to pedagogy. Pedagogical artefacts, such as computers, mediate the transmission of ideas. The question "how does this happen?" relates to the complexity of theorizing the relationship between the educational process and the social relations of capitalist social formations. Over two decades ago, Bowles and Gintis attempted a Marxist understanding of the nature of this relationship. In their conception, pedagogical mechanisms were seen to operate in a fairly deterministic way to mirror and model the norms and values
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author)
Testing planet formation theories with Giant stars
Pasquini, Luca; Doellinger, M. P.; Hatzes, A.; Setiawan, J.; Girardi, L.; Da Silva, L.; de Medeiros, J. R.
2008-01-01
Planet searches around evolved giant stars are bringing new insights to planet formation theories by virtue of the broader stellar mass range of the host stars compared to the solar-type stars that have been the subject of most current planet searches programs. These searches among giant stars are producing extremely interesting results. Contrary to main sequence stars planet-hosting giants do not show a tendency of being more metal rich. Even if limited, the statistics also suggest a higher ...
Tests and present status of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author discusses the predictions of the standard model for strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. The Abelian Model is presented to represent gauge theories at work. Hadronic structure functions are explained which describe the distribution of quarks and gluons within the initial state hadrons. Hadronic fragmentation functions are defined and illustrated. A set of exercises is presented which may be helpful toward understanding the material presented
Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borowiecki, Karol Jan
2015-01-01
This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...
Asymptotic theory of integrated conditional moment tests
Bierens, H.J.; Ploberger, W.
1995-01-01
In this paper we derive the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic of a generalized version of the integrated conditional moment (ICM) test of Bierens (1982, 1984), under a class of Vn-local alternatives, where n is the sample size. The generalized version involved includes neural network tes
Generalization of the test theory of relativity to noninertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a generalized test theory of special relativity, using a noninertial frame. Within the framework of the special theory of relativity the transport- and Einstein-synchronizations are equivalent on a rigidly rotating disk. But in any theory with a preferred frame such an equivalence does not hold. The time difference resulting from the two synchronization procedures is a measurable quantity within the reach of existing clock systems on the earth. The final result contains a term which depends on the angular velocity of the rotating system, and hence measures an absolute effect. This term is of crucial importance in our test theory of the special relativity. (author). 13 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cavallaro Roberto
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of reports showed en encouraging remediation in some patients' executive deficits thanks to the use of 'information processing strategies'. Moreover the impact of antipsychotics on cognitive functions of the schizophrenics is an important issue, especially if an integrated psychosocial treatment is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different executive performance and response to verbalization, a strategy of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST remediation, in subjects on classical vs atypical antipsychotic (AP treatment. Methods Sixty-three schizophrenic subjects undertook the WCST under standard and modified (verbalization administration. Subjects were stratified by the kind of WCST response (i.e. good, poor and remediable and AP treatment (i.e. atypical vs. classical. Results Subjects on atypical APs showed a better performance than those on classical ones. More poor performers who did not remediate were seen in the sample with classical Aps while subjects who remediated the performance were seen in the subgroup with atypical APs only. An increase of perseverative and total errors was seen in poor performers subjects on classical APs. Conclusion Subjects on atypicals showed a better cognitive pattern in terms of WCST performance. Since the naturalistic assignment of medication we cannot draw conclusions about its effect on cognitive performance and its interaction with cognitive remediation potential. However the data lead us to hypothesize that subjects with potential room for remediation did so with the atypical APs.
Tests of Chiral perturbation theory with COMPASS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Friedrich Jan M.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at CERN accesses pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect., where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. When a single real photon is produced, pion Compton scattering is accessed and from the measured cross-section shape, the pion polarisability is determined. The COMPASS measurement is in contradiction to the earlier dedicated measurements, and rather in agreement with the theoretical expectation from ChPT. In the same experimental data taking, reactions with neutral and charged pions in the final state are measured and analyzed in the context of chiral perturbation theory.
Sternberg, Robert J.
1984-01-01
Argues that IQ tests work only for some people some of the time. Offers a theory that emphasizes the roles in intelligence of information-processing, the environmental context, and coping with novelty and automatization of task performance, as a possibility for improving levels of prediction. (CMG)
Test of a Theory of Delinquency.
Farley, Frank H.; And Others
1979-01-01
Farley's arousal/sensation-seeking model of delinquency was tested in part on a sample of adult male institutionalized addicts. The important implications of the environment for this biological approach to delinquency were discussed, and research directions suggested. (Author)
Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior.
Weinstein, N D
1993-07-01
Four competing theories of health-protective behavior are reviewed: the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, protection motivation theory, and subjective expected utility theory. In spite of their commonalities, these models are seldom tested against one another. The review points out the similarities and differences among these theories and the data and analyses needed to compare them. In addition to describing the content of the models, their conceptualization of key variables, and the combinatorial rules used to make predictions, some general problems in theory development and testing for health behaviors are examined. The article's goal is to help investigators design studies that will clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these models, leading toward a better understanding of health behavior. PMID:8404807
Planck-scale Lorentz-symmetry test theories
Amelino-Camelia, G
2004-01-01
In the recent quantum-gravity literature there has been strong interest in the possibility of Planck-scale departures from Lorentz symmetry, including possible modifications of the energy/momentum dispersion relation. I stress that a meaningful characterization of the progress of experimental bounds on these Planck-scale effects requires the analysis of some reference test theories, and I propose to focus on two ``minimal'' test theories, a pure-kinematics test theory and an effective-field-theory-based test theory. I illustrate some features of the phenomenology based on these test theories considering some popular strategies for constraining Planck-scale effects, and in particular I observe that sensitivities that are already in the Planck-scale range for some parameters of the two test theories can be achieved using observations of TeV photons from Blazars, both using the so-called ``gamma-ray time-of-flight analyses'' and using the now robust evidence of absorption of TeV photons. Instead the Crab-nebula ...
The Origin of Prospect Theory, or Testing the Intuitive Statistician
Heukelom, Floris
2005-01-01
The origin of prospect theory is the desire to test the intuitive statistician in the real world. The development of this theory by the cognitive psychologists Kahneman and Tversky can be traced to the former's work in cognitive psychophysics, in which deviations from average behavior are termed (statistical) errors; and the latter's work on decision theory, with its normative vs. descriptive framework. The combination of these two types of probabilistic psychology culminated in a new descrip...
Testing Alternative Theories of Dark Matter with the CMB
Li, Baojiu; Barrow, John D.; Mota, David F.; Zhao, HongSheng
2008-01-01
We propose a method to study and constrain modified gravity theories for dark matter using CMB temperature anisotropies and polarization. We assume that the theories considered here have already passed the matter power-spectrum test of large-scale structure. With this requirement met, we show that a modified gravity theory can be specified by parametrizing the time evolution of its dark-matter density contrast, which is completely controlled by the dark matter stress history. We calculate how...
