Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory
Brennan, Robert L.
2011-01-01
Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…
The Prediction of Item Parameters Based on Classical Test Theory and Latent Trait Theory
Anil, Duygu
2008-01-01
In this study, the prediction power of the item characteristics based on the experts' predictions on conditions try-out practices cannot be applied was examined for item characteristics computed depending on classical test theory and two-parameters logistic model of latent trait theory. The study was carried out on 9914 randomly selected students…
Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.
2016-01-01
The frequently neglected and often misunderstood relationship between classical test theory and item response theory is discussed for the unidimensional case with binary measures and no guessing. It is pointed out that popular item response models can be directly obtained from classical test theory-based models by accounting for the discrete…
Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat
2017-01-23
Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling. We also identify computer packages for performing G-theory analyses, most of which can be obtained free of charge, and describe how they compare with regard to data input requirements, ease of use, complexity of designs supported, and output produced. (PsycINFO Database Record
Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.; Brissenden, Gina; Rudolph, Alexander L.
2012-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of investigations into the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI). In this paper, we use classical test theory to form a framework of results that will be used to evaluate individual item difficulties, item discriminations, and the overall reliability of the…
Advanced classical field theory
Giachetta, Giovanni; Sardanashvily, Gennadi
2009-01-01
Contemporary quantum field theory is mainly developed as quantization of classical fields. Therefore, classical field theory and its BRST extension is the necessary step towards quantum field theory. This book aims to provide a complete mathematical foundation of Lagrangian classical field theory and its BRST extension for the purpose of quantization. Based on the standard geometric formulation of theory of nonlinear differential operators, Lagrangian field theory is treated in a very general setting. Reducible degenerate Lagrangian theories of even and odd fields on an arbitrary smooth manifold are considered. The second Noether theorems generalized to these theories and formulated in the homology terms provide the strict mathematical formulation of BRST extended classical field theory
Covariantizing Classical Field Theories
López, Marco Castrillón
2010-01-01
We show how to enlarge the covariance group of any classical field theory in such a way that the resulting "covariantized" theory is 'essentially equivalent' to the original. In particular, our technique will render any classical field theory generally covariant, that is, the covariantized theory will be spacetime diffeomorphism-covariant and free of absolute objects. Our results thus generalize the well-known parametrization technique of Dirac and Kucha\\v{r}. Our constructions apply equally well to internal covariance groups, in which context they produce natural derivations of both the Utiyama minimal coupling and St\\"uckelberg tricks.
Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie
2013-01-01
Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…
Mason, Brandon; Smithey, Martha
2012-01-01
This study examines Merton's Classical Strain Theory (1938) as a causative factor in intimate partner violence among college students. We theorize that college students experience general life strain and cumulative strain as they pursue the goal of a college degree. We test this strain on the likelihood of using intimate partner violence. Strain…
Invariants from classical field theory
Diaz, Rafael
2007-01-01
We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from classical field theories depending on external parameters. We apply our method to several field theories such as abelian BF, Chern-Simons and 2-dimensional Yang-Mills theory.
Classical test theory versus Rasch analysis for quality of life questionnaire reduction
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Lamarca Rosa
2003-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although health-related quality of life (HRQOL instruments may offer satisfactory results, their length often limits the extent to which they are actually applied in clinical practice. Efforts to develop short questionnaires have largely focused on reducing existing instruments. The approaches most frequently employed for this purpose rely on statistical procedures that are considered exponents of Classical Test Theory (CTT. Despite the popularity of CTT, two major conceptual limitations have been pointed out: the lack of an explicit ordered continuum of items that represent a unidimensional construct, and the lack of additivity of rating scale data. In contrast to the CTT approach, the Rasch model provides an alternative scaling methodology that enables the examination of the hierarchical structure, unidimensionality and additivity of HRQOL measures. METHODS: In order to empirically compare CTT and Rasch Analysis (RA results, this paper presents the parallel reduction of a 38-item questionnaire, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, through the analysis of the responses of a sample of 9,419 individuals. Results CTT resulted in 20 items (4 dimensions whereas RA in 22 items (2 dimensions. Both instruments showed similar characteristics under CTT requirements: item-total correlation ranged 0.45–0.75 for NHP20 and 0.46–0.68 for NHP22, while reliability ranged 0.82–0.93 and 0.87–94 respectively. Conclusions Despite the differences in content, NHP20 and NHP22 convergent scores also showed high degrees of association (0.78–0.95. Although the unidimensional view of health of the NHP20 and NHP22 composite scores was also confirmed by RA, NHP20 dimensions failed to meet the goodness-of fit criteria established by the Rasch model, precluding the interval-level of measurement of its scores.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ning; ZHANG Da-Hua
2007-01-01
A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field.First,by using Mathematica,a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained,which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution.Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion,the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced.Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field,we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity,including the deflection of light by the sun,the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun.It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.
Classical Electromagnetic Theory
VanderLinde, Jack
2004-01-01
This book is a self contained course in electromagnetic theory suitable for senior physics and electrical engineering students as well as graduate students whose past has not prepared them well for books such as Jackson or Landau and Lifschitz. The text is liberally sprinkled with worked examples illustrating the application of the theory to various physical problems. In this new edition I have endeavored to improve the accuracy and readability, added and further clarified examples, added sections on Schwarz-Christoffel mappings, and to make the book more self sufficient added an appendix on orthogonal function expansions and added the derivation of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials as well as derivation of their generating functions. The number of student exercises has been increased by 45 over the previous edition. This book stresses the unity of electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic fields developed in parallel. SI units are used throughout and considerable use is made of tensor notatio...
Lundrigan, Sarah E. M.; Saika-Voivod, Ivan
2009-09-01
We perform molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo computer simulations to test the ability of the recently developed formalism of mean first-passage time (MFPT) [J. Wedekind, R. Strey, and D. Reguera, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 134103 (2007); J. Wedekind and D. Reguera, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 11060 (2008)] to characterize crystal nucleation in the Lennard-Jones liquid. We find that the nucleation rate, critical embryo size, Zeldovich factor, attachment rate, and the nucleation barrier profile obtained from MFPT all compare very well to the same quantities calculated using other methods. Furthermore, we find that the nucleation rate obtained directly through MD closely matches the prediction of classical nucleation theory.
Suhov, Y.
We begin with the definition of information gained by knowing that an event A has occurred: iota (A) = -log_2 {{P}}(A). (A dual point of view is also useful (although more evasive), where iota (A) is the amount of information needed to specify event A.) Here and below {{P}} stands for the underlying probability distribution. So the rarer an event A, the more information we gain if we know it has occurred. (More broadly, the rarer an event A, the more impact it will have. For example, the unlikely event that occurred in 1938 when fishermen caught a coelacanth - a prehistoric fish believed to be extinct - required a significant change to beliefs about evolution and biology. On the other hand, the likely event of catching a herring or a tuna would hardly imply any change in theories.)
Classical theory of radiating strings
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
1990-01-01
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
Potential Theory in Classical Electrodynamics
Engelhardt, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
In Maxwell's classical theory of electrodynamics the fields are frequently expressed by potentials in order to facilitate the solution of the first order system of equations. This method obscures, however, that there exists an inconsistency between Faraday's law of induction and Maxwell's flux law. As a consequence of this internal contradiction there is neither gauge invariance, nor exist unique solutions in general. It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous wave equations cannot be solved by retarded integrals.
Smith, Moya Meredith; Riley, Alex; Fraser, Gareth J; Underwood, Charlie; Welten, Monique; Kriwet, Jürgen; Pfaff, Cathrin; Johanson, Zerina
2015-10-01
In classical theory, teeth of vertebrate dentitions evolved from co-option of external skin denticles into the oral cavity. This hypothesis predicts that ordered tooth arrangement and regulated replacement in the oral dentition were also derived from skin denticles. The fossil batoid ray Schizorhiza stromeri (Chondrichthyes; Cretaceous) provides a test of this theory. Schizorhiza preserves an extended cartilaginous rostrum with closely spaced, alternating saw-teeth, different from sawfish and sawsharks today. Multiple replacement teeth reveal unique new data from micro-CT scanning, showing how the 'cone-in-cone' series of ordered saw-teeth sets arrange themselves developmentally, to become enclosed by the roots of pre-existing saw-teeth. At the rostrum tip, newly developing saw-teeth are present, as mineralized crown tips within a vascular, cartilaginous furrow; these reorient via two 90° rotations then relocate laterally between previously formed roots. Saw-tooth replacement slows mid-rostrum where fewer saw-teeth are regenerated. These exceptional developmental data reveal regulated order for serial self-renewal, maintaining the saw edge with ever-increasing saw-tooth size. This mimics tooth replacement in chondrichthyans, but differs in the crown reorientation and their enclosure directly between roots of predecessor saw-teeth. Schizorhiza saw-tooth development is decoupled from the jaw teeth and their replacement, dependent on a dental lamina. This highly specialized rostral saw, derived from diversification of skin denticles, is distinct from the dentition and demonstrates the potential developmental plasticity of skin denticles.
Mason, Brandon; Smithey, Martha
2012-03-01
This study examines Merton's Classical Strain Theory (1938) as a causative factor in intimate partner violence among college students. We theorize that college students experience general life strain and cumulative strain as they pursue the goal of a college degree. We test this strain on the likelihood of using intimate partner violence. Strain due to unrealistic expectations of intimate partnership and economic strain are also examined. The analysis examines the following causative factors representing strain: 1) the College Undergraduate Stress Scale (Renner & Mackin, 1998); 2) cumulative academic strain measured by college classification; 3) cumulative intimate partner strain measured as the length of time in the relationship; 4) academic strain measured by number of hours studied weekly, and 5) economic strain measured by number of hours worked weekly. Additionally, we examine the extent to which gender and race/ethnicity differentially affect intimate partner in the context of these measures of strain. The Conflict Tactics Scales II (Straus et al, 1996) are used to measure dating violence and include indicators for sexual coercion, physical aggression, injury, and psychological aggression. Data were collected from 142 students in lower-division classes from Texas Tech University. Results show that general strain and cumulative intimate partner strain increase the use of dating violence among college students. The longer dating partners are in a relationship, the higher the chances of psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion. Converse to our expectations, time spent working reduces psychological aggression due to reducing time spent together rather than reflecting economic strain.
Equilibration properties of classical integrable field theories
De Luca, Andrea; Mussardo, Giuseppe
2016-06-01
We study the equilibration properties of classical integrable field theories at a finite energy density, with a time evolution that starts from initial conditions far from equilibrium. These classical field theories may be regarded as quantum field theories in the regime of high occupation numbers. This observation permits to recover the classical quantities from the quantum ones by taking a proper \\hslash \\to 0 limit. In particular, the time averages of the classical theories can be expressed in terms of a suitable version of the LeClair-Mussardo formula relative to the generalized Gibbs ensemble. For the purposes of handling time averages, our approach provides a solution of the problem of the infinite gap solutions of the inverse scattering method.
Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields
Good, Roland H
1971-01-01
Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma
A Classical Introduction to Galois Theory
Newman, Stephen C
2012-01-01
This book provides an introduction to Galois theory and focuses on one central theme - the solvability of polynomials by radicals. Both classical and modern approaches to the subject are described in turn in order to have the former (which is relatively concrete and computational) provide motivation for the latter (which can be quite abstract). The theme of the book is historically the reason that Galois theory was created, and it continues to provide a platform for exploring both classical and modern concepts. This book examines a number of problems arising in the area of classical mathematic
Classical Theory, Postmodernism, and the Sociology Liberal Arts Curriculum.
Lembcke, Jerry Lee
1993-01-01
Discusses classical theory as a modernist endeavor to apprehend the phenomenon of "unity of disunity." Presents three ways that classical theory approaches the philosophy views of Durkheim, Marx, and Weber. Concludes that postmodernism validates the relevancy of classical theory. (CFR)
Unified classical path theories of pressure broadening.
Bottcher, C.
1971-01-01
Derivation of a unified classical path theory of pressure broadening, using only elementary concepts. It is shown that the theory of Smith, Cooper and Vidal (1969) is only correct at all frequencies to first order in the number density of perturbers.
Beam structures classical and advanced theories
Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco
2011-01-01
Beam theories are exploited worldwide to analyze civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures. Many beam approaches have been proposed during the last centuries by eminent scientists such as Euler, Bernoulli, Navier, Timoshenko, Vlasov, etc. Most of these models are problem dependent: they provide reliable results for a given problem, for instance a given section and cannot be applied to a different one. Beam Structures: Classical and Advanced Theories proposes a new original unified approach to beam theory that includes practically all classical and advanced models for be
Thibodeau, Michel A; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Riemann, Bradley C
2015-12-01
The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a promising measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms but has received minimal psychometric attention. We evaluated the utility and reliability of DOCS scores. The study included 832 students and 300 patients with OCD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the originally proposed four-factor structure. DOCS total and subscale scores exhibited good to excellent internal consistency in both samples (α = .82 to α = .96). Patient DOCS total scores reduced substantially during treatment (t = 16.01, d = 1.02). DOCS total scores discriminated between students and patients (sensitivity = 0.76, 1 - specificity = 0.23). The measure did not exhibit gender-based differential item functioning as tested by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests. Expected response options for each item were plotted as a function of item response theory and demonstrated that DOCS scores incrementally discriminate OCD symptoms ranging from low to extremely high severity. Incremental differences in DOCS scores appear to represent unbiased and reliable differences in true OCD symptom severity.
Prototype Theory and Classical Theory:An Explanation and Comparison
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘莹
2014-01-01
This paper discusses two different ways to understand categorization, which are classical theory and prototype theory. There is a deep exploration on how to understand categories, and different theoretical backgrounds of the two categorization the⁃ories. Furthermore, it reviews the limitations and advantages of both theories. And the comparison of the theories gives a clearer angle to understand their similarities and differences.
Classical Ergodicity and Modern Portfolio Theory
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Geoffrey Poitras
2015-01-01
Full Text Available What role have theoretical methods initially developed in mathematics and physics played in the progress of financial economics? What is the relationship between financial economics and econophysics? What is the relevance of the “classical ergodicity hypothesis” to modern portfolio theory? This paper addresses these questions by reviewing the etymology and history of the classical ergodicity hypothesis in 19th century statistical mechanics. An explanation of classical ergodicity is provided that establishes a connection to the fundamental empirical problem of using nonexperimental data to verify theoretical propositions in modern portfolio theory. The role of the ergodicity assumption in the ex post/ex ante quandary confronting modern portfolio theory is also examined.
Experimental assessment of unvalidated assumptions in classical plasticity theory.
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Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Burghardt, Jeffrey A. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Bauer, Stephen J.; Bronowski, David R.
2009-01-01
This report investigates the validity of several key assumptions in classical plasticity theory regarding material response to changes in the loading direction. Three metals, two rock types, and one ceramic were subjected to non-standard loading directions, and the resulting strain response increments were displayed in Gudehus diagrams to illustrate the approximation error of classical plasticity theories. A rigorous mathematical framework for fitting classical theories to the data, thus quantifying the error, is provided. Further data analysis techniques are presented that allow testing for the effect of changes in loading direction without having to use a new sample and for inferring the yield normal and flow directions without having to measure the yield surface. Though the data are inconclusive, there is indication that classical, incrementally linear, plasticity theory may be inadequate over a certain range of loading directions. This range of loading directions also coincides with loading directions that are known to produce a physically inadmissible instability for any nonassociative plasticity model.
Knot Invariants from Classical Field Theories
Leal, L C
1999-01-01
We consider the Non-Abelian Chern-Simons term coupled to external particles, in a gauge and diffeomorphism invariant form. The classical equations of motion are perturbativelly studied, and the on-shell action is shown to produce knot-invariants associated with the sources. The first contributions are explicitly calculated, and the corresponding knot-invariants are recognized. We conclude that the interplay between Knot Theory and Topological Field Theories is manifested not only at the quantum level, but in a classical context as well.
Classical theory of the hydrogen atom
Rashkovskiy, Sergey
2016-01-01
It is shown that all of the basic properties of the hydrogen atom can be consistently described in terms of classical electrodynamics instead of taking the electron to be a particle; we consider an electrically charged classical wave field, an "electron wave", which is held in a limited region of space by the electrostatic field of the proton. It is shown that quantum mechanics must be considered to be not a theory of particles but a classical field theory in the spirit of classical electrodynamics. In this case, we are not faced with difficulties in interpreting the results of the theory. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, all of the well-known regularities of the spontaneous emission of the hydrogen atom are obtained, which is usually derived in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that there are no discrete states and discrete energy levels of the atom: the energy of the atom and its states change continuously. An explanation of the conventional corpuscular-statistical interpre...
Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory
Hadasz, L; Piatek, M; Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew; Piatek, Marcin
2005-01-01
Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.
Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory
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Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Piatek, Marcin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: piatek@ift.uni.wroc.pl
2005-09-26
Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.
"Scars" connect classical and quantum theory
Monteiro, T
1990-01-01
Chaotic systems are unstable and extremely sensitive to initial condititions. So far, scientists have been unable to demonstrate that the same kind of behaviour exists in quantum or microscopic systems. New connections have been discovered though between classical and quantum theory. One is the phenomena of 'scars' which cut through the wave function of a particle (1 page).
The classical theory of fields electromagnetism
Helrich, Carl S
2012-01-01
The study of classical electromagnetic fields is an adventure. The theory is complete mathematically and we are able to present it as an example of classical Newtonian experimental and mathematical philosophy. There is a set of foundational experiments, on which most of the theory is constructed. And then there is the bold theoretical proposal of a field-field interaction from James Clerk Maxwell. This textbook presents the theory of classical fields as a mathematical structure based solidly on laboratory experiments. Here the student is introduced to the beauty of classical field theory as a gem of theoretical physics. To keep the discussion fluid, the history is placed in a beginning chapter and some of the mathematical proofs in the appendices. Chapters on Green’s Functions and Laplace’s Equation and a discussion of Faraday’s Experiment further deepen the understanding. The chapter on Einstein’s relativity is an integral necessity to the text. Finally, chapters on particle motion and waves in a dis...
Quantum field theory from classical statistics
Wetterich, C
2011-01-01
An Ising-type classical statistical model is shown to describe quantum fermions. For a suitable time-evolution law for the probability distribution of the Ising-spins our model describes a quantum field theory for Dirac spinors in external electromagnetic fields, corresponding to a mean field approximation to quantum electrodynamics. All quantum features for the motion of an arbitrary number of electrons and positrons, including the characteristic interference effects for two-fermion states, are described by the classical statistical model. For one-particle states in the non-relativistic approximation we derive the Schr\\"odinger equation for a particle in a potential from the time evolution law for the probability distribution of the Ising-spins. Thus all characteristic quantum features, as interference in a double slit experiment, tunneling or discrete energy levels for stationary states, are derived from a classical statistical ensemble. Concerning the particle-wave-duality of quantum mechanics, the discret...
Classical Loop Actions of Gauge Theories
Armand-Ugon, D; Griego, J R; Setaro, L; Armand-Ugon, Daniel; Gambini, Rodolfo; Griego, Jorge; Setaro, Leonardo
1994-01-01
Since the first attempts to quantize Gauge Theories and Gravity in the loop representation, the problem of the determination of the corresponding classical actions has been raised. Here we propose a general procedure to determine these actions and we explicitly apply it in the case of electromagnetism. Going to the lattice we show that the electromagnetic action in terms of loops is equivalent to the Wilson action, allowing to do Montecarlo calculations in a gauge invariant way. In the continuum these actions need to be regularized and they are the natural candidates to describe the theory in a ``confining phase''.
HCI Theory Classical, Modern, and Contemporary
Rogers, Yvonne
2012-01-01
Theory is the bedrock of many sciences, providing a rigorous method toadvance knowledge through testing and falsifying hypotheses aboutobservable phenomena. To begin with, the nascent field of HCI followedsuit, borrowing theories from cognitive science to test theories aboutuser performance at the interface.But HCI has emerged as an eclectic interdiscipline rather than a welldefinedscience. It now covers all aspects of human life, from birth tobereavement, through all manner of computing, from device ecologiesto nanotechnology. It comes as no surprise that the role of theory in HCIhas also gre
[Taxonomic theory for non-classical systematics].
Pavlinov, I Ia
2012-01-01
Outlined briefly are basic principles of construing general taxonomic theory for biological systematics considered in the context of non-classical scientific paradigm. The necessity of such kind of theory is substantiated, and some key points of its elaboration are exposed: its interpretation as a framework concept for the partial taxonomic theories in various schools of systematics; elaboration of idea of cognitive situation including three interrelated components, namely subject, object, and epistemic ones; its construing as a content-wisely interpreted quasi-axiomatics, with strong structuring of its conceptual space including demarcation between axioms and inferring rules; its construing as a "conceptual pyramid" of concepts of various levels of generality; inclusion of a basic model into definition of the taxonomic system (classification) regulating its content. Two problems are indicated as fundamental: definition of taxonomic diversity as a subject domain for the systematics as a whole; definition of onto-epistemological status of taxonomic system (classification) in general and of taxa in particular.
Ivanov, Sergey V.; Buzykin, Oleg G.
2016-12-01
A classical approach is applied to calculate pressure broadening coefficients of CO2 vibration-rotational spectral lines perturbed by Ar. Three types of spectra are examined: electric dipole (infrared) absorption; isotropic and anisotropic Raman Q branches. Simple and explicit formulae of the classical impact theory are used along with exact 3D Hamilton equations for CO2-Ar molecular motion. The calculations utilize vibrationally independent most accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) of Hutson et al. expanded in Legendre polynomial series up to lmax = 24. New improved algorithm of classical rotational frequency selection is applied. The dependences of CO2 half-widths on rotational quantum number J up to J=100 are computed for the temperatures between 77 and 765 K and compared with available experimental data as well as with the results of fully quantum dynamical calculations performed on the same PES. To make the picture complete, the predictions of two independent variants of the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy formalism for dipole absorption lines are included. This method. however, has demonstrated poor accuracy almost for all temperatures. On the contrary, classical broadening coefficients are in excellent agreement both with measurements and with quantum results at all temperatures. The classical impact theory in its present variant is capable to produce quickly and accurately the pressure broadening coefficients of spectral lines of linear molecules for any J value (including high Js) using full-dimensional ab initio - based PES in the cases where other computational methods are either extremely time consuming (like the quantum close coupling method) or give erroneous results (like semi-classical methods).
Polynomial Invariant Theory of the Classical Groups
Westrich, Quinton
2011-01-01
The goal of invariant theory is to find all the generators for the algebra of representations of a group that leave the group invariant. Such generators will be called \\emph{basic invariants}. In particular, we set out to find the set of basic invariants for the classical groups GL$(V)$, O$(n)$, and Sp$(n)$ for $n$ even. In the first half of the paper we set up relevant definitions and theorems for our search for the set of basic invariants, starting with linear algebraic groups and then discussing associative algebras. We then state and prove a monumental theorem that will allow us to proceed with hope: it says that the set of basic invariants is finite if $G$ is reductive. Finally we state without proof the First Fundamental Theorems, which aim to list explicitly the relevant sets of basic invariants, for the classical groups above. We end by commenting on some applications of invariant theory, on the history of its development, and stating a useful theorem in the appendix whose proof lies beyond the scope ...
Robust topological degeneracy of classical theories
Vaezi, Mohammad-Sadegh; Ortiz, Gerardo; Nussinov, Zohar
2016-05-01
We challenge the hypothesis that the ground states of a physical system whose degeneracy depends on topology must necessarily realize topological quantum order and display nonlocal entanglement. To this end, we introduce and study a classical rendition of the Toric Code model embedded on Riemann surfaces of different genus numbers. We find that the minimal ground state degeneracy (and those of all levels) depends on the topology of the embedding surface alone. As the ground states of this classical system may be distinguished by local measurements, a characteristic of Landau orders, this example illustrates that topological degeneracy is not a sufficient condition for topological quantum order. This conclusion is generic and, as shown, it applies to many other models. We also demonstrate that certain lattice realizations of these models, and other theories, display a ground state entropy (and those of all levels) that is "holographic", i.e., extensive in the system boundary. We find that clock and U (1 ) gauge theories display topological (in addition to gauge) degeneracies.
Extending classical molecular theory with polarization.
Keyes, Tom; Napoleon, Raeanne L
2011-01-27
A classical, polarizable, electrostatic theory of short-ranged atom-atom interactions, incorporating the smeared nature of atomic partial charges, is presented. Detailed models are constructed for CO monomer and for CO interacting with an iron atom, as a first step toward heme proteins. A good representation is obtained of the bond-length-dependent dipole of CO monomer from fitting at the equilibrium distance only. Essential features of the binding of CO to myoglobin (Mb) and model heme compounds, including the binding energy, the position of the minimum in the Fe-C potential, the Fe-C frequency, the bending energy, the linear geometry of FeCO, and the increase of the Stark tuning rate and IR intensity, are obtained, suggesting that a substantial part of the Fe-CO interaction consists of a classical, noncovalent, "electrostatic bond ". The binding energy is primarily polarization energy, and the polarization energy of an OH pair in water is shown to be comparable to the experimental hydrogen bond energy.
Shear viscosity of the $\\Phi^4$ theory from classical simulation
Homor, M M
2015-01-01
Shear viscosity of the classical $\\Phi^4$ theory is measured using classical microcanonical simulation. To calculate the Kubo formula, we measure the energy-momentum tensor correlation function, and apply the Green-Kubo relation. Being a classical theory, the results depend on the cutoff which should be chosen in the range of the temperature. Comparison with experimentally accessible systems is also performed.
Fisher information and quantum-classical field theory: classical statistics similarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syska, J. [Department of Field Theory and Particle Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)
2007-07-15
The classical statistics indication for the impossibility to derive quantum mechanics from classical mechanics is proved. The formalism of the statistical Fisher information is used. Next the Fisher information as a tool of the construction of a self-consistent field theory, which joins the quantum theory and classical field theory, is proposed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits
Geraci, Joseph; Lidar, Daniel A.
2010-07-01
We exploit a recently constructed mapping between quantum circuits and graphs in order to prove that circuits corresponding to certain planar graphs can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof uses an expression for the Ising model partition function in terms of quadratically signed weight enumerators (QWGTs), which are polynomials that arise naturally in an expansion of quantum circuits in terms of rotations involving Pauli matrices. We combine this expression with a known efficient classical algorithm for the Ising partition function of any planar graph in the absence of an external magnetic field, and the Robertson-Seymour theorem from graph theory. We give as an example a set of quantum circuits with a small number of non-nearest-neighbor gates which admit an efficient classical simulation.
Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
RAJAGOPAL A K; GHOSE PARTHA
2016-06-01
Classical electrodynamics is reformulated in terms of wave functions in the classical phase space of electrodynamics, following the Koopman–von Neumann–Sudarshan prescription for classical mechanics on Hilbert spaces sans the superselection rule which prohibits interference effects in classical mechanics. This is accomplished by transforming from a set of commutingobservables in one Hilbert space to another set of commuting observables in a larger Hilbert space. This is necessary to clarify the theoretical basis of the much recent work on quantum-like features exhibited by classical optics. Furthermore, following Bondar et al, {\\it Phys. Rev.} A 88, 052108 (2013), it is pointed out that quantum processes that preserve the positivity or nonpositivity of theWigner function can be implemented by classical optics. This may be useful in interpreting quantum information processing in terms of classical optics.
Classical and semi-classical solutions of the Yang--Mills theory. [Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jackiw, R.; Nohl, C.; Rebbi, C.
1977-12-01
This review summarizes what is known at present about classical solutions to Yang-Mills theory both in Euclidean and Minkowski space. The quantal meaning of these solutions is also discussed. Solutions in Euclidean space expose multiple vacua and tunnelling of the quantum theory. Those in Minkowski space-time provide a semi-classical spectrum for a conformal generator.
Introducing quantum effects in classical theories
Fabris, J C; Rodrigues, D C; Daouda, M H
2015-01-01
In this paper, we explore two different ways of implementing quantum effects in a classical structure. The first one is through an external field. The other one is modifying the classical conservation laws. In both cases, the consequences for the description of the evolution of the universe are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mills, R.L. [BlackLight Power, Inc., Cranbury, NJ (United States)
2001-10-01
addressed. It is time for the physical rather than the mathematical nature of the wave function to be determined. A theory of classical quantum mechanics (CQM) was derived from first principles by Mills (The grand unified theory of classical quantum mechanics. January 2000 ed; Cranbury, NJ, 2000, BlackLight Power, Inc., (Distributed by Amazon.com; Posted at www.blacklightpower.com)) that successfully applies physical laws on all scales. Using the classical wave equation with the constraint of nonradiation based on Maxwell's equations, CQM gives closed form physical solutions for the electron in atoms, the free electron, and the free electron in superfluid helium. The prediction of fractional principal quantum energy states of the electron in liquid helium match the photoconductivity and mobility observations without requiring that the electron is divisible. (author)
Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
Kryukov, Alexey A.
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accou...
Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by a Computational Experiment
Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel
2014-01-01
We propose an in silico experiment to introduce the classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely on abstract concepts that are nonintuitive; however, they are at the heart of powerful tools and active fields of research in both physics and chemistry. They led to the 1998 Nobel Prize in…
van Weeren, J., Ed.
Presented in this symposium reader are nine papers, four of which deal with the theory and impact of the Rasch model on language testing and five of which discuss final examinations in secondary schools in both general and specific terms. The papers are: "Introduction to Rasch Measurement: Some Implications for Language Testing" (J. J.…
Classical glueballs in non-Abelian Born-Infeld theory
Galtsov, D V; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Kerner, Richard
2000-01-01
It is shown that the Born-Infeld-type modification of the quadratic Yang-Mills action suggested by the superstring theory gives rise to classical particle-like solutions prohibited in the standard Yang-Mills theory. This becomes possible due to the scale invariance breaking by the Born-Infeld non-linearity. New classical glueballs are sphaleronic in nature and exhibit a striking similarity with the Bartnik-McKinnon solutions of the Yang-Mills theory coupled to gravity.
On the classical theory of molecular optical activity
Frolov, Alexei M
2010-01-01
The basic principles of classical and semi-classical theories of molecular optical activity are discussed. These theories are valid for dilute solutions of optically active organic molecules. It is shown that all phenomena known in the classical theory of molecular optical activity can be described with the use of one pseudo-scalar which is a uniform function of the incident light frequency $\\omega$. The relation between optical rotation and circular dichroism is derived from the basic Kramers-Kronig relations. In our discussion of the general theory of molecular optical activity we introduce the tensor of molecular optical activity. It is shown that to evaluate the optical rotation and circular dichroism at arbitrary frequencies one needs to know only nine (3 + 6) molecular tensors. The quantum (or semi-classical) theory of molecular optical activity is also briefly discussed. We also raise the possibility of measuring the optical rotation and circular dichroism at wavelengths which correspond to the vacuum ...
Classical Solutions of SU(3) Pure Yang-Mills Theory
2002-01-01
Regular classical solutions of pure SU(3) gauge theories, in Minkowsky spacetime, are computed in the Landau gauge. The classical fields have an intrinsic energy scale and produce quark confinement if interpreted in the sense of a nonrelativistic potential. Moreover, the quark propagator in the background of these fields vanishes at large positive and negative time and space separations.
Variational principles for multisymplectic second-order classical field theories
Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso
2015-06-01
We state a unified geometrical version of the variational principles for second-order classical field theories. The standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian variational principles and the corresponding field equations are recovered from this unified framework.
Variational principles for multisymplectic second-order classical field theories
Román Roy, Narciso; Prieto Martínez, Pedro Daniel
2015-01-01
We state a unified geometrical version of the variational principles for second-order classical field theories. The standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian variational principles and the corresponding field equations are recovered from this unified framework. Peer Reviewed
Classical conformality in the Standard Model from Coleman's theory
Kawana, Kiyoharu
2016-01-01
The classical conformality is one of the possible candidates for explaining the gauge hierarchy of the Standard Model. We show that it is naturally obtained from the Coleman's theory on baby universe.
Quantitative methods in classical perturbation theory.
Giorgilli, A.
Poincaré proved that the series commonly used in Celestial mechanics are typically non convergent, although their usefulness is generally evident. Recent work in perturbation theory has enlightened this conjecture of Poincaré, bringing into evidence that the series of perturbation theory, although non convergent in general, furnish nevertheless valuable approximations to the true orbits for a very large time, which in some practical cases could be comparable with the age of the universe. The aim of the author's paper is to introduce the quantitative methods of perturbation theory which allow to obtain such powerful results.
CLASSICAL ELECTRON THEORY FROM A MODERN STANDPOINT
occurrence and removal of runaway modes, the radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge, an the relation between Maxwell’s electrodynamics and the action-at-a-distance theory of Wheeler and Feynman . (Author)
Testing single-parameter classical standpoint cosmology
Chew, Geoffrey Foucar
1995-01-01
Experimental tests of homogeneous-universe classical standpoint cosmology are proposed after presentation of conceptual considerations that encourage this radical departure from the standard model. Among predictions of the new model are standpoint age equal to Hubble time, energy-density parameter \\Omega_0 = 2 - \\sqrt{2} =.586, and relations between redshift, Hubble-scale distribution of matter and galaxy luminosity and angular diameter. These latter relations coincide with those of the standard model for zero deceleration. With eye to further tests, geodesics of the non-Riemannian standpoint metric are explicitly given. Although a detailed thermodynamic ``youthful-standpoint'' approximation remains to be developed (for particle mean free path small on standpoint scale), standpoint temperature depending only on standpoint age is a natural concept, paralleling energy density and redshift that perpetuates thermal spectrum for cosmic background radiation. Prospects for primordial nucleosynthesis are promising.
Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory
Kryukov, A.
2013-04-01
The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is "made" of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.
Classical Coupled Mode Theory of Optomechanical Crystals
Khorasani, Sina
2016-01-01
Acousto-optic interaction in optomechanical crystals allows unidirectional control of elastic waves over optical waves. However, as a result of this nonlinear interaction, infinitely many optical modes are born. This article presents an exact formulaion of coupled mode theory for interaction between elastic Bloch wave waves and photonic Bloch waves moving in a phonotonic waveguide. In general, an optical wavefront is strongly diffracted by an elastic wave in frequency and wavevector, and thus infinite modes with different frequencies and wavevectors appear. We discuss resonance and mode conversion conditions, and present a rigorous method to derive coupling rates and mode profiles. We also find a conservation law which rules over total optical power from interacting individual modes. Modifications of the theory to phonotonic cavities are also discussed. We present application examples including switch, frequency shifter, and reflector.
Satin, Seema
2015-01-01
We attempt to introduce an new approach towards study of certain interesting issues in classical gravity. This can be done for few confined, but interesting and meaningful physical situations, which can be modeled by a classical stochastic Einstein equation. The Einstein equation can be looked upon as an equation of motion, while introducing to it a classical stochastic source or classical fluctuations as driving source. This is analogous to the Langevin equation formalism, in Brownian motion studies. A justification for the validity of such an ansatz for classical gravity is given. The regime of validity of such an approach and the consequences and possible outcomes of this formulation are discussed. We also mention, further relevant directions and applications of the same,that act as motivation towards the new proposal. This field of study can be seen to emerge out of well established ideas and results in Brownian motion theory as well as the Stochastic Semiclassical Gravity (which is already an active area...
Lectures on classical and quantum theory of fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. Physics
2010-07-01
This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course. (orig.)
Lectures on Classical and Quantum Theory of Fields
Arodź, Henryk
2010-01-01
This textbook on classical and quantum theory of fields addresses graduate students starting to specialize in theoretical physics. It provides didactic introductions to the main topics in the theory of fields, while taking into account the contemporary view of the subject. The student will find concise explanations of basic notions essential for applications of the theory of fields as well as for frontier research in theoretical physics. One third of the book is devoted to classical fields. Each chapter contains exercises of varying degree of difficulty with hints or solutions, plus summaries and worked examples as useful. The textbook is based on lectures delivered to students of theoretical physics at Jagiellonian University. It aims to deliver a unique combination of classical and quantum field theory in one compact course.
Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by Computational Experiment
Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel
2014-01-01
We present here an introductory practical course to classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely largely on nonintuitive abstract concepts and applied mathematics. They are nevertheless a powerful tool and an active field of research in physics and chemistry that led to the 1998 Nobel prize in chemistry. We here illustrate the DFT in its most mathematically simple and yet physically relevant form: the classical density functional theory of an ideal fluid in an external field, as applied to the prediction of the structure of liquid neon at the molecular scale. This introductory course is built around the production of a cDFT code written by students using the Mathematica language. In this way, they are brought to deal with (i) the cDFT theory itself, (ii) some basic concepts around the statistical mechanics of simple fluids, (iii) the underlying mathematical and numerical problem of functional minimization, and (iv) a functional programming languag...
Evolving Planck Mass in Classically Scale-Invariant Theories
Kannike, K; Spethmann, C; Veermäe, H
2016-01-01
We consider classically scale-invariant theories with non-minimally coupled scalar fields, where the Planck mass and the hierarchy of physical scales are dynamically generated. The classical theories possess a fixed point, where scale invariance is spontaneously broken. In these theories, however, the Planck mass becomes unstable in the presence of explicit sources of scale invariance breaking, such as non-relativistic matter and cosmological constant terms. We quantify the constraints on such classical models from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis that lead to an upper bound on the non-minimal coupling and require trans-Planckian field values. We show that quantum corrections to the scalar potential can stabilise the fixed point close to the minimum of the Coleman-Weinberg po- tential. The time-averaged motion of the evolving fixed point is strongly suppressed, thus the limits on the evolving gravitational constant from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and other measurements do not presently constrain this class of theories....
Ultraviolet singularities in classical brane theory
Lechner, Kurt
2010-01-01
We construct for the first time an energy-momentum tensor for the electromagnetic field of a p-brane in arbitrary dimensions, entailing finite energy-momentum integrals. The construction relies on distribution theory and is based on a Lorentz-invariant regularization, followed by the subtraction of divergent and finite counterterms supported on the brane. The resulting energy-momentum tensor turns out to be uniquely determined. We perform the construction explicitly for a generic stationary brane. For a brane in arbitrary motion our approach provides a new paradigm for the derivation of the, otherwise divergent, self-force of the brane. The so derived self-force is automatically finite and guarantees, by construction, energy-momentum conservation.
Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects
2011-01-01
The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well ...
Plasmon mass scale in classical nonequilibrium gauge theory
Lappi, Tuomas
2016-01-01
Classical lattice Yang-Mills calculations provide a good way to understand different nonequilibrium phenomena in nonperturbatively overoccupied systems. Above the Debye scale the classical theory can be matched smoothly to kinetic theory. The aim of this work is to study the limits of this quasiparticle picture by determining the plasmon mass in classical real time Yang-Mills theory on a lattice in 3 spatial dimensions. We compare three methods to determine the plasmon mass: a hard thermal loop expression in terms of the particle distribution, an effective dispersion relation constructed from fields and their time derivatives, and by measuring oscillations between electric and magnetic field modes after artificially introducing a homogeneous color electric field. We find that a version of the dispersion relation that uses electric fields and their time derivatives agrees with the other methods within 50%.
Classical theory of atomic collisions - The first hundred years
Grujić, Petar V.
2012-05-01
Classical calculations of the atomic processes started in 1911 with famous Rutherford's evaluation of the differential cross section for α particles scattered on foil atoms [1]. The success of these calculations was soon overshadowed by the rise of Quantum Mechanics in 1925 and its triumphal success in describing processes at the atomic and subatomic levels. It was generally recognized that the classical approach should be inadequate and it was neglected until 1953, when the famous paper by Gregory Wannier appeared, in which the threshold law for the single ionization cross section behaviour by electron impact was derived. All later calculations and experimental studies confirmed the law derived by purely classical theory. The next step was taken by Ian Percival and collaborators in 60s, who developed a general classical three-body computer code, which was used by many researchers in evaluating various atomic processes like ionization, excitation, detachment, dissociation, etc. Another approach was pursued by Michal Gryzinski from Warsaw, who started a far reaching programme for treating atomic particles and processes as purely classical objects [2]. Though often criticized for overestimating the domain of the classical theory, results of his group were able to match many experimental data. Belgrade group was pursuing the classical approach using both analytical and numerical calculations, studying a number of atomic collisions, in particular near-threshold processes. Riga group, lead by Modris Gailitis [3], contributed considerably to the field, as it was done by Valentin Ostrovsky and coworkers from Sanct Petersbourg, who developed powerful analytical methods within purely classical mechanics [4]. We shall make an overview of these approaches and show some of the remarkable results, which were subsequently confirmed by semiclassical and quantum mechanical calculations, as well as by the experimental evidence. Finally we discuss the theoretical and
Non-classical Measurement Theory: a Framework for Behavioral Sciences
Danilov, V I
2006-01-01
Instances of non-commutativity are pervasive in human behavior. In this paper, we suggest that psychological properties such as attitudes, values, preferences and beliefs may be suitably described in terms of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. We expose the foundations of non-classical measurement theory building on a simple notion of orthospace and ortholattice (logic). Two axioms are formulated and the characteristic state-property duality is derived. A last axiom concerned with the impact of measurements on the state takes us with a leap toward the Hilbert space model of Quantum Mechanics. An application to behavioral sciences is proposed. First, we suggest an interpretation of the axioms and basic properties for human behavior. Then we explore an application to decision theory in an example of preference reversal. We conclude by formulating basic ingredients of a theory of actualized preferences based in non-classical measurement theory.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Li-Li; WU Ning; HU Juan-Mei; WU Feng-Min
2008-01-01
For a long time, it has been generally believed that spin-spin interactions can only exist in a theory where Lorentz symmetry is gauged, and a theory with spin-spin interactions is not perturbatively renormalizable. But this is not true. By studying the motion of a spinning particle in gravitational field, it is found that there exist spin-spin interactions in gauge theory of gravity. Its mechanism is that a spinning particle will generate gravitomagnetic field in space-time, and this gravitomagnetic field will interact with the spin of another particle, which will cause spin-spin interactions. So, spin-spin interactions are transmitted by gravitational field. The form of spin-spin interactions in post Newtonian approximations is deduced. This result can also be deduced from the Papapetrou equation. This kind of interaction will not affect the renormalizability of the theory. The spin-spin interactions will violate the weak equivalence principle, and the violation effects are detectable. An experiment is proposed to detect the effects of the violation of the weak equivalence principle.
Classical electromagnetic field theory in the presence of magnetic sources
Chen, W J; Naón, C M; Chen, Wen-Jun; Li, Kang
2001-01-01
Using two new well defined 4-dimensional potential vectors, we formulate the classical Maxwell's field theory in a form which has manifest Lorentz covariance and SO(2) duality symmetry in the presence of magnetic sources. We set up a consistent Lagrangian for the theory. Then from the action principle we get both Maxwell's equation and the equation of motion of a dyon moving in the electro-magnetic field.
Classical Electromagnetic Field Theory in the Presence of Magnetic Sources
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Kang(李康); CHEN Wen-Jun(陈文俊); NAON Carlos M.
2003-01-01
Using two new well-defined four-dimensional potential vectors, we formulate the classical Maxwell field theory in a form which has manifest Lorentz covariance and SO(2) duality symmetry in the presence of magnetic sources.We set up a consistent Lagrangian for the theory. Then from the action principle we obtain both Maxwell's equation and the equation of motion of a dyon moving in the electromagnetic field.
Representational Realism, Closed Theories and the Quantum to Classical Limit
de Ronde, Christian
2016-01-01
In this paper we discuss the representational realist stance as a pluralist ontic approach to inter-theoretic relationships. Our stance stresses the fact that physical theories require the necessary consideration of a conceptual level of discourse which determines and configures the specific field of phenomena discussed by each particular theory. We will criticize the orthodox line of research which has grounded the analysis about QM in two (Bohrian) metaphysical presuppositions -accepted in the present as dogmas that all interpretations must follow. We will also examine how the orthodox project of "bridging the gap" between the quantum and the classical domains has constrained the possibilities of research, producing only a limited set of interpretational problems which only focus in the justification of "classical reality" and exclude the possibility of analyzing the possibilities of non-classical conceptual representations of QM. The representational realist stance introduces two new problems, namely, the ...
Classical and Quantum Theory of Perturbations in Inflationary Universe Models
Brandenberger, R H; Mukhanov, V
1993-01-01
A brief introduction to the gauge invariant classical and quantum theory of cosmological perturbations is given. The formalism is applied to inflationary Universe models and yields a consistent and unified description of the generation and evolution of fluctuations. A general formula for the amplitude of cosmological perturbations in inflationary cosmology is derived.
