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Sample records for classical swine h1n1

  1. Co-circulation of pandemic 2009 H1N1, classical swine H1N1 and avian-like swine H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China.

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    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Qiao, Chuanling; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Ying; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses emerged in both Mexico and the United States in March 2009, and were transmitted efficiently in the human population. They were transmitted occasionally from humans to other mammals including pigs, dogs and cats. In this study, we report the isolation and genetic analysis of novel viruses in pigs in China. These viruses were related phylogenetically to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and pigs, which indicates that the pandemic virus is currently circulating in swine populations, and this hypothesis was further supported by serological surveillance of pig sera collected within the same period. Furthermore, we isolated another two H1N1 viruses belonging to the lineages of classical swine H1N1 virus and avian-like swine H1N1 virus, respectively. Multiple genetic lineages of H1N1 viruses are co-circulating in the swine population, which highlights the importance of intensive surveillance for swine influenza in China.

  2. Protection of mice against lethal challenge with 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus by 1918-like and classical swine H1N1 based vaccines.

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    Balaji Manicassamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus infection in humans has resulted in nearly 5,000 deaths worldwide. Early epidemiological findings indicated a low level of infection in the older population (>65 years with the pandemic virus, and a greater susceptibility in people younger than 35 years of age, a phenomenon correlated with the presence of cross-reactive immunity in the older population. It is unclear what virus(es might be responsible for this apparent cross-protection against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. We describe a mouse lethal challenge model for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain, used together with a panel of inactivated H1N1 virus vaccines and hemagglutinin (HA monoclonal antibodies to dissect the possible humoral antigenic determinants of pre-existing immunity against this virus in the human population. By hemagglutinination inhibition (HI assays and vaccination/challenge studies, we demonstrate that the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is antigenically similar to human H1N1 viruses that circulated from 1918-1943 and to classical swine H1N1 viruses. Antibodies elicited against 1918-like or classical swine H1N1 vaccines completely protect C57B/6 mice from lethal challenge with the influenza A/Netherlands/602/2009 virus isolate. In contrast, contemporary H1N1 vaccines afforded only partial protection. Passive immunization with cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs raised against either 1918 or A/California/04/2009 HA proteins offered full protection from death. Analysis of mAb antibody escape mutants, generated by selection of 2009 H1N1 virus with these mAbs, indicate that antigenic site Sa is one of the conserved cross-protective epitopes. Our findings in mice agree with serological data showing high prevalence of 2009 H1N1 cross-reactive antibodies only in the older population, indicating that prior infection with 1918-like viruses or vaccination against the 1976 swine H1N1 virus in the USA are likely to provide protection against the 2009

  3. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

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    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  4. Efficacy of a high-growth reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against the classical swine H1N1 subtype influenza virus in mice and pigs.

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    Wen, Feng; Yu, Hai; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Yang, Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2014-11-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease caused by swine influenza A viruses (SwIVs), and it poses a potential global threat to human health. Classical H1N1 (cH1N1) SwIVs are still circulating and remain the predominant subtype in the swine population in China. In this study, a high-growth reassortant virus (GD/PR8) harboring the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel cH1N1 isolate in China, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (GD/11) and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34(PR8) virus was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics and tested as a candidate seed virus for the preparation of an inactivated vaccine. The protective efficacy of this vaccine was evaluated in mice and pigs challenged with GD/11 virus. Prime and boost inoculation of GD/PR8 vaccine yielded high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies and IgG antibodies for GD/11 in both mice and pigs. Complete protection of mice and pigs against cH1N1 SIV challenge was observed, with significantly fewer lung lesions and reduced viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with unvaccinated control animals. Our data demonstrated that the GD/PR8 may serve as the seed virus for a promising SwIVs vaccine to protect the swine population.

  5. Failure of protection and enhanced pneumonia with a US H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs vaccinated with an inactivated classical swine H1N1 vaccine

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    We evaluated two US swine influenza virus (SIV) isolates, A/Swine/Iowa/15/1930 H1N1 (IA30) and A/Swine/Minnesota/00194/2003 H1N2 (MN03), with substantial genetic variation in the HA gene and failure to cross-react in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, in an in vivo vaccination and challenge...

  6. Novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses in pigs in Tianjin, Northern China.

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    Sun, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Hua; Lu, Chao; Yang, Chun-Lei; Feng, Jing; Han, Wei; Ren, Wei-Ke; Tian, Xiang-Xue; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Wen, Feng; Li, Ze-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Yan, Ming-Hua; Yu, Hai

    2016-02-01

    Pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses and therefore have been proposed to be mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment. In this study, for the first time, we report the isolation and genetic analyses of three novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses from pigs in Tianjin, Northern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel viruses contained genes from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PB2, PB1, PA and NP), Eurasian swine (HA, NA and M) and triple-reassortant swine (NS) lineages. This indicated that the reassortment among the 2009 pandemic H1N1, Eurasian swine and triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in Tianjin and resulted in the generation of new viruses. Furthermore, three human-like H1N1, two classical swine H1N1 and two Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses were also isolated during the swine influenza virus surveillance from 2009 to 2013, which indicated that multiple genetic lineages of swine H1N1 viruses were co-circulating in the swine population in Tianjin, China. The emergence of novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses may be a potential threat to human health and emphasizes the importance of further continuous surveillance.

  7. H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect Risk

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    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161034.html H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect ... Swedish researchers report that the vaccine against the H1N1 "swine flu" strain of influenza doesn't seem ...

  8. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https:// ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the ...

  9. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

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    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza. PMID:27321744

  10. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

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    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza.

  11. Transcription analysis on response of swine lung to H1N1 swine influenza virus

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    Li Yongtao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a mild, highly contagious, respiratory disease, swine influenza always damages the innate immune systems, and increases susceptibility to secondary infections which results in considerable morbidity and mortality in pigs. Nevertheless, the systematical host response of pigs to swine influenza virus infection remains largely unknown. To explore it, a time-course gene expression profiling was performed for comprehensive analysis of the global host response induced by H1N1 swine influenza virus in pigs. Results At the early stage of H1N1 swine virus infection, pigs were suffering mild respiratory symptoms and pathological changes. A total of 268 porcine genes showing differential expression (DE after inoculation were identified to compare with the controls on day 3 post infection (PID (Fold change ≥ 2, p Conclusions This study shows how the target organ responds to H1N1 swine influenza virus infection in pigs. The observed gene expression profile could help to screen the potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of swine influenza virus and further understand the molecular pathogenesis associated with H1N1 infection in pigs.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity and genotypic complexity of H1N1 subtype swine influenza viruses isolated in Mainland China

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    Liu Yizhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the occurrence of 2009 pandemic H1N1, close attention has been paid to the H1N1 subtype swine influenza viruses (H1N1 SIV by scientific communities in many countries. A large-scale sequence analysis of the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource Database on H1N1 SIVs submitted primarily by scientists in China during 1992 to 2011 was performed. The aims of this study were to elucidate the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of H1N1 SIVs, to identify and unify the lineages and genetic characteristics of the H1N1 SIVs isolated in mainland China. Results Most of the strains were isolated during the period of 2008 to 2010 from Guangdong and Shandong provinces, China. Based on the phylogenetic and genotypic analyses, all of the H1N1 SIV strains can be classified into 8 lineages and 10 genotypes. All strains were of the characteristics of low pathogenic influenza viruses. The viruses of different lineage are characterized with different amino acid residues at the receptor-binding sites. Viruses containing PB2 genes of the classical swine, early seasonal human and recent seasonal human lineage might be more infectious to human. Some genotypes were directly related with human influenza viruses, which include strains that harbored genes derived from human influenza viruses. Conclusions Phylogenetic diversity and complexity existed in H1N1 SIVs isolated in mainland China. These H1N1 SIV strains were closely related to other subtype influenza viruses, especially to human influenza viruses. Moreover, it was shown that, novel lineages and genotypes of H1N1 SIVs emerged recently in mainland China. These findings provided new and essential information for further understanding of the genetic and evolutionary characteristics and monitoring the H1N1 SIVs in mainland China.

  13. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

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    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  14. Influenza A H1N1 2009 (Swine Flu) and Pregnancy

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    Lim, Boon H.; Mahmood, Tahir A.

    2011-01-01

    The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has ...

  15. The resurgence of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1).

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    Mossad, Sherif Beniameen

    2009-06-01

    Unexpectedly, swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV, informally known as swine flu) appeared in North America at the very end of the 2008-2009 influenza season and began to spread internationally. As the world mobilizes for a potential pandemic, this article summarizes the developments in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:19487554

  16. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

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    Neto Felix; Haque Shamsul; Goodwin Robin; Myers Lynn B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert l...

  17. Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba.

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    Pérez, Lester J; Perera, Carmen Laura; Coronado, Liani; Rios, Liliam; Vega, Armando; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José Ignacio; Díaz de Arce, Heidy

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with both animal and public health risks.

  18. Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico

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    Mena, Ignacio; Nelson, Martha I; Quezada-Monroy, Francisco; Dutta, Jayeeta; Cortes-Fernández, Refugio; Lara-Puente, J Horacio; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Cunha, Luis F; Trovão, Nídia S; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Rambaut, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16777.001 PMID:27350259

  19. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)

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    Blower Sally; Wagner Bradley G; Coburn Brian J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 e...

  20. Antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China.

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    Yin, Xiuchen; Yin, Xin; Rao, Baizhong; Xie, Chunfang; Zhang, Pengchao; Qi, Xian; Wei, Ping; Liu, Huili

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was first isolated in pigs in China. Recently, it was reported that a 3-year-old boy was infected with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) in Jiangsu Province, China. To investigate the prevalence of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection among swine farm residents in eastern China, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted on swine farms in this region from May 21, 2010 through April 22, 2012. A total of 1,162 participants were enrolled, including 1,136 persons from 48 pig farms, as well as 26 pig farm veterinarians. A total of 10.7% and 7.8% swine farm residents were positive for antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV by HI and NT assay, respectively, using 40 as the cut-off antibody titer. Meanwhile, all the serum samples collected from a control of healthy city residents were negative against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. As the difference in numbers of antibody positive samples between the swine farm residents and health city residents controls was statistically significant (P = 0.002), these data suggest that occupational exposure to pigs may increase swine farm residents' and veterinarians' risk of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection in eastern China. This study provides the first data on avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian-like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration.

  1. Swine flu (H1N1 infection: An autoimmune endocrine condition in pregnant females

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    Shilpa Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: H1N1 infection tends to be more severe in pregnant than nonpregnant women. It is not known whether this is due to hormonal changes during pregnancy and/or immune responses to hormones. Aims: Whether the effect of pregnancy on responses to the H1N1 pandemic is mediated by the effects of immune responses to hormones resulting in anti-hormone antibody production requires investigation. Settings and Design: A prospective study was designed, and H1N1-infected pregnant women were recruited from the Intensive Care Unit of a hospital during the period 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: Differences in the levels of anti-estrogen and anti-progesterone antibodies were determined in H1N1-infected pregnant patients and healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women, using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16.0 (SPSS inc, Chicago, USA software was used for all statistical procedures. Results: Pregnant women showed nonsignificant trends for higher immunoglobulin G (IgG and IgM anti-estrogen-antibodies as compared to the healthy non-pregnant women. IgG, IgM, and IgE anti-progesterone-antibodies were also higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women, with marginally significant effects for IgG and IgE. H1N1 infection was associated with increased anti-estrogen IgG and IgA relative to healthy pregnant females. Conclusion: Findings about elevated anti-estrogen and anti-progesterone antibodies might improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of pregnant females to swine flu, and thereby lead to better management of this disease.

  2. Spillback transmission of European H1N1 avian-like swine influenza viruses to turkeys: A strain-dependent possibility?

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    Bonfante, Francesco; Fusaro, Alice; Tassoni, Luca; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Milani, Adelaide; Maniero, Silvia; Salviato, Annalisa; Terregino, Calogero

    2016-04-15

    In 1979, an avian influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype began to circulate in European swine herds, rapidly replacing classical swine H1N1 viruses. Spill-back transmissions to turkeys were recorded occasionally, but they might have been underreported due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection and the lack of specific surveillance. In our study, we evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility in turkeys of seven strains of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses isolated from 1979 to 2006, and compared them with their closest progenitor A/duck/Bavaria/1/77 (H1N1), to establish whether the adaptation to pigs has gradually decreased their fitness in turkeys. Our data indicate that the circulation of European H1N1 in pigs might have impaired the possibility of infecting turkeys. Nevertheless, the two swine-origin strains, which showed the ability to replicate and transmit in turkeys, possess typical swine-like genetic traits, not different from the rest of the tested isolates, suggesting replication of avian-like swine H1N1 viruses in turkeys as a strain-dependent polygenic feature.

  3. SWINE FLU (H1N1 VIRUS, PREVENTION AND THEIR TREATMENT: A REVIEW

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    Jaiswal Amit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu has been confirmed in a number of countries and it is spreading from human to human, which could lead to what is referred to as a pandemic flu outbreak. Pandemic flu is different from ordinary flu because it’s a new flu virus that appears in humans and spreads very quickly from person to person worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO is closely monitoring cases of swine flu globally to see whether this virus develops into a pandemic. Because it’s a new virus, no one will have immunity to it and everyone could be at risk of catching it. This includes healthy adults as well as older people, young children and those with existing medical conditions. Tamiflu (Oseltamivir and Ralenza (Zanamivir can treat the H1 N1 swine flu strain.

  4. Design of multiligand inhibitors for the swine flu H1N1 neuraminidase binding site

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    Narayanan, Manoj M; Nair, Chandrasekhar B; Sanjeeva, Shilpa K; Rao, PV Subba; Pullela, Phani K; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-01-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir and zanamivir prevent early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. These drugs are effective for the treatment of a variety of influenza subtypes, including swine flu (H1N1). The binding site for these drugs is well established and they were designed based on computational docking studies. We show here that some common natural products have moderate inhibitory activity for H1N1 neuraminidase under docking studies. Significantly, docking studies using AutoDock for biligand and triligand forms of these compounds (camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate linked via methylene bridges) indicate that they may bind in combination with high affinity to the H1N1 neuraminidase active site. These results also indicate that chemically linked biligands and triligands of these natural products could provide a new class of drug leads for the prevention and treatment of influenza. This study also highlights the need for a multiligand docking algorithm to understand better the mode of action of natural products, wherein multiple active ingredients are present. PMID:23983477

  5. Swine flu. Mexico's handling of A/H1N1 in comparative perspective.

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    Ear, Sophal

    2012-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. Despite the scale of this threat, there are inherent limitations in preventing and controlling EIDs, including the scope of current disease surveillance efforts. All of this leads to the following questions in the context of Mexico's recent swine flu experience: What were the cultural, political, and economic challenges to Influenza A/H1N1 virus response in Mexico? By way of comparison, what can we learn from the U.S. experience in 1976 with A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw1N1), later referred to as H1N1? This article explores the comparative political economy of Mexico's handling of influenza virus A/H1N1 outbreak in 2009. Research provides notable observations-based on the strengths and weaknesses of each country's response--that can be used as a starting point of discussion for the design of effective EIDs surveillance programs in developing and middle-income countries. In the U.S., the speed and efficiency of the 1976 U.S. mobilization against H1N1 was laudable. Although the U.S. response to the outbreak is seldom praised, the unity of the scientific and political communities demonstrated the national ability to respond to the situation. Mexico's strongest characteristics were its transparency, as well as the cooperation the country exhibited with other nations, particularly the U.S. and Canada. While Mexico showed savvy in its effective management of public and media relations, as the article details, political, economic, and cultural problems persisted. PMID:23379315

  6. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

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    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  7. Determining symptoms for chest radiographs in patients with swine flu (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question arises about the chest X-ray findings and clinical symptoms in swine flu and about the most important clinical finding when correlated with the chest radiograph. Should physicians order a chest X-ray in each patient suspected of having swine flu? There were 179 patients with a high suspicion of swine flu. All 179 patients had an initial chest radiograph. As many as 65 males (representing 56% of the projected study population) had a normal chest radiograph, while 35 males (representing 55.6% of the study population) had an abnormal chest X-ray. As many as 51 females (representing 44% of the population) had a normal chest X-ray, while 20 females (representing 44% of the study population) had abnormal chest X-rays. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal chest X-ray (CXR). Rapid antigen test was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Fever was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Cough appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Sore throat appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Chest pain was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Presence of cough with PCR was statistically significant. In my opinion, chest radiographs in patients with suspected H1N1 should only be obtained if there is a cough or sore throat. Other symptoms associated with H1N1 do not warrant a chest radiograph unless absolutely necessary

  8. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blower Sally

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1, formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0. The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1 has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8 and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1. By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza.

  9. Reassortment Networks and the evolution of pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Shahid H; Pomeroy, Laura W; Janies, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Prior research developed Reassortment Networks to reconstruct the evolution of segmented viruses under both reassortment and mutation. We report their application to the swine-origin pandemic H1N1 virus (S-OIV). A database of all influenza A viruses, for which complete genome sequences were available in Genbank by October 2009, was created and dynamic programming was used to compute distances between all corresponding segments. A reassortment network was created to obtain the minimum cost evolutionary paths from all viruses to the exemplar S-OIV A/California/04/2009. This analysis took 35 hours on the Cray Extreme Multithreading (XMT) supercomputer, which has special hardware to permit efficient parallelization. Six specific H1N1/H1N2 bottleneck viruses were identified that almost always lie on minimum cost paths to S-OIV. We conjecture that these viruses are crucial to S-OIV evolution and worthy of careful study from a molecular biology viewpoint. In phylogenetics, ancestors are typically medians that have no functional constraints. In our method, ancestors are not inferred, but rather chosen from previously observed viruses along a path of mutation and reassortment leading to the target virus. This specificity and functional constraint render our results actionable for further experiments in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Human vs. animal outbreaks of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, Matthew; Brownstein, John S; Vegso, Sally; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The majority of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, including recently emerging influenza viruses such as the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. The epidemic that year affected both human and animal populations as it spread globally. In fact, before the end of 2009, 14 different countries reported H1N1 infected swine. In order to better understand the zoonotic nature of the epidemic and the relationship between human and animal disease surveillance data streams, we compared 2009 reports of H1N1 infection to define the temporal relationship between reported cases in animals and humans. Generally, human cases preceded animal cases at a country-level, supporting the potential of H1N1 infection to be a "reverse zoonosis", and the value of integrating human and animal disease report data. PMID:21912985

  11. Computed Tomography Findings in New Swine Flu Influenza A (H1N1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to"nevaluate the computed tomography scan of patients"nwith documented influenza A (H1N1."nPatients and Methods: Thirteen patients (six men,"nseven women, with documented H1N1 infection"nconfirmed by RT-PCR from November 2009 to January"n2010 were included in this study. The computed"ntomography scans of the patients were reviewed"nregarding pattern (consolidation, ground glass, nodules"nand reticulation, distribution (focal, multifocal and"ndiffuse and the lung zones involved. The patients'"nfiles were studied for their possible underlying disease."nLDH and CPK level was available for nine and ten"npatients, respectively."nResults: The mean age was 35.54 years. Eight patients"nhad a co-existing condition (two respiratory, two"ncardiovascular, one immunodeficiency, one cancer"nand three others. Six (46.2% patients required ICU"nadmission. Three (23.1% patients died. The most"ncommon radiographic abnormality was ground glass"nopacities (10/13; 76.9% followed by consolidation"n(6/13; 46.2% in the peribronchovascular region (8/13;"n61.5% which was most commonly observed in the"nupper zones (left 76.9%; right 76.9%. Six (46.2%"npatients had more than three lung zones involved."nSeven (53.8% patients had pleural thickening or"neffusion. Two (15.4% patients had hilar or mediastinal"nadenopathy. CPK was high in 3/10 and LDH in 9/10."nConclusion: In patients with the novel swine flu"ninfection the most common computed tomography"nmanifestation in our center was ground glass opacities"nin the upper lung zones.

  12. Genetic Characterization and Evolution of H1N1pdm09 after Circulation in a Swine Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Boni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the emergence of the A(H1N1pdm09 in humans, this novel influenza virus was reverse transmitted from infected people to swine population worldwide. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of A(H1N1pdm09 virus identified in pigs reared in a single herd. Nasal swabs taken from pigs showing respiratory distress were tested for influenza type A and A(H1N1pdm09 by real-time RT-PCR assays. Virus isolation from positive samples was attempted by inoculation of nasal swabs samples into specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (ECE and complete genome sequencing was performed on virus strains after replication on ECE or from original swab sample. The molecular analysis of hemagglutinin (HA showed, in four of the swine influenza viruses under study, a unique significant amino acid change, represented by a two-amino acid insertion at the HA receptor binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of HA, neuraminidase, and concatenated internal genes revealed a very similar topology, with viruses under study forming a separate cluster, branching outside the A(H1N1pdm09 isolates recognized until 2014. The emergence of this new cluster of A(H1N1pdm09 in swine raises further concerns about whether A(H1N1pdm09 with new molecular characteristics will become established in pigs and potentially transmitted to humans.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Avian-like H1N1 Swine Influenza A Viruses Isolated in Eastern China, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Qi; Yuning Pan; Yuanfang Qin; Rongqiang Zu; Fengyang Tang; Minghao Zhou; Hua Wang; Yongchun Song

    2012-01-01

    Currently,three predominant subtypes of influenza virus are prevalent in pig populations worldwide:H1N1,H3N2,and H1N2.European avian-like H1N1 viruses,which were initially detected in European pig populations in 1979,have been circulating in pigs in eastern China since 2007.In this study,six influenza A viruses were isolated from 60 swine lung samples collected from January to April 2011 in eastern China.Based on whole genome sequencing,molecular characteristics of two isolates were determined.Phylogenetic analysis showed the eight genes of the two isolates were closely related to those of the avian-like H1N1 viruses circulating in pig populations,especially similar to those found in China.Four potential glycosylation sites were observed at positions 13,26,198,277 in the HA1 proteins of the two isolates.Due to the presence of a stop codon at codon 12,the isolates contained truncated PB1-F2 proteins.In this study,the isolates contained 591Q,627E and 701N in the polymerase subunit PB2,which had been shown to be determinants of virulence and host adaptation.The isolates also had a D rather than E at position 92 of the NS1,a marker of mammalian adaptation.Both isolates contained the GPKV motif at the PDZ ligand domain of the 3' end of the NS1,a characteristic marker of the European avian-like swine viruses since about 1999,which is distinct from those of avian,human and classical swine viruses.The M2 proteins of the isolates have the mutation (S31N),a characteristic marker of the European avian-like swine viruses since about 1987,which may confer resistance to amantadine and rimantadine antivirals.Our findings further emphasize the importance of surveillance on the genetic diversity of influenza A viruses in pigs,and raise more concerns about the occurrence of cross-species transmission events.

  14. Determination of current reference viruses for serological study of swine influenza viruses after the introduction of pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pdmH1N1) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunorat, Jirapat; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2016-10-01

    Since the introduction of pandemic H1N1 2009 virus (pdmH1N1) in pigs, the status of Thai swine influenza virus (SIV) has changed. The pdmH1N1 and its reassortant viruses have become the predominant strain circulating in the Thai swine population based on the surveillance data from 2012 to 2014. For this reason, the reference viruses for serological assays using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test needed to be updated. Six anti-sera against reference viruses from 2006 to 2009 (enH1N1-06, enH1N1-09, enH1N2-09, pdmH1N1-09, enH3N2-07 and enH3N2-09) were used for the HI test with four contemporary viruses (enH1N1-10, pdmH1N1-10, rH1N2 and rH3N2) and the selected reference viruses were tested with sera collected from the field to determine the current SIV status. The results showed that anti-sera of swH1N1-06 had the highest titers against enH1N1-10. Anti-sera of pdmH1N1-09 had the highest titers against pdmH1N1-10 and rH1N2, whereas, anti-sera of enH3N2-09 had the highest titers against rH3N2. The results demonstrated that enH1N1-06, pdmH1N1-09 and enH3N2-09 should be selected as reference viruses for contemporary serological studies and HI tests. The seroprevalence results from 410 samples revealed enH1N1 (37.79%), pdmH1N1 (37.32%) and H3N2 (35.86%), respectively. The present study indicated that pdmH1N1 was widespread and commonly found in the Thai pig population increasing the risk of novel reassortant viruses and should be added as a reference virus for HI test. SIV surveillance program and serological studies should be conducted for the benefits of SIV control and prevention as well as monitoring for zoonotic potential. PMID:27355862

  15. Computer-aided assessment of pulmonary disease in novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza on CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The 2009 pandemic is a global outbreak of novel H1N1 influenza. Radiologic images can be used to assess the presence and severity of pulmonary infection. We develop a computer-aided assessment system to analyze the CT images from Swine-Origin Influenza A virus (S-OIV) novel H1N1 cases. The technique is based on the analysis of lung texture patterns and classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Pixel-wise tissue classification is computed from the SVM value. The method was validated on four H1N1 cases and ten normal cases. We demonstrated that the technique can detect regions of pulmonary abnormality in novel H1N1 patients and differentiate these regions from visually normal lung (area under the ROC curve is 0.993). This technique can also be applied to differentiate regions infected by different pulmonary diseases.

  16. Efficacy of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus vaccine in pigs against the pandemic influenza virus is superior to commercially available swine influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, W L A; Stockhofe, N; Weesendorp, E; van Zoelen-Bos, D; Heutink, R; Quak, S; Goovaerts, D; Heldens, J G M; Maas, R; Moormann, R J; Koch, G

    2011-09-28

    In April 2009 a new influenza A/H1N1 strain, currently named "pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009" (H1N1v), started the first official pandemic in humans since 1968. Several incursions of this virus in pig herds have also been reported from all over the world. Vaccination of pigs may be an option to reduce exposure of human contacts with infected pigs, thereby preventing cross-species transfer, but also to protect pigs themselves, should this virus cause damage in the pig population. Three swine influenza vaccines, two of them commercially available and one experimental, were therefore tested and compared for their efficacy against an H1N1v challenge. One of the commercial vaccines is based on an American classical H1N1 influenza strain, the other is based on a European avian H1N1 influenza strain. The experimental vaccine is based on reassortant virus NYMC X179A (containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1v) and the internal genes of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1)). Excretion of infectious virus was reduced by 0.5-3 log(10) by the commercial vaccines, depending on vaccine and sample type. Both vaccines were able to reduce virus replication especially in the lower respiratory tract, with less pathological lesions in vaccinated and subsequently challenged pigs than in unvaccinated controls. In pigs vaccinated with the experimental vaccine, excretion levels of infectious virus in nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, were at or below 1 log(10)TCID(50) per swab and lasted for only 1 or 2 days. An inactivated vaccine containing the HA and NA of an H1N1v is able to protect pigs from an infection with H1N1v, whereas swine influenza vaccines that are currently available are of limited efficaciousness. Whether vaccination of pigs against H1N1v will become opportune remains to be seen and will depend on future evolution of this strain in the pig population. Close monitoring of the pig population, focussing on presence and evolution of

  17. Comparative Pathogenesis of an Avian H5N2 and a Swine H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Atanasova, Kalina; Van Borm, Steven;

    2009-01-01

    ) to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP) H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused...

  18. Computed Tomography Findings in New Swine Flu Influenza A (H1N1) Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram; Bahare Saidi; Payam Tabarsi; Soheyla Zahirifard

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to"nevaluate the computed tomography scan of patients"nwith documented influenza A (H1N1)."nPatients and Methods: Thirteen patients (six men,"nseven women), with documented H1N1 infection"nconfirmed by RT-PCR from November 2009 to January"n2010 were included in this study. The computed"ntomography scans of the patients were reviewed"nregarding pattern (consolidation, ground glass, nodules"nand reticul...