Correlation testing for nuclear density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correlation testing provides a quick method of discriminating amongst potential terms to include in a nuclear mass formula or functional and is a necessary tool for further nuclear mass models; however a firm mathematical foundation of the method has not been previously set forth. Here, the necessary justification for correlation testing is developed and more detail of the motivation behind its use is given. Examples are provided to clarify the method analytically and for computational benchmarking. We provide a quantitative demonstration of the method's performance and short-comings, highlighting also potential issues a user may encounter. In concluding we suggest some possible future developments to improve the limitations of the method. (orig.)
Härtel, Andreas; Samin, Sela; van Roij, René
2016-06-01
The ongoing scientific interest in the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs) stems from their pivotal role in (super)capacitive energy storage, energy harvesting, and water treatment technologies. Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a promising framework for the study of the in- and out-of-plane structural properties of double layers. Supported by molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate the adequate performance of DFT for analyzing charge layering in the EDL perpendicular to the electrodes. We discuss charge storage and capacitance of the EDL and the impact of screening due to dielectric solvents. We further calculate, for the first time, the in-plane structure of the EDL within the framework of DFT. While our out-of-plane results already hint at structural in-plane transitions inside the EDL, which have been observed recently in simulations and experiments, our DFT approach performs poorly in predicting in-plane structure in comparison to simulations. However, our findings isolate fundamental issues in the theoretical description of the EDL within the primitive model and point towards limitations in the performance of DFT in describing the out-of-plane structure of the EDL at high concentrations and potentials.
Härtel, Andreas; Samin, Sela; van Roij, René
2016-06-22
The ongoing scientific interest in the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs) stems from their pivotal role in (super)capacitive energy storage, energy harvesting, and water treatment technologies. Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a promising framework for the study of the in- and out-of-plane structural properties of double layers. Supported by molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate the adequate performance of DFT for analyzing charge layering in the EDL perpendicular to the electrodes. We discuss charge storage and capacitance of the EDL and the impact of screening due to dielectric solvents. We further calculate, for the first time, the in-plane structure of the EDL within the framework of DFT. While our out-of-plane results already hint at structural in-plane transitions inside the EDL, which have been observed recently in simulations and experiments, our DFT approach performs poorly in predicting in-plane structure in comparison to simulations. However, our findings isolate fundamental issues in the theoretical description of the EDL within the primitive model and point towards limitations in the performance of DFT in describing the out-of-plane structure of the EDL at high concentrations and potentials. PMID:27116552
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Helmholtz-Poincare Wave Equation (H-PWE) arises in many areas of classical wave scattering theory. In particular it can be found for the cases of acoustical scattering from submerged bounded objects and electromagnetic scattering from objects. The extended boundary integral equations (EBIE) method is derived from considering both the exterior and interior solutions of the H-PWE's. This coupled set of expressions has the advantage of not only offering a prescription for obtaining a solution for the exterior scattering problem, but it also obviates the problem of irregular values corresponding to fictitious interior eigenvalues. Once the coupled equations are derived, they can by obtained in matrix form be expanding all relevant terms in partial wave expansions, including a biorthogonal expansion of the Green function. However some freedom of choice in the choice of the surface expansion is available since the unknown surface quantities may be expanded in a variety of ways to long as closure is obtained. Out of many possible choices, we develop an optimal method to obtain such expansions which is based on the optimum eigenfunctions related to the surface of the object. In effect, we convert part of the problem (that associated with the Fredholms integral equation of the first kind) an eigenvalue problem of a related Hermition operator. The methodology will be explained in detail and examples will be presented
Witharana, S; Strobel, S; Kim, H D; McKrell, T; Chang, J -B; Buongiorno, J; Berggren, K K; Chen, L; Ding, Y
2012-01-01
Recently-reported data suggest that bubble nucleation on surfaces with nano-sized features (cavities and posts) may occur close to the thermodynamic saturation temperature. However, according to the traditional theory of heterogeneous bubble nucleation, such low nucleation temperatures are possible only for surfaces with micro-scale cavities. Motivated by this apparent contradiction, we have used infrared thermometry to measure the nucleation temperature of water on custom-fabricated nano- to micro-scale cavities (from 90 nm to 4.5 um in diameter) and posts (from 60 nm to 5 um in diameter), machined on ultra-smooth and clean silicon wafers using electron beam lithography. Our cavity data are in agreement with the predictions of the Young-Laplace equation, thus re-affirming the correctness of the classic view of heterogeneous bubble nucleation, at least for the water-silicon system investigated here. The data also suggest that individual posts of any size have an insignificant effect on bubble nucleation, as e...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Werby, M.F. [Naval Research Lab. Detachment, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)
1993-10-01
The Helmholtz-Poincare Wave Equation (H-PWE) arises in many areas of classical wave scattering theory. In particular it can be found for the cases of acoustical scattering from submerged bounded objects and electromagnetic scattering from objects. The extended boundary integral equations (EBIE) method is derived from considering both the exterior and interior solutions of the H-PWE`s. This coupled set of expressions has the advantage of not only offering a prescription for obtaining a solution for the exterior scattering problem, but it also obviates the problem of irregular values corresponding to fictitious interior eigenvalues. Once the coupled equations are derived, they can by obtained in matrix form be expanding all relevant terms in partial wave expansions, including a biorthogonal expansion of the Green function. However some freedom of choice in the choice of the surface expansion is available since the unknown surface quantities may be expanded in a variety of ways to long as closure is obtained. Out of many possible choices, we develop an optimal method to obtain such expansions which is based on the optimum eigenfunctions related to the surface of the object. In effect, we convert part of the problem (that associated with the Fredholms integral equation of the first kind) an eigenvalue problem of a related Hermition operator. The methodology will be explained in detail and examples will be presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A self-consistent approximation scheme is formulated for the calculation of the dynamical linear polarizability of classical electron monolayers. The derivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the authors formulate a simple response function relation linking linear and quadratic polarizabilities; the dynamical coupling function is expressed entirely in terms of the latter. The basic elements in the derivation are the first BBGKY kinetic equation (prepared in the velocity average approximation) and the non-linear fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The new response function relation is exact at zero frequency and exactly satisfies the third frequency moment sum rule. In the second stage, self-consistency is guaranteed by approximating the quadratic polarizability in terms of linear ones. The theory is examined in the weak coupling limit where it is found that a dominant γ-independent non-RPA contribution to the damping is missing. The structure of the missing term is identified at arbitrary coupling strengths. Work is in progress to see how it can be incorporated into the approximation scheme. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compare behaviour of quasi-two-dimensional aluminium crack tips undergoing mode I loading using orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) and the classical embedded atom method (EAM). Low-index crack orientations are compared in the context of the Griffith, Rice and Tadmor–Hai continuum criteria, using values from Kohn–Sham DFT (KSDFT). All orientations are predicted to be ductile, and twinning is expected to occur only in certain orientations of low-dimensional or low-temperature Al. OFDFT and the EAM predict similar values to KSDFT for the relevant properties. In simulations of two crack orientations, the critical stress intensity factor in EAM simulations is close to continuum predictions while crack tips modelled by OFDFT do not exhibit plasticity until loaded at least 13% over the continuum prediction. The EAM and OFDFT give qualitatively similar results for a crack orientation that emits edge dislocations. For a twinning orientation, OFDFT simulations emit partial dislocations in the same order, even with different pseudopotentials. However, EAM simulations predict that a partial is emitted along a different slip plane from OFDFT. Differences between EAM and OFDFT simulations suggest that methods that give accurate stacking fault energies, elastic constants and surface energies may not necessarily reproduce all important physical processes at crack tips
Testing Accommodations: Theory and Research to Inform Practice
Kettler, Ryan J.