Aesthetic Creativity: Insights from Classical Literary Theory on Creative Learning
Hellstrom, Tomas Georg
2011-01-01
This paper addresses the subject of textual creativity by drawing on work done in classical literary theory and criticism, specifically new criticism, structuralism and early poststructuralism. The question of how readers and writers engage creatively with the text is closely related to educational concerns, though they are often thought of as…
Classical Stasis Theory and the Analysis of Public Policy.
Hatch, Gary Layne
In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of public policy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…
Theory of Optimal Currency Zones: from Classics until Today
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pinchuk Anastasiya K.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article analyses evolution of the theory of optimal currency zones (OCZ, starting from its classical provisions until moder developments. Based on the critical analysis of classical criteria of OCZ, the article develops a scheme of selection of the currency mode by the Robert Mundell theory. It considers achievements of the alternative OCZ theory, the main provisions of which are shown schematically in the form of illustrations of evolution of the theory of optimal currency zones. In the result of analysis of classical criteria of optimal currency zones and generalisation of developments of the new OCZ theory, the article develops a universal algorithm of identification of optimal conditions for an efficient currency zone. Using this algorithm allows identification of a system of quantitative indicators of expediency of regional joining the OCZ, on the basis of which one can build an economic model of an optimal currency zone, which reflects the degree of readiness of any country to join or develop the OCZ. Development of this model is necessary for many countries that face the need to select the currency integration. This model is of special importance for Ukraine, for which it is important to select the course of external integration, since various directions of foreign policy significantly influence efficiency of the domestic economic policy in the country.
Classical Effective Field Theory and Caged Black Holes
Kol, Barak
2007-01-01
Matched Asymptotic Expansion (MAE) is a useful technique in General Relativity and other fields whenever interaction takes place between physics at two different length scales. Here MAE is argued to be equivalent quite generally to Classical Effective Field Theory (ClEFT) where one (or more) of the zones is replaced by an effective theory whose terms are organized in order of increasing irrelevancy, as demonstrated by Goldberger and Rothstein in a certain gravitational context. The ClEFT perspective has advantages as the procedure is clearer, it allows a representation via Feynman diagrams, and divergences can be regularized and renormalized in standard field theoretic methods. As a side product we obtain a wide class of classical examples of regularization and renormalization, concepts which are usually associated with Quantum Field Theories. We demonstrate these ideas through the thermodynamics of caged black holes, both simplifying the non-rotating case, and computing the rotating case. In particular we ar...
Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects
Bogolubov, N N
2012-01-01
The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well known as the absorption radiation theory, and strongly dependent on the Mach type interaction of a charged point particle in an ambient vacuum electromagnetic medium. There are discussed some relationships between this problem and the one derived within the context of the vacuum field theory approach. The R. \\ Feynman's \\textquotedblleft heretical\\textquotedblright\\ approach \\cite{Dy1,Dy2} to deriving the Lorentz force based Maxwell electromagnetic equations is also revisited, its complete legacy is argued both by means o...
THE NEW CLASSICAL THEORY AND THE REAL BUSINESS CYCLE MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oana Simona HUDEA (CARAMAN
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The present paper aims at describing some key elements of the new classical theory-related model, namely the Real Business Cycle, mainly describing the economy from the perspective of a perfectly competitive market, characterised by price, wage and interest rate flexibility. The rendered impulse-response functions, that help us in revealing the capacity of the model variables to return to their steady state under the impact of a structural shock, be it technology or monetary policy oriented, give points to the neutrality of the monetary entity decisions, therefore confirming the well-known classical dichotomy existing between the nominal and the real factors of the economy.
Classic Grounded Theory to Analyse Secondary Data: Reality and Reflections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorraine Andrews
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper draws on the experiences of two researchers and discusses how they conducted a secondary data analysis using classic grounded theory. The aim of the primary study was to explore first-time parents’ postnatal educational needs. A subset of the data from the primary study (eight transcripts from interviews with fathers was used for the secondary data analysis. The objectives of the secondary data analysis were to identify the challenges of using classic grounded theory with secondary data and to explore whether the re-analysis of primary data using a different methodology would yield a different outcome. Through the process of re-analysis a tentative theory emerged on ‘developing competency as a father’. Challenges encountered during this re-analysis included the small dataset, the pre-framed data, and limited ability for theoretical sampling. This re-analysis proved to be a very useful learning tool for author 1(LA, who was a novice with classic grounded theory.
Quantum theory is classical mechanics with non-local existence
Hegseth, John
2009-01-01
I propose a new and direct connection between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics where I derive the quantum mechanical propagator from a variational principle. This variational principle is Hamilton's modified principle generalized to allow many paths due to the non-local existence of particles in phase space. This principle allows a physical system to evolve non-locally in phase space while still allowing a representation that uses many classical paths. Whereas a point in phase space represents a classical system's state, I represent the state of a non-local system by a mixed trajectory. This formulation naturally leads to the transactional interpretation for resolving the paradoxes of the measurement problem. This principle also suggests a more flexible framework for formulating theories based on invariant actions and provides a single conceptual framework for discussing many areas of science.
Classical field theory on electrodynamics, non-Abelian gauge theories and gravitation
Scheck, Florian
2012-01-01
The book describes Maxwell's equations first in their integral, directly testable form, then moves on to their local formulation. The first two chapters cover all essential properties of Maxwell's equations, including their symmetries and their covariance in a modern notation. Chapter 3 is devoted to Maxwell theory as a classical field theory and to solutions of the wave equation. Chapter 4 deals with important applications of Maxwell theory. It includes topical subjects such as metamaterials with negative refraction index and solutions of Helmholtz' equation in paraxial approximation relevant for the description of laser beams. Chapter 5 describes non-Abelian gauge theories from a classical, geometric point of view, in analogy to Maxwell theory as a prototype, and culminates in an application to the U(2) theory relevant for electroweak interactions. The last chapter 6 gives a concise summary of semi-Riemannian geometry as the framework for the classical field theory of gravitation. The chapter concludes wit...
Quiver Theories for Moduli Spaces of Classical Group Nilpotent Orbits
Hanany, Amihay
2016-01-01
We approach the topic of Classical group nilpotent orbits from the perspective of their moduli spaces, described in terms of Hilbert series and generating functions. We review the established Higgs and Coulomb branch quiver theory constructions for A series nilpotent orbits. We present systematic constructions for BCD series nilpotent orbits on the Higgs branches of quiver theories defined by canonical partitions; this paper collects earlier work into a systematic framework, filling in gaps and providing a complete treatment. We find new Coulomb branch constructions for above minimal nilpotent orbits, including some based upon twisted affine Dynkin diagrams. We also discuss aspects of 3d mirror symmetry between these Higgs and Coulomb branch constructions and explore dualities and other relationships, such as HyperKahler quotients, between quivers. We analyse all Classical group nilpotent orbit moduli spaces up to rank 4 by giving their unrefined Hilbert series and the Highest Weight Generating functions for ...
Conformal Field Theory Correlators from Classical Scalar Field Theory on $AdS_{d+1}$
Mück, W; Mueck, Wolfgang
1998-01-01
We use the correspondence between scalar field theory on $AdS_{d+1}$ and a conformal field theory on $R^d$ to calculate the 3- and 4-point functions of the latter. The classical scalar field theory action is evaluated at tree level.
A New Fuzzy Set Theory Satisfying All Classical Set Formulas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qing-Shi Gao; Xiao-Yu Gao; Yue Hu
2009-01-01
A new fuzzy set theory, C-fuzzy set theory, is introduced in this paper. It is a particular case of the classical set theory and satisfies all formulas of the classical set theory. To add a limitation to C-fuzzy set system, in which all fuzzy sets must be "non-uniform inclusive" to each other, then it forms a family of sub-systems, the Z-fuzzy set family. It can be proved that the Z0-fuzzy set system, one of Z-fuzzy set systems, is equivalent to Zadeh's fuzzy set system. Analysis shows that 1) Zadeh's fuzzy set system defines the relations A = B and A ∈B between two fuzzy sets A and B as "Vu e U,(u A E (u)=μB(U))" and "Au ∈ U, (μA(U) ≤μB(μ))" respectively is inappropriate, because it makes all fuzzy sets be "non-uniformly inclusive"; 2) it is also inappropriate to define two fuzzy sets' union and intersection operations as the max and rain of their grades of membership, because this prevents fuzzy set's ability to correctly reflect different kinds of fuzzy phenomenon in the natural world. Then it has to work around the problem by invent unnatural functions that are hard to understand, such as augmenting max and min for union and intersection to min{a + b, 1} and max{a + b - 1, 0}, but these functions are incorrect on inclusive case. If both pairs of definitions are used together, not only are they unnatural, but also they are still unable to cover all possible set relationships in the natural world; and 3) it is incorrect to define the set complement as 1 -μA(μ), because it can be proved that set complement cannot exist in Zadeh's fuzzy set, and it causes confusion in logic and thinking. And it is seriously mistaken to believe that logics of fuzzy sets necessarily go against classical and normal thinking, logic, and conception. The C-fuzzy set theory proposed in this paper overcomes all of the above errors and shortcomings, and more reasonably reflects fuzzy phenomenon in the natural world. It satisfies all relations, formulas, and operations of the
Semi-Classical field theory as Decoherence Free Subspaces
Varela, Jaime
2014-01-01
We formulate semi-classical field theory as an approximate decoherence-free-subspace of a finite-dimensional quantum-gravity hilbert space. A complementarity construction can be realized as a unitary transformation which changes the decoherence-free-subspace. This can be translated to signify that field theory on a global slice, in certain space-times, is the simultaneous examination of two different superselected sectors of a gauge theory. We posit that a correct course graining procedure of quantum gravity should be WKB states propagating in a curved background in which particles exiting a horizon have imaginary components to their phases. The field theory appears non-unitary, but it is due to the existence of approximate decoherence free sub-spaces. Furthermore, the importance of operator spaces in the course-graining procedure is discussed. We also briefly touch on Firewalls.
Statistical test theory for the behavioral sciences
de Gruijter, Dato N M
2007-01-01
Since the development of the first intelligence test in the early 20th century, educational and psychological tests have become important measurement techniques to quantify human behavior. Focusing on this ubiquitous yet fruitful area of research, Statistical Test Theory for the Behavioral Sciences provides both a broad overview and a critical survey of assorted testing theories and models used in psychology, education, and other behavioral science fields. Following a logical progression from basic concepts to more advanced topics, the book first explains classical test theory, covering true score, measurement error, and reliability. It then presents generalizability theory, which provides a framework to deal with various aspects of test scores. In addition, the authors discuss the concept of validity in testing, offering a strategy for evidence-based validity. In the two chapters devoted to item response theory (IRT), the book explores item response models, such as the Rasch model, and applications, incl...
Classical theory of resonant transition radiation in multilayer structures.
Pardo, B; André, J M
2001-01-01
A rigorous classical electromagnetic theory of the transition radiation in finite and infinite multilayer structures is presented. It makes the standard results of thin-film optics, such as the matrix formalism, accountable; it allows thus an exact treatment of the propagation of the waves induced by the electron. This method is applied to the particular case of the periodic structures to treat the resonant transition radiation (RTR). It is noted that the present theory gives, in the hard x-ray domain, results previously published. The reason for this approach is to make the numerical calculations rigorous and easy. The numerical results of our theory are compared to experimental RTR data obtained recently by Yamada et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 3673 (1999)] with a nickel-carbon multilayer structure.
Classical Bianchi type I cosmology in K-essence theory
Socorro, J; Espinoza-García, Abraham
2014-01-01
We use one of the simplest forms of the K-essence theory and we apply it to the classical anisotropic Bianchi type I cosmological model, with a barotropic perfect fluid modeling the usual matter content and with cosmological constant. The classical solutions for any but the stiff fluid and without cosmological constant are found in closed form, using a time transformation. We also present the solution whith cosmological constant and some particular values of the barotropic parameter. We present the possible isotropization of the cosmological model, using the ratio between the anisotropic parameters and the volume of the universe and show that this tend to a constant or to zero for different cases. We include also a qualitative analysis of the analog of the Friedmann equation.
The theory of variational hybrid quantum-classical algorithms
McClean, Jarrod R; Babbush, Ryan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-01-01
Many quantum algorithms have daunting resource requirements when compared to what is available today. To address this discrepancy, a quantum-classical hybrid optimization scheme known as "the quantum variational eigensolver" was developed with the philosophy that even minimal quantum resources could be made useful when used in conjunction with classical routines. In this work we extend the general theory of this algorithm and suggest algorithmic improvements for practical implementations. Specifically, we develop a variational adiabatic ansatz and explore unitary coupled cluster where we establish a connection from second order unitary coupled cluster to universal gate sets through relaxation of exponential splitting. We introduce the concept of quantum variational error suppression that allows some errors to be suppressed naturally in this algorithm on a pre-threshold quantum device. Additionally, we analyze truncation and correlated sampling in Hamiltonian averaging as ways to reduce the cost of this proced...
Carati, Andrea; Galgani, Luigi
2014-10-01
This paper is a continuation of a recent one in which, apparently for the first time, the existence of polaritons in ionic crystals was proven in a microscopic electrodynamic theory. This was obtained through an explicit computation of the dispersion curves. Here the main further contribution consists in studying electric susceptibility, from which the spectrum can be inferred. We show how susceptibility is obtained by the Green-Kubo methods of Hamiltonian statistical mechanics, and give for it a concrete expression in terms of time-correlation functions. As in the previous paper, here too we work in a completely classical framework, in which the electrodynamic forces acting on the charges are all taken into account, both the retarded forces and the radiation reaction ones. So, in order to apply the methods of statistical mechanics, the system has to be previously reduced to a Hamiltonian one. This is made possible in virtue of two global properties of classical electrodynamics, namely, the Wheeler-Feynman identity and the Ewald resummation properties, the proofs of which were already given for ordered system. The second contribution consists in formulating the theory in a completely general way, so that in principle it applies also to disordered systems such as glasses, or liquids or gases, provided the two general properties mentioned above continue to hold. A first step in this direction is made here by providing a completely general proof of the Wheeler-Feynman identity, which is shown to be the counterpart of a general causality property of classical electrodynamics. Finally it is shown how a line spectrum can appear at all in classical systems, as a counterpart of suitable stability properties of the motions, with a broadening due to a coexistence of chaoticity. The relevance of some recent results of the theory of dynamical systems in this connection is also pointed out.
A critical experimental study of the classical tactile threshold theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Medina Leonel E
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tactile sense is being used in a variety of applications involving tactile human-machine interfaces. In a significant number of publications the classical threshold concept plays a central role in modelling and explaining psychophysical experimental results such as in stochastic resonance (SR phenomena. In SR, noise enhances detection of sub-threshold stimuli and the phenomenon is explained stating that the required amplitude to exceed the sensory threshold barrier can be reached by adding noise to a sub-threshold stimulus. We designed an experiment to test the validity of the classical vibrotactile threshold. Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as the classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance level. Nevertheless, our experimental results are above that chance level contradicting the definition of the classical tactile threshold. Results We performed a three alternative forced choice detection experiment on 6 subjects asking them first and second choices. In each trial, only one of the intervals contained a stimulus and the others contained only noise. According to the classical threshold assumptions, a correct second choice response corresponds to a guess attempt with a statistical frequency of 50%. Results show an average of 67.35% (STD = 1.41% for the second choice response that is not explained by the classical threshold definition. Additionally, for low stimulus amplitudes, second choice correct detection is above chance level for any detectability level. Conclusions Using a second choice experiment, we show that individuals can order sensorial events below the level known as a classical threshold. If the observer's sensorial system is not activated by stimuli below the threshold, then a second choice could not be above the chance
BOOK REVIEW: Classical Solutions in Quantum Field Theory Classical Solutions in Quantum Field Theory
Mann, Robert
2013-02-01
Quantum field theory has evolved from its early beginnings as a tool for understanding the interaction of light with matter into a rather formidable technical paradigm, one that has successfully provided the mathematical underpinnings of all non-gravitational interactions. Over the eight decades since it was first contemplated the methods have become increasingly more streamlined and sophisticated, yielding new insights into our understanding of the subatomic world and our abilities to make clear and precise predictions. Some of the more elegant methods have to do with non-perturbative and semiclassical approaches to the subject. The chief players here are solitons, instantons, and anomalies. Over the past three decades there has been a steady rise in our understanding of these objects and of our ability to calculate their effects and implications for the rest of quantum field theory. This book is a welcome contribution to this subject. In 12 chapters it provides a clear synthesis of the key developments in these subjects at a level accessible to graduate students that have had an introductory course to quantum field theory. In the author's own words it provides both 'a survey and an overview of this field'. The first half of the book concentrates on solitons--kinks, vortices, and magnetic monopoles--and their implications for the subject. The reader is led first through the simplest models in one spatial dimension, into more sophisticated cases that required more advanced topological methods. The author does quite a nice job of introducing the various concepts as required, and beginning students should be able to get a good grasp of the subject directly from the text without having to first go through the primary literature. The middle part of the book deals with the implications of these solitons for both cosmology and for duality. While the cosmological discussion is quite nice, the discussion on BPS solitons, supersymmetry and duality is rather condensed. It is
Sprakel, J.H.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Besseling, N.A.M.
2008-01-01
A comprehensive theory is proposed that combines classical nucleation and polymer brush theory to describe star-like polymer micelles. With a minimum of adjustable parameters, the model predicts properties such as critical micelle concentrations and micellar size distributions. The validity of the p
Semi-classical quantum theory for cyclotron radiation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈军锋; 邓劲松; 徐毅; 尤峻汉
1997-01-01
A semi-classical quantum theory of the cyclotron radiation of the nonrelativistic thermal electrons in a very strong magnetic field is presented.The basic formulae of the absorption coefficient of cyclotron resonance kv and the absorption (scattering) cross-section of cyclotron resonance σv have been derived under the quadrupole approximation.σv is an important quantity in the study of the "magnetic inverse-Compton scattering".It is shown that σv is greatly larger than the Thomson cross-sectron σT,which is important in discussing the magnetic inverse-Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons in a very strong magnetic field.
Link Invariants from Classical Chern-Simons Theory
Leal, L C
2002-01-01
Taking as starting point a perturbative study of the classical equations of motion of the non-Abelian Chern-Simons Theory with non-dynamical sources, we search for analytical expressions for link invarians. In order to present this expressions in a manifestly diffeomorphism-invariant form, we introduce a set of differential forms associated with submanifolds in Euclidean three-space that allow us to write the link invariants as a kind of surface-dependent diffeomorphism-invariants that present certain Abelian gauge symmetry.
Lie Groupoids in Classical Field Theory I: Noether's Theorem
Costa, Bruno T; Pêgas, Luiz Henrique P
2015-01-01
In the two papers of this series, we initiate the development of a new approach to implementing the concept of symmetry in classical field theory, based on replacing Lie groups/algebras by Lie groupoids/algebroids, which are the appropriate mathematical tools to describe local symmetries when gauge transformations are combined with space-time transformations. Here, we outline the basis of the program and, as a first step, show how to (re)formulate Noether's theorem about the connection between symmetries and conservation laws in this approach.
Emergence Of A Classical World From Within Quantum Theory
Poulin, D
2005-01-01
The starting point of this dissertation is that a quantum state represents the observer's knowledge about the system of interest. As it has been pointed out several times by the opponents of this epistemic interpretation, it is difficult to reconcile this point of view with our common notion of “physical reality”, which exists independently of our monitoring, and can be discovered without disturbance. Indeed, if quantum theory is correct, it should apply to classical systems—including measurement devices—as well as to any other system. In this dissertation, we will study the quantum mechanisms responsible for our perception of the world and demonstrate how they lead to the emergence of an operational objective reality from within quantum theory: several observers gathering information through these mechanisms will arrive at a common consensus about the properties of the world. The two mechanisms we study in great detail are the redundant proliferation of information in ...
Light-cone Wilson loop in classical lattice gauge theory
Laine, M
2013-01-01
The transverse broadening of an energetic jet passing through a non-Abelian plasma is believed to be described by the thermal expectation value of a light-cone Wilson loop. In this exploratory study, we measure the light-cone Wilson loop with classical lattice gauge theory simulations. We observe, as suggested by previous studies, that there are strong interactions already at short transverse distances, which may lead to more efficient jet quenching than in leading-order perturbation theory. We also verify that the asymptotics of the Wilson loop do not change qualitatively when crossing the light cone, which supports arguments in the literature that infrared contributions to jet quenching can be studied with dimensionally reduced simulations in the space-like domain. Finally we speculate on possibilities for full four-dimensional lattice studies of the same observable, perhaps by employing shifted boundary conditions in order to simulate ensembles boosted by an imaginary velocity.
Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara Yalof
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Classic grounded theory (CGT was used to identify a main concern of online students in higher education. One of the main impediments to studying online is a sense of isolation and lack of access to support systems as students navigate through complex requirements of their online programs. Hypothetical probability statements illustrate the imbalance between heightened needs of virtual learners and perceived inadequate support provided by educational institutions. The core variable, marshaling resources, explains how peer supports sustain motivation toward successful program completion. Understanding the critical contribution virtual interpersonal networks make towards maximizing resources by group problem solving is a significant aspect of this theory. Keywords: Online learning, e-learning, personal learning networks, peer networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯艳宾; 马洪超
2012-01-01
Difficulty and discrimination are the important concepts in psychometrics and testing. There are different characteristics in CTT and IRT. This paper explores the meaning of difficulty and discrimination under the framework of two theories. The true meaning of difficulty and discrimination in crI~ can be well understood basing on the parameters＇ concept in IRT. In fact, the Function can be founded between difficulty in IRT and CTY.%难度和区分度是心理测量或测验中的重要概念，它们在CTT和IRT框架中分别具有不同的特征。本研究在两种理论框架下，探讨难度和区分度的意义，指出基于IRT模型中的参数概念，可以更好地解释CTT中的难度和区分度的意义，两种理论中的难度值具有内在的函数关系。
A Classical Theory of the Anomalous Zeeman Effect
Espinosa, James; Woodyard, James
2010-10-01
Over a hundred years ago, it was discovered that spectral lines were shifted by magnetic fields. Lorentz was able to explain a small set of phenomena that was ironically called the normal Zeeman effect. It took more than twenty years for Lande to arrive at a vector model of the atom to explain the majority of shiftings called the anomalous Zeeman effect. Within a couple of years, Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit introduced the idea of a spinning electron that would give an underlying explanation of the vector model rules. It is generally taught that without the concept of spin there can be no explanation of all the spectral splittings caused by a magnetic field. We will present a purely classical model developed by Woldemar Voigt to describe the most famous anomalous splitting, the sodium D line. In addition, his theory correctly describes the transition from the weak field state to the strong one, called the Paschen-Back effect. We will show how his theory matches well with our classical picture of the atom.
Quiver theories for moduli spaces of classical group nilpotent orbits
Hanany, Amihay; Kalveks, Rudolph
2016-06-01
We approach the topic of Classical group nilpotent orbits from the perspective of the moduli spaces of quivers, described in terms of Hilbert series and generating functions. We review the established Higgs and Coulomb branch quiver theory constructions for A series nilpotent orbits. We present systematic constructions for BCD series nilpotent orbits on the Higgs branches of quiver theories defined by canonical partitions; this paper collects earlier work into a systematic framework, filling in gaps and providing a complete treatment. We find new Coulomb branch constructions for above minimal nilpotent orbits, including some based upon twisted affine Dynkin diagrams. We also discuss aspects of 3 d mirror symmetry between these Higgs and Coulomb branch constructions and explore dualities and other relationships, such as HyperKähler quotients, between quivers. We analyse all Classical group nilpotent orbit moduli spaces up to rank 4 by giving their unrefined Hilbert series and the Highest Weight Generating functions for their decompositions into characters of irreducible representations and/or Hall Littlewood polynomials.
Classical item and test analysis with graphics: the ViSta-CITA program.
Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; Molina, J Gabriel
2009-11-01
Current advances in test development theory have mostly been influenced by item response theory. Notwithstanding this, classical test theory still plays a major part in the development of tests for applied educational and behavioral research. This article describes ViSta-CITA, a computer program that implements a set of classical item and test analysis methods that incorporate innovative graphics whose aim is to provide deeper insight into analysis results. Such an aim is achieved through the SpreadPlot, a graphical method designed to display multiple, simultaneous, interactive views of the analysis results. It behaves on a dynamic basis, so that users' changes (e.g., selecting a subset of items) are automatically updated in the graphical windows showing the analysis results. Moreover, ViSta-CITA is freely available, and its code is open to modifications or additions by the user. Features such as these constitute useful tools for research and teaching purposes related to test development.
Latfield2: A c++ library for classical lattice field theory
David, Daverio; Bevis, Neil
2015-01-01
latfield2 is a C++ library designed to simplify writing parallel codes for solving partial differen- tial equations, developed for application to classical field theories in particle physics and cosmology. It is a significant rewrite of the latfield framework, moving from a slab domain decomposition to a rod decomposition, where the last two dimension of the lattice are scattered into a two dimensional process grid. Parallelism is implemented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard, and hidden in the basic objects of grid-based simulations: Lattice, Site and Field. It comes with an integrated parallel fast Fourier transform, and I/O server class permitting computation to continue during the writing of large files to disk. latfield2 has been used for production runs on tens of thousands of processor elements, and is expected to be scalable to hundreds of thousands.
Geometry of Lagrangian First-order Classical Field Theories
Echeverría-Enríquez, A; Román-Roy, N; Echeverr\\'ia-Enr\\'iquez, Arturo; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso
1996-01-01
We construct a lagrangian geometric formulation for first-order field theories using the canonical structures of first-order jet bundles, which are taken as the phase spaces of the systems in consideration. First of all, we construct all the geometric structures associated with a first-order jet bundle and, using them, we develop the lagrangian formalism, defining the canonical forms associated with a lagrangian density and the density of lagrangian energy, obtaining the {\\sl Euler-Lagrange equations} in two equivalent ways: as the result of a variational problem and developing the {\\sl jet field formalism} (which is a formulation more similar to the case of mechanical systems). A statement and proof of Noether's theorem is also given, using the latter formalism. Finally, some classical examples are briefly studied.
Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity
Hentschke, Reinhard
2017-01-01
This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...
Complex analysis fundamentals of the classical theory of functions
Stalker, John
1998-01-01
This clear, concise introduction to the classical theory of one complex variable is based on the premise that "anything worth doing is worth doing with interesting examples." The content is driven by techniques and examples rather than definitions and theorems. This self-contained monograph is an excellent resource for a self-study guide and should appeal to a broad audience. The only prerequisite is a standard calculus course. The first chapter deals with a beautiful presentation of special functions. . . . The third chapter covers elliptic and modular functions. . . in much more detail, and from a different point of view, than one can find in standard introductory books. . . . For [the] subjects that are omitted, the author has suggested some excellent references for the reader who wants to go through these topics. The book is read easily and with great interest. It can be recommended to both students as a textbook and to mathematicians and physicists as a useful reference. ---Mathematical Reviews Mainly or...
A numerical efficient way to minimize classical density functional theory.
Edelmann, Markus; Roth, Roland
2016-02-21
The minimization of the functional of the grand potential within the framework of classical density functional theory in three spatial dimensions can be numerically very demanding. The Picard iteration, that is often employed, is very simple and robust but can be rather slow. While a number of different algorithms for optimization problems have been suggested, there is still great need for additional strategies. Here, we present an approach based on the limited memory Broyden algorithm that is efficient and relatively simple to implement. We demonstrate the performance of this algorithm with the minimization of an inhomogeneous bulk structure of a fluid with competing interactions. For the problems we studied, we find that the presented algorithm improves performance by roughly a factor of three.
Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics
Jun, Ni
2014-01-01
This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...
Classical morphology of plants as an elementary instance of classical invariant theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeny V Mavrodiev
Full Text Available It has long been known that structural chemistry shows an intriguing correspondence with Classical Invariant Theory (CIT. Under this view, an algebraic binary form of the degree n corresponds to a chemical atom with valence n and each physical molecule or ion has an invariant-theoretic counterpart. This theory was developed using the Aronhold symbolical approach and the symbolical processes of convolution/transvection in CIT was characterized as a potential "accurate morphological method". However, CIT has not been applied to the formal morphology of living organisms. Based on the morphological interpretation of binary form, as well as the process of convolution/transvection, the First and Second Fundamental Theorems of CIT and the Nullforms of CIT, we show how CIT can be applied to the structure of plants, especially when conceptualized as a series of plant metamers (phytomers. We also show that the weight of the covariant/invariant that describes a morphological structure is a criterion of simplicity and, therefore, we argue that this allows us to formulate a parsimonious method of formal morphology. We demonstrate that the "theory of axilar bud" is the simplest treatment of the grass seedling/embryo. Our interpretations also represent Troll's bauplan of the angiosperms, the principle of variable proportions, morphological misfits, the basic types of stem segmentation, and Goethe's principle of metamorphosis in terms of CIT. Binary forms of different degrees might describe any repeated module of plant organisms. As bacteria, invertebrates, and higher vertebrates are all generally shared a metameric morphology, wider implications of the proposed symmetry between CIT and formal morphology of plants are apparent.
Fundamental Elements and Interactions of Nature: A Classical Unification Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianxi Zhang
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A classical unification theory that completely unifies all the fundamental interactions of nature is developed. First, the nature is suggested to be composed of the following four fundamental elements: mass, radiation, electric charge, and color charge. All known types of matter or particles are a combination of one or more of the four fundamental elements. Photons are radiation; neutrons have only mass; protons have both mass and electric charge; and quarks contain mass, electric charge, and color charge. The nature fundamental interactions are interactions among these nature fundamental elements. Mass and radiation are two forms of real energy. Electric and color charges are considered as two forms of imaginary energy. All the fundamental interactions of nature are therefore unified as a single interaction between complex energies. The interaction between real energies is the gravitational force, which has three types: mass-mass, mass-radiation, and radiation-radiation interactions. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done on a photon by the radiation-radiation interaction derives a radiation redshift, which is much smaller than the gravitational redshift. The interaction between imaginary energies is the electromagnetic (between electric charges, weak (between electric and color charges, and strong (between color charges interactions. In addition, we have four imaginary forces between real and imaginary energies, which are mass-electric charge, radiation-electric charge, mass-color charge, and radiation-color charge interactions. Among the four fundamental elements, there are ten (six real and four imaginary fundamental interactions. This classical unification theory deepens our understanding of the nature fundamental elements and interactions, develops a new concept of imaginary energy for electric and color charges, and provides a
Fundamental Elements and Interactions of Nature: A Classical Unification Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang T. X.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A classical unification theory that completely unifies all the fundamental interactions of nature is developed. First, the nature is suggested to be composed of the following four fundamental elements: mass, radiation, electric charge, and color charge. All known types of matter or particles are a combination of one or more of the four fundamental elements. Photons are radiation; neutrons have only mass; protons have both mass and electric charge; and quarks contain mass, electric charge, and color charge. The nature fundamental interactions are interactions among these nature fundamental elements. Mass and radiation are two forms of real energy. Electric and color charges are con- sidered as two forms of imaginary energy. All the fundamental interactions of nature are therefore unified as a single interaction between complex energies. The interac- tion between real energies is the gravitational force, which has three types: mass-mass, mass-radiation, and radiation-radiation interactions. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done on a photon by the radiation-radiation interaction derives a radiation redshift, which is much smaller than the gravitational redshift. The interaction between imaginary energies is the electromagnetic (between electric charges, weak (between electric and color charges, and strong (between color charges interactions. In addition, we have four imaginary forces between real and imaginary energies, which are mass-electric charge, radiation-electric charge, mass-color charge, and radiation- color charge interactions. Among the four fundamental elements, there are ten (six real and four imaginary fundamental interactions. This classical unification theory deep- ens our understanding of the nature fundamental elements and interactions, develops a new concept of imaginary energy for electric and color charges, and provides a
On the Classical String Solutions and String/Field Theory Duality
Aleksandrova, D.; Bozhilov, P.
2003-01-01
We classify almost all classical string configurations, considered in the framework of the semi-classical limit of the string/gauge theory duality. Then, we describe a procedure for obtaining the conserved quantities and the exact classical string solutions in general string theory backgrounds, when the string embedding coordinates depend non-linearly on the worldsheet time parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahoo, Tapas; Pollak, Eli [Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)
2015-08-14
A second order classical perturbation theory is developed to calculate the sticking probability of a particle scattered from an uncorrugated thermal surface. An analytic expression for the temperature dependent energy loss of the particle to the surface is derived by employing a one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation. The surface temperature reduces the energy loss, since the thermal surface transfers energy to the particle. Using a Gaussian energy loss kernel and the multiple collision theory of Fan and Manson [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 064703 (2009)], enables the determination of the fraction of particles trapped on the surface after subsequent momentum reversals of the colliding particle. This then leads to an estimate of the trapping probability. The theory is tested for the model scattering of Ar on a LiF(100) surface. Comparison with numerical simulations shows excellent agreement of the analytical theory with simulations, provided that the energy loss is determined by the second order perturbation theory.
Sahoo, Tapas; Pollak, Eli
2015-08-14
A second order classical perturbation theory is developed to calculate the sticking probability of a particle scattered from an uncorrugated thermal surface. An analytic expression for the temperature dependent energy loss of the particle to the surface is derived by employing a one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation. The surface temperature reduces the energy loss, since the thermal surface transfers energy to the particle. Using a Gaussian energy loss kernel and the multiple collision theory of Fan and Manson [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 064703 (2009)], enables the determination of the fraction of particles trapped on the surface after subsequent momentum reversals of the colliding particle. This then leads to an estimate of the trapping probability. The theory is tested for the model scattering of Ar on a LiF(100) surface. Comparison with numerical simulations shows excellent agreement of the analytical theory with simulations, provided that the energy loss is determined by the second order perturbation theory.
Classical Nonminimal Lagrangians and Kinematic Tests of Special Relativity
Schreck, M
2016-01-01
This article gives a brief summary on recently obtained classical lagrangians for the nonminimal fermion sector of the Standard-Model Extension (SME). Such lagrangians are adequate descriptions of classical particles that are subject to a Lorentz-violating background field based on the SME. Explicitly, lagrangians were obtained for the leading nonminimal contributions of the m, a, c, e, and f coefficients. These results were then used to interpret classical, kinematic tests of Special Relativity in the framework of the nonminimal SME. This led to new constraints on certain nonminimal controlling coefficients. Although the experiments were very sophisticated in the era when they were carried out, their sensitivities for detecting Lorentz violation were still far away from the Planck scale. Obtaining the novel constraints can be considered as a proof-of-principle demonstrating the applicability of the classical lagrangians computed.
Experimental device-independent tests of classical and quantum dimensions
Ahrens, Johan; Badziag, Piotr; Cabello, Adán; Bourennane, Mohamed
2012-08-01
A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. The classical information encoded in a set of states is limited by the number of distinguishable states or classical dimension dc of the set. The sets used in quantum communication and information processing contain states that are neither identical nor distinguishable, and the quantum dimension dq of the set is the dimension of the Hilbert space spanned by these states. An important challenge is to assess the (classical or quantum) dimension of a set of states in a device-independent way, that is, without referring to the internal working of the device generating the states. Here we experimentally test dimension witnesses designed to efficiently determine the minimum dimension of sets of (three or four) photonic states from the correlations originated from measurements on them, and distinguish between classical and quantum sets of states.
A course in mathematical physics 2 classical field theory
Thirring, Walter
1978-01-01
In the past decade the language and methods ofmodern differential geometry have been increasingly used in theoretical physics. What seemed extravagant when this book first appeared 12 years ago, as lecture notes, is now a commonplace. This fact has strengthened my belief that today students of theoretical physics have to learn that language-and the sooner the better. Afterall, they willbe the professors ofthe twenty-first century and it would be absurd if they were to teach then the mathematics of the nineteenth century. Thus for this new edition I did not change the mathematical language. Apart from correcting some mistakes I have only added a section on gauge theories. In the last decade it has become evident that these theories describe fundamental interactions, and on the classical level their structure is suffi cientlyclear to qualify them for the minimum amount ofknowledge required by a theoretician. It is with much regret that I had to refrain from in corporating the interesting developments in Kal...
Sprakel, Joris; Leermakers, Frans A M; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Besseling, Nicolaas A M
2008-09-14
A comprehensive theory is proposed that combines classical nucleation and polymer brush theory to describe star-like polymer micelles. With a minimum of adjustable parameters, the model predicts properties such as critical micelle concentrations and micellar size distributions. The validity of the present theory is evidenced in direct comparison to experiments; this revealed that the proportionality constant in the Daoud-Cotton model is of the order of unity and that the star-limit is valid down to relatively short corona chains. Furthermore, we show that the predicted saddle points in the free energy correspond to those solutions that are accessible with self-consistent field methods for self-assembly.
New views on classical and quantum Brans-Dicke theory
Fabris, Júlio C; Rodrigues, Davi C; Almeida, Carla R; Piattella, Oliver F
2016-01-01
The Brans-Dicke action is one of the most natural extensions of the Einstein-Hilbert action. It is based on the introduction of a fundamental scalar field that effectively incorporates a dynamics to the gravitational coupling $G$. In spite of the diverse motivations and the rich phenomenology that comes from its solutions, Solar System tests impose strong constraints on the Brans-Dicke theory, rendering it indistinguishable from General Relativity. In the present text, new perspectives for the Brans-Dicke theory are presented, based on the possibility that the scalar field presented in the BD theory can be external, as well as on the applications to black hole physics and the primordial universe.
Statistical Decision Theory Estimation, Testing, and Selection
Liese, Friedrich
2008-01-01
Suitable for advanced graduate students and researchers in mathematical statistics and decision theory, this title presents an account of the concepts and a treatment of the major results of classical finite sample size decision theory and modern asymptotic decision theory
Universality principle and the development of classical density functional theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周世琦; 张晓琪
2002-01-01
The universality principle of the free energy density functional and the ‘test particle' trick by Percus are combined to construct the approximate free energy density functional or its functional derivative. Information about the bulk fluid ralial distribution function is integrated into the density functional approximation directly for the first time in the present methodology. The physical foundation of the present methodology also applies to the quantum density functional theory.
Theory of Test Translation Error
Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel
2009-01-01
In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…
On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forger, Michael [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66281, BR–05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salles, Mário O. [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66281, BR–05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário – Lagoa Nova, BR–59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)
2015-10-15
How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on “multisymplectic Poisson brackets,” together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls–De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic “multisymplectic Poisson bracket” already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls–De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-03-01
The idea that quantum randomness can be reduced to randomness of classical fields (fluctuating at time and space scales which are essentially finer than scales approachable in modern quantum experiments) is rather old. Various models have been proposed, e.g., stochastic electrodynamics or the semiclassical model. Recently a new model, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), was developed. By this model a "quantum system" is just a label for (so to say "prequantum") classical random field. Quantum averages can be represented as classical field averages. Correlations between observables on subsystems of a composite system can be as well represented as classical correlations. In particular, it can be done for entangled systems. Creation of such classical field representation demystifies quantum entanglement. In this paper we show that quantum dynamics (given by Schrödinger's equation) of entangled systems can be represented as the stochastic dynamics of classical random fields. The "effect of entanglement" is produced by classical correlations which were present at the initial moment of time, cf. views of Albert Einstein.
Qian, Xiao-Feng; Howell, John C; Eberly, J H
2015-01-01
The growing recognition that entanglement is not exclusively a quantum property, and does not even originate with Schr\\"odinger's famous remark about it [Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. {\\bf 31}, 555 (1935)], prompts examination of its role in marking the quantum-classical boundary. We have done this by subjecting correlations of classical optical fields to new Bell-analysis experiments, and report here values of the Bell parameter greater than ${\\cal B} = 2.54$. This is many standard deviations outside the limit ${\\cal B} = 2$ established by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 23}, 880 (1969)], in agreement with our theoretical classical prediction, and not far from the Tsirelson limit ${\\cal B} = 2.828...$. These results cast a new light on the standard quantum-classical boundary description, and suggest a reinterpretation of it.
Theory testing using case studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina
Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...
A reappraisal of classical archetype theory and its implications for theory and practice.
Merchant, John
2009-06-01
This paper begins with an overview of contemporary approaches to archetype theory and notes the radical nature of certain deductions. Some argue that there is no 'archetype-as-such' as a pre-existing entity at the core of a complex driving its formation whilst the findings of current neuroscience are calling into question one very thing on which the classical theory is built--innatism. Knox's argument for image schemas raises the question as to the extent to which archetypes can be conceived in any preformationist sense. The question is then posed--to what extent can Jung's classical theory of archetypes be read in light of these current models? The case examples Jung uses to evidence the existence of archetypes, his explications of synchronicity and his own Philemon experience are then reappraised. The conclusion is drawn that it is difficult to evidence the existence of autonomous archetypes unrelated to personal affective experience. Not only would this be expected by emergent/developmental models of archetype but it can explain many of Jung's disjunctive statements about archetype constellation; the difficulties in separating personal and collective psychic content and Jung's apparent Lamarckianism. The implications of these models for theory, clinical practice and analyst training are then offered for discussion.
Motion in classical field theories and the foundations of the self-force problem
Harte, Abraham I
2014-01-01
This article serves as a pedagogical introduction to the problem of motion in classical field theories. The primary focus is on self-interaction: How does an object's own field affect its motion? General laws governing the self-force and self-torque are derived using simple, non-perturbative arguments. The relevant concepts are developed gradually by considering motion in a series of increasingly complicated theories. Newtonian gravity is discussed first, then Klein-Gordon theory, electromagnetism, and finally general relativity. Linear and angular momenta as well as centers of mass are defined in each of these cases. Multipole expansions for the force and torque are then derived to all orders for arbitrarily self-interacting extended objects. These expansions are found to be structurally identical to the laws of motion satisfied by extended test bodies, except that all relevant fields are replaced by effective versions which exclude the self-fields in a particular sense. Regularization methods traditionally ...
Force-Field Functor Theory: Classical Force-Fields which Reproduce Equilibrium Quantum Distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryan eBabbush
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Feynman and Hibbs were the first to variationally determine an effective potential whose associated classical canonical ensemble approximates the exact quantum partition function. We examine the existence of a map between the local potential and an effective classical potential which matches the exact quantum equilibrium density and partition function. The usefulness of such a mapping rests in its ability to readily improve Born-Oppenheimer potentials for use with classical sampling. We show that such a map is unique and must exist. To explore the feasibility of using this result to improve classical molecular mechanics, we numerically produce a map from a library of randomly generated one-dimensional potential/effective potential pairs then evaluate its performance on independent test problems. We also apply the map to simulate liquid para-hydrogen, finding that the resulting radial pair distribution functions agree well with path integral Monte Carlo simulations. The surprising accessibility and transferability of the technique suggest a quantitative route to adapting Born-Oppenheimer potentials, with a motivation similar in spirit to the powerful ideas and approximations of density functional theory.
Babbush, Ryan; Parkhill, John; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2013-01-01
Feynman and Hibbs were the first to variationally determine an effective potential whose associated classical canonical ensemble approximates the exact quantum partition function. We examine the existence of a map between the local potential and an effective classical potential which matches the exact quantum equilibrium density and partition function. The usefulness of such a mapping rests in its ability to readily improve Born-Oppenheimer potentials for use with classical sampling. We show that such a map is unique and must exist. To explore the feasibility of using this result to improve classical molecular mechanics, we numerically produce a map from a library of randomly generated one-dimensional potential/effective potential pairs then evaluate its performance on independent test problems. We also apply the map to simulate liquid para-hydrogen, finding that the resulting radial pair distribution functions agree well with path integral Monte Carlo simulations. The surprising accessibility and transferability of the technique suggest a quantitative route to adapting Born-Oppenheimer potentials, with a motivation similar in spirit to the powerful ideas and approximations of density functional theory.
Theory Testing Using Case Studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille
2014-01-01
testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....
Dressing the Post-Newtonian two-body problem and Classical Effective Field Theory
Kol, Barak
2009-01-01
We apply a dressed perturbation theory to better organize and economize the computation of high orders of the 2-body effective action of an inspiralling Post-Newtonian gravitating binary. We use the effective field theory approach with the non-relativistic field decomposition (NRG fields). For that purpose we develop quite generally the dressing theory of a non-linear classical field theory coupled to point-like sources. We introduce dressed charges and propagators, but unlike the quantum theory there are no dressed bulk vertices. The dressed quantities are found to obey recursive integral equations which succinctly encode parts of the diagrammatic expansion, and are the classical version of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. Actually, the classical equations are somewhat stronger since they involve only finitely many quantities, unlike the quantum theory. Classical diagrams are shown to factorize exactly when they contain non-linear world-line vertices, and we classify all the possible topologies of irreducible ...