  19. Potency of a vaccine prepared from A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1 against A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 pandemic influenza virus strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamatsu Masatoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pandemic 2009 (H1N1 influenza virus has spread throughout the world and is now causing seasonal influenza. To prepare for the emergence of pandemic influenza, we have established a library of virus strains isolated from birds, pigs, and humans in global surveillance studies. Methods Inactivated whole virus particle (WV and ether-split (ES vaccines were prepared from an influenza virus strain, A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1, from the library and from A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 pandemic strain. Each of the vaccines was injected subcutaneously into mice and their potencies were evaluated by challenge with A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 virus strain in mice. Results A/swine/Hokkaido/2/81 (H1N1, which was isolated from the lung of a diseased piglet, was selected on the basis of their antigenicity and growth capacity in embryonated chicken eggs. Two injections of the WV vaccine induced an immune response in mice, decreasing the impact of disease caused by the challenge with A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1, as did the vaccine prepared from the homologous strain. Conclusion The WV vaccine prepared from an influenza virus in the library is useful as an emergency vaccine in the early phase of pandemic influenza.

  20. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  1. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  2. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  3. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1)

    OpenAIRE

    James Holland Jones; Marcel Salathé

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1), generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced...

  4. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  5. DETECTING OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA A VIRUS H1N1 IN SWINE HERDS IN SHANGHAI%上海地区猪群中H1N1甲型流感抗体检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯航; 葛菲菲; 薛霞; 鞠龚讷; 周锦萍

    2011-01-01

    对2009年H1N1甲型流感流行前后的上海地区养殖场户410份猪血清样品,分别采用血凝抑制试验(hemagglutination inhibition,HI)和酶联免疫吸附试验(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)进行检测H1N1甲型流感病毒和猪流感病毒(Swine in?uenza virus,SIV)。检测结果表明,除2007年外,2008~2010年猪血清中均存在不同水平的HI抗体,阳性率呈显著上升趋势,且抗体水平与猪群饲养周期及饲养密度正相关,而与猪流感%Detected antibodies of 410 sera derived from different swine herds in shanghai during influenza A virus H1N1 prevalence against influenza A virus H1N1 subtype and SIV by HI test and ELISA,respectively.The results showed that,except in 2007,antibodies against the new influenza A virus H1N1 subtype were at different levels in 2008-2010,and the positive rates showed a significant upward trend;the antibody levels were associated with herd breeding period and density,not were correlated to the SIV prevalence.

  6. Avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus antibodies among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Cao, Zhenpeng; Tan, Likai; Fu, Xinliang; Lu, Gang; Qi, Wenbao; Ke, Changwen; Wang, Heng; Sun, Lingshuang; Zhang, Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Infection of human with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) occasionally occurs in China, suggesting a potential risk of cross-species transmission of the swine influenza H1N1 virus from pigs to humans, particularly to those having direct contact with pigs. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess the prevalence of antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China to evaluate the risk of infection to swine farm workers. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays revealed that 11.17% (61/546) of the sera samples from swine farm residents in southern China were positive for antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. The difference in numbers of antibody-positive samples obtained from swine farm residents and a control group of healthy city residents was statistically significant (P = 0.031). In addition, 219 of the 1,180 serum samples from pigs were positive for the antibodies against an avian-like A (H1N1) SIV, A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2013(H1N1), as assessed by HI. The data suggest that occupational exposure of swine farm residents and veterinarians in southern China to pigs may increase their risk of acquiring avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection. According to a special pig farming model in southern China, the staff and residents are in close contact with infected pigs and may be among the first to become infected.

  7. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  8. Detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses using a paired surface plasma waves biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Chen; Chang, Ying-Feng; Li, Ying-Chang; Hsieh, Jo-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Chien

    2010-08-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity of conventional rapid test technique for the detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses (S-OIVs), we used a paired surface plasma waves biosensor (PSPWB) based on SPR in conjunction with an optical heterodyne technique. Experimentally, PSPWB showed a 125-fold improvement at least in the S-OIV detection as compared to conventional enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the detection limit of the PSPWB for the S-OIV detection was enhanced 250-fold in buffer at least in comparison with that of conventional rapid influenza diagnostic test.

  9. 重症H1N1流感病毒感染小儿器官功能评估%Evaluation of the organ function in children with severe human swine influenza A (H1N1) infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫国; 何颜霞; 周雀云; 马颐姣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study organ function of children with severe human swine influenza A (H1N1) infection. Methods Thirty-two children with severe H1N1 influenza infection was confirmed polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) and the function of the organs was assessed according to the criteria of organ and system dysfunction in children. Results The incidence of organ dysfunction were highest in the respiratory system and central nervous system (46.88% and 12.5%, respectively); Dysfunction in other organs was accompanied by abnormality of respiratory system and central nervous system; Acute necrotizing encephalopathy was the major cause of death in children with severe H1N1 influenza infection. Conclusion Respiratory system and central nervous system in children with severe H1N1 influenza infection are susceptible to injury, which should be paid attention to by clinical physicians.%目的 研究重症H1N1流感病毒感染小儿器官系统功能衰竭情况.方法 PCR检测H1N1流感病毒RNA阳性重症患者32例,按小儿多器官功能衰竭诊断标准对各器官系统进行评估.结果 (1)重症H1N1流感病毒感染小儿呼吸系统与中枢神经系统功能衰竭发生机率最高,分别为46.88%与12.5%;(2)其他器官系统功能衰竭未见单独出现,多与呼吸与神经系统异常伴发;(3)急性坏死性脑病是重症H1N1流感病毒感染小儿死亡的重要原因.结论 重症H1N1流感病毒感染小儿呼吸系统与神经系统功能衰竭发生机率高,值得临床医生注意.

  10. Top leads for swine influenza A/H1N1 virus revealed by steered molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Binh Khanh; Viet, Man Hoang; Li, Mai Suan

    2010-12-27

    Since March 2009, the rapid spread of infection during the recent A/H1N1 swine flu pandemic has raised concerns of a far more dangerous outcome should this virus become resistant to current drug therapies. Currently oseltamivir (tamiflu) is intensively used for the treatment of influenza and is reported effective for 2009 A/H1N1 virus. However, as this virus is evolving fast, some drug-resistant strains are emerging. Therefore, it is critical to seek alternative treatments and identify roots of the drug resistance. In this paper, we use the steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach to estimate the binding affinity of ligands to the glycoprotein neuraminidase. Our idea is based on the hypothesis that the larger is the force needed to unbind a ligand from a receptor the higher its binding affinity. Using all-atom models with Gromos force field 43a1 and explicit water, we have studied the binding ability of 32 ligands to glycoprotein neuraminidase from swine flu virus A/H1N1. The electrostatic interaction is shown to play a more important role in binding affinity than the van der Waals one. We have found that four ligands 141562, 5069, 46080, and 117079 from the NSC set are the most promising candidates to cope with this virus, while peramivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir are ranked 8, 11, and 20. The observation that these four ligands are better than existing commercial drugs has been also confirmed by our results on the binding free energies obtained by the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. Our prediction may be useful for the therapeutic application. PMID:21090736

  11. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  12. A Combinatorial approach: To design inhibitory molecules on Hemagglutinin protein of H1N1 virus (Swine Flu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Chekkara Venkata Satya Siva; Chaudhary, Kamal Kumar; Dinkar, Parul

    2013-01-01

    The Hemagglutinin (HA) is a protein of influenza A virus. It is present on the surface of influenza A virus and it is a glycoprotein. The HA is identified as potential drug target. H1N1 thiazolides, proved to be a potent drug in the inhibition of H1N1 replication. It is also known as inhibitor of other strains of influenza A virus. Thiazolide drug represses viral HA's maturation at a level which exists just before the resistance from digestion of endoglycosidase-H and thereby it hampers, HA insertion in host membrane. Blocking the appropriate active site of hemagglutinin protein helps in the disease control. In the present work, we have generated diverse combinatorial library based ligands on known inhibitor thiazolides and they were used for virtual screening by Molegro virtual docker program. K-means clustering approach was used for finding new inhibitory molecules with more appropriate features. These resulted molecules are may be helpful in the treatment of swine flu and many other related diseases. PMID:23888097

  13. A Combinatorial approach: To design inhibitory molecules on Hemagglutinin protein of H1N1 virus (Swine Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Chekkara Venkata Satya Siva; Chaudhary, Kamal Kumar; Dinkar, Parul

    2013-01-01

    The Hemagglutinin (HA) is a protein of influenza A virus. It is present on the surface of influenza A virus and it is a glycoprotein. The HA is identified as potential drug target. H1N1 thiazolides, proved to be a potent drug in the inhibition of H1N1 replication. It is also known as inhibitor of other strains of influenza A virus. Thiazolide drug represses viral HA's maturation at a level which exists just before the resistance from digestion of endoglycosidase-H and thereby it hampers, HA insertion in host membrane. Blocking the appropriate active site of hemagglutinin protein helps in the disease control. In the present work, we have generated diverse combinatorial library based ligands on known inhibitor thiazolides and they were used for virtual screening by Molegro virtual docker program. K-means clustering approach was used for finding new inhibitory molecules with more appropriate features. These resulted molecules are may be helpful in the treatment of swine flu and many other related diseases. PMID:23888097

  14. Estimating time to onset of swine influenza symptoms after initial novel A(H1N1v) viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, B D M; Van Hoek, A J; Pebody, R; McMenamin, J; Robertson, C; Catchpole, M; De Angelis, D

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of the incubation time from infection to onset is important for understanding the natural history of infectious diseases. Attempts to estimate the incubation time distribution for novel A(H1N1v) have been, up to now, based on limited data or peculiar samples. We characterized this distribution for a generic group of symptomatic cases using laboratory-confirmed swine influenza case-information. Estimates of the incubation distribution for the pandemic influenza were derived through parametric time-to-event analyses of data on onset of symptoms and exposure dates, accounting for interval censoring. We estimated a mean of about 1·6-1·7 days with a standard deviation of 2 days for the incubation time distribution in those who became symptomatic after infection with the A(H1N1v) virus strain. Separate analyses for the <15 years and ≥ 15 years age groups showed a significant (P<0·02) difference with a longer mean incubation time in the older age group. PMID:21087539

  15. Analysis of HA gene sequence of a subtype H1N1 swine influenza virus isolated from Guangxi strains%H1N1猪流感病毒广西分离株HA基因序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜健华; 梁丹洁; 李春英; 徐贤坤; 胡巧云; 孙翔翔; 何奇松; 熊毅

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解H1N1猪流感病毒广西分离株的分子特征,为广西猪流感疫情监控提供参考依据.[方法]采用RT-PCR对2011年分离获得的H1N1猪流感病毒广西分离株(A/swine/Guangxi/1/2011)的HA基因进行扩增,然后利用DNASTAR分析软件对测序基因片段进行整个阅读框架的核苷酸序列及其推导氨基酸序列同源性比对分析,并用MEGA 4.0绘制遗传进化树.[结果]广西分离株HA基因长1701 bp,编码566个氨基酸,核苷酸序列与经典SIV的同源性为88.0%~99.6%,与季节性H1N1人流感病毒的同源性为76.3%~77.3%,与欧洲类禽SⅣ分离株的同源性为72.9%~75.4%,与2009甲型H1N1流感病毒的同源性为99.2%~99.6%;从核苷酸遗传进化树可知,广西分离株与类禽H1N1流感病毒和人H1N1流感病毒分离株的亲缘关系较远,而与2009甲型H 1N l流感病毒分离株的亲缘关系最近.广西分离毒株HA基因的裂解位点序列为IPSIQSR↓G,具有典型低致病性流感病毒的分子生物学特征;共有8个糖基化位点,其中6个位于HAl区,两个位于HA2区;广西分离株HA蛋白RBS位点的氨基酸同时具有人和猪流感病毒的特点.[结论]广西分离株(A/swine/Guangxi/1/2011)属于2009甲型H1N1流感病毒.%[Objective]This study was to determine molecular biology information of HA gene of H 1N 1 swine influenza virus isolated from Guangxi strains to provide references for monitoring swine flu in Guangxi.[Method]To analyze HA gene of H1N1 from Genbank,the primer was designed,and then HA genes of A/swine/Guangxi/1/2011 (H1N1) influenza virus were cloned,sequenced and compared via DNASTAR software.A phylogenetic tree was made using MEGA 4.0.[Result]The results indicated that the length of HA gene was 1701 bp and coded for 566 amino acids.Comparing with classical swine influenza H1N1,human-like H1N1 and Eurasian avian-like H1N1,the nucleotide homologies of HA genes were from 88.0% to 99.6%,from 76.3% to

  16. Impact of information on intentions to vaccinate in a potential epidemic: Swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Luchini, Stéphane; Massoni, Sébastien; Vergnaud, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination campaigns to prevent the spread of epidemics are successful only if the targeted populations subscribe to the recommendations of health authorities. However, because compulsory vaccination is hardly conceivable in modern democracies, governments need to convince their populations through efficient and persuasive information campaigns. In the context of the swine-origin A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, we use an interactive study among the general public in the South of France, with 175 participants, to explore what type of information can induce change in vaccination intentions at both aggregate and individual levels. We find that individual attitudes to vaccination are based on rational appraisal of the situation, and that it is information of a purely scientific nature that has the only significant positive effect on intention to vaccinate.

  17. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Holland Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  18. 甲型H1N1流感病毒在人群中传播及防治%Swine-Origin Influenza A Type H1N1 Virus Epidemic and Its Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杨; 袁慧; 董战玲; 许闽广; 陈国斌; 樊守艳; 王晗; 符史干

    2009-01-01

    猪流感(Swine Flu)是猪群中传播的动物疾病,对人类无传染性[1]。猪群的A型流感病毒5个亚型(H1N1,H1N2,H3N1,H3N2及H2N3)中H1N1,H3N2及H1N2在世界范围内猪群间传播广泛。含猪源序列A/H1N1新型流感病毒在一定规模的生猪间传播,经过不断积累变异后传播给人类,人体感染变异病毒后可在人群内传播,而人类的常见季节性流感病毒是在人群内传播过程中逐渐变异,两者病毒变异宿主不同。

  19. In vitro reassortment between endemic H1N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic swine influenza viruses generates attenuated viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available The pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza virus was first reported in humans in the spring of 2009 and soon thereafter was identified in numerous species, including swine. Reassortant viruses, presumably arising from the co-infection of pH1N1 and endemic swine influenza virus (SIV, were subsequently identified from diagnostic samples collected from swine. In this study, co-infection of swine testicle (ST cells with swine-derived endemic H1N2 (MN745 and pH1N1 (MN432 yielded two reassortant H1N2 viruses (R1 and R2, both possessing a matrix gene derived from pH1N1. In ST cells, the reassortant viruses had growth kinetics similar to the parental H1N2 virus and reached titers approximately 2 log(10 TCID(50/mL higher than the pH1N1 virus, while in A549 cells these viruses had similar growth kinetics. Intranasal challenge of pigs with H1N2, pH1N1, R1 or R2 found that all viruses were capable of infecting and transmitting between direct contact pigs as measured by real time reverse transcription PCR of nasal swabs. Lung samples were also PCR-positive for all challenge groups and influenza-associated microscopic lesions were detected by histology. Interestingly, infectious virus was detected in lung samples for pigs challenged with the parental H1N2 and pH1N1 at levels significantly higher than either reassortant virus despite similar levels of viral RNA. Results of our experiment suggested that the reassortant viruses generated through in vitro cell culture system were attenuated without gaining any selective growth advantage in pigs over the parental lineages. Thus, reassortant influenza viruses described in this study may provide a good system to study genetic basis of the attenuation and its mechanism.

  20. Vaccinees against the 1976 “swine flu” have enhanced neutralization responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullers, Jonathan A.; Van De Velde, Lee-Ann; Allison, Kim J.; Branum, Kristen C.; Webby, Richard J.; Flynn, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The world is facing a novel H1N1 pandemic. A pandemic scare with a similar virus in 1976 resulted in the vaccination of nearly 45 million persons. We hypothesized that prior receipt of the 1976 “swine flu” vaccine would enhance immune responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 strain. Methods A prospective, volunteer sample of employees 55 years of age and older at a children’s cancer hospital in August of 2009 was assessed for antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. Results Antibody responses by hemagglutination-inhibition assay were high against both the seasonal (89.7% had a titer considered seroprotective) and pandemic (88.8% had a seroprotective titer) H1N1 viruses. These antibodies were effective at neutralizing the seasonal H1N1 virus in 68.1% of participants (titer ≥ 40), but only 18.1% had detectable neutralizing titers against the pandemic H1N1. Of 116 participants, 46 (39.7%) received the 1976 “swine flu” vaccine. Receipt of this vaccine significantly enhanced neutralization responses as 8 of 46 (17.4%) vaccine recipients had titers ≥ 160 compared to only 3 of 70 (4.3%) who did not receive the vaccine (P = 0.018 by chi-squared test). Conclusions In this cohort, persons 55 years and older had evidence of robust immunity to the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 virus. These antibodies were cross-reactive but non-neutralizing against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain. Receipt of a vaccine to a related virus significantly enhanced the neutralization capacity of these responses, suggesting homologous vaccination against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 would have a similar effect. PMID:20415539

  1. Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annebel De Vleeschauwer

    Full Text Available Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.

  2. Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1 epidemic in Israel

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    Mendelson Ella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009, representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics. Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06, an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25, at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews, and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males. In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups. The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the

  3. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ping, E-mail: pinglee_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Su Dongju, E-mail: hyd_sdj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhang Jifeng, E-mail: zjf2005520@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Xia Xudong, E-mail: xiaxd888@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Sui Hong, E-mail: suisuihong@126.com [Department of Statistics, Harbin Medical University, 240 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Donghui, E-mail: yhwoooooo@yahoo.com.cn [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Heilongjiang, 187 Xiang An Street, Harbin 150036 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S

  4. Investigation of Pathogenesis of H1N1 Influenza Virus and Swine Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Co-Infection in Pigs by Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian; Huang, Canhui; Shi, Jian; Wang, Ruifang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion.

  5. Evidence of cross-reactive immunity to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus in workers seropositive to swine H1N1 influenza viruses circulating in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pigs play a key epidemiologic role in the ecology of influenza A viruses (IAVs emerging from animal hosts and transmitted to humans. Between 2008 and 2010, we investigated the health risk of occupational exposure to swine influenza viruses (SIVs in Italy, during the emergence and spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum samples from 123 swine workers (SWs and 379 control subjects (Cs, not exposed to pig herds, were tested by haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay against selected SIVs belonging to H1N1 (swH1N1, H1N2 (swH1N2 and H3N2 (swH3N2 subtypes circulating in the study area. Potential cross-reactivity between swine and human IAVs was evaluated by testing sera against recent, pandemic and seasonal, human influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 antigenic subtypes. Samples tested against swH1N1 and H1N1pdm viruses were categorized into sera collected before (n. 84 SWs; n. 234 Cs and after (n. 39 SWs; n. 145 Cs the pandemic peak. HI-antibody titers ≥10 were considered positive. In both pre-pandemic and post-pandemic peak subperiods, SWs showed significantly higher swH1N1 seroprevalences when compared with Cs (52.4% vs. 4.7% and 59% vs. 9.7%, respectively. Comparable HI results were obtained against H1N1pdm antigen (58.3% vs. 7.7% and 59% vs. 31.7%, respectively. No differences were found between HI seroreactivity detected in SWs and Cs against swH1N2 (33.3% vs. 40.4% and swH3N2 (51.2 vs. 55.4% viruses. These findings indicate the occurrence of swH1N1 transmission from pigs to Italian SWs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A significant increase of H1N1pdm seroprevalences occurred in the post-pandemic peak subperiod in the Cs (p<0.001 whereas SWs showed no differences between the two subperiods, suggesting a possible occurrence of cross-protective immunity related to previous swH1N1 infections. These data underline the importance of risk assessment and occupational health surveillance activities aimed

  6. Simultaneous infection of pigs and people with triple-reassortant swine influenza virus H1N1 at a U.S. county fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M L; Swenson, S L; Vincent, A L; Landgraf, J G; Shu, B; Lindstrom, S; Xu, X; Klimov, A; Zhang, Y; Bowman, A S

    2013-05-01

    Influenza-like illness was noted in people and pigs in attendance at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. The morbidity rate in swine approached 100% within 1-2 days of initial clinical signs being recognized, and approximately two dozen people developed influenza-like illness. Triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses were identified in both pigs and people at the fair. The identified viruses (A/Sw/OH/511445/2007, A/Ohio/01/2007, and A/Ohio/02/2007) were similar to H1N1 swine influenza viruses currently found in the U.S. swine population. This case illustrates the possibility of transmission of swine influenza in settings where there is close human/swine interaction.

  7. Pneumonia induced by swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) infection. Chest computed tomography findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the features of chest computed tomography (CT) in children with swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). The study population consisted of 16 children with laboratory-confirmed S-OIV infection (12 boys, 4 girls), with an age range of 5-10 years (mean 6.3 years). Pneumonia was suspected in these patients based on clinical features or confirmed by radiography. All subjects underwent CT for close evaluation of pneumonia, including characteristics, distribution, extent, and other findings such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. The predominant CT finding was consolidation plus ground-grass opacity (GGO) (11/16, 69%). The consolidation-dominant pattern was found in 10 of 16 (66%) patients, and 1 (6%) was GGO-dominant. One (6%) had only GGO. In all, 7 of the 16 patients had segmental or lobar consolidation. Abnormal opacities were primarily distributed in the central lung zone (8/16, 50%) and were multifocal (15/16, 94%). Four showed atelectasis (4/16, 25%). Pneumomediastinum was observed in 4 of 16 (25%). One patient had negative radiographic findings but was positive on CT. Multifocal consolidation with central distribution is a common CT finding in children with S-OIV, but there are few GGO-dominant cases. Widespread consolidation (segmental or lobar) is also common. (author)

  8. Insights from investigating the interactions of adamantane-based drugs with the M2 proton channel from the H1N1 swine virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The M2 proton channel is one of indispensable components for the influenza A virus that plays a vital role in its life cycle and hence is an important target for drug design against the virus. In view of this, the three-dimensional structure of the H1N1-M2 channel was developed based on the primary sequence taken from a patient recently infected by the H1N1 (swine flu) virus. With an explicit water-membrane environment, molecular docking studies were performed for amantadine and rimantadine, the two commercial drugs generally used to treat influenza A infection. It was found that their binding affinity to the H1N1-M2 channel is significantly lower than that to the H5N1-M2 channel, fully consistent with the recent report that the H1N1 swine virus was resistant to the two drugs. The findings and the relevant analysis reported here might provide useful structural insights for developing effective drugs against the new swine flu virus.

  9. Insights from investigating the interactions of adamantane-based drugs with the M2 proton channel from the H1N1 swine virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing-Fang [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wei, Dong-Qing, E-mail: dqwei@gordonlifescience.org [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States); Chou, Kuo-Chen [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States)

    2009-10-16

    The M2 proton channel is one of indispensable components for the influenza A virus that plays a vital role in its life cycle and hence is an important target for drug design against the virus. In view of this, the three-dimensional structure of the H1N1-M2 channel was developed based on the primary sequence taken from a patient recently infected by the H1N1 (swine flu) virus. With an explicit water-membrane environment, molecular docking studies were performed for amantadine and rimantadine, the two commercial drugs generally used to treat influenza A infection. It was found that their binding affinity to the H1N1-M2 channel is significantly lower than that to the H5N1-M2 channel, fully consistent with the recent report that the H1N1 swine virus was resistant to the two drugs. The findings and the relevant analysis reported here might provide useful structural insights for developing effective drugs against the new swine flu virus.

  10. The nonadaptive nature of the H1N1 2009 Swine Flu pandemic contrasts with the adaptive facilitation of transmission to a new host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussamad Juwaeriah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic followed a multiple reassortment event from viruses originally circulating in swines and humans, but the adaptive nature of this emergence is poorly understood. Results Here we base our analysis on 1180 complete genomes of H1N1 viruses sampled in North America between 2000 and 2010 in swine and human hosts. We show that while transmission to a human host might require an adaptive phase in the HA and NA antigens, the emergence of the 2009 pandemic was essentially nonadaptive. A more detailed analysis of the NA protein shows that the 2009 pandemic sequence is characterized by novel epitopes and by a particular substitution in loop 150, which is responsible for a nonadaptive structural change tightly associated with the emergence of the pandemic. Conclusions Because this substitution was not present in the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus, we posit that the emergence of pandemics is due to epistatic interactions between sites distributed over different segments. Altogether, our results are consistent with population dynamics models that highlight the epistatic and nonadaptive rise of novel epitopes in viral populations, followed by their demise when the resulting virus is too virulent.

  11. Immunization of pigs with an attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinant expressing the haemagglutinin of pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2014-04-01

    Pigs can be severely harmed by influenza, and represent important reservoir hosts, in which new human pathogens such as the recent pandemic swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus can arise by mutation and reassortment of genome segments. To obtain novel, safe influenza vaccines for pigs, and to investigate the antigen-specific immune response, we modified an established live-virus vaccine against Aujeszky's disease of swine, pseudorabies virus (PrV) strain Bartha (PrV-Ba), to serve as vector for the expression of haemagglutinin (HA) of swine-origin H1N1 virus. To facilitate transgene insertion, the genome of PrV-Ba was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. HA expression occurred under control of the human or murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoters (P-HCMV, P-MCMV), but could be substantially enhanced by synthetic introns and adaptation of the codon usage to that of PrV. However, despite abundant expression, the heterologous glycoprotein was not detectably incorporated into mature PrV particles. Replication of HA-expressing PrV in cell culture was only slightly affected compared to that of the parental virus strain. A single immunization of pigs with the PrV vector expressing the codon-optimized HA gene under control of P-MCMV induced high levels of HA-specific antibodies. The vaccinated animals were protected from clinical signs after challenge with a related swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus, and challenge virus shedding was significantly reduced.

  12. Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Swine-Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection among Dental Professionals in India - A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Prabh Roohan; Nanda, Tarun; Arora, Gagandeep; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Swine flu or Influenza A (H1N1) flu is the most recent of the pandemic disease that has affected the world’s population. We, as health care providers should feel responsible for reducing the transmission of influenza. Aim To conduct a systematic review of observational studies and to assess dental professionals’ knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu. Materials and Methods Relevant cross-sectional observational studies were included in the systematic review to assess the level of knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu among dental professionals. Three studies out of 28 were finally included in the present review after conducting both electronic and manual search of scientific databases like Pubmed, Medline, and EMBASE. No limitation in terms of publication date and language was considered. Potential biases were reported and appropriate data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Descriptive statistics, student t-test were used for analysis. Results Majority of the subjects (92.6%) had heard about swine flu, and 64.3% of them knew about the H1N1 virus in one of the study reports. More than 80% of subjects were aware regarding the availability of swine flu vaccine in one study reports as compared to another study in which only 31.5% had awareness. Majority of the subjects were of the opinion that frequent hand washing and use of sanitizer are one of the effective methods to prevent swine flu in all the three studies. Conclusion The results of the present review showed that some knowledge gaps existed among dental professionals regarding swine flu. Therefore, there is an urgent need for training and continuous education programs regarding infectious diseases. PMID:27790597

  13. An equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) vectored H1 vaccine protects against challenge with swine-origin influenza virus H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abdelrahman; Damiani, Armando; Ma, Guanggang; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2011-12-29

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus (S-OIV), antigenically and genetically divergent from seasonal H1N1, caused a flu pandemic in humans. Development of an effective vaccine to limit transmission of S-OIV in animal reservoir hosts and from reservoir hosts to humans and animals is necessary. In the present study, we constructed and evaluated a vectored vaccine expressing the H1 hemagglutinin of a recent S-OIV isolate using equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) as the delivery vehicle. Expression of the recombinant protein was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and western blotting and the in vitro growth properties of the modified live vector were found to be comparable to those of the parental virus. The EHV-1-H1 vaccine induced an influenza virus-specific antibody response when inoculated into mice by both the intranasal and subcutaneous routes. Upon challenge infection, protection of vaccinated mice could be demonstrated by reduction of clinical signs and faster virus clearance. Our study shows that an EHV-1-based influenza H1N1 vaccine may be a promising alternative for protection against S-OIV infection.

  14. Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1pandemic in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel; Khattab; Malak; Shaheen; Terez; Kamel; Amel; El; Faramay; Safaa; Abd; El; Rahman; Dalia; Nabil; Mohamed; Gouda

    2013-01-01

    Objectne:To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection-post swine flu pandemic era-using rapid influenza diagnostic tests.Methods:During two year,(2010&2011),1200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections(according to World Health Organization criteria)were recruited.Their ages ranged from 2-60 months.Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test.Results:Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5%of the children;the majority(89.6%)were presented with lower respiratory tract infections.Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients.Conclusions:Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children.It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic.