2012-01-01
This article presents a framework for practitioners in education and psychology to select accommodations based on student profiles and testing demands. A brief history of testing accommodations policy in the US and a definition of terms provide context for the discussion. A review of theory and empirical findings related to testing accommodations…
Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning: The Test of Development
Barrouillet, Pierre
2011-01-01
Dual-process theories have become increasingly influential in the psychology of reasoning. Though the distinction they introduced between intuitive and reflective thinking should have strong developmental implications, the developmental approach has rarely been used to refine or test these theories. In this article, I review several contemporary…
Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity
Hirsch, J. E.
2016-06-01
The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.
Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Paul Gee
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.
Testing gravity theories using tensor perturbations
Lin, Weikang
2016-01-01
Primordial gravitational waves constitute a promising probe of the very-early universe and the laws of gravity. We study changes to tensor mode perturbations that can arise in various proposed modified gravity (MG) theories. These include additional friction effects, non-standard dispersion relations involving a massive graviton, a modified speed, and a small-scale modification. We introduce a physically-motivated parameterization of these effects and use current available data to obtain exclusion regions in the parameter spaces. Taking into account the foreground subtraction, we then perform a forecast analysis focusing on the tensor mode MG parameters as constrained by the future experiments COrE, Stage-IV and PIXIE. For a fiducial value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.01, we find that an additional friction of 3.5-4.5% compared to GR will be detected at $3\\sigma$ by these experiments while a decrease in friction will be more difficult to detect. The speed of gravitational waves needs to be 5-15% differen...
Testing planet formation theories with Giant stars
Pasquini, Luca; Hatzes, A; Setiawan, J; Girardi, L; da Silva, L; De Medeiros, J R
2008-01-01
Planet searches around evolved giant stars are bringing new insights to planet formation theories by virtue of the broader stellar mass range of the host stars compared to the solar-type stars that have been the subject of most current planet searches programs. These searches among giant stars are producing extremely interesting results. Contrary to main sequence stars planet-hosting giants do not show a tendency of being more metal rich. Even if limited, the statistics also suggest a higher frequency of giant planets (at least 10 %) that are more massive compared to solar-type main sequence stars. The interpretation of these results is not straightforward. We propose that the lack of a metallicity-planet connection among giant stars is due to pollution of the star while on the main sequence, followed by dilution during the giant phase. We also suggest that the higher mass and frequency of the planets are due to the higher stellar mass. Even if these results do not favor a specific formation scenario, they su...
Testing prospect theory in students’ performance
Pérez Galdón, Patricia; Nicolau, Juan Luis
2013-01-01
This paper tests the existence of ‘reference dependence’ and ‘loss aversion’ in students’ academic performance. Accordingly, achieving a worse than expected academic performance would have a much stronger effect on students’ (dis)satisfaction than obtaining a better than expected grade. Although loss aversion is a well-established finding, some authors have demonstrated that it can be moderated – diminished, to be precise–. Within this line of research, we also examine whether the students’ e...
The testing of ambivalent sexism theory
Sezer Yudulmaz Ayan; Veda Bilican Gökkaya
2016-01-01
Objective: The aim of this study is to test ambivalent sexism inventory (ASI) and ambivalence towards men inventory (AMI), which were developed on the basis of the Ambivalent Sexism approach. Method: The sampling was formed by 422 students (252 women and 169 men) from University of Cumhuriyet. The data of the study were obtained from the questionnaire determining their socio-demographic characteristics of the students and AMI and ASI in order to determine their tendencies of sexism. After...
Testing rank-dependent utility theory for health outcomes.
Oliver, Adam
2003-10-01
Systematic violations of expected utility theory (EU) have been reported in the context of both money and health outcomes. Rank-dependent utility theory (RDU) is currently the most popular and influential alternative theory of choice under circumstances of risk. This paper reports a test of the descriptive performance of RDU compared to EU in the context of health. When one of the options is certain, violations of EU that can be explained by RDU are found. When both options are risky, no evidence that RDU is a descriptive improvement over EU is found, though this finding may be due to the low power of the tests. PMID:14508870
Part 1: Theory, analysis, and testing. Introduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mok, G.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Fission Energy and Systems Safety Program; Chung, H.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Division
1995-12-01
Two basic engineering strategies for the protection of equipment and structures from damages caused by seismic, shock and vibration loadings are, namely, strengthening and isolation. They work on almost totally different principles; the strengthening strategy aims primarily at increasing the ``capacity`` or the ability of the structure to withstand the dynamic loading by incorporating additional structural materials and components, while the isolation strategy focuses on reducing the ``demand`` or the transmitted loading on the structure by adding an isolator or isolation system between the structure and the source of the loading. The isolation strategy is also often used for filtering out unwanted vibrations and noises. In practice, the isolation strategy has the advantage of not depending on alterations to the isolated structure and is often the preferred method for applications in equipment and in some structures. The authors give a preview of the papers to be presented on the following topics: Technical background; Ground motions and structural loading; Vibration control and isolation; Isolation design, analysis, and testing; and Isolation system development and characterization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a mixed time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT)/classical trajectory surface hopping (SH) study of the photochemical ring opening in oxirane. Previous preparatory work limited to the symmetric CC ring-opening pathways of oxirane concluded that the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) is important for improving the performance of TDDFT away from the equilibrium geometry. This observation is supported by the present TDDFT TDA/SH calculations which successfully confirm the main experimentally derived Gomer-Noyes mechanism for the photochemical CO ring opening of oxirane and, in addition, provide important state-specific information not easily accessible from experiments. In particular, we find that, while one of the lowest two excited states is photochemically relatively inert, excitation into the other excited state leads predominantly to rapid ring opening, cyclic-C2H4O→CH2CH2O. This is followed by hopping to the electronic ground state where hot (4000 K) dynamics leads to further reactions, namely, CH2CH2O→CH3CHO→CH3+CHO and CH4+CO. We note that, in the dynamics, we are not limited to following minimum energy pathways and several surface hops may actually be needed before products are finally reached. The performance of different functionals is then assessed by comparison of TDDFT and diffusion Monte Carlo potential energy curves along a typical TDDFT TDA/SH reaction path. Finally, although true (S0,S1) conical intersections are expected to be absent in adiabatic TDDFT, we show that the TDDFT TDA is able to approximate a conical intersection in this system.
Tapavicza, Enrico; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Filippi, Claudia; Casida, Mark E.