Experimental device-independent tests of classical and quantum entropy
Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Sijing; You, Lixing; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yidong
2016-12-01
In quantum information processing, it is important to witness the entropy of the message in the device-independent way which was proposed recently [R. Chaves, J. B. Brask, and N. Brunner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 110501 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.110501]. In this paper, we theoretically obtain the minimal quantum entropy for three widely used linear dimension witnesses, which is considered "a difficult question." Then we experimentally test the classical and quantum entropy in a device-independent manner. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis, demonstrating that entropy is needed in quantum systems that is lower than the entropy needed in classical systems with the given value of the dimension witness.
Surana, K. S.; Joy, A. D.; Reddy, J. N.
2017-03-01
This paper presents a non-classical continuum theory in Lagrangian description for solids in which the conservation and the balance laws are derived by incorporating both the internal rotations arising from the Jacobian of deformation and the rotations of Cosserat theories at a material point. In particular, in this non-classical continuum theory, we have (i) the usual displacements ( ±b \\varvec{u}) and (ii) three internal rotations ({}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ}) about the axes of a triad whose axes are parallel to the x-frame arising from the Jacobian of deformation (which are completely defined by the skew-symmetric part of the Jacobian of deformation), and (iii) three additional rotations ({}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ}) about the axes of the same triad located at each material point as additional three degrees of freedom referred to as Cosserat rotations. This gives rise to ±b \\varvec{u} and {}_e ±b \\varvec{{Θ} as six degrees of freedom at a material point. The internal rotations ({}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ}), often neglected in classical continuum mechanics, exist in all deforming solid continua as these are due to Jacobian of deformation. When the internal rotations {}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ} are resisted by the deforming matter, conjugate moment tensor arises that together with {}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ} may result in energy storage and/or dissipation, which must be accounted for in the conservation and the balance laws. The Cosserat rotations {}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ} also result in conjugate moment tensor which, together with {}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ}, may also result in energy storage and/or dissipation. The main focus of the paper is a consistent derivation of conservation and balance laws that incorporate aforementioned physics and associated constitutive theories for thermoelastic solids. The mathematical model derived here has closure, and the constitutive theories derived using two alternate approaches are in agreement with each other as well as with the condition resulting from the
Classical tests of general relativity in brane world models
Boehmer, Christian G; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S N
2009-01-01
The classical tests of general relativity (perihelion precession, deflection of light, and the radar echo delay) are considered for several spherically symmetric static vacuum solutions in brane world models. Generally, the spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the brane gravitational field equations have properties quite distinct as compared to the standard black hole solutions of general relativity. As a first step a general formalism that facilitates the analysis of general relativistic Solar System tests for any given spherically symmetric metric is developed. It is shown that the existing observational Solar System data on the perihelion shift of Mercury, on the light bending around the Sun (obtained using long-baseline radio interferometry), and ranging to Mars using the Viking lander, constrain the numerical values of the parameters of the specific models. Hence Solar System tests represent very convenient and efficient tools to test the viability of the different black hole solutions in brane worl...
How some infinities cause problems in classical physical theories
Atkinson, David; Peijnenburg, Jeanne; Allo, P.; van Kerhove, B.
2014-01-01
In this paper we review a 1992 excursion of Jean Paul Van Bendegem into physics, ‘How Infinities Cause Problems in Classical Physical Theories’, in the light of two later models concerning colliding balls, of Pérez Laraudogoitia and of Alper and Bridger, respectively. We show that Van Bendegem antic
Homology of classical groups and K-theory
Mirzaii, B.
2004-01-01
The study of the homology groups of classical group over a ring R with coefficient A, where A is a commutative ring with trivial group action, seems important, notably because of their close relation to algebraic and Hermitian Ktheory and their appearance in the study of scissors congruence of polyh
On the concept of Bell’s local causality in local classical and quantum theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofer-Szabó, Gábor, E-mail: szabo.gabor@btk.mta.hu [Research Center for the Humanities, Budapest (Hungary); Vecsernyés, Péter, E-mail: vecsernyes.peter@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)
2015-03-15
The aim of this paper is to implement Bell’s notion of local causality into a framework, called local physical theory. This framework, based on the axioms of algebraic field theory, is broad enough to integrate both probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts and also classical and quantum theories. Bell’s original idea of local causality will arise as the classical case of our definition. Classifying local physical theories by whether they obey local primitive causality, a property rendering the dynamics of the theory causal, we then investigate what is needed for a local physical theory to be locally causal. Finally, comparing local causality with the common cause principles and relating both to the Bell inequalities we find a nice parallelism: Bell inequalities cannot be derived neither from local causality nor from a common cause unless the local physical theory is classical or the common cause is commuting, respectively.
Theory of elites in classical and contemporary political sociology
Pavlović, Vukašin
2011-01-01
The text consists of three parts. The first one analyses classical concepts of elites in the works of Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto and Robert Michels. The second part presents and analyses new concepts of elites given in the works by Karl Mannheim, Joseph Schumpeter, James Burnham, Milovan Đilas, Wright Mills, Tom Bottomore, John Kenneth Galbraith, Raymond Aron. The third, concluding part, considers the relation between democracy and elitism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
French, Doug [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: french@purdue.edu; Huang Zun; Pao, H.-Y.; Jovanovic, Igor [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2009-03-02
A quantum phase amplifier operated in the spatial domain can improve the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging beyond the classical limit. The scaling of the signal-to-noise ratio with the gain of the quantum phase amplifier is derived from classical information theory.
Lange, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
This article argues that sociology has been a foundational discipline for the field of adult education, but it has been largely implicit, until recently. This article contextualizes classical theories of sociology within contemporary critiques, reviews the historical roots of sociology and then briefly introduces the classical theories…
Classical Kinetic Theory of Landau Damping for Self-interacting Scalar Fields in the Broken Phase
1998-01-01
The classical kinetic theory of one-component self-interacting scalar fields is formulated in the broken symmetry phase and applied to the phenomenon of Landau damping. The domain of validity of the classical approach is found by comparing with the result of a 1-loop quantum calculation.
Quantum Electrodynamics Basis of Classical-Field High-Harmonic Generation Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王兵兵; 高靓辉; 傅盘铭; 郭东升; R. R. Freeman
2001-01-01
From the nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory, we derive the Landau-Dykhne formula which represents the quantum-mechanical formulation of the three-step model. These studies provide a basis for the classical-field approaches to high-order harmonic generation and justify some assumptions used in classical-field modelling.
Classical conformality in the Standard Model from Coleman’s theory
Kawana, Kiyoharu
2016-09-01
The classical conformality (CC) is one of the possible candidates for explaining the gauge hierarchy of the Standard Model (SM). We show that it is naturally obtained from the Coleman’s theory on baby universe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sargsyan S.H.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the system of equations of three-dimensional micropolar theory of elasticity, written down for thin shell as singularly perturbed with small geometric parameter system, is analyzed asymptotically: the internal iteration process and boundary layers are constructed, their interaction is studied, boundary conditions are obtained for each of them. Then, the main specific properties of the asymptotic solution accepting as hypotheses, general applied theory of micropolar elastic thin shells is constructed and it is shown that the constructed theory is asymptotically correct. Passing from the micropolar theory of thin shells to the classical theory, it is shown, that this applied classical theory of thin shells, when transverse shifts are taken into account, is asymptotically correct theory in relation to the other corrected theories of thin shells.
Introduction of a Classical Level in Quantum Theory
Prosperi, G. M.
2016-11-01
In an old paper of our group in Milano a formalism was introduced for the continuous monitoring of a system during a certain interval of time in the framework of a somewhat generalized approach to quantum mechanics (QM). The outcome was a distribution of probability on the space of all the possible continuous histories of a set of quantities to be considered as a kind of coarse grained approximation to some ordinary quantum observables commuting or not. In fact the main aim was the introduction of a classical level in the context of QM, treating formally a set of basic quantities, to be considered as beables in the sense of Bell, as continuously taken under observation. However the effect of such assumption was a permanent modification of the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the statistical operator by the introduction of a dissipative term which is in conflict with basic conservation rules in all reasonable models we had considered. Difficulties were even encountered for a relativistic extension of the formalism. In this paper I propose a modified version of the original formalism which seems to overcome both difficulties. First I study the simple models of an harmonic oscillator and a free scalar field in which a coarse grain position and a coarse grained field respectively are treated as beables. Then I consider the more realistic case of spinor electrodynamics in which only certain coarse grained electric and magnetic fields are introduced as classical variables and no matter related quantities.
Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Bjørn
2011-01-01
Agnes Horvath, Bjørn Thomassen, & Dr Harald Wydra, editors of the Journal,International Political Anthropology “Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics” This paper argues that anthropology may represent a perspective from where social theory can renew itself. The presen......Agnes Horvath, Bjørn Thomassen, & Dr Harald Wydra, editors of the Journal,International Political Anthropology “Anthropology and social theory: renewing dialogue via the classics” This paper argues that anthropology may represent a perspective from where social theory can renew itself....... The presentation therefore inserts itself within the history of a long conversation between anthropology and social theory. This discussion goes back at least to the Durkhemian school which saw the study of modern and "archaic" cultures as part and parcel of the same project. However, the disciplines of sociology...... with anthropology via the "cultural turn". Yet this elevated status of anthropology and its method has involved almost no engagement with the theoretical luggage found within the discipline of anthropology.Our premise is that the modern world may indeed not be so unique in all its features, and that it therefore...
A course in mathematical physics 1 and 2 classical dynamical systems and classical field theory
Thirring, Walter
1992-01-01
The last decade has seen a considerable renaissance in the realm of classical dynamical systems, and many things that may have appeared mathematically overly sophisticated at the time of the first appearance of this textbook have since become the everyday tools of working physicists. This new edition is intended to take this development into account. I have also tried to make the book more readable and to eradicate errors. Since the first edition already contained plenty of material for a one semester course, new material was added only when some of the original could be dropped or simplified. Even so, it was necessary to expand the chap ter with the proof of the K-A-M Theorem to make allowances for the cur rent trend in physics. This involved not only the use of more refined mathe matical tools, but also a reevaluation of the word "fundamental. " What was earlier dismissed as a grubby calculation is now seen as the consequence of a deep principle. Even Kepler's laws, which determine the radii of the ...
Quantization of light energy directly from classical electromagnetic theory in vacuum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
She Wei-Long
2005-01-01
It is currently believed that light quantum or the quantization of light energy is beyond classical physics, and the picture of wave-particle duality, which was criticized by Einstein but has attracted a number of experimental researches, is necessary for the description of light. It is shown in this paper, however, that the quantization of light energy in vacuum, which is the same as that in quantum electrodynamics, can be derived directly from the classical electromagnetic theory through the consideration of statistics based on classical physics. Therefore, the quantization of energy is an intrinsic property of light as a classical electromagnetic wave and has no need of being related to particles.
Classical versus Keynesian theory of unemployment : an approach to the Spanish labor market
Alonso Rodríguez, Rubén
2015-01-01
In the last decade the unemployment skyrocketed defining a dramatic landscape for the Spanish economy. In order to understand the root causes, I have revisited two theories widely extended in labor economics: The Classical Theory of Unemployment and the Keynesian Theory of Unemployment. Despite both conceptions are well known and supported by academic literature, in the Spanish case as in many other countries is still unclear what theory better adjust to reality. To solve this lack of clearne...
k-Cosymplectic Classical Field Theories: Tulczyjew and Skinner-Rusk Formulations
Rey, Angel M.; Román-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto; Vilariño, Silvia
2012-06-01
The k-cosymplectic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms of first-order classical field theories are reviewed and completed. In particular, they are stated for singular and almost-regular systems. Subsequently, several alternative formulations for k-cosymplectic first-order field theories are developed: First, generalizing the construction of Tulczyjew for mechanics, we give a new interpretation of the classical field equations. Second, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms are unified by giving an extension of the Skinner-Rusk formulation on classical mechanics.
THE CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND MAIN CLASSIC THEORIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Ramona TERZEA
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Taking into account the major impact that international trade has on the economy and on the people’s lives, and considering its effects on the economic growth, the foreign commerce has to be well understood so that the commercial policies have to be well elaborated, implemented and followed. The theories of international trade are extremely important in order to determine the flows, but especially in the anticipation of the evolution of the forces that influences its dymanic. The theories regarding the foreign trade are used also by the big companies, by their managers, in their attempt to identify the most advantageous strategies of internationalizations, on the most promising markets.
A class of exact classical solutions to string theory.
Coley, A A
2002-12-31
We show that the recently obtained class of spacetimes for which all of the scalar curvature invariants vanish (which can be regarded as generalizations of pp-wave spacetimes) are exact solutions in string theory to all perturbative orders in the string tension scale. As a result the spectrum of the theory can be explicitly obtained, and these spacetimes are expected to provide some hints for the study of superstrings on more general backgrounds. Since these Lorentzian spacetimes suffer no quantum corrections to all loop orders they may also offer insights into quantum gravity.
Foundations of the classical theory of partial differential equations
Egorov, Yu V
1998-01-01
From the reviews of the first printing, published as volume 30 of the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences: "... I think the volume is a great success and an excellent preparation for future volumes in the series. ... the introductory style of Egorov and Shubin is .. attractive. ... a welcome addition to the literature and I am looking forward to the appearance of more volumes of the Encyclopedia in the near future. ..." The Mathematical Intelligencer, 1993 "... According to the authors ... the work was written for nonspecialists and physicists but in my opinion almost every specialist will find something new ... in the text. The style is clear, the notations are chosen luckily. The most characteristic feature of the work is the accurate emphasis on the fundamental notions ..." Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum, 1993 "... On the whole, a thorough overview on the classical aspects of the topic may be gained from that volume." Monatshefte für Mathematik, 1993 "... It is comparable in scope with the great Coura...
Collaboration in classical political economy and noncooperative game theory.
McCain, Roger A
2014-06-01
This commentary suggests (1) that there are precedents for Smaldino's "collaboration" in the history of economic thought before 1900 and (2) that the distinction of collaboration from what is thought of as cooperation in game theory is less clear than Smaldino suggests.
Quantum and classical theories of scattering of relativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals
Shulga, N F
2016-01-01
Quantum and classical theories are proposed of scattering of high energy electrons in ultrathin crystals. The quantum theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of the integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The classical theory is based upon the solution of the equation of motion by numerical methods. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential cross-sections of scattering in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is realized. It is shown that in this range of crystal thicknesses substantial difference of quantum and classical scattering cross-sections takes place for the electrons with the energy up to tens of MeV. With the energy increase such difference decreases but some quantum effects in scattering still remain.
Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Yatsyshin, Peter; Lutsko, James F.; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2016-11-01
Classical density functional theory (DFT) for fluids and its dynamic extension (DDFT) provide an appealing mean-field framework for describing equilibrium and dynamics of complex soft matter systems. For a long time, homogeneous nucleation was considered to be outside the limits of applicability of DDFT. However, our recently developed mesoscopic nucleation theory (MeNT) based on fluctuating hydrodynamics, reconciles the inherent randomness of the nucleation process with the deterministic nature of DDFT. It turns out that in the weak-noise limit, the most likely path (MLP) for nucleation to occur is determined by the DDFT equations. We present computations of MLPs for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation in colloidal suspensions. For homogeneous nucleation, the MLP obtained is in excellent agreement with the reduced order-parameter description of MeNT, which predicts a multistage nucleation pathway. For heterogeneous nucleation, the presence of impurities in the fluid affects the MLP, but remarkably, the overall qualitative picture of homogeneous nucleation persists. Finally, we highlight the use of DDFT as a simulation tool, which is especially appealing as there are no known applications of MeNT to heterogeneous nucleation. We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 and from EPSRC via Grants No. EP/L020564 and EP/L025159.
Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony
Lilja, Esa
2009-01-01
This thesis explores melodic and harmonic features of heavy metal, and while doing so, explores various methods of music analysis; their applicability and limitations regarding the study of heavy metal music. The study is built on three general hypotheses according to which 1) acoustic characteristics play a significant role for chord constructing in heavy metal, 2) heavy metal has strong ties and similarities with other Western musical styles, and 3) theories and analytical methods of Wester...
The classical tests in Kaluza-Klein gravity
Kalligas, D.; Wesson, P. S.; Everitt, C. W. F.
1995-01-01
The possible existence of extra dimensions to spacetime can be tested astrophysically using Kaluza-Klein theory, which is a natural extension of Einsteins's general relativity. In the simplest version of the theory, there is a standard class of five-dimensional solutions that are analogous to the four-dimensional Schwarzschild solution. However, even a small departure of the extra dimension from flatness affects the first or dominant part of the potential, making it possible to test for the existence of an extra dimension. Data from the solar system indicate that in our region of space the terms due to the fifth dimension are small (less than or equal to 0.1%) compared to those due to the usual for dimensions of spacetime. However, the parameters of Kaluza-Klein theory are not universal constants and can vary from place to place depending on local physics. Hence other astrophysical systems may serve as better laboratories for investigating the possible existence of extra dimensions.
Classical light dispersion theory in a regular lattice
Marino, M.; Carati, A.; Galgani, L.
2007-04-01
We study the dynamics of an infinite regular lattice of classical charged oscillators. Each individual oscillator is described as a point particle subject to a harmonic restoring potential, to the retarded electromagnetic field generated by all the other particles, and to the radiation reaction expressed according to the Lorentz-Dirac equation. Exact normal mode solutions, describing the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves through the lattice, are obtained for the complete linearized system of infinitely many oscillators. At variance with all the available results, our method is valid for any values of the frequency, or of the ratio between wavelength and lattice parameter. A remarkable feature is that the proper inclusion of radiation reaction in the dynamics of the individual oscillators does not give rise to any extinction coefficient for the global normal modes of the lattice. The dispersion relations resulting from our solution are numerically studied for the case of a simple cubic lattice. New predictions are obtained in this way about the behavior of the crystal at frequencies near the proper oscillation frequency of the dipoles.
Opportunizing: A classic grounded theory study on business and management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ólavur Christiansen
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Opportunizing emerged as the core variable of this classic GT study on business and management. Opportunizing is the recurrent main concern that businesses have to continually resolve, and it explains how companies recurrently create, identify, seize or exploit situations to maintain their growth or survival. Opportunizing is the recurrent creation and re-creation of opportunities in business. Opportunizing is basically what business managers do and do all the time. The problematic nature of opportunizing is resolved by a core social process ofopportunizing and its attached sub-processes that account for change over time and for the variations of the problematic nature of its resolution.Opportunizing has five main facets. These are conditional befriending (confidence building & modifying behavior,prospecting (e.g. information gaining, weighing up (information appraisal & decision-making, moment capturing (quick intervention for seizing strategic opportunities, andconfiguration matching (adjusting the business organization to abet the other activities of opportunizing.On a more abstract level, opportunizing has three more organizational facets: the physically boundary-less, the valuehierarchical, and the physically bounded. The first of these called perpetual opportunizing. This emerges from the conjunction of conditional befriending and prospecting. The second facet is called triggering opportunizing. It arises from the coming together of weighing up and moment capturing. The final facet is called spasmodic opportunizing. This happens when moment capturing and configuration matching unite.
Finite-block-length analysis in classical and quantum information theory.
Hayashi, Masahito
2017-01-01
Coding technology is used in several information processing tasks. In particular, when noise during transmission disturbs communications, coding technology is employed to protect the information. However, there are two types of coding technology: coding in classical information theory and coding in quantum information theory. Although the physical media used to transmit information ultimately obey quantum mechanics, we need to choose the type of coding depending on the kind of information device, classical or quantum, that is being used. In both branches of information theory, there are many elegant theoretical results under the ideal assumption that an infinitely large system is available. In a realistic situation, we need to account for finite size effects. The present paper reviews finite size effects in classical and quantum information theory with respect to various topics, including applied aspects.
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
Ruiz, F Ruiz
2015-01-01
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary.
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz Ruiz, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)
2016-02-15
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary. (orig.)
Testing Gravity Theories Using Stars
Sakstein, Jeremy; Vikram, Vinu
2014-01-01
Modified theories of gravity have received a renewed interest due to their ability to account for the cosmic acceleration. In order to satisfy the solar system tests of gravity, these theories need to include a screening mechanism that hides the modifications on small scales. One popular and well-studied theory is chameleon gravity. Our own galaxy is necessarily screened, but less dense dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and their constituent stars can exhibit novel features. In particular, unscreened stars are brighter, hotter and more ephemeral than screened stars in our own galaxy. They also pulsate with a shorter period. In this essay, we exploit these new features to constrain chameleon gravity to levels three orders of magnitude lower the previous measurements. These constraints are currently the strongest in the literature.
Momentum relation and classical limit in the future-not-included complex action theory
Nagao, Keiichi
2013-01-01
Studying the time development of the expectation value in the future-not-included complex action theory we point out that the momentum relation (relation analogous to $p=\\frac{\\partial L}{\\partial \\dot{q}}$), which was derived via Feynman path integral and was shown to be right in the future-included theory in our previous papers, is not valid in the future-not-included theory. We provide the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory, and argue that the future-not-included classical theory is described by a certain real action. In addition we provide another way to understand the time development of the future-not-included theory by utilizing the future-included theory. Furthermore, applying the method used in our previous paper to the future-not-included theory properly by introducing a formal Lagrangian, we derive the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory.
Momentum relation and classical limit in the future-not-included complex action theory
Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech
2013-07-01
Studying the time development of the expectation value in the future-not-included complex action theory, we point out that the momentum relation (the relation analogous to p=frac {partial L}{partial dot {q}}), which was derived via the Feynman path integral and was shown to be correct in the future-included theory in our previous papers, is not valid in the future-not-included theory. We provide the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory, and argue that the future-not-included classical theory is described by a certain real action. In addition, we provide another way to understand the time development of the future-not-included theory by utilizing the future-included theory. Furthermore, properly applying the method used in our previous paper to the future-not-included theory by introducing a formal Lagrangian, we derive the correct momentum relation in the future-not-included theory.
Solving effective field theory of interacting QCD pomerons in the semi-classical approximation
Bondarenko, S; Bondarenko, Sergey; Motyka, Leszek
2006-01-01
Effective field theory of BFKL pomerons interacting by QCD triple pomeron vertices is investigated. Classical equations of motion for the effective pomeron fields are presented being a minimal extension of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation that incorporates both merging and splitting of the pomerons and that is self-dual. The equations are solved for symmetric boundary conditions. The solutions provide the dominant contribution to the scattering amplitudes in the semi-classical approximation. We find that for rapidities of the scattering larger than a critical value Y_c at least two classical solutions exist. Curiously, for each of the two classical solutions with the lowest action the symmetry between the projectile and the target is found to be spontaneously broken, being however preserved for the complete set of classical solutions. The solving configurations at rapidities Y>Y_c consist of a Gribov field being strongly suppressed even at very large gluon momenta and the complementary Gribov field that conver...
Quasi-classical theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic molecular processes.
Diestler, D J
2012-11-26
The standard Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). A previously proposed "coupled-channels" theory permits the extraction of the EFD from the BO wave function for one-electron diatomic systems, but attempts at generalization to many-electron polyatomic systems are frustrated by technical barriers. An alternative "quasi-classical" approach, which eliminates the explicit quantum dynamics of the electrons within a classical framework, yet retains the quantum character of the nuclear motion, appears capable of yielding EFDs for arbitrarily complex systems. Quasi-classical formulas for the EFD in simple systems agree with corresponding coupled-channels formulas. Results of the application of the new quasi-classical formula for the EFD to a model triatomic system indicate the potential of the quasi-classical scheme to elucidate the dynamical role of electrons in electronically adiabatic processes in more complex multiparticle systems.
A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, we attempt to describe the classical physical fields of gravity, electromagnetism, and the so-called intrinsic spin (chirality in terms of a set of fully geometrized constitutive equations. In our formalism, we treat the four-dimensional space-time continuum as a deformable medium and the classical fields as intrinsic stress and spin fields generated by infinitesimal displacements and rotations in the space-time continuum itself. In itself, the unifying continuum approach employed herein may suggest a possible unified field theory of the known classical physical fields.
Dressing the post-Newtonian two-body problem and classical effective field theory
Kol, Barak; Smolkin, Michael
2009-12-01
We apply a dressed perturbation theory to better organize and economize the computation of high orders of the 2-body effective action of an inspiralling post-Newtonian (PN) gravitating binary. We use the effective field theory approach with the nonrelativistic field decomposition (NRG fields). For that purpose we develop quite generally the dressing theory of a nonlinear classical field theory coupled to pointlike sources. We introduce dressed charges and propagators, but unlike the quantum theory there are no dressed bulk vertices. The dressed quantities are found to obey recursive integral equations which succinctly encode parts of the diagrammatic expansion, and are the classical version of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. Actually, the classical equations are somewhat stronger since they involve only finitely many quantities, unlike the quantum theory. Classical diagrams are shown to factorize exactly when they contain nonlinear worldline vertices, and we classify all the possible topologies of irreducible diagrams for low loop numbers. We apply the dressing program to our post-Newtonian case of interest. The dressed charges consist of the dressed energy-momentum tensor after a nonrelativistic decomposition, and we compute all dressed charges (in the harmonic gauge) appearing up to 2PN in the 2-body effective action (and more). We determine the irreducible skeleton diagrams up to 3PN and we employ the dressed charges to compute several terms beyond 2PN.
Werbos, P J
2003-01-01
Quantum Field Theory (QFT) makes predictions by combining two sets of assumptions: (1) quantum dynamics, such as a Schrodinger or Liouville equation; (2) quantum measurement, such as stochastic collapse to an eigenfunction of a measurement operator. A previous paper defined a classical density matrix R encoding the statistical moments of an ensemble of states of classical second-order Hamiltonian field theory. It proved Tr(RQ)=E(Q), etc., for the usual field operators as defined by Weinberg, and it proved that those observables of the classical system obey the usual Heisenberg dynamic equation. However, R itself obeys dynamics different from the usual Liouville equation! This paper derives those dynamics, and calculates the discrepancy between CFT and normal form QFT in predicting general observables g(Q,P). There is some preliminary evidence for the conjecture that the discrepancies disappear in equilibrium states (bound states and scattering states) for finite bosonic field theories. Even if not, they appea...
Development of a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on classical plasticity theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUAN Ping; LIU ChangChun; L(U) HeXiang
2009-01-01
The traditional unified viscoplasticity constitutive model can be only applied to metal materials. The study of the unified constitutive theory for metal materials has discovered the correlation between the classical plasticity theory and the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model, thus leading to the con-cepts of the classic plastic potential and yield surface in the unified constitutive model. Moreover, this research has given the continuous expression of the classical plastic multiplier and presented the corresponding constructive method, which extends its physical significance and lays down a good foundation for the application of the unified constitutive theory to the material analysis in more fields.This paper also introduces the unified constitutive model for metal materials and geo-materials. The numerical simulation indicates that the construction should be both reasonable and practical.
Development of a unified viscoplasticity constitutive model based on classical plasticity theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The traditional unified viscoplasticity constitutive model can be only applied to metal materials.The study of the unified constitutive theory for metal materials has discovered the correlation between the classical plasticity theory and the unified viscoplasticity constitutive model,thus leading to the con-cepts of the classic plastic potential and yield surface in the unified constitutive model.Moreover,this research has given the continuous expression of the classical plastic multiplier and presented the corresponding constructive method,which extends its physical significance and lays down a good foundation for the application of the unified constitutive theory to the material analysis in more fields.This paper also introduces the unified constitutive model for metal materials and geo-materials.The numerical simulation indicates that the construction should be both reasonable and practical.
Hybrid simulation theory for a classical nonlinear dynamical system
Drazin, Paul L.; Govindjee, Sanjay
2017-03-01
Hybrid simulation is an experimental and computational technique which allows one to study the time evolution of a system by physically testing a subset of it while the remainder is represented by a numerical model that is attached to the physical portion via sensors and actuators. The technique allows one to study large or complicated mechanical systems while only requiring a subset of the complete system to be present in the laboratory. This results in vast cost savings as well as the ability to study systems that simply can not be tested due to scale. However, the errors that arise from splitting the system in two requires careful attention, if a valid simulation is to be guaranteed. To date, efforts to understand the theoretical limitations of hybrid simulation have been restricted to linear dynamical systems. In this work we consider the behavior of hybrid simulation when applied to nonlinear dynamical systems. As a model problem, we focus on the damped, harmonically-driven nonlinear pendulum. This system offers complex nonlinear characteristics, in particular periodic and chaotic motions. We are able to show that the application of hybrid simulation to nonlinear systems requires a careful understanding of what one expects from such an experiment. In particular, when system response is chaotic we advocate the need for the use of multiple metrics to characterize the difference between two chaotic systems via Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimensions, as well as correlation exponents. When system response is periodic we advocate the use of L2 norms. Further, we are able to show that hybrid simulation can falsely predict chaotic or periodic response when the true system has the opposite characteristic. In certain cases, we are able to show that control system parameters can mitigate this issue.
Kapoyannis, A. S.; Kalkanis, G.
2017-03-01
We develop a simulation to facilitate the teaching of the photoelectric effect in an introductory course on quantum mechanics at undergraduate level. Through a Visual Basic program we describe the interaction of light with electrons in a metal conductor in the phenomenon according to the classical theory. The description includes both the microscopic interaction, as well as the predictions of the theory for the experimental results, arising from the microscopic scale. The predictions of the classical model are in stark contrast with the experimental results of a real photoelectric device.
Neo-classical theory of competition or Adam Smith's hand as mathematized ideology
McCauley, Joseph L.
2001-10-01
Orthodox economic theory (utility maximization, rational agents, efficient markets in equilibrium) is based on arbitrarily postulated, nonempiric notions. The disagreement between economic reality and a key feature of neo-classical economic theory was criticized empirically by Osborne. I show that the orthodox theory is internally self-inconsistent for the very reason suggested by Osborne: lack of invertibility of demand and supply as functions of price to obtain price as functions of supply and demand. The reason for the noninvertibililty arises from nonintegrable excess demand dynamics, a feature of their theory completely ignored by economists.
a Classical Isodual Theory of Antimatter and its Prediction of Antigravity
Santilli, Ruggero Maria
An inspection of the contemporary physics literature reveals that, while matter is treated at all levels of study, from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory, antimatter is solely treated at the level of second quantization. For the purpose of initiating the restoration of full equivalence in the treatment of matter and antimatter in due time, and as the classical foundations of an axiomatically consistent inclusion of gravitation in unified gauge theories recently appeared elsewhere, in this paper we present a classical representation of antimatter which begins at the primitive Newtonian level with corresponding formulations at all subsequent levels. By recalling that charge conjugation of particles into antiparticles is antiautomorphic, the proposed theory of antimatter is based on a new map, called isoduality, which is also antiautomorphic (and more generally, antiisomorphic), yet it is applicable beginning at the classical level and then persists at the quantum level where it becomes equivalent to charge conjugation. We therefore present, apparently for the first time, the classical isodual theory of antimatter, we identify the physical foundations of the theory as being the novel isodual Galilean, special and general relativities, and we show the compatibility of the theory with all available classical experimental data on antimatter. We identify the classical foundations of the prediction of antigravity for antimatter in the field of matter (or vice-versa) without any claim on its validity, and defer its resolution to specifically identified experiments. We identify the novel, classical, isodual electromagnetic waves which are predicted to be emitted by antimatter, the so-called space-time machine based on a novel non-Newtonian geometric propulsion, and other implications of the theory. We also introduce, apparently for the first time, the isodual space and time inversions and show that they are nontrivially different than the conventional ones, thus
Guillemin, Ernst A
2013-01-01
An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.
Investigating the non-classical boundary conditions relevant to strain gradient theories
Jafari, Akbar; Ezzati, Meysam
2017-02-01
In the present study, two classes of non-classical constitutive equations consisting of the first and the second order strain gradients theories (FSG and SSG) were applied in order to develop the governing equations of static and free vibrational behavior of beam structures. The governing equations in orders of six and eight were constructed for FSG and SSG theories, respectively. Therefore, higher order or in other words non-classical boundary conditions (HOBCs or NCBCs) came into play in addition to the classical ones (CBCs). Some explanations were presented about the concept of the non-classical boundary conditions. Analytical and finite element (FE) approaches were employed to solve the governing equations. The analytical solutions were utilized in validation and convergence study of FE results. Comparisons were made with the relevant data reported in the open literature; however, to the best of the authors' knowledge, few references have been published on SSG theory and HOBCs. In the numerical studies, the effects of applying different combinations of CBCs and HOBCs to the static and free vibration behaviors of the beam were investigated. Moreover, the impacts of non-classical elastic constants and the beam size on its behavior were also studied.
A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.
Menard, Scott
1995-01-01
Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)
A superfield generalization of the classical action-at-a-distance theory
Tugai, V. V.; Zheltukhin, A. A.
1994-07-01
A generalization of the Fokker-Schwarzschild- Tetrode-Wheeler-Feynman electromagnetic theory onto superspace is considered. The classical vector and spinor fields belonging to the Maxwell supermultiplet are built of the world-line coordinates of the charged particles in superspace.
Superfield generalization of the classical action-at-a-distance theory
Tugai, V. V.; Zheltukhin, A. A.
1995-04-01
A generalization of the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode-Wheeler-Feynman electromagnetic theory onto superspace is considered. The classical vector and spinor fields belonging to the Maxwell supermultiplet are built of the world-line coordinates of the charged particles in superspace.
Superfield generalization of the classical action-at-a-distance theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tugai, V.V. (Scientific Physicotechnological Center, 310145 Kharkov (Ukraine)); Zheltukhin, A.A. (Kharkov Physicotechnical Institute, 310108 Kharkov (Ukraine))
1995-04-15
A generalization of the Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode-Wheeler-Feynman electromagnetic theory onto superspace is considered. The classical vector and spinor fields belonging to the Maxwell supermultiplet are built of the world-line coordinates of the charged particles in superspace.
Uniting the Spheres: Modern Feminist Theory and Classic Texts in AP English
Drew, Simao J. A.; Bosnic, Brenda G.
2008-01-01
High school teachers Simao J. A. Drew and Brenda G. Bosnic help familiarize students with gender role analysis and feminist theory. Students examine classic literature and contemporary texts, considering characters' historical, literary, and social contexts while expanding their understanding of how patterns of identity and gender norms exist and…
Wigner's dynamical transition state theory in phase space : classical and quantum
Waalkens, Holger; Schubert, Roman; Wiggins, Stephen
2008-01-01
We develop Wigner's approach to a dynamical transition state theory in phase space in both the classical and quantum mechanical settings. The key to our development is the construction of a normal form for describing the dynamics in the neighbourhood of a specific type of saddle point that governs t
Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment
Marcus, R. A.
1964-01-01
In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.
Experimental Device-independent Tests of Classical and Quantum Dimensions
Badziag, Johan Ahrens Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed
2011-01-01
A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. Information encoded in a classical system is limited by the dimension d_c of the system, i.e., the number of distinguishable states. A system with d_c=2^n classical states can carry n bits of classical information. Information encoded in a quantum system is limited by the dimension d_q of the Hilbert space of the system, i.e., the number of perfectly distinguishable quantum states. A system with d_q=2^n perfectly distinguishable quantum states can carry n qubits of quantum information. Physical systems of higher dimensions may enable more efficient and powerful information processing protocols. The dimension is fundamental in quantum cryptography and random number generation, where the security of many schemes [1,2,3] crucially relies on the system's dimension. From a fundamental perspective, the dimension can be used to quantify the non-classicality of correlations, since class...
The Postmodern Turn: Shall Classic Grounded Theory Take That Detour? A Review Essay
2006-01-01
Adherents to classic grounded theory have gotten used to spotting the pretenders working under the grounded theory banner. Some of these faux-GT researchers have worked in a fog, misunderstanding fundamentals of the method; these are the studies that leave us shaking our heads and wondering about the doctoral committee and peer reviewers who did not bother to find out more about the method they were evaluating. More infuriating are the authors who are claiming to improve on grounded theory, t...
Laine, M; Tassler, M
2007-01-01
Recently, a finite-temperature real-time static potential has been introduced via a Schr\\"odinger-type equation satisfied by a certain heavy quarkonium Green's function. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that it possesses an imaginary part, which induces a finite width for the tip of the quarkonium peak in the thermal dilepton production rate. The imaginary part originates from Landau-damping of low-frequency gauge fields, which are essentially classical due to their high occupation number. Here we show how the imaginary part can be measured with classical lattice gauge theory simulations, accounting non-perturbatively for the infrared sector of finite-temperature field theory. We demonstrate that a non-vanishing imaginary part indeed exists non-perturbatively; and that its value agrees semi-quantitatively with that predicted by Hard Loop resummed perturbation theory.
A New Conformal Theory of Semi-Classical Quantum General Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available We consider a new four-dimensional formulation of semi-classical quantum general relativity in which the classical space-time manifold, whose intrinsic geometric properties give rise to the effects of gravitation, is allowed to evolve microscopically by means of a conformal function which is assumed to depend on some quantum mechanical wave function. As a result, the theory presented here produces a unified field theory of gravitation and (microscopic electromagnetism in a somewhat simple, effective manner. In the process, it is seen that electromagnetism is actually an emergent quantum field originating in some kind of stochastic smooth extension (evolution of the gravitational field in the general theory of relativity.
Effective model hierarchies for dynamic and static classical density functional theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majaniemi, S [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, PO Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Provatas, N [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S-4L7 (Canada); Nonomura, M, E-mail: maj@fyslab.hut.f [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)
2010-09-15
The origin and methodology of deriving effective model hierarchies are presented with applications to solidification of crystalline solids. In particular, it is discussed how the form of the equations of motion and the effective parameters on larger scales can be obtained from the more microscopic models. It will be shown that tying together the dynamic structure of the projection operator formalism with static classical density functional theories can lead to incomplete (mass) transport properties even though the linearized hydrodynamics on large scales is correctly reproduced. To facilitate a more natural way of binding together the dynamics of the macrovariables and classical density functional theory, a dynamic generalization of density functional theory based on the nonequilibrium generating functional is suggested.
Studying thin film damping in a micro-beam resonator based on non-classical theories
Ghanbari, Mina; Hossainpour, Siamak; Rezazadeh, Ghader
2016-06-01
In this paper, a mathematical model is presented for studying thin film damping of the surrounding fluid in an in-plane oscillating micro-beam resonator. The proposed model for this study is made up of a clamped-clamped micro-beam bound between two fixed layers. The micro-gap between the micro-beam and fixed layers is filled with air. As classical theories are not properly capable of predicting the size dependence behaviors of the micro-beam, and also behavior of micro-scale fluid media, hence in the presented model, equation of motion governing longitudinal displacement of the micro-beam has been extracted based on non-local elasticity theory. Furthermore, the fluid field has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. These coupled equations have been simplified using Newton-Laplace and continuity equations. After transforming to non-dimensional form and linearizing, the equations have been discretized and solved simultaneously using a Galerkin-based reduced order model. Considering slip boundary conditions and applying a complex frequency approach, the equivalent damping ratio and quality factor of the micro-beam resonator have been obtained. The obtained values for the quality factor have been compared to those based on classical theories. We have shown that applying non-classical theories underestimate the values of the quality factor obtained based on classical theories. The effects of geometrical parameters of the micro-beam and micro-scale fluid field on the quality factor of the resonator have also been investigated.
Studying thin film damping in a micro-beam resonator based on non-classical theories
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mina Ghanbari; Siamak Hossainpour; Ghader Rezazadeh
2016-01-01
In this paper, a mathematical model is presented for studying thin film damping of the surrounding fluid in an in-plane oscillating micro-beam resonator. The proposed model for this study is made up of a clamped-clamped micro-beam bound between two fixed layers. The micro-gap between the micro-beam and fixed layers is filled with air. As classical theories are not properly capable of pre-dicting the size dependence behaviors of the micro-beam, and also behavior of micro-scale fluid media, hence in the presented model, equation of motion governing longitudinal displacement of the micro-beam has been extracted based on non-local elasticity theory. Furthermore, the fluid field has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. These coupled equations have been simplified using Newton-Laplace and continuity equations. After transforming to non-dimensional form and linearizing, the equations have been discretized and solved simultaneously using a Galerkin-based reduced order model. Considering slip boundary conditions and applying a complex frequency approach, the equivalent damping ratio and quality factor of the micro-beam resonator have been obtained. The obtained values for the quality factor have been compared to those based on classical theories. We have shown that applying non-classical theories underestimate the values of the quality factor obtained based on classical theo-ries. The effects of geometrical parameters of the micro-beam and micro-scale fluid field on the quality factor of the res-onator have also been investigated.
Zarei, Mohammad Hossein
2016-01-01
Although creating a unified theory in Elementary Particles Physics is still an open problem, there are a lot of attempts for unifying other fields of physics. Following such unifications, we regard a two dimensional (2D) classical $\\Phi^{4}$ field theory model to study several field theories with different symmetries in various dimensions. While the completeness of this model has been already proved by a mapping between statistical mechanics and quantum information theory, here, we take into account a fundamental systematic approach with purely mathematical basis to re-derive such completeness in a general manner. Due to simplicity and generality, we believe that our method leads to a general approach which can be understood by other physical communities as well as quantum information theorists. Furthermore, our proof of the completeness is not only a proof-of-principle, but also an interesting algorithmic proof. We consider a discrete version of a general field theory as an arbitrary polynomial function of f...
Sokolov, Igor V
2015-01-01
A theory of Symplectic Manifold with Contact Degeneracies (SMCD) was developed in [Zot'ev,2007]. The symplectic geometry uses an anti-symmetric tensor (closed differential form) such as a field tensor used in the classical field theory. The SMCD theory studies degeneracies of such form. In [Zot'ev,2011] the SMCD theory was applied to study a front of an electromagnetic pulsed field propagating into a region with no field. Here, the result of [Zot'ev,2011] is compared with the problem solution obtained using the well-known method presented in Witham, G.B., Linear and nonlinear waves, 1974. It is shown that the SMCD theory prediction is not supported by the result obtained with the Witham method.
PE Metrics: Background, Testing Theory, and Methods
Zhu, Weimo; Rink, Judy; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fox, Connie; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Park, Youngsik; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Raynes, De
2011-01-01
New testing theories, concepts, and psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory, test equating, and item bank) developed during the past several decades have many advantages over previous theories and methods. In spite of their introduction to the field, they have not been fully accepted by physical educators. Further, the manner in which…
Pseudo-classical transport in a sheared magnetic field: Theory and simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nevins, W.M.; Harte, J.; Gell, Y.
1979-11-01
The cross-field transport due to the trapping of electrons in a finite amplitude wave (pseudo-classical transport) is investigated. Both finite wave frequencies and magnetic shear are included. The single particle orbit equations are solved to obtain the trapping criterion as well as the trapped particle orbit width and bounce frequency. Using a random walk model, the scaling of the pseudo-classical transport coefficients with the parameters of the plasma and wave are deduced. This scaling is employed to extend a previous calculation of the transport coefficients to include magnetic shear which is found to reduce these transport coefficients. Computer simulations of this transport process are presented. The measured transport rates are in very good agreement with the previous kinetic calculation in the absence of magnetic shear and with this extension of pseudo-classical transport theory which includes magnetic shear.
Classical diffusion and quantum level velocities: systematic deviations from random matrix theory.
Lakshminarayan, A; Cerruti, N R; Tomsovic, S
1999-10-01
We study the response of the quasienergy levels in the context of quantized chaotic systems through the level velocity variance and relate them to classical diffusion coefficients using detailed semiclassical analysis. The systematic deviations from random matrix theory, assuming independence of eigenvectors from eigenvalues, are shown to be connected to classical higher-order time correlations of the chaotic system. We study the standard map as a specific example, and thus the well-known oscillatory behavior of the diffusion coefficient with respect to the parameter is reflected exactly in the oscillations of the variance of the level velocities. We study the case of mixed phase-space dynamics as well and note a transition in the scaling properties of the variance that occurs along with the classical transition to chaos.