  15. Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1 pandemic in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel Khattab; Malak Shaheen; Terez Kamel; Amel El Faramay; Safaa Abd El Rahman; Dalia Nabil; Mohamed Gouda

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection—post swine flu pandemic era—using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Methods:During two years (2010&2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test. Results: Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5%of the children;the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients. Conclusions:Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic.

  16. Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codon-optimized N1 neuraminidase (NA) was included. In vitro replication of this virus was only slightly affected compared to parental virus. Unlike HA, the abundantly expressed NA was efficiently incorporated into PrV particles. Immunization of pigs with the two PrV recombinants, either singly or in combination, induced B cell proliferation and the expected SoIV-specific antibodies, whose titers increased substantially after boost vaccination. After immunization of animals with either PrV recombinant H1N1 SoIV challenge virus replication was significantly reduced compared to PrV-Ba vaccinated or naïve controls. Protective efficacy of HA-expressing PrV was higher than of NA-expressing PrV, and not significantly enhanced by combination. Despite higher serum antibody titers obtained after intramuscular immunization, transmission of challenge virus to naïve contact animals was only prevented after intranasal prime-boost vaccination with HA-expressing PrV-Ba.

  17. Clinical Outcome of Novel H1N1 (Swine Flu)-Infected Patients During 2009 Pandemic at Tertiary Referral Hospital in Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ketan K.; Patel, Atul K.; Mehta, Parthiv M.; Amin, Richa P.; Patel, Kunal P.; Chuhan, Prakash C.; Naik, Eknath; Patel, Kamlesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Gujarat, India, was reported in August 2009. Oseltamivir was used for treatment of pandemic influenza in India. We discuss the clinical characteristics and outcome of the hospitalized patients with H1N1 infection during 2009 pandemic influenza season. Materials and Methods: Hospitalized patient with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 flu during August 2009 to February 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Data were collected from hospital ICU charts. Patients discharged from hospital were considered cured from swine flu. Data analysis was performed using CDC software EPI Info v3.5.3. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study, of them 41 (65%) males and 22 (35%) females. Median age was 34 (3-69) years and median duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 5 (2-20) days. Common presenting symptoms include fever 58 (92.06%), cough 58 (92.06%), breathlessness 38 (60.31%), common cold 14 (22.22%), vomiting 12 (19.04%), weakness 9 (14.28%), throat pain 7 (11.11%), body ache 5 (7.93%), and chest pain 4 (6.34%). Co-morbidities were seen in 13 (20.63%) patients. Steroids were used in 39 (61.90%) patients, and ventilatory support was required in 17 (26.98%) patients. On presentation chest x-ray was normal in 20 (31.74%) patients, while pulmonary opacities were seen in 43 (68.26%) patients. Forty-seven (74.60%) patients were cured and discharged from hospital, 14 (22.22%) patients died, and 2 (3.17%) patients were shifted to other hospital. Ventilatory requirement, pneumonia, and co-morbidities were the independent predictors of mortality, while age, sex, and steroid use were not associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: 2009 pandemic influenza A had the same clinical features as seasonal influenza except vomiting. Mortality rate was high in 2009 H1N1-infected patients with pneumonia, co-morbid conditions, and patients

  18. Introduction of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus into Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2009

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    Swati Kumar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples in our laboratory allowed early confirmation of a large outbreak of S-OIV in southeastern Wisconsin (SEW. The initial case of S-OIV in SEW was detected on 28 April 2009. All influenza A samples obtained during the 16 week period prior to 28 April 2009, and the first four weeks of the subsequent epidemic were sub typed. Four different multiplex assays were employed, utilizing real time PCR and end point PCR to fully subtype human and animal influenza viral components. Specific detection of S-OIV was developed within days. Data regarding patient demographics and other concurrently circulating viruses were analyzed. During the first four weeks of the epidemic, 679 of 3726 (18.2% adults and children tested for influenza A were identified with S-OIV infection. Thirteen patients (0.34% tested positive for seasonal human subtypes of influenza A during the first two weeks and none in the subsequent 2 weeks of the epidemic. Parainfluenza viruses were the most prevalent seasonal viral agents circulating during the epidemic (of those tested, with detection rates of 12% followed by influenza B and RSV at 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. S-OIV was confirmed on day 2 of instituting subtype testing and within 4 days of report of national cases of S-OIV. Novel surge capacity diagnostic infrastructure exists in many specialty and research laboratories around the world. The capacity for broader influenza A sub typing at the local laboratory level allows timely and accurate detection of novel strains as they emerge in the community, despite the presence of other circulating viruses producing identical illness. This is likely to become increasingly important given the need for

  19. Clinical profile and outcome of recent outbreak of influenza A H1N1 (swine flu at a tertiary care center in Hyderabad, Telangana

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    Kadadanamari Subbaramareddy Amaravathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swine influenza, also called swine flu, hog flu, and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of the several types of swine influenza viruses. The World Health organization ( WHO raised a worldwide pandemic alert for swine flu on June 11, 2009 that was a first of its kind in the past 70 years. In India, the index cases were reported from Pune, Maharashtra. We witnessed a recent outbreak in India during late 2014 and early 2015. Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out to describe the clinical profile and outcome of the confirmed cases of swine flu who were admitted at our center between December 10, 2014 and May 11, 2015. The cases were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR on respiratory specimens. Results: A total of 514 patients with symptoms suggestive of swine flu were tested for hemagglutinin type 1 and neuraminidase type 1 (H1N1 out of whom 88 were positive, which accounted for 17.12% positivity. The mean age was 31.15 years with a range of 11-90 years, with equal distribution among males and females (males: 45, females: 43. The epidemic peaked in the month of January (n = 44.50%. Fever (95.45% was the most common clinical manifestation followed by cough (85.22%, breathlessness (51.22%, and myalgia (50%. The majority were in category C (59.09% based on the severity of the illness. All the patients were hospitalized and treated with oseltamivir. Of all the positive patients, 39 (44.31% were advised home isolation after discharge for 5-7 days in view of the mild disease. Hypertension, diabetes, existing lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and pregnancy were found to be the major risk factors. Women in the third trimester of their pregnancy were found to be at a higher risk. Our study had an overall mortality of 14.77% (n = 13. Mortality was higher among pregnant women (n = 1/6, 16.66% compared to nonpregnant women (n = 5/37, 13.51%. Multiple organ

  20. In silico characterization of the functional and structural modules of the hemagglutinin protein from the swine-origin influenza virus A (H1N1)-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; VAVRICKA; GAO; George; F

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV,H1N1 subtype) has developed into a new pandemic influenza as announced by the World Health Organization.In order to uncover clues about the determinants for virulence and pathogenicity of the virus,we characterized the functional modules of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA),the most important protein in molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of influenza viruses.We analyzed receptor binding sites,basic patch,neutralization antibody epitopes and T cell epitopes in the HA protein of the current S-OIV according to the corresponding functional and structural modules previously characterized in other H1 HA molecules or HA molecules of other subtypes.We compared their differences and similarities systematically.Based on the amino acids defined as the functional and structural modules,the HA protein of 2009 S-OIV should specifically bind to the human 2,6-receptor.The D225G/E mutation in HA,which is found in some isolates,may confer dual binding specificity to the 2,3and 2,6-receptor based on previously reported work.This HA variant contains two basic patches,one of which results in increased basicity,suggesting enhanced membrane fusion function.The 2009 S-OIV HA also has an extra glycosylation site at position 276.Four of the five antibody neutralization epitopes identified in A/RP/8/34(H1N1) were exposed,but the other was hidden by a glycosylation site.The previously identified cytotoxic T cell epitopes in various HA molecules were summarized and their corresponding sequences in 2009 S-OIV HA were defined.These results are critical for understanding the pathogenicity of the virus and host immune response against the virus.

  1. Identification and Epidemiology of Severe Respiratory Disease due to Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus Infection in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zahariadis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In March 2009, global surveillance started detecting cases of influenza-like illness in Mexico. By mid-April 2009, two pediatric patients were identified in the United States who were confirmed to be infected by a novel influenza A (H1N1 strain. The present article describes the first identified severe respiratory infection and the first death associated with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 in Canada.

  2. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae modifies outcomes of infection with European swine influenza virus of H1N1, but not H1N2, subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, C; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Amenna, N; Cariolet, R; Simon, G

    2012-05-25

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are widespread in farms and are major pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The aim of this experiment was to compare the pathogenicity of European avian-like swine H1N1 and European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 viruses in naïve pigs and in pigs previously infected with Mhp. Six groups of SPF pigs were inoculated intra-tracheally with either Mhp, or H1N1, or H1N2 or Mhp+H1N1 or Mhp+H1N2, both pathogens being inoculated at 21 days intervals in these two last groups. A mock-infected group was included. Although both SIV strains induced clinical signs when singly inoculated, results indicated that the H1N2 SIV was more pathogenic than the H1N1 virus, with an earlier shedding and a greater spread in lungs. Initial infection with Mhp before SIV inoculation increased flu clinical signs and pathogenesis (hyperthermia, loss of appetite, pneumonia lesions) due to the H1N1 virus but did not modify significantly outcomes of H1N2 infection. Thus, Mhp and SIV H1N1 appeared to act synergistically, whereas Mhp and SIV H1N2 would compete, as H1N2 infection led to the elimination of Mhp in lung diaphragmatic lobes. In conclusion, SIV would be a risk factor for the severity of respiratory disorders when associated with Mhp, depending on the viral subtype involved. This experimental model of coinfection with Mhp and avian-like swine H1N1 is a relevant tool for studying the pathogenesis of SIV-associated PRDC and testing intervention strategies for the control of the disease.

  3. Adjuvant effects of invariant NKT cell ligand potentiates the innate and adaptive immunity to an inactivated H1N1 swine influenza virus vaccine in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Dhakal, Santosh; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Khatri, Mahesh; Hague, Jacquelyn Gervay; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-04-15

    Pigs are considered as the source of some of the emerging human flu viruses. Inactivated swine influenza virus (SwIV) vaccine has been in use in the US swine herds, but it failed to control the flu outbreaks. The main reason has been attributed to lack of induction of strong local mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a unique T cell subset, and activation of iNKT cell using its ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been shown to potentiate the cross-protective immunity to inactivated influenza virus vaccine candidates in mice. Recently, we discovered iNKT cell in pig and demonstrated its activation using α-GalCer. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated H1N1 SwIV coadministered with α-GalCer intranasally against a homologous viral challenge. Our results demonstrated the potent adjuvant effects of α-GalCer in potentiating both innate and adaptive immune responses to SwIV Ags in the lungs of pigs, which resulted in reduction in the lung viral load by 3 logs compared to without adjuvant. Immunologically, in the lungs of pigs vaccinated with α-GalCer an increased virus specific IgA response, IFN-α secretion and NK cell-cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, iNKT cell-stimulation enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and reduced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the lungs of pigs⋅ In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time iNKT cell adjuvant effects in pigs to SwIV Ags through augmenting the innate and adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract.

  4. Medical students' knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions towards the H1N1 influenza, swine flu, in Pakistan: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zara A; Hussain, Sarah A; Hussain, Faisal A

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of H1N1 among medical students, their perceptions, and behavioral intentions in the wake of the H1N1 pandemic influenza. There were significant gaps in important self-isolation protocols and preventive measures. Increased contact with both patients and colleagues can lead to unintentional transmission and contraction of influenza. Universities should introduce and encourage infection control guidelines into routine curriculum. PMID:22361359

  5. Molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus containing genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 virus in swine from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Haibo; Xu, Lihua; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Lu, Xiangyun; Wu, Nanping

    2016-06-01

    Pandemic outbreaks of H1N1 swine influenza virus have been reported since 2009. Reassortant H1N2 viruses that contain genes from the pandemic H1N1 virus have been isolated in Italy and the United States. However, there is limited information regarding the molecular characteristics of reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses in eastern China. Active influenza surveillance programs in Zhejiang Province identified a novel H1N2 influenza virus isolated from pigs displaying clinical signs of influenza virus infection. Whole-genome sequencing was performed and this strain was compared with other influenza viruses available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the novel strain contained genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 and swine H3N2 viruses. BALB/c mice were infected with the isolated virus to assess its virulence in mice. While the novel H1N2 isolate replicated well in mice, it was found to be less virulent. These results provide additional evidence that swine serve as intermediate hosts or 'mixing vessels' for novel influenza viruses. They also emphasize the importance of surveillance in the swine population for use as an early warning system for influenza outbreaks in swine and human populations.

  6. An epidemiological study of recent outbreak of Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in Western Rajasthan region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Singh and Savitri Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Influenza A H1N1 virus is a highly contagious pathogen which caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. Recently an outbreak of Influenza A H1N1 occurred in the Western Rajasthan region of India. A retrospective, descriptive study was carried out to describe the epidemiological profile and clinical outcome of all H1N1 cases that occurred in Western Rajasthan during this outbreak. The Epidemiological profiles of all H1N1 cases were analyzed with reference to age, sex and time wise distribution of morbidity and mortality. The study reveals that during outbreak a total of 1372 suspected patients were tested for Influenza A H1N1, out of which 24.6% (157 were found to be positive for the disease. 27.2% of all suspected and 33.2% of all positive cases were seen during the month of January 2013. 70.1% were seen amongst the age group of 15 to 45 years. 67.4% cases were seen in females. Most cases (215 and deaths (28 were seen in Jodhpur district. 58 patients expired with an overall case fatality ratio of 19.1%. Most of the deaths were seen in younger patients (15-45 years with a case fatality ratio of 20.2%. 53.4% cases had expired within 48 hour of admission. 37.6% of cases and 39.4% of deaths occurred in pregnant women.In conclusion, the A (H1N1 pdm09 virus is still active two years after the 2009 pandemic. In fact, it has become a ubiquitous seasonal virus in the region. Complications are common and life threatening. Similar to H1N1 pandemic 2009, the incidence and mortality in this outbreak was higher in young.

  7. During the summer 2009 outbreak of "swine flu" in Scotland what respiratory pathogens were diagnosed as H1N1/2009?

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    Carman William F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the April-July 2009 outbreak of H1N1/2009 in scotland the West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre (WoSSVC in Glasgow tested > 16 000 clinical samples for H1N1/2009. Most were from patients clinically diagnosed with H1N1/2009. Out of these, 9% were positive. This study sought to determine what respiratory pathogens were misdiagnosed as cases of H1N1/2009 during this time. Methods We examined the results from 3247 samples which were sent to the laboratory during April-July 2009. All were from patients clinically diagnosed as having H1N1/2009 (based on accepted criteria and all were given a full respiratory screen using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR assays. Results In total, respiratory pathogens were detected in 27.9% (95% confidence interval, 26.3-29.5% of the samples submitted. Numerous pathogens were detected, the most common of which were rhinovirus (8.9% (95% confidence interval, 7.9-9.9%, parainfluenza 1 (1.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.4% and 3 (4.1% (95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.9%, and adenovirus ((3.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.9-4.2%. Conclusions This study highlights the problems of using a clinical algorithm to detect H1N1/2009. Clinicians frequently misdiagnosed common respiratory pathogens as H1N1/2009 during the spring/summer outbreak in Scotland. Many undesirable consequences would have resulted, relating to treatment, infection control, and public health surveillance.

  8. 人感染 H7N9禽流感与甲型 H1N1流感重症肺炎的临床及CT影像比较%Comparative study of CT findings and clinical course of patients with severe pneumonia due to avian influenza H7N9 and swine influenza H1N1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少华; 米海峰; 张琦; 柳娇娇; 李宏军; 李宁; 胡春红; 李润涛; 齐石; 李云芳; 丁金立; 张岩岩

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the CT characteristics and clinical course in patients with severe pneumonia due to avian influenza H7N9 and swine influenza H1N1 infection.Methods:The materials of epidemiology,serology,clinical mani-festations,complications,treatment outcome and CT findings of severe pneumonia in 21 patients with influenza A (H1N1) and 12 patients with influenza H7N9 were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The age of H7N9 patients were older and they had more basic diseases (χ2= 3.111,P<0.05).In addition,the proportion of ICU treatment in H7N9 patients was higher than that in H1N1 patients (χ2= 3.599,P<0.05).The onset symptoms of the 2 groups were fever and cough,and might be accompanied by running nose,expectoration,fatigue,nausea,vomiting,diarrhea and abdominal pain.Moist rales and wheezing sound could be assessed on auscultation.Bloody or rusty sputum in H7N9 infections was more observed than that in H1N1 (P<0.05).Dyspnea and shortness of breath in H7N9 infections were more (P<0.001),as well as the incidence of complicated acute ARDS was higher (χ2= 3.111,P<0.05).Treatment with invasive mechanical ventilation as well as mortality were higher in H7N9 group compared with that of H1N1 group (χ2= 7.219,P<0.01;P<0.05).In both two groups,the major pathology was invasion of pulmonary parenchyma and interstitial tissue.The fundamental pulmonary CT findings were pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGOs)and consolidations,often associated with air bronchogram;inter-lobular septum thickening,bronchiectasis,lymph node enlargement or pleural effusion could also be revealed.Pleural effu-sion and reticular appearance of lung in H7N9 group were more observed than that in H1N1 group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Compared with influenza A (H1N1)patients,H7N9 patients were older in age,with more basic diseases,serious complica-tions and more rapid progression of disease,mortality was higher as well.CT not only could display objectively the imaging characteristics of the two disease

  9. Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Bragstad, Karoline; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine. In 2003, a reassorted H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype appeared and became prevalent in Denmark. In the present study, the reassortant H1N2 subtype was characterised genetically...... and the infection dynamics compared to an “avian-like” H1N1 virus by an experimental infection study. METHODS: Sequence analyses were performed of the H1N2 virus. Two groups of pigs were inoculated with the reassortant H1N2 virus and an “avian-like” H1N1 virus, respectively, followed by inoculation...... and a European “swine-like” N2-gene, thus being genetically distinct from most H1N2 viruses circulating in Europe, but similar to viruses reported in 2009/2010 in Sweden and Italy. Sequence analyses of the internal genes revealed that the reassortment probably arose between circulating Danish “avian-like” H1N1...

  10. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

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    Nandy Ashesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514 and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425 accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in

  11. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  12. Genome evolution of novel influenza A (H1N1)viruses in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; HU SongNian; LI TianXian

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic situation of A H1N1 flu arose in North America in April 2009,which rapidly expanded to three continents of Europe,Asia and Africa,with the risk ranking up to 5.Until May 13th,the flu virus of A H1N1 had spread into 33 countries and regions,with a laboratory confirmed case number of 5728,including 61 deaths.Based on IRV and EpiFluDB database,425 parts of A H1N1 flu virus sequence were achieved,followed by sequenced comparison and evolution analysis.The results showed that the current predominant A H1N1 flu virus was a kind of triple reassortment A flu virus:(i) HA,NA,MP,NP and NS originated from swine influenza virus;PB2 and PA originated from bird influenza virus;PB1 originated from human influenza virus.(ii) The origin of swine influenza virus could be subdivided as follows:HA,NP and NS originated from classic swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype;NA and MP originated from bird origin swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype.(iii) A H1N1 flu virus experienced no significant mutation during the epidemic spread,accompanied with no reassortment of the virus genome.In the paper,the region of the representative strains for sequence analysis (A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) and A/Mexico/4486/2009 (H1N1)) included USA and Mexico and was relatively wide,which suggested that the analysis results were convincing.

  13. Predicting the antigenic structure of the pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus hemagglutinin.

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    Manabu Igarashi

    Full Text Available The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1 was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from "classical swine H1N1" virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemic, and seasonal human H1N1 viruses has been lacking. By homology modeling of the HA structure, here we show that HAs of 2009 H1N1 and the 1918 pandemic virus share a significant number of amino acid residues in known antigenic sites, suggesting the existence of common epitopes for neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to both HAs. It was noted that the early human H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s-1940s still harbored some of the original epitopes that are also found in 2009 H1N1. Interestingly, while 2009 H1N1 HA lacks the multiple N-glycosylations that have been found to be associated with an antigenic change of the human H1N1 virus during the early epidemic of this virus, 2009 H1N1 HA still retains unique three-codon motifs, some of which became N-glycosylation sites via a single nucleotide mutation in the human H1N1 virus. We thus hypothesize that the 2009 H1N1 HA antigenic sites involving the conserved amino acids will soon be targeted by antibody-mediated selection pressure in humans. Indeed, amino acid substitutions predicted here are occurring in the recent 2009 H1N1 variants. The present study suggests that antibodies elicited by natural infection with the 1918 pandemic or its early descendant viruses play a role in specific immunity against 2009 H1N1, and provides an insight into future likely antigenic changes in the evolutionary process of 2009 H1N1 in the human population.

  14. Crystal structure of swine major histocompatibility complex class I SLA-1 0401 and identification of 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nianzhi; Qi, Jianxun; Feng, Sijia; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaocheng; Chen, Rong; Li, Qirun; Chen, Zhaosan; Li, Xiaoying; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F

    2011-11-01

    The presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is crucial for swine immunity. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the first SLA crystal structures, SLA-1 0401, complexed with peptides derived from either 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV(NW9); NSDTVGWSW) or Ebola virus (Ebola(AY9); ATAAATEAY) were determined in this study. The overall peptide-SLA-1 0401 structures resemble, as expected, the general conformations of other structure-solved peptide major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). The major distinction of SLA-1 0401 is that Arg(156) has a "one-ballot veto" function in peptide binding, due to its flexible side chain. S-OIV(NW9) and Ebola(AY9) bind SLA-1 0401 with similar conformations but employ different water molecules to stabilize their binding. The side chain of P7 residues in both peptides is exposed, indicating that the epitopes are "featured" peptides presented by this SLA. Further analyses showed that SLA-1 0401 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I HLA-A 0101 can present the same peptides, but in different conformations, demonstrating cross-species epitope presentation. CTL epitope peptides derived from 2009 pandemic S-OIV were screened and evaluated by the in vitro refolding method. Three peptides were identified as potential cross-species influenza virus (IV) CTL epitopes. The binding motif of SLA-1 0401 was proposed, and thermostabilities of key peptide-SLA-1 0401 complexes were analyzed by circular dichroism spectra. Our results not only provide the structural basis of peptide presentation by SLA I but also identify some IV CTL epitope peptides. These results will benefit both vaccine development and swine organ-based xenotransplantation.

  15. Protection of guinea pigs by vaccination with a recombinant swinepox virus co-expressing HA1 genes of swine H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiarong; Yang, Deji; Huang, Dongyan; Xu, Jiaping; Liu, Shichao; Lin, Huixing; Zhu, Haodan; Liu, Bao; Lu, Chengping

    2013-03-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory infectious disease of swine caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). SIV is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a potent threat to human health. Here, we report the construction of a recombinant swinepox virus (rSPV/H3-2A-H1) co-expressing hemagglutinin (HA1) of SIV subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Immune responses and protection efficacy of the rSPV/H3-2A-H1 were evaluated in guinea pigs. Inoculation of rSPV/H3-2A-H1 yielded neutralizing antibodies against SIV H1N1 and H3N2. The IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations in the supernatant of lymphocytes stimulated with purified SIV HA1 antigen were significantly higher (P pigs against SIV H1N1 or H3N2 challenge was observed. No SIV shedding was detected from guinea pigs vaccinated with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 after challenge. Most importantly, the guinea pigs immunized with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 did not show gross and micrographic lung lesions. However, the control guinea pigs experienced distinct gross and micrographic lung lesions at 7 days post-challenge. Our data suggest that the recombinant swinepox virus encoding HA1 of SIV H1N1 and H3N2 might serve as a promising candidate vaccine for protection against SIV H1N1 and H3N2 infections.

  16. Design and Performance of the CDC Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Swine Flu Panel for Detection of 2009 A (H1N1) Pandemic Influenza Virus▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10−1.3∼−0.7 50% infectious doses (ID50) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation. PMID:21593260

  17. Profile of confirmed H1N1 virus infected patients admitted in the swine flu isolation ward of tertiary care hospitals of Baroda district, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Ishwarbhai Chaudhari

    2015-09-01

    Results: Out of total 54 influenza A H1N1 cases, 23 patients (42.59% were males. 4 (12.91% female patients were pregnant. Majority (75% of the cases were between 21-50 years of age group. Majority (90.7% of the patients were from urban areas. Majority cases (94.4% presented with cough, followed by 36 cases (66.7% exhibiting high grade fever, 35 Cases (64.8% had complain of breathlessness and 25 cases(46.3% presented with sore throat. 19 cases (35% had co-morbid condition with the influenza A H1N1 disease. In this study among patients with associated Comorbid condition, 16(84% were discharged and only 3(16% patients died. Whereas among patients without Comorbid condition, 29(83% were discharged and 6(17% died. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.940.15 cases (27% required ventilator support. Mortality of 9 cases (17% occurred in the given duration of study and rest of cases 45(83% were discharged from the hospital. Out of 54 cases, 4 cases had diabetes mellitus and from that 3 case were died. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.012. Conclusions: Influenza A H1N1 infection predominantly affects young age and equally affecting both genders. One fourth of total cases had severe illness and required ventilator support. Majority of patients died within 8 day of critical illness. All deaths were reported from urban area. Most common symptom in fatal cases of influenza A H1N1 was cough followed by breathlessness, high grade fever, mild fever and sore throat and the most common co morbidity was Diabetes Mellitus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2174-2180

  18. Post-pandemic seroprevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 infection (swine flu among children <18 years in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger von Kries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in- or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from April 1(st to July 31(st 2010. Vaccination history, recall of infections and sociodemographic factors were ascertained. Antibody titers were measured with a sensitive and specific in-house hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT and compared to age-matched sera collected during 6 months before the onset of the pandemic in Germany. We analyzed 1420 post-pandemic and 300 pre-pandemic sera. Among unvaccinated children aged 1-4 and 5-17 years the prevalence of HI titers (≥1∶10 was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.5-31.3 and 53.5% (95% CI: 50.9-56.2 compared to 1.7% and 5.5%, respectively, for pre-pandemic sera, accounting for a serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1 2009 during the season 2009/2010 of 25,4% (95% CI : 19.3-30.5 in children aged 1-4 years and 48.0% (95% CI: 42.6-52.0 in 5-17 year old children. Of children with HI titers ≥1∶10, 25.5% (95% CI: 22.5-28.8 reported no history of any infectious disease since June 2009. Among vaccinated children, 92% (95%-CI: 87.0-96.6 of the 5-17 year old but only 47.8% (95%-CI: 33.5-66.5 of the 1-4 year old children exhibited HI titers against influenza A virus (H1N1 2009. CONCLUSION: Serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1 2009 infections in children indicates high infection rates with older children (5-17 years infected twice as often as younger children. In about a quarter of the children with HI titers after the season 2009/2010 subclinical infections must be assumed. Low HI titers in young children after vaccination with the AS03(B

  19. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae induces oxidative stress that influences outcomes of a subsequent infection with a swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, C; Robert, F; Pinard, T; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Garraud, J M; Cariolet, R; Brack, M; Simon, G

    2013-03-23

    The severity of swine influenza is highly variable and can be exacerbated by many factors, such as a pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp). The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress induced by Mhp and the impact of this stress on the evolution of an infection with the European avian-like swine H1N1 influenza virus. Two experimental trials (E1 and E2), which differed only by the feed delivered to the animals, were conducted on SPF pigs. In each trial, one group of nine 6-week-old pigs was inoculated intra-tracheally with Mhp and H1N1 at 21 days intervals and a mock-infected group (8 pigs) was included. Clinical signs were observed, blood samples were collected throughout the study and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Results indicated that Mhp infection induced an oxidative stress in E1 and E2, but its level was more important in E2 than in E1 three weeks post-Mhp inoculation, before H1N1 infection. In both trials, a strong inflammatory response and a response to the oxidative stress previously induced by Mhp appeared after H1N1 infection. However, the severity of influenza disease was significantly more marked in E2 as compared to E1, as revealed by prolonged hyperthermia, stronger reduction in mean daily weight gain and earlier viral shedding. These results suggested that severity of flu syndrome and reduction in animal performance may vary depending on the level of oxidative stress at the moment of the influenza infection, and that host responses could be influenced by the feed.