2008-09-01
We present a mixed time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT)/classical trajectory surface hopping (SH) study of the photochemical ring opening in oxirane. Previous preparatory work limited to the symmetric CC ring-opening pathways of oxirane concluded that the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) is important for improving the performance of TDDFT away from the equilibrium geometry. This observation is supported by the present TDDFT TDA/SH calculations which successfully confirm the main experimentally derived Gomer-Noyes mechanism for the photochemical CO ring opening of oxirane and, in addition, provide important state-specific information not easily accessible from experiments. In particular, we find that, while one of the lowest two excited states is photochemically relatively inert, excitation into the other excited state leads predominantly to rapid ring opening, cyclic-C2H4O→C•H2CH2O•. This is followed by hopping to the electronic ground state where hot (4000K) dynamics leads to further reactions, namely, C•H2CH2O•→CH3CHO→C•H3+C•HO and CH4+CO. We note that, in the dynamics, we are not limited to following minimum energy pathways and several surface hops may actually be needed before products are finally reached. The performance of different functionals is then assessed by comparison of TDDFT and diffusion Monte Carlo potential energy curves along a typical TDDFT TDA/SH reaction path. Finally, although true (S0,S1) conical intersections are expected to be absent in adiabatic TDDFT, we show that the TDDFT TDA is able to approximate a conical intersection in this system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A rigorous thermodynamic formulation of the geometric model for heterogeneous nucleation including line tension effect is missing till date due to the associated mathematical hurdles. In this work, we develop a novel thermodynamic formulation based on Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT), which is supposed to illustrate a systematic and a more plausible analysis for the heterogeneous nucleation on a planar surface including the line tension effect. The appreciable range of the critical microscopic contact angle (θc), obtained from the generalized Young’s equation and the stability analysis, is θ∞ < θc < θ′ for positive line tension and is θM < θc < θ∞ for negative line tension. θ∞ is the macroscopic contact angle, θ′ is the contact angle for which the Helmholtz free energy has the minimum value for the positive line tension, and θM is the local minima of the nondimensional line tension effect for the negative line tension. The shape factor f, which is basically the dimensionless critical free energy barrier, becomes higher for lower values of θ∞ and higher values of θc for positive line tension. The combined effect due to the presence of the triple line and the interfacial areas (fL + fS) in shape factor is always within (0, 3.2), resulting f in the range of (0, 1.7) for positive line tension. A formerly presumed appreciable range for θc(0 < θc < θ∞) is found not to be true when the effect of negative line tension is considered for CNT. Estimation based on the property values of some real fluids confirms the relevance of the present analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Mei-Hua; YU Hong-Wei
2005-01-01
@@ We study the random motion of a charged test particle coupled to electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations near a perfectly reflecting plane boundary with a nonzero classical constant velocity in a direction parallel to the plane.We calculate the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle taking into account both fluctuating electric and magnetic forces. Our results showy that the influence of fluctuating magnetic fields is, in general, of the higher order than that caused by fluctuating electric fields and is thus negligible.
The testing of ambivalent sexism theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sezer Yudulmaz Ayan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to test ambivalent sexism inventory (ASI and ambivalence towards men inventory (AMI, which were developed on the basis of the Ambivalent Sexism approach. Method: The sampling was formed by 422 students (252 women and 169 men from University of Cumhuriyet. The data of the study were obtained from the questionnaire determining their socio-demographic characteristics of the students and AMI and ASI in order to determine their tendencies of sexism. After obtaining the permission from the Rectorate of Cumhuriyet University, the application was carried out with the help of academic staff at relevant faculties and vocational schools between 01.02.2012 and 30.04.2012. Results: When the overall average of the scores obtained from ASI and AMI were considered, it was found out that the ambivalence of the participants against each other (with ASI x=4,12; AMI x=4,22 was above the average; and men (with x= 4,23 had more ambivalence compared to women (x=4,05 in ASI, and women (x=4,38 had more ambivalence compared to men (x=3,99 in AMI. The data obtained from the variance analysis suggested that there were significant differences among the participants by gender, which were Hostile sexism (HS for men (t(421=-7,99 p<0,05, Benevolent sexism (BS for women (t(421=4,28 p<0,05 in ASI; and Hostility attitudes towards men (HM for women (t(421=-15,33 p<0,05, Benevolence towards men (BMfor men (t(421= -5,18 p<0,05. In other words, male participants had more hostile attitudes towards women in ASI and female participants had more hostile attitudes towards men in AMI. When the correlations among the sub-factors of AMI and ASI are considered, the correlations between HM and BS (0.47, BM and HS (0.47, and BM and BS (0.40 are statistically important. These findings suggest that the benevolent attitudes towards men are in a positive relationship with both benevolent and hostile sexism against women. Conclusions: The obtained data suggest that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the thermoelectric power under classically large magnetic field (TPM) in ultrathin films (UFs), quantum wires (QWs) of non-linear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law considering the anisotropies of the effective electron masses, the spin-orbit splitting constants and the presence of the crystal field splitting within the framework of k.p formalism. The results of quantum confined III-V compounds form the special cases of our generalized analysis. The TPM has also been studied for quantum confined II-VI, stressed materials, bismuth and carbon nanotubes (CNs) on the basis of respective dispersion relations. It is found taking quantum confined CdGeAs2, InAs, InSb, CdS, stressed n-InSb and Bi that the TPM increases with increasing film thickness and decreasing electron statistics exhibiting quantized nature for all types of quantum confinement. The TPM in CNs exhibits oscillatory dependence with increasing carrier concentration and the signature of the entirely different types of quantum systems are evident from the plots. Besides, under certain special conditions, all the results for all the materials gets simplified to the well-known expression of the TPM for non-degenerate materials having parabolic energy bands, leading to the compatibility test.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪大白
2001-01-01
ZHU Xi's theory of and his deeds in commenting on Classic Poetry through Classic Poetry is a negation and criticism on the idea of illustrating Classic Poetry with history expressed in “the Preface to Classic Poetry" and the Confucianists' concept of illustrating Classic Poetry with “the Preface to Classic Poetry". It also shows a deep understanding on the literature nature of Classic Poetry and the rules in composing poems. To carry out the principle of commenting on classic Poetry through Classic Poetry and to implement a great reform on traditional studies on classic Poetry is a great mission for scholars in Song Dynasty from the need of historical development and the time. Being a famous literaturist as well as a master in the studies on Classic Poetry and integrating literature of past dynasties with the studies on “Classic Poetry" of past dynasties are the main condition and the objective foundation for ZHU Xi to implement his reform on the studies on classic Poetry.%朱熹首倡并躬行的“以《诗》言《诗》”说是对《诗序》“以史证《诗》”以及后儒“以《序》解《诗》”的否定与批判，同时又体现了对《诗经》文学本质与诗歌创作规律的深刻认识。贯彻“以《诗》言《诗》”的原则，实现传统《诗经》学的重大变革，是历史的发展与时代的需求赋予宋代学者的重大使命；而文学名家与经学大师的一身兼任，历代文学与历代经学的双轨集成，是朱熹实现《诗经》学变革的主体条件与客观基础。
Test of the linear, no threshold, theory of radiation carcinogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cancer risks from low level radiation are always estimated using a linear theory, assuming that risk is proportional to exposure. Author aims to test that theory by studying the relationship between lung cancer risk and exposure to radon in homes. This paper shows a discrepancy with theory, that could be explained if there were a strong negative correlation between radon and smoking; i.e. if areas with low radon had much more smoking than areas with high radon. The author develops a quantitative treatment of this explanation. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs
A Testing Theory for a Higher-Order Cryptographic Language
Koutavas, Vasileios; Hennessy, Matthew