Cohen, D; Kottos, T
2001-03-01
We study a classically chaotic system that is described by a Hamiltonian H(Q,P;x), where (Q,P) are the canonical coordinates of a particle in a two-dimensional well, and x is a parameter. By changing x we can deform the "shape" of the well. The quantum eigenstates of the system are /n(x)>. We analyze numerically how the parametric kernel P(n/m)=//(2) evolves as a function of delta(x)[triple bond](x-x(0)). This kernel, regarded as a function of n-m, characterizes the shape of the wave functions, and it also can be interpreted as the local density of states. The kernel P(n/m) has a well-defined classical limit, and the study addresses the issue of quantum-classical correspondence. Both the perturbative and the nonperturbative regimes are explored. The limitations of the random matrix theory approach are demonstrated.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2017-02-01
The scientific methodology based on two descriptive levels, ontic (reality as it is) and epistemic (observational), is briefly presented. Following Schrödinger, we point to the possible gap between these two descriptions. Our main aim is to show that, although ontic entities may be unaccessible for observations, they can be useful for clarification of the physical nature of operational epistemic entities. We illustrate this thesis by the concrete example: starting with the concrete ontic model preceding quantum mechanics (the latter is treated as an epistemic model), namely, prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), we propose the natural physical interpretation for the basic quantum mechanical entity-the quantum state ("wave function"). The correspondence PCSFT ↦ QM is not straightforward, it couples the covariance operators of classical (prequantum) random fields with the quantum density operators. We use this correspondence to clarify the physical meaning of the pure quantum state and the superposition principle-by using the formalism of classical field correlations.
Classical R-matrix theory of dispersionless systems: I. (1+1)-dimension theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaszak, Maciej; Szablikowski, Blazej M [Institute of Physics, A Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)
2002-12-06
A systematic way of construction of (1+1)-dimensional dispersionless integrable Hamiltonian systems is presented. The method is based on the classical R-matrix on Poisson algebras of formal Laurent series. Results are illustrated with the known and new (1+1)-dimensional dispersionless systems.
Classical R-matrix theory of dispersionless systems: II. (2+1) dimension theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaszak, Maciej; Szablikowski, Blazej M [Institute of Physics, A Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)
2002-12-06
A systematic way of constructing (2+1)-dimensional dispersionless integrable Hamiltonian systems is presented. The method is based on the so-called central extension procedure and classical R-matrix applied to the Poisson algebras of formal Laurent series. Results are illustrated with the known and new (2+1)-dimensional dispersionless systems.
Heavy Quark Thermalization in Classical Lattice Gauge Theory Lessons for Strongly-Coupled QCD
Laine, Mikko; Philipsen, Owe; Tassler, Marcus
2009-01-01
Thermalization of a heavy quark near rest is controlled by the correlator of two electric fields along a temporal Wilson line. We address this correlator within real-time, classical lattice Yang-Mills theory, and elaborate on the analogies that exist with the dynamics of hot QCD. In the weak-coupling limit, it can be shown analytically that the dynamics on the two sides are closely related to each other. For intermediate couplings, we carry out non-perturbative simulations within the classical theory, showing that the leading term in the weak-coupling expansion significantly underestimates the heavy quark thermalization rate. Our analytic and numerical results also yield a general understanding concerning the overall shape of the spectral function corresponding to the electric field correlator, which may be helpful in subsequent efforts to reconstruct it from Euclidean lattice Monte Carlo simulations.
Extended hydrodynamic approach to quantum-classical nonequilibrium evolution. I. Theory.
Bousquet, David; Hughes, Keith H; Micha, David A; Burghardt, Irene
2011-02-14
A mixed quantum-classical formulation is developed for a quantum subsystem in strong interaction with an N-particle environment, to be treated as classical in the framework of a hydrodynamic representation. Starting from the quantum Liouville equation for the N-particle distribution and the corresponding reduced single-particle distribution, exact quantum hydrodynamic equations are obtained for the momentum moments of the single-particle distribution coupled to a discretized quantum subsystem. The quantum-classical limit is subsequently taken and the resulting hierarchy of equations is further approximated by various closure schemes. These include, in particular, (i) a Grad-Hermite-type closure, (ii) a Gaussian closure at the level of a quantum-classical local Maxwellian distribution, and (iii) a dynamical density functional theory approximation by which the hydrodynamic pressure term is replaced by a free energy functional derivative. The latter limit yields a mixed quantum-classical formulation which has previously been introduced by I. Burghardt and B. Bagchi, Chem. Phys. 134, 343 (2006).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakhno, V. D., E-mail: lak@impb.psn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology (Russian Federation)
2013-06-15
A physical interpretation of translation-invariant polarons and bipolarons is presented, some results of their existence are discussed. Consideration is given to the problem of quantization in the vicinity of the classical solution in the quantum field theory. The lowest variational estimate is obtained for the bipolaron energy E({eta}) with E(0) = -0.440636{alpha}{sup 2}, where {alpha} is a constant of electron-phonon coupling, {eta} is a parameter of ion binding.
Surface-Invariants in 2D Classical Yang-Mills Theory
Díaz, R; Leal, L; D\\'{\\i}az, Rafael; Leal, Lorenzo
2006-01-01
We study a method to obtain invariants under area-preserving diffeomorphisms associated to closed curves in the plane from classical Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions. Taking as starting point the Yang-Mills field coupled to non dynamical particles carrying chromo-electric charge, and by means of a perturbative scheme, we obtain the first two contributions to the on shell action, which are area-invariants. A geometrical interpretation of these invariants is given.
Classical field theories of first order and lagrangian submanifolds of premultisymplectic manifolds
Campos, Cédric M; Marrero, Juan Carlos
2011-01-01
A description of classical field theories of first order in terms of Lagrangian submanifolds of premultisymplectic manifolds is presented. For this purpose, a Tulczyjew's triple associated with a fibration is discussed. The triple is adapted to the extended Hamiltonian formalism. Using this triple, we prove that Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton-De Donder-Weyl equations are the local equations defining Lagrangian submanifolds of a premultisymplectic manifold.
Relativistic semi-classical theory of atom ionization in ultra-intense laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A relativistic semi-classical theory (RSCT) of H-atom ionizationin ultra-intense laser (UIL) is proposed. A relativistic analytical expression for ionization probability of H-atom in its ground state is given. This expression, compared with non-relativistic expression, clearly shows the effects of the magnet vector in the laser, the non-dipole approximation and the relativistic mass-energy relation on the ionization processes. At the same time, we show that under some conditions the relativistic expression reduces to the non-relativistic expression of non-dipole approximation. At last, some possible applications of the relativistic theory are briefly stated.
Charged free fermions, vertex operators and the classical theory of conjugate nets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doliwa, Adam [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw (Poland); Manas, Manuel [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, EUIT Aeronautica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Martinez Alonso, Luis; Medina, Elena [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain); Santini, Paolo Maria [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy)
1999-02-19
We show that the quantum field theoretical formulation of the {tau}-function theory has a geometrical interpretation within the classical transformation theory of conjugate nets. In particular, we prove that (i) the partial charge transformations preserving the neutral sector are Laplace transformations, (ii) the basic vertex operators are Levy and adjoint Levy transformations and (iii) the diagonal soliton vertex operators generate fundamental transformations. We also show that the bilinear identity for the multicomponent Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy becomes, through a generalized Miwa map, a bilinear identity for the multidimensional quadrilateral lattice equations. (author)
Kelton, K. F.; Falster, R.; Gambaro, D.; Olmo, M.; Cornara, M.; Wei, P. F.
1999-06-01
Quantitative measurements of the oxygen precipitate rate as a function of annealing were made in Czochralski-grown silicon wafers that contained different initial concentrations of oxygen. All wafers were annealed at 1000 °C for 15 min to ensure that the initial cluster-size distributions were identical in all samples of the same composition prior to the multi-step annealing treatments used for the precipitation studies. The experimental data are compared with numerical predictions for time-dependent nucleation within the classical theory of nucleation. Quantitative agreement is obtained between the measured and calculated densities of oxygen precipitates for nucleation temperatures greater than 600 °C, but only over a narrow range of oxygen composition. Below 600 °C, the measured density for all samples is orders of magnitude larger than is predicted from the model. Further, the measured data show an anomalously small temperature dependence for the induction time for nucleation that does not scale with the diffusion coefficient, as expected from the classical theory of nucleation. Fundamentally, the classical theory of nucleation cannot explain the time-dependent nucleation of oxygen precipitates for temperatures below 650 °C. A possible reason is given.
Homotopy Theory of Probability Spaces I: Classical independence and homotopy Lie algebras
Park, Jae-Suk
2015-01-01
This is the first installment of a series of papers whose aim is to lay a foundation for homotopy probability theory by establishing its basic principles and practices. The notion of a homotopy probability space is an enrichment of the notion of an algebraic probability space with ideas from algebraic homotopy theory. This enrichment uses a characterization of the laws of random variables in a probability space in terms of symmetries of the expectation. The laws of random variables are reinterpreted as invariants of the homotopy types of infinity morphisms between certain homotopy algebras. The relevant category of homotopy algebras is determined by the appropriate notion of independence for the underlying probability theory. This theory will be both a natural generalization and an effective computational tool for the study of classical algebraic probability spaces, while keeping the same central limit. This article is focused on the commutative case, where the laws of random variables are also described in t...
CERN. Geneva
2002-01-01
A theory with such mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this is one of the main arguments in favour of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, nor the space of extra dimensions where they live. However there are good reasons to believe that the 'hidden' dimensions of string theory may be much larger than what we thought in the past and that they may be within experimental reach in the near future - together with the strings themselves. In my talk, I will give an elementary introduction of string theory and describe the main experimental predictions.Organiser(s): Jasper Kirkby / EP DivisionNote: Tea & coffee will be served at 16.00 hrs.
Energetics of high-speed running: integrating classical theory and contemporary observations.
Weyand, Peter G; Bundle, Matthew W
2005-04-01
We hypothesized that the anaerobic power and aerobic power outputs during all-out runs of any common duration between 10 and 150 s would be proportional to the maximum anaerobic (E(an-max)) and aerobic powers (E(aer-max)) available to the individual runner. Seventeen runners who differed in E(an-max) and E(aer-max) (5 sprinters, 5 middle-distance runners, and 7 long distance runners) were tested during treadmill running on a 4.6 degrees incline. E(an-max) was estimated from the fastest treadmill speed subjects could attain for eight steps. E(aer-max) was determined from a progressive, discontinuous, treadmill test to failure. Oxygen deficits and rates of uptake were measured to assess the respective anaerobic and aerobic power outputs during 11-16 all-out treadmill runs that elicited failure between 10 and 220 s. We found that, during all-out runs of any common duration, the relative anaerobic and aerobic powers utilized were largely the same for sprint, middle-distance, and long-distance subjects. The similar fractional utilization of the E(an-max) and E(aer-max) available during high-speed running 1) provides empirical values that modify and advance classic theory, 2) allows rates of anaerobic and aerobic energy release to be quantified from individual maxima and run durations, and 3) explains why the high-speed running performances of different event specialists can be accurately predicted (R(2) = 0.97; n = 254) from two direct measurements and the same exponential time constant.
Ickes, Luisa; Welti, André; Lohmann, Ulrike
2017-02-01
Heterogeneous ice formation by immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds can be parameterized in general circulation models (GCMs) by classical nucleation theory (CNT). CNT parameterization schemes describe immersion freezing as a stochastic process, including the properties of insoluble aerosol particles in the droplets. There are different ways to parameterize the properties of aerosol particles (i.e., contact angle schemes), which are compiled and tested in this paper. The goal of this study is to find a parameterization scheme for GCMs to describe immersion freezing with the ability to shift and adjust the slope of the freezing curve compared to homogeneous freezing to match experimental data. We showed in a previous publication that the resulting freezing curves from CNT are very sensitive to unconstrained kinetic and thermodynamic parameters in the case of homogeneous freezing. Here we investigate how sensitive the outcome of a parameter estimation for contact angle schemes from experimental data is to unconstrained kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. We demonstrate that the parameters describing the contact angle schemes can mask the uncertainty in thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. Different CNT formulations are fitted to an extensive immersion freezing dataset consisting of size-selected measurements as a function of temperature and time for different mineral dust types, namely kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, microcline (K-feldspar), and Arizona test dust. We investigated how accurate different CNT formulations (with estimated fit parameters for different contact angle schemes) reproduce the measured freezing data, especially the time and particle size dependence of the freezing process. The results are compared to a simplified deterministic freezing scheme. In this context, we evaluated which CNT-based parameterization scheme able to represent particle properties is the best choice to describe immersion freezing in a GCM.
A High Order Theory for Linear Thermoelastic Shells: Comparison with Classical Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Zozulya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A high order theory for linear thermoelasticity and heat conductivity of shells has been developed. The proposed theory is based on expansion of the 3-D equations of theory of thermoelasticity and heat conductivity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. The first physical quantities that describe thermodynamic state have been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate. Thereby all equations of elasticity and heat conductivity including generalized Hooke's and Fourier's laws have been transformed to the corresponding equations for coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Then in the same way as in the 3D theories system of differential equations in terms of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. First approximation theory is considered in more detail. The obtained equations for the first approximation theory are compared with the corresponding equations for Timoshenko's and Kirchhoff-Love's theories. Special case of plates and cylindrical shell is also considered, and corresponding equations in displacements are presented.
Non-Noetherian symmetries for oscillators in classical mechanics and in field theory
Hojman, Sergio A.; Delajara, Jamie; Pena, Leda
1995-01-01
Infinitely many new conservation laws both for free fields as well as for test fields evolving on a given gravitational background are presented. The conserved currents are constructed using the field theoretical counterpart of a recently discovered non-Noetherian symmetry which gives rise to a new way of solving the classical small oscillations problem. Several examples are discussed.
Chaos, scaling and existence of a continuum limit in classical non-Abelian lattice gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, H.B. [Niels Bohr Inst., Kobenhavn (Denmark); Rugh, H.H. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Rugh, S.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)
1996-12-31
We discuss space-time chaos and scaling properties for classical non-Abelian gauge fields discretized on a spatial lattice. We emphasize that there is a {open_quote}no go{close_quotes} for simulating the original continuum classical gauge fields over a long time span since there is a never ending dynamical cascading towards the ultraviolet. We note that the temporal chaotic properties of the original continuum gauge fields and the lattice gauge system have entirely different scaling properties thereby emphasizing that they are entirely different dynamical systems which have only very little in common. Considered as a statistical system in its own right the lattice gauge system in a situation where it has reached equilibrium comes closest to what could be termed a {open_quotes}continuum limit{close_quotes} in the limit of very small energies (weak non-linearities). We discuss the lattice system both in the limit for small energies and in the limit of high energies where we show that there is a saturation of the temporal chaos as a pure lattice artifact. Our discussion focuses not only on the temporal correlations but to a large extent also on the spatial correlations in the lattice system. We argue that various conclusions of physics have been based on monitoring the non-Abelian lattice system in regimes where the fields are correlated over few lattice units only. This is further evidenced by comparison with results for Abelian lattice gauge theory. How the real time simulations of the classical lattice gauge theory may reach contact with the real time evolution of (semi-classical aspects of) the quantum gauge theory (e.g. Q.C.D.) is left an important question to be further examined.
Testing gauge-invariant perturbation theory
Törek, Pascal
2016-01-01
Gauge-invariant perturbation theory for theories with a Brout-Englert-Higgs effect, as developed by Fr\\"ohlich, Morchio and Strocchi, starts out from physical, exactly gauge-invariant quantities as initial and final states. These are composite operators, and can thus be considered as bound states. In case of the standard model, this reduces almost entirely to conventional perturbation theory. This explains the success of conventional perturbation theory for the standard model. However, this is due to the special structure of the standard model, and it is not guaranteed to be the case for other theories. Here, we review gauge-invariant perturbation theory. Especially, we show how it can be applied and that it is little more complicated than conventional perturbation theory, and that it is often possible to utilize existing results of conventional perturbation theory. Finally, we present tests of the predictions of gauge-invariant perturbation theory, using lattice gauge theory, in three different settings. In ...
Is That a Real Theory or Did You Just Make It Up? Teaching Classic Grounded Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The title of this paper was derived from an incident I observed some years ago while accompanying a highly talented musician-songwriter friend to a performance. During a break, an audience member approached him to compliment the last song he had performed. He had written both the music and the lyrics to the song, one of many he had written. The audience member queried, “Is that a real song, or did you just make it up?” A touch amused, and not knowing whether he should be flattered or insulted, he politely replied, “It is a real song and I made it up.”This episode puts in mind a similar attitude in the social sciences that Glaser and Strauss (1967 noted, in which a small number of ’theoretical capitalists’ originate what are considered to be “real” theories and others are relegated to the role of “proletariat” testers. The means by which these theorists derived their theories remained largely mysterious. Unleashing proletariat testers was one of the chief rationales behind Glaser and Strauss’ development of grounded theory. It brought a democratic option into the social sciences that enabled anyone who learned the methodology to generate theory. The democratic ethos of the methodology may also have inadvertently unleashed an abundance of aspiring remodelers of the methodology, who unfortunately have eroded its primary purpose—to generate theories that are fully grounded in data rather than speculation or ideology.
Equivalence versus classical statistical tests in water quality assessments.
Ngatia, Murage; Gonzalez, David; San Julian, Steve; Conner, Arin
2010-01-01
To evaluate whether two unattended field organic carbon instruments could provide data comparable to laboratory-generated data, we needed a practical assessment. Null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) is commonly utilized for such evaluations in environmental assessments, but researchers in other disciplines have identified weaknesses that may limit NHST's usefulness. For example, in NHST, large sample sizes change p-values and a statistically significant result can be obtained by merely increasing the sample size. In addition, p-values can indicate that observed results are statistically significantly different, but in reality the differences could be trivial in magnitude. Equivalence tests, on the other hand, allow the investigator to incorporate decision criteria that have practical relevance to the study. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential use of equivalence tests as an alternative to NHST. We first compare data between the two field instruments, and then compare the field instruments' data to laboratory-generated data using both NHST and equivalence tests. NHST indicated that the data between the two field instruments and the data between the field instruments and the laboratory were significantly different. Equivalence tests showed that the data were equivalent because they fell within a pre-determined equivalence interval based on our knowledge of laboratory precision. We conclude that equivalence tests provide more useful comparisons and interpretation of water quality data than NHST and should be more widely used in similar environmental assessments.
Camilleri, Kristian; Schlosshauer, Maximilian
2015-02-01
Niels Bohr's doctrine of the primacy of "classical concepts" is arguably his most criticized and misunderstood view. We present a new, careful historical analysis that makes clear that Bohr's doctrine was primarily an epistemological thesis, derived from his understanding of the functional role of experiment. A hitherto largely overlooked disagreement between Bohr and Heisenberg about the movability of the "cut" between measuring apparatus and observed quantum system supports the view that, for Bohr, such a cut did not originate in dynamical (ontological) considerations, but rather in functional (epistemological) considerations. As such, both the motivation and the target of Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts are of a fundamentally different nature than what is understood as the dynamical problem of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis suggests that, contrary to claims often found in the literature, Bohr's doctrine is not, and cannot be, at odds with proposed solutions to the dynamical problem of the quantum-classical transition that were pursued by several of Bohr's followers and culminated in the development of decoherence theory.
Borisenko, Alexander
2016-05-01
During the processes of nucleation and growth of a precipitate cluster from a supersaturated solution, the diffusion flux between the cluster and the solution changes the solute concentration near the cluster-solution interface from its average bulk value. This feature affects the rates of attachment and detachment of solute atoms at the interface, and, therefore, the entire nucleation-growth kinetics is altered. Unless quite obvious, this effect has been ignored in classical nucleation theory. To illustrate the results of this approach, for the case of homogeneous nucleation, we calculate the total solubility and the nucleation rate as functions of two parameters of the model (the reduced interface energy and the inverse second Damköhler number), and we compare these results to the classical ones. One can conclude that discrepancies with classical nucleation theory are great in the diffusion-limited regime, when the rate of bulk diffusion is small compared to the rate of interface reactions, while in the opposite interface-limited case they vanish.
Múnera, Héctor A.
2016-07-01
It is postulated that there exists a fundamental energy-like fluid, which occupies the flat three-dimensional Euclidean space that contains our universe, and obeys the two basic laws of classical physics: conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of total energy; the fluid is described by the classical wave equation (CWE), which was Schrödinger's first candidate to develop his quantum theory. Novel solutions for the CWE discovered twenty years ago are nonharmonic, inherently quantized, and universal in the sense of scale invariance, thus leading to quantization at all scales of the universe, from galactic clusters to the sub-quark world, and yielding a unified Lorentz-invariant quantum theory ab initio. Quingal solutions are isomorphic under both neo-Galilean and Lorentz transformations, and exhibit nother remarkable property: intrinsic unstability for large values of ℓ (a quantum number), thus limiting the size of each system at a given scale. Unstability and scale-invariance together lead to nested structures observed in our solar system; unstability may explain the small number of rows in the chemical periodic table, and nuclear unstability of nuclides beyond lead and bismuth. Quingal functions lend mathematical basis for Boscovich's unified force (which is compatible with many pieces of evidence collected over the past century), and also yield a simple geometrical solution for the classical three-body problem, which is a useful model for electronic orbits in simple diatomic molecules. A testable prediction for the helicoidal-type force is suggested.
The quench map in an integrable classical field theory: nonlinear Schrödinger equation
Caudrelier, Vincent; Doyon, Benjamin
2016-11-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics obtained by an abrupt change (a quench) in the parameters of an integrable classical field theory, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We first consider explicit one-soliton examples, which we fully describe by solving the direct part of the inverse scattering problem. We then develop some aspects of the general theory using elements of the inverse scattering method. For this purpose, we introduce the quench map which acts on the space of scattering data and represents the change of parameter with fixed field configuration (initial condition). We describe some of its analytic properties by implementing a higher level version of the inverse scattering method, and we discuss the applications of Darboux–Bäcklund transformations, Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equations and the Rosales series solution to a related, dual quench problem. Finally, we comment on the interplay between quantum and classical tools around the theme of quenches and on the usefulness of the quantization of our classical approach to the quantum quench problem.
[A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].
Bińczyk, E
2001-01-01
The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.
Charge transport in high mobility molecular semiconductors: classical models and new theories.
Troisi, Alessandro
2011-05-01
The theories developed since the fifties to describe charge transport in molecular crystals proved to be inadequate for the most promising classes of high mobility molecular semiconductors identified in the recent years, including for example pentacene and rubrene. After reviewing at an elementary level the classical theories, which still provide the language for the understanding of charge transport in these systems, this tutorial review outlines the recent experimental and computational evidence that prompted the development of new theories of charge transport in molecular crystals. A critical discussion will illustrate how very rarely it is possible to assume a charge hopping mechanism for high mobility organic crystals at any temperature. Recent models based on the effect of non-local electron-phonon coupling, dynamic disorder, coexistence of localized and delocalized states are reviewed. Additionally, a few more recent avenues of theoretical investigation, including the study of defect states, are discussed.
SLAC physicists develop test for string theory
Yajnik, Juhi
2006-01-01
"Under certain conditions, string theory solves many of the questions wracking the minds of physicists, but until recently it had one major flaw - it could not be tested. SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) scientists have found a way to test this revolutionary theory, which posits that there are 10 or 11 dimensions in our universe" (1 page)
The principle of stationary nonconservative action for classical mechanics and field theories
Galley, Chad R; Stein, Leo C
2014-01-01
We further develop a recently introduced variational principle of stationary action for problems in nonconservative classical mechanics and extend it to classical field theories. The variational calculus used is consistent with an initial value formulation of physical problems and allows for time-irreversible processes, such as dissipation, to be included at the level of the action. In this formalism, the equations of motion are generated by extremizing a nonconservative action $\\mathcal{S}$, which is a functional of a doubled set of degrees of freedom. The corresponding nonconservative Lagrangian contains a potential $K$ which generates nonconservative forces and interactions. Such a nonconservative potential can arise in several ways, including from an open system interacting with inaccessible degrees of freedom or from integrating out or coarse-graining a subset of variables in closed systems. We generalize Noether's theorem to show how Noether currents are modified and no longer conserved when $K$ is non-...
Numerical study of chiral plasma instability within the classical statistical field theory approach
Buividovich, P V
2015-01-01
We report on a numerical study of the real-time dynamics of chirally imbalanced lattice Dirac fermions coupled to dynamical electromagnetic field. To this end we use the classical statistical field theory approach, in which the quantum evolution of fermions is simulated exactly, and electromagnetic fields are treated as classical. Motivated by recent experiments on chirally imbalanced Dirac semimetals, we use the Wilson-Dirac lattice Hamiltonian for fermions in order to model the emergent nature of chiral symmetry at low energies. In general, we observe that the backreaction of fermions on the electromagnetic field prevents the system from acquiring large chirality imbalance. In the case of chirality pumping in parallel electric and magnetic fields, electric field is screened by the produced on-shell fermions and the accumulation of chirality is hence stopped. In the case of evolution with initially present chirality imbalance, axial charge tends to decay at the expense of nonzero helicity of electromagnetic ...
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2014-01-16
For computational treatment of rotationally inelastic scattering of molecules, we propose to use the mixed quantum/classical theory, MQCT. The old idea of treating translational motion classically, while quantum mechanics is used for rotational degrees of freedom, is developed to the new level and is applied to Na + N2 collisions in a broad range of energies. Comparison with full-quantum calculations shows that MQCT accurately reproduces all, even minor, features of energy dependence of cross sections, except scattering resonances at very low energies. The remarkable success of MQCT opens up wide opportunities for computational predictions of inelastic scattering cross sections at higher temperatures and/or for polyatomic molecules and heavier quenchers, which is computationally close to impossible within the full-quantum framework.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-01-01
The scientific methodology based on two descriptive levels, ontic (reality as it is ) and epistemic (observational), is briefly presented. Following Schr\\"odinger, we point to the possible gap between these two descriptions. Our main aim is to show that, although ontic entities may be inaccessible for observations, they can be useful for clarification of the physical nature of operational epistemic entities. We illustrate this thesis by the concrete example: starting with the concrete ontic model preceding quantum mechanics (the latter is treated as an epistemic model), namely, prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), we propose the natural physical interpretation for the basic quantum mechanical entity - the quantum state ("wave function"). The correspondence PCSFT to QM is not straightforward, it couples the covariance operators of classical (prequantum) random fields with the quantum density operators. We use this correspondence to clarify the physical meaning of the pure quantum state and th...
The Postmodern Turn: Shall Classic Grounded Theory Take That Detour? A Review Essay
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Vivian B. Martin, PhD
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Adherents to classic grounded theory have gotten used to spotting the pretenders working under the grounded theory banner. Some of these faux-GT researchers have worked in a fog, misunderstanding fundamentals of the method; these are the studies that leave us shaking our heads and wondering about the doctoral committee and peer reviewers who did not bother to find out more about the method they were evaluating. More infuriating are the authors who are claiming to improve on grounded theory, to reground it, to quote one notable British author who, lack of handson grounded theory experience aside, manages a booklength critique of the method. Two recent books in the“remaking grounded theory” genre are from sociologists with some years of grounded theory projects behind them. Adele E. Clarke, author of Situational Analysis, was a student and colleague of Anselm L. Strauss at the University of California San Francisco. Kathy Charmaz, author of Constructing Grounded Theory, is among the few grounded theorists who studied with Barney G. Glaser and Strauss at UCSF.
Analyzing Test-Taking Behavior: Decision Theory Meets Psychometric Theory.
Budescu, David V; Bo, Yuanchao
2015-12-01
We investigate the implications of penalizing incorrect answers to multiple-choice tests, from the perspective of both test-takers and test-makers. To do so, we use a model that combines a well-known item response theory model with prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky, Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk, Econometrica 47:263-91, 1979). Our results reveal that when test-takers are fully informed of the scoring rule, the use of any penalty has detrimental effects for both test-takers (they are always penalized in excess, particularly those who are risk averse and loss averse) and test-makers (the bias of the estimated scores, as well as the variance and skewness of their distribution, increase as a function of the severity of the penalty).
Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving
Kerner, Boris S
2016-01-01
In a mini-review [Physica A {\\bf 392} (2013) 5261--5282] it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown -- a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters o...
Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving
Kerner, Boris S.
2016-05-01
In a mini-review Kerner (2013) it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown - a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters of automatic driving vehicles can either decrease or increase the probability of the breakdown. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown, i.e., the deterioration of the performance of the traffic system can occur already at a small percentage (about 5%) of automatic driving vehicles. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown through automatic driving vehicles can be realized, even if any platoon of automatic driving vehicles satisfies condition for string stability.
古典与新古典收入分配理论之比较%Comparisons on income distribution theories between classicism and neo-classicism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘娟
2011-01-01
收入分配理论是经济学理论研究的基础,古典、新古典的收入分配研究是经济学理论研究基础之基础。价值理论决定了收入分配理论,本文主要从古典、新古典的价值理论入手,比较了其收入分配理论的不同并对其原因进行了分析。%Income distribution theory based on value theory is the basis of the economics study and classical and neo-classical income distribution research are the basis of the basis.This study compares differences between the two income distribution theories and a
for the applicability to classical conditioning of Premack’s reinforcement theory in which the rate of reinforced responding is determined in part by the precontingency rate of the response. (Author)
Geometric approach to chaos in the classical dynamics of abelian lattice gauge theory
Casetti, L; Pettini, M; Casetti, Lapo; Gatto, Raoul; Pettini, Marco
1998-01-01
A Riemannian geometrization of dynamics is used to study chaoticity in the classical Hamiltonian dynamics of a U(1) lattice gauge theory. This approach allows one to obtain analytical estimates of the largest Lyapunov exponent in terms of time averages of geometric quantities. These estimates are compared with the results of numerical simulations, and turn out to be very close to the values extrapolated for very large lattice sizes even when the geometric quantities are computed using small lattices. The scaling of the Lyapunov exponent with the energy density is found to be well described by a quadratic power law.
Geometric approach to chaos in the classical dynamics of Abelian lattice gauge theory
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Casetti, Lapo [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia (INFM), Unita di Ricerca del Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Gatto, Raoul [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Pettini, Marco [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, Florence (Italy)
1999-04-23
A Riemannian geometrization of dynamics is used to study chaoticity in the classical Hamiltonian dynamics of a U(1) lattice gauge theory. This approach allows one to obtain analytical estimates of the largest Lyapunov exponent in terms of time averages of geometric quantities. These estimates are compared with the results of numerical simulations, and turn out to be very close to the values extrapolated for very large lattice sizes even when the geometric quantities are computed using small lattices. The scaling of the Lyapunov exponent {lambda} with the energy density {epsilon} is found to be well described by the law {lambda}{proportional_to}{epsilon}{sup 2}. (author)
Wave packet dynamics in energy space, random matrix theory, and the quantum-classical correspondence
Cohen; Izrailev; Kottos
2000-03-06
We apply random-matrix-theory (RMT) to the analysis of evolution of wave packets in energy space. We study the crossover from ballistic behavior to saturation, the possibility of having an intermediate diffusive behavior, and the feasibility of strong localization effect. Both theoretical considerations and numerical results are presented. Using quantal-classical correspondence considerations we question the validity of the emerging dynamical picture. In particular, we claim that the appearance of the intermediate diffusive behavior is possibly an artifact of the RMT strategy.
The energy–momentum tensor(s in classical gauge theories
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Daniel N. Blaschke
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy–momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space–time. For the canonical energy–momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy–momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein–Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
Redundancy of constraints in the classical and quantum theories of gravitation.
Moncrief, V.
1972-01-01
It is shown that in Dirac's version of the quantum theory of gravitation, the Hamiltonian constraints are greatly redundant. If the Hamiltonian constraint condition is satisfied at one point on the underlying, closed three-dimensional manifold, then it is automatically satisfied at every point, provided only that the momentum constraints are everywhere satisfied. This permits one to replace the usual infinity of Hamiltonian constraints by a single condition which may be taken in the form of an integral over the manifold. Analogous theorems are given for the classical Einstein Hamilton-Jacobi equations.
The Energy-Momentum Tensor(s) in Classical Gauge Theories
Blaschke, Daniel N; Reboud, Meril; Schweda, Manfred
2016-01-01
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
The Newell Test for a theory of cognition.
Anderson, John R; Lebiere, Christian
2003-10-01
Newell (1980; 1990) proposed that cognitive theories be developed in an effort to satisfy multiple criteria and to avoid theoretical myopia. He provided two overlapping lists of 13 criteria that the human cognitive architecture would have to satisfy in order to be functional. We have distilled these into 12 criteria: flexible behavior, real-time performance, adaptive behavior, vast knowledge base, dynamic behavior, knowledge integration, natural language, learning, development, evolution, and brain realization. There would be greater theoretical progress if we evaluated theories by a broad set of criteria such as these and attended to the weaknesses such evaluations revealed. To illustrate how theories can be evaluated we apply these criteria to both classical connectionism (McClelland & Rumelhart 1986; Rumelhart & McClelland 1986b) and the ACT-R theory (Anderson & Lebiere 1998). The strengths of classical connectionism on this test derive from its intense effort in addressing empirical phenomena in such domains as language and cognitive development. Its weaknesses derive from its failure to acknowledge a symbolic level to thought. In contrast, ACT-R includes both symbolic and sub-symbolic components. The strengths of the ACT-R theory derive from its tight integration of the symbolic component with the sub-symbolic component. Its weaknesses largely derive from its failure, as yet, to adequately engage in intensive analyses of issues related to certain criteria on Newell's list.
Terrestrial vs. spaceborne, quantum vs. classical tests of the equivalence principle
Hohensee, Michael
2013-01-01
The equivalence principle can be tested by precision experiments based on classical and quantum systems, on the ground as well as in space. In many models, these tests are mostly equivalent in their ability to constrain physics beyond the Standard Model. We mention differences that nevertheless exist between spaceborne and quantum mechanical tests and their conventional competitors.
Peridynamic theory of solids from the perspective of classical statistical mechanics
Rahman, R.; Foster, J. T.
2015-11-01
In this paper the classical statistical mechanics has been explored in order to develop statistical mechanical framework for peridynamics. Peridynamic equation of motion is known as upscaled Newton's equation. The peridynamic system consists of finite number of nonlocally interacting particles at nano and meso scales. This particle representation of peridynamics can be treated in terms of classical statistical mechanics. Hence, in this work the phase space is constructed based on the PD particle from their evolving momentum pi and positions xi. The statistical ensembles are derived by defining appropriate partition functions. The algorithms for NVE and NPH implemented in the classical molecular dynamics are revisited for equilibrium peridynamic models. The current work introduces Langevin dynamics to the peridynamic theory through fluctuation-dissipation principle. This introduces a heat bath to the peridynamic system which eliminates the ambiguity with the role of temperature in a peridynamic system. Finally, it was seen that the homogenization of a peridynamic model with finite number of particles approaches to a conventional continuum model. The upscaled non-equilibrium peridynamics has potential applications in modeling wide variety of multiscale-multiphysics problems from nano to macro scale or vice versa.
Comparative Tests Between Shallow Downhole Installation and Classical Seismic Vaults
Charade, Olivier; Vergne, Jérôme; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Bonnin, Mickaël; Louis-Xavier, Thierry; Beucler, Eric; Manhaval, Bertrand; Arnold, Benoît
2016-04-01
The French permanent broadband network is engaged in a major evolution with the installation of a hundred of new stations within the forthcoming years. Since most of them will be located in open field environments, we are looking for a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost. Nowadays, the use of posthole seismometers that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes appears to be an affordable and alternative solution to more traditional installation methods such as seismic vaults or dedicated underground cellars. Here we present some comparative tests performed at different sites (including two GEOSCOPE stations), spanning various geological conditions. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed for several weeks to months at various depths from 1.5m up to 20m. We compare the seismic noise levels measured in the different boreholes with the one for a reference sensor either directly buried or installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault. Apart from the microseism frequency band, seismic noise level in most of the boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. At periods higher than 20s we observe a strong reduction of the seismic noise on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and appears to be mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved strongly depends on the local geology.
Demythologizing the machine: Patrick Geddes, Lewis Mumford, and classical sociological theory.
Renwick, Chris; Gunn, Richard C
2008-01-01
This paper reconsiders the work of the Scottish biologist, sociologist, and town planner Patrick Geddes and his most famous intellectual disciple: the American independent scholar Lewis Mumford. It is argued that existing interpretations of their work, ranging from a dismissal of the two men as eccentric polymaths to the speculative emphasis on the importance of psychological theories in Mumford's oeuvre, are fundamentally flawed. Examining their writings and the letters they exchanged during their 17-year correspondence, this paper shows that the only way we can appreciate the scholarly conventions underpinning Geddes's and Mumford's work, as well as the context in which it was produced, is by looking to the principles of classical sociological theory.
Mahajan, Gaurang
2007-01-01
The quantum theory of a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency arises in several important physical problems, especially in the study of quantum field theory in an external background. While the mathematics of this system is straightforward, several conceptual issues arise in such a study. We present a general formalism to address some of the conceptual issues like the emergence of classicality, definition of particle content, back reaction etc. In particular, we parametrize the wave function in terms of a complex number (which we call excitation parameter) and express all physically relevant quantities in terms it. Many of the notions -- like those of particle number density, effective Lagrangian etc., which are usually defined using asymptotic in-out states -- are generalized as time-dependent concepts and we show that these generalized definitions lead to useful and reasonable results. Having developed the general formalism we apply it to several examples. Exact analytic expressions are found ...
Classical R-matrix theory for bi-Hamiltonian field systems
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Blaszak, Maciej [Department of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Szablikowski, Blazej M [Department of Mathematics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: blaszakm@amu.edu.pl, E-mail: b.szablikowski@maths.gla.ac.uk
2009-10-09
This is a survey of the application of the classical R-matrix formalism to the construction of infinite-dimensional integrable Hamiltonian field systems. The main point is the study of bi-Hamiltonian structures. Appropriate constructions on Poisson, noncommutative and loop algebras as well as the central extension procedure are presented. The theory is developed for (1 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional field and lattice soliton systems as well as hydrodynamic systems. The formalism presented contains sufficiently many proofs and important details to make it self-contained and complete. The general theory is applied to several infinite-dimensional Lie algebras in order to construct both dispersionless and dispersive (soliton) integrable field systems.
Renormalized kinetic theory of classical fluids in and out of equilibrium
Daligault, Jerome
2011-01-01
We present a theory for the construction of renormalized kinetic equations to describe the dynamics of classical systems of particles in or out of equilibrium. A closed, self-consistent set of evolution equations is derived for the single-particle phase-space distribution function $f$, the correlation function $C=$, the retarded and advanced density response functions $\\chi^{R,A}=\\delta f/\\delta\\phi$ to an external potential $\\phi$, and the associated memory functions $\\Sigma^{R,A,C}$. The basis of the theory is an effective action functional $\\Omega$ of external potentials $\\phi$ that contains all information about the dynamical properties of the system. In particular, its functional derivatives generate successively the single-particle phase-space density $f$ and all the correlation and density response functions, which are coupled through an infinite hierarchy of evolution equations. Traditional renormalization techniques are then used to perform the closure of the hierarchy through memory functions. The l...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús García-de-Madariaga
2011-10-01
Full Text Available There has been a lot of discussion about corporate social responsibility (CSR during these last decades. Neoclassical authors support the idea that CSR is not compatible with the objective of profit maximization, and defenders of CSR argue that, in these times of globalization and network economies, the idea of a company managed just to meet shareholders’ interests does not support itself. However, beyond this discussion, how can CSR affect firms’ market value? If we found a positive relationship between these variables, we could conclude that the two theories are reconcilable and the objective of profit maximization, perhaps, should satisfy not only shareholders’ interests, but also stakeholders’. We review previous literature and propose a model to analyze how CSR affects firms’ market value.
The Quench Map in an Integrable Classical Field Theory: Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation
Caudrelier, Vincent
2016-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics obtained by an abrupt change (a {\\em quench}) in the parameters of an integrable classical field theory, the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. We first consider explicit one-soliton examples, which we fully describe by solving the direct part of the inverse scattering problem. We then develop some aspects of the general theory using elements of the inverse scattering method. For this purpose, we introduce the {\\em quench map} which acts on the space of scattering data and represents the change of parameter with fixed field configuration (initial condition). We describe some of its analytic properties by implementing a higher level version of the inverse scattering method, and we discuss the applications of Darboux-B\\"acklund transformations, Gelfand-Levitan-Marchenko equations and the Rosales series solution to a related, dual quench problem. Finally, we comment on the interplay between quantum and classical tools around the theme of quenches and on the usefulness of the ...
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V. I. Khvorostyanov
2012-03-01
Full Text Available A new analytical parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation is developed based on extended classical nucleation theory including new equations for the critical radii of the ice germs, free energies and nucleation rates as the functions of the temperature and water saturation ratio simultaneously. By representing these quantities as separable products of the analytical functions of the temperature and supersaturation, analytical solutions are found for the integral-differential supersaturation equation and concentration of nucleated crystals. Parcel model simulations are used to illustrate the general behavior of various nucleation properties under various conditions, for justifications of the further key analytical simplifications, and for verification of the resulting parameterization.
The final parameterization is based upon the values of the supersaturation that determines the current or maximum concentrations of the nucleated ice crystals. The crystal concentration is analytically expressed as a function of time and can be used for parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation both in the models with small time steps and for substep parameterization in the models with large time steps. The crystal concentration is expressed analytically via the error functions or elementary functions and depends only on the fundamental atmospheric parameters and parameters of classical nucleation theory. The diffusion and kinetic limits of the new parameterization agree with previous semi-empirical parameterizations.
Kaufmann, Lukas; Marcolli, Claudia; Luo, Beiping; Peter, Thomas
2017-03-01
Homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water droplets is a stochastic process. In its classical description, the growth of the ice phase requires the emergence of a critical embryo from random fluctuations of water molecules between the water bulk and ice-like clusters, which is associated with overcoming an energy barrier. For heterogeneous ice nucleation on ice-nucleating surfaces both stochastic and deterministic descriptions are in use. Deterministic (singular) descriptions are often favored because the temperature dependence of ice nucleation on a substrate usually dominates the stochastic time dependence, and the ease of representation facilitates the incorporation in climate models. Conversely, classical nucleation theory (CNT) describes heterogeneous ice nucleation as a stochastic process with a reduced energy barrier for the formation of a critical embryo in the presence of an ice-nucleating surface. The energy reduction is conveniently parameterized in terms of a contact angle α between the ice phase immersed in liquid water and the heterogeneous surface. This study investigates various ice-nucleating agents in immersion mode by subjecting them to repeated freezing cycles to elucidate and discriminate the time and temperature dependences of heterogeneous ice nucleation. Freezing rates determined from such refreeze experiments are presented for Hoggar Mountain dust, birch pollen washing water, Arizona test dust (ATD), and also nonadecanol coatings. For the analysis of the experimental data with CNT, we assumed the same active site to be always responsible for freezing. Three different CNT-based parameterizations were used to describe rate coefficients for heterogeneous ice nucleation as a function of temperature, all leading to very similar results: for Hoggar Mountain dust, ATD, and larger nonadecanol-coated water droplets, the experimentally determined increase in freezing rate with decreasing temperature is too shallow to be described properly by
Schmajuk, Nestor A; Larrauri, José A
2006-01-01
Several studies have recently challenged the accuracy of traditional models of classical conditioning that account for some experimental data in terms of a storage deficit. Among other results, it has been reported that extinction of the blocking or overshadowing stimulus results in the recovery of the response to the blocked or overshadowed stimulus, backward blocking shows spontaneous recovery, extinction of the training context results in the recovery from latent inhibition, interposing a delay between conditioning and testing in latent inhibition increases latent inhibition, and latent inhibition antagonizes overshadowing. An existing neural network model of classical conditioning (N. A. Schmajuk, Y. Lam, & J. A. Gray, 1996), which includes an attentional mechanism controlling both storage and retrieval of associations, is able to quantitatively describe these results.
Dumas, H Scott
2014-01-01
This is a semi-popular mathematics book aimed at a broad readership of mathematically literate scientists, especially mathematicians and physicists who are not experts in classical mechanics or KAM theory, and scientific-minded readers. Parts of the book should also appeal to less mathematically trained readers with an interest in the history or philosophy of science. The scope of the book is broad: it not only describes KAM theory in some detail, but also presents its historical context (thus showing why it was a 'breakthrough'). Also discussed are applications of KAM theory (especially to celestial mechanics and statistical mechanics) and the parts of mathematics and physics in which KAM theory resides (dynamical systems, classical mechanics, and Hamiltonian perturbation theory). Although a number of sources on KAM theory are now available for experts, this book attempts to fill a long-standing gap at a more descriptive level. It stands out very clearly from existing publications on KAM theory because it ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jia-Lin; YU Hong-Wei
2005-01-01
@@ We show that the velocity and position dispersions of a test particle with a nonzero constant classical velocity undergoing Brownian motion caused by electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in a space with plane boundaries can be obtained from those of the static case by Lorentz transformation. We explicitly derive the Lorentz transformations relating the dispersions of the two cases and then apply them to the case of the Brownian motion of a test particle with a constant classical velocity parallel to the boundary between two conducting planes. Our results show that the influence of a nonzero initial velocity is negligible for nonrelativistic test particles.
Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut
2010-08-01
Herein we provide a brief summary of the background, events and results/outcome of the CECAM workshop 'Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter held in Lausanne between October 21 and October 23 2009, which brought together two largely separately working communities, both of whom employ classical density functional techniques: the soft-matter community and the theoretical materials science community with interests in phase transformations and evolving microstructures in engineering materials. After outlining the motivation for the workshop, we first provide a brief overview of the articles submitted by the invited speakers for this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, followed by a collection of outstanding problems identified and discussed during the workshop. 1. Introduction Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a theoretical framework, which has been extensively employed in the past to study inhomogeneous complex fluids (CF) [1-4] and freezing transitions for simple fluids, amongst other things. Furthermore, classical DFT has been extended to include dynamics of the density field, thereby opening a new avenue to study phase transformation kinetics in colloidal systems via dynamical DFT (DDFT) [5]. While DDFT is highly accurate, the computations are numerically rather demanding, and cannot easily access the mesoscopic temporal and spatial scales where diffusional instabilities lead to complex solidification morphologies. Adaptation of more efficient numerical methods would extend the domain of DDFT towards this regime of particular interest to materials scientists. In recent years, DFT has re-emerged in the form of the so-called 'phase-field crystal' (PFC) method for solid-state systems [6, 7], and it has been successfully employed to study a broad variety of interesting materials phenomena in both atomic and colloidal systems, including elastic and plastic deformations, grain growth, thin film growth, solid
Self psychology as a shift away from the paranoid strain in classical analytic theory.
Terman, David M
2014-12-01
Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother.
Chandrasekhar limit: an elementary approach based on classical physics and quantum theory
Pinochet, Jorge; Van Sint Jan, Michael
2016-05-01
In a brief article published in 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar made public an important astronomical discovery. In his article, the then young Indian astrophysicist introduced what is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit. This limit establishes the maximum mass of a stellar remnant beyond which the repulsion force between electrons due to the exclusion principle can no longer stop the gravitational collapse. In the present article, we create an elemental approximation to the Chandrasekhar limit, accessible to non-graduate science and engineering students. The article focuses especially on clarifying the origins of Chandrasekhar’s discovery and the underlying physical concepts. Throughout the article, only basic algebra is used as well as some general notions of classical physics and quantum theory.
Gauge bridges in classical field theory; Eichbruecken in der klassischen Feldtheorie
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Jakobs, S.
2009-03-15
In this thesis Poisson structures of two classical gauge field theories (Maxwell-Klein-Gordon- and Maxwell-Dirac-system) are constructed using the parametrix construction of Green's functions. Parametrices for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon- and Maxwell-Dirac-system are constructed in Minkowski space and this construction is later generalized to curved space times for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon-system. With these Green's functions Poisson brackets will be defined as Peierls brackets. Finally non-local, gauge invariant observables, the so-called 'gauge bridges'are constructed. Gauge bridges are the matrix elements of holonomy operators. It is shown, that these emerge from Poisson brackets of local, gauge invariant observables. (orig.)
Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Borgis, Daniel
2014-01-01
We report here how the hydration of complex surfaces can be efficiently studied thanks to recent advances in classical molecular density functional theory. This is illustrated on the example of the pyrophylite clay. After presenting the most recent advances, we show that the strength of this implicit method is that (i) it is in quantitative or semi-quantitative agreement with reference all-atoms simulations (molecular dynamics here) for both the solvation structure and energetics, and that (ii) the computational cost is two to three orders of magnitude less than in explicit methods. The method remains imperfect, in that it locally overestimates the polarization of water close to hydrophylic sites of the clay. The high numerical efficiency of the method is illustrated and exploited to carry a systematic study of the electrostatic and van der Waals components of the surface-solvant interactions within the most popular force field for clays, CLAYFF. Hydration structure and energetics are found to weakly depend u...
Classical solutions in quantum field theory solitons and instantons in high energy physics
Weinberg, Erick J
2012-01-01
Classical solutions play an important role in quantum field theory, high energy physics and cosmology. Real-time soliton solutions give rise to particles, such as magnetic monopoles, and extended structures, such as domain walls and cosmic strings, that have implications for early universe cosmology. Imaginary-time Euclidean instantons are responsible for important nonperturbative effects, while Euclidean bounce solutions govern transitions between metastable states. Written for advanced graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, cosmology and related fields, this book brings the reader up to the level of current research in the field. The first half of the book discusses the most important classes of solitons: kinks, vortices and magnetic monopoles. The cosmological and observational constraints on these are covered, as are more formal aspects, including BPS solitons and their connection with supersymmetry. The second half is devoted to Euclidean solutions, with particular emphasis on ...
Classical and quantum theory of the massive spin-two field
Koenigstein, Adrian; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we review classical and quantum field theory of massive non-interacting spin-two fields. We derive the equations of motion and Fierz-Pauli constraints via three different methods: the eigenvalue equations for the Casimir invariants of the Poincaré group, a Lagrangian approach, and a covariant Hamilton formalism. We also present the conserved quantities, the solution of the equations of motion in terms of polarization tensors, and the tree-level propagator. We then discuss canonical quantization by postulating commutation relations for creation and annihilation operators. We express the energy, momentum, and spin operators in terms of the former. As an application, quark-antiquark currents for tensor mesons are presented. In particular, the current for tensor mesons with quantum numbers JPC =2-+ is, to our knowledge, given here for the first time.
Farhi, E; Gutmann, S; Rajagopal, K; Singleton, R; Farhi, E; Goldstone, J; Gutmann, S; Rajagopal, K
1995-01-01
We investigate fermion production in the background of Minkowski space solutions to the equations of motion of SU(2) gauge theory spontaneously broken via the Higgs mechanism. First, we attempt to evaluate the topological charge Q of the solutions. We find that for solutions we cannot define a Lorentz invariant Q as an integral over all space-time. Solutions can profitably be characterized by the (integer-valued) change in Higgs winding number \\Delta N_H. We show that solutions which dissipate at early and late times and which have nonzero \\Delta N_H must have at least the sphaleron energy. We show that if we couple a quantized massive chiral fermion to a classical background given by a solution, the number of fermions produced is \\Delta N_H, and is not related to Q.
Ivanov, Mikhail; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Babikov, Dmitri
2014-04-07
The mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) formulated in the space-fixed reference frame is used to compute quenching cross sections of several rotationally excited states of water molecule by impact of He atom in a broad range of collision energies, and is tested against the full-quantum calculations on the same potential energy surface. In current implementation of MQCT method, there are two major sources of errors: one affects results at energies below 10 cm(-1), while the other shows up at energies above 500 cm(-1). Namely, when the collision energy E is below the state-to-state transition energy ΔE the MQCT method becomes less accurate due to its intrinsic classical approximation, although employment of the average-velocity principle (scaling of collision energy in order to satisfy microscopic reversibility) helps dramatically. At higher energies, MQCT is expected to be accurate but in current implementation, in order to make calculations computationally affordable, we had to cut off the basis set size. This can be avoided by using a more efficient body-fixed formulation of MQCT. Overall, the errors of MQCT method are within 20% of the full-quantum results almost everywhere through four-orders-of-magnitude range of collision energies, except near resonances, where the errors are somewhat larger.
Sundararaman, Ravishankar
2014-01-01
Classical density-functional theory provides an efficient alternative to molecular dynamics simulations for understanding the equilibrium properties of inhomogeneous fluids. However, application of density-functional theory to multi-site molecular fluids has so far been limited by complications due to the implicit molecular geometry constraints on the site densities, whose resolution typically requires expensive Monte Carlo methods. Here, we present a general scheme of circumventing this so-called inversion problem: compressed representations of the orientation density. This approach allows us to combine the superior iterative convergence properties of multipole representations of the fluid configuration with the improved accuracy of site-density functionals. Next, from a computational perspective, we show how to extend the DFT++ algebraic formulation of electronic density-functional theory to the classical fluid case and present a basis-independent discretization of our formulation for molecular classical de...
Kalinin, A. V.; Grigor'ev, E. E.; Zhidkov, A. A.; Terent'ev, A. M.
2014-04-01
We study a one-dimensional stationary system of equations comprising the continuity equation for the ion concentration with the recombination effects taken into account and the Gauss law for the electric field. This system gives a simplified description of various phenomena in ionized medium theory and is used, in particular, for modeling of the electrode effect in the atmospheric surface layers with the turbulent diffusion effects neglected. Using the integral of the system and a phase portrait in the ion concentration plane, we offer a complete classification of types of solutions of the system, examine their properties, and deduce some analytical relations between the ion concentration and the electric field. The basic equations of classical electrode effect theory are obtained for some classes of solutions within the framework of this approach. Correct formulations of the problems are discussed. New classes of solutions, for which there are layers with infinitely increasing conductivity and charge density are described. The Appendix illustrates, in both analytical and graphical form, the results obtained in the main part of this paper on the basis of qualitative reasoning for parameters close to real. Analytical expressions for the fields and ion concentrations are given for all types of solutions. Relations for the distances between electrodes and analytical relations describing the properties of the spatially localized solutions are presented.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems.
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.
Statistical analysis of 4 types of neck whiplash injuries based on classical meridian theory.
Chen, Yemeng; Zhao, Yan; Xue, Xiaolin; Li, Hui; Wu, Xiuyan; Zhang, Qunce; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Tianfang
2015-01-01
As one component of the Chinese medicine meridian system, the meridian sinew (Jingjin, (see text), tendino-musculo) is specially described as being for acupuncture treatment of the musculoskeletal system because of its dynamic attributes and tender point correlations. In recent decades, the therapeutic importance of the sinew meridian has become revalued in clinical application. Based on this theory, the authors have established therapeutic strategies of acupuncture treatment in Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD) by categorizing four types of neck symptom presentations. The advantage of this new system is to make it much easier for the clinician to find effective acupuncture points. This study attempts to prove the significance of the proposed therapeutic strategies by analyzing data collected from a clinical survey of various WAD using non-supervised statistical methods, such as correlation analysis, factor analysis, and cluster analysis. The clinical survey data have successfully verified discrete characteristics of four neck syndromes, based upon the range of motion (ROM) and tender point location findings. A summary of the relationships among the symptoms of the four neck syndromes has shown the correlation coefficient as having a statistical significance (P syndrome factors are more related to the Liver, as originally described in classical theory. The hypothesis of meridian sinew syndromes in WAD is clearly supported by the statistical analysis of the clinical trials. This new discovery should be beneficial in improving therapeutic outcomes.
Field-testing of the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maarbjerg, Stine; Sørensen, Morten Togo; Gozalov, Aydin
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to field-test the beta version of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The proposed beta draft of the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases...
Powell, Stephen; Chalker, J. T.
2008-10-01
We derive a continuum theory for the phase transition in a classical dimer model on the cubic lattice, observed in recent Monte Carlo simulations. Our derivation relies on the mapping from a three-dimensional classical problem to a two-dimensional quantum problem, by which the dimer model is related to a model of hard-core bosons on the kagome lattice. The dimer-ordering transition becomes a superfluid Mott insulator quantum phase transition at fractional filling, described by an SU(2)-invariant continuum theory.
Structure Theory for Extended Kepler-Coulomb 3D Classical Superintegrable Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ernie G. Kalnins
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The classical Kepler-Coulomb system in 3 dimensions is well known to be 2nd order superintegrable, with a symmetry algebra that closes polynomially under Poisson brackets. This polynomial closure is typical for 2nd order superintegrable systems in 2D and for 2nd order systems in 3D with nondegenerate (4-parameter potentials. However the degenerate 3-parameter potential for the 3D extended Kepler-Coulomb system (also 2nd order superintegrable is an exception, as its quadratic symmetry algebra doesn't close polynomially. The 3D 4-parameter potential for the extended Kepler-Coulomb system is not even 2nd order superintegrable. However, Verrier and Evans (2008 showed it was 4th order superintegrable, and Tanoudis and Daskaloyannis (2011 showed that in the quantum case, if a second 4th order symmetry is added to the generators, the double commutators in the symmetry algebra close polynomially. Here, based on the Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz construction, we consider an infinite class of classical extended Kepler-Coulomb 3- and 4-parameter systems indexed by a pair of rational numbers (k_1,k_2 and reducing to the usual systems when k_1=k_2=1. We show these systems to be superintegrable of arbitrarily high order and work out explicitly the structure of the symmetry algebras determined by the 5 basis generators we have constructed. We demonstrate that the symmetry algebras close rationally; only for systems admitting extra discrete symmetries is polynomial closure achieved. Underlying the structure theory is the existence of raising and lowering constants of the motion, not themselves polynomials in the momenta, that can be employed to construct the polynomial symmetries and their structure relations.
Foundations of a New Test Theory.
Mislevy, Robert J.
It is only a slight exaggeration to describe the test theory that dominates educational measurement today as the application of twentieth-century statistics to nineteenth-century psychology. Sophisticated estimation procedures, new techniques for missing-data problems, and theoretical advances into latent-variable modeling have appeared--all…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Wen-Xue; Zhang Shu-Lian; Zhang Peng; Zeng Zhao-Li
2012-01-01
In this paper,we propose a semi-classical theory to successfully explain the polarization flipping in a single frequency laser. An experimental setup is built to verify this theory. The observed experimental phenomena are consistent with the theoretical analysis.We perform phase retardation measurements of birefringent components using this experimental system.The results show that the measurement repeatability is 0.12° and the measurement accuracy is 0.22°.
Tapavicza, Enrico; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Filippi, Claudia; Casida, Mark E.
2008-01-01
We present a mixed time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT)/classical trajectory surface hopping (SH) study of the photochemical ring opening in oxirane. Previous preparatory work limited to the symmetric CC ring-opening pathways of oxirane concluded that the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA)
Thermoelectric properties of fully hydrogenated graphene: Semi-classical Boltzmann theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reshak, A. H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies-Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)
2015-06-14
Based on the calculated band structure, the electronic transport coefficients of chair-/boat-like graphane were evaluated by using the semi-classical Boltzmann theory and rigid band model. The maximum value of electrical conductivity for chair (boat)-like graphane of about 1.4 (0.6) × 10{sup 19} (Ωms){sup −1} is achieved at 600 K. The charge carrier concentration and the electrical conductivity linearly increase with increasing the temperature in agreement with the experimental work for graphene. The investigated materials exhibit the highest value of Seebeck coefficient at 300 K. We should emphasize that in the chemical potential between ∓0.125 μ(eV) the investigated materials exhibit minimum value of electronic thermal conductivity, therefore, maximum efficiency. As the temperature increases, the electronic thermal conductivity increases exponentially, in agreement with the experimental data of graphene. We also calculated the power factor of chair-/boat-like graphane at 300 and 600 K as a function of chemical potential between ∓0.25 μ(eV)
Polar-solvation classical density-functional theory for electrolyte aqueous solutions near a wall
Warshavsky, Vadim; Marucho, Marcelo
2016-04-01
A precise description of the structural and dielectric properties of liquid water is critical to understanding the physicochemical properties of solutes in electrolyte solutions. In this article, a mixture of ionic and dipolar hard spheres is considered to account for water crowding and polarization effects on ionic electrical double layers near a uniformly charged hard wall. As a unique feature, solvent hard spheres carrying a dipole at their centers were used to model water molecules at experimentally known concentration, molecule size, and dipolar moment. The equilibrium ionic and dipole density profiles of this electrolyte aqueous model were calculated using a polar-solvation classical density-functional theory (PSCDFT). These profiles were used to calculate the charge density distribution, water polarization, dielectric permittivity function, and mean electric potential profiles as well as differential capacitance, excess adsorptions, and wall-fluid surface tension. These results were compared with those corresponding to the pure dipolar model and unpolar primitive solvent model of electrolyte aqueous solutions to understand the role that water crowding and polarization effects play on the structural and thermodynamic properties of these systems. Overall, PSCDFT predictions are in agreement with available experimental data.
Diemand, Jürg; Angélil, Raymond; Tanaka, Kyoko K; Tanaka, Hidekazu
2014-11-01
We present results from direct, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous bubble (liquid-to-vapor) nucleation. The simulations contain half a billion Lennard-Jones atoms and cover up to 56 million time steps. The unprecedented size of the simulated volumes allows us to resolve the nucleation and growth of many bubbles per run in simple direct micro-canonical simulations while the ambient pressure and temperature remain almost perfectly constant. We find bubble nucleation rates which are lower than in most of the previous, smaller simulations. It is widely believed that classical nucleation theory (CNT) generally underestimates bubble nucleation rates by very large factors. However, our measured rates are within two orders of magnitude of CNT predictions; only at very low temperatures does CNT underestimate the nucleation rate significantly. Introducing a small, positive Tolman length leads to very good agreement at all temperatures, as found in our recent vapor-to-liquid nucleation simulations. The critical bubbles sizes derived with the nucleation theorem agree well with the CNT predictions at all temperatures. Local hot spots reported in the literature are not seen: Regions where a bubble nucleation event will occur are not above the average temperature, and no correlation of temperature fluctuations with subsequent bubble formation is seen.
Unification of classical nucleation theories via a unified Itô-Stratonovich stochastic equation.
Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A; Lutsko, James F
2015-09-01
Classical nucleation theory (CNT) is the most widely used framework to describe the early stage of first-order phase transitions. Unfortunately, the different points of view adopted to derive it yield different kinetic equations for the probability density function, e.g., Zeldovich-Frenkel or Becker-Döring-Tunitskii equations. Starting from a phenomenological stochastic differential equation, a unified equation is obtained in this work. In other words, CNT expressions are recovered by selecting one or another stochastic calculus. Moreover, it is shown that the unified CNT thus obtained produces the same Fokker-Planck equation as that from a recent update of CNT [J. F. Lutsko and M. A. Durán-Olivencia, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 244908 (2013)10.1063/1.4811490] when mass transport is governed by diffusion. Finally, we derive a general induction-time expression along with specific approximations of it to be used under different scenarios, in particular, when the mass-transport mechanism is governed by direct impingement, volume diffusion, surface diffusion, or interface transfer.
Gong, Kai; Marshall, Bennett D; Chapman, Walter G
2013-09-07
We study the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior of associating polymer brushes (i.e., poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) using classical density functional theory. Without using any empirical or temperature-dependent parameters, we find the phase transition of polymer brushes from extended to collapsed structure with increasing temperature, indicating the LCST behavior of polymer brushes. The LCST behavior of associating polymer brushes is attributed to the interplay of hydrogen bonding interactions and Lennard-Jones attractions in the system. The effect of grafting density and molecular weight on the phase behavior of associating polymer brushes has been also investigated. We find no LCST behavior at low grafting density or molecular weight. Moreover, increasing grafting density decreases the LCST and swelling ratio of polymer brushes. Similarly, increasing molecular weight decreases the LCST but increases the swelling ratio. At very high grafting density, a partial collapsed structure appears near the LCST. Qualitatively consistent with experiments, our results provide insight into the molecular mechanism of LCST behavior of associating polymer brushes.
Fan, Peifeng; Liu, Jian; Xiang, Nong; Yu, Zhi
2016-01-01
A manifestly covariant, or geometric, field theory for relativistic classical particle-field system is developed. The connection between space-time symmetry and energy-momentum conservation laws for the system is established geometrically without splitting the space and time coordinates, i.e., space-time is treated as one identity without choosing a coordinate system. To achieve this goal, we need to overcome two difficulties. The first difficulty arises from the fact that particles and field reside on different manifold. As a result, the geometric Lagrangian density of the system is a function of the 4-potential of electromagnetic fields and also a functional of particles' world-lines. The other difficulty associated with the geometric setting is due to the mass-shell condition. The standard Euler-Lagrange (EL) equation for a particle is generalized into the geometric EL equation when the mass-shell condition is imposed. For the particle-field system, the geometric EL equation is further generalized into a w...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor V. Uporov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The dipole interaction model is a classical electromagnetic theory for calculating circular dichroism (CD resulting from the π-π* transitions of amides. The theoretical model, pioneered by J. Applequist, is assembled into a package, DInaMo, written in Fortran allowing for treatment of proteins. DInaMo reads Protein Data Bank formatted files of structures generated by molecular mechanics or reconstructed secondary structures. Crystal structures cannot be used directly with DInaMo; they either need to be rebuilt with idealized bond angles and lengths, or they need to be energy minimized to adjust bond lengths and bond angles because it is common for crystal structure geometries to have slightly short bond lengths, and DInaMo is sensitive to this. DInaMo reduces all the amide chromophores to points with anisotropic polarizability and all nonchromophoric aliphatic atoms including hydrogens to points with isotropic polarizability; all other atoms are ignored. By determining the interactions among the chromophoric and nonchromophoric parts of the molecule using empirically derived polarizabilities, the rotational and dipole strengths are determined leading to the calculation of CD. Furthermore, ignoring hydrogens bound to methyl groups is initially explored and proves to be a good approximation. Theoretical calculations on 24 proteins agree with experiment showing bands with similar morphology and maxima.
Local and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests in classical measurement error models
Ma, Yanyuan
2010-09-14
We consider functional measurement error models, i.e. models where covariates are measured with error and yet no distributional assumptions are made about the mismeasured variable. We propose and study a score-type local test and an orthogonal series-based, omnibus goodness-of-fit test in this context, where no likelihood function is available or calculated-i.e. all the tests are proposed in the semiparametric model framework. We demonstrate that our tests have optimality properties and computational advantages that are similar to those of the classical score tests in the parametric model framework. The test procedures are applicable to several semiparametric extensions of measurement error models, including when the measurement error distribution is estimated non-parametrically as well as for generalized partially linear models. The performance of the local score-type and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests is demonstrated through simulation studies and analysis of a nutrition data set.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Xiang-Yun; YU Hong-Wei
2007-01-01
We study the random motion of a charged test particle with a normal classical constant velocity in a spacetime with a perfectly reflecting plane boundary and calculate both the velocity and position dispersions of the test particle. Our results show that the dispersions in the normal direction are weakened while those in the parallel directions are strengthened as compared to the classical static case when the test particle classically moves away from the boundary.However, if the classical motion reverses its direction, then the dispersions in the normal direction are reinforced while those in the parallel directions get weakened.
Classical Tests of General Relativity: Brane-World Sun from Minimal Geometric Deformation
Casadio, Roberto; da Rocha, Roldao
2015-01-01
We consider a solution of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations, obtained from the General Relativistic Schwarzschild metric via the principle of Minimal Geometric Deformation, and investigate the corresponding signatures stemming from the possible existence of a warped extra dimension. In particular, we derive bounds on an extra-dimensional parameter, closely related with the fundamental gravitational length, from the experimental results of the classical tests of General Relativity in the Solar system.
Classical tests of general relativity: Brane-world Sun from minimal geometric deformation
Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão
2015-05-01
We consider a solution of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations, obtained from the general relativistic Schwarzschild metric via the principle of minimal geometric deformation, and investigate the corresponding signatures stemming from the possible existence of a warped extra-dimension. In particular, we derive bounds on an extra-dimensional parameter, closely related with the fundamental gravitational length, from the experimental results of the classical tests of general relativity in the Solar system.
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2015-12-17
The mixed quantum classical theory, MQCT, for inelastic scattering of two molecules is developed, in which the internal (rotational, vibrational) motion of both collision partners is treated with quantum mechanics, and the molecule-molecule scattering (translational motion) is described by classical trajectories. The resultant MQCT formalism includes a system of coupled differential equations for quantum probability amplitudes, and the classical equations of motion in the mean-field potential. Numerical tests of this theory are carried out for several most important rotational state-to-state transitions in the N2 + H2 system, in a broad range of collision energies. Besides scattering resonances (at low collision energies) excellent agreement with full-quantum results is obtained, including the excitation thresholds, the maxima of cross sections, and even some smaller features, such as slight oscillations of energy dependencies. Most importantly, at higher energies the results of MQCT are nearly identical to the full quantum results, which makes this approach a good alternative to the full-quantum calculations that become computationally expensive at higher collision energies and for heavier collision partners. Extensions of this theory to include vibrational transitions or general asymmetric-top rotor (polyatomic) molecules are relatively straightforward.
Improving LLR Tests of Gravitational Theory
Williams, J G; Williams, James G.; Turyshev, Slava G.; Jr, Thomas W. Murphy
2003-01-01
Accurate analysis of precision ranges to the Moon has provided several tests of gravitational theory including the Equivalence Principle, geodetic precession, parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters $\\gamma$ and $\\beta$, and the constancy of the gravitational constant {\\it G}. Since the beginning of the experiment in 1969, the uncertainties of these tests have decreased considerably as data accuracies have improved and data time span has lengthened. We are exploring the modeling improvements necessary to proceed from cm to mm range accuracies enabled by the new Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) currently under development in New Mexico. This facility will be able to make a significant contribution to the solar system tests of fundamental and gravitational physics. In particular, the Weak and Strong Equivalence Principle tests would have a sensitivity approaching 10$^{-14}$, yielding sensitivity for the SEP violation parameter $\\eta$ of $\\sim 3\\times 10^{-5}$, $v^2/c^2$ gene...
Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuzinatto, R.R. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Pompeia, P.J. [Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto de Fomento e Coordenacao Industrial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); De Montigny, M. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); University of Alberta, Campus Saint-Jean, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Khanna, F.C. [University of Alberta, Theoretical Physics Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO box 1700, Victoria, BC (Canada); Silva, J.M.H. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)
2014-08-15
We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter b related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant b can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles. (orig.)
Classic tests of General Relativity described by brane-based spherically symmetric solutions
Cuzinatto, R R; de Montigny, M; Khanna, F C; da Silva, J M Hoff
2014-01-01
We discuss a way to obtain information about higher dimensions from observations by studying a brane-based spherically symmetric solution. The three classic tests of General Relativity are analyzed in details: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The braneworld version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter $b$ related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant $b$ can be constrained by comparison with observational data for massive and massless particles.
Multipole Theory in Electromagnetism: Classical, Quantum and Symmetry Aspects, with Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sihvola, Ari [Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)
2005-03-11
everything seems to work well with the 'old' multipole theory. But then the focus is shifted to observables associated with the reflection of waves from a surface. And there the classical analysis fails. This gives the motivation for the following chapters where the transformed multipole theory is represented. As expected, the correct multipole balance restores the physicality of the results in the reflection problem. One of the healthy reminders for an electrical engineer-scientist reading the book is the fact that E and B are the primary electric and magnetic fields. The other two field quantities, D and H, are the response fields (which, by the way, are also shown to be origin-dependent and poorly defined in the framework of classical multipole theory). In defence, however, for these poor latter quantities one can mention the many advantages of the engineering-type constitutive relations where D and B are expressed as responses to E and H. An example is the beautiful symmetry and complete analogy between the electric and magnetic quantities (voltage becomes current and vice versa in the duality transformation) which helps us write down solutions to electromagnetic problems from other known cases. From a pragmatic point of view we would also favour the use of quantities like Poynting vector and energy density (which require the H field). Another discussion-provoking question to the authors of the book might be whether their new multipole balance could be broken in the analysis of artificial materials. New nanotechnological discoveries and devices make it look like engineers can do anything. Perhaps in the design of complex media and metamaterials, a hot topic in today?s materials science, such macroscopic responses can be tailored where a certain high-order multipole contribution dominates over other, more basic ones. Multiple Theory in Electromagnetism is suitable for a broad spectrum of readers: solid-state physicists, molecular chemists, theoretical and
Sihvola, Ari
2005-03-01
' multipole theory. But then the focus is shifted to observables associated with the reflection of waves from a surface. And there the classical analysis fails. This gives the motivation for the following chapters where the transformed multipole theory is represented. As expected, the correct multipole balance restores the physicality of the results in the reflection problem. One of the healthy reminders for an electrical engineer-scientist reading the book is the fact that E and B are the primary electric and magnetic fields. The other two field quantities, D and H, are the response fields (which, by the way, are also shown to be origin-dependent and poorly\\endcolumn defined in the framework of classical multipole theory). In defence, however, for these poor latter quantities one can mention the many advantages of the engineering-type constitutive relations where D and B are expressed as responses to E and H. An example is the beautiful symmetry and complete analogy between the electric and magnetic quantities (voltage becomes current and vice versa in the duality transformation) which helps us write down solutions to electromagnetic problems from other known cases. From a pragmatic point of view we would also favour the use of quantities like Poynting vector and energy density (which require the H field). Another discussion-provoking question to the authors of the book might be whether their new multipole balance could be broken in the analysis of artificial materials. New nanotechnological discoveries and devices make it look like engineers can do anything. Perhaps in the design of complex media and metamaterials, a hot topic in todayÂ's materials science, such macroscopic responses can be tailored where a certain high-order multipole contribution dominates over other, more basic ones. Multiple Theory in Electromagnetism is suitable for a broad spectrum of readers: solid-state physicists, molecular chemists, theoretical and experimental optics scientists, radiophysics
Theory Overview of Testing Fundamental Symmetries
Mavromatos, Nick E
2013-01-01
I review first some theoretical motivations for violation of Lorentz and/or CPT Invariance. Although the latter symmetries may be violated in a quantum gravity setting, nevertheless there are situations in which these violations are due to a given classical background geometry that may characterised early epochs of our Universe, and in fact be responsible for the observed dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. In this way I estimate some of the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension (SME), which is a framework for a field theoretic study of such a breakdown of fundamental symmetries. Then I describe briefly some tests of these symmetries, giving emphasis in low-energy antiproton physics and electric dipole moment measurements, of interest to this conference. I also mention the r\\^ole of entangled states of neutral mesons in providing independent measurements of T(ime reversal) and CP Violation, thus providing independent tests of CPT symmetry, as well as novel ("smoking-gun" type) tests of...
ON THE DISTRIBUTION THEORY FOR SOME CONSTRAINED LIFE TESTING EXPERIMENTS.
RELIABILITY, *TEST METHODS, * DISTRIBUTION THEORY , MATHEMATICAL MODELS, STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, DECISION THEORY, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS, THESES.
Sahyoun, Maher; Wex, Heike; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Nielsen, Niels W.; Finster, Kai; Sørensen, Jens H.; Stratmann, Frank; Korsholm, Ulrik S.
2016-08-01
Bacterial ice-nucleating particles (INP) are present in the atmosphere and efficient in heterogeneous ice-nucleation at temperatures up to -2 °C in mixed-phase clouds. However, due to their low emission rates, their climatic impact was considered insignificant in previous modeling studies. In view of uncertainties about the actual atmospheric emission rates and concentrations of bacterial INP, it is important to re-investigate the threshold fraction of cloud droplets containing bacterial INP for a pronounced effect on ice-nucleation, by using a suitable parameterization that describes the ice-nucleation process by bacterial INP properly. Therefore, we compared two heterogeneous ice-nucleation rate parameterizations, denoted CH08 and HOO10 herein, both of which are based on classical-nucleation-theory and measurements, and use similar equations, but different parameters, to an empirical parameterization, denoted HAR13 herein, which considers implicitly the number of bacterial INP. All parameterizations were used to calculate the ice-nucleation probability offline. HAR13 and HOO10 were implemented and tested in a one-dimensional version of a weather-forecast-model in two meteorological cases. Ice-nucleation-probabilities based on HAR13 and CH08 were similar, in spite of their different derivation, and were higher than those based on HOO10. This study shows the importance of the method of parameterization and of the input variable, number of bacterial INP, for accurately assessing their role in meteorological and climatic processes.
Open and Closed String field theory interpreted in classical Algebraic Topology
Sullivan, Dennis
2003-01-01
There is an interpretation of open string field theory in algebraic topology. An interpretation of closed string field theory can be deduced from this open string theory to obtain as well the interpretation of open and closed string field theory combined.
Statistical Tests of Galactic Dynamo Theory
Chamandy, Luke; Shukurov, Anvar; Taylor, A. Russ
2016-12-01
Mean-field galactic dynamo theory is the leading theory to explain the prevalence of regular magnetic fields in spiral galaxies, but its systematic comparison with observations is still incomplete and fragmentary. Here we compare predictions of mean-field dynamo models to observational data on magnetic pitch angle and the strength of the mean magnetic field. We demonstrate that a standard {α }2{{Ω }} dynamo model produces pitch angles of the regular magnetic fields of nearby galaxies that are reasonably consistent with available data. The dynamo estimates of the magnetic field strength are generally within a factor of a few of the observational values. Reasonable agreement between theoretical and observed pitch angles generally requires the turbulent correlation time τ to be in the range of 10-20 {Myr}, in agreement with standard estimates. Moreover, good agreement also requires that the ratio of the ionized gas scale height to root-mean-square turbulent velocity increases with radius. Our results thus widen the possibilities to constrain interstellar medium parameters using observations of magnetic fields. This work is a step toward systematic statistical tests of galactic dynamo theory. Such studies are becoming more and more feasible as larger data sets are acquired using current and up-and-coming instruments.
Kerner, Boris S
2016-01-01
We show that the minimization of travel times in a network as generally accepted in classical traffic and transportation theories deteriorates the traffic system through a considerable increase in the probability of traffic breakdown in the network. We introduce a network characteristic {\\it minimum network capacity} that shows that rather than the minimization of travel times in the network, the minimization of the probability of traffic breakdown in the network maximizes the network throughput at which free flow persists in the whole network.
Classical nucleation theory of homogeneous freezing of water: thermodynamic and kinetic parameters.
Ickes, Luisa; Welti, André; Hoose, Corinna; Lohmann, Ulrike
2015-02-28
The probability of homogeneous ice nucleation under a set of ambient conditions can be described by nucleation rates using the theoretical framework of Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT). This framework consists of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, of which three are not well-defined (namely the interfacial tension between ice and water, the activation energy and the prefactor), so that any CNT-based parameterization of homogeneous ice formation is less well-constrained than desired for modeling applications. Different approaches to estimate the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of CNT are reviewed in this paper and the sensitivity of the calculated nucleation rate to the choice of parameters is investigated. We show that nucleation rates are very sensitive to this choice. The sensitivity is governed by one parameter - the interfacial tension between ice and water, which determines the energetic barrier of the nucleation process. The calculated nucleation rate can differ by more than 25 orders of magnitude depending on the choice of parameterization for this parameter. The second most important parameter is the activation energy of the nucleation process. It can lead to a variation of 16 orders of magnitude. By estimating the nucleation rate from a collection of droplet freezing experiments from the literature, the dependence of these two parameters on temperature is narrowed down. It can be seen that the temperature behavior of these two parameters assumed in the literature does not match with the predicted nucleation rates from the fit in most cases. Moreover a comparison of all possible combinations of theoretical parameterizations of the dominant two free parameters shows that one combination fits the fitted nucleation rates best, which is a description of the interfacial tension coming from a molecular model [Reinhardt and Doye, J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 139, 096102] in combination with the activation energy derived from self-diffusion measurements [Zobrist
A New Semi-Symmetric Uniﬁed Field Theory of the Classical Fields of Gravity and Electromagnetism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available We attempt to present a classical theoretical framework in which the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects in the space-time manifold. For this purpose, we first present the preliminary geometric considerations dealing with the metric differential geometry of Cartan connections. The unified field theory is then developed as an extension of the general theory of relativity based on a semi- symmetric Cartan connection which is meant to be as close as possible structurally to the symmetric connection of the Einstein-Riemann space-time.
Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution.
Jouguet, Paul; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Debuisschert, Thierry; Fossier, Simon; Diamanti, Eleni; Alléaume, Romain; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe; Leverrier, Anthony; Pache, Philippe; Painchault, Philippe
2012-06-18
We report on the design and performance of a point-to-point classical symmetric encryption link with fast key renewal provided by a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system. Our system was operational and able to encrypt point-to-point communications during more than six months, from the end of July 2010 until the beginning of February 2011. This field test was the first demonstration of the reliability of a CVQKD system over a long period of time in a server room environment. This strengthens the potential of CVQKD for information technology security infrastructure deployments.
Testing Conformal Theory:. 3-STATE Potts
Barkema, G. T.; McCabe, J.; Wydro, T.
2001-04-01
Conformal theory predictions and Monte Carlo measurements of structure constants in 3-state Potts model were reviewed. The results provide a direct confirmation of the quality of conformal theory predictions of universal 3-point amplitudes. The prediction of these type of universal amplitudes sparked much of the original interest in conformal models, but are almost untested outside of the Ising model. Structure constants, C123, are universal amplitudes that define 3-point correlations, i.e., = C123/ |X12|2(Δ1+Δ2-Δ3)·× cyclic perms. To predict the values of these universal numbers, one constructs a 4-point correlation as a sum of products of conformal blocks and then, determines coefficients that weight the sum by demanding that the 4-point correlation satisfy a bootstrap equation. The bootstrap equation imposes consistency of the 4-point correlation with operator product expansions in multiple channels. The 3-state Potts model was chosen, because this model is easy of simulate. But, this Potts model has an added complication, i.e., a discrete Z3 symmetry at criticality. The discrete symmetry had to be implemented to calculate structure constants. Conformal theory predicted that Cσσσ = 1.092 and Cɛσσ* = 0.546. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on 500 × 500 lattices on which sample configurations were generated by the cluster algorithm of Wolff. To obtain the structure constants both 2-point and 3-point correlations were measured. The 2-point correlations fixed non-universal normalizatons. The quality of the Monte-Carlo methods were tested by measuring structure constants of the Ising model-good agreement with known results was found. For 3-state Potts, the simulations found that Cσσσ = 1.116 ± 0.14 and Cɛσσ* = 0.61 ± 0.06. These results provide striking agreement with predictions and a confirmation of conformal field theory.
Camilleri, Kristian
2015-01-01
Niels Bohr's doctrine of the primacy of "classical concepts" is arguably his most criticized and misunderstood view. We present a new, careful historical analysis that makes clear that Bohr's doctrine was primarily an epistemological thesis, derived from his understanding of the functional role of experiment. A hitherto largely overlooked disagreement between Bohr and Heisenberg about the movability of the "cut" between measuring apparatus and observed quantum system supports the view that, for Bohr, such a cut did not originate in dynamical (ontological) considerations, but rather in functional (epistemological) considerations. As such, both the motivation and the target of Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts are of a fundamentally different nature than what is understood as the dynamical problem of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis suggests that, contrary to claims often found in the literature, Bohr's doctrine is not, and cannot be, at odds with proposed solutions to the dynamical problem...
Decoherence and the appearance of a classical world in quantum theory.
Giulini, D.; Joos, E.; Kiefer, C.; Kupsch, J.; Stamatescu, I.-O.; Zeh, H. D.
This book describes the phenomena that arise from the interaction between quantum systems with their environment. The emerging irreversible dynamics of local systems explains the classical behaviour of macroscopic objects. The emergence of superselection rules, observed particle aspects of quantum fields, the occurrence of quantum jumps, and the emergence of classical spacetime from quantum gravity are also discussed. This approach, which is based on the assumed universality of quantum mechanics, is compared and contrasted with others, such as consistent histories, open-system dynamics, and explicit collapse mechanisms.
Further tests of belief-importance theory.
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K V Petrides
Full Text Available Belief-importance (belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.
Testing gravity theories using tensor perturbations
Lin, Weikang; Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.
2017-01-01
Primordial gravitational waves constitute a promising probe of the very early universe physics and the laws of gravity. We study the changes to tensor-mode perturbations that can arise in various modified gravity theories. These include a modified friction and a nonstandard dispersion relation. We introduce a physically motivated parametrization of these effects and use current data to obtain excluded parameter spaces. Taking into account the foreground subtraction, we then perform a forecast analysis focusing on the tensor-mode modified-gravity parameters as constrained by future experiments COrE, Stage-IV and PIXIE. For the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.01, we find the minimum detectible modified-gravity effects. In particular, the minimum detectable graviton mass is about 7.8˜9.7×10-33 eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as the graviton mass that allows massive gravity to produce late-time cosmic acceleration. Finally, we study the tensor-mode perturbations in modified gravity during inflation. We find that, the tensor spectral index would be additionally related to the friction parameter ν0 by nT=-3ν0-r/8. In some cases, the future experiments will be able to distinguish this relation from the standard one. In sum, primordial gravitational waves provide a complementary avenue to test gravity theories.
Critical Test Of Gamma Ray Burst Theories
Dado, Shlomo
2016-01-01
Long and precise follow-up measurements of the X-ray afterglow (AG) of very intense gamma ray bursts (GRBs) provide a critical test of GRB afterglow theories. Here we show that the power-law decline with time of X-ray AG of GRB 130427A, the longest measured X-ray AG of an intense GRB with the Swift, Chandra and XMM Newton satellites, and of all other well measured late-time X-ray afterglow of intense GRBs, is that predicted by the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs from their measured spectral index, while it disagrees with that predicted by the widely accepted fireball (FB) models of GRBs.
Testing gravity theories using tensor perturbations
Lin, Weikang; Ishak, Mustapha
2016-12-01
Primordial gravitational waves constitute a promising probe of the very early Universe and the laws of gravity. We study in this work changes to tensor-mode perturbations that can arise in various proposed modified gravity theories. These include additional friction effects, nonstandard dispersion relations involving a massive graviton, a modified speed, and a small-scale modification. We introduce a physically motivated parametrization of these effects and use current available data to obtain exclusion regions in the parameter spaces. Taking into account the foreground subtraction, we then perform a forecast analysis focusing on the tensor-mode modified-gravity parameters as constrained by the future experiments COrE, Stage-IV and PIXIE. For a fiducial value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r =0.01 , we find that an additional friction of 3.5-4.5% compared to GR will be detected at 3 -σ by these experiments, while a decrease in friction will be more difficult to detect. The speed of gravitational waves needs to be by 5-15% different from the speed of light for detection. We find that the minimum detectable graviton mass is about 7.8 - 9.7 ×10-33 eV , which is of the same order of magnitude as the graviton mass that allows massive gravity theories to produce late-time cosmic acceleration. Finally, we study the tensor-mode perturbations in modified gravity during inflation using our parametrization. We find that, in addition to being related to r , the tensor spectral index would be related to the friction parameter ν0 by nT=-3 ν0-r /8 . Assuming that the friction parameter is unchanged throughout the history of the Universe, and that ν0 is much larger than r , the future experiments considered here will be able to distinguish this modified-gravity consistency relation from the standard inflation consistency relation, and thus can be used as a further test of modified gravity. In summary, tensor-mode perturbations and cosmic-microwave-background B
Basic Theory and Theory System of Medical Classic of Yellow Emperor%《黄帝内经》的基础理论与理论体系
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马卫东
2012-01-01
《黄帝内经》作为中国古代医学的奠基之作,内容十分丰富,并已形成了较为完备的基础理论和理论体系.《内经》的基础理论可以概括为:以阴阳五行学说为理论基础,天地人一体而人为自然界一部分；人体是一个有机整体而五脏为六腑、五体、五官、九窍、四肢、百骸中心的医学理论.而《内经》的理论体系,依其内容可概括为三大组成部分,共九个主要学说.即:生理卫生部分的藏象学说、经络学说、养生运气学说；病因病理部分的病因学说、病机学说、病证学说；辨证施治部分的诊法学说、治则学说、针刺学说.《内经》理论体系的博大精深,在于上述三大组成部分的九个主要学说有其严密的内在逻辑关系.%As the foundation's work of the medical science in ancient China, the Medical Classic of Yellow Emperor had rich content and formed a set of relatively complete basic theory and theory system. The basic theory of Medical Classic of Yellow Emperor can be summarized as: taking the Yin-Yang and five elements philosophy as the basic theory; believing that the Sky, the Ground and the Human being forming a whole and the Human being was one of the parts of the nature; regarding the human body as an organic whole and claiming that the five internal organs were the rulers of the six hollow organs, the five body constituents, the five sense organs, the nine orifices, the four limbs and the hundred human bones. According to its content, the theory system of Medical Classic of Yellow Emperor can be summed up in three major parts and nine main theories: the part of the physiological health consists of the viscera-state doctrine, the Meridian theory and the wellness and breathing exercising theory; the part of the etiology and pathology consists of the cause of disease theory, the pathogenesis theory and the sickness syndrome theory; the part of the differentiation treatment consists of the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Pei-jun; YIN Pei-jie; ZHOU Qi-xing; SHI Xing-qun; XIONG Xian-zhe
2005-01-01
The phytotoxicity of chlorobenzoic acids(CBAs) was studied and the biochemical endpoints' suitability and sensibility was evaluated. Two terrestrial plant species in the same family were exposed to different concentrations of CBAS and tested their germination according to the guideline of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECP, 1984). The results showed that CBA doseinhibition rate of classical endpoint had the distinct linear relationship in the range of 10%-50% inhibition rate for root elongation( p ＜0.01), and the dose variances of CBAs had the greater influence on the inhibition rate of germination than on inhibition rate of root elongation. The CBA dose half effect concentration-inhibition rate of two antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase (CAT) had the quadratic relationship, and CBA dose-inhibition rate of the peroxides(POD) activity had the linear relationship( p＜0.05). Comparing the half effect concentration (EC50 ) of two kinds of endpoints, the POD activity was more sensitive than classical endpoint, however, SOD and CAT activity were not sensitive in the experiment.
Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories
Shapiro, Irwin
1997-01-01
We are engaged in testing gravitational theory by means of observations of objects in the solar system. These tests include an examination of the Principle Of Equivalence (POE), the Shapiro delay, the advances of planetary perihelia, the possibility of a secular variation G in the "gravitational constant" G, and the rate of the de Sitter (geodetic) precession of the Earth-Moon system. These results are consistent with our preliminary results focusing on the contribution of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), which were presented at the seventh Marcel Grossmann meeting on general relativity. The largest improvement over previous results comes in the uncertainty for (eta): a factor of five better than our previous value. This improvement reflects the increasing strength of the LLR data. A similar analysis presented at the same meeting by a group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a similar result for (eta). Our value for (beta) represents our first such result determined simultaneously with the solar quadrupole moment from the dynamical data set. These results are being prepared for publication. We have shown how positions determined from different planetary ephemerides can be compared and how the combination of VLBI and pulse timing information can yield a direct tie between planetary and radio frames. We have continued to include new data in our analysis as they became available. Finally, we have made improvement in our analysis software (PEP) and ported it to a network of modern workstations from its former home on a "mainframe" computer.
A concise course on the theory of classical liquids basics and selected topics
Santos, Andrés
2016-01-01
This short primer offers non-specialist readers a concise, yet comprehensive introduction to the field of classical fluids – providing both fundamental information and a number of selected topics to bridge the gap between the basics and ongoing research. In particular, hard-sphere systems represent a favorite playground in statistical mechanics, both in and out of equilibrium, as they represent the simplest models of many-body systems of interacting particles, and at higher temperature and densities they have proven to be very useful as reference systems for real fluids. Moreover, their usefulness in the realm of soft condensed matter has become increasingly recognized – for instance, the effective interaction among (sterically stabilized) colloidal particles can be tuned to almost perfectly match the hard-sphere model. These lecture notes present a brief, self-contained overview of equilibrium statistical mechanics of classical fluids, with special applications to both the structural and thermodynamic pr...
Pratt, Cornelius B.
1994-01-01
Links ethical theories to the management of the product recall of the Perrier Group of America. Argues for a nonsituational theory-based eclectic approach to ethics in public relations to enable public relations practitioners, as strategic communication managers, to respond effectively to potentially unethical organizational actions. (SR)
M. Laine; Philipsen, O.(Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany); Tassler, M.
2007-01-01
Recently, a finite-temperature real-time static potential has been introduced via a Schr\\"odinger-type equation satisfied by a certain heavy quarkonium Green's function. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that it possesses an imaginary part, which induces a finite width for the tip of the quarkonium peak in the thermal dilepton production rate. The imaginary part originates from Landau-damping of low-frequency gauge fields, which are essentially classical due to their high occupation number...
Lebon, G.; Jou, D.
2015-06-01
This paper gives a historical account of the early years (1953-1983) of extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT). The salient features of this formalism are to upgrade the thermodynamic fluxes of mass, momentum, energy, and others, to the status of independent variables, and to explore the consistency between generalized transport equations and a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics. This requires going beyond classical irreversible thermodynamics by redefining entropy and entropy flux. EIT provides deeper foundations, closer relations with microscopic formalisms, a wider spectrum of applications, and a more exciting conceptual appeal to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We first recall the historical contributions by Maxwell, Cattaneo, and Grad on generalized transport equations. A thermodynamic theory wide enough to cope with such transport equations was independently proposed between 1953 and 1983 by several authors, each emphasizing different kinds of problems. In 1983, the first international meeting on this theory took place in Bellaterra (Barcelona). It provided the opportunity for the various authors to meet together for the first time and to discuss the common points and the specific differences of their previous formulations. From then on, a large amount of applications and theoretical confirmations have emerged. From the historical point of view, the emergence of EIT has been an opportunity to revisit the foundations and to open new avenues in thermodynamics, one of the most classical and well consolidated physical theories.
Higher order classical density functional theory for branched chains and rings.
Marshall, Bennett D; Chapman, Walter G
2011-12-22
We develop a general density functional theory for polyatomic molecules by taking the complete association limit of Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory in a general way. By enforcing the complete association limit at an early point in the derivation and introducing the concept of molecular graphs, a general form for the free energy functional and segment densities are developed for both rigid and semiflexible molecules. The theory is applicable to branched chains, rings, or any other molecular structure. As an example the theory is applied as a second order perturbation theory to the case of molecules with a rigid three segment head and a fully flexible tail in a slit pore where bond angle of the rigid portion is an independent variable.
A Hamiltonian theory of adaptive resolution simulations of classical and quantum models of nuclei
Kreis, Karsten; Donadio, Davide; Kremer, Kurt; Potestio, Raffaello
2015-03-01
Quantum delocalization of atomic nuclei strongly affects the physical properties of low temperature systems, such as superfluid helium. However, also at room temperature nuclear quantum effects can play an important role for molecules composed by light atoms. An accurate modeling of these effects is possible making use of the Path Integral formulation of Quantum Mechanics. In simulations, this numerically expensive description can be restricted to a small region of space, while modeling the remaining atoms as classical particles. In this way the computational resources required can be significantly reduced. In the present talk we demonstrate the derivation of a Hamiltonian formulation for a bottom-up, theoretically solid coupling between a classical model and a Path Integral description of the same system. The coupling between the two models is established with the so-called Hamiltonian Adaptive Resolution Scheme, resulting in a fully adaptive setup in which molecules can freely diffuse across the classical and the Path Integral regions by smoothly switching their description on the fly. Finally, we show the validation of the approach by means of adaptive resolution simulations of low temperature parahydrogen. Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
Experimentally Testing the Mulitverse/Many-Worlds Theory
Tipler, Frank
2014-06-01
Many-Worlds quantum mechanics is NOT experimentally equivalent to standard quantum mechanics. I shall demonstrate this fact and investigate its consequences. I first show the Schrödinger equation is a special case of the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation, with |Ψ|2 being most naturally interpreted as a quantity proportional to the density of universes in the multiverse. I then show that with this interpretation for |Ψ|2, we can test the multiverse theory, because in the multiverse theory, the Born Interpretation is derived from this assumption, not merely assumed as in standard quantum theory, and the derivation gives us a means of computing how fast |Ψ|2 will build up from individual particles in an experiment, a computation I shall show cannot be done in standard quantum mechanics. In some types of experiments, the observed pattern will approach the final Born pattern as 1/N1/2, and in other types of experiments, the approach will be as 1/N, where N is the number of observed “particles.” The multiverse meaning of has other advantages over the standard probability amplitude meaning, because if is a universe density amplitude, need not be restricted to being a Hilbert space function. In particular, delta functions and plane waves are NOT functions in any Hilbert space, but they are both used extensively in quantum mechanics, though disallowed by the axioms of standard quantum mechanics. Finally, I shall show that multiverse experiments have important implications for cosmology. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for quantum gravity, applied to a spatially closed Friedman radiation universe in conformal time, is mathematically the Schrödinger equation for a simple harmonic oscillator. I show that if the wave function of the universe were a delta function at the initial singularity — I show that the universes being exactly classical now implies such a universal wave function — then we are overwhelmingly likely to find ourselves in a closed universe that is
AN OPEN LABEL PILOT STUDY TESTING THE ROLE OF CLASSICAL HOMEOPATHY IN CHRONIC ALLERGIC RHINITIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ghosh*, S. Das, M. Mundle Dishari Sengupta, Sk. Intaj Hossain, M. Koley and S. Saha
2013-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Purpose: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. India has an estimated number of 15-20 million patients with allergic bronchial asthma and 30-80% of these suffer from AR. So, AR is considered as a major chronic respiratory disease due to its prevalence, impact on quality of life (QoL, work/school performance and productivity, economic burden and links with asthma. This research aims at testing the role of classical homeopathy in bringing changes in serum immunoglobulin E (IgE level and absolute eosinophil count (primary outcome measures and symptoms score and WHOQOL-BREF score related to AR (secondary outcome measures by comparing the pre-trial and post-trial data.
Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E
2016-02-07
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.
Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Crushell, E
2009-06-01
Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.
Selected topics in the classical theory of functions of a complex variable
Heins, Maurice
2014-01-01
Elegant and concise, this text is geared toward advanced undergraduate students acquainted with the theory of functions of a complex variable. The treatment presents such students with a number of important topics from the theory of analytic functions that may be addressed without erecting an elaborate superstructure. These include some of the theory's most celebrated results, which seldom find their way into a first course. After a series of preliminaries, the text discusses properties of meromorphic functions, the Picard theorem, and harmonic and subharmonic functions. Subsequent topics incl
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paredes J.C.M.
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.
Classical Electron Model with Negative Energy Density in Einstein-Cartan Theory of Gravitation
Ray, S; Ray, Saibal; Bhadra, Sumana
2002-01-01
Experimental result regarding the maximum limit of the radius of the electron \\sim 10^{-16} cm and a few of the theoretical works suggest that the gravitational mass which is a priori a positive quantity in Newtonian mechanics may become negative in general theory of relativity. It is argued that such a negative gravitational mass and hence negative energy density also can be obtained with a better physical interpretation in the framework of Einstein-Cartan theory.
Sexual selection and hermaphroditic organisms: Testing theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janet L. LEONARD
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Sexual selection is widespread if not ubiquitous in hermaphroditic organisms. Although many phenomena that have been described as sexual selection in gonochores, (e.g. harem polygamy, multiple mating, elaborate courtship, even secondary sexual characters can be found in some hermaphrodites, what is more interesting is the ways in which sexual selection in hermaphrodites may differ from dioecious taxa. In hermaphrodites, an individual’s mating success includes its success from both sexual roles. Secondly, in many simultaneously hermaphroditic taxa there is strong evidence of sexual selection and yet the operational sex ratio is 1:1, by definition. Many simultaneous hermaphrodites have elaborate courtship and genital anatomy, suggesting sexual selection plays an important role in reproductive success. Sperm competition and cryptic female choice mean that the number of mates acquired is not necessarily a predictor of reproductive success. Even in simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal mating, variance in reproductive success through the male role and through the female role may differ in a population. Moreover hermaphrodites may choose to emphasize one sexual role over the other. Data suggest that the preferred role varies in hermaphrodites, which creates an opportunity to test fundamental predictions and assumptions of sexual selection theory. Hermaphrodites may vary their emphasis on one sexual role over the other either developmentally or behaviorally in response to environmental or social parameters. How they use this capability in acquiring more or higher quality mates still requires study [Current Zoology 59 (4: 579–588, 2013].
Sexual selection and hermaphroditic organisms: Testing theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Janet L.LEONARD
2013-01-01
Sexual selection is widespread if not ubiquitous in hermaphroditic organisms.Although many phenomena that have been described as sexual selection in gonochores,(e.g.harem polygamy,multiple mating,elaborate courtship,even secondary sexual characters) can be found in some hermaphrodites,what is more interesting is the ways in which sexual selection in hermaphrodites may differ from dioecious taxa.In hermaphrodites,an individual's mating success includes its success from both sexual roles.Secondly,in many simultaneously hermaphroditic taxa there is strong evidence of sexual selection and yet the operational sex ratio is 1:1,by definition.Many simultaneous hermaphrodites have elaborate courtship and genital anatomy,suggesting sexual selection plays an important role in reproductive success.Sperm competition and cryptic female choice mean that the number of mates acquired is not necessarily a predictor of reproductive success.Even in simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal mating,variance in reproductive success through the male role and through the female role may differ in a population.Moreover hermaphrodites may choose to emphasize one sexual role over the other.Data suggest that the preferred role varies in hermaphrodites,which creates an opportunity to test fundamental predictions and assumptions of sexual selection theory.Hermaphrodites may vary their emphasis on one sexual role over the other either developmentally or behaviorally in response to environmental or social parameters.How they use this capability in acquiring more or higher quality mates still requires study.
Testing the Quantum-Classical Boundary and Dimensionality of Quantum Systems
Shun, Poh Hou
Quantum theory introduces a cut between the observer and the observed system [1], but does not provide a definition of what is an observer [2]. Based on an informational def- inition of the observer, Grinbaum has recently [3] predicted an upper bound on bipartite correlations in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell scenario equal to 2.82537, which is slightly smaller than the Tsirelson bound [4] of standard quantum theory, but is consistent with all the available experimental results [5--17]. Not being able to exceed Grin- baum's limit would support that quantum theory is only an effective description of a more fundamental theory and would have a deep impact in physics and quantum information processing. In this thesis, we present a test of the CHSH inequality on photon pairs in maximally entangled states of polarization in which a value 2.8276 +/- 0.00082 is observed, violating Grinbaum's bound by 2.72 standard deviations and providing the smallest distance with respect to Tsirelson's bound ever reported, namely, 0.0008 +/- 0.00082. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
THE CLASSICAL BALLET METHODOLOGY AND THEIR POSSIBLE DIALOGUE WITH LABANIANAS THEORIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lanusse Sousa Jaime
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Establish a dialogue between a codified technique with other body techniques becomes a challenge when it comes to a tradition. Moths new avenues for the ballet teaching may move several problems found with respect to a hierarchy of knowledge. Ballet with its tradition and its stroked paths can be reorganized to build thinking and conscious bodies? The traditional classical technique transits other body language? Often there are more complex issues to think today in teaching and learning ballet . These issues translate my need to research and experiment with new ways to teach this technique.
Semi-classical periodic-orbit theory for chaotic Hamiltonians with discrete symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seligman, T.H.; Weidenmuller, H.A
1994-12-07
We generalize an idea applied recently to the case of identical particles and present a group-theoretical analysis of the periodic-orbit structure of a chaotic dynamical system with a discrete symmetry. The class structure of the group provides the key for the classification of periodic orbits. This structure perfectly fits the quantum-mechanical trace formula which is the starting point for the Balian-Bloch-Gutzwiller semi-classical approximation. For a specific irreducible representation of the symmetry group, we derive a modified form of the periodic-orbit sum. (author)
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qin, Hong [PPPL; Burby, Joshua W [PPPL; Davidson, Ronald C [PPPL
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.
Classical and Quantum Theory of Photothermal Cavity Cooling of a Mechanical Oscillator
Restrepo, Juan; Ciuti, Cristiano; Favero, Ivan
2010-01-01
Photothermal effects allow very efficient optomechanical coupling between mechanical degrees of freedom and photons. In the context of cavity cooling of a mechanical oscillator, the question of if the quantum ground state of the oscillator can be reached using photothermal back-action has been debated and remains an open question. Here we address this problem by complementary classical and quantum calculations. Both lead us to conclude that: first, the ground-state can indeed be reached using photothermal cavity cooling, second, it can be reached in a regime where the cavity detuning is small allowing a large amount of photons to enter the cavity.
Popa, Alexandru
2013-01-01
Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. This is a reference to those working in the new field of relativistic optics, in topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles, and is based on 30 years of research. The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and correspon
Žižek, Suzana; Zidar, Primož
2013-07-01
Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. Despite its extensive use, the effects of lasalocid on non-target soil organisms are poorly explored. We used classical subleathal ecotoxicity tests to assess the effects of lasalocid on earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and isopods (Porcellio scaber) and compared the results with tests using avoidance behaviour as the endpoint. The results showed that avoidance is a much more sensitive endpoint. For earthworms, EC50 for avoidance (12.3 mg kg(-1) dry soil) was more than five times lower than EC50 for reproduction (69.6 mg kg(-1) dry soil). In isopods the sensitivity of the behavioural response test was even higher. While the highest lasalocid concentration 202 mg kg(-1) had no significant effects on isopod growth or survival, already the lowest used concentration in the behavioural assay (4.51 mg kg(-1)) caused significant impact on isopod behaviour. Using the avoidance test results for calculating the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of lasalocid to soil invertebrates, the value is close to the predicted environmental concentration (PEC). This indicates that the use of lasalocid-contaminated manure could potentially impair the habitat function of agricultural soils.
Bartelmann, Matthias; Berg, Daniel; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Viermann, Celia
2014-01-01
We calculate the power spectrum of density fluctuations in the statistical non-equilibrium field theory for classical, microscopic degrees of freedom to first order in the interaction potential. We specialise our result to cosmology by choosing appropriate initial conditions and propagators and show that the non-linear growth of the density power spectrum found in numerical simulations of cosmic structure evolution is reproduced well to redshift zero and for arbitrary wave numbers. The main difference of our approach to ordinary cosmological perturbation theory is that we do not perturb a dynamical equation for the density contrast. Rather, we transport the initial phase-space distribution of a canonical particle ensemble forward in time and extract any collective information from it at the time needed. Since even small perturbations of particle trajectories can lead to large fluctuations in density, our approach allows to reach high density contrast already at first order in the perturbations of the particle...
Babikov, Dmitri; Semenov, Alexander
2016-01-28
A mixed quantum/classical approach to inelastic scattering (MQCT) is developed in which the relative motion of two collision partners is treated classically, and the rotational and vibrational motion of each molecule is treated quantum mechanically. The cases of molecule + atom and molecule + molecule are considered including diatomics, symmetric-top rotors, and asymmetric-top rotor molecules. Phase information is taken into consideration, permitting calculations of elastic and inelastic, total and differential cross sections for excitation and quenching. The method is numerically efficient and intrinsically parallel. The scaling law of MQCT is favorable, which enables calculations at high collision energies and for complicated molecules. Benchmark studies are carried out for several quite different molecular systems (N2 + Na, H2 + He, CO + He, CH3 + He, H2O + He, HCOOCH3 + He, and H2 + N2) in a broad range of collision energies, which demonstrates that MQCT is a viable approach to inelastic scattering. At higher collision energies it can confidently replace the computationally expensive full-quantum calculations. At low collision energies and for low-mass systems results of MQCT are less accurate but are still reasonable. A proposal is made for blending MQCT calculations at higher energies with full-quantum calculations at low energies.
Problems in classical mechanics
Katkar, L N
2014-01-01
Problems in classical mechanics presents a lucid treatment of the formulations of Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and the Principles of Calculus of Variations etc. important for the study of modern physics. The study of classical mechanics prepares students to apply the principles and the mathematical tools to solve real life problems. The book also incorporates and discusses in detail topics such as Central Force Motion, Rigid Body Motion and Canonical Transformations. KEY FEATURES: Around 200 solved examples with complete mathematical theory Around 70 examples given as an exercise to test and develop students understanding The physical interpretation of the Hamiltonian is highlighted
Semenov, Alexander; Ivanov, Mikhail; Babikov, Dmitri
2013-08-21
The mixed quantum/classical approach is applied to the problem of ro-vibrational energy transfer in the inelastic collisions of CO(v = 1) with He atom, in order to predict the quenching rate coefficient in a broad range of temperatures 5 quantum/classical theory, because the vibrational quantum in CO molecule is rather large and the quencher is very light (He atom). For heavier quenchers and closer to dissociation limit of the molecule, the mixed quantum/classical theory is expected to work even better.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李世荣; 万泽青; 张静华
2014-01-01
The free vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) beams is studied based on both the classical and the first-order shear deformation beam theories. The equations of motion for the FGM beams are derived by considering the shear deforma-tion and the axial, transversal, rotational, and axial-rotational coupling inertia forces on the assumption that the material properties vary arbitrarily in the thickness direction. By using the numerical shooting method to solve the eigenvalue problem of the coupled ordinary differential equations with different boundary conditions, the natural frequen-cies of the FGM Timoshenko beams are obtained numerically. In a special case of the classical beam theory, a proportional transformation between the natural frequencies of the FGM and the reference homogenous beams is obtained by using the mathematical similarity between the mathematical formulations. This formula provides a simple and useful approach to evaluate the natural frequencies of the FGM beams without dealing with the tension-bending coupling problem. Approximately, this analogous transition can also be extended to predict the frequencies of the FGM Timoshenko beams. The numerical results obtained by the shooting method and those obtained by the analogous transformation are presented to show the effects of the material gradient, the slenderness ratio, and the boundary conditions on the natural frequencies in detail.
Genghini, R; Tiranti, I; Bressán, E; Zamorano-Ponce, E; Fernández, J; Dulout, F
2006-05-01
Chromosome damage in lymphocyte cultures induced by live virus vaccine against classical swine fever (CSF) has been observed in previous studies. In vivo cytogenetic tests were made with several doses of vaccines used in Argentina to control the disease. These studies have shown that genotoxic effects increased with dose. In the present study, two different in vitro assays were performed by recording the frequency of cells with chromosome alterations and by assessing the ability of the vaccine to damage DNA, using the single cell gel microelectrophoretic assay (comet test). Frequencies of cells with chromosomal alterations increased significantly when compared with controls and were dose (microl/ml) dependent: 0 = 1.23, 5 = 2.29, 10 = 5.42 and 20 = 11.71%. In the comet assay the variables measured, tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM), also increased. For control cultures TL was 2.32 microm, whereas with concentrations of 20 and 100 microl/ml TL were 12.47 and 42.3 microm, respectively. TM of control cultures was 0.18, whereas with vaccine concentrations of 20 and 100 microl/ml TM were 5.52 and 24.52, respectively. Comet frequency distributions differed significantly among treatments. These results agree with previous in vivo observations. Regarding CSF pathogeny, our results support a direct effect of CSF vaccinal virus on lymphocyte DNA. Genotoxicity of CSF vaccine was corroborated in vitro at the cytogenetic and molecular levels.
Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical...... properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Derivation of the solutions to a number of basic problems of structural mechanics in a form suitable for later...
Geometry of dynamics and phase transitions in classical lattice $\\phi^{4}$ theories
Caiani, L; Clementi, C; Pettini, G; Pettini, M; Gatto, R; Caiani, Lando; Casetti, Lapo; Clementi, Cecilia; Pettini, Giulio; Pettini, Marco; Gatto, Raoul
1998-01-01
We perform a microcanonical study of classical lattice phi^4 field models in 3 dimensions with O(n) symmetries. The Hamiltonian flows associated to these systems that undergo a second order phase transition in the thermodynamic limit are here investigated. The microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics neatly reveals the presence of a phase transition through the time averages of conventional thermodynamical observables. Moreover, peculiar behaviors of the largest Lyapunov exponents at the transition point are observed. A Riemannian geometrization of Hamiltonian dynamics is then used to introduce other relevant observables, that are measured as functions of both energy density and temperature. On the basis of a simple and abstract geometric model, we suggest that the apparently singular behaviour of these geometric observables might probe a major topological change of the manifolds whose geodesics are the natural motions.
Ryabinkin, Ilya G
2016-01-01
An accurate description of nonadiabatic dynamics of molecular species on metallic surfaces poses a serious computational challenge associated with a multitude of closely-spaced electronic states. We propose a mixed quantum-classical scheme that addresses this challenge by introducing collective electronic variables. These variables are defined through analytic block-diagonalization applied to the time-dependent Hamiltonian matrix governing the electronic dynamics. We compare our scheme with the Ehrenfest approach and with a full-memory electronic friction model on a one-dimensional "adatom + atomic chain" model. Our simulations demonstrate that collective-mode dynamics with only few (2-3) electronic variables is robust and can describe a variety of situations: from a chemisorbed atom on an insulator to an atom on a metallic surface. Our molecular model also reveals that the friction approach is prone to unpredictable and catastrophic failures.
Luban, Marshall; Modler, Robert; Axenovich, Maria; Canfield, Paul; Bud'Ko, Sergey; Schröder, Christian; Schnack, Jürgen; Müller, Achim; Kögerler, Paul; Harrison, Neil
2001-03-01
The Keplerate species Mo_72Fe_30 containing 30 high-spin Fe^3+ ions, is by far the largest paramagnetic molecule synthesized to date, and it serves as an effective building block and prototype for a new class of diverse molybdenum-oxygen based compounds. These substances are of importance for identifying the most pertinent criteria for the passage from microscopic to macroscopic magnetism, and for their potential as molecular-based electronic and magnetic devices. We report excellent agreement, from room temperature down to 0.1 K, and for magnetic fields up to 60 Tesla between our theoretical results based on the classical Heisenberg model and our measurements of its magnetic properties.
FEATURES OF INVESTMENT PROCESS UNDERSTANDING BY A. SMITH AS THE FOUNDER OF CLASSICAL THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Ovcharenko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The paper examines the essence and the nature of the concept of “investment”. The main conceptual elements of a scientific theory of Adam Smith are defined. The features of the investment process by Adam Smith as the driving mechanism for social and economic development of a society are revealed.
N = 4 super-Yang-Mills in LHC superspace part I: classical and quantum theory
Chicherin, Dmitry; Sokatchev, Emery
2017-02-01
We present a formulation of the maximally supersymmetric N = 4 gauge theory in Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace. It is closely related to the twistor formulation of the theory but employs the simpler notion of Lorentz harmonic variables. They parametrize a two-sphere and allow us to handle efficiently infinite towers of higher-spin auxiliary fields defined on ordinary space-time. In this approach the chiral half of N =4 supersymmetry is manifest. The other half is realized non-linearly and the algebra closes on shell. We give a straightforward derivation of the Feynman rules in coordinate space. We show that the LHC formulation of the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory is remarkably similar to the harmonic superspace formulation of the N = 2 gauge and hypermultiplet matter theories. In the twin paper arXiv:1601.06804 we apply the LHC formalism to the study of the non-chiral multipoint correlation functions of the N = 4 stress-tensor supermultiplet.
Hamiltonian approach to GR - Part 1: covariant theory of classical gravity
Cremaschini, Claudio
2016-01-01
A challenging issue in General Relativity concerns the determination of the manifestly-covariant continuum Hamiltonian structure underlying the Einstein field equations and the related formulation of the corresponding covariant Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The task is achieved by adopting a synchronous variational principle requiring distinction between the prescribed deterministic metric tensor $\\hat{g}(r)\\equiv \\left\\{ \\hat{g}_{\\mu \
Philosophical Roots of Classical Grounded Theory: Its Foundations in Symbolic Interactionism
Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Le Navenec, Carole-Lynne
2011-01-01
Although many researchers have discussed the historical relationship between the Grounded Theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism, they have not clearly articulated the congruency of their salient concepts and assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion of this congruency. A hypothetical example about smoking…
N=4 super-Yang-Mills in LHC superspace. Part I: Classical and quantum theory
Chicherin, Dmitry
2016-01-01
We present a formulation of the maximally supersymmetric N=4 gauge theory in Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace. It is closely related to the twistor formulation of the theory but employs the simpler notion of Lorentz harmonic variables. They parametrize a two-sphere and allow us to handle efficiently infinite towers of higher-spin auxiliary fields defined on ordinary space-time. In this approach the chiral half of N=4 supersymmetry is manifest. The other half is realized non-linearly and the algebra closes on shell. We give a straightforward derivation of the Feynman rules in coordinate space. We show that the LHC formulation of the N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory is remarkably similar to the harmonic superspace formulation of the N=2 gauge and hypermultiplet matter theories. In the twin paper \\cite{twin} we apply the LHC formalism to the study of the non-chiral multipoint correlation functions of the N=4 stress-tensor supermultiplet.
Classical stochastic theory for the sticking probability of atoms scattered on surfaces.
Pollak, Eli
2011-06-30
A stochastic theory is formulated for the sticking probability of a projectile scattered from a surface. The theory is then explored by applying it to a generalized Langevin equation model of the scattering dynamics. The theory succeeds in describing the known features of trapping on surfaces. At low energies sticking will occur only if there is an attractive interaction between the projectile and the surface. The probability of sticking at low energies is greater the lower the temperature and the deeper the attractive well of the particle as it approaches the surface. The sticking probability in the absence of horizontal friction tends to be lower as the stiffness of the surface increases. However, in the presence of horizontal friction, increased stiffness may lead to an increase in the sticking coefficient. A cos(2)(θ(i)) scaling is found only in the absence of corrugation and horizontal friction. The theory is then applied successfully to describe experimentally measured sticking probabilities for the scattering of Xe on a Pt(111) surface.
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2013-11-07
We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benhassine, B. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)
1994-01-14
At intermediate energies the heavy ion collisions can be studied within the framework of a semi-classical approach based on the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) equation. Such an approach reduces the N-body problem to its description in terms of the one-body distribution function and constitutes the basis of several successful simulation models. Our aim in this work is to extend these average approaches to treat fluctuations. Within the framework of a linear approximation, we derived a Fokker-Planck transport equation in the one-body phase space. When it is reduced to its first moments, one recovers the VUU equation for the average dynamics together with the time evolution equation for the correlations. The collective transport coefficients are then obtained by projection on the one-body collective space. Independently, using a projection method introduced by Van Kampen, based on the constants of motion, we deduce the stationary expressions for the covariance matrix in phase space. We extract then, the equilibrium dispersions of one-body observables in a homogeneous case and in a spherical symmetric one. These results are compared with two types of simulation models in a relaxation time approximation. In the first one which is of Lagrangian type, the collective transport coefficients are directly extracted from the simulation and consequently the numerical fluctuations are washed out. The second model, due to its Eulerian character, allows us to make a microscopical comparison. (author) 58 refs.
Pfalzgraff, William C; Kelly, Aaron; Markland, Thomas E
2015-12-03
The development of methods that can efficiently and accurately treat nonadiabatic dynamics in quantum systems coupled to arbitrary atomistic environments remains a significant challenge in problems ranging from exciton transport in photovoltaic materials to electron and proton transfer in catalysis. Here we show that our recently introduced MF-GQME approach, which combines Ehrenfest mean field theory with the generalized quantum master equation framework, is able to yield quantitative accuracy over a wide range of charge-transfer regimes in fully atomistic environments. This is accompanied by computational speed-ups of up to 3 orders of magnitude over a direct application of Ehrenfest theory. This development offers the opportunity to efficiently investigate the atomistic details of nonadiabatic quantum relaxation processes in regimes where obtaining accurate results has previously been elusive.
Young, Matthew B
2016-01-01
We introduce a new class of representations of the cohomological Hall algebras of Kontsevich and Soibelman which we call cohomological Hall modules, or CoHM for short. These representations are constructed from self-dual representations of a quiver with contravariant involution $\\sigma$ and provide a mathematical model for the space of BPS states in orientifold string theory. We use the CoHM to define a generalization of cohomological Donaldson-Thomas theory of quivers which allows the quiver representations to have orthogonal and symplectic structure groups. The associated invariants are called orientifold Donaldson-Thomas invariants. We prove the integrality conjecture for orientifold Donaldson-Thomas invariants of $\\sigma$-symmetric quivers. We also formulate precise conjectures regarding the geometric meaning of these invariants and the freeness of the CoHM of a $\\sigma$-symmetric quiver. We prove the freeness conjecture for disjoint union quivers, loop quivers and the affine Dynkin quiver of type $\\widet...
Information-theory-based solution of the inverse problem in classical statistical mechanics.
D'Alessandro, Marco; Cilloco, Francesco
2010-08-01
We present a procedure for the determination of the interaction potential from the knowledge of the radial pair distribution function. The method, realized inside an inverse Monte Carlo simulation scheme, is based on the application of the maximum entropy principle of information theory and the interaction potential emerges as the asymptotic expression of the transition probability. Results obtained for high density monoatomic fluids are very satisfactory and provide an accurate extraction of the potential, despite a modest computational effort.
Equations of motion in Double Field Theory: from classical particles to quantum cosmology
Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2012-01-01
The equation of motion for a point particle in the background field of double field theory is considered. We find that the motion is described by a geodesic flow in the doubled geometry. Inspired by analysis on the particle motion, we propose a modified model of quantum string cosmology, which includes two scale factors. The report is based on Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) 124049 [arXiv:1108.5795].
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Buğra Kalkan
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Public choice, emerged as an economic theory with regard its methodology but focused on political decision making processes and political institutions, has increased its influence on political science in the last twenty years. It is claimed that public choice is a radical disengagement from conventional political studies due to its neo-classical tools applied to politics. But it could also be claimed that public choice has done nothing new but just revived the old topics with a new theoretical tool set, considering the subjects that were examined by the classical political theorists. In this paper, the roots of the subjects examined by public choice theory in the classical writings of the political philosophers are analysed,concerning the problem of social coordination role of the state. These classical thinkers are specified as Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke and Hume. Özet Yöntem bakımından ekonomi disiplininden çıkmış olmakla birlikte, konusu itibariyle politik karar süreçlerini ve politik kurumları inceleyen kamu tercihi teorisi, özellikle son yirmi yıldır politika bilimindeki etkinliğini artırmıştır. Kamu tercihinin, neo-klasik iktisadın pek çok aracını politikaya uyarladığı gerekçesi ile geleneksel politika araştırmalarından radikal bir kopuşu temsil ettiği ileri sürülür. Ancak modern politik teorinin bazı klasik filozoflarının ele aldıkları temel konular incelendiğinde, kamu tercihi teorisinin, bu geleneksel sorunsalları yeni teorik kavram setleri ile yeniden canlandırmaktan öte bir iş yapmadıkları da iddia edilebilir. Bu çalışmada devletin ortaya çıkışı ve devletin sosyal işbirliğini sağlamada oynadığı rol üzerinden kamu tercihinin ele aldığı konuların klasik politika yazarlarındaki kökleri incelenmektedir. Bu klasik yazarlar, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke ve Hume olarak belirlenmiştir.
Dahms, Rainer N.
2016-04-01
A generalized framework for multi-component liquid injections is presented to understand and predict the breakdown of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization at engine-relevant conditions. The analysis focuses on the thermodynamic structure and the immiscibility state of representative gas-liquid interfaces. The most modern form of Helmholtz energy mixture state equation is utilized which exhibits a unique and physically consistent behavior over the entire two-phase regime of fluid densities. It is combined with generalized models for non-linear gradient theory and for liquid injections to quantify multi-component two-phase interface structures in global thermal equilibrium. Then, the Helmholtz free energy is minimized which determines the interfacial species distribution as a consequence. This minimal free energy state is demonstrated to validate the underlying assumptions of classic two-phase theory and spray atomization. However, under certain engine-relevant conditions for which corroborating experimental data are presented, this requirement for interfacial thermal equilibrium becomes unsustainable. A rigorously derived probability density function quantifies the ability of the interface to develop internal spatial temperature gradients in the presence of significant temperature differences between injected liquid and ambient gas. Then, the interface can no longer be viewed as an isolated system at minimal free energy. Instead, the interfacial dynamics become intimately connected to those of the separated homogeneous phases. Hence, the interface transitions toward a state in local equilibrium whereupon it becomes a dense-fluid mixing layer. A new conceptual view of a transitional liquid injection process emerges from a transition time scale analysis. Close to the nozzle exit, the two-phase interface still remains largely intact and more classic two-phase processes prevail as a consequence. Further downstream, however, the transition to dense-fluid mixing
Tkachenko, Sergey V
2008-01-01
The evaluation of the electromagnetic field coupling to transmission lines is an important problem in electromagnetic compatibility. The unabated increase in the operating frequency of electronic products and the emergence of sources of disturbances with higher frequency content (such as High Power Microwave and Ultra-Wide Band systems) have led to a breakdown of the TL approximation's basic assumptions for a number of applications. In the last decade or so, the generalization of the TL theory to take into account high frequency effects has emerged as an important topic of study in electromagn
Gholibeigian, Hassan; Amirshahkarami, Abdolazim; Gholibeigian, Kazem
2017-01-01
In special relativity theory, time dilates in velocity of near light speed. Also based on ``Substantial motion'' theory of Sadra, relative time (time flux); R = f (mv , σ , τ) , for each atom is momentum of its involved fundamental particles, which is different from the other atoms. In this way, for modification of the relativistic classical equation of string theory and getting more precise results, we should use effect of dilation and contraction of time in equation. So we propose to add two derivatives of the time's flux to the equation as follows: n.tp∂/R ∂ τ +∂2Xμ/(σ , τ) ∂τ2 = n .tp (∂/R ∂ σ ) +c2∂2Xμ/(σ , τ) ∂σ2 In which, Xμ is space-time coordinates of the string, σ & τ are coordinates on the string world sheet, respectively space and time along the string, string's mass m , velocity of string's motion v , factor n depends on geometry of each hidden extra dimension which relates to its own flux time, and tp is Planck's time. AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karsten, S.G.
1987-01-01
Labor and capital are usually considered as the primary factors of production, the costs of which are of utmost importance. In contrast, nature (including all natural resources), as the essential third factor, is disregarded. She is generally assumed to be always available, self-regenerating, and to be exploited without long-term costs. In other words, she is more or less viewed as a constant. Hans Immler's new treatise represents an important contribution in that he emphasized the role and function of the natural environment, and its neglect, in the formulation of theories of value and their long-term consequences on contemporary economic theories and on the person and society. This essay traces Immler's evaluation with extensive quotations - especially with regard to Physiocracy and the classical economists - of nature's role and function, or their neglect, in the formulation of theories of value through the writings of Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, William Petty, John Locke, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, and others, - all dealt with in Part 1 of his book - and Francois Quesnay and the Physiocrats - the topic of Part 2.
The Super-Natural Supersymmetry and Its Classic Example: M-Theory Inspired NMSSM
Li, Tianjun; Wang, Xiao-Chuan
2015-01-01
We briefly review the super-natural supersymmetry (SUSY), which provides a most promising solution to the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning problem. In particular, we address its subtle issues as well. Unlike the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard model (MSSM), the Next to MSSM (NMSSM) can be scale invariant and has no mass parameter in its Lagrangian before SUSY and gauge symmetry breakings. Therefore, the NMSSM is a perfect framework for super-natural SUSY. To give the SUSY breaking soft mass to the singlet, we consider the moduli and dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenarios in M-theory on $S^1/Z_2$. In these scenarios, SUSY is broken by one and only one $F$-term of moduli or dilaton, and the SUSY breaking soft terms can be determined via the K\\"ahler potential and superpotential from Calabi-Yau compactification of M-theory on $S^1/Z_2$. Thus, as predicted by super-natural SUSY, the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning measure is of unity order. In the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the right-handed sleptons are r...
Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alicki, R [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej i Astrofizyki, Uniwersytet Gdanski, ul Wita Stwosza 57, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)
2004-02-06
In the last decade decoherence has become a very popular topic mainly due to the progress in experimental techniques which allow monitoring of the process of decoherence for single microscopic or mesoscopic systems. The other motivation is the rapid development of quantum information and quantum computation theory where decoherence is the main obstacle in the implementation of bold theoretical ideas. All that makes the second improved and extended edition of this book very timely. Despite the enormous efforts of many authors decoherence with its consequences still remains a rather controversial subject. It touches on, namely, the notoriously confusing issues of quantum measurement theory and interpretation of quantum mechanics. The existence of different points of view is reflected by the structure and content of the book. The first three authors (Joos, Zeh and Kiefer) accept the standard formalism of quantum mechanics but seem to reject orthodox Copenhagen interpretation, Giulini and Kupsch stick to both while Stamatescu discusses models which go beyond the standard quantum theory. Fortunately, most of the presented results are independent of the interpretation and the mathematical formalism is common for the (meta)physically different approaches. After a short introduction by Joos followed by a more detailed review of the basic concepts by Zeh, chapter 3 (the longest chapter) by Joos is devoted to the environmental decoherence. Here the author considers mostly rather 'down to earth' and well-motivated mechanisms of decoherence through collisions with atoms or molecules and the processes of emission, absorption and scattering of photons. The issues of decoherence induced superselection rules and localization of objects including the possible explanation of the molecular structure are discussed in details. Many other topics are also reviewed in this chapter, e.g., the so-called Zeno effect, relationships between quantum chaos and decoherence, the role of
BOOK REVIEW: Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory
Alicki, R.
2004-02-01
In the last decade decoherence has become a very popular topic mainly due to the progress in experimental techniques which allow monitoring of the process of decoherence for single microscopic or mesoscopic systems. The other motivation is the rapid development of quantum information and quantum computation theory where decoherence is the main obstacle in the implementation of bold theoretical ideas. All that makes the second improved and extended edition of this book very timely. Despite the enormous efforts of many authors decoherence with its consequences still remains a rather controversial subject. It touches on, namely, the notoriously confusing issues of quantum measurement theory and interpretation of quantum mechanics. The existence of different points of view is reflected by the structure and content of the book. The first three authors (Joos, Zeh and Kiefer) accept the standard formalism of quantum mechanics but seem to reject orthodox Copenhagen interpretation, Giulini and Kupsch stick to both while Stamatescu discusses models which go beyond the standard quantum theory. Fortunately, most of the presented results are independent of the interpretation and the mathematical formalism is common for the (meta)physically different approaches. After a short introduction by Joos followed by a more detailed review of the basic concepts by Zeh, chapter 3 (the longest chapter) by Joos is devoted to the environmental decoherence. Here the author considers mostly rather `down to earth' and well-motivated mechanisms of decoherence through collisions with atoms or molecules and the processes of emission, absorption and scattering of photons. The issues of decoherence induced superselection rules and localization of objects including the possible explanation of the molecular structure are discussed in details. Many other topics are also reviewed in this chapter, e.g., the so-called Zeno effect, relationships between quantum chaos and decoherence, the role of
Precision Study of Positronium: Testing Bound State QED Theory
Karshenboim, Savely G.
2003-01-01
As an unstable light pure leptonic system, positronium is a very specific probe atom to test bound state QED. In contrast to ordinary QED for free leptons, the bound state QED theory is not so well understood and bound state approaches deserve highly accurate tests. We present a brief overview of precision studies of positronium paying special attention to uncertainties of theory as well as comparison of theory and experiment. We also consider in detail advantages and disadvantages of positro...
Testing Alternative Theories of Gravity using LISA
Will, Clifford M
2004-01-01
We investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on alternative theories of gravity using gravitational wave detection from inspiralling compact binaries with the proposed LISA space interferometer. Specifically, we estimate lower bounds on the coupling parameter \\omega of scalar-tensor theories of the Brans-Dicke type and on the Compton wavelength of the graviton \\lambda_g in hypothetical massive graviton theories. In these theories, modifications of the gravitational radiation damping formulae or of the propagation of the waves translate into a change in the phase evolution of the observed gravitational waveform. We obtain the bounds through the technique of matched filtering, employing the LISA Sensitivity Curve Generator (SCG), available online. For a neutron star inspiralling into a 10^3 M_sun black hole in the Virgo Cluster, in a two-year integration, we find a lower bound \\omega > 3 * 10^5. For lower-mass black holes, the bound could be as large as 2 * 10^6. The bound is independent of LISA arm...
Durt, Thomas
2010-01-01
According to the so-called Quantum Darwinist approach, the emergence of "classical islands" from a quantum background is assumed to obey a (selection) principle of maximal information. We illustrate this idea by considering the coupling of two oscillators (modes). As our approach suggests that the classical limit could have emerged throughout a long and progressive Evolution mechanism, it is likely that primitive living organisms behave in a "more quantum", "less classical" way than more evolved ones. This brings us to seriously consider the possibility to measure departures from classicality exhibited by biological systems. We describe an experimental proposal the aimed at revealing the presence of entanglement in the biophotonic radiation emitted by biological sources.
Wrochna, Michał
2014-01-01
We investigate linearized gauge theories on globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the BRST formalism. A consistent definition of the classical phase space and of its Cauchy surface analogue is proposed. We prove it is isomorphic to the phase space in the subsidiary condition approach of Hack and Schenkel in the case of Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Rarita-Schwinger fields. Defining Hadamard states in the BRST formalism in a standard way, their existence in the Maxwell and Yang-Mills case is concluded from known results in the subsidiary condition (or Gupta-Bleuler) formalism. Within our framework, we also formulate criteria for non-degeneracy of the phase space in terms of BRST cohomology and discuss special cases. These include an example in the Yang-Mills case, where degeneracy is not related to a non-trivial topology of the Cauchy surface.
Revisiting Classical Theories on Quality Management%质量管理经典理论再启示
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
牟慈
2015-01-01
质量是企业的立身之本。重温质量管理经典理论，为增强企业整体质量管理意识，创新管理理念，提升全员质量管理水平夯实理论基础，让中国石化“质量永远领先一步”。%Quality is fundamental to the development of companies. Revisiting classical theories on quality management can facilitate a more solid theoretical basis for the company’s efforts to improve its overall quality management awareness, innovate management philosophies and elevate total quality management level, thereby always keeping SINOPEC“a step ahead in quality”.