  20. A study of the swine flu (H1N1 epidemic among health care providers of a medical college hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Rajoura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach.

  1. Subsisting H1N1 influenza memory responses are insufficient to protect from pandemic H1N1 influenza challenge in C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, Leo K.; Fox, Julie M.; Tompkins, Stephen M.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus transmitted and caused disease in many individuals immune to pre-2009 H1N1 influenza virus. Whilst extensive studies on antibody-mediated pH1N1 cross-reactivity have been described, few studies have focused on influenza-specific memory T-cells. To address this, the immune response in pre-2009 H1N1 influenza-immune mice was evaluated after pH1N1 challenge and disease pathogenesis was determined. The results show that despite homology ...

  2. 表达猪H1N1亚型流感病毒三聚体HA的重组慢病毒包装%Packaging of recombinant lentivirus expressing trimeric HA of swine HIN1 influenza virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 宋战昀; 朱利塞; 樊娇; 王广美; 丛彦龙; 丁壮

    2012-01-01

    To package a recombinant lentivirus which can express HA-GCN4p Ⅱ fusion protein. The HA gene derived from swine H1N1 influenza virus was amplified by RT-PCR and linked to GCN4p Ⅱ by a GS-linker. The expression of HA GCN4p Ⅱand packaging of recombinant lentivirus were identified by the results of green fluorescence,transduction efficiency, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot. A recombinant lentivirus LV-HA-GCN4p Ⅱ was achieved with a titer of 1.1 × 10^6 TU/mL,which can be transduced in 293T ceils efficiently. The achievement of a recombinant lentivirus is not only beneficial to further prepare a swine H1N1 influenza vaccine,but also helpful to pave the way for constructing a pseudotyped lentiviral system stably expressing HA-GCN4p Ⅱ.%以RT—PCR扩增猪H1N1流感病毒HA基因,用GS-linker使HA与GCN4pⅡ连接。构建慢病毒蛋白表达系统。通过观察荧光、病毒转导效率、SDS—PAGE、Western blot验证重组慢病毒包装和HA—GCN4pⅡ融合蛋白表达情况。该系统能使外源基因得到持久和稳定的表达。结果,包装获得能够融合表达HA-GCN4pⅡ的重组慢病毒LV—HA-GCN4pⅡ,病毒滴度为1.1×10^6TU/mL;LV—HA—GCN4pⅡ能有效转导293T细胞。本试验成功构建了表达HA—GCN4PⅡ融合蛋白的慢病毒表达载体,获得的重组慢病毒不仅为后续动物试验测定其诱导的体液免疫和细胞免疫水平奠定了基础,同时也为研制猪H1N1亚型流感疫苗做出了有益尝试。

  3. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Mortier, Daniëlla; van Heteren, Melanie; Oostermeijer, Herman; Fagrouch, Zahra; de Laat, Rudy; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bogers, Willy M J M

    2015-01-01

    The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  4. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7 and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoop Roland

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus (IV infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1, were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options

  5. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n = 1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of worry about the risk of catching swine flu, whether too much fuss was being made about the pandemic, whether they or a close friend or relative had had swine flu, how effective they felt the vaccine was, whether they had previously had a seasonal flu vaccination, how well prepared they felt the government was for a pandemic and how satisfied they were with information available about the pandemic. Most participants (n = 734, 55.6%) reported being vaccinated against swine flu, compared to 396 who had not been vaccinated and were unlikely to be vaccinated in the future. Results The main reasons given for declining vaccination were concerns over the vaccine's safety, and being generally healthy. Controlling for demographic variables, risk factors for not being vaccinated were: being female, not having a long-standing infirmity or illness, not having been vaccinated against seasonal flu in previous years, feeling that too much fuss had been made about the pandemic and believing that the vaccine was ineffective. Conclusions Interventions that target these factors may be effective in improving uptake in a future pandemic. PMID:26757401

  6. Transcriptomics and Proteomics in the Study of H1N1 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Zhang; Xiaojun Zhang; Qing Ma; Fang Ma; Honghao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus (HINI) 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A virus, has been spread worldwidely and causedgreat public fear. High-throughput transcriptomics and proteomies methods are now being used to identify H1N1and H1N1-host interaction. This article reviews recent transcriptomics and proteomics research in H1N1 diagnosis,treatment, and H1N1 virus-host interaction, to offer some help for further understanding the infection mechanismand controlling H1N1 transmission.

  7. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009: a pandemic alarm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Khanna; Neha Gupta; Ankit Gupta; V K Vijayan

    2009-09-01

    At this critical juncture when the world has not yet recovered from the threat of avian influenza, the virus has returned in the disguise of swine influenza, a lesser known illness common in pigs. It has reached pandemic proportions in a short time span with health personnel still devising ways to identify the novel H1N1 virus and develop vaccines against it. The H1N1 virus has caused a considerable number of deaths within the short duration since its emergence. Presently, there are no effective methods to contain this newly emerged virus. Therefore, a proper and clear insight is urgently required to prevent an outbreak in the future and make preparations that may be planned well in advance. This review is an attempt to discuss the historical perspective of the swine flu virus, its epidemiology and route of transmission to better understand the various control measures that may be taken to fight the danger of a global pandemic.

  8. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  9. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  10. Antiviral Prophylaxis and H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Richard Pebody, a consultant epidemiologist at the Health Protection Agency in London, UK, discusses the use of antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis and pandemic H1N1.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  11. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  12. H1N1: pandemia e perspectiva atual H1N1: overview and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bellei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O vírus influenza de origem suína, A/California/04/2009 (H1N1, foi inicialmente detectado no México e determinou a pandemia de influenza de 2009. Em agosto de 2010, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS declarou o início da fase pós-pandêmica. As características dessa última pandemia foram marcadamente diferentes das anteriores. O vírus emergiu de rearranjos genéticos originários em hospedeiro mamífero não humano, demonstrou transmissibilidade interespécies e afetou a população humana de forma diferente dos vírus pandêmicos anteriores (1918, 1957 e 1968 com maior morbidade e mortalidade em crianças e adultos jovens. Atualmente, o vírus apresenta padrão sazonal da mesma forma que o influenza A H3N2 e o influenza B, mantendo, até o momento, o mesmo perfil de patogenicidade, espectro clínico e sensibilidade a antivirais. A cepa foi incluída na vacina sazonal trivalente anual recomendada, principalmente para proteção dos grupos de risco mais vulneráveis a complicações pelas diferentes cepas de influenza.The swine origin influenza virus A/CALIFORNIA/04/2009 (H1N1 was first detected in Mexico and determined the 2009 influenza pandemic. In August 2010, World Health Organization (WHO declared the beginning of the post-pandemic period. This last pandemic was distinctly different from previous ones. The virus emerged from genetic rearrangement in non-human mammalian host. Moreover, its inter-species transmission is fully reported. However, it affected human population differently from previous pandemic viruses (1918, 1957, 1968, with increased morbidity and mortality among children and young adults. Currently, the virus has a seasonal pattern in the same way as influenza A H3N2 and influenza B, maintaining the same pathogenicity profile, clinical spectrum and sensitivity to antiviral agents. The strain was included in the annual trivalent seasonal vaccine formulation, mainly for risk groups, which are more vulnerable to

  13. The progress of research on influenza A(H1N1)%甲型H1N1流感的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷晓燕; 孙永红

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)virus is a re-mixed strains of human influenza virus genes,avian influenza virus gene and swine influenza virus gene.Influenza A(H1N1)pandemic influenza has spread around the world,which has drawn worldwide attention.In order to early discovery,early diagnosis,early treatment and effective prevention of Influenza A(H1N1),we describe the characteristics of linfluenza A(H1N1)virus,epidemiology,pathogenesis,clinical manifestations,laboratory examination and effective treatment and preventive measures.%甲型H1N1流感病毒是人流感病毒基因、禽流感病毒基因和猪流感病毒基因混合的重配株,其造成的疫情来势凶猛,引起世界各国的广泛关注.为了早发现、早诊断、早治疗及有效地预防甲型H1N1流感,本文综述了甲型H1N1流感病毒的特点、流行病学、致人发病的机制、甲型H1N1流感患者的临床表现、实验室检查及有效的治疗和预防措施.

  14. Systematic review: influenza A (H1N1) virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Infection with influenza A (H1N1)v (swine flu) has caused widespread anxiety, among patients who are potentially immunocompromised, such as those being treated for inflammatory bowel disease. Aims: Provide guidance for physicians and their patients on the risk, prevention and management of influenza A (H1N1)v infection. Methods: Medline was searched using the following key words: `swine flu?, `immunosuppression?, inflammatory bowel disease?, `recommendati...

  15. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v ('swine flu') pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Y. K.; Michie, S.; Potts, H. W.; Rubin, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n=1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of w...

  16. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v ('swine flu') pandemic:Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods: We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n=1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of w...

  17. Influenza Stigma during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Quinn, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the extent to which H1N1 was stigmatized at the height of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the U.S. and explores the role that H1N1 stigma played in people’s desire for physical distance from others with H1N1. H1N1 was the most stigmatized disease, with participants endorsing greater prejudice towards people with H1N1 than people with cancer or HIV/AIDS. Further, H1N1 stigma partially mediated the relationship between participants’ perceptions that H1N1 was threatening and...

  18. Predictors of influenza vaccine uptake during the 2009/10 influenza A H1N1v (‘swine flu’) pandemic: Results from five national surveys in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Han, You Kyung Julia; Michie, Susan; Potts, Henry W.W.; Rubin, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate reasons underlying the low uptake of the influenza A H1N1v vaccination in the UK during the 2009/10 pandemic. Methods We analysed data from five national telephone surveys conducted in the UK during the latter stages of the pandemic to identify predictors of uptake amongst members of the public offered the vaccine by their primary care physician (n = 1320). In addition to demographic variables, participants reported: reasons for declining the vaccination, levels of w...

  19. Identification of Human H1N2 and Human-Swine Reassortant H1N2 and H1N1 Influenza A Viruses among Pigs in Ontario, Canada (2003 to 2005)†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasin, Alexander I.; Carman, Suzanne; Olsen, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003, three novel genotypes of H1 influenza viruses have been recovered from Canadian pigs, including a wholly human H1N2 virus and human-swine reassortants. These isolates demonstrate that human-lineage H1N2 viruses are infectious for pigs and that viruses with a human PB1/swine PA/swine PB2 polymerase complex can replicate in pigs. PMID:16517910

  20. Vaccination with NS1-truncated H3N2 swine influenza virus primes T cells and confers cross-protection against an H1N1 heterosubtypic challenge in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity of contemporary swine influenza virus (SIV) strains impedes effective immunization of swine herds. Mucosally delivered, attenuated virus vaccines are one approach with potential to provide broad cross-protection. Reverse genetics-derived H3N2 SIV virus with truncated NS1 (NS1delta126 T...

  1. 甲型H1N1流感的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉杰

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2009年3~4月从墨西哥暴发的"猪流感"(Swine influenza,SI),后被更名为甲型H1N1流感[In-fluenza A(H1N1)],迅速在全世界范围内蔓延[1-2].研究表明这种病毒基因组由禽流感、猪流感和人流感病毒基因混合而成,是一种新型的甲型H1N1流感病毒(novel swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus,S-OIV)[1,3].

  2. 2009 H1N1 Influenza 2009 H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth J. Sullivan, MD; Robert M. Jacobson, MD; Walter R. Dowdle, PhD; and Gregory A. Poland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within 2 months of its discovery last spring, a novel influenza A (H1N1 virus, currently referred to as 2009 H1N1, caused the first influenza pandemic in decades. The virus has caused disproportionate disease among young people with early reports of virulence similar to that of seasonal influenza. This clinical review provides an update encompassing the virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the 2009 H1N1 virus. Because information about this virus, its prevention,and treatment are rapidly evolving, readers are advised to seek additional information. We performed a literature search of PubMed using the following keywords: H1N1, influenza, vaccine, pregnancy, children, treatment, epidemiology, and review. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review on the basis of their relevance. Recent studies and articles were preferred.

    El Editor de este número especial agradece la autorización expresa, mediante comunicación escrita en nuestro poder, de los autores del trabajo “2009 H1N1 Influenza”, así como de los editores de la revista Mayo Clinic Proceedings, para su reproducción, como publicación secundaria en Medisur, artículo de revisión seleccionado por nosotros, que resume buena parte de los nuevos conocimientos adquiridos a partir de la literatura médica reciente relacionada con esta pandemia, durante el año 2009.

    De este modo, el artículo que a continuación de reproduce para los lectores de Medisur, está basado íntegramente en el estudio previamente publicado como: Sullivan SJ, Jacobson RM, Dowdle WR, Poland GA. 2009 H1N1 Influenza. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85(1:64-76.

    A continuación el resumen:

    Within 2 months of its discovery last spring, a novel influenza A (H1N1 virus, currently referred to as 2009 H1N1, caused the first influenza pandemic in decades. The virus has caused disproportionate disease among young people with early reports of virulence similar

  3. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez David L; Spackman Erica; Wasilenko Jamie L; Pantin-Jackwood Mary; Swayne David E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the r...

  4. Zoonoses: USDA ARS Lessons Learned During Novel Influenza H1N1 Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influenza illness was first recognized in pigs during the 1918 human Spanish flu pandemic, and influenza A virus has since remained of importance to the swine industry as a primary respiratory pathogen. Influenza virus H1N1 remained relatively stable in U.S. swine for nearly 80 years following 1918...

  5. The Genomic Contributions of Avian H1N1 Influenza A Viruses to the Evolution of Mammalian Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Carter, Robert; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Among the influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild aquatic birds, only H1, H2, and H3 subtypes have caused epidemics in humans. H1N1 viruses of avian origin have also caused 3 of 5 pandemics. To understand the reappearance of H1N1 in the context of pandemic emergence, we investigated whether avian H1N1 IAVs have contributed to the evolution of human, swine, and 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, we concluded that the polymerase gene segments (especially PB2 and PA) circulating in North American avian H1N1 IAVs have been reintroduced to swine multiple times, resulting in different lineages that led to the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. Moreover, the similar topologies of hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein and neuraminidase and matrix gene segments suggest that each surface glycoprotein coevolved with an internal gene segment within the H1N1 subtype. The genotype of avian H1N1 IAVs of Charadriiformes origin isolated in 2009 differs from that of avian H1N1 IAVs of Anseriformes origin. When the antigenic sites in the hemagglutinin of all 31 North American avian H1N1 IAVs were considered, 60%-80% of the amino acids at the antigenic sites were identical to those in 1918 and/or 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Thus, although the pathogenicity of avian H1N1 IAVs could not be inferred from the phylogeny due to the small dataset, the evolutionary process within the H1N1 IAV subtype suggests that the circulation of H1N1 IAVs in wild birds poses a continuous threat for future influenza pandemics in humans.

  6. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... of the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical ...

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of surface proteins of novel H1N1 virus isolated from 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishuddin, Mohd; Khan, Shahper N; Khan, Asad U

    2009-09-30

    Swine Influenza Virus (H1N1) is a known causative agent of swine flu. Transmission of Swine Influenza Virus form pig to human is not a common event and may not always cause human influenza. The 2009 outbreak by subtype H1N1 in humans is due to transfer of Swine Influenza Virus from pig to human. Thus to analyze the origin of this novel virus we compared two surface proteins (HA and NA) with influenza viruses of swine, avian and humans isolates recovered from 1918 to 2008 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of hemagglutinin gene from 2009 pandemic found to be clustered with swine influenza virus (H1N2) circulated in U.S.A during the 1999-2004 outbreaks. Whereas, neuraminidase gene was clustered with H1N1 strains isolated from Europe and Asia during 1992-2007 outbreaks. This study concludes that the new H1N1 strain appeared in 2009 outbreak with high pathogenicity to human was originated as result of re-assortment (exchange of gene). Moreover, our data also suggest that the virus will remain sensitive to the pre-existing therapeutic strategies.

  8. The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Yeol

    2016-01-01

    In late March of 2009, an outbreak of influenza in Mexico, was eventually identified as H1N1 influenza A. In June 2009, the World Health Organization raised a pandemic alert to the highest level. More than 214 countries have reported confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1 influenza A. In Korea, the first case of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection was reported on May 2, 2009. Between May 2009 and August 2010, 750,000 cases of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 were confirmed by laboratory test. The H1N1-rel...

  9. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  10. Phylodynamics of H1N1/2009 influenza reveals the transition from host adaptation to immune-driven selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yvonne C F; Bahl, Justin; Joseph, Udayan; Butt, Ka Man; Peck, Heidi A; Koay, Evelyn S C; Oon, Lynette L E; Barr, Ian G; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D

    2015-08-06

    Influenza A H1N1/2009 virus that emerged from swine rapidly replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus. Although the early emergence and diversification of H1N1/2009 is well characterized, the ongoing evolutionary and global transmission dynamics of the virus remain poorly investigated. To address this we analyse >3,000 H1N1/2009 genomes, including 214 full genomes generated from our surveillance in Singapore, in conjunction with antigenic data. Here we show that natural selection acting on H1N1/2009 directly after introduction into humans was driven by adaptation to the new host. Since then, selection has been driven by immunological escape, with these changes corresponding to restricted antigenic diversity in the virus population. We also show that H1N1/2009 viruses have been subject to regular seasonal bottlenecks and a global reduction in antigenic and genetic diversity in 2014.

  11. Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F

    2015-12-01

    This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%-15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%-24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%-72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds ratio = .75) were associated with intention to take up influenza vaccination. Emotional representations were associated with lower likelihood of wearing face mask (odds ratio = .77) and hand washing (odds ratio = .67). Results confirm that illness representation variables are associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors.

  12. H1N1快速治疗计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗炯尧; 陈艳莲

    2010-01-01

    近来,因为H1N1的流行,使得好多大型聚会都取消了,人们出行的活动也有所减少,大家都有点谈H1N1色变。如果我们能制造出一种H1N1快速治疗仪,那该多好啊!

  13. Respiratory failure presenting in H1N1 influenza with Legionnaires disease: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannuzzi Michele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Media sensationalism on the H1N1 outbreak may have influenced decisional processes and clinical diagnosis. Case Presentation We report two cases of patients who presented in 2009 with coexisting H1N1 virus and Legionella infections: a 69-year-old Caucasian man and a 71-year-old Caucasian woman. In our cases all the signs and symptoms, including vomiting, progressive respiratory disease leading to respiratory failure, refractory hypoxemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated levels of creatine kinase and hepatic aminotransferases, were consistent with critical illness due to 2009 H1N1 virus infection. Other infectious disorders may mimic H1N1 viral infection especially Legionnaires' disease. Because the swine flu H1N1 pandemic occurred in Autumn in Italy, Legionnaires disease was to be highly suspected since the peak incidence usually occurs in early fall. We do think that our immediate suspicion of Legionella infection based on clinical history and X-ray abnormalities was fundamental for a successful resolution. Conclusion Our two case reports suggest that patients with H1N1 should be screened for Legionella, which is not currently common practice. This is particularly important since the signs and symptoms of both infections are similar.

  14. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenza A (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. L.; Hong, S. W.

    2012-01-15

    Swine influenza A, which has been pandemic worldwide since 2009, is a new type virus derived from A type influenza. Although some drugs against the contageous disease, such as relenza and tamiflu, have been commercialized, those drug resistant viruses could be also followed by the wide usage of drugs. For examples, Tamiflu-resistant viruses, the mutant type viruses, can not be cured by the treatment of tamiflu anymore. Thus, a quick diagnosis for the wild type (tamiflu-sensitive) and mutant (tamiflu-resistant) virus would be essential in order to prevent the wide spread of viruses. In spite of that, unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted until now. If we could tell the differences between tamiflu-resistant and -sensitive patients using by the proper diagnostic kit, not only patient specific treatment would be possible, but also the spread of viruses would be effectively prevented. Currently used detection methods for the swine influenza A H1N1, which were originated from CDC, USA, can not detect the tamiflu-resistant swine influenza A H1N1, but only can detect tamiflu-sensitive wine influenza A H1N1. In this study, all the primers for the detection of swInfA, swH1, MP and NA (neuraminidase) have been developed in order to detect both tamiflu-resistant and tamiflu-sensitive swine influenza A H1N1s simultaneously, and then, new multiplex RT-PCR methods has been established.

  15. The Influenza A(H1N1)v Pandemic: An Exploratory System Dynamics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Hamarat, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a small exploratory System Dynamics model related to the dynamics of the 2009 flu pandemic, also known as the Mexican flu, swine flu, or A(H1N1)v. The model was developed in May 2009 in order to quickly foster understanding about the possible dynamics of this new flu variant and

  16. 2009甲型H1N1流感研究进展%Progress in the 2009 H1N1 influenza A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇红; 申昆玲

    2010-01-01

    In March 2009,a new influenza A H1N1 virus was identified in Mexico.It is a quadruple-reassortant influenza A virus, which is composed of a combination of swine, avian strains and human. The clinical symptoms of the 2009 new influenza A (H1N1) are similar with the seasonal influenza.The severe illness could happened in youth and middle-aged without underlying diseases that differs from seasonal influenza. The risk groups are individuals with underlying diseases,pregnancy and obesity which has not been considered as risk factor in previous. Although oseltamivir-resistant variant influenza A ( H1N1 ) were reported, strain is susceptible to oseltamivir. This review summarizes the current information concerning viral genom,clinical features and treatment of the new pandemic influenza virus A H1N1 infection.%2009年3月在墨西哥出现了一种新型甲型H1N1流感病毒,这是一个四源重排的A型流感病毒:来源于猪流感病毒、禽流感病毒及人流感病毒.其临床特点与季节性流感相似,但重症病例可发生在无基础疾病的青壮年人,这与季节性流感不同,其高危人群为患有基础疾病者、孕妇及肥胖者.尽管已经出现了耐药毒株,但奥司他韦治疗仍然有效.该文主要对2009年流行的甲型H1N1流感病毒的基因特点、临床表现及治疗的最新进展进行综述.

  17. Close Relationship between the 2009 H1N1 Virus and South Dakota AIV Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Li; Xiao-ping An; Zhi-qiang Mi; Da-bin Liu; Huan-huan Jiang; Bo Pan; Sheng Wang; Bin Chen; Yi-gang Tong

    2011-01-01

    Although previous publications suggest the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)virus was reassorted from swine viruses of North America and Eurasia, the immediate ancestry still remains elusive due to the big evolutionary distance between the 2009 H1N1 virus and the previously isolated strains. Since the unveiling of the2009 H1N1 influenza, great deal of interest has been drawn to influenza, consequently a large number of influenza virus sequences have been deposited into the public sequence databases. Blast analysis demonstrated that the recently submitted 2007 South Dakota avian influenza virus strains and other North American avian strains contained genetic segments very closely related to the 2009 H1N1 virus, which suggests these avian influenza viruses are very close relatives of the 2009 H1N1 virus. Phylogenetic analyses also indicate that the2009 H1N1 viruses are associated with both avian and swine influenza viruses circulating in North America. Since the migrating wild birds are preferable to pigs as the carrier to spread the influenza viruses across vast distances, it is very likely that birds played an important role in the inter-continental evolution of the 2009 H1N1virus. It is essential to understand the evolutionary route of the emerging influenza virus in order to find a way to prevent further emerging cases. This study suggests the close relationship between 2009 pandemic virus and the North America avian viruses and underscores enhanced surveillance of influenza in birds for understanding the evolution of the 2009 pandemic influenza.

  18. H1N1 viral proteome peptide microarray predicts individuals at risk for H1N1 infection and segregates infection versus Pandemrix(®) vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Aditya; Valentini, Davide; Montomoli, Emanuele; Lapini, Guilia; Biuso, Fabrizio; Wenschuh, Holger; Magalhaes, Isabelle; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A high content peptide microarray containing the entire influenza A virus [A/California/08/2009(H1N1)] proteome and haemagglutinin proteins from 12 other influenza A subtypes, including the haemagglutinin from the [A/South Carolina/1/1918(H1N1)] strain, was used to gauge serum IgG epitope signatures before and after Pandemrix(®) vaccination or H1N1 infection in a Swedish cohort during the pandemic influenza season 2009. A very narrow pattern of pandemic flu-specific IgG epitope recognition was observed in the serum from individuals who later contracted H1N1 infection. Moreover, the pandemic influenza infection generated IgG reactivity to two adjacent epitopes of the neuraminidase protein. The differential serum IgG recognition was focused on haemagglutinin 1 (H1) and restricted to classical antigenic sites (Cb) in both the vaccinated controls and individuals with flu infections. We further identified a novel epitope VEPGDKITFEATGNL on the Ca antigenic site (251-265) of the pandemic flu haemagglutinin, which was exclusively recognized in serum from individuals with previous vaccinations and never in serum from individuals with H1N1 infection (confirmed by RNA PCR analysis from nasal swabs). This epitope was mapped to the receptor-binding domain of the influenza haemagglutinin and could serve as a correlate of immune protection in the context of pandemic flu. The study shows that unbiased epitope mapping using peptide microarray technology leads to the identification of biologically and clinically relevant target structures. Most significantly an H1N1 infection induced a different footprint of IgG epitope recognition patterns compared with the pandemic H1N1 vaccine.

  19. 1918 pandemic H1N1 DNA vaccine protects ferrets against 2007 H1N1 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent;

    of the H1N1 pandemic virus from 1918 induce protection in ferrets against infection with a H1N1 (A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)) virus which was included in the conventional vaccine for the 2006-2007 season. The viruses are separated by a time interval of 89 years and differ by 21.2% in the HA1 protein...

  20. 甲型H1N1流感的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉杰

    2011-01-01

    2009年3~4月从墨西哥暴发的“猪流感”(Swine influenza,SI),后被更名为甲型H1N1流感[In-fluenzaA(H1N1)],迅速在全世界范围内蔓延。研究表明这种病毒基因组由禽流感、猪流感和人流感病毒基因混合而成,

  1. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Danish pigs: Diagnosis and lack of surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Nielsen, L. P.; Breum, Solvej Østergaard;

    In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1v) of likely swine origin emerged in the human population globally. The first case in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009 and presently almost all countries with pig production have reported cases. The emergence of a new influenza subtype...... in swine with a genetic profile similar to older circulating strains implied a challenge for the veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We report the development, validation and implementation of a diagnostic strategy for specific diagnosis of H1N1v in pigs and the results of tests of pigs performed...... in Denmark. Routinely, detection of swine influenza virus in clinical specimens is performed by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays (rRT-PCR) targeting the M and the NP genes. Alignment of the probe and primer sequences to available H1N1v gene sequences in GeneBank revealed that these assays most...

  2. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic-H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez David L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 was first recognized in humans with acute respiratory diseases in April 2009 in Mexico, in swine in Canada in June, 2009 with respiratory disease, and in turkeys in Chile in June 2009 with a severe drop in egg production. Several experimental studies attempted to reproduce the disease in turkeys, but failed to produce respiratory infection in turkeys using standard inoculation routes. We demonstrated that pH1N1 virus can infect the reproductive tract of turkey hens after experimental intrauterine inoculation, causing decreased egg production. This route of exposure is realistic in modern turkey production because turkey hens are handled once a week for intrauterine insemination in order to produce fertile eggs. This understanding of virus exposure provides an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and can improve poultry husbandry to prevent disease outbreaks.

  3. Opinions on Influenza A (H1N1)%我的一点看法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟南山

    2009-01-01

    2009年4月,一场突如其来的疫情席卷全球,引起各国高度重视。这一疫情的命名经历了从“猪流感(swine influenza)”等词到“甲型H1N1流感(influenza A(H1N1))”的变化。本刊对此命名变化的来龙去脉以及“甲型H1N1流感”的含义进行了梳理与解读,并就命名问题征询了一些专家的意见。

  4. 甲型H1N1流感相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊璐; 赵景民

    2010-01-01

    @@ 甲型H1N1 流感(influenza A,H1N1)是由变异后的新型甲型H1N1 流感病毒所引起的急性呼吸道传染病,原称人感染猪流感.为避免误导公众,WHO 2009 年4 月30 日在日内瓦宣布,将停止使用"swine influenza"这一称呼,改为"influenza A(H1N1)".卫生部迅速作出反应,将"人感染猪流感"更名为"甲型H1N1 流感"[1].其主要临床表现为流感样症状,患者病情多较轻,少数病例病情严重,进展迅速,严重者可以导致死亡.