We study a higher-order concurrent language with cryptographic primitives, for which we develop a sound and complete, first-order testing theory for the preservation of safety properties. Our theory is based on co-inductive set simulations over transitions in a first-order Labelled Transition System. This keeps track of the knowledge of the observer, and treats transmitted higher-order values in a symbolic manner, thus obviating the quantification over functional contexts. Our characterisation provides an attractive proof technique, and we illustrate its usefulness in proofs of equivalence, including cases where bisimulation theory does not apply.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trentini Clarissa M
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging has determined a demographic shift in the world, which is considered a major societal achievement, and a challenge. Aging is primarily a subjective experience, shaped by factors such as gender and culture. There is a lack of instruments to assess attitudes to aging adequately. In addition, there is no instrument developed or validated in developing region contexts, so that the particularities of ageing in these areas are not included in the measures available. This paper aims to develop and validate a reliable attitude to aging instrument by combining classical psychometric approach and Rasch analysis. Methods Pilot study and field trial are described in details. Statistical analysis included classic psychometric theory (EFA and CFA and Rasch measurement model. The latter was applied to examine unidimensionality, response scale and item fit. Results Sample was composed of 424 Brazilian old adults, which was compared to an international sample (n = 5238. The final instrument shows excellent psychometric performance (discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch fit statistics. Rasch analysis indicated that modifications in the response scale and item deletions improved the initial solution derived from the classic approach. Conclusion The combination of classic and modern psychometric theories in a complementary way is fruitful for development and validation of instruments. The construction of a reliable Brazilian Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire is important for assessing cultural specificities of aging in a transcultural perspective and can be applied in international cross-cultural investigations running less risk of cultural bias.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the rational power law potentials in the two-body radial Schrodinger equations admit a systematic treatment available from the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order. The resulting potentials come into families evolved from equations having a fixed number of elementary regular singularities. As a consequence, relations are found and discussed among the several potentials in a family. (Author)
Clerc, Daryl G
2016-07-21
An ab initio approach was used to study the molecular-level interactions that connect gene-mutation to changes in an organism׳s phenotype. The study provides new insights into the evolutionary process and presents a simplification whereby changes in phenotypic properties may be studied in terms of the binding affinities of the chemical interactions affected by mutation, rather than by correlation to the genes. The study also reports the role that nonlinear effects play in the progression of organs, and how those effects relate to the classical theory of evolution. Results indicate that the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case within the ab initio model - a case having two attributes. The first attribute: proteins and promoter regions are not shared among organs. The second attribute: continuous limiting behavior exists in the physical properties of organs as well as in the binding affinity of the associated chemical interactions, with respect to displacements in the chemical properties of proteins and promoter regions induced by mutation. Outside of the special case, second-order coupling contributions are significant and nonlinear effects play an important role, a result corroborated by analyses of published activity levels in binding and transactivation assays. Further, gradations in the state of perfection of an organ may be small or large depending on the type of mutation, and not necessarily closely-separated as maintained by the classical theory. Results also indicate that organs progress with varying degrees of interdependence, the likelihood of successful mutation decreases with increasing complexity of the affected chemical system, and differences between the ab initio model and the classical theory increase with increasing complexity of the organism. PMID:27029513
Blázquez, J.S.; Conde, C. F.; Conde, A.
2014-01-01
The classical theory of Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov (JMAK) is widely used to describe the kinetics of crystallization even when the premises required for its application are not strictly fulfilled. In this paper we propose a procedure to obtain the JMAK parameters of the independent transformations that simultaneously occur during a crystallization process (e.g. leading to the formation of several crystalline phases). The predictions of the analysis have been used to describe the crystalli...
Lischner, Johannes; Arias, T. A.
2008-01-01
The Gordian knot of density-functional theories for classical molecular liquids remains finding an accurate free-energy functional in terms of the densities of the atomic sites of the molecules. Following Kohn and Sham, we show how to solve this problem by considering noninteracting molecules in a set of effective potentials. This shift in perspective leads to an accurate and computationally tractable description in terms of simple three-dimensional functions. We also treat both the linear- a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the rational power law potentials in the two-body radial Schoedinger equation admit a systematic treatment available from the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order. The admissible potentials come into families evolved from equations having a fixed number of elementary singularities. As a consequence, relations are found and discussed among the several potentials in a family. (Author)
Proposed experimental test of an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A new experimental test of electric screening in superconductors is proposed. • The electric screening length is predicted to be much larger than in normal metals. • The reason this was not seen in earlier experiments is explained. • This is not predicted by the conventional BCS theory of superconductivity. - Abstract: An alternative form of London’s electrodynamic theory of superconductors predicts that the electrostatic screening length is the same as the magnetic penetration depth. We argue that experiments performed to date do not rule out this alternative formulation and propose an experiment to test it. Experimental evidence in its favor would have fundamental implications for the understanding of superconductivity
Ferguson, Brian S.
2013-01-01
Chapter 2 is one of the most important chapters in the General Theory. Not only does it set out Keynes’ disagreements with key elements of the classical model, it lays out his own model of the working of the labour market, which underlies the analysis in the remainder of the General Theory. The issue of how labour’s response to a change in its real wage differs depending on whether the change is driven by a change in the nominal wage or in the price of consumer goods plays a key part in the w...
Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests under Prospect Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
North Korea has chosen nuclear weapons as the means to protect its sovereignty. Despite international society's endeavors and sanctions to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambition, North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear testing. In this paper, the reason for North Korea's addiction to a nuclear arsenal is addressed within the framework of cognitive psychology. The prospect theory addresses an epistemological approach usually overlooked in rational choice theories. It provides useful implications why North Korea, being under a crisis situation has thrown out a stable choice but taken on a risky one such as nuclear testing. Under the viewpoint of prospect theory, nuclear tests by North Korea can be understood as follows: The first nuclear test in 2006 is seen as a trial to escape from loss areas such as financial sanctions and regime threats; the second test in 2009 was interpreted as a consequence of the strategy to recover losses by making a direct confrontation against the United States; and the third test in 2013 was understood as an attempt to strengthen internal solidarity after Kim Jong-eun inherited the dynasty, as well as to enhance bargaining power against the United States. Thus, it can be summarized that Pyongyang repeated its nuclear tests to escape from a negative domain and to settle into a positive one. In addition, in the future, North Korea may not be willing to readily give up its nuclear capabilities to ensure the survival of its own regime
Kläy, Andreas; Vasco Mutimucuio, Inocente
2007-01-01
Mainstreaming the LforS approach is a challenge due to dive rging institutional priorities, customs, and expectations of classically traine d staff. A workshop to test LforS theory and practice, and explore how to mainstream it, took place in a concrete context in a rural district of Mozambique, focusing on agricultural, forest and water resources. The evaluation showed that the principles of interaction applied pe rmitted to link rational know ledge with practical experience through mutual l...