Testing theory in practice: a simple experiment
Terpstra, R.; Ferreira Pires, L.; Heerink, A.W.; Tretmans, G.J.; Brezocnik, Z.; Kapus, T.
1996-01-01
In this paper we discuss the experiences gained in conducting a simple testing experiment. The goal of this experiment is to apply the abstract, formal testing framework [8] in a practical setting, and to indicate the critical aspects in its application to realistic testing situations. For that purp
Incompatibility of FRC `Self--Colliding Beams' with Classical Large Orbit Theory and Experiment
Maglich, Bogdan
2012-03-01
Rosenbluth^1: ``One key physics issue is the behavior of very large gyro radius systems, for which the usual thermal physics is inadequate.''- Rostoker^2 posited (1) 0.42 KeV d^+ FRC can achieve confinement^ τ =30 s observed^3 in self-colliding orbits (SCO) of 725 KeV d^+,^ stabilized by magnet focusing^4 and electrons^5 ; (2) FRC result ^6τ=2 x10-3 s is ``record long lived plasma state for advanced, aneutronic fuels ''; (3) non-intersecting collision-less orbits produce nuclear reactions. (i) Bz(r) of FRC is defocusing, field index n>0. From single particle orbit theory^7,8 destructive instability must occur with τ^ AIP CP 311, 292 (93); 9. J.App.Phys.46, 2915 (75); 10. NIM A346 322 (93); 11.NIM 144, 65 (77)
Supernatural supersymmetry and its classic example: M-theory inspired NMSSM
Li, Tianjun; Raza, Shabbar; Wang, Xiao-Chuan
2016-06-01
We briefly review the supernatural supersymmetry (SUSY), which provides a most promising solution to the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning problem. In particular, we address its subtle issues as well. Unlike the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the next to MSSM (NMSSM) can be scale invariant and has no mass parameter in its Lagrangian before SUSY and gauge symmetry breakings. Therefore, the NMSSM is a perfect framework for supernatural SUSY. To give the SUSY breaking soft mass to the singlet, we consider the moduli and dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenarios in M-theory on S1/Z2. In these scenarios, SUSY is broken by one and only one F term of moduli or dilaton, and the SUSY breaking soft terms can be determined via the Kähler potential and superpotential from Calabi-Yau compactification of M-theory on S1/Z2. Thus, as predicted by supernatural SUSY, the SUSY electroweak fine-tuning measure is of unity order. In the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the right-handed sleptons are relatively light around 1 TeV, stau can even be as light as 580 GeV and degenerate with the lightest neutralino, chargino masses are larger than 1 TeV, the light stop masses are around 2 TeV or larger, the first two-generation squark masses are about 3 TeV or larger, and gluinos are heavier tha.n squarks. In the dilaton dominant SUSY breaking scenario, the qualitative picture remains the same but we have heavier spectra as compared to the moduli dominant SUSY breaking scenario. In addition to it, we have Higgs H2/A1-resonance solutions for dark matter (DM). In both scenarios, the minimal value of DM relic density is about 0.2. To obtain the observed DM relic density, we can consider the dilution effect from supercritical string cosmology or introduce the axino as the lightest supersymmetric particle.
Cisne, John L; Ziomkowski, Robert M; Schwager, Steven J
2010-01-13
Philologists reconstructing ancient texts from variously miscopied manuscripts anticipated information theorists by centuries in conceptualizing information in terms of probability. An example is the editorial principle difficilior lectio potior (DLP): in choosing between otherwise acceptable alternative wordings in different manuscripts, "the more difficult reading [is] preferable." As philologists at least as early as Erasmus observed (and as information theory's version of the second law of thermodynamics would predict), scribal errors tend to replace less frequent and hence entropically more information-rich wordings with more frequent ones. Without measurements, it has been unclear how effectively DLP has been used in the reconstruction of texts, and how effectively it could be used. We analyze a case history of acknowledged editorial excellence that mimics an experiment: the reconstruction of Lucretius's De Rerum Natura, beginning with Lachmann's landmark 1850 edition based on the two oldest manuscripts then known. Treating words as characters in a code, and taking the occurrence frequencies of words from a current, more broadly based edition, we calculate the difference in entropy information between Lachmann's 756 pairs of grammatically acceptable alternatives. His choices average 0.26+/-0.20 bits higher in entropy information (95% confidence interval, P = 0.005), as against the single bit that determines the outcome of a coin toss, and the average 2.16+/-0.10 bits (95%) of (predominantly meaningless) entropy information if the rarer word had always been chosen. As a channel width, 0.26+/-0.20 bits/word corresponds to a 0.790.79(+0.09) (-0.15) likelihood of the rarer word being the one accepted in the reference edition, which is consistent with the observed 547/756 = 0.72+/-0.03 (95%). Statistically informed application of DLP can recover substantial amounts of semantically meaningful entropy information from noise; hence the extension copiosior
Gravitational interaction for light-like motion in classical and quantum theory
Mitskievich, Nikolai V
2010-01-01
On the basis of an exact vacuum solution of Einstein's equations, {\\it vis}. the pencil-of-light field, we study the light-like motion of test and non-test objects. We also consider the quantum theoretical interaction of massless scalar particles through virtual gravitons. The dragging phenomenon is manifested and its agreement with astronomical observations established. This paper submitted to {\\bf arXiv} is a somewhat reedited copy of my article dedicated to Dr. Ivar Piir in a volume published on the occasion of his 60th birthday in 1989 in Tartu by the Estonian Academy of Sciences.
Statistical tests of galactic dynamo theory
Chamandy, Luke; Taylor, A Russ
2016-01-01
Mean-field galactic dynamo theory is the leading theory to explain the prevalence of regular magnetic fields in spiral galaxies, but its systematic comparison with observations is still incomplete and fragmentary. Here we compare predictions of mean-field dynamo models to observational data on magnetic pitch angle and the strength of the mean magnetic field. We demonstrate that a standard $\\alpha^2\\Omega$ dynamo model produces pitch angles of the regular magnetic fields of nearby galaxies that are reasonably consistent with available data. The dynamo estimates of the magnetic field strength are generally within a factor of a few of the observational values. Reasonable agreement between theoretical and observed pitch angles generally requires the turbulent correlation time $\\tau$ to be in the range 10-20 Myr, in agreement with standard estimates. Moreover, good agreement also requires that the ratio of the ionized gas scale height to root-mean-square turbulent velocity increases with radius. Our results thus w...
Economic contract theory tests models of mutualism.
Weyl, E Glen; Frederickson, Megan E; Yu, Douglas W; Pierce, Naomi E
2010-09-01
Although mutualisms are common in all ecological communities and have played key roles in the diversification of life, our current understanding of the evolution of cooperation applies mostly to social behavior within a species. A central question is whether mutualisms persist because hosts have evolved costly punishment of cheaters. Here, we use the economic theory of employment contracts to formulate and distinguish between two mechanisms that have been proposed to prevent cheating in host-symbiont mutualisms, partner fidelity feedback (PFF) and host sanctions (HS). Under PFF, positive feedback between host fitness and symbiont fitness is sufficient to prevent cheating; in contrast, HS posits the necessity of costly punishment to maintain mutualism. A coevolutionary model of mutualism finds that HS are unlikely to evolve de novo, and published data on legume-rhizobia and yucca-moth mutualisms are consistent with PFF and not with HS. Thus, in systems considered to be textbook cases of HS, we find poor support for the theory that hosts have evolved to punish cheating symbionts; instead, we show that even horizontally transmitted mutualisms can be stabilized via PFF. PFF theory may place previously underappreciated constraints on the evolution of mutualism and explain why punishment is far from ubiquitous in nature.
Cisne, John L.; Ziomkowski, Robert M.; Schwager, Steven J.
2010-01-01
Philologists reconstructing ancient texts from variously miscopied manuscripts anticipated information theorists by centuries in conceptualizing information in terms of probability. An example is the editorial principle difficilior lectio potior (DLP): in choosing between otherwise acceptable alternative wordings in different manuscripts, “the more difficult reading [is] preferable.” As philologists at least as early as Erasmus observed (and as information theory's version of the second law of thermodynamics would predict), scribal errors tend to replace less frequent and hence entropically more information-rich wordings with more frequent ones. Without measurements, it has been unclear how effectively DLP has been used in the reconstruction of texts, and how effectively it could be used. We analyze a case history of acknowledged editorial excellence that mimics an experiment: the reconstruction of Lucretius's De Rerum Natura, beginning with Lachmann's landmark 1850 edition based on the two oldest manuscripts then known. Treating words as characters in a code, and taking the occurrence frequencies of words from a current, more broadly based edition, we calculate the difference in entropy information between Lachmann's 756 pairs of grammatically acceptable alternatives. His choices average 0.26±0.20 bits higher in entropy information (95% confidence interval, P = 0.005), as against the single bit that determines the outcome of a coin toss, and the average 2.16±0.10 bits (95%) of (predominantly meaningless) entropy information if the rarer word had always been chosen. As a channel width, 0.26±0.20 bits/word corresponds to a 0.790.79+0.09−0.15 likelihood of the rarer word being the one accepted in the reference edition, which is consistent with the observed 547/756 = 0.72±0.03 (95%). Statistically informed application of DLP can recover substantial amounts of semantically meaningful entropy information from noise; hence the extension copiosior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John L Cisne
Full Text Available Philologists reconstructing ancient texts from variously miscopied manuscripts anticipated information theorists by centuries in conceptualizing information in terms of probability. An example is the editorial principle difficilior lectio potior (DLP: in choosing between otherwise acceptable alternative wordings in different manuscripts, "the more difficult reading [is] preferable." As philologists at least as early as Erasmus observed (and as information theory's version of the second law of thermodynamics would predict, scribal errors tend to replace less frequent and hence entropically more information-rich wordings with more frequent ones. Without measurements, it has been unclear how effectively DLP has been used in the reconstruction of texts, and how effectively it could be used. We analyze a case history of acknowledged editorial excellence that mimics an experiment: the reconstruction of Lucretius's De Rerum Natura, beginning with Lachmann's landmark 1850 edition based on the two oldest manuscripts then known. Treating words as characters in a code, and taking the occurrence frequencies of words from a current, more broadly based edition, we calculate the difference in entropy information between Lachmann's 756 pairs of grammatically acceptable alternatives. His choices average 0.26+/-0.20 bits higher in entropy information (95% confidence interval, P = 0.005, as against the single bit that determines the outcome of a coin toss, and the average 2.16+/-0.10 bits (95% of (predominantly meaningless entropy information if the rarer word had always been chosen. As a channel width, 0.26+/-0.20 bits/word corresponds to a 0.790.79(+0.09 (-0.15 likelihood of the rarer word being the one accepted in the reference edition, which is consistent with the observed 547/756 = 0.72+/-0.03 (95%. Statistically informed application of DLP can recover substantial amounts of semantically meaningful entropy information from noise; hence the extension copiosior
Wiesendanger, C
2011-01-01
Viewing gravitational energy-momentum $p_G^\\mu$ as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum $p_I^\\mu$ naturally leads to the gauge theory of volume-preserving diffeormorphisms of an inner Minkowski space ${\\bf M}^{\\sl 4}$. To extract its physical content the full gauge group is reduced to its Poincar\\'e subgroup. The respective Poincar\\'e gauge fields, field strengths and Poincar\\'e-covariant field equations are obtained and point-particle source currents are derived. The resulting set of non-linear field equations coupled to point matter is solved in first order resulting in Lienard-Wiechert-like potentials for the Poincar\\'e fields. After numerical identification of gravitational and inertial energy-momentum Newton's inverse square law for gravity in the static non-relativistic limit is recovered. The Weak Equivalence Principle in this approximation is proven to be valid and spacetime geometry in the presence of Poincar\\'e fields is shown to be curved. Finally, the gravit...
Lischner, Johannes; Arias, T A
2010-02-11
We present an accurate free-energy functional for liquid water written in terms of a set of effective potential fields in which fictitious noninteracting water molecules move. The functional contains an exact expression of the entropy of noninteracting molecules and thus provides an ideal starting point for the inclusion of complex intermolecular interactions which depend on the orientation of the interacting molecules. We show how an excess free-energy functional can be constructed to reproduce the following properties of water: the dielectric response; the experimental site-site correlation functions; the surface tension; the bulk modulus of the liquid and the variation of this modulus with pressure; the density of the liquid and the vapor phase; and liquid-vapor coexistence. As a demonstration, we present results for the application of this theory to the behavior of liquid water in a parallel plate capacitor. In particular, we make predictions for the dielectric response of water in the nonlinear regime, finding excellent agreement with known data.
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory
Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2014-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory
Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, in
Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory
Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2013-01-01
Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including
A theory of chemicals regulation and testing
Gabbert, S.G.M.; Weikard, H.P.
2010-01-01
Risk management of chemicals requires information about their adverse effects such as toxicity and persistence, for example. Testing of chemicals allows for improving the information base for regulatory decision-making on chemicals' production and use. Testing a large number of chemicals with limite
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jia-Lin; YU Hong-Wei
2005-01-01
@@ We examine the random motion of a charged test particle with a nonzero classical velocity driven by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in a cylindrical spacetime and calculate both the velocity and position dispersions of the test particle. It is found that the dispersions display different behaviour in different directions.These differences can be understood as a result of the topology of the configuration and initial physical conditions.
Henderson, R. L.
1974-01-01
The partial structure factors of classical simple liquid mixtures near phase separation are dicussed. The theory is developed for particles interacting through pair potentials, and is thus appropriate both to insulating fluids, and also to metallic systems if these may be described by an effective ion-ion pair interaction. The motivation arose from consideration of metallic liquid mixtures, in which resistive anomalies have been observed near phase separation. A mean field theory correction appropriate to 3 pair potential for the effects of correlated motions in the reference fluid is studied. The work is cast in terms of functions which are closely related to the direct correlation functions of Ornstein and Zernike. The results are qualitatively in accord with physical expectations. Quantitative agreement with experiment seems to turn on the selection of the hard core reference potential in terms of the metallic effective pair potential. It is suggested that the present effective pair potentials are perhaps not properly used to calculate the metallic structure factors at long wavelength.
Tests of Chiral perturbation theory with COMPASS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Friedrich Jan M.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at CERN accesses pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect., where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. When a single real photon is produced, pion Compton scattering is accessed and from the measured cross-section shape, the pion polarisability is determined. The COMPASS measurement is in contradiction to the earlier dedicated measurements, and rather in agreement with the theoretical expectation from ChPT. In the same experimental data taking, reactions with neutral and charged pions in the final state are measured and analyzed in the context of chiral perturbation theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cavallaro Roberto
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of reports showed en encouraging remediation in some patients' executive deficits thanks to the use of 'information processing strategies'. Moreover the impact of antipsychotics on cognitive functions of the schizophrenics is an important issue, especially if an integrated psychosocial treatment is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different executive performance and response to verbalization, a strategy of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST remediation, in subjects on classical vs atypical antipsychotic (AP treatment. Methods Sixty-three schizophrenic subjects undertook the WCST under standard and modified (verbalization administration. Subjects were stratified by the kind of WCST response (i.e. good, poor and remediable and AP treatment (i.e. atypical vs. classical. Results Subjects on atypical APs showed a better performance than those on classical ones. More poor performers who did not remediate were seen in the sample with classical Aps while subjects who remediated the performance were seen in the subgroup with atypical APs only. An increase of perseverative and total errors was seen in poor performers subjects on classical APs. Conclusion Subjects on atypicals showed a better cognitive pattern in terms of WCST performance. Since the naturalistic assignment of medication we cannot draw conclusions about its effect on cognitive performance and its interaction with cognitive remediation potential. However the data lead us to hypothesize that subjects with potential room for remediation did so with the atypical APs.
Relativistic semi-classical theory of atom ionization in ultra-intense laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN; Baozhen
2001-01-01
［1］Schoch, A., Seitliche Versetzung eines total reflektierten strahles bei Utraschallwellen, Acustica, 1952, 2: 17.［2］Neubauer, W. G., Ultrasonic reflection of a bounded beam at Rayleigh and critical angles for a plane liquid-solid interface, J. Appl. Phys., 1973, 44: 48.［3］Ngoc, T. D. K., Mayer, W. G., Numerical integration method for reflected beam profiles near Rayleigh angle, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1980, 67, 1149.［4］Nagy, P. B., Cho, K., Focal shift of convergent ultrasonic beams reflected from a liquid-solid interface, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1987, 81(4): 835.［5］Bertoni, H. L., Hsue, C. W., Tamir, T., Non-specular reflection of convergent beams from liquid-solid interface, Traitement du Signal, 1985, 2: 201.［6］Zhu Guozhen, Liu Liang, Fu Deyong, Reflected beam displacements of a slightly divergent ultrasonic Gaussian beam on a water-glass interface near Rayleigh angle incidence, Chinese Physics Letters, 1999, 16(11): 819.［7］Bertoni, H. L., Tamir, T., Unified theory of Rayleigh-angle phenomena for acoustic beams onto liquid-solid interface, Appl. Phys., 1973, 2: 157.［8］Zeroug, S., Felsen, L. B., Nonspecular reflection of two- and three-dimensional acoustic beams from fluid-immersed plane-layered elastic structures, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1994, 95: 3075.［9］Chimenti, D. E., Zeroug, S. et al., Interaction of acoustic beams with fluid-loaded elastic structures, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1994, 95(1): 45.［10］Breazeale, M. A. L., Adler, L., Scott, G. W., Interaction of ultrasonic waves incident at the Rayleigh angle onto a liquid-solid interface, J. Appl. Phys., 1977, 48(2): 530.［11］Ngoc, T. D. K., Mayer, W. G., General description of ultrasonic nonspecular reflection and transmission effects for layered media, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason., 1980, SU-27: 229.［12］Martin, F. D., Breazeale, M. A., J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1971, 49: 1668.［13］Gunarathne, G. P. P., Szilard, J., A new stroboscope for Schlieren and photoelastic visualization
Liubarskiĭ, G Iu
2006-01-01
The sequence of classic paradigms in taxonomy that partly replaced each other and partly co-exist is given as follows: the theory of "organ and organism similarity", the naturalistic theory, the descriptive theory, and the phylogenetic theory. The naturalistic classics accepted the notion of "the plan of creation". The rejection of appealing to this plan brought forth certain problems in the formulation of the purpose of taxonomy; these problems were differently solved by the descriptive and the phylogenetic classic traditions. The difficulties of the current paradigms arising from the loss of a "strong purpose", a problem to be solved by taxonomists that is to be clear and interesting to a wide range of non-professionals. The paradox of formalization led to the losing of content of the methods due to their formalization. To attract attention to taxonomy, a new "image of the results" of its work that would be interesting to the non-professionals is necessary. The co-existence of different methods of reseach applied to different groups of facts leads to the loss of integrity of the research. It is not only that the taxon becomes a hypothesis and such hypotheses multiply. The comparison of these hypotheses is problematic, because each of them is supported by its own independent scope of facts. Because of the existence of a fundamental meronotaxonomic discrepancy, taxonomic systems based on different groups of characters appear to be incomparable, being rather systems of characters than systems of taxa. Systems of characters are not directly comparable with each other; they can be compared only through appealing to taxa, but taxa themselves exist only in the form of a number of hypotheses. Consequently, each separate taxonomic approach creates its own nature, its own subject of research. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the subject of research correctly (and indicate the purpose of research), as well as to distinguish clearly between results achieved through
Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borowiecki, Karol Jan
2015-01-01
This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...
Mullin, Jonathan; Valley, Nicholas; Blaber, Martin G; Schatz, George C
2012-09-27
Multiscale models that combine quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamics are presented, which allow for the evaluation of surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) and hyper-Raman scattering spectra (SEHRS) for both chemical (CHEM) and electrodynamic (EM) enhancement mechanisms. In these models, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for a system consisting of the adsorbed molecule and a metal cluster fragment of the metal particle is coupled to Mie theory for the metal particle, with the surface of the cluster being overlaid with the surface of the metal particle. In model A, the electromagnetic enhancement from plasmon-excitation of the metal particle is combined with the chemical enhancement associated with a static treatment of the molecule-metal structure to determine overall spectra. In model B, the frequency dependence of the Raman spectrum of the isolated molecule is combined with the enhancements determined in model A to refine the enhancement estimate. An equivalent theory at the level of model A is developed for hyper-Raman spectra calculations. Application to pyridine interacting with a 20 nm diameter silver sphere is presented, including comparisons with an earlier model (denoted G), which combines plasmon enhanced fields with gas-phase Raman (or hyper-Raman) spectra. The EM enhancement factor for spherical particles at 357 nm is found to be 10(4) and 10(6) for SERS and SEHRS, respectively. Including both chemical and electromagnetic mechanisms at the level of model A leads to enhancements on the order of 10(4) and 10(9) for SERS and SEHRS.
The Impact of Technology and Distance Education: A Classical Learning Theory Viewpoint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herb Thompson
1999-01-01
Full Text Available For the past two years the author has been teaching economics (History of Economic Thought and Economic Development at the tertiary level via the Internet and computer-mediation. This is done primarily for students who are unable or who do not wish to attend classes on campus, but desire an education as good, if not better, as the campus based enterprise. This paper provides a reflective analysis of the theoretical content of that practice. Teaching online is a vastly different enterprise than face-to-face exercises, thereby demanding a revaluation of ones pedagogical theory and praxis. In The German Ideology, Marx and Engels articulated their claim that historically dominant classes embody their ideas in essential forms, representing them as universally valid. It is within this framework that we begin to examine what it means to "know" in economics. How knowledge is legitimated in universities continues to be under-theorised, particularly with regard to electronic transmission. The mechanism of transmission of particular concern here is that which is computer-mediated. Landow represents hypertext as the latest flowering in a long march of democratic processes originating in the displacement of Platonic authority by the lesser authority of the written word. It is argued here that the determinism of the "progressive narrative" within and around the "hypertext revolution" deserves careful scrutiny, particularly in its application to pedagogy. Pedagogical artefacts, such as computers, mediate the transmission of ideas. The question "how does this happen?" relates to the complexity of theorizing the relationship between the educational process and the social relations of capitalist social formations. Over two decades ago, Bowles and Gintis attempted a Marxist understanding of the nature of this relationship. In their conception, pedagogical mechanisms were seen to operate in a fairly deterministic way to mirror and model the norms and values
Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.
Beins, Bernard C
2016-01-01
Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blazquez, J.S., E-mail: jsebas@us.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Borrego, J.M.; Conde, C.F.; Conde, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lozano-Perez, S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-isothermal kinetics is easily analyzed using the present approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local Avrami exponents are obtained for nanocrystallization in a wide range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results on nanocrystallization are explained in the frame of limited growth approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deviations from isokinetic behavior is analyzed for two different multiple processes. - Abstract: The non-isothermal kinetics of primary crystallization processes is studied from numerically generated curves and their predictions have been tested in several nanocrystallization processes. Single processes and transformations involving two overlapped processes in a non-isothermal regime have been generated and deviations from isokinetic behavior are found when the overlapped processes have different activation energies. In the case of overlapped processes competing for the same type of atoms, the heating rate dependence of the obtained Avrami exponent can supply information on the activation energies of each individual processes. The application to experimental data of nanocrystallization processes is consistent with a limited growth approximation. In the case of preexisting crystallites in the as-cast samples, predictions on the heating rate dependence of the obtained Avrami exponents of multiple processes have been confirmed.
Review of Test Theory and Methods.
1981-01-01
their roots in work in the 1940s by Mosier, Guttman, and Lazarsfeld , among others. Although the basic ideas were known about 40 years ago, the methods...St. Paul , MN: Minnesota Department of Personnel Selection Research Unit Feldt, L. S. 1975. Estimation of the reliability of a test divided into two
Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory
Wojcieszak, M.
2015-01-01
This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among
Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment
Kaptijn, R.; Thomése, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Silverstein, M.
2013-01-01
This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers–Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chines
Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning: The Test of Development
Barrouillet, Pierre
2011-01-01
Dual-process theories have become increasingly influential in the psychology of reasoning. Though the distinction they introduced between intuitive and reflective thinking should have strong developmental implications, the developmental approach has rarely been used to refine or test these theories. In this article, I review several contemporary…
A Test of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide in Primitive Societies.
Lester, David
1992-01-01
Classified primitive societies as high, moderate, or low on independent measures of social integration and social regulation to test Durkheim's theory of suicide. Estimated frequency of suicide did not differ between those societies predicted to have high, moderate, and low suicide rates. Durkheim's theory was not confirmed. (Author/NB)
Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Paul Gee
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.
The Theory of Clinical Medicine of Huangdi's Classic of Internal Medicine%《黄帝内经》的临床医学理论
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周安方
2011-01-01
The rich theory of clinical medicine of Huangdi 's Classic of Internal Medicine includes the clinical guiding ideology, theory of pathogenic factor and pathogenesis, theory of clinical diagnosis and examination, theory of clinical differentiation of syndrome, theory of clinical treatment. And the clinical guiding ideology includes the ideology of people o-riented, prevention foremost and harmony premium. And the theory of clinical treatment includes theory of root treatment, theory of yin - yang balance, theory of harmony of Qi and blood, theory of harmony of healthy Qi and pathogenic factor, theory of naturopathy, theory of five elements restraint, theory of opposition treatment, theory of correspondence between flavors and viscera. The theories and methods of Huangdis Classic of Internal Medicine have significant guiding effects on TCM clinic.%的临床医学理论非常丰富,它包括临床指导思想、病因病机理论、临床诊察理论、临床辩证理论、临床论治理论等,其临床指导思想包括以人为本思想、以防为主思想、以和为贵思想;其临床论治理论包括治病求本理论、阴阳求衡理论、气血求和理论、正邪求谐理论、时势求顺理论、五行制胜理论、以此治彼理论、各有所宜理论等.的这些理论及其方法,对中医临床具有重要的指导作用.
Testing gravity theories using tensor perturbations
Lin, Weikang
2016-01-01
Primordial gravitational waves constitute a promising probe of the very-early universe and the laws of gravity. We study changes to tensor mode perturbations that can arise in various proposed modified gravity (MG) theories. These include additional friction effects, non-standard dispersion relations involving a massive graviton, a modified speed, and a small-scale modification. We introduce a physically-motivated parameterization of these effects and use current available data to obtain exclusion regions in the parameter spaces. Taking into account the foreground subtraction, we then perform a forecast analysis focusing on the tensor mode MG parameters as constrained by the future experiments COrE, Stage-IV and PIXIE. For a fiducial value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.01, we find that an additional friction of 3.5-4.5% compared to GR will be detected at $3\\sigma$ by these experiments while a decrease in friction will be more difficult to detect. The speed of gravitational waves needs to be 5-15% differen...
Testing planet formation theories with Giant stars
Pasquini, Luca; Hatzes, A; Setiawan, J; Girardi, L; da Silva, L; De Medeiros, J R
2008-01-01
Planet searches around evolved giant stars are bringing new insights to planet formation theories by virtue of the broader stellar mass range of the host stars compared to the solar-type stars that have been the subject of most current planet searches programs. These searches among giant stars are producing extremely interesting results. Contrary to main sequence stars planet-hosting giants do not show a tendency of being more metal rich. Even if limited, the statistics also suggest a higher frequency of giant planets (at least 10 %) that are more massive compared to solar-type main sequence stars. The interpretation of these results is not straightforward. We propose that the lack of a metallicity-planet connection among giant stars is due to pollution of the star while on the main sequence, followed by dilution during the giant phase. We also suggest that the higher mass and frequency of the planets are due to the higher stellar mass. Even if these results do not favor a specific formation scenario, they su...
Foundations of a New Test Theory
1989-10-01
measurement, Lazarsfeld (1950) introduced models with categorical latent variables nearly half a century ago. Most educational applications of latent class...2351 51 Gerty Drive AUSTRALIA Champaign, IL 61820 Mr. Paul Foley Dr. Grant Henning Navy Personnel R&D Center Senior Research Scientist Can Diego, CA...CA 92152-6800 1601 W. Taylor Street Chicaj, IL 60612 Dr. Paul W. Holland Educational Testing Service, 21-T Dr. Janice Gifford Rosedale Road University
Testing theories of financial decision making.
Chambers, Christopher P; Echenique, Federico; Saito, Kota
2016-04-12
We describe the observable content of some of the most widely used models of decision under uncertainty: models of translation invariant preferences. In particular, we characterize the models of variational, maxmin, constant absolute risk aversion, and constant relative risk aversion utilities. In each case we present a revealed preference axiom that is satisfied by a dataset if and only if the dataset is consistent with the corresponding utility representation. We test our axioms using data from an experiment on financial decisions.
Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.
Fidelman, U
1991-10-01
The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.
Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Polanco-Martínez, Josué Moises; Lases-Hernández, Fernanda; Bradley, Raymond; Burns, Stephen
2016-09-01
We examine the "tropical storm" hypothesis that precipitation variability in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) was linked to the frequency of tropical cyclones during the demise of the Classic Maya civilization, in the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, AD 750-950). Evidence that supports the hypothesis includes: (1) a positive relationship between tropical storm frequency and precipitation amount over the YP today (proof of feasibility), (2) a statistically significant correlation between a stalagmite (Chaac) quantitative precipitation record from the YP and the number of named tropical cyclones affecting this region today (1852-2004) (calibration sensu lato), and, (3) correlations between the stalagmite Chaac precipitation record and an Atlantic basin tropical cyclone count record and two proxy records of shifts in macro-scale climate and ocean states that influence Atlantic tropical cyclongenesis. At face value, regional paleotempestology proxy records suggest that tropical storm activity in the YP was either similar or significantly lower than today during the TCP. The "tropical storm" hypothesis has implications for our understanding of the role the hydrological cycle played in the collapse of Classic Maya polities and the role of tropical storms in possibly ameliorating future drought in the YP and other tropical regions.
Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri
2016-06-09
Theoretical foundation is laid out for description of permutation symmetry in the inelastic scattering processes that involve collisions of two identical molecules, within the framework of the mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT). In this approach, the rotational (and vibrational) states of two molecules are treated quantum-mechanically, whereas their translational motion (responsible for scattering) is treated classically. This theory is applied to H2 + H2 system, and the state-to-state transition cross sections are compared versus those obtained from the full-quantum calculations and experimental results from the literature. Good agreement is found in all cases. It is also found that results of MQCT, where the Coriolis coupling is included classically, are somewhat closer to exact full-quantum results than results of the other approximate quantum methods, where those coupling terms are neglected. These new developments allow applications of MQCT to a broad variety of molecular systems and processes.
Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment.
Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril
2013-05-01
This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.
Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu
2016-06-15
Highlights: • The conventional theory of superconductivity predicts no charge flow when the normal-superconductor phase boundary moves. • The theory of hole superconductivity predicts flow and counterflow of charge. • An experiment to measure a voltage is proposed. • No voltage will be measured if the conventional theory is correct. • A voltage will be measured if the theory of hole superconductivity is correct. - Abstract: The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.
Witharana, S; Strobel, S; Kim, H D; McKrell, T; Chang, J -B; Buongiorno, J; Berggren, K K; Chen, L; Ding, Y
2012-01-01
Recently-reported data suggest that bubble nucleation on surfaces with nano-sized features (cavities and posts) may occur close to the thermodynamic saturation temperature. However, according to the traditional theory of heterogeneous bubble nucleation, such low nucleation temperatures are possible only for surfaces with micro-scale cavities. Motivated by this apparent contradiction, we have used infrared thermometry to measure the nucleation temperature of water on custom-fabricated nano- to micro-scale cavities (from 90 nm to 4.5 um in diameter) and posts (from 60 nm to 5 um in diameter), machined on ultra-smooth and clean silicon wafers using electron beam lithography. Our cavity data are in agreement with the predictions of the Young-Laplace equation, thus re-affirming the correctness of the classic view of heterogeneous bubble nucleation, at least for the water-silicon system investigated here. The data also suggest that individual posts of any size have an insignificant effect on bubble nucleation, as e...
Härtel, Andreas; Samin, Sela; van Roij, René
2016-06-01
The ongoing scientific interest in the properties and structure of electric double layers (EDLs) stems from their pivotal role in (super)capacitive energy storage, energy harvesting, and water treatment technologies. Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a promising framework for the study of the in- and out-of-plane structural properties of double layers. Supported by molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate the adequate performance of DFT for analyzing charge layering in the EDL perpendicular to the electrodes. We discuss charge storage and capacitance of the EDL and the impact of screening due to dielectric solvents. We further calculate, for the first time, the in-plane structure of the EDL within the framework of DFT. While our out-of-plane results already hint at structural in-plane transitions inside the EDL, which have been observed recently in simulations and experiments, our DFT approach performs poorly in predicting in-plane structure in comparison to simulations. However, our findings isolate fundamental issues in the theoretical description of the EDL within the primitive model and point towards limitations in the performance of DFT in describing the out-of-plane structure of the EDL at high concentrations and potentials.
The evolution of genomic imprinting: theories, predictions and empirical tests.
Patten, M M; Ross, L; Curley, J P; Queller, D C; Bonduriansky, R; Wolf, J B
2014-08-01
The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal-offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives. The sexual antagonism and maternal-offspring coadaptation theories view genomic imprinting as a mechanism to modify the resemblance of an individual to its two parents, with imprinting evolving to increase the probability of expressing the fitter of the two alleles at a locus. In an effort to stimulate further empirical work on the topic, we carefully detail the logic and assumptions of all three theories, clarify the specific predictions of each and suggest tests to discriminate between these alternative theories for why particular genes are imprinted.
The testing of ambivalent sexism theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sezer Yudulmaz Ayan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to test ambivalent sexism inventory (ASI and ambivalence towards men inventory (AMI, which were developed on the basis of the Ambivalent Sexism approach. Method: The sampling was formed by 422 students (252 women and 169 men from University of Cumhuriyet. The data of the study were obtained from the questionnaire determining their socio-demographic characteristics of the students and AMI and ASI in order to determine their tendencies of sexism. After obtaining the permission from the Rectorate of Cumhuriyet University, the application was carried out with the help of academic staff at relevant faculties and vocational schools between 01.02.2012 and 30.04.2012. Results: When the overall average of the scores obtained from ASI and AMI were considered, it was found out that the ambivalence of the participants against each other (with ASI x=4,12; AMI x=4,22 was above the average; and men (with x= 4,23 had more ambivalence compared to women (x=4,05 in ASI, and women (x=4,38 had more ambivalence compared to men (x=3,99 in AMI. The data obtained from the variance analysis suggested that there were significant differences among the participants by gender, which were Hostile sexism (HS for men (t(421=-7,99 p<0,05, Benevolent sexism (BS for women (t(421=4,28 p<0,05 in ASI; and Hostility attitudes towards men (HM for women (t(421=-15,33 p<0,05, Benevolence towards men (BMfor men (t(421= -5,18 p<0,05. In other words, male participants had more hostile attitudes towards women in ASI and female participants had more hostile attitudes towards men in AMI. When the correlations among the sub-factors of AMI and ASI are considered, the correlations between HM and BS (0.47, BM and HS (0.47, and BM and BS (0.40 are statistically important. These findings suggest that the benevolent attitudes towards men are in a positive relationship with both benevolent and hostile sexism against women. Conclusions: The obtained data suggest that
Brassey, Charlotte A; Margetts, Lee; Kitchener, Andrew C; Withers, Philip J; Manning, Phillip L; Sellers, William I
2013-02-01
Classic beam theory is frequently used in biomechanics to model the stress behaviour of vertebrate long bones, particularly when creating intraspecific scaling models. Although methodologically straightforward, classic beam theory requires complex irregular bones to be approximated as slender beams, and the errors associated with simplifying complex organic structures to such an extent are unknown. Alternative approaches, such as finite element analysis (FEA), while much more time-consuming to perform, require no such assumptions. This study compares the results obtained using classic beam theory with those from FEA to quantify the beam theory errors and to provide recommendations about when a full FEA is essential for reasonable biomechanical predictions. High-resolution computed tomographic scans of eight vertebrate long bones were used to calculate diaphyseal stress owing to various loading regimes. Under compression, FEA values of minimum principal stress (σ(min)) were on average 142 per cent (±28% s.e.) larger than those predicted by beam theory, with deviation between the two models correlated to shaft curvature (two-tailed p = 0.03, r(2) = 0.56). Under bending, FEA values of maximum principal stress (σ(max)) and beam theory values differed on average by 12 per cent (±4% s.e.), with deviation between the models significantly correlated to cross-sectional asymmetry at midshaft (two-tailed p = 0.02, r(2) = 0.62). In torsion, assuming maximum stress values occurred at the location of minimum cortical thickness brought beam theory and FEA values closest in line, and in this case FEA values of τ(torsion) were on average 14 per cent (±5% s.e.) higher than beam theory. Therefore, FEA is the preferred modelling solution when estimates of absolute diaphyseal stress are required, although values calculated by beam theory for bending may be acceptable in some situations.
Towards a Theory for Testing Non-terminating Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gotlieb, Arnaud; Petit, Matthieu
2009-01-01
a theory of program-based structural testing based on operational semantics. Reasoning at the program semantics level permits to cope with infinite paths (and non-feasible paths) when defining test data adequacy criteria. As a result, our criteria respect the first Weyuker’s property on finite...
Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences
Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline
2016-01-01
Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…
A Study of the English Oral Tests in Light of the Communicative Language Testing Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张鑫
2013-01-01
Speaking, as a productive skill, is a priority for many foreign-language learners. They often evaluate their success in language learning on the basis of how much they feel they have improved in their spoken language proficiency. Consequently, testing of oral skills has hardly been neglected in college English examination. The communicative testing theory in 1970s greatly influenced language testing, especially the oral tests. This essay briefly explores the theory of communicative language testing and discusses the methods of TOEFL oral test and college English oral test and proposes ways to the latter one for further improve⁃ment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dattoli, Giuseppe; Torre, Amalia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Ottaviani, Pier Luigi [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy); Vasquez, Luis [Madris, Univ. Complutense (Spain). Dept. de Matemateca Aplicado
1997-10-01
The finite-difference based integration method for evolution-line equations is discussed in detail and framed within the general context of the evolution operator picture. Exact analytical methods are described to solve evolution-like equations in a quite general physical context. The numerical technique based on the factorization formulae of exponential operator is then illustrated and applied to the evolution-operator in both classical and quantum framework. Finally, the general view to the finite differencing schemes is provided, displaying the wide range of applications from the classical Newton equation of motion to the quantum field theory.
A catastrophe theory model of the conflict helix, with tests.
Rummel, R J
1987-10-01
Macro social field theory has undergone extensive development and testing since the 1960s. One of these has been the articulation of an appropriate conceptual micro model--called the conflict helix--for understanding the process from conflict to cooperation and vice versa. Conflict and cooperation are viewed as distinct equilibria of forces in a social field; the movement between these equilibria is a jump, energized by a gap between social expectations and power, and triggered by some minor event. Quite independently, there also has been much recent application of catastrophe theory to social behavior, but usually without a clear substantive theory and lacking empirical testing. This paper uses catastrophe theory--namely, the butterfly model--mathematically to structure the conflict helix. The social field framework and helix provide the substantive interpretation for the catastrophe theory; and catastrophe theory provides a suitable mathematical model for the conflict helix. The model is tested on the annual conflict and cooperation between India and Pakistan, 1948 to 1973. The results are generally positive and encouraging.
Testing chiral effective theory with quenched lattice QCD
Giusti, Leonardo; Necco, S; Peña, C; Wennekers, J; Wittig, H
2008-01-01
We investigate two-point correlation functions of left-handed currents computed in quenched lattice QCD with the Neuberger-Dirac operator. We consider two lattice spacings a~0.09,0.12 fm and two different lattice extents L~ 1.5, 2.0 fm; quark masses span both the p- and the epsilon-regimes. We compare the results with the predictions of quenched chiral perturbation theory, with the purpose of testing to what extent the effective theory reproduces quenched QCD at low energy. In the p-regime we test volume and quark mass dependence of the pseudoscalar decay constant and mass; in the epsilon-regime, we investigate volume and topology dependence of the correlators. While the leading order behaviour predicted by the effective theory is very well reproduced by the lattice data in the range of parameters that we explored, our numerical data are not precise enough to test next-to-leading order effects.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
欧阳乐
2013-01-01
There are many ways of interpreting a literary work, and in the context of the merging of different disciplines nowa⁃days, it is undoubtedly feasible to do it within a stylistic perspective. Can The Notebook, representative of American bestselling writer Nicholas Sparks, which has been adapted to a movie, and also a bestseller on the ranking list of New York Times, be called world classic? The main reflection of the Romantic Movement which sprang up in the 18th century on the stylistic theories is writer determinism theory. The popularness as well as some shortcomings of The Notebook can be revealed after careful analysis of it under the frame work of writer determinism theory. It can be concluded that it is indeed a non-classic classic.% 评价一部文学作品有很多种方法，在当今各学科相互融合的背景下，从文体学的角度来阐释无疑是可行的。《恋恋笔记本》，这部被改编成电影、《纽约时报》排行榜上的畅销书，美国畅销小说作家尼古拉斯·斯帕克思的代表作，是否能被称为世界文学名著呢？18世纪兴起的浪漫主义运动在文体学理论上主要反映为作家决定论。通过在作家决定论的理论框架下对其进行分析，可以得出其令人称道之处，同时指出其不足。它的确是一部不是名著的名著。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪大白
2001-01-01
ZHU Xi's theory of and his deeds in commenting on Classic Poetry through Classic Poetry is a negation and criticism on the idea of illustrating Classic Poetry with history expressed in “the Preface to Classic Poetry" and the Confucianists' concept of illustrating Classic Poetry with “the Preface to Classic Poetry". It also shows a deep understanding on the literature nature of Classic Poetry and the rules in composing poems. To carry out the principle of commenting on classic Poetry through Classic Poetry and to implement a great reform on traditional studies on classic Poetry is a great mission for scholars in Song Dynasty from the need of historical development and the time. Being a famous literaturist as well as a master in the studies on Classic Poetry and integrating literature of past dynasties with the studies on “Classic Poetry" of past dynasties are the main condition and the objective foundation for ZHU Xi to implement his reform on the studies on classic Poetry.%朱熹首倡并躬行的“以《诗》言《诗》”说是对《诗序》“以史证《诗》”以及后儒“以《序》解《诗》”的否定与批判，同时又体现了对《诗经》文学本质与诗歌创作规律的深刻认识。贯彻“以《诗》言《诗》”的原则，实现传统《诗经》学的重大变革，是历史的发展与时代的需求赋予宋代学者的重大使命；而文学名家与经学大师的一身兼任，历代文学与历代经学的双轨集成，是朱熹实现《诗经》学变革的主体条件与客观基础。
Travis, Frederick; Harung, Harald S; Lagrosen, Yvonne
2011-12-01
This study compared professional and amateur classical musicians matched for age, gender, and education on reaction times during the Stroop color-word test, brainwaves during an auditory ERP task and during paired reaction-time tasks, responses on the Gibbs Sociomoral Reflection questionnaire, and self-reported frequencies of peak experiences. Professional musicians were characterized by: (1) lower color-word interference effects (Stroop task), (2) faster categorization of rare expected stimuli (P3b), and a trend for faster processing of rare unexpected stimuli (P3a), (3) higher scores on the Sociomoral Reflection questionnaire, and (4) more frequent peak experiences during rest, tasks, and sleep. Both groups had high values on the Brain Integration Scale. These findings are interpreted in light of a Unified Theory of Performance, which posits that effectiveness in any area is influenced by one's level of mind-brain development-emotional, cognitive, moral, ego and cortical development-with higher mind-brain development supporting greater effectiveness in any domain.
Theory and application of the transient injection well test
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yuewu; CHEN Huixin; LIU Qingquan; GONG Xin; ZHANG Dawei; YAO Deliang; LI Lianxiang
2005-01-01
Based on the theory of the pumping well test, the transient injection well test was suggested in this paper. The design method and the scope of application are discussed in detail. The mathematical models are developed for the short-time and long-time transient injection test respectively. A double logarithm type curve matching method was introduced for analyzing the field transient injection test data. A set of methods for the transient injection test design, experiment performance and data analysis were established. Some field tests were analyzed, and the results show that the test model and method are suitable for the transient injection test and can be used to deal with the real engineering problems.