  5. EFSA Panel Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and its potential implications for animal health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Brown, Ian; Capua, Ilaria;

    . Such vaccines efficiently prevent disease by reducing virus replication in the lungs. However, voluntary vaccination of swine with these vaccines has not halted the circulation of SIV in swine. There is no urgency for vaccination of pigs against pH1N1 virus. Currently, no vaccines against H1 viruses for poultry...... of wild birds with pH1N1 virus has been reported. From an animal health perspective, no specific disease control measures are considered necessary. Vaccines based on the pH1N1 virus appear to induce protection in swine similar to that induced by the existing swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccines...... are available but at present, there is no need to vaccinate poultry against pH1N1 virus. Monitoring of circulating influenza viruses in swine and poultry populations should be instigated to monitor the evolution of the pH1N1 virus including changes in virulence....

  6. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  7. 甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵苹

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2009年3月以来,许多国家先后发生甲型H1N1流感.甲型H1N1流感原名猪流感,为避免"猪流感"一词对人们的误导,世界卫生组织将此前被称为猪流感的新型致命病毒更名为"AH1N1型流感"(influenza A (H1N1)),我国按惯例称为"甲型H1N1流感". 世卫组织已将该病警告级别提高到6级,表明它将会成为全球性流行病.

  8. A/H1N1研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玲娜

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009年3以来,包括墨西哥、美国和加拿大在内的许多国家发生了甲型H1N1流感[Swine-origin Influenza A (A/H1N1)]疫情,WHO已于2009年6月20日将此次流感流行的预警级别提升至6级.现已基本明确,引起此次流感疫情的A/H1N1流感病毒是猪流感病毒(Swine Influenza Virus, SIV)的一种新型变异株.此次流感疫情的发生,再次使猪流感成为社会各界关注的焦点之一.本文就甲型H1N1流感的临床表现、病毒特征、相互关系及其对动物卫生监督工作的影响等作一综述.

  9. Nationwide molecular surveillance of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus genomes: Canada, 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag Graham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2009, a novel triple-reassortant swine influenza A H1N1 virus ("A/H1N1pdm"; also known as SOIV was detected and spread globally as the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st century. Sequencing has since been conducted at an unprecedented rate globally in order to monitor the diversification of this emergent virus and to track mutations that may affect virus behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By Sanger sequencing, we determined consensus whole-genome sequences for A/H1N1pdm viruses sampled nationwide in Canada over 33 weeks during the 2009 first and second pandemic waves. A total of 235 virus genomes sampled from unique subjects were analyzed, providing insight into the temporal and spatial trajectory of A/H1N1pdm lineages within Canada. Three clades (2, 3, and 7 were identifiable within the first two weeks of A/H1N1pdm appearance, with clades 5 and 6 appearing thereafter; further diversification was not apparent. Only two viral sites displayed evidence of adaptive evolution, located in hemagglutinin (HA corresponding to D222 in the HA receptor-binding site, and to E374 at HA2-subunit position 47. Among the Canadian sampled viruses, we observed notable genetic diversity (1.47 x 10⁻³ amino acid substitutions per site in the gene encoding PB1, particularly within the viral genomic RNA (vRNA-binding domain (residues 493-757. This genome data set supports the conclusion that A/H1N1pdm is evolving but not excessively relative to other H1N1 influenza A viruses. Entropy analysis was used to investigate whether any mutated A/H1N1pdm protein residues were associated with infection severity; however no virus genotypes were observed to trend with infection severity. One virus that harboured heterozygote coding mutations, including PB2 D567D/G, was attributed to a severe and potentially mixed infection; yet the functional significance of this PB2 mutation remains unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings contribute to

  10. Positive Selection on Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes of H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Li, Wenfu

    2011-04-21

    Abstract Background Since its emergence in March 2009, the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health. To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both HA and NA genes have evolved into five distinct clusters, with further analyses indicating that the pandemic 2009 strains have experienced the strongest positive selection. We also found evidence of strong selection acting on the seasonal human H1N1 isolates. However, swine viruses from North America and Eurasia were under weak positive selection, while there was no significant evidence of positive selection acting on the avian isolates. A site-by-site analysis revealed that the positively selected sites were located in both of the cleaved products of HA (HA1 and HA2), as well as NA. In addition, the pandemic 2009 strains were subject to differential selection pressures compared to seasonal human, North American swine and Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses. Conclusions Most of these positively and\\/or differentially selected sites were situated in the B-cell and\\/or T-cell antigenic regions, suggesting that selection at these sites might be responsible for the antigenic variation of the viruses. Moreover, some sites were also associated with glycosylation and receptor-binding ability. Thus, selection at these positions might have helped the pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses to adapt to the new hosts after they were introduced from pigs to humans. Positive selection on position 274 of NA protein, associated with drug resistance, might account for the prevalence of drug-resistant variants of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses, but there was no evidence that positive selection was responsible for the spread of the drug resistance of the pandemic H1N1 strains.

  11. Molecular epidemiology and complete genome characterization of H1N1pdm virus from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus is one of world's major uncontrolled pathogen, causing seasonal epidemic as well as global pandemic. This was evidenced by recent emergence and continued prevalent 2009 swine origin pandemic H1N1 Influenza A virus, provoking first true pandemic in the past 40 years. In the course of its evolution, the virus acquired many mutations and multiple unidentified molecular determinants are likely responsible for the ability of the 2009 H1N1 virus to cause increased disease severity in humans. Availability of limited data on complete genome hampers the continuous monitoring of this type of events. Outbreaks with considerable morbidity and mortality have been reported from all parts of the country. METHODS/RESULTS: Considering a large number of clinical cases of infection complete genome based sequence characterization of Indian H1N1pdm virus and their phylogenetic analysis with respect to circulating global viruses was undertaken, to reveal the phylodynamic pattern of H1N1pdm virus in India from 2009-2011. The Clade VII was observed as a major circulating clade in phylogenetic analysis. Selection pressure analysis revealed 18 positively selected sites in major surface proteins of H1N1pdm virus. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly revealed that clade VII has been identified as recent circulating clade in India as well globally. Few clade VII specific well identified markers undergone positive selection during virus evolution. Continuous monitoring of the H1N1pdm virus is warranted to track of the virus evolution and further transmission. This study will serve as a baseline data for future surveillance and also for development of suitable therapeutics.

  12. Successful Treatment of Novel H1N1 Influenza related Fulminant Myocarditis with Extracorporeal Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohite Prashant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of myocardial involvement in influenza infection ranges from 0% to 12%. The 2009 pH1N1 influenza virus, formerly known as swine flu, first appeared in Mexico and the United States of America in March and April 2009 and has swept the globe with unprecedented speed. We report a case of fulminant myocarditis associated with this virus treated successfully using extra-corporal membrane oxygenator.

  13. NovelH1N1inlfuenzaAvirusinfectioninapatient withacuterejectionafterlivertransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Juan He; Sheng Yan; Min Zhang; Wei-Lin Wang; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza A virus was ifrst identiifed in April 2009 and rapidly evolved into a pandemic. Recipients of solid-organ transplants have a higher risk for severe infection because of immunosuppression. There are limited reports of 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza in liver transplant recipients, especially in China. METHODS: We present a case of a 48-year-old male liver transplant recipient with 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza A virus. He received therapy for acute rejection after transplantation and was conifrmed with H1N1 virus infection. RESULTS:The patient was started on oseltamivir (75 mg, orally twice daily) and had a benign hospital course, with defervescence and resolution of symptoms within 72 hours. The follow-up chest radiograph after discharge was normal. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza in this hospitalized transplant recipient was relatively mild, and prolonged viral shedding was not noted. Oseltamivir can be a valid measure in immunocompromised individuals.

  14. H1N1 in dialysis units: Prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkar Ayman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis patients are at increased risk of contracting influenza A H1N1 and deve-loping serious illness. Increasing the awareness of dialysis patients and continuous education and training of medical staff on early recognition and management of influenza A H1N1 can help in saving the life of patients. Antiviral drugs and influenza vaccines are effective in providing ade-quate immunity in dialysis patients with strict implementation of infection control policies and procedures can help in preventing and controlling the dissemination of influenza A H1N1 in dia-lysis units. We report a case of a patient who presented with HINI influenza and developed acute kidney injury during his hospitalization and his course with disease.

  15. Clinical features and prevention & control strategy of influenza A H1N1%甲型H1N1流行性感冒的临床特征与防控策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任成山

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甲型H1N1流感(influenza A H1N1 virus)于2009年3月18日首先在墨西哥出现,疫情迅速蔓延,席卷全球[1].经美国疾病预防与控制中心(centers for disease control and prevention,CDC)鉴定,致病源为甲型流感病毒的核酸序列发生基因重排(reassortment),同时含人、禽和猪流感病毒核酸序列的新型H1N1甲型流感病毒(novel swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus,S-OIV)[2-4].2009年5月11日我国内地首例甲型H1N1流感病例的确诊,意味着甲型H1N1流感已突破前哨闯入中国,也标志着我国防控甲型H1N1流感的阵地战已经打响.

  16. H1N1 influenza pneumonia and bacterial coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Esther; Robles, Alejandro; Sangil, Anna; Benet, Susana; Viladot, Maria Eugenia; Pascual, Vanesa; Barreiro, Bienvenido

    2011-12-01

    The model described by Bewick et al seems to be able to distinguish between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and non-H1N1 community acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on five criteria. However, bacterial infection in the influenza group has not been accurately excluded. Therefore, this model could misidentify these patients and lead to an inappropriate treatment. We conducted a prospective observational study to compare mixed pneumonia vs viral pneumonia. In the mixed pneumonia group patients were older, had higher levels of procalcitonine and higher scores of severity. In our cohort the model proposed by Bewick et al would not identify patients with coinfection. PMID:21994246

  17. O VÍRUS PANDEMICO (H1N1: UMA AMEAÇA A SUINOCULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Alexandra Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza A (H1N1 or Swine Flu is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease caused by one of several swine influenza virus A. Morbidity tends to be high while low mortality. Pigs are important hosts of H1N1 influenza (swine-like influenza A virus and susceptible to infection by influenza viruses of avian origin and human. These animals have an important role in viral transmission between species and the epidemiology of human influenza because it can harbor a virus that undergoes genetic recombination and mutation may therefore be more virulent or not. On April 24, 2009, there was a first alert from WHO (World Health Organization on the appearance of the disease. The spread of the H1N1 caused alarm because it could be quickly and become unmanageable, since its symptoms are similar to those of a common flu and could be easily confused and camouflage a possible pandemic. Considering the great impact of the recent epidemic H1N1 influenza virus, according to their potential risk, this article intends to clarify how to recognize, diagnose and prevent, to better understand the relationships between exposure to pigs and possible infection. Influenza suína (H1N1 ou Gripe Suína é uma doença respiratória aguda altamente contagiosa, causada por um dos diversos vírus da influenza suína A. A morbidade tende a ser alta, enquanto a mortalidade baixa. Os suínos são importantes hospedeiros do vírus Influenza H1N1(swine-like Influenza A e susceptíveis às infecções por vírus Influenza de origem aviária e humana. Estes animais possuem importante papel na transmissão viral entre espécies e na epidemiologia da influenza humana, pois pode abrigar um vírus que sofre recombinação genética e por consequência mutação que pode ficar ou não mais virulento. Em 24 de abril de 2009, houve o primeiro alerta da OMS (Organização Mundial da Saúde sobre o surgimento desta doença. O contágio pelo H1N1 causou alarme, pois poderia ser rápido e

  18. Influenza A (H1N1 2009: Impact on Frankfurt in due consideration of health care and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groneberg David A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009 a novel influenza A H1N1/2009 virus was identified in Mexico and in the United States which quickly spread around the world. Most of the countries established infection surveillance systems in order to track the number of (laboratory-confirmed H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and deaths. Methods The impact of the emergence of the novel pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus on Frankfurt was statistically evaluated by the Health Protection Authority, City of Frankfurt am Main. Vaccination rates of the health care workers (HCWs of the University Hospital Frankfurt were measured by the Occupational Health Service. Results Although the virulence of pandemic (H1N1 2009 seems to be comparable with seasonal influenza, a major patient load and wave of hospital admissions occurred in the summer of 2009. Even though the 2009 vaccination rate of the University Hospital Frankfurt (seasonal influenza [40.5%], swine flu [36.3%] is better than the average annual uptake of influenza vaccine in the German health care system (approximately 22% for seasonal and 15% for swine flu, vaccination levels remain insufficient. However, physicians were significantly (p Conclusions The outbreak of the pandemic (H1N1 2009 in April 2009 provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Nosocomial transmission of H1N1/2009 has been documented. Present experience should be used to improve pandemic preparedness plans and vaccination programs ought to target as many HCWs as possible.

  19. H1N1 Message from the Acting Surgeon General

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-13

    In this podcast, Acting Surgeon General Dr. Steven Galson discusses what you can do to protect yourself from H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/13/2009 by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/13/2009.

  20. H1N1 Flu and Antiviral Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-02

    This podcast discusses the use of antiviral drugs for treating and preventing the H1N1 flu virus.  Created: 5/2/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/2/2009.

  1. Stay Informed About Novel H1N1 Influenza

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-04

    This podcast discusses things you can do everyday to avoid getting sick from infectious diseases, such as the novel H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/4/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing.   Date Released: 5/4/2009.

  2. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Escola de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: to describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: the most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: the most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or cranio caudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms. (author)

  3. Novel H1N1 Flu and Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    This podcast gives tips to stay healthy and help prevent infection with novel H1N1 flu if your child or someone you know is going to camp.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  4. Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-06

    Dr. George Nelson, a CDC medical officer, discusses the relationship between pneumococcal pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  5. H1N1 Influenza A hos mennesker og svin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Den nye pandemiske influenza A stamme H1N1 er hovedsagelig et nyt virus, som spredes mellem mennesker, men virusset er formodentlig opstået ved blanding af to svineinfluenza-virus og har derfor bibeholdt evnen til at kunne smitte fra mennesker til svin og fra svin til svin. Det er derfor vigtigt...

  6. Narcolepsy and H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of narcolepsy between January 2000 and December 2010 in children in western Sweden and its relation to the Pandemrix H1N1 influenza vaccination were assessed by collection of data from hospital and clinic medical records and by parent telephone interviews.

  7. Molecular docking of selected phytocompounds with H1N1 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazmi, Mohammed I

    2015-01-01

    The H1N1 influenza virus is a serious threat to human population. Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are known antiviral drugs for swine flu with observed side effects. These drugs are viral neuraminidase and hemagglutinin inhibitor prevents early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. Therefore, it is of interest to identify naturally occurring novel compounds to control viral growth. Thus, H1N1 proteins (neuraminidase and hemagglutinin) were screened with phytocompounds isolated from Tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum L.) using molecular docking tools. This identified Apigenin as an alternative to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir with improved predicted binding properties. Hence, it is of interest to consider this compound for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. PMID:26124560

  8. Mensajes importantes sobre la influenza H1N1: Comunidad (H1N1 Flu Awareness: Community)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Este podcast aborda brevemente los planes de la comunidad frente al brote del virus nuevo de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  9. Mensajes importantes sobre la influenza H1N1: Higiene (H1N1 Flu Awareness: Hygiene)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Este podcast aborda brevemente las formas de protegerse contra el virus nuevo de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  10. H1N1 Infection in a pediatric unit

    OpenAIRE

    J. Magalhães; Pinho, L; Mendes, C; Dias, A.; Zilhão, C; Garrido, C; Pinto, S.; Reis, M. G.; Guedes, M

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: A infecção por vírus influenza A H1N1 constituiu a primeira pandemia deste século. Para reduzir a propagação, foram enfatizadas medidas de protecção individual e atendimento e internamento em áreas específicas, com isolamento de gotícula. Objectivos: Avaliar a importância da área de isolamento para casos de suspeita de infecção por H1N1 num Serviço de Pediatria. Caracterização da infecção nos doentes internados. Material e métodos: Consulta do processo clín...

  11. Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Lu; CAO Bin; WANG Chen

    2011-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection ranged from self-limited mild illness to progressive pneumonia,or even a fatal outcome.We summarize the clinical manifestations,risk factors for severe and fatal cases,pathologic findings and treatment of this disease in this paper based on current reports from different regions of the world.

  12. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-29

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.  Created: 3/29/2010 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/29/2010.

  13. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Norwegian pigs naïve to influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germundsson, A.; Gjerset, B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane;

    In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1-09v) emerged in the human population. The first case of pH1N1v infection in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009. In Norway, pH1N1v infection was recorded in a swine herd on the 10th of October of 2009. Here, we report...... results from the investigation performed during the outbreak and the follow up surveillance performed in the Norwegian pig population. Nasal swabs were collected from herds i) where pigs had been exposed to persons with verified pH1N1-09v infection or with influenza-like illness (ILI); ii) where pigs...... showed clinical signs or iii) with a history of close contact with or close proximity to infected herds. In addition, blood samples were collected from nucleus and multiplier breeding herds. Detection of pH1N1-09v was initially performed using a real-time RT-PCR targeted to detect influenza A virus...

  14. Identification of Suitable Natural Inhibitor against Influenza A (H1N1) Neuraminidase Protein by Molecular Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Maheswata; Jena, Lingaraja; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus, also known as swine flu is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality since 2009. There is a need to explore novel anti-viral drugs for overcoming the epidemics. Traditionally, different plant extracts of garlic, ginger, kalmegh, ajwain, green tea, turmeric, menthe, tulsi, etc. have been used as hopeful source of prevention and treatment of human influenza. The H1N1 virus contains an important glycoprotein, known as neuraminidase (NA) that is mainly responsible for initiation of viral infection and is essential for the life cycle of H1N1. It is responsible for sialic acid cleavage from glycans of the infected cell. We employed amino acid sequence of H1N1 NA to predict the tertiary structure using Phyre2 server and validated using ProCheck, ProSA, ProQ, and ERRAT server. Further, the modelled structure was docked with thirteen natural compounds of plant origin using AutoDock4.2. Most of the natural compounds showed effective inhibitory activity against H1N1 NA in binding condition. This study also highlights interaction of these natural inhibitors with amino residues of NA protein. Furthermore, among 13 natural compounds, theaflavin, found in green tea, was observed to inhibit H1N1 NA proteins strongly supported by lowest docking energy. Hence, it may be of interest to consider theaflavin for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. PMID:27729839

  15. Isolation, Identification and Homology Analysis of the First Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in A District%某区甲型H1N1流感病毒分离鉴定及同源性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓; 巩飚; 胡淮洁; 许娇; 冉冉

    2014-01-01

    Objective Detection and separation of H1N1 influenza virus, the first area of Kaifeng virus strains were isolated from whole genome sequencing and homology analysis, to provide a scientific basis for the study of influenza virus epidemic and the variation law.Methods Real-time RT-PCR method for detection, screening to determine the influenza A H1N1 virus positive specimens; using MDCK cells isolated H1N1 influenza virus strain A/Kaifeng/01/2009 (H1N1); measured and analyzed their whole genome sequence; conducted using sequence alignment homology analysis.Results H1N1 influenza virus were detected in samples from 1828 were positive for influenza-like illness in 286 copies, the positive rate of 15.6%. The first time the whole strain of H1N1 influenza virus genome sequence and in Kaifeng area. Genome sequence analysis showed that: the strain and 2009 pandemic strain is highly homologous to the same evolutionary branch. Previous epidemic of swine influenza virus strains found in contrast, HA gene 12 bp point mutation occurred. Conclusion MDCK cells (H1N1) virus has a high sensitivity; Kaifeng area first case of H1N1 flu virus strains isolated in North America epidemic strains highly homologous; compared with the previous representative strains of classical swine influenza HA protein antigen appeared drift; lay the foundation for further research in molecular biology (H1N1) virus in the future.%目的:检测并分离甲型H1N1流感病毒,对开封地区首次分离到的病毒株进行全基因组序列测定及同源性分析,为研究流感病毒的流行及变异规律提供科学依据。方法采用Real-time RT-PCR方法检测,筛选确定出甲型H1N1流感病毒阳性标本;利用狗肾传代细胞分离得到甲型H1N1流感病毒株A/Kaifeng/01/2009(H1N1);测定并分析其全基因组序列;利用序列比对进行了同源性分析。结果从1828份流感样病例中检出甲型H1N1流感病毒阳性标本286份,阳性率15.6%。在开封地区首次获得甲型H

  16. Affective language during the H1N1 influenza health crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morant Marco, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the effects that, as seen through the written press, the arrival of H1N1 had on certain affective behaviors in society. After the spread of H1N1, health authorities recommended maintaining physical distance in social settings and, among other measures, advised against kissing. At first, this show of affection became a victim of the pandemic, especially in certain activities and rituals. However, once the media impact of swine flu had subsided, kissing recovered its habitual place and frequency, demonstrating that customs which are socially and culturally entrenched are resistant to change.

    El presente artículo analiza los efectos que según la prensa escrita tuvo la llegada de la gripe A en ciertos comportamientos afectivos de la población. Las autoridades sanitarias, tras la expansión del virus H1N1, recomendaron aumentar la distancia social y aconsejaron, entre otras medidas, evitar los besos. Esta manifestación afectiva, en un primer momento, notó los efectos de la pandemia, sobre todo en ciertas actividades y rituales. Sin embargo, una vez pasado el impacto mediático de la gripe A, recuperó su uso y frecuencia habitual, demostrando que las costumbres fuertemente enraizadas se resisten a cambiar.

  17. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenze A (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. L.

    2012-12-15

    Using by pre-developed multiplex RT-PCR kit that is able to diagnosis Tamiflu-sensitive and -resistant Swine Influenza A (H1N1) in the 1st research year, reproducibility and sentitivity of the kit has been investigated in this year. The optimum concentration of reverse transcriptase has also been determined and the economic evaluation has been carried out in this year. Based on the results, a international patent has been applied and a domestic patent has been registered in this year.

  18. A candidate H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine elicits protective immunity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Steitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009 a new pandemic disease appeared and spread globally. The recent emergence of the pandemic influenza virus H1N1 first isolated in Mexico and USA raised concerns about vaccine availability. We here report our development of an adenovirus-based influenza H1N1 vaccine tested for immunogenicity and efficacy to confer protection in animal model. METHODS: We generated two adenovirus(Ad5-based influenza vaccine candidates encoding the wildtype or a codon-optimized hemagglutinin antigen (HA from the recently emerged swine influenza isolate A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm. After verification of antigen expression, immunogenicity of the vaccine candidates were tested in a mouse model using dose escalations for subcutaneous immunization. Sera of immunized animals were tested in microneutalization and hemagglutination inhibition assays for the presence of HA-specific antibodies. HA-specific T-cells were measured in IFNgamma Elispot assays. The efficiency of the influenza vaccine candidates were evaluated in a challenge model by measuring viral titer in lung and nasal turbinate 3 days after inoculation of a homologous H1N1 virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single immunization resulted in robust cellular and humoral immune response. Remarkably, the intensity of the immune response was substantially enhanced with codon-optimized antigen, indicating the benefit of manipulating the genetic code of HA antigens in the context of recombinant influenza vaccine design. These results highlight the value of advanced technologies in vaccine development and deployment in response to infections with pandemic potential. Our study emphasizes the potential of an adenoviral-based influenza vaccine platform with the benefits of speed of manufacture and efficacy of a single dose immunization.

  19. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  20. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  1. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-08

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.  Created: 12/8/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2009.

  2. Determinants of H1N1 vaccination uptake in England

    OpenAIRE

    Biro, Aniko

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate which individual characteristics influenced the uptake of the 2009 H1N1 vaccination in England. The vaccination was provided for free to a specified target group who also received invitation letters, but the coverage rate was still far from universal among them.MethodsData from the 2010 edition of the Health Survey for England are used (size of the estimation sample: 7211). In order to partial out the effect of unobservable time costs, attitudes or acce...

  3. Imaging Findings in Patients With H1N1 Influenza A Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swine influenza (H1N1) is a very contagious respiratory infection and World Health Organization (WHO) has raised the alert level to phase 6 (pandemic). The study of clinical and laboratory manifestations as well as radiologic imaging findings helps in its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of patients with documented H1N1 infection referred to our center. Thirty-one patients (16 men) with documented H1N1 infection were included in our study. The initial radiography obtained from the patients was reviewed regarding pattern (consolidation, ground glass, nodules and reticulation), distribution (focal, multifocal, and diffuse) and the lung zones involved. Computed tomography (CT) scans were also reviewed for the same abnormalities. The patient files were studied for their possible underlying diseases. The mean age was 37.97 ± 13.9 years. Seventeen (54.8%) patients had co-existing condition (eight respiratory, five cardiovascular, two immunodeficiency, two cancer, four others). Twelve (38.7%) patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Five (16.1%) patients died. (25.8%) had normal initial radiographs. The most common abnormality was consolidation (12/31; 38.7%) in the peripheral region (11/31; 35.5%) followed by peribronchovascular areas (10/31; 32.3%) which was most commonly observed in the lower zone. The patients admitted to the ICU were more likely to have two or more lung zones involved (P = 0.005). In patients with the novel swine flu infection, the most common radiographic abnormality observed was consolidation in the lower lung zones. Patients admitted to ICU were more likely to have two or more lung zones involved

  4. Imaging Findings in Patients With H1N1 Influenza A Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swine influenza (H1N1 is a very contagious respiratory infection and World Health Organization (WHO has raised the alert level to phase 6 (pandemic. The study of clinical and laboratory manifestations as well as radiologic imaging findings helps in its early diagnosis.Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of patients with documented H1N1 infection referred to our center.Patients and Methods: Thirty-one patients (16 men with documented H1N1 infection were included in our study. The initial radiography obtained from the patients was reviewed regarding pattern (consolidation, ground glass, nodules and reticulation, distribution (focal, multifocal, and diffuse and the lung zones involved. Computed tomography (CT scans were also reviewed for the same abnormalities. The patient files were studied for their possible underlying diseases.Results: The mean age was 37.97 ± 13.9 years. Seventeen (54.8% patients had co-existing condition (eight respiratory, five cardiovascular, two immunodeficiency, two cancer, four others. Twelve (38.7% patients required intensive care unit (ICU admission. Five (16.1% patients died. (25.8% had normal initial radiographs. The most common abnormality was consolidation (12/31; 38.7% in the peripheral region (11/31; 35.5% followed by peribronchovascular areas (10/31; 32.3% which was most commonly observed in the lower zone. The patients admitted to the ICU were more likely to have two or more lung zones involved (P = 0.005.Conclusions: In patients with the novel swine flu infection, the most common radiographic abnormality observed was consolidation in the lower lung zones. Patients admitted to ICU were more likely to have two or more lung zones involved.

  5. Late-stage Use of Low-dose Corticosteroids Aid Recovery of Severe H1N1 Viral Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The role of corticosteroids in the management of severely ill patients with inlfuenza A (H1N1) viral infection is unclear and controversial. Two critically ill cases with influenza A (H1N1) infections complicated with organizing pneumonia (OP) in 2011 successfully treated with low dose corticosteroids were reported here. After initial clinical improvement, the condition of both patients aggravated 20-23 days after the onset of illness. Chest X-ray and computed tomographies (CT) showed an increment of lung infiltrates. Cultures of blood, pleural lfuid and transbronchial aspirate were negative for bacteria and fungi. Organizing pneumonia was diagnosed clinically and both patients were successfully treated with low-dose corticosteroids. Low-dose corticosteroids initiated during convalescence may be beneficial for severe swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (S-OIV) infections.

  6. IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenggang Li; Chen Wang; Zhongwei Chen; Li Xing; Chong Tang; Xiangwu Ju; Feng Guo; Jiejie Deng; Yan Zhao; Peng Yang; Jun Tang; Penghui Yang; Huanling Wang; Zhongpeng Zhao; Zhinan Yin; Bin Cao; Xiliang Wang; Chengyu Jiang; Yang Sun; Taisheng Li; Chen Wang; Zhong Wang; Zhen Zou; Yiwu Yan; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus(S-OIV H1N1)that infected almost every country in the world.Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury.In this report,we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease.The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir(Tamiflu)administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model.Moreover,elevated levels of IL-17,Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing.IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice.These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics.