Testing Alternative Theories of Dark Matter with the CMB
Li, Baojiu; Mota, David F; Zhao, HongSheng
2008-01-01
We propose a method to study and constrain modified gravity theories for dark matter using CMB temperature anisotropies and polarization. We assume that the theories considered here have already passed the matter power-spectrum test of large-scale structure. With this requirement met, we show that a modified gravity theory can be specified by parametrizing the time evolution of its dark-matter density contrast, which is completely controlled by the dark matter stress history. We calculate how the stress history with a given parametrization affects the CMB observables, and a qualitative discussion of the physical effects involved is supplemented with numerical examples. It is found that, in general, alternative gravity theories can be efficiently constrained by the CMB temperature and polarization spectra. There exist, however, special cases where modified gravity cannot be distinguished from the CDM model even by using both CMB and matter power spectrum observations, nor can they be efficiently restricted by ...
Testing spontaneous localization theories with matter-wave interferometry
Nimmrichter, Stefan; Haslinger, Philipp; Arndt, Markus
2011-01-01
We propose to test the theory of continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) in an all-optical time-domain Talbot-Lau interferometer for clusters with masses exceeding $10^6\\,$amu. By assessing the relevant environmental decoherence mechanisms, as well as the growing size of the particles relative to the grating fringes, we argue that it will be feasible to test the quantum superposition principle in a mass range excluded by recent estimates of the CSL effect.
Testing Belbin's Team Role Theory of Effective Groups.
Prichard, Jane S.; Stanton, Neville A.
1999-01-01
Belbin's theory that teams with a wide range of roles are more effective than those with role imbalance was tested with six teams composed of individuals with homogenous roles and six with mixed roles. Mixed teams performed better on team tasks. (SK)
Applications of Bayesian Decision Theory to Sequential Mastery Testing.
Vos, Hans J.
1999-01-01
Formulates optimal sequential rules for mastery testing using an approach derived from Bayesian sequential decision theory to consider both threshold and linear loss structures. Adopts the binomial probability distribution as the psychometric model. Provides an empirical example for concept-learning in medicine. (SLD)
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can
2012-01-01
We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~107/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R=48+-12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, th...
The Contemporary Implication and Social Justice Theory of Classical Writers%经典作家社会公平理论及其当代启示
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡芳
2011-01-01
马克思恩格斯科学的社会公平理论为社会发展提供了愿景，经典作家的社会实践和社会公平理论丰富并发展了这一理论。针对我国社会不公平现象突显，其危机令人堪忧问题，根据马克思主义经典作家的社会公平理论提出“转变经济发展方式是解决社会公平的基本前提、还富于民是解决社会公平问题的根本”的思路。%Marx and Engels put forward the scientific theory on social justice, which provides a vision for social development. The social practice and the theory on social justice by classical writers have greatly enriched and developed the theory. Based on the worrying problem embodied in social inequities in China, and on the theories on social justice by the classical writers specialized in Marxism, the present paper puts forward the view that ＂ the transformation of economic development pattern is the basic premise to achieve social equity ; while dividend to the community is the fundamental issue to achieve this goal. ＂
van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar
2011-01-01
In the present paper, the application of a parametric bootstrap procedure, as described by van de Schoot, Hoijtink, and Dekovic (2010), will be applied to demonstrate that a direct test of an informative hypothesis offers more informative results compared to testing traditional null hypotheses against catch-all rivals. Also, more power can be…
Modern challenges for flow investigations in model hydraulic turbines on classical test rig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The BulbT project involved several investigations of flow phenomena in different parts of a model bulb turbine installed on the test rig of Laval University Laboratory. The aim is to create a comprehensive data base in order to increase the knowledge of the flow phenomena in this type of turbines and to validate or improve numerical flow simulation strategies. This validation being based on a kinematic comparison between experimental and numerical data, the project had to overcome challenges to facilitate the use of the experimental data for that purpose. Many parameters were checked, such as the test bench repeatability, the intrusiveness of a priori non-intrusive methods, the geometry of the runner and draft tube. This paper illustrates how some of those problematic were solved
Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward
1993-01-01
An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.
Testing Tensor-Vector-Scalar Theory with latest cosmological observations
Xu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Pengjie
2014-01-01
Tensor-Vector-Scalar (TeVeS) is considered as a viable theory of gravity. It produces the Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics in the nonrelativistic weak field limit and is free from ghosts. We perform the test of TeVeS theory by confronting to cosmological observations. We find that by including a sterile neutrino, it can mimic $\\Lambda$CDM model and is compatible with Planck data. But there are tensions between Planck and supernova measurements or recent observations of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. We observe that the growth rate in TeVeS theory is scale dependent, which can serve as a potential probe in distinguishing it from $\\Lambda$CDM model given future precise observations.
Chantler, C. T.; Bourke, J. D.
2015-11-01
We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems.
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can
2012-05-01
We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~10(7)/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R = 48 ± 12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, the powers of pumps. We also make a theoretical analysis in detail and the theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with our experimental results. PMID:22565763
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems. (paper)
An Empirical Test of the Information Processing Theory
Honggeng Zhou
2011-01-01
According to the propositions in the information processing theory, this study tests the relationship between task uncertainty and three organizational design strategies, i.e., creation of lateral relationships, investment in information systems, and creation of self-contained tasks. Data from 125 North American manufacturing firms are used and business environment uncertainty is employed to measure task uncertainty. Sourcing practice and delivery practice measure the creation of lateral rela...
How to make allocation decisions: a theory and test questions.
2005-01-01
Hospital administrators are regularly faced with having to cut patient services. Such decisions are essentially questions of distributive justice, and administrators may welcome some guidance. We begin with a key idea from the most influential theory of justice of our times, that of John Rawls, and generate from it a series of test questions against which the ethical dimensions of allocation decisions can be judged. PMID:15913228
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.
1997-03-01
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.
Adler-Gelfand-Dickey approach to classical W-algebras within the theory of Poisson vertex algebras
Sole, A.; Kac, V. G.; Valeri, D.
2014-01-01
We put the Adler-Gelfand-Dickey approach to classical W-algebras in the framework of Poisson vertex algebras. We show how to recover the bi-Poisson structure of the KP hierarchy, together with its generalizations and reduction to the N-th KdV hierarchy, using the formal distribution calculus and the lambda-bracket formalism. We apply the Lenard-Magri scheme to prove integrability of the corresponding hierarchies. We also give a simple proof of a theorem of Kupershmidt and Wilson in this frame...
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-01-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson’s configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059
Development and validation of the conceptions of scientific theories test
Cotham, Joseph C.; Smith, Edward L.