Gryspeirt, Aiko; Gubbins, Simon
2013-09-01
Current strategies to control classical scrapie remove animals at risk of scrapie rather than those known to be infected with the scrapie agent. Advances in diagnostic tests, however, suggest that a more targeted approach involving the application of a rapid live test may be feasible in future. Here we consider the use of two diagnostic tests: recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (RAMALT) biopsies; and a blood-based assay. To assess their impact we developed a stochastic age- and prion protein (PrP) genotype-structured model for the dynamics of scrapie within a sheep flock. Parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework to facilitate integration of a number of disparate datasets and to allow parameter uncertainty to be incorporated in model predictions. In small flocks a control strategy based on removal of clinical cases was sufficient to control disease and more stringent measures (including the use of a live diagnostic test) did not significantly reduce outbreak size or duration. In medium or large flocks strategies in which a large proportion of animals are tested with either live diagnostic test significantly reduced outbreak size, but not always duration, compared with removal of clinical cases. However, the current Compulsory Scrapie Flocks Scheme (CSFS) significantly reduced outbreak size and duration compared with both removal of clinical cases and all strategies using a live diagnostic test. Accordingly, under the assumptions made in the present study there is little benefit from implementing a control strategy which makes use of a live diagnostic test.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trentini Clarissa M
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging has determined a demographic shift in the world, which is considered a major societal achievement, and a challenge. Aging is primarily a subjective experience, shaped by factors such as gender and culture. There is a lack of instruments to assess attitudes to aging adequately. In addition, there is no instrument developed or validated in developing region contexts, so that the particularities of ageing in these areas are not included in the measures available. This paper aims to develop and validate a reliable attitude to aging instrument by combining classical psychometric approach and Rasch analysis. Methods Pilot study and field trial are described in details. Statistical analysis included classic psychometric theory (EFA and CFA and Rasch measurement model. The latter was applied to examine unidimensionality, response scale and item fit. Results Sample was composed of 424 Brazilian old adults, which was compared to an international sample (n = 5238. The final instrument shows excellent psychometric performance (discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch fit statistics. Rasch analysis indicated that modifications in the response scale and item deletions improved the initial solution derived from the classic approach. Conclusion The combination of classic and modern psychometric theories in a complementary way is fruitful for development and validation of instruments. The construction of a reliable Brazilian Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire is important for assessing cultural specificities of aging in a transcultural perspective and can be applied in international cross-cultural investigations running less risk of cultural bias.
Methodological issues in testing the marginal productivity theory
P.T. Gottschalk (Peter); J. Tinbergen (Jan)
1982-01-01
textabstractPrevious tests of the marginal productivity theory have been criticized on several grounds reviewed by the authors. One important deficiency has been the small number of factor inputs entered in the production functions. In 1978 Gottschalk suggested a method to estimate production functi
Testing Self-Determination Theory via Nigerian and Indian Adolescents
Sheldon, Kennon M.; Abad, Neetu; Omoile, Jessica
2009-01-01
We tested the generalizability of five propositions derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) using school-aged adolescents living in India (N = 926) and Nigeria (N = 363). Consistent with past U.S. research, perceived teacher autonomy-support predicted students' basic need-satisfaction in the classroom and also predicted…
Computerized Mastery Testing Using Fuzzy Set Decision Theory.
Du, Yi; And Others
1993-01-01
A new computerized mastery test is described that builds on the Lewis and Sheehan procedure (sequential testlets) (1990), but uses fuzzy set decision theory to determine stopping rules and the Rasch model to calibrate items and estimate abilities. Differences between fuzzy set and Bayesian methods are illustrated through an example. (SLD)
Testing Belbin's Team Role Theory of Effective Groups.
Prichard, Jane S.; Stanton, Neville A.
1999-01-01
Belbin's theory that teams with a wide range of roles are more effective than those with role imbalance was tested with six teams composed of individuals with homogenous roles and six with mixed roles. Mixed teams performed better on team tasks. (SK)
Educational differentials in the Netherlands : Testing rational action theory
Need, Ariana; Jong, Uulkje de
2001-01-01
In this paper, we test how well Rational Action Theory, as developed to explain educational differentials, applies in the Dutch situation. The question we address is the extent to which the mechanisms assumed to be at work can explain class and gender differentials in participation in higher educati
Testing Theories of Learning: Effects on High School Achievement.
Keith, Timothy Z.; Cool, Valerie A.
Theories of school learning consistently point to variables such as ability, time (e.g., homework), quality of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework as important influences on learning. In this study, path analysis was used to test the direct and indirect effects of these variables on high school learning, with learning measured by both…
Volunteering for Job Enrichment: A Test of Expectancy Theory Predictions
Giles, William F.
1977-01-01
In order to test predictions derived from an expectancy theory model developed by E. E. Lawler, measures of higher-order need satisfaction, locus of control, and intrinsic motivation were obtained from 252 female assembly line workers. Implications of the results for placement of individuals in enriched jobs are discussed. (Editor/RK)
异化劳动理论与古典经济学关系辨析%On Relationship between Theory of Alienated Labor and Classical Economics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张金鹏
2012-01-01
马克思在《1844年经济学哲学手稿》中提出的异化劳动理论是以他对劳动价值论的理解为基础的，异化劳动理论的整个运演过程也是直接从劳动价值论的基本内容出发的。正是劳动价值论，使马克思在人本主义的基础上、从主体出发、运用异化史观展开对资本主义批判的。因此，青年马克思虽然对古典经济学总体上持否定态度，但他和古典经济学一样，都是以劳动价值论为理论出发点的。只不过马克思批判的是古典经济学“见物不见人”的反人本主义观点。%The theory of alienated labor in Marx's Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 is based on his comprehension of the labor theory of value. In Manuscripts, Marx's theory of alienated labor directly starts from the basic contents of the labor theory of value, and it is just the labor theory of value that makes Marx criticize capitalism with the alienated conception of history from the subjective perspective on the basis of the Humanism. So,although young Marx takes a negative attitude to classical economics as a whole,he takes the labor theory of value as the starting point as classical economics does, he only criticizes the anti-humanist view of classical economics "Seeing things but not people".
Zeng, X. C.; Stroud, D.
1989-01-01
The previously developed Ginzburg-Landau theory for calculating the crystal-melt interfacial tension of bcc elements to treat the classical one-component plasma (OCP), the charged fermion system, and the Bose crystal. For the OCP, a direct application of the theory of Shih et al. (1987) yields for the surface tension 0.0012(Z-squared e-squared/a-cubed), where Ze is the ionic charge and a is the radius of the ionic sphere. Bose crystal-melt interface is treated by a quantum extension of the classical density-functional theory, using the Feynman formalism to estimate the relevant correlation functions. The theory is applied to the metastable He-4 solid-superfluid interface at T = 0, with a resulting surface tension of 0.085 erg/sq cm, in reasonable agreement with the value extrapolated from the measured surface tension of the bcc solid in the range 1.46-1.76 K. These results suggest that the density-functional approach is a satisfactory mean-field theory for estimating the equilibrium properties of liquid-solid interfaces, given knowledge of the uniform phases.
Classical against molecular-genetic methods for susceptibility testing of antituberculotics.
Porvaznik, I; Mokry, J; Solovic, I
2015-01-01
Tuberculosis currently belongs to rare respiratory diseases in Slovakia. However, the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are major challenges for global tuberculosis control, since the treatment of resistant forms creates both medical and financial problems. Cultivation methods of diagnosis are time-consuming, many times exceeding the time of the initial phase of tuberculosis treatment. Therefore, in the presented study we compared the standard procedures, based on the cultivation of mycobacteria and subsequent drug susceptibility testing to antituberculotics, with molecular-genetic methods using PCR diagnostic kits. The molecular-genetic testing enables to obtain direct and fast evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with genomic verification of resistance to the most important anti-tuberculosis drugs - isoniazid and rifampicin in MDR-TB, and ethambutol, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in XDR-TB. In 2012-2013, we confirmed 19 cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Slovakia. The resistance to rifampicin was confirmed in all strains with both methods. In two cases, the molecular-genetic testing did not show resistance to isoniazid, as confirmed by conventional cultivation. Furthermore, two strains demonstrating susceptibility in conventional microbiological testing to ethambutol and five strains to fluoroquinolones were verified as actually being resistant using a PCR method. Rapid diagnosis and identification of MDR-TB or XDR-TB strains using molecular-genetic testing is an essential tool for the timely and appropriate drug treatment and prevention of spread of drug resistant strains.
From Classical System in the Case of Modern System Theory%从经典系统论到现代系统论
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
常绍舜
2011-01-01
The classical system theory and the modern system theory are two stages of general systems theory development.The main object of the classical system theory research＇s is the integrity question which mathematical instrument is mainly calculus,and also mostly occupies the classical stage with its related discipline,its serviceability also has certain limitation.But the modern system theory from the whole and the part shows-system,which mathematical instrument is the modern mathematics,and has absorbed positive achievements which returns to original state,and also mostly developed the modern stage with its related discipline.Qian Xuesen has made the remarkable contributions for the modern system theory＇s construction.%经典系统论和现代系统论是一般系统论发展的两个阶段,经典系统论研究的主要对象是系统的整体性问题,其数学工具主要是微积分,与其相关的学科也大都处在经典阶段,其适用性也有一定限制。而现代系统论则从整体与部分的关系上来说明系统,其数学工具是现代数学,并吸收了还原论的积极成果,与其相关的学科也大都发展到了现代阶段。钱学森为现代系统论的建设做出了显著贡献。
Dualism in Entanglement and Testing Quantum to Classical Transition of Identicity
Bose, S
2005-01-01
We show a hitherto unexplored consequence of the property of identicity in quantum mechanics. If two identical objects, distinguished by a dynamical variable A, are in certain entangled states of another dynamical variable B, then, for such states, they are also entangled in variable A when distinguished from each other by variable B. This dualism is independent of quantum statistics. Departures from identicity of the objects due to arbitrarily small differences in their innate attributes destroy this dualism. A system independent scheme to test the dualism is formulated which is readily realizable with photons. This scheme can be performed without requiring the entangled objects to be brought together. Thus whether two macro-systems behave as quantum identical objects can be probed without the complications of scattering. Such a study would complement the program of testing the validity of quantum superposition principle in the macro-domain which has stimulated considerable experimentation.
Communicative competence and theory of mind in autism: a test of relevance theory.
Happé, F G
1993-08-01
Sperber and Wilson's (1986) relevance theory makes explicit the role of the comprehension of intentions in human communication. Autistic people have been hypothesized to suffer from a specific and characteristic impairment in the ability to attribute such mental states (e.g., beliefs, intentions); a lack of "theory of mind". According to relevance theory, then, autistic people should have specific difficulties with the use of language for communication. Relevance theory allows precise predictions about the levels of communicative competence that should be possible with either no, first-order only, or second-order theory of mind ability. Three experiments are reported which tested predictions following from the analysis of figurative language in terms of relevance and theory of mind, in able autistic and normal young subjects. The results lend support to relevance theory. In addition, the findings suggest that some autistic subjects are eventually able to attribute mental states. Lastly, the results demonstrate close links between social and communicative understanding in autism and normal development.
Liu, Cheng-Wei; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sandvik, Anders W
2015-04-10
We discuss an Ising spin glass where each S=1/2 spin is coupled antiferromagnetically to three other spins (3-regular graphs). Inducing quantum fluctuations by a time-dependent transverse field, we use out-of-equilibrium quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study dynamic scaling at the quantum glass transition. Comparing the dynamic exponent and other critical exponents with those of the classical (temperature-driven) transition, we conclude that quantum annealing is less efficient than classical simulated annealing in bringing the system into the glass phase. Quantum computing based on the quantum annealing paradigm is therefore inferior to classical simulated annealing for this class of problems. We also comment on previous simulations where a parameter is changed with the simulation time, which is very different from the true Hamiltonian dynamics simulated here.
Molecular dynamics simulations of classical stopping power.
Grabowski, Paul E; Surh, Michael P; Richards, David F; Graziani, Frank R; Murillo, Michael S
2013-11-22
Molecular dynamics can provide very accurate tests of classical kinetic theory; for example, unambiguous comparisons can be made for classical particles interacting via a repulsive 1/r potential. The plasma stopping power problem, of great interest in its own right, provides an especially stringent test of a velocity-dependent transport property. We have performed large-scale (~10(4)-10(6) particles) molecular dynamics simulations of charged-particle stopping in a classical electron gas that span the weak to moderately strong intratarget coupling regimes. Projectile-target coupling is varied with projectile charge and velocity. Comparisons are made with disparate kinetic theories (both Boltzmann and Lenard-Balescu classes) and fully convergent theories to establish regimes of validity. We extend these various stopping models to improve agreement with the MD data and provide a useful fit to our results.
The Neuman Systems Model Institute: testing middle-range theories.
Gigliotti, Eileen
2003-07-01
The credibility of the Neuman systems model can only be established through the generation and testing of Neuman systems model-derived middle-range theories. However, due to the number and complexity of Neuman systems model concepts/concept interrelations and the diversity of middle-range theory concepts linked to these Neuman systems model concepts by researchers, no explicit middle-range theories have yet been derived from the Neuman systems model. This article describes the development of an organized program for the systematic study of the Neuman systems model. Preliminary work, already accomplished, is detailed, and a tentative plan for the completion of further preliminary work as well as beginning the actual research conduction phase is proposed.
A strong test of the maximum entropy theory of ecology.
Xiao, Xiao; McGlinn, Daniel J; White, Ethan P
2015-03-01
The maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE) is a unified theory of biodiversity that predicts a large number of macroecological patterns using information on only species richness, total abundance, and total metabolic rate of the community. We evaluated four major predictions of METE simultaneously at an unprecedented scale using data from 60 globally distributed forest communities including more than 300,000 individuals and nearly 2,000 species.METE successfully captured 96% and 89% of the variation in the rank distribution of species abundance and individual size but performed poorly when characterizing the size-density relationship and intraspecific distribution of individual size. Specifically, METE predicted a negative correlation between size and species abundance, which is weak in natural communities. By evaluating multiple predictions with large quantities of data, our study not only identifies a mismatch between abundance and body size in METE but also demonstrates the importance of conducting strong tests of ecological theories.
Testing THEMIS wave measurements against the cold plasma theory
Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolik, Ondrej; Le Contel, Olivier; Bonnell, John
2016-04-01
The THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) mission records a multitude of electromagnetic waves inside Earth's magnetosphere and provides data in the form of high-resolution electric and magnetic waveforms. We use multi-component measurements of whistler mode waves and test them against the theory of wave propagation in a cold plasma. The measured ratio cB/E (c is speed of light in vacuum, B is magnetic wave amplitude, E is electric wave amplitude) is compared to the same quantity calculated from cold plasma theory over linearized Faraday's law. The aim of this study is to get estimates for measurement uncertainties, especially with regard to the electric field and the cold plasma density, as well as evaluating the validity of cold plasma theory inside Earth's radiation belts.
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can
2012-05-07
We experimentally generate a non-classical correlated two-color photon pair at 780 and 1529.4 nm in a ladder-type configuration using a hot 85Rb atomic vapor with the production rate of ~10(7)/s. The non-classical correlation between these two photons is demonstrated by strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by the factor R = 48 ± 12. Besides, we experimentally investigate the relations between the correlation and some important experimental parameters such as the single-photon detuning, the powers of pumps. We also make a theoretical analysis in detail and the theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with our experimental results.
The Contemporary Implication and Social Justice Theory of Classical Writers%经典作家社会公平理论及其当代启示
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡芳
2011-01-01
马克思恩格斯科学的社会公平理论为社会发展提供了愿景，经典作家的社会实践和社会公平理论丰富并发展了这一理论。针对我国社会不公平现象突显，其危机令人堪忧问题，根据马克思主义经典作家的社会公平理论提出“转变经济发展方式是解决社会公平的基本前提、还富于民是解决社会公平问题的根本”的思路。%Marx and Engels put forward the scientific theory on social justice, which provides a vision for social development. The social practice and the theory on social justice by classical writers have greatly enriched and developed the theory. Based on the worrying problem embodied in social inequities in China, and on the theories on social justice by the classical writers specialized in Marxism, the present paper puts forward the view that ＂ the transformation of economic development pattern is the basic premise to achieve social equity ; while dividend to the community is the fundamental issue to achieve this goal. ＂
Testing the Neutral Theory of Biodiversity with Human Microbiome Datasets.
Li, Lianwei; Ma, Zhanshan Sam
2016-08-16
The human microbiome project (HMP) has made it possible to test important ecological theories for arguably the most important ecosystem to human health-the human microbiome. Existing limited number of studies have reported conflicting evidence in the case of the neutral theory; the present study aims to comprehensively test the neutral theory with extensive HMP datasets covering all five major body sites inhabited by the human microbiome. Utilizing 7437 datasets of bacterial community samples, we discovered that only 49 communities (less than 1%) satisfied the neutral theory, and concluded that human microbial communities are not neutral in general. The 49 positive cases, although only a tiny minority, do demonstrate the existence of neutral processes. We realize that the traditional doctrine of microbial biogeography "Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects" first proposed by Baas-Becking resolves the apparent contradiction. The first part of Baas-Becking doctrine states that microbes are not dispersal-limited and therefore are neutral prone, and the second part reiterates that the freely dispersed microbes must endure selection by the environment. Therefore, in most cases, it is the host environment that ultimately shapes the community assembly and tip the human microbiome to niche regime.
Lorentz breaking Effective Field Theory and observational tests
Liberati, Stefano
2012-01-01
Analogue models of gravity have provided an experimentally realizable test field for our ideas on quantum field theory in curved spacetimes but they have also inspired the investigation of possible departures from exact Lorentz invariance at microscopic scales. In this role they have joined, and sometime anticipated, several quantum gravity models characterized by Lorentz breaking phenomenology. A crucial difference between these speculations and other ones associated to quantum gravity scenarios, is the possibility to carry out observational and experimental tests which have nowadays led to a broad range of constraints on departures from Lorentz invariance. We shall review here the effective field theory approach to Lorentz breaking in the matter sector, present the constraints provided by the available observations and finally discuss the implications of the persisting uncertainty on the composition of the ultra high energy cosmic rays for the constraints on the higher order, analogue gravity inspired, Lore...
Psychodynamic theory and counseling in predictive testing for Huntington's disease.
Tassicker, Roslyn J
2005-04-01
This paper revisits psychodynamic theory, which can be applied in predictive testing counseling for Huntington's Disease (HD). Psychodynamic theory has developed from the work of Freud and places importance on early parent-child experiences. The nature of these relationships, or attachments are reflected in adult expectations and relationships. Two significant concepts, identification and fear of abandonment, have been developed and expounded by the psychodynamic theorist, Melanie Klein. The processes of identification and fear of abandonment can become evident in predictive testing counseling and are colored by the client's experience of growing up with a parent affected by Huntington's Disease. In reflecting on family-of-origin experiences, clients can also express implied expectations of the future, and future relationships. Case examples are given to illustrate the dynamic processes of identification and fear of abandonment which may present in the clinical setting. Counselor recognition of these processes can illuminate and inform counseling practice.
How to make allocation decisions: a theory and test questions.
2005-01-01
Hospital administrators are regularly faced with having to cut patient services. Such decisions are essentially questions of distributive justice, and administrators may welcome some guidance. We begin with a key idea from the most influential theory of justice of our times, that of John Rawls, and generate from it a series of test questions against which the ethical dimensions of allocation decisions can be judged.
A test of time-dependent theories of stellar convection
Gastine, T
2011-01-01
Context: In Cepheids close to the red edge of the classical instability strip, a coupling occurs between the acoustic oscillations and the convective motions close to the surface.The best topical models that account for this coupling rely on 1-D time-dependent convection (TDC) formulations. However, their intrinsic weakness comes from the large number of unconstrained free parameters entering in the description of turbulent convection. Aims: We compare two widely used TDC models with the first two-dimensional nonlinear direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the convection-pulsation coupling in which the acoustic oscillations are self-sustained by the kappa-mechanism. Methods: The free parameters appearing in the Stellingwerf and Kuhfuss TDC recipes are constrained using a chi2-test with the time-dependent convective flux that evolves in nonlinear simulations of highly-compressible convection with kappa-mechanism. Results: This work emphasises some inherent limits of TDC models, that is, the temporal variabilit...
Carlert, Sara; Lennernäs, Hans; Abrahamsson, Bertil
2014-03-12
The aim of this work was to evaluate an in vitro-in silico approach for prediction of small intestinal crystalline precipitation and drug absorption of two weakly basic model BCS class II drugs, AZD0865 and mebendazole. The crystallization rates were investigated in an in vitro method using simulated gastric and intestinal media, and the result was modeled by using Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT). The effect of varying in vitro parameters (initial drug concentration, rate of mixing gastric and intestinal fluid, stirring and filtration) on the interfacial tension γ, being a key parameter in CNT, was investigated. The initial drug concentration had the most significant effect on γ for both substances tested, although γ is a fundamental parameter independent of concentration according to CNT. In the subsequent in silico prediction of drug absorption, by use of a Compartmental and Transit intestinal model, an empirical approach was used where γ was allowed to vary with simulated small intestinal concentrations. The in silico predictions were compared to published human in vivo plasma drug concentration data for different doses of AZD0865 and dog intestinal drug concentrations, amount precipitated in intestine and plasma concentrations for mebendazole. The results showed that lack of significant crystallization effects on absorption in man of the model drug AZD0865 up to doses of 4 mg/kg could be predicted which was in accordance with in vivo data. Mebendazole intestinal precipitation in canines was also well described by the model, where mean predicted amount precipitated was 136% (range 111-164%) of measured solid amount, and mean predicted intestinal concentration was 94% (range 59-147%) of measured concentration. In conclusion, the in vitro-in silico approach can be used for predictions of absorption effects of crystallization, but the model could benefit from further development work on the theoretical crystallization model and in vitro experimental design.
Maselli, Andrea; Pani, Paolo; Stella, Luigi; Ferrari, Valeria
2014-01-01
Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) observed in the X-ray flux emitted by accreting black holes, are associated to phenomena occurring near the horizon. Future very large area X-ray instruments will be able to measure QPO frequencies with very high precision, thus probing this strong-field region. By using the relativistic precession model, we show the way in which QPO frequencies could be used to test general relativity against those alternative theories of gravity which predict deviations from the classical theory in the strong-field regime. We consider one of the best motivated strong-curvature corrections to general relativity, namely the Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet theory, and show that a detection of QPOs with the expected sensitivity of the proposed ESA M-class mission LOFT would set the most stringent constraints on the parameter space of this theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kateryna S. Pantiukh
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Concerns of traditional prenatal aneuploidy testing methods, such as low accuracy of noninvasive and health risks associated with invasive procedures, were overcome with the introduction of novel noninvasive methods based on genetics (NIPT. These were rapidly adopted into clinical practice in many countries after a series of successful trials of various independent submethods. Here we present results of own NIPT trial carried out in Moscow, Russia. 1012 samples were subjected to the method aimed at measuring chromosome coverage by massive parallel sequencing. Two alternative approaches are ascertained: one based on maternal/fetal differential methylation and another based on allelic difference. While the former failed to provide stable results, the latter was found to be promising and worthy of conducting a large-scale trial. One critical point in any NIPT approach is the determination of fetal cell-free DNA fraction, which dictates the reliability of obtained results for a given sample. We show that two different chromosome Y representation measures—by real-time PCR and by whole-genome massive parallel sequencing—are practically interchangeable (r=0.94. We also propose a novel method based on maternal/fetal allelic difference which is applicable in pregnancies with fetuses of either sex. Even in its pilot form it correlates well with chromosome Y coverage estimates (r=0.74 and can be further improved by increasing the number of polymorphisms.
da Rocha, Roldao
2014-01-01
The perihelion precession, the deflection of light, and the radar echo delay are classical tests of General Relativity here used to probe brane world topologically charged black holes in a f(R) bulk and to constrain the parameter that arises from the Shiromizu-Maeda-Sasaki procedure applied to a f(R) bulk as well. The existing Solar system observational data constrain the possible values of the tidal charge parameter and the effective cosmological constant including f(R) brane world effects. We show that the observational/experimental data for both perihelion precession and radar echo delay make the black hole space of parameters to be more strict than the ones for the Dadhich, Maartens, Papadopoulos and Rezania (DMPR) black hole geometry. Furthermore, the deflection of light constrains the tidal charge parameter similarly as the DMPR black holes due to a peculiarity in the equation of motion.
1999-01-01
The effective theory of low frequency fluctuations of selfinteracting scalar fields is constructed in the broken symmetry phase. The theory resulting from integrating fluctuations with frequencies much above the spontanously generated mass scale $(p_0>>M)$ is found to be local. Non-local dynamics, especially Landau damping emerges under the effect of fluctuations in the $p_0 \\sim M$ region. A kinetic theory of relativistic scalar gas particles interacting via their locally variable mass with ...
COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW
Mihaela Cornelia Sandu
2013-01-01
Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.
Melucci, Massimo
2012-01-01
Probabilistic models require the notion of event space for defining a probability measure. An event space has a probability measure which ensues the Kolmogorov axioms. However, the probabilities observed from distinct sources, such as that of relevance of documents, may not admit a single event space thus causing some issues. In this article, some results are introduced for ensuring whether the observed prob- abilities of relevance of documents admit a single event space. More- over, an alternative framework of probability is introduced, thus chal- lenging the use of classical probability for ranking documents. Some reflections on the convenience of extending the classical probabilis- tic retrieval toward a more general framework which encompasses the issues are made.
Development and validation of the conceptions of scientific theories test
Cotham, Joseph C.; Smith, Edward L.
The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for use with elementary and secondary teachers of science that would have the following characteristics: 1) sensitivity to alternative conceptions of particular philosophic aspects of scientific theories, and 2) applicability in inferring understanding of the tentative and revisionary conception of the nature of science. This conception, which has educational and social importance, may be a significant influence in the teaching of science as inquiry. Thus, concern with teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and their teaching served as justification for this study. The instrument, which was applied to samples of preservice elementary teachers, college philosophy of science students, and college chemistry students, consisted of items that were adapted to the contexts of particular scientific theories by prefacing them with a brief description of a theory and episodes drawn from its history. Items were written to discriminate between alternative conceptions of the following philosophic aspects of scientific theories: testing, generation, ontological implications, and choice. Evidence in support of the validity of the instrument constructs was obtained using two approaches: discrimination between contrasting groups and the multi-trait and multi-method matrix of Campbell and Fiske. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement were computed for the instrument and its subtests. Reliability data indicates that an adequate degree of accuracy may be attributed to instrument scores.
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-01-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson’s configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type. PMID:26824059
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type.
C~0 and C~1 theories and test functions for FEM patch test in microstructures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Among many theories and categories in microstructures,rotation-displacement used as "independent" or "dependent" variables,is a noticeable topic. In FEM,it is called C0 and C1 theory. The convergence criteria of finite elements for microstructures are less mature than those for the conventional thin plate bending problem. In this paper,the patch test functions for assessing convergence of the C0 and C1 finite elements in microstructures is established based on the enhanced patch test theory. The author has further explored the C0 and C1 finite element theories and investigated the difference and correlation between their finite element formulations. Newly proposed finite element theories for microstructures are as follows:(1) the displacement-rotation dependent C1 element that requires the element function satisfying both C0 and C1 continuity;(2) the displacement-rotation independent C0 element which requires new convergence criteria,such as non-zero constant shear stress patch test and zero constant shear stress patch test for approximating C1 element.
Quantitative test of general theories of the intrinsic laser linewidth
Cerjan, Alexander; Chong, Yidong; Johnson, Steven G; Stone, A Douglas
2015-01-01
We perform a first-principles calculation of the quantum-limited laser linewidth, testing the predictions of recently developed theories of the laser linewidth based on fluctuations about the known steady-state laser solutions against traditional forms of the Schawlow-Townes linewidth. The numerical study is based on finite-difference time-domain simulations of the semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch lasing equations, augmented with Langevin force terms, and thus includes the effects of dispersion, losses due to the open boundary of the laser cavity, and non-linear coupling between the amplitude and phase fluctuations ($\\alpha$ factor). We find quantitative agreement between the numerical results and the predictions of the noisy steady-state ab initio laser theory (N-SALT), both in the variation of the linewidth with output power, as well as the emergence of side-peaks due to relaxation oscillations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.
1997-03-01
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.
Costella, J P; Rawlinson, A A; Costella, John P.; Kellar, Bruce H. J. Mc; Rawlinson, Andrew A.
1997-01-01
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain.
Green, John T
2003-01-01
Exposure of the developing brain to alcohol produces profound Purkinje cell loss in the cerebellum, and deficits in tests of motor coordination. However, the precise relationship between these two sets of findings has been difficult to determine. Eyeblink classical conditioning is known to engage a discrete brainstem-cerebellar circuit, making it an ideal test of cerebellar functional integrity after developmental alcohol exposure. In eyeblink conditioning, one of the deep cerebellar nuclei, the interpositus nucleus, as well as specific Purkinje cell populations, are sites of convergence for CS and US information. A series of studies have shown that eyeblink conditioning is impaired in both weanling and adult rats given binge-like exposure to alcohol as neonates, and that these deficits can be traced, at least in part, to impaired activation of cerebellar interpositus nucleus neurons and to an overall reduction in the deep cerebellar nuclear cell population. Because particular cerebellar cell populations are utilized in well-defined ways during eyeblink conditioning, conclusions regarding specific changes in the mediation of behavior by these cell populations are greatly strengthened. Further studies will be directed towards the impact of early exposure to alcohol on the functionality of specific Purkinje cell populations, as well as towards brainstem areas that process the tone CS and the somatosensory US.
De Sole, Alberto; Kac, Victor G.; Valeri, Daniele
2013-10-01
We describe of the generalized Drinfeld-Sokolov Hamiltonian reduction for the construction of classical -algebras within the framework of Poisson vertex algebras. In this context, the gauge group action on the phase space is translated in terms of (the exponential of) a Lie conformal algebra action on the space of functions. Following the ideas of Drinfeld and Sokolov, we then establish under certain sufficient conditions the applicability of the Lenard-Magri scheme of integrability and the existence of the corresponding integrable hierarchy of bi-Hamiltonian equations.
Transformational leadership in nursing service. A test of theory.
McDaniel, C; Wolf, G A
1992-02-01
What are the leadership dimensions that result in low turnover or work satisfaction? Intellectual stimulation, charisma, and individual consideration constitute aspects of transformational leadership that are suggested to enhance retention and staff satisfaction. In this study, the authors tested transformational leadership theory in one nursing department with an executive, 11 midlevel administrators, and 77 staff registered nurses. Findings support the predictions. Composed of teachable components, transformational factors are similar to leadership qualities described in magnet hospitals, offering positive implications for nursing administration and professional nursing practice.
Bartelmann, Matthias; Berg, Daniel; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Viermann, Celia
2014-01-01
We use the non-equlibrium statistical field theory for classical particles, recently developed by Mazenko and Das and Mazenko, together with the free generating functional we have previously derived for point sets initially correlated in phase space, to calculate the time evolution of power spectra in the free theory, i.e. neglecting particle interactions. We provide expressions taking linear and quadratic momentum correlations into account. Up to this point, the expressions are general with respect to the free propagator of the microscopic degrees of freedom. We then specialise the propagator to that expected for particles in cosmology treated within the Zel'dovich approximation and show that, to linear order in the momentum correlations, the linear growth of the cosmological power spectrum is reproduced. Quadratic momentum correlations return a first contribution to the non-linear evolution of the power spectrum, for which we derive a simple closed expression valid for arbitrary wave numbers. This expressio...
Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing
2013-09-01
Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.
Trust Testing in Care Pathways for Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Grounded Theory Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustaf Waxegard
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Building care pathways for the expansive, heterogeneous, and complex field of neurodevelopmental disorders (ND is challenging. This classic grounded theory study conceptualizes problems encountered and resolved by professionals in the unpacking—diagnosis and work up—of ND. A care pathway for ND in children and adolescents was observed for six years. Data include interviews, documentation of a dialogue-conference devoted to the ND care pathway, 100+ hours of participant observations, and coding of stakeholder actions. Trust testing explores whether professional unpacking collaboration can occur without being “stuck with the buck” and if other professionals can be approached to solve own unpacking priorities. ND complexity, scarce resources, and diverging stakeholder interests undermine the ability to make selfless collaborative professional choices in the care pathway. ND professionals and managers should pay as much attention to trust issues as they do to structures and patient flows. The trust testing theory may improve the understanding of ND care pathways further as a modified social dilemma framework.
Tests of mode-coupling theory in two dimensions.
Weysser, Fabian; Hajnal, David
2011-04-01
We analyze the glassy dynamics of binary mixtures of hard disks in two dimensions. Predictions of the mode-coupling theory (MCT) are tested with extensive Brownian dynamics simulations. Measuring the collective particle density correlation functions in the vicinity of the glass transition, we verify four predicted mixing effects. For instance, for large size disparities, adding a small amount of small particles at a fixed packing fraction leads to a speedup in the long-time dynamics, while for small size disparities it leads to a slowing-down. Qualitative features of the nonergodicity parameters and the β relaxation, which both depend in a nontrivial way on the mixing ratio, are found in the simulated correlators. Studying one system in detail, we are able to determine its ideal MCT glass transition point as φ(c)=0.7948 and test MCT predictions quantitatively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landry, Brian R., E-mail: landrybr@gmail.com; Subotnik, Joseph E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 S. 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)
2015-03-14
We evaluate the accuracy of Tully’s surface hopping algorithm for the spin-boson model in the limit of small to moderate reorganization energy. We calculate transition rates between diabatic surfaces in the exciton basis and compare against exact results from the hierarchical equations of motion; we also compare against approximate rates from the secular Redfield equation and Ehrenfest dynamics. We show that decoherence-corrected surface hopping performs very well in this regime, agreeing with secular Redfield theory for very weak system-bath coupling and outperforming secular Redfield theory for moderate system-bath coupling. Surface hopping can also be extended beyond the Markovian limits of standard Redfield theory. Given previous work [B. R. Landry and J. E. Subotnik, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A513 (2012)] that establishes the accuracy of decoherence-corrected surface-hopping in the Marcus regime, this work suggests that surface hopping may well have a very wide range of applicability.
On ZHU Zi-qing's Appreciation Theories of Chinese Classic Literature%朱自清古典文学欣赏理论初探
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方大卫
2009-01-01
欣赏中国古典文学作品离不开吟诵,要在吟诵的基础上了解,在培养欣赏力的同时培养判断力.欣赏也是想象、感受和理解的过程,更是一个再创造的过程.这是朱自清对古典文学欣赏理论的系统总结.这一欣赏理论,不仅内涵丰富,而且还有自己的特色.%The appreciation of Chinese classic literature works cannot be separated from the intonation of them. Comprehension is acquired on the basis of the intonation, and thus the appreciation as well as the judgment is cultivated. The appreciation is a course of imagination, perception and comprehension, and furthermore a course of recreation. This is a systematic conclusion of ZHU Zi-qing's theory of appreciation of Chinese classic literature works. The theory is rich in content with its own traits.
Seo, Jihye
2012-01-01
N=2 Seiberg-Witten theories allow an interesting interplay between the Argyres-Douglas loci, singularity structures and wall-crossing formulae. In this paper we investigate this connection by first studying the singularity structures of hyper-elliptic Seiberg-Witten curves for pure N=2 gauge theories with SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups, and propose new methods to locate the Argyres-Douglas loci in the moduli space, where multiple mutually non-local BPS states become massless. In a region of the moduli space, we compute dyon charges for all 2r+2 and 2r+1 massless dyons for SU(r+1) and Sp(2r) gauge groups respectively for rank r>1. From here we elucidate the connection to the wall-crossing phenomena for pure Sp(4) Seiberg-Witten theory near the Argyres-Douglas loci, despite our emphasis being only at the massless sector of the BPS spectra. We also present 2r-1 candidates for the maximal Argyres-Douglas points for pure SO(2r+1) Seiberg-Witten theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Álvarez-Asencio, R.; Thormann, Esben; Rutland, M.W.
2013-01-01
A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power...
Thomas, Jan E.; Kukulan, Annis
2004-01-01
In recent years, early women sociologists such as Harriet Martineau, Ida B. Wells, and Jane Addams have begun to appear in some introductory textbooks and theory books. Usually, they appear in a box, as a sidebar, or as selected "others." So why do we not know more about these women? Our research seeks to answer this question. Given the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agustini Hamid
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The research aimed to measure the accuracy and combination of Classic and Modern Technical Analysis. PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (WIKA’s stock in two periods is the sample of research. Technical analysis was used to predict stock prices by observing changes in historical share price. Practically, technical analysis is divided into Classic Technical and Modern. Research was conducted by library study and using a computer software. Microsft Excel was used for the simulation and Chart Nexus for analyzing Modern Technical Analysis. The research period started in January 1, 2013 until December 31, 2013 and January 1, 2014 until December 31, 2014. The Classic Technical Analysis used Support, Resistance, Trendline, and Flag Patern. Meanwhile for Modern Technical Analysis used Moving Average, Stochastic, Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD indicator. The Classical Technical Analysis gave less result than Modern Technical Analysis. The classical give 14 investment decisions in two periods. The average return of Classical Technical is 15,50%. Meanwhile the Modern Technical Analysis gave 18 investment decisions in two periods. The average return of Modern Technical is 18,14%. Combining Classic Technical Analysis and Modern Technical Analysis gave 20 investment decisions with the average rate of return 20,41%.
A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity
Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.
1988-01-01
Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.
Angry drivers: a test of state-trait theory.
Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Richards, Tracy L; Filetti, Linda B; Lynch, Rebekah S
2005-08-01
Tested hypotheses from state-trait theory applied to anger while driving. College student drivers high in trait driving anger were compared to drivers low in trait driving anger. High anger drivers were more frequently angered in day-to-day driving (frequency hypothesis). They reported more intense anger in their most angering driving situations, when visualizing provocative driving events, and in day-to-day driving (intensity hypothesis). Driving diaries and surveys showed they engaged in more aggressive behavior and expressed their anger through more verbal, physical, and vehicular means (aggression hypothesis). They reported handling of their anger less well when visualizing provocative events and on the Adaptive/Constructive Expression scale (reduced adaptive expression hypothesis). They engaged in risky behavior (risky behavior hypothesis) and experienced more moving violations, close calls, and losses of concentration, but not more major or minor accidents (partial support for crash-related outcomes hypothesis). High anger drivers were more generally angry and impulsive and employed more negative, less controlled forms of general anger expression. Results supported state-trait theory and added to the literature showing that high anger drivers have some other psychological and behavioral characteristics that may interact negatively with anger behind the wheel.
2007-01-01
The relationship between classical and quantum theory is of central importance to the philosophy of physics, and any interpretation of quantum mechanics has to clarify it. Our discussion of this relationship is partly historical and conceptual, but mostly technical and mathematically rigorous, including over 500 references. On the assumption that quantum mechanics is universal and complete, we discuss three ways in which classical physics has so far been believed to emerge from quantum physic...
Testing Turing’s theory of morphogenesis in chemical cells
Tompkins, Nathan; Li, Ning; Girabawe, Camille; Heymann, Michael; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Epstein, Irving R.; Fraden, Seth
2014-01-01
Alan Turing, in “The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis” [Turing AM (1952) Philos Trans R Soc Lond 237(641):37–72], described how, in circular arrays of identical biological cells, diffusion can interact with chemical reactions to generate up to six periodic spatiotemporal chemical structures. Turing proposed that one of these structures, a stationary pattern with a chemically determined wavelength, is responsible for differentiation. We quantitatively test Turing’s ideas in a cellular chemical system consisting of an emulsion of aqueous droplets containing the Belousov–Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reactants, dispersed in oil, and demonstrate that reaction-diffusion processes lead to chemical differentiation, which drives physical morphogenesis in chemical cells. We observe five of the six structures predicted by Turing. In 2D hexagonal arrays, a seventh structure emerges, incompatible with Turing’s original model, which we explain by modifying the theory to include heterogeneity. PMID:24616508
A test of stress theory: relief workers in refugee camps.
Soliman, Hussein H; Gillespie, David F
2011-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to apply a stress model drawn from the literature to the relief and social service workers who have been active in refugee camps for a prolonged period of time. Working in difficult environments, social service workers deliver essential services to refugee populations around the world. A model of four work-stress determinants--tasks, management, appreciation and collaboration--was tested on 274 social workers in five regions of the Middle East (Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, as well as the occupied Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank). Statistical fit indices were adequate but two relationships were statistically insignificant. The collaboration variable was dropped to create a modified model with tasks indirectly and management and appreciation directly affecting work-related stress. The five direct relationships and two indirect relationships of this modified model are consistent with stress theory, and all relationships--direct and indirect--are statistically significant.
Drechsler, Wolfgang; Havas, Peter; Rosenblum, Arnold
1984-02-01
In two recent papers, the general form of the laws of motion for point particles which are multipole sources of the classical coupled Yang-Mills-Higgs fields was determined by Havas, and for the special case of monopole singularities of a Yang-Mills field an iteration procedure was developed by Drechsler and Rosenblum to obtain the equations of motion of mass points, i.e., the laws of motion including the explicit form of the fields of all interacting particles. In this paper we give a detailed derivation of the laws of motion of monopole-dipole singularities of the coupled Yang-Mills-Higgs fields for point particles with mass and spin, following a procedure first applied by Mathisson and developed by Havas. To obtain the equations of motion, a systematic approximation method is developed in the following paper for the solution of the nonlinear field equations and determination of the fields entering the laws of motion found here to any given order in the coupling constant g.
论卢曼法律悖论理论的隐秘源头%On the Classical Source of Luhmann’s Theory of Paradox
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宾凯
2014-01-01
从康德到卢曼近两百年的德国思想史，贯穿了对于悖论问题的思考这一条红线。经过费希特对“自我与非我”的论述以及黑格尔对费希特思想的扬弃，德国古典哲学家们在悖论问题上呈现出了连贯的思考脉络。二十世纪后期，德国古典哲学中的“主体”虽然已经转换为卢曼社会理论中的“系统”，但是德国先贤们的智力资源却潜入到了卢曼的社会理论中，并成为其法律悖论思想的一个隐秘源头。文章通过在费希特、黑格尔关于悖论的思想与卢曼法律社会学中的悖论理论之间的对比研究，展示了卢曼在其法律悖论思想中对于德国古典哲学传统的反思性继承和创造性超越。%In the history of German philosophy from Kant to Luhmann,the thinking around the problem of paradox is definitely a strand going through almost two hundred years.Fichte’s discussion on “self and non-self”and Hegel’s relevant theory demonstrate that there was some consistent and successive research on the problem of paradox in German classical thought.In the latter half of the twentieth century,though the key word “subject”in German classical philosophy were replaced by“system”in Luhmann’s social theory,the resources provided by German antecessors became the necessary premise of the theory of legal paradox contributed by Luhmann,who inherited but at same time went beyond classical thoughts.
Álvarez-Asencio, R; Thormann, E; Rutland, M W
2013-09-01
A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power spectrum is difficult to obtain due to the high resonance frequency and low signal/noise ratio. The applicability is shown to be general and this simple approach can thus be used to obtain torsional constants for any beam shaped cantilever.
Hlushak, Stepan P; McCabe, Clare; Cummings, Peter T
2012-09-14
We present a Fourier space density functional approach for hard particles with attractive interactions, which is based on a previously developed two-dimensional approach [S. Hlushak, W. Rżysko, and S. Sokołowski, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 094904 (2009)] for hard-sphere chains. The interactions are incorporated by means of a three-dimensional Fourier image of the direct correlation function that is obtained from the first-order mean-spherical approximation. In order to improve the computational efficiency, we make extensive use of fast Fourier transforms for calculating density convolution integrals. A two-dimensional implementation of the new density functional approach, based on the expansion of the functional around the bulk fluid density, is used to study structure and adsorption of two model fluids in narrow cylindrical pores. We also investigate two methods that improve the accuracy of the theory as compared to the conventional DFT approach, which expands the free energy functional around the bulk fluid density: One a variant of the reference fluid density functional theory used by Gillespie et al. [Phys. Rev. E 68, 031503 (2003)], and the second a weighted density approach with energy route thermodynamics. Results from these two methods are compared to the conventional approach and also to the results of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the method of Gillespie et al. and the weighted density approach with energy route thermodynamics yield significant improvement over the conventional approach.
Clayman, Dee L.
1995-01-01
Appraises several databases devoted to classical literature. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) contains the entire extant corpus of ancient Greek literature, including works on lexicography and historiography, extending into the 15th century. Other works awaiting completion are the Database of Classical Bibliography and a CD-ROM pictorial dictionary…