  7. Replication, Pathogenesis and Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Non-Immune Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brookes, Sharon M; Nunez, Alejandor; Choudhury, Bhudipa;

    2010-01-01

    The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1,2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment...... and evolution within swine worldwide [3]. A key public and veterinary health consideration in the context of the evolving pandemic is whether the H1N1/09 virus could become established in pig populations [4]. We performed an infection and transmission study in pigs with A/California/07/09. In combination...... transmissibility between pigs and virus-host adaptation events. Our results demonstrate that extant H1N1/09 is fully capable of becoming established in global pig populations. We also show the roles of viral receptor specificity in both transmission and tissue tropism. Remarkably, following direct inoculation...

  8. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATIONS § 94.10 Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. (a) Classical swine fever is known... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL......

  9. Public anxiety and information seeking following the H1N1 outbreak: blogs, newspaper articles, and Wikipedia visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausczik, Yla; Faasse, Kate; Pennebaker, James W; Petrie, Keith J

    2012-01-01

    Web-based methodologies may provide a new and unique insight into public response to an infectious disease outbreak. This naturalistic study investigates the effectiveness of new web-based methodologies in assessing anxiety and information seeking in response to the 2009 H1N1 outbreak by examining language use in weblogs ("blogs"), newspaper articles, and web-based information seeking. Language use in blogs and newspaper articles was assessed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, and information seeking was examined using the number of daily visits to H1N1-relevant Wikipedia articles. The results show that blogs mentioning "swine flu" used significantly higher levels of anxiety, health, and death words and lower levels of positive emotion words than control blogs. Change in language use on blogs was strongly related to change in language use in newspaper coverage for the same day. Both the measure of anxiety in blogs mentioning "swine flu" and the number of Wikipedia visits followed similar trajectories, peaking shortly after the announcement of H1N1 and then declining rapidly. Anxiety measured in blogs preceded information seeking on Wikipedia. These results show that the public reaction to H1N1 was rapid and short-lived. This research suggests that analysis of web behavior can provide a source of naturalistic data on the level and changing pattern of public anxiety and information seeking following the outbreak of a public health emergency.

  10. Influenza A (H1N1. Radiological Patterns Influenza A (H1N1. Patrones Radiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Yudey Rodriguez Pino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influenza A (H1N1 has a wide radiological spectrum, difficult to differentiate from other epidemic respiratory diseases. One of the distinctive elements seems to be the quick evolution of the imagenologic lesions in the sick persons, as well as the slow resolution of these manifestations. The chest fillm is of vital importance to make a precise diagnosis, and it constitutes an indispensable tool for the identification of the cases according to the affection degree (light, moderate, and severe, besides contributing as an essential way to the classification of the patients according to a grade of uncertainty. Although as a confirmation complementary is not definitive, it is important in defining if a case is suspicious or probable.La influenza A (H1N1 tiene un espectro radiológico amplio, difícil de diferenciar de otras enfermedades respiratorias no epidémicas. Uno de los elementos distintivos parece estar en relación con la rápida evolución de las lesiones imagenológicas en los enfermos afectados, así como la lenta resolución de estas manifestaciones. La radiografía de tórax es de vital importancia para hacer un diagnóstico preciso, constituye una herramienta indispensable para la notificación de los casos según el grado de afección (leve, moderada, severa, además de contribuir de manera esencial a la clasificación de los pacientes según el grado de incertidumbre pues, aunque no es un complementario confirmatorio, sí es importante a la hora de definir si un caso es sospechoso o probable.

  11. Chest Imaging Findings in Hospitalized Children with H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Pekcan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to review the radiological findings and to find new prognostic factors that determine the need for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1 virus infection. Methods: Chest X-ray (CXR and computed tomography (CT findings of 18 children with laboratory-confirmed H1N1 infection (9 boys, 9 girls with a median age of 34 (1–216 months were retrospectively evaluated. Results: CXRs were performed in 15 (83.3% and thorax CT in 7 (38.8% children. Abnormal findings were detected in 60% of the patients who underwent CXR and 85.7% of the patients who underwent thorax CT. Radiological findings were mostly diffuse, bilateral, and asymmetric. Ground-glass opacity (GGO (66.6% was the leading abnormality and was followed by reticulation (38.8%, nodules (27.7%, consolidation only (16.6%, tree-in-bud pattern (11.1%, consolidation with GGO (5.5%, and septal lines (5.5%. Lymphadenopathy (22.2%, air trapping (5.5%, and parenchymal band (5.5% were other recorded findings. CXR was found to be insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. Only existence of nodules (p=0.04 affected the need for PICU admission. Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in children with H1N1 infection were bilateral, asymmetric GGO with or without associated multifocal areas of consolidation. CXR was insufficient to detect subpleural nodules, lymphadenopathies, and sometimes GGO. The existence of nodules is a bad prognostic factor in determining the need for PICU admission.

  12. Molecular characterization of H1N1 influenza A viruses from human cases in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; WANG ChengMin; DONG GuoYing; LUO Jing; ZHAO BaoHua; HE HongXuan

    2009-01-01

    Subtypes of H1N1 influenza virus can be found in humans in North America,while they are also associated with the infection of swine.Characterization of the genotypes of viral strains in human populations is important to understand the source and distribution of viral strains.Genomic and protein sequences of 10 isolates of the 2009 outbreak of influenza A (H1N1) virus in North America were obtained from GenBank database.To characterize the genotypes of these viruses,phylogenetic trees of genes PB2,PB1,PA,HA,NP,NA,NS and M were constructed by Phylip3.67 program and N-Linked glycosylation sites of HA,NA,PB2,NS1 and M2 proteins were analyzed online by NetNGIyc1.0 program.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these isolates are virtually identical but may be recombinant viruses because their genomic fragments come from different viruses.The isolates also contain a characteristic lowly pathogenic amino acid motif at their HA cleavage sites (IPSIQSR↓GL),and an E residue at position 627 of the PB2 protein which shows its high affinity to humans.The homologous model of M proteins showed that the viruses had obtained the ability of anti-amantadine due to the mutation at the drug-sensitive site,while sequence analysis of NA proteins indicated that the viruses are still susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor drug (i.e.oseltamivir and zanamivir) because no mutations have been observed.Our results strongly suggested that the viruses responsible for the 2009 outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1) virus have the ability to cross species barriers to infect human and mammalian animals based on molecular analysis.These findings may further facilitate the therapy and prevention of possible transmission from North America to other countries.

  13. Characterization of the 2009 pandemic A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 influenza strain in human airway epithelial cells and ferrets.

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    Penghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A novel 2009 swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus (S-OIV H1N1 has been transmitted among humans worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of this virus in human airway epithelial cells and mammals is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, we showed that a 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus strain, A/Beijing/501/2009, isolated from a human patient, caused typical influenza-like symptoms including weight loss, fluctuations in body temperature, and pulmonary pathological changes in ferrets. We demonstrated that the human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 was susceptible to infection and that the infected cells underwent apoptosis at 24 h post-infection. In contrast to the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus, the 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus strain A/Beijing/501/2009 induced more cell death involving caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells. Additionally, ferrets infected with the A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 virus strain exhibited increased body temperature, greater weight loss, and higher viral titers in the lungs. Therefore, the A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 isolate successfully infected the lungs of ferrets and caused more pathological lesions than the seasonal influenza virus. Our findings demonstrate that the difference in virulence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus in vitro and in vivo may have been mediated by different mechanisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus infection in both humans and animals is broadened by our findings that apoptotic cell death is involved in the cytopathic effect observed in vitro and that the pathological alterations in the lungs of S-OIV H1N1-infected ferrets are much more severe.

  14. Genetic Characteristics and Immunogenicity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Isolate from Pig in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyoung Joon; Oh, Jin Sik; Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Han, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sung Jae; Park, Bong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    A pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus strain was isolated from a pig farm in Korea in December 2009. The strain was propagated in and isolated from both the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line and embryonated eggs. The partial and complete sequences of the strain were identical to those of A/California/04/2009, with >99% sequence similarity in the HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 genes. The isolated strain was inactivated and used to prepare a swine influenza vaccine. This trial vaccine, containing the new isolate that has high sequence similarity with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, resulted in seroconversion in Guinea pigs and piglets. This strain could therefore be a potential vaccine candidate for swine influenza control in commercial farms.

  15. Comparative evaluation of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with and without H1N1 infection at a tertiary care referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Samra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus has clinical presentation ranging from mild flu like illness to severe lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The aim of our study was to compare the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and mortality of critically ill patients with (H1N1+ and without H1N1 infection (H1N1-. We retrospectively analyzed medical charts of patients admitted in "Swine Flu ICU" with ARDS from August 2009 to May 2010. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay was used for detection of H1N1 virus in the respiratory specimens. Clinical data from 106 (H1N1 , 45; H1N1+, 61 patients was collected and compared. Mean delay in presentation to our hospital was 5.7 ± 3.1 days and co-morbidities were present in two-fifth of the total admissions. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score of patients with and without H1N1 infection was comparable; 7.8 ± 3.5 and 6.6 ± 3.1 on day 1 and 7.2 ± 4.5 and 6.5 ± 3.1 on day 3, respectively. H1N1+ patients were relatively younger in age (34.2 ± 12.9 years vs. 42.8 ± 18.1, P = 0.005 but presented with significantly lower PaO 2 :FiO 2 ratio (87.3 ± 48.7 vs. 114 ± 51.7 in comparison to those who subsequently tested as H1N1 . The total leucocyte counts were significantly lower in H1N1+ patients during the first four days of illness but incidence of renal failure (P = 0.02 was higher in H1N1+ patients. The mortality in both the groups was high (H1N1+, 77%; H1N1, 68% but comparable. There was a mean delay of 5.7 ± 3.1 days in initiation of antivirals. Patients with H1N1 infection were relatively younger in age and with a significantly higher incidence of refractory hypoxia and acute renal failure. Mortality from ARDS reported in our study in both the groups was high but comparable.

  16. A metagenomic analysis of pandemic influenza A (2009 H1N1 infection in patients from North America.

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    Alexander L Greninger

    Full Text Available Although metagenomics has been previously employed for pathogen discovery, its cost and complexity have prevented its use as a practical front-line diagnostic for unknown infectious diseases. Here we demonstrate the utility of two metagenomics-based strategies, a pan-viral microarray (Virochip and deep sequencing, for the identification and characterization of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. Using nasopharyngeal swabs collected during the earliest stages of the pandemic in Mexico, Canada, and the United States (n = 17, the Virochip was able to detect a novel virus most closely related to swine influenza viruses without a priori information. Deep sequencing yielded reads corresponding to 2009 H1N1 influenza in each sample (percentage of aligned sequences corresponding to 2009 H1N1 ranging from 0.0011% to 10.9%, with up to 97% coverage of the influenza genome in one sample. Detection of 2009 H1N1 by deep sequencing was possible even at titers near the limits of detection for specific RT-PCR, and the percentage of sequence reads was linearly correlated with virus titer. Deep sequencing also provided insights into the upper respiratory microbiota and host gene expression in response to 2009 H1N1 infection. An unbiased analysis combining sequence data from all 17 outbreak samples revealed that 90% of the 2009 H1N1 genome could be assembled de novo without the use of any reference sequence, including assembly of several near full-length genomic segments. These results indicate that a streamlined metagenomics detection strategy can potentially replace the multiple conventional diagnostic tests required to investigate an outbreak of a novel pathogen, and provide a blueprint for comprehensive diagnosis of unexplained acute illnesses or outbreaks in clinical and public health settings.

  17. 64 multidetector CT findings of influenza A (H1N1) virus in patients with hematologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The pandemic of swine-origin H1N1 influenza that began in early 2009 has provided evidence that radiology can assist in the early diagnosis of severe cases. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. MDCT is superior to radiography in showing the distribution of the disease. Purpose. To review the 64 multidetector CT thoracic findings of novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in patients with hematologic malignancies. Material and Methods. This study included 12 patients (3 women, 9 men; mean age, 32.2 years). All patients proved to be infected with influenza A (H1N1) virus. The hematologic malignancies were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), multiple myeloma (n = 1), and myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1). All the patients underwent CT scanning using a 64 multidetector CT scanner. Chest CT scans were reviewed for ground-glass opacities (GGOs), consolidation, airway thickening/dilatation, nodules, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion. Results. More than one CT finding was detected in every patient. Pulmonary affection was bilateral, more on the left side. The affections were mainly peribronchial. Airway wall thickening and dilatation were detected in all 12 patients, GGO in 9/12 patients, nodules in 6/12 patients, consolidation in 6/12 patients, hilar lymphadenopathy in 3/12 patients, and pleural effusion in 2/12 patients. Conclusion. Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common hematologic malignancy affected by influenza A (H1N1) virus. The left lung is affected more than the right one. The most common multidetector CT findings are unilateral or bilateral airway thickening and dilatation. Multidetector CT can be used for early and accurate assessment of pulmonary affection with influenza A H1N1 virus infection

  18. 64 multidetector CT findings of influenza A (H1N1) virus in patients with hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badrawy, Adel [Dept. of Radiology, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura (Egypt)], E-mail: adelelbadrawy@hotmail.com; Zeidan, Amany [Dept. of Thoracic Medicine, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura (Egypt); Ebrahim, Mohamed A. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    Background. The pandemic of swine-origin H1N1 influenza that began in early 2009 has provided evidence that radiology can assist in the early diagnosis of severe cases. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. MDCT is superior to radiography in showing the distribution of the disease. Purpose. To review the 64 multidetector CT thoracic findings of novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in patients with hematologic malignancies. Material and Methods. This study included 12 patients (3 women, 9 men; mean age, 32.2 years). All patients proved to be infected with influenza A (H1N1) virus. The hematologic malignancies were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), multiple myeloma (n = 1), and myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1). All the patients underwent CT scanning using a 64 multidetector CT scanner. Chest CT scans were reviewed for ground-glass opacities (GGOs), consolidation, airway thickening/dilatation, nodules, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion. Results. More than one CT finding was detected in every patient. Pulmonary affection was bilateral, more on the left side. The affections were mainly peribronchial. Airway wall thickening and dilatation were detected in all 12 patients, GGO in 9/12 patients, nodules in 6/12 patients, consolidation in 6/12 patients, hilar lymphadenopathy in 3/12 patients, and pleural effusion in 2/12 patients. Conclusion. Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common hematologic malignancy affected by influenza A (H1N1) virus. The left lung is affected more than the right one. The most common multidetector CT findings are unilateral or bilateral airway thickening and dilatation. Multidetector CT can be used for early and accurate assessment of pulmonary affection with influenza A H1N1 virus infection.

  19. PANDEMIC FLU A/H1N1V: VIROLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE IN SOUTH TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Manini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On April 24, 2004, the World Health Organization confirmed a number of cases of con- tagion of the new Influenza virus A/HIN1 in Mexico and the United States. On June 11 2009, the rapid spread of infection compelled the WHO to raise the pandemic phase to 6, which corresponds to the highest state of alert. The virus probably originated from a recent reassortment between a swine virus previously reassorted with three different viral strains (swine, avian, human and a new viral strain similar to the Eu- roasiatic avian virus[1]. This unprecedented circulation of the new influenza virus was facilitated by travel and international exchanges and has reached, in the period of little more than six weeks, the same extent that had been present in previous pandemics in a period of six months, therefore making necessary the implementation of various strategies of Epidemiological and Virological Surveillance. During the pandemic sea- son, 866 pharyngeal swab samples of persons who presented influenza symptoms were gathered. The patients were then divided into different age groups: 0-4, 5-24, 35-54, 55-64 and ≥65 years of age. The virus’ RNA was extracted from each swab by using a specific kit. Afterwards the RNA was reverse transcribed in cDNA and ampli- fied in a single reaction of real-time PCR using the one-step kit recommended by CDC protocol. The analysis of the 866 pharyngeal swabs has shown the presence of 262 positive sample results for the new variant of the A/H1N1virus. Several parameters of this study have been taken in consideration: age groups, geographical distribution of infection in the three cities studied, the weekly trend of positive results which had shown up after a trip abroad, the incidence in local cases and the measure of infection of the virus among patients who came in contact with infected persons. Among the examined age groups, those majorly affected are: ages 0-4, 5-14, 15-24, the least affected age group was ≥65. In

  20. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  1. Health costs from hospitalization with H1N1 infection during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic compared with non-H1N1 respiratory infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Glaros, Dimitrios; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Froudarakis, Marios; Kioumis, loannis; Kouroumichakis, loannis; Tsiotsios, Anastasios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Nena, Evagelia; Papakosta, Despoina; Rapti, Aggeliki; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Kerenidi, Theodora; Panopoulou, Maria; Trakada, Georgia; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Fouka, Evangelia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    Background The first positive patient with influenza A (H1N1) was recorded in March 2009 and the pandemic continued with new outbreaks throughout 2010. This study’s objective was to quantify the total cost of inpatient care and identify factors associated with the increased cost of the 2009–2010 influenza A pandemic in comparison with nonviral respiratory infection. Methods In total, 133 positive and 103 negative H1N1 patients were included from three tertiary care hospitals during the two waves of H1N1 in 2009 and 2010. The health costs for protective equipment and pharmaceuticals and hospitalization (medications, laboratory, and diagnostic tests) were compared between H1N1 positive and negative patients. Results The objective of the study was to quantify the means of daily and total costs of inpatient care. Overall, cost was higher for H1N1 positive (€61,0117.72) than for H1N1-negative patients (€464,923.59). This was mainly due to the protection measures used and the prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units. In H1N1-negative patients, main contributors to cost included additional diagnostic tests due to concern regarding respiratory capacity and laboratory values, as well as additional radiologic and microbial culture tests. The mean duration of hospitalization was 841 days for H1N1 positive and 829 days for negative patients. Conclusion Cost was higher in H1N1 patients, mainly due to the protection measures used and the increased duration of hospitalization in intensive care units. An automated system to monitor patients would be desirable to reduce cost in H1N1 influenza. PMID:22419882

  2. 甲型H1N1流感死亡病例三株病毒分离株血凝素基因测序分析%Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of isolates viruses from 3 novel influenza A ( H1N1 )deaths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如胜; 欧新华; 田斌

    2010-01-01

    Objective To understand the origin and variation of the hemagglutinin gene of isolates viruses from 3 novel influenza A( H1N1 ) deaths in Changsha ( A/Hunan Kaifu/SWL4142/2009 ( H1N1 ) , A/Hunan Changsha/SWL4346/2009 ( H1 N1 ) and A/Hunan Furong/SWL4224/2009( H1N1 )). Methods The nasopharyngeal swab specimens from the 3 novel influenza A( H1N1 ) deaths in Changsha were tested by RT-PCR and influenza viruses were isolated simultaneously. With the sequencing primers recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), the HA gene of sequences of 3 novel influenza A( H1N1 ) deaths were tested by CEQTM 8000 Genetic Analysis System, through dye terminator cycle sequencing. The sequencing results were submitted to GenBank, then the results were analyzed for amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis with ClustalX and Mega4.1 software. Results All the nucleotide homologies of HA gene sequences in A/Hunan Kaifu/SWL4142/2009 ( H1N1 ), A/Hunan Changsha/SWL4346/2009 ( H1N1 ) and A/Hunan Furong/SWL4224/2009( H1N1 ) are 99% as compared with the novel influenza A( H1N1 ) virus strains of A/NewYork/3502/2009 ( H1N1 ), A/Shanghai/71T/2009 ( H1N1 ) and A/Chita/01/2009 ( H1N1 )The nucleotide homology of the 3 HA gene sequences are more than 99. 5% the same compared with the novel influenza A( H1N1 ) virus strain ( A/Sichuan/1/2009( H1N1 ) ) in China. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that 2009 novel influenza A(H1N1 ) viruses including 3 HA gene sequences of A/Hunan Kaifu/SWL4142/2009 ( H1 N1 ), A/Hunan Changsha/SWL4346/2009 ( H1N1 ), A/Hunan Furong/SWL4224/2009( H1N1 ) had a close evolutionary relationship with the swine H1 virus isolates in North America ( A/Swine/Indiana/P12439/00), but a distant evolutionary relationship with those human seasonal A( H1 N1 ) influenza virus and avian. After comparing with genes of A/Swine/Indiana/P12439/00, we found that the HA gene sequences of the 3 viruses isolated had 28,30 and 27 amino acids with mutation respectively, but only one (R53

  3. Influenza virus A(H1N1)2009 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in young children prior to the H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Annelies W; Westerhuis, Brenda M; Ten Hulscher, Hinke I; Jacobi, Ronald H; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Josine; Buisman, Annemarie M; Koopmans, Marion P; van Binnendijk, Robert S

    2016-09-01

    Pre-existing immunity played a significant role in protection during the latest influenza A virus H1N1 pandemic, especially in older age groups. Structural similarities were found between A(H1N1)2009 and older H1N1 virus strains to which humans had already been exposed. Broadly cross-reactive antibodies capable of neutralizing the A(H1N1)2009 virus have been implicated in this immune protection in adults. We investigated the serological profile of a group of young children aged 9 years (n=55), from whom paired blood samples were available, just prior to the pandemic wave (March 2009) and shortly thereafter (March 2010). On the basis of A(H1N1)2009 seroconversion, 27 of the 55 children (49 %) were confirmed to be infected between these two time points. Within the non-infected group of 28 children (51 %), high levels of seasonal antibodies to H1 and H3 HA1 antigens were detected prior to pandemic exposure, reflecting past infection with H1N1 and H3N2, both of which had circulated in The Netherlands prior to the pandemic. In some children, this reactivity coincided with specific antibody reactivity against A(H1N1)2009. While these antibodies were not able to neutralize the A(H1N1)2009 virus, they were able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro upon interaction with the A(H1N1)2009 virus. This finding suggests that cross-reactive antibodies could contribute to immune protection in children via ADCC.

  4. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié da; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará.

  5. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; de Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; da Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses’ epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará. PMID:27598244

  6. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié da; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará. PMID:27598244

  7. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: an analysis of 63 cases by chest CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; ZHU Jian-bing; CHEN Guang-qiang; YANG Wei-ye; TAO Cheng; WANG Xiao-hui

    2011-01-01

    Background In early April 2009,cases of human infection with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N 1) virus were identified in Mexico.The virus then spread rapidly to other regions of the world.From October 2009,sporadic imported cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) were continuously confirmed in Suzhou.The aim of the study was to review the chest CT findings in 63 patients with laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection.Methods Chest CT examinations were collected from 63 S-OIV infected patients during their hospital stay.Three experienced radiologists inspected images to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize S-OIV induced image changes.CT scores of lesion severity were calculated based on the percentage of affected area to determine severity of infectious lesions.Patients were divided into two groups based on the leukocyte counts.Lesion patterns,local distributions,and quantitative measures were investigated and compared between the two groups.Results Various degrees of bilateral multifocal lesions of ground-glass opacities were found with or without consolidations on the chest CT images.The lesions were both bronchocentric and centrilobular.Patients with elevated leukocyte counts had more extensive lesions,in terms of severity and affected area,than the patients with normal leukocyte counts.The lesion severity scores of patients in the elevated leukocyte group were significantly higher than those of the normal leukocyte group in terms of the entire lung area (P <0.01),and upper (P <0.05) and lower (P <0.01)lobes as well.There were changes in the CT characteristics seen at follow-up as demonstrated by lesions absorption (P<0.01),especially in the upper lobe of the lung (P <0.01),but less so in the middle lobe/lingual and lower lobe of the lung (P>0.05).Conclusions The most common CT findings in S-OIV infection patients were bilateral multifocal distributed ground-glass opacities and consolidations.The lesions were

  8. Caveolin-1 influences human influenza A virus (H1N1 multiplication in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemgård Gun-Viol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat of recurring influenza pandemics caused by new viral strains and the occurrence of escape mutants necessitate the search for potent therapeutic targets. The dependence of viruses on cellular factors provides a weak-spot in the viral multiplication strategy and a means to interfere with viral multiplication. Results Using a motif-based search strategy for antiviral targets we identified caveolin-1 (Cav-1 as a putative cellular interaction partner of human influenza A viruses, including the pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1 strains of swine origin circulating from spring 2009 on. The influence of Cav-1 on human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 virus replication was determined in inhibition and competition experiments. RNAi-mediated Cav-1 knock-down as well as transfection of a dominant-negative Cav-1 mutant results in a decrease in virus titre in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK, a cell line commonly used in basic influenza research as well as in virus vaccine production. To understand the molecular basis of the phenomenon we focussed on the putative caveolin-1 binding domain (CBD located in the lumenal, juxtamembranal portion of the M2 matrix protein which has been identified in the motif-based search. Pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that caveolin-1 binds to M2. The data suggest, that Cav-1 modulates influenza virus A replication presumably based on M2/Cav-1 interaction. Conclusion As Cav-1 is involved in the human influenza A virus life cycle, the multifunctional protein and its interaction with M2 protein of human influenza A viruses represent a promising starting point for the search for antiviral agents.

  9. Protection against divergent influenza H1N1 virus by a centralized influenza hemagglutinin.

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    Eric A Weaver

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a persistent worldwide threat to the human population. As evidenced by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, current vaccine technologies are unable to respond rapidly to this constantly diverging pathogen. We tested the utility of adenovirus (Ad vaccines expressing centralized consensus influenza antigens. Ad vaccines were produced within 2 months and protected against influenza in mice within 3 days of vaccination. Ad vaccines were able to protect at doses as low as 10(7 virus particles/kg indicating that approximately 1,000 human doses could be rapidly generated from standard Ad preparations. To generate broadly cross-reactive immune responses, centralized consensus antigens were constructed against H1 influenza and against H1 through H5 influenza. Twenty full-length H1 HA sequences representing the main branches of the H1 HA phylogenetic tree were used to create a synthetic centralized gene, HA1-con. HA1-con minimizes the degree of sequence dissimilarity between the vaccine and existing circulating viruses. The centralized H1 gene, HA1-con, induced stronger immune responses and better protection against mismatched virus challenges as compared to two wildtype H1 genes. HA1-con protected against three genetically diverse lethal influenza challenges. When mice were challenged with 1934 influenza A/PR/8/34, HA1-con protected 100% of mice while vaccine generated from 2009 A/TX/05/09 only protected 40%. Vaccination with 1934 A/PR/8/34 and 2009 A/TX/05/09 protected 60% and 20% against 1947 influenza A/FM/1/47, respectively, whereas 80% of mice vaccinated with HA1-con were protected. Notably, 80% of mice challenged with 2009 swine flu isolate A/California/4/09 were protected by HA1-con vaccination. These data show that HA1-con in Ad has potential as a rapid and universal vaccine for H1N1 influenza viruses.

  10. Novel reassortant influenza viruses between pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and other influenza viruses pose a risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weili; Wang, Feibing; Dong, Bin; Ou, Changbo; Meng, Demei; Liu, Jinhua; Fan, Zhen-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is characterized by eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allows for gene reassortment among different IAV subtypes when they co-infect a single host cell simultaneously. Genetic reassortment is an important way to favor the evolution of influenza virus. Novel reassortant virus may pose a pandemic among humans. In history, three human pandemic influenza viruses were caused by genetic reassortment between avian, human and swine influenza viruses. Since 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pdm/09 H1N1) influenza virus composed of two swine influenza virus genes highlighted the genetic reassortment again. Due to wide host species and high transmission of the pdm/09 H1N1 influenza virus, many different avian, human or swine influenza virus subtypes may reassert with it to generate novel reassortant viruses, which may result in a next pandemic among humans. So, it is necessary to understand the potential threat of current reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses to public health. This study summarized the status of the reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses of different species origins in natural and experimental conditions. The aim of this summarization is to facilitate us to further understand the potential threats of novel reassortant influenza viruses to public health and to make effective prevention and control strategies for these pathogens.

  11. Pandemics in the age of Twitter: content analysis of Tweets during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak.