The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for use with elementary and secondary teachers of science that would have the following characteristics: 1) sensitivity to alternative conceptions of particular philosophic aspects of scientific theories, and 2) applicability in inferring understanding of the tentative and revisionary conception of the nature of science. This conception, which has educational and social importance, may be a significant influence in the teaching of science as inquiry. Thus, concern with teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and their teaching served as justification for this study. The instrument, which was applied to samples of preservice elementary teachers, college philosophy of science students, and college chemistry students, consisted of items that were adapted to the contexts of particular scientific theories by prefacing them with a brief description of a theory and episodes drawn from its history. Items were written to discriminate between alternative conceptions of the following philosophic aspects of scientific theories: testing, generation, ontological implications, and choice. Evidence in support of the validity of the instrument constructs was obtained using two approaches: discrimination between contrasting groups and the multi-trait and multi-method matrix of Campbell and Fiske. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement were computed for the instrument and its subtests. Reliability data indicates that an adequate degree of accuracy may be attributed to instrument scores.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rybicki M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is drawing attention to a mistake confusing discussion upon the alternatives to special theory of relativity (STR. In the Mansouri-Sexl test theory uti- lized as a mathematical framework for testing the preferred frame theories, the Lorentz transformation of time has an erroneous form. This generate s a false conclusion, namely that a theory based on Tangherlini transformation is empirically equivalent to STR.
Indirect scaling methods for testing quantitative emotion theories.
Junge, Martin; Reisenzein, Rainer
2013-01-01
Two studies investigated the utility of indirect scaling methods, based on graded pair comparisons, for the testing of quantitative emotion theories. In Study 1, we measured the intensity of relief and disappointment caused by lottery outcomes, and in Study 2, the intensity of disgust evoked by pictures, using both direct intensity ratings and graded pair comparisons. The stimuli were systematically constructed to reflect variables expected to influence the intensity of the emotions according to theoretical models of relief/disappointment and disgust, respectively. Two probabilistic scaling methods were used to estimate scale values from the pair comparison judgements: Additive functional measurement (AFM) and maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS). The emotion models were fitted to the direct and indirect intensity measurements using nonlinear regression (Study 1) and analysis of variance (Study 2). Both studies found substantially improved fits of the emotion models for the indirectly determined emotion intensities, with their advantage being evident particularly at the level of individual participants. The results suggest that indirect scaling methods yield more precise measurements of emotion intensity than rating scales and thereby provide stronger tests of emotion theories in general and quantitative emotion theories in particular. PMID:23650936
古典医学理论的建立、贡献和归宿%The Establishment, Contributions, and Final Results of Classical Medical Theories
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王台
2013-01-01
In countries with ancient civilization of both Eastern world and Western world, after the accumulation of clinical experiences of "empirical medicine" to a sufficient amount; in accordance of their primitive philosophical thoughts, classical medical theories were established to play an important role in guiding the clinical practice of "empirical medicine". Because of the similarity of philosophical thoughts all over the ancient world, their medical theories were also very similar to each other. After the scientific evaluation and improvement, Greek classical medical theories were inherited, refined or abandoned, and then eventually finished their historical mission. Chinese classical medical theories also need the similar scientific identification and improvement for flowing into the authorized main stream of modern medical theory systems to continuously apply their guiding roles in clinical practice. Scholars would better consider the developmental principles of cultures and sciences with a historical viewpoint and an open mind to avoid making mistakes from haughty and prejudice.%东西方文明古国的"经验医学"发展到一定阶段后,分别吸取各自朴素的哲学思想建立了不同于现代医学理论的古典医学理论,发挥着指导"经验医学"医疗实践的重要作用.由于古代各国的哲学都具有类似的内涵,因而它们的医学理论也极其相似.古希腊医学的理论接受了科学实验的检验而被继承、改进或抛弃,从而完成了它的历史使命.中医学的古典理论同样需要接受这种科学实验的检验,验明正身,得到提升,继续发挥其指导医疗实践的作用.学者们需要用历史的观点和开阔的眼界考察文化和科学的发展规律,避免坐井观天和固步自封.
C~0 and C~1 theories and test functions for FEM patch test in microstructures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Among many theories and categories in microstructures,rotation-displacement used as "independent" or "dependent" variables,is a noticeable topic. In FEM,it is called C0 and C1 theory. The convergence criteria of finite elements for microstructures are less mature than those for the conventional thin plate bending problem. In this paper,the patch test functions for assessing convergence of the C0 and C1 finite elements in microstructures is established based on the enhanced patch test theory. The author has further explored the C0 and C1 finite element theories and investigated the difference and correlation between their finite element formulations. Newly proposed finite element theories for microstructures are as follows:(1) the displacement-rotation dependent C1 element that requires the element function satisfying both C0 and C1 continuity;(2) the displacement-rotation independent C0 element which requires new convergence criteria,such as non-zero constant shear stress patch test and zero constant shear stress patch test for approximating C1 element.
Nielsen, H B; Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao
2006-01-01
We consider a very complicated system of some latticized differential equations that is considered as equations of motion for a field theory. We define macro state restrictions for such a system analogous to thermodynamical states of a system in statistical mechanics. For the case in which we have assumed adiabaticity in a generalized way which is equivalent to reversible processes. It is shown that we can define various entropy currents, not only one. It is indeed surprising that, for a two dimensional example of lattice field theory, we get three different entropy currents, all conserved under the adiabaticity condition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accurate quantum total reaction probabilities for the collinear reaction X + F2 (upsilon = 0.1) → XF + F (X = Mu, H, D, T) have been used to calculate collinear rate constants and activation energies. Comparison is made with collinear quasi-classical trajectory calculations and transition state theory assuming classical motion along a separable reaction coordinate and vibrational adiabaticity. Considerable differences between the quantum and quasi-classical and transition state theory results are found only for the Mu reaction at low temperatures. 5 figures, 35 references, 6 tables
Seo, Jihye
2012-01-01
N=2 Seiberg-Witten theories allow an interesting interplay between the Argyres-Douglas loci, singularity structures and wall-crossing formulae. In this paper we investigate this connection by first studying the singularity structures of hyper-elliptic Seiberg-Witten curves for pure N=2 gauge theories with SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups, and propose new methods to locate the Argyres-Douglas loci in the moduli space, where multiple mutually non-local BPS states become massless. In a region of the moduli space, we compute dyon charges for all 2r+2 and 2r+1 massless dyons for SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups respectively for rank r>1. From here we elucidate the connection to the wall-crossing phenomena for pure Sp(4) Seiberg-Witten theory near the Argyres-Douglas loci, despite our emphasis being only at the massless sector of the BPS spectra. We also present 2r-1 candidates for the maximal Argyres-Douglas points for pure SO(2r+1) Seiberg-Witten theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Álvarez-Asencio, R.; Thormann, Esben; Rutland, M.W.
2013-01-01
A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power...
Moen Dyrnes, I.K.
2012-01-01
This paper argues that the concept of socio-economic development needs to be redefined for the purpose of effective democracy promotion. By including aspects from human development theory, advocates of revised modernisation theory state that mass values in a society shift towards a preferance for democracy as higher levels socio-economic development provide existential security. This implies that a democratic culture shapes its institutions and not the other way around. If donor countries are...
Testing gravity with $E_G$: mapping theory onto observations
Leonard, C Danielle; Heymans, Catherine
2015-01-01
We present a complete derivation of the observationally motivated definition of the modified gravity statistic $E_G$. Using this expression, we investigate how variations to theory and survey parameters may introduce uncertainty in the general relativistic prediction of $E_G$. We forecast errors on $E_G$ for measurements using two combinations of upcoming surveys, and find that theoretical uncertainties may dominate for a futuristic measurement. Finally, we compute predictions of $E_G$ under modifications to general relativity in the quasistatic regime, and comment on the pros and cons of using $E_G$ to test gravity with future surveys.