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    Cynthia Chew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surveys are popular methods to measure public perceptions in emergencies but can be costly and time consuming. We suggest and evaluate a complementary "infoveillance" approach using Twitter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our study aimed to: 1 monitor the use of the terms "H1N1" versus "swine flu" over time; 2 conduct a content analysis of "tweets"; and 3 validate Twitter as a real-time content, sentiment, and public attention trend-tracking tool. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between May 1 and December 31, 2009, we archived over 2 million Twitter posts containing keywords "swine flu," "swineflu," and/or "H1N1." using Infovigil, an infoveillance system. Tweets using "H1N1" increased from 8.8% to 40.5% (R(2 = .788; p<.001, indicating a gradual adoption of World Health Organization-recommended terminology. 5,395 tweets were randomly selected from 9 days, 4 weeks apart and coded using a tri-axial coding scheme. To track tweet content and to test the feasibility of automated coding, we created database queries for keywords and correlated these results with manual coding. Content analysis indicated resource-related posts were most commonly shared (52.6%. 4.5% of cases were identified as misinformation. News websites were the most popular sources (23.2%, while government and health agencies were linked only 1.5% of the time. 7/10 automated queries correlated with manual coding. Several Twitter activity peaks coincided with major news stories. Our results correlated well with H1N1 incidence data. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the potential of using social media to conduct "infodemiology" studies for public health. 2009 H1N1-related tweets were primarily used to disseminate information from credible sources, but were also a source of opinions and experiences. Tweets can be used for real-time content analysis and knowledge translation research, allowing health authorities to respond to public concerns.

  12. Evaluation of clinical features scoring system as screening tool for influenza A (H1N1 in epidemic situations

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    P Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza A (H1N1 hit the headlines in recent times and created mass hysteria and general panic. The high cost and non-availability of diagnostic laboratory tests for swine flu, especially in the developing countries underlines the need of having a cheaper, easily available, yet reasonably accurate screening test. Aims: This study was carried out to develop a clinical feature-based scoring system (CFSS for influenza A (H1N1 and to evaluate its suitability as a screening tool when large numbers of influenza-like illness cases are suspect. Settings and Design: Clinical-record based study, carried out retrospectively in post-pandemic period on subject′s case-sheets who had been quarantined at IG International Airport′s quarantine center at Delhi. Materials and Methods: Clinical scoring of each suspected case was done by studying their case record sheet and compared with the results of RT-PCR. RT-PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis (Gold Standard. Statistical Analysis: We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical feature-based scoring system (the proposed new screening tool at different cut-off values. The most discriminant cut-off value was determined by plotting the ROC curve. Results: Of the 638 suspected cases, 127 (20% were confirmed to have H1N1 by RT-PCR examination. On the basis of ROC, the most discriminant clinical feature score for diagnosing Influenza A was found to be 7, which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 86%, 88%, 64%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical features scoring system (CFSS can be used as a valid and cost-effective tool for screening swine flu (influenza A (H1N1 cases from large number of influenza-like illness suspects.

  13. Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide ("bioactivated Jewish penicillin") as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-01-01

    Influenza (flu) is caused by a highly contagious virus that is spread by coughs and sneezes. Flu symptoms include high fever, chills and sweating, sore throat, weakness, headache, muscle and joint pains, and cough. Older people and those with an underlying medical condition are more likely to develop serious complications, including secondary bacterial pneumonia, primary influenza pneumonia, and inflammation of the brain or heart. There are three types of flu virus: A, B, and C. The flu virus has a unique ability to change its surface structure. This allows it to escape recognition by the body's immune system and cause widespread illness (epidemics and pandemics). Most cases of influenza occur within a 6- to 8-week period during winter and spring. Epidemics occur when there are minor changes in the nature of the virus so that more people within a community are susceptible. Influenza A is more likely to cause epidemics. Pandemics (worldwide epidemics) occur when there are major changes in the virus so that the disease affects a large proportion of people in a geographic region or on more than one continent. The findings presented in this article have many important implications for understanding the influenza A (H1N1) viral pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment. Direct viral cytotoxicity (referred cytopathic effect) is only a fraction of several types of events induced by virus infection. Nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2-·) are generated markedly in influenza A (including H1N1) virus-infected host boosts, and these molecular species are identified as the potent pathogenic agents. The mutual interaction of nitric oxide (NO) with O2-· resulting in the formation of peroxynitrite is operative in the pathogenic mechanism of influenza virus pneumonia. Influenza virus infection involves pathological events in which oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis. The toxicity and reactivity of oxygen radicals generated

  14. Research progress of severe influenza A H1N1%重症甲型H1N1流感研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 高占成

    2010-01-01

    甲型H1N1流感最新疫情的突出特点是重症和死亡病例数显著增加,有关我国重症甲型H1N1流感患者的临床特征、预后、危险因素等方面的研究尚未见相关报道.本文拟对国外有关这方面的研究进行总结,为我国重症甲型H1N1流感的诊断及治疗提供借鉴.%The latest epidemic of influenza A H1N1 is characterized by the significant increase of severe and dead cases. The researches about clinical features, prognosis, risk factors and other aspects of Chinese patients with severe influenza A H1N1 have not been reported. This paper is to summarize foreign researches and provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of severe influenza A H1N1 in China.

  15. A new look at an old virus: patterns of mutation accumulation in the human H1N1 influenza virus since 1918

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    Carter Robert W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1 influenza A virus has been circulating in the human population for over 95 years, first manifesting itself in the pandemic of 1917–1918. Initial mortality was extremely high, but dropped exponentially over time. Influenza viruses have high mutation rates, and H1N1 has undergone significant genetic changes since 1918. The exact nature of H1N1 mutation accumulation over time has not been fully explored. Methods We have made a comprehensive historical analysis of mutational changes within H1N1 by examining over 4100 fully-sequenced H1N1 genomes. This has allowed us to examine the genetic changes arising within H1N1 from 1918 to the present. Results We document multiple extinction events, including the previously known extinction of the human H1N1 lineage in the 1950s, and an apparent second extinction of the human H1N1 lineage in 2009. These extinctions appear to be due to a continuous accumulation of mutations. At the time of its disappearance in 2009, the human H1N1 lineage had accumulated over 1400 point mutations (more than 10% of the genome, including approximately 330 non-synonymous changes (7.4% of all codons. The accumulation of both point mutations and non-synonymous amino acid changes occurred at constant rates (μ = 14.4 and 2.4 new mutations/year, respectively, and mutations accumulated uniformly across the entire influenza genome. We observed a continuous erosion over time of codon-specificity in H1N1, including a shift away from host (human, swine, and bird [duck] codon preference patterns. Conclusions While there have been numerous adaptations within the H1N1 genome, most of the genetic changes we document here appear to be non-adaptive, and much of the change appears to be degenerative. We suggest H1N1 has been undergoing natural genetic attenuation, and that significant attenuation may even occur during a single pandemic. This process may play a role in natural pandemic cessation and has apparently

  16. 直击甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甲型H1N1流感是什么 甲型H1N1流感是一种由A型甲型H1N1流感病毒引起的猪呼吸系统疾病,该病毒可在猪群中造成流感暴发.这次在实验室已被证实的引发疫情的病毒是甲型H1N1流感病毒A(H1N1)亚型,是一种之前从未在人和猪身上出现过的新型甲型H1N1流感病毒;

  17. Recombination analysis and homology alignment of full-length genome sequences of die novel A/H1N1 influenza virus in 2009%2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒全基因组序列重组分析及同源性比对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿文英; 殷建华; 李淑华; 韩磊; 韩一芳; 苏彤; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the genetic variation and recombination of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods Full-length sequence of typical novel A/H1N1 influenza virus was downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA4.0 software was used to connect and align the eight fragments of the virus. Then the fragments of different subtypes such as H1N1, H5N1 and H3N2 of the historical strains from different hosts, including human, poultry and pigs, were connected and aligned in the same way. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by NJ method. The recombination analysis of 2009 pandemic virus was made with Simplot 3. 5.1 software. Results There was no clear variation (identity was 99.69% - 99. 93%) in the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus from April to September, 2009. Simplot and MEGA analysis indicated that the PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP and NS of the novel A/H1N1 virus might originally evolve from the swine and human H1N1 virus isolated in North America (identity was 95. 25%, 95.08%, 95.21%, 93.52%, 95.23% and 94.78%, respectively). NA and MP showed high homology with the European swine H1N1 virus, the identity was 90.21% and 94.43%, respectively. Full-length sequence of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus had a highest similarity with swine H1N1 virus isolated from North America (identity was 92.22%). Conclusions The novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 was originated from the reassortment and evolution of swine H1N1 2005 pandemic virus in North America, and the NA and MP fragments of European swine H1N1. There is no clear variation in novel influenza virus up to now. The novel A/H1N1 influenza vaccine possesses protective effect.%目的 分析2009年新型甲型H1N1流感爆发以来流感病毒的全基因组进化变异及重组情况.方法 从NCBI基因数据库下载2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒(A/H1N1)代表性全基因组序列,先用MEGA4.0软件对8个基因序列片段进行比对和拼接;然后将历史上流行的H1N1、H5N1、H3N2等不同宿

  18. 成人甲型H1N1流感的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴妹英

    2010-01-01

    成人甲型H1N1流感是由甲型H1N1流感病毒感染引起的新型呼吸道传染病。甲型H1N1流感病毒属于正黏病毒科(Orthomyxoviridae),甲型流感病毒属(Influenza virus A)。

  19. Influenza A (H1N1): Past season’s wonder flu in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Joveš-Sević Biljana; Obradović Dušanka; Batranović Uroš; Stojanović Miloš; Sovilj-Gmizić Stanislava; Bošković Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Influenza A (H1N1) re-emerged in the human population during 2009. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics, laboratory findings, clinical presentation and treatment outcome among patients with influenza A (H1N1) infection. Methods. The study was performed at the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina including all the patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit or High Dependency Unit with confirmed, probable or suspected Influenza A (H1N1) infe...

  20. Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Ravert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1 immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes associated with having received an H1N1 vaccine, and thematic analysis of student comments was conducted to further understand influences on vaccine decisions. Among the 296 students who participated in the survey, 15.2% reported having received an H1N1 vaccine. In regression analysis, H1N1 immunization was associated with seasonal flu vaccine history, perceived vaccine effectiveness, perceived obstacles to vaccination, and vaccine safety concerns. Qualitative results illustrate the relationship of beliefs to vaccine decisions, particularly in demonstrating that students often held concerns that vaccine could cause H1N1 or side effects. Vaccine safety, efficacy, and obstacles to immunization were major considerations in deciding whether to accept the H1N1 pandemic vaccine. Therefore, focusing on those aspects might be especially useful in future vaccine efforts within the college population.

  1. 中药治疗甲型H1N1流感浅见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕燕

    2010-01-01

    运用中医理论对甲型H1N1流感进行定义与归纳,分析中药在治疗甲型H1N1流感方面的优势,总结目前治疗甲型H1N1流感行之有效的中药制剂.认为中药治疗甲型H1N1流感具有独特优势,临床应大力推广.

  2. 儿童如何预防甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖满田

    2009-01-01

    甲型H1N1流感是由甲型H1N1流感病毒引起的一种急性呼吸道传染病。该病毒最常见的是H1N1亚型,但是也存在其他的亚型(如H1N2,H3N1,H3N2),今年4月在墨西哥流行的是甲型H1N1病毒。

  3. Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ravert, Russell D.; Fu, Linda Y.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years) from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes asso...

  4. Seroprevalence of pandemic H1N1 antibody among health care workers in Hong Kong following receipt of monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine.

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    Ying Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers in many countries are recommended to receive influenza vaccine to protect themselves as well as patients. A monovalent H1N1 vaccine became available in Hong Kong in December 2009 and around 10% of local healthcare workers had received the vaccine by February 2010. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of antibody to pandemic (H1N1 2009 among HCWs in Hong Kong in February-March 2010 following the first pandemic wave and the pH1N1 vaccination campaign. In this study we focus on the subset of healthcare workers who reported receipt of non-adjuvanted monovalent 2009 H1N1 vaccine (Panenza, Sanofi Pasteur. Sera collected from HCWs were tested for antibody against the pH1N1 virus by hemagglutination inhibition (HI and viral neutralization (VN assays. RESULTS: We enrolled 703 HCWs. Among 104 HCWs who reported receipt of pH1N1 vaccine, 54% (95% confidence interval (CI: 44%-63% had antibody titer ≥1∶40 by HI and 42% (95% CI: 33%-52% had antibody titer ≥1∶40 by VN. The proportion of HCWs with antibody titer ≥1∶40 by HI and VN significantly decreased with age, and the proportion with antibody titer ≥1∶40 by VN was marginally significantly lower among HCWs who reported prior receipt of 2007-08 seasonal influenza vaccine (odds ratio: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.19-1.00. After adjustment for age, the effect of prior seasonal vaccine receipt was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that monovalent H1N1 vaccine may have had suboptimal immunogenicity in HCWs in Hong Kong. Larger studies are required to confirm whether influenza vaccine maintains high efficacy and effectiveness in HCWs.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan in 2009-2010.

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    Uzma Bashir Aamir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early 2009, a novel influenza A(H1N1 virus that emerged in Mexico and United States rapidly disseminated worldwide. The spread of this virus caused considerable morbidity with over 18000 recorded deaths. The new virus was found to be a reassortant containing gene segments from human, avian and swine influenza viruses. METHODS/RESULTS: The first case of human infection with A(H1N1pdm09 in Pakistan was detected on 18(th June 2009. Since then, 262 laboratory-confirmed cases have been detected during various outbreaks with 29 deaths (as of 31(st August 2010. The peak of the epidemic was observed in December with over 51% of total respiratory cases positive for influenza. Representative isolates from Pakistan viruses were sequenced and analyzed antigenically. Sequence analysis of genes coding for surface glycoproteins HA and NA showed high degree of high levels of sequence identity with corresponding genes of regional viruses circulating South East Asia. All tested viruses were sensitive to Oseltamivir in the Neuraminidase Inhibition assays. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 viruses from Pakistan form a homogenous group of viruses. Their HA genes belong to clade 7 and show antigenic profile similar to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. These isolates do not show any amino acid changes indicative of high pathogenicity and virulence. It is imperative to continue monitoring of these viruses for identification of potential variants of high virulence or drug resistance.

  6. Structural and Functional Analysis of NS1 and NS2 Proteins of H1N1 Subtype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parveen Salahuddin; Asad U.Khan

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus(H1N1),a genetic reassortment of endemic strains of human,avian and swine flu,has crossed species barrier to human and apparently acquired the capability of human to human transmission.Some strains of H5N1 subtype are highly virulent because NS1 protein inhibits antiviral interferon α/β production.Another protein NS2 mediates export of viral ribonucleoprotein from nucleus to the cytoplasm through export signal.In this paper,we have studied structure-function relationships of these proteins of H1N1 subtype and have determined the cause of their pathogenicity.Our results showed that non-conservative mutations slightly stabilized or destabilized structural domains of NS1 or NS1-dsRNA complex,hence slightly increased or decreased the function of NS1 protein and consequently enhanced or reduced the pathogenicity of the H1N1 virus.NS2 protein of different strains carried non-conservative mutations in different domains,resulting in slight loss of function.These mutations slightly decreased the pathogenicity of the virus.Thus,the results confirm the structure-function relation-ships of these viral proteins.

  7. 甲型H1N1流感的中医证候特点%TCM Syndrome Characteristics of Type A H1N1 Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁腾霄; 吴畏; 解红霞; 李雁; 刘清泉; 姜良铎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the TCM syndrome characteristics of Type A H1N1 Flu with those of the ordinary seasonal flu in the same year in order to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods The data of 200 cases of Type A H1N1 Flu and 200 cases of ordinary seasonal flu in the same year were collected. The cross section investigation on the general clinical manifestatioris and TCM syndromes of Type A H1N1 Flu cases was carried out and compared with those of ordinary seasonal flu cases for analysis. Results The average body temperature of Type A H1N1 Flu group was significantly higher than that of the ordinary seasonal flu group (P<0. 05). There was statistical difference between the two groups in the frequency of symptoms including fever, sore throat, heaviness in extremities, heaviness in the head, aversion to wind and cold, chills, headache, obstruction of nose, running nose, and thirst (P<0. 01). With the seasonal change, in the Type A H1N1 Flu group, the rate of heaviness in the head, heaviness in extremities, aversion to wind and cold, and chills increased. There was statistical significance in summer and autumn as compared with winter (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). Conclusion The causative factor of Type A H1N1 Flu is the pathogenic heat combined with damp, and its pathogenesis is that the damp-heat invades the lung, causing a pathogenic condition in which the lung and defensive qi are both diseased, therefore, the exterior syndrome is so short and the pathogen enters the interior so quickly.%目的 比较甲型H1N1流感与当年普通季节性流感的中医证候特点,指导甲型H1N1流感辨证论治.方法 分别收集甲型H1N1流感患者和当年普通季节性流感患者各200例,对甲型H1N1流感患者的一般临床特征和中医证候进行横断面调查,并与普通的季节性流感患者的资料作对比分析.结果 甲型H1N1流感组平均体温明显高于普通季节性流感组(P<0.05);两组患者发热、咽痛、肢体困重

  8. 儿童甲型H1N1流感12例分析%Analysis of l2 children with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新宝; 朱启镕; 葛艳玲; 王中林; 赵国昌; 王晓红

    2009-01-01

    Objective Since late March 2009,a novel influenza H1N1 strain emerged in humans in Mexico and the United States.It has rapidly spread to many countries on different continents,prompting unprecedented activation of pandemic preparedness plans.The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of children with the novel influenza A(H1N1)virus infection.Method Twelve csges with influenza A(H1N1)infection were diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC)of China during 1 May to 15 July 2009 in the Pediatric Hospital of Fudan University were analyzed.Influenza A(HINI)RNA was detected by RT-PCR in CDC Shanghai China.Result All the 12 children with the novel influenza A(H1N1)virus infection were imported cases,aged from 11 months to 14 years 7 months,7 of whom were boys,5 were girls.Five cases contacted closely with influenza A (H1N1)patients;12 cases had fever and no vomiting or diarrhea;7 had cough or runny noge or anorexia.One had shortness of breath the Of the 11 cases who could tell about symptoms correctly,6 had sore throat,3 had stomachache,and none had muscle pain. Two of the 12 cases had pneumonia,and the disease in 1 of them was fatal and needed intensive care. One case was isolated and treated at home.The 11 cases hospitalized were treated according to the guidance of influenza A(H1N1)diagnosis and treatment issued by the Ministry of Health of China.Ten hospitalized cases were treated with osehamivir.All the cases recovered completely.The median length of hospital stay was 8.1 days(range,6 to 16),and the time of negative test results of influenza A(H1N1)RNA from illness onset to collection of samples for viral testing was from 5 to 15 days.Conclusion Symptoms among children with the novel influenza A(H1N1)virus infection were classic and the majority of the cases we treated had a mild clinical course if they were isolated and treated promptly.Antivirals appears to have not had any major adverse effects

  9. H1N1 Influenza Flu:Report of 130 Cases%甲型H1N1流行性感冒临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴传芬; 何爱民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment of H1N1 pandemic influenza. Methods Clinical characteristics and treatment of 130 cases of H1N1 influenza were retrospectively analyzed. Results Patients with mild H1N1 flu responsed to the supportive treatment by traditional Chinese medicine, Lianhuaqingwen capsule while severe patients with complicated infections responsed to combined anti - infection traditional Chinese medicine therapy , supportive treatment, and oseltamivir, an anti -influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor. Comparison of WBC count, lymphocyte fraction, neutrophil fraction, and platelet count between hefore and after treatment showed significant differences ( P < 0.05 ) . Conclusion H1N1 pandemic influenza spread widely and rapidly, which were easily be infected. Combination of anti - infection traditional Chinese medicine therapy , supportive treatment, and oseltamivir is effective in treating H1N1 flu with complicated infections.%目的 探讨甲型H1N1流行性感冒(流感)的诊断、治疗要点.方法 回顾性分析130例甲型H1N1流感患者的临床特点、治疗方法.结果 病情轻的甲型H1N1流感患者给予中成药连花清瘟胶囊对症、支持治疗有效;病情重合并感染者给予抗感染中药对症、支持治疗基础上,加用神经氨酸酶抑制剂奥司他韦抗病毒治疗有效.130例患者治疗前后白细胞计数、淋巴细胞分数、中性粒细胞分数、血小板计数比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 甲型H1N1流感传播广而迅猛,人群普遍易感.抗病毒(神经氨酸酶抑制剂奥司他韦)、中成药(连花清瘟胶囊)及对症支持治疗合并感染者有效.

  10. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Middle East 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study hemagglutinin genetic evolution of some Middle East(ME) 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates and compared them with prototype vaccine strain [A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)], which is used as a vaccine strain in the Northern Hemisphere2010-2011.Methods: Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences ofHA gene of fifty-fourME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates were retrieved from GenBank Database by using BasicBLAST engine. Phylogenetic trees were established for both nucleotide and amino acid sequences using the muscle algorithm of the computer programCLC free workbench 5.6.1 JREsoftware. Amino acids alignment was also done to compare sequences HA1 domains of HA genes of ME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates (n=39) with amino acid sequence of prototype vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1).Results: Phylogenetic analysis of amino acids and nucleotides of theHA gene of theME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates confirmed their evolutionary position in cluster with prototype vaccine strain (A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)) which is used as vaccine strain in the Northern Hemisphere2010-2011. Antigenically, theME 2009 H1N1pdm isolates were homogeneous and closely related to prototype vaccine. Only a few amino acid substitutions in the HA among the ME2009 H1N1 pdm isolates were analyzed.Conclusions:The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide a good protection againstME 2009 H1N1 pdm because it contains strains withH1 HA [A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)]-like strain.

  11. 科学面对甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏

    2011-01-01

    @@ 一、主题的提出 2009年10月,甲型H1N1流感在全国迅速蔓延,出现了一些死亡案例,每天新闻都播报全国甲型H1N1流感疫情,由于当时还没找到特别有效的防治办法,引起很多人的恐慌.为了帮助师生更好地面对甲型H1N1流感,我们开展了"科学面对甲型H1N1流感"综合实践活动. 二、活动背景 由国家卫生部发布的中国内地甲型H1N1流感疫情形势及活动前对学生的调查发现,部分初中学生缺乏对甲型H1N1流感的科学认识,对甲型H1N1流感普遍持恐慌心理;还有部分初中学生未意识到感染甲型H1N1流感的潜在危险,不知道感染甲型H1N1流感的危险行为.这样,他们就成了感染甲型H1N1流感的脆弱人群和预防甲型H1N1流感健康教育的重点人群,所以有必要对初中学生进行这方面的教育.

  12. Emerging influenza A/H1N1: challenges and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human population suffered to four major influenza pandemics in the past by influenza virus in the form of either bird flu or swine flu. The virus has immense capability to diverse as it is capable in antigenic shift, antigenic drift and reassortment due to its fragmented RNA genome. The severity of previous pandemics suggests that severity in human population is directly proportional to the degree of divergence in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes and so the virus is named as HnNn (H1N1, H5N1, etc. Till date no treatment (vaccines and drugs is available against influenza virus infection. Therefore, evolution of new strains, lack of herd immunity, high divergence rate, resistance against antiviral, co-infection with different influenza strains and replication in multiple hosts might help the present virus to develop in super-virus with a potential health threat to man-kind. To tackle the issue, there is a need for a joint venture among government health department, researchers, clinicians, ecologists and general public for future preparedness to combat future influenza pandemics.

  13. Pandemic Influenza and Type A H1N1 Influenza%大流行流感与甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方捍华; 袁力勇; 李长贵

    2009-01-01

    目的 对大流行流感和甲型H1N1进行综述.方法 参考国内外近期的有关文献和WHO的相关报道,介绍了流感病毒的基本知识、大流行流感的定义和发展,以及甲型H1N1流感的特点和流行现状等.结果 与结论大流行流感具有传播性强、危害大等特点,2009年的甲型H1N1流感为21世纪的第1次大流感,应加以重视.

  14. 甲型H1N1流感患者的护理%Influenza A H1N1 influenza patient care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖蓉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨甲型H1N1流感患者的护理方法.方法:回顾分析我院2009年8月至2010年1月收治的112例患者的临床资料.结果:112例患者治愈出院.结论:对甲型H1N1流感患者在治疗的同时,有针对性采取护理措施以及严格的消毒隔离制度,是救治甲型H1N1流感的保证.

  15. Absence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Fresh Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs experimentally infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus developed respiratory disease; however, there was no evidence for systemic disease to suggest that pork from pigs infected with H1N1 influenza would contain infectious virus. These findings support the WHO recommendation that po...

  16. Acute transverse myelitis following vaccination against H1N1 influenza: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Li; Chen, Kangning; Zhang, Yinqi

    2011-01-01

    H1N1 vaccination is currently safe, and only rare acceptable side-effects have been reported. Here we describe for the first time a serious adverse event, i.e., acute transverse myelitis, following H1N1 vaccination in China. After the standard treatment with methylprednislone, the patient recovered completely.

  17. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure due to H1N1 influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Naveen Dutt; Sushant Khanduri; Baijayantimala Mishra; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of severe H1N1 influenza with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation benefited from noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The NIPPV may be of great use in treating patients with H1N1-related acute respiratory distress syndrome in a resource poor setting or when invasive ventilator is unavailable.

  18. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus A (H1N1), Europe, 2007/08 season.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Lackenby, A.; Hungnes, O.; Lina, B.; Werf, S. van der; Schweiger, B.; Opp, M.; Paget, J.; Kassteele, J. van de; Hay, A.; Zambon, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, the 2007/08 winter season was dominated by influenza virus A (H1N1) circulation through week 7, followed by influenza B virus from week 8 onward. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1) (ORVs) with H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase emerged independently of drug use. By country,

  19. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  20. Safety of pandemic H1N1 vaccines in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Wijnans (Leonoor); S. de Bie (Sandra); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDuring the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic several pandemic H1N1 vaccines were licensed using fast track procedures, with relatively limited data on the safety in children and adolescents. Different extensive safety monitoring efforts were put in place to ensure timely detection of adve

  1. Experience of influenza A H1N1 in a paediatric emergency unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Suat; Ercan Sariçoban, Hülya; Özen, Ahmet Oğuzhan; Saf, Coşkun; Ergenekon Ulutaş, Pinar; Gürol, Yeşim; Yilmaz, Gülden; Vitrinel, Ayça; Özelgün, Berna

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate symptoms, clinical findings, treatment options and complications of H1N1 influenza infection in patients who applied to our emergency unit during the influenza season in 2009. The clinical and laboratory findings of children with influenza A (H1N1) during the influenza season in 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Influenza A was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction and/or rapid antigen test. Clinical and laboratory findings of the patients with H1N1 (group I) and without H1N1 (group II) were compared. Fever and myalgia were noted to be higher in group I (p H1N1 (average of 39°C) and myalgia was present only in patients with H1N1. The lymphocyte count was significantly lower in patients with H1N1 than those without H1N1. While none of the patients required intensive care, three patients requiring hospitalization were discharged after referral and completion of their treatment.

  2. Particle and subunit-based hemagglutinin vaccines provide protective efficacy against H1N1 influenza in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Luis A; Miller, Cathy L; Vaughn, Eric M

    2016-08-15

    The increasing diversity of influenza strains circulating in swine herds escalates the potential for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses and highlights the need for swift development of new vaccines. Baculovirus has proven to be a flexible platform for the generation of recombinant forms of hemagglutinin (HA) including subunit, VLP-displayed, and baculovirus-displayed antigens. These presentations have been shown to be efficacious in mouse, chicken, and ferret models but little is known about their immunogenicity in pigs. To assess the utility of these HA presentations in swine, Baculovirus constructs expressing HA fused to swine IgG2a Fc, displayed in a FeLV gag VLP, or displayed in the baculoviral envelope were generated. Vaccines formulated with these antigens wer The e administered to groups of pigs who were subsequently challenged with H1α cluster H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) A/Swine/Indiana/1726/88. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with any of these three vaccines elicits robust hemagglutinin inhibition titers in the serum and decreased the severity of SIV-associated lung lesions after challenge when compared to placebo-vaccinated controls. In addition, the number of pigs with virus detected in the lungs and nasal passages was reduced. Taken together, the results demonstrate that these recombinant approaches expressed with the baculovirus expression vector system may be viable options for development of SIV vaccines for swine. PMID:27374905

  3. 理性看待甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 继墨西哥出现甲型H1N1流感疫情后,美国、英国、韩国等国相继出现甲型H1N1流感疫情.世卫组织警告:甲型H1N1流感比禽流感更可怕.甲型H1N1流感病毒早晚都会发生变异,使甲型H1N1流感能轻易在人与人之间传播,这只是个时间问题.一旦如此,那么它将给人类带来一场前所未有的大灾难.

  4. 理性看待甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海霞

    2009-01-01

    继墨西哥出现甲型H1N1流感疫情后,美国、英国、韩国等国相继出现甲型H1N1流感疫情。世卫组织警告:甲型H1N1流感比禽流感更可怕。甲型H1N1流感病毒早晚都会发生变异,使甲型H1N1流感能轻易在人与人之间传播,这只是个时间问题。一旦如此,那么它将给人类带来一场前所未有的大灾难。

  5. Recombinant equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) vaccine protects pigs against challenge with influenza A(H1N1)pmd09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abdelrahman; Lange, Elke; Beer, Martin; Damiani, Armando; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a threat to human health. The pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus likely originated in swine through reassortment between a North American triple reassortant and Eurasian avian-like SIV. The North American triple reassortant virus harbors genes from avian, human and swine influenza viruses. An effective vaccine may protect the pork industry from economic losses and curb the development of new virus variants that may threaten public health. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine (rH_H1) expressing the hemagglutinin H1 of A(H1N1)pdm09 in the natural host. Our data shows that the engineered rH_H1 vaccine induces influenza virus-specific antibody responses in pigs and is able to protect at least partially against challenge infection: no clinical signs of disease were detected and virus replication was reduced as evidenced by decreased nasal virus shedding and faster virus clearance. Taken together, our results indicate that recombinant EHV-1 encoding H1 of A(H1N1)pdm09 may be a promising alternative for protection of pigs against infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 or other influenza viruses.

  6. Health costs from hospitalization with H1N1 infection during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic compared with non-H1N1 respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courcoutsakis N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paul Zarogoulidis1, Dimitrios Glaros2,3, Theodoros Kontakiotis1, Marios Froudarakis4, loannis Kioumis1, loannis Kouroumichakis3, Anastasios Tsiotsios1, Anastasios Kallianos5, Paschalis Steiropoulos4, Konstantinos Porpodis1, Evagelia Nena6, Despoina Papakosta1, Aggeliki Rapti5, Theodoros C Constantinidis6, Theodora Kerenidi7, Maria Panopoulou8, Georgia Trakada9, Nikolaos Courcoutsakis10, Evangelia Fouka11, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis1, Efstratios Maltezos2,31Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" Hospital, Exochi, Thessaloniki, 2Unit of Infectious Diseases, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 3Second Department of Internal Medicine, 4Pulmonary Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 52nd Pulmonology Clinic, Hospital of Chest Diseases "SOTIRIA," Athens, 6Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Occupational Medicine Section, Teaching Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece, Alexandroupolis, 7Pulmonary Department, University of Larissa, Larissa, 8Microbiology Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 9Pulmonary Department, University of Athens, Athens, 10Radiology Department, General University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 111st Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" Hospital, Exochi, Thessaloniki, GreeceBackground: The first positive patient with influenza A (H1N1 was recorded in March 2009 and the pandemic continued with new outbreaks throughout 2010. This study's objective was to quantify the total cost of inpatient care and identify factors associated with the increased cost of the 2009–2010 influenza A pandemic in comparison with nonviral respiratory infection.Methods: In total, 133 positive and 103 negative H1N1 patients were included from three tertiary

  7. An analysis of peripheral blood cells in patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection or non-H1N1 virus infection%甲型H1N1流感病毒与非甲型H1N1流感病毒患者外周血象的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新华; 邵冬华; 梁国威; 曹清云

    2010-01-01

    目的:对航天中心医院就诊的甲型H1N1流感病毒感染者与非甲型H1N1流感病毒感染者、正常对照者的外周血象进行对比分析,以期为临床的诊断、治疗以及病情监测提供有利的工具.方法:采用RT-PCR的方法对患者是否患甲型H1N1流感进行确认.采用流式细胞技术的方法,利用全血细胞计数仪对甲型H1N1组、非甲型H1N1组患者以及正常对照组外周血象进行对比分析.利用免疫比浊的方法对3组患者外周血中C反应蛋白(CRP)浓度进行比较分析.结果:甲型H1N1组患者中单核细胞百分数阳性百分率占77.1%,非甲型H1N1组患者单核细胞百分数阳性百分率占7.8%.正常对照组单核细胞百分数阳性百分率占6.7%.甲型H1N1组白细胞总数、淋巴细胞百分比以及嗜酸细胞百分比与非甲型H1N1组相比明显降低,但甲型H1N1组中性粒细胞百分比与正常对照组相比明显升高,而单核细胞百分比在甲型H1N1组中显著升高.甲型H1N1组血小板总数、血小板压积与非甲型H1N1组相比降低,而血小板分布宽度相比非甲型H1N1组数值升高,但与正常对照组相比,血小板总数以及3项参数未有明显差异.甲型H1N1组中CRP浓度与非甲型H1N1组相比差异无显著性,但与正常对照组相比明显升高.结论:甲型H1N1感染患者外周血象与一般流感存在相似之处,但它有其独特特点,在诊断过程中不应该以一般流感的外周血象以及CRP浓度特点来排除甲型H1N1流感病毒的感染.

  8. 接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗后患甲型H1N1流感分析%H1N1 Influenza Infection after Injecting A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韶辉; 沈忆光; 王彤; 梁雪梅; 赵金彩

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗后发生甲型H1N1流感感染的病例,探讨发病原因,为进一步提高疫苗预防效果提供参考依据.方法 对接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗后发生甲型H1N1流感感染148例,进行回顾性调查分析.结果 接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗11176例.发生甲型H1N1感染148例,感染率1.32%,其中1~14 d感染81例,感染率0.72%,>15 d感染67例,感染率0.60%.结论 甲型H1N1流感病毒裂解疫苗是一种安全高效的疫苗,不足之处尚待进一步探讨、完善.

  9. Perspectives of Pulmonologists on the 2009-2010 H1N1 Vaccination Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with high-risk conditions such as asthma were a target group for H1N1 vaccine recommendations. We conducted a mailed survey of a national sample of pulmonologists to understand their participation in the 2009-2010 H1N1 vaccine campaign. The response rate was 59%. The majority of pulmonologists strongly recommended H1N1 vaccine for children (73% and adults aged 25–64 years (51%. Only 60% of respondents administered H1N1 vaccine in their practice compared to 87% who offered seasonal influenza vaccine. Other than vaccine supply, respondents who provided H1N1 vaccine reported few logistical problems. Two-thirds of respondents would be very likely to vaccinate during a future influenza pandemic; this rate was higher among those who provided H1N1 vaccine and/or seasonal flu vaccine. In total, the H1N1 vaccine-related experiences of pulmonologists seemed to be positive. However, additional efforts are needed to increase participation in future pandemic vaccination campaigns.

  10. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-09-28

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control.

  11. Clinical characteristics of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 infection in children and the performance of rapid antigen test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jae Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : In autumn 2009, the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus spread throughout South Korea. The aims of this study were to determine the clinical characteristics of children infected by the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, and to compare the rapid antigen and realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. Methods : We conducted a retrospective review of patients ?#241;8 years of age who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital in Seoul with respiratory symptoms, including fever, between September 2009 and January 2010. A real-time PCR test was used to definitively diagnose 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection. Medical records of confirmed cases were reviewed for sex, age, and the time of infection. The decision to perform rapid antigen testing was not influenced by clinical conditions, but by individual factors such as economic conditions. Its sensitivity and specificity were evaluated compared to real-time PCR test results. Results : In total, 934 patients tested positive for H1N1 by real-time PCR. The highest number of patients (48.9% was diagnosed in November. Most patients (48.2% were aged between 6 and 10 years. Compared with the H1N1 real-time PCR test results, the rapid antigen test showed 22% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Seventy-eight patients were hospitalized for H1N1 influenza A virus infection, and fever was the most common symptom (97.4%. Conclusion : For diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus infection, the rapid antigen test was inferior to the real-time PCR test in both sensitivity and specificity. This outcome suggests that the rapid antigen test is inappropriate for screening.

  12. Establishment of oligonucleotide microarray for detection of influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2%H1N1和H3N2亚型流感病毒基因芯片检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧煜; 梅琳; 侯义宏; 李全芬; 林祥梅; 韩雪清

    2011-01-01

    为建立同时能鉴别甲型H1N1和猪流感病毒常见亚型的新型基因芯片检测方法,根据GenBank中已发表的甲型流感病毒MP的基因序列和甲型H1N1(2009)和猪流感病毒H1N1、H3N2亚型的基因序列,设计、筛选并合成7对特异性引物和1对通用引物;根据扩增的靶序列,设计并合成14条特异性探针和3条质控探针,制备了甲型H1N1(2009)流感病毒和猪流感病毒H1N1、H3N2亚型基因芯片;并进行了特异性试验、敏感性试验和田间样品的检测。结果显示,该芯片检测方法与猪细小病毒(PPV)、猪瘟病毒(CSFV)、猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒(PRRSV)等猪常见病毒无交叉反应;对猪H1N1、猪H3N2和甲型H1N1(2009)流感病毒而言,最低可检测到105、104和105稀释的病毒株。结果证实,该方法特异性强、敏感性高,是一种高通量的甲型H1N1和猪流感常见亚型筛查方法。%Seven pairs of primers specific for different subtypes and a pair of universal primers were carefully designed based on the genomic sequences of A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus retrieved from GenBank database.Several multiplex RT-PCR methods were then developed.Further 14 oligonucleotide probes specific for A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus were designed according to the published gene in target cDNA domains.Then a microarray for A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus was developed with its specificity and sensitivity validated by using swine influenza virus strains and samples from different areas.The results showed that all the subtypes of swine influenza virus and A/H1N1 virus could be identified simultaneously on this microarray with high sensitivity,which could reach to 105 dilute viruses.Furthermore,there was no cross reactions with PPV,CSFV and PRRSV.Therefore the microarray is a useful diagnostic method with high specificity and sensitivity,and could be used for A/H1N1 and swine influenza surveillance.

  13. The Neurological Manifestations of H1N1 Influenza Infection; Diagnostic Challenges and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization declared pandemic phase of human infection with novel influenza A (H1N1 in April 2009. There are very few reports about the neurological complications of H1N1 virus infection in the literature. Occasionally, these complications are severe and even fatal in some individuals. The aims of this study were to report neurological complaints and/or complications associated with H1N1 virus infection. Methods: The medical files of all patients with H1N1 influenza infection admitted to a specified hospital in the city of Shiraz, Iran from October through November 2009 were reviewed. More information about the patients were obtained by phone calls to the patients or their care givers. All patients had confirmed H1N1 virus infection with real-time PCR assay. Results: Fifty-five patients with H1N1 infection were studied. Twenty-three patients had neurological signs and/or symptoms. Mild neurological complaints may be reported in up to 42% of patients infected by H1N1 virus. Severe neurological complications occurred in 9% of the patients. The most common neurological manifestations were headache, numbness and paresthesia, drowsiness and coma. One patient had a Guillain-Barre syndrome-like illness, and died in a few days. Another patient had focal status epilepticus and encephalopathy. Conclusions: The H1N1 infection seems to have been quite mild with a self-limited course in much of the world, yet there appears to be a subset, which is severely affected. We recommend performing diagnostic tests for H1N1influenza virus in all patients with respiratory illness and neurological signs/symptoms. We also recommend initiating treatment with appropriate antiviral drugs as soon as possible in those with any significant neurological presentation accompanied with respiratory illness and flu-like symptoms

  14. Origin and future distribution of the new A (H1N1) influenza virus emerging in North America in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JiMing; SUN YingXue; LIU Shuo; JIANG WenMing; CHEN Jie; HOU GuangYu; LI JinPing

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the new A (H1N1) influenza virus recently emerging in North America is a hot controversial topic of significance in disease control and risk assessment.Some experts claimed that it was an unusually mongrelized mix of human,avian and swine influenza viruses,while some others concluded that it was totally a simple re-assortment hybrid of two lineages of swine influenza viruses.Here the phylogenetic diversity of the viral PB1,PA and PB2 gene sequences using online web servers,and the results suggest that all the 8 genetic segments of the new virus were possibly from two lineages of swine influenza viruses,and one of the lineage was a mongrelized mix of human,avian and swine influenza viruses emerging in the world approximately 10 years ago.Considering the recent epidemiological trends of the new virus,we believe it will spread more widely in the world and persist long in human populations.It also could spread among swine populations.The future wide spreading of the new virus may coincide the disappearance of a subtype of previous human influenza A virus.

  15. 甲型H1N1流感防护手册

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    甲型H1N1流感是一种新型甲型流感病毒引起的急性呼吸道传染病。甲型H1N1流感病人为主要传染源。目前认为,甲型H1N1流感传播性较季节性流感强,但病死率与季节性流感没有明显差异。

  16. H1N1病毒全球疫情防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1、H1N1全病毒灭活疫苗(SlV inactivated vaccines)在已研制的H1N1疫苗中,技术最成熟并用于生产的主要是H1NI型和H3N2亚型单价或双价H1N1全病毒灭活疫苗。其形式多为油佐剂疫苗,灭活剂一般采用甲醛或BEI。据报

  17. 甲型H1N1流感疫情问答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1.问:什么是甲型H1N1流感? 答:美国疾病控制和预防中心专家解释说,甲型H1N1流感是由甲型H1N1流感病毒引起的一种急性呼吸道传染病,这种病在猪中经常发生,但很少导致猪的死亡.

  18. 预防甲型H1N1流感科普知识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海伦

    2009-01-01

    @@ 自2009年3~4月墨西哥、美国相继爆发甲型H1N1流感以来,世界正面临甲型H1N1流感大流行的威胁.目前,全世界已有100多个国家和地区出现甲型H1N1流感流行,确诊病例数已超过10万.

  19. 甲型H1N1流感病人的人文护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]总结甲型H1N1流感病人的人文护理.[方法]对9例甲型H1N1流感病人进行隔离和治疗,同时加强人文护理.[结果]本组病人均治愈出院.[结论]加强甲型H1N1流感病人的人文护理有利于病人预后.

  20. A(H1N1)Influenza Pneumonia with Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN YANG; YU-GUANG WANG; YUN-LIANG XU; XIAN-LING REN; YU MAO; XING-WANG LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION A 56-year-old Chinese female patient with A (H1N1) influenza pneumonia accompanied by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) of the Central Nervous System (CNS) is described in this article. The patient had typical clinical manifestation,and the diagnosis was reached after MRI and other examinations. From this case, we can conclude that the virus ofA (H1N1) influenza can infect CNS, and we should pay more attention to patients of A (H1N1)influenza pneumonia with neurological complications.

  1. Incidence of adverse events among healthcare workers following H1N1 Mass immunization in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankrah, Daniel N A; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; De Bruin, Marie L;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cases of the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza were first recorded in Ghana in July 2009. In June 2010 when prioritized vaccination against the novel A(H1N1) 2009 influenza virus started in the country, health workers were among the selected groups to receive the vaccination. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to determine the distribution and types of adverse events reported following immunization of healthcare workers at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital from the day vaccination started until 1 week after the end of vaccination. METHODS: Safety data collected during the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza...

  2. 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒血凝素基因进化及变异特征分析%Genetic evolution and variation of hemagglutinin gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑华; 韩一芳; 谢佳新; 韩磊; 苏彤; 鹿文英; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解自2009年3月新型甲型H1N1流感流行以来,其主要免疫原件基因-HA基因的进化及氨基酸变异特性.方法 从NCBI下载2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒以及北美地区、欧洲地区、亚洲地区以往流行的甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因序列,利用MEGA 4.0软件对所选序列进行基因进化系统发育树分析;对2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因的核苷酸同源性及氨基酸特异性进行分析,并与北美地区、欧洲地区、亚洲地区分离株进行比较.结果 2009年新型甲型HlNl流感病毒HA基因与2006-2007年美国A/swine/H1N1流感病毒同源性最高,核苷酸序列差异为0%~0.8%;与美国各州1930-2007年分离的A/swine/H1N1流感病毒具有明显的时间上的进化关系;与欧洲及亚洲地区A/swine/H1N1流感病毒进化无关.其重要的抗原性位点与A/human/H1N1流感病毒及流感疫苗株存在较大差异.全球流行半年多以来该病毒株没有发生明显变异.结论 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因是北美A/swine/H1N1流感病毒长期进化的结果,目前尚未发现明显抗原位点的变异.%Objective To elucidate the characteristics of genetic evolution and variation trend of hemagglutinin ( HA). a major antigenic gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods HA gene sequences of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009, as well as that of the A/H1N1 influenza virus spread in North America, Europe and Asia, were downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA4.0 software was used to analyze the constructed phylogenetic tree of the selected sequences of HA gene. The nucleotide homology and amino acid specificity of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 were analyzed and compared with those in North America, Europe and Asia regions. Results HA gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 showed a highest homology (93. 2%-93. 4%) with the corresponding sequences of A/swine/H1N1 influenza

  3. 甲型H1N1流感的微分流行病模型与分析%The Modeling and Analysis of H1N1 Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖惠; 李维德; 朱凌峰

    2011-01-01

    从经典的SIR模型入手,在考虑隔离、治愈后的免疫能力、迁移及防控因子等因素后,建立了适合于甲型H1N1流感的微分方程模型,对其平衡态进行了稳定性分析.另外,考虑到"贫"数据信息的特点,在简化模型后,结合国内H1N1流感数据进行模型的求解和预测,结果表明拟合效果非常好.可以看到,起初确诊人数急剧上升,在11月左右达到最大值,随后有减缓趋势,大约在80天后灭亡.%Based on the 8tati8tics of H1N1 flu in China, a suitable differential equation of H1N1 model is established, which extended from the classical SIR model. The mortality rate of infection, the immunity rate after cure, prevention and control factors are all integrated in the model. Then we have conducted a stability analysis of the model. In addition, by simplifying the model the values of parameters are estimated and the equation is solved. The error map of residues is also given. We can see that the number of initial diagnosed patients has risen sharply, which reached the maximum in November and followed by a slow trend.The infiuenza is eliminated about 80 days later. Finally, we compared the predicted data with the new reported data, showing that the fitting result is very good.

  4. Pediatric Healthcare Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Stakeholder Meeting - Summary of Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the meeting was to bring together subject matter experts to develop tools and resources for use by the pediatric healthcare community in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza activity during the 2009 influenza season.

  5. H1N1 infection in emergency surgery: A cautionary tale.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, J G

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 has spread rapidly since its first report in Mexico in March 2009. This is the first influenza pandemic in over 40 years and it atypically affects previously healthy young adults, with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The medical literature has been inundated with reports of H1N1 infection, the majority found in critical care and internal medicine journals with a relative paucity in the surgical literature. Despite this, it remains an important entity that can impact greatly on acute surgical emergencies. We present a case of previously healthy 31-year-old male who underwent open appendectomy. His post-operative recovery was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to H1N1 infection. This case report highlights the impact that H1N1 virus can have on acute surgical emergencies and how it can complicate the post-operative course.

  6. 66例甲型H1N1流感的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤霞

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨甲型H1N1流感的有效护理措施.方法:根据甲型H1N1流感的病原学、流行病学以及临床表现,制定一整套科学有效的护理方法.结果:66例甲型H1N1流感全部治愈出院.结论:通过对66例甲型H1N1流感的护理效果观察,此套护理方法值得推广.

  7. Peramivir获准紧急用于H1N1的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ FDA已于近期批准BioCryst制药公司开发的神经氨酸酶抑制剂peramivir用于H1N1流感的紧急治疗,并已将其列入与H1N1流感爆发有关的突发公共卫生事件的应急措施清单,与H1N1疫苗及已批准的抗病毒药--罗氏公司的达菲(奥塞米韦)和葛兰素史克公司的Relenza(扎那米韦)共同用于H1N1的防治.

  8. 66例甲型H1N1流感的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤霞

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨甲型H1N1流感的有效护理措施。方法:根据甲型H1N1流感的病原学、流行病学以及临床表现,制定一整套科学有效的护理方法。结果:66例甲型H1N1流感全部治愈出院。结论:通过对66例甲型H1N1流感的护理效果观察,此套护理方法值得推广。

  9. Encephalitis in a child with H1N1 infection: First case report from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications have been described with seasonal influenza infection. We report encephalitis manifesting as seizures in a child with confirmed H1N1 infection. Treatment with oseltamivir was started. Child was discharged without any neurological sequelae.

  10. The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus (pH1N1 with peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stored serum samples (n = 2,379 collected during 2006-2008 were used to estimate baseline serum reactogenicity to pH1N1. In January 2010, we used a multistage-stratified random sampling method to select 50,111 subjects who met eligibility criteria and collected serum samples and administered a standardized questionnaire. Antibody response to pH1N1 was measured using haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay and the weighted seroprevalence was calculated using the Taylor series linearization method. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine risk factors for pH1N1 seropositivity. Baseline seroprevalence of pH1N1 antibody (HI titer ≥40 was 1.2%. The weighted seroprevalence of pH1N1 among the Chinese population was 21.5%(vaccinated: 62.0%; unvaccinated: 17.1%. Among unvaccinated participants, those aged 6-15 years (32.9% and 16-24 years (30.3% had higher seroprevalence compared with participants aged 25-59 years (10.7% and ≥60 years (9.9%, P<0.0001. Children in kindergarten and students had higher odds of seropositivity than children in family care (OR: 1.36 and 2.05, respectively. We estimated that 207.7 million individuals (15.9% experienced pH1N1 infection in China. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Chinese population had low pre-existing immunity to pH1N1 and experienced a relatively high attack rate in 2009 of this virus. We recommend routine control measures such as vaccination to reduce transmission and spread of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.

  11. Kompliceret influenza A (H1N1) hos gravid i andet trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, A.S.; Hedegaard, M.; Hesselvig, A.B.;

    2012-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman at 25 weeks of gestation was admitted to hospital due to bilateral pneumonia with increasing hypoxia. She was tested positive for influenza A (H1N1) and successfully treated with oral oseltamivir. Nine days after the admission pathological umbilical flows were recorded...... and an emergency caesarean was performed at 26 weeks + 2 days of gestation. The neonatal period was uncomplicated. Influenza A (H1N1) is especially dangerous in pregnant women and vaccination is important....

  12. Strengthening the International Health Regulations: lessons from the H1N1 pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kumanan; John S Brownstein; Fidler, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (2005) [IHR(2005)] represent a potentially revolutionary change in global health governance. The use of the regulations by the World Health Organization (WHO) to respond to the outbreak of pandemic influenza A 2009-H1N1 highlights the importance of the regulations to protecting global health security. As the 2009-H1N1 pandemic illustrated, the IHR(2005) have provided a more robust framework for responding to public health emergencies of international conce...

  13. Was 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Mild Among Pregnant Korean Women?

    OpenAIRE

    An, Joon Hwan; Kim, Ha-Na; Choi, Ok-Ja; Kim, Gwang-Sook; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Mi Ok; Kang, Seung Ji; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Sook-In; Kwon, Yong Soo; Jang, Hee-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory data from Western countries suggest that pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness and complications associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). However, previous data among Korean women suggested a less severe outcome. In this study performed at a single referral center in Korea, rates of admission, pneumonia, intensive care unit admission, and death related to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were significantly higher in 33 pregnant women than ...

  14. Radiologic Findings of Influenza A (H1N1) Pneumonia: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee; Park, Seog Hee; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Young Kyoon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection is a highly infectious disease, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide since it was first documented in March of 2009 in Mexico. We experienced and report two cases of Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia, accompanied by chest radiographic and CT findings. The chest radiographs revealed diffuse haziness and extensive airspace consolidation, whereas the CT scans demonstrated multifocal areas of ground glass opacity and airspace consolidation with a CT halo sign.

  15. [Epidemiology of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Aichi Medical University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Hiroya; Yamagishi, Yuka; Fuzimaki, Eriko; Kishi, Takahiko; Goto, Minehiro; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed epidemiology of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Aichi Medical University hospital. As a result, the characteristics of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 was as follows. (1) The number of ordered rapid diagnostic test was 2.8 times compared with the seasonal influenza period. The number of ordered rapid diagnostic test of the seasonal influenza period had the peak in January to March. However, the peak in pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 was November. Also, the number of samples on the weekend had been more than that of the weekday. (2) Positive rate of each diagnostic kit did not have the difference between the seasonal influenza (31.3 ± 1.8%) and pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 (29.6%). (3) Age on most ordered samples were less than ten years old, and the number of samples in 11 to 20 years old was twice in comparison with the seasonal influenza. (4) Pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in influenza A accounted for 96.9%. (5) Sensitivity and specificity of ESPLINE Influenza A&B-N (FUJIREBIO, Inc., Tokyo, Japan) to the pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 were 100% and 100%, respectively. Also, sensitivity and specificity of prorasuto Flu (Mitsubishi Chemical Medience Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were 77.3%and 98.5%, respectively.

  16. 理性看待甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海霞

    2009-01-01

    继墨西哥、美国、英国、韩国等国相继出现甲型H1N1流感疫情后,2009年5月11日,中国内地也确诊了首例甲型H1N1流感病例。截至6月12日,全球确诊甲型H1N1流感病例已达28774例,我国内地也确诊126例。世界卫生组织警告:甲型H1N1流感比禽流感更可怕。甲型H1N1流感病毒早晚都会发生变异,使甲型H1N1流感能轻易在人与人之间传播,

  17. Knowledge and Awareness about H1N1 Flu in Urban Adult Population of Vadodara, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Francis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge and awareness about H1N1 flu in urban population of 18 years and aboveof Vadodara, India.Methods: A pre-designed self-rated instrument survey was conducted among 100 adults of 18 years and abovethrough a cross-sectional study design and a descriptive analysis was performed.Results: Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate knowledge regardingcausative organism (87%, mode of spread (45% and prevention (83%. Majority of participants (96% wouldconsult doctor for management of H1N1 flu and also participants (82% believe that hand washing is most importantpreventable measure for H1N1 flu.Conclusion: Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of H1N1 fluamong urban adult population still, active interventions are required in all areas of H1N1 flu pandemic not only toimprove their knowledge and awareness regarding H1N1 flu of urban adults but also for rural adults.

  18. The investigation of Risk factors of influenza pandemic H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koorosh Holakooyi Naeini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza pandemic H1N1 is an acute respiratory infectious disease that is combination of two types of influenza virus type A (H1N1. This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting influenza pandemic H1N1. Methods: In this case-control study, the cases were 18 positive cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 and the controls were the patients who were admitted during the same time as the cases to sections of Orthopedics, Urology, Surgery and Women of the same hospital for reasons other than influenza. The data were collected through a form by two experienced nurses and then were fed into SPSS, and were analyzed using independent T-test and chi-square. Results: A significant relationship was observed between pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and a history of domestic travel, contact with confirmed patients, respiratory diseases, and diabetes (P0.05. Conclusion: People with underlying diseases, especially respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart disease and a secondary infection and cardiovascular disease most likely are susceptible to influenza pandemic H1N1.

  19. Genetic and Phylogenetic Analyses of Influenza A H1N1pdm Virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, P. R.; Viegas, M.; Valinotto, L. E.; Mistchenko, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm) spread worldwide in 2009, with 12,080 confirmed cases and 626 deaths occurring in Argentina. A total of 330 H1N1pdm viruses were detected from May to August 2009, and phylogenetic and genetic analyses of 21 complete genome sequences from both mild and fatal cases were achieved with reference to concatenated whole genomes. In addition, the analysis of another 16 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) gene sequences of Argentinean isolates was performed. The microevolution timeline was assessed and resistance monitoring of an NA fragment from 228 samples throughout the 2009 pandemic peak was performed by sequencing and pyrosequencing. We also assessed the viral growth kinetics for samples with replacements at the genomic level or special clinical features. In this study, we found by Bayesian inference that the Argentinean