Testing gravity with EG: mapping theory onto observations
Leonard, C. Danielle; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Heymans, Catherine
2015-12-01
We present a complete derivation of the observationally motivated definition of the modified gravity statistic EG. Using this expression, we investigate how variations to theory and survey parameters may introduce uncertainty in the general relativistic prediction of EG. We forecast errors on EG for measurements using two combinations of upcoming surveys, and find that theoretical uncertainties may dominate for a futuristic measurement. Finally, we compute predictions of EG under modifications to general relativity in the quasistatic regime, and comment on the pros and cons of using EG to test gravity with future surveys.
Transformational leadership in nursing service. A test of theory.
McDaniel, C; Wolf, G A
1992-02-01
What are the leadership dimensions that result in low turnover or work satisfaction? Intellectual stimulation, charisma, and individual consideration constitute aspects of transformational leadership that are suggested to enhance retention and staff satisfaction. In this study, the authors tested transformational leadership theory in one nursing department with an executive, 11 midlevel administrators, and 77 staff registered nurses. Findings support the predictions. Composed of teachable components, transformational factors are similar to leadership qualities described in magnet hospitals, offering positive implications for nursing administration and professional nursing practice. PMID:1735808
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that photon shot noise and radiation-pressure back-action noise are the sole forms of quantum noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors that operate near or below the standard quantum limit, if one filters the interferometer output appropriately. No additional noise arises from the test masses' initial quantum state or from reduction of the test-mass state due to measurement of the interferometer output or from the uncertainty principle associated with the test-mass state. Two features of interferometers are central to these conclusions: (i) The interferometer output [the photon number flux N(t) entering the final photodetector] commutes with itself at different times in the Heisenberg picture, [N(t),N(t')]=0 and thus can be regarded as classical. (ii) This number flux is linear to high accuracy in the test-mass initial position and momentum operators xo and po, and those operators influence the measured photon flux N(t) in manners that can easily be removed by filtering. For example, in most interferometers xo and po appear in N(t) only at the test masses' ∼1 Hz pendular swinging frequency and their influence is removed when the output data are high-pass filtered to get rid of noise below ∼10 Hz. The test-mass operators xo and po contained in the unfiltered output N(t) make a nonzero contribution to the commutator [N(t),N(t')]. That contribution is precisely canceled by a nonzero commutation of the photon shot noise and radiation-pressure noise, which also are contained in N(t). This cancellation of commutators is responsible for the fact that it is possible to derive an interferometer's standard quantum limit from test-mass considerations, and independently from photon-noise considerations, and get identically the same result. These conclusions are all true for a far wider class of measurements than just gravitational-wave interferometers. To elucidate them, this paper presents a series of idealized thought experiments that are free
New tests of cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael H. Birnbaum
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Previous tests of cumulative prospect theory (CPT and of the priority heuristic (PH found evidence contradicting these two models of risky decision making. However, those tests were criticized because they had characteristics that might ``trigger'' use of other heuristics. This paper presents new tests that avoid those characteristics. Expected values of the gambles are nearly equal in each choice. In addition, if a person followed expected value (EV, expected utility (EU, CPT, or PH in these tests, she would shift her preferences in the same direction as shifts in EV or EU. In contrast, the transfer of attention exchange model (TAX and a similarity model predict that people will reverse preferences in the opposite direction. Results contradict the PH, even when PH is modified to include a preliminary similarity evaluation using the PH parameters. New tests of probability-consequence interaction were also conducted. Strong interactions were observed, contrary to PH. These results add to the growing bodies of evidence showing that neither CPT nor PH is an accurate description of risky decision making.
Penningroth, Suzanna L.; Scott, Walter D.
2012-01-01
Two prominent theories of lifespan development, socioemotional selectivity theory and selection, optimization, and compensation theory, make similar predictions for differences in the goal representations of younger and older adults. Our purpose was to test whether the goals of younger and older adults differed in ways predicted by these two…
Younis, Samaira; Maarbjerg, Stine; Reimer, Maren; Wolfram, Frauke; Olesen, Jes; Baron, Ralf; Bendtsen, Lars
2016-07-01
The diagnostic criteria of the third International Classification of Headache Disorders state that there should be no neurological deficits in patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) at clinical examination. However, studies demonstrating sensory abnormalities at bedside examination in TN patients have questioned this. Our aim was to examine whether TN patients without sensory abnormalities at neurological examination have sensory abnormalities at quantitative sensory testing (QST) and whether there were any QST differences between TN with and without concomitant persistent pain. Thirty-six TN patients were investigated with the standardized QST protocol by the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. The investigators were blinded to presence of concomitant persistent pain and symptomatic side. Based on comparison to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain controls, z scores were calculated to process frequency analyses and Z-profiles. We found increased mechanical detection threshold on the symptomatic side (47.2% vs 0%, P = 0.008), asymptomatic side (33.3% vs 0%, P = 0.011), and hand (36% vs 0%, P Trigeminal neuralgia patients with concomitant persistent pain tended to have higher mean z score values compared to TN with purely paroxysmal pain indicative of decreased detection thresholds. Trigeminal neuralgia patients with no sensory abnormalities at neurological examination had generalized subclinical hypoesthesia, which was more pronounced on the symptomatic side, and thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. This could indicate pain-induced hypoesthesia and sensitization induced by central mechanisms. PMID:26894914
Gratton, Paolo; Trucchi, Emiliano; Trasatti, Alessandra; Riccarducci, Giorgio; Marta, Silvio; Allegrucci, Giuliana; Cesaroni, Donatella; Sbordoni, Valerio
2016-03-01
All species concepts are rooted in reproductive, and ultimately genealogical, relations. Genetic data are thus the most important source of information for species delimitation. Current ease of access to genomic data and recent computational advances are blooming a plethora of coalescent-based species delimitation methods. Despite their utility as objective approaches to identify species boundaries, coalescent-based methods (1) rely on simplified demographic models that may fail to capture some attributes of biological species, (2) do not make explicit use of the geographic information contained in the data, and (3) are often computationally intensive. In this article, we present a case of species delimitation in the Erebia tyndarus species complex, a taxon regarded as a classic example of problematic taxonomic resolution. Our approach to species delimitation used genomic data to test predictions rooted in the biological species concept and in the criterion of coexistence in sympatry. We (1) obtained restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing data from a carefully designed sample, (2) applied two genotype clustering algorithms to identify genetic clusters, and (3) performed within-clusters and between-clusters analyses of isolation by distance as a test for intrinsic reproductive barriers. Comparison of our results with those from a Bayes factor delimitation coalescent-based analysis, showed that coalescent-based approaches may lead to overconfident splitting of allopatric populations, and indicated that incorrect species delimitation is likely to be inferred when an incomplete geographic sample is analyzed. While we acknowledge the theoretical justification and practical usefulness of coalescent-based species delimitation methods, our results stress that, even in the phylogenomic era, the toolkit for species delimitation should not dismiss more traditional, biologically grounded, approaches coupling genomic data with geographic information. PMID:26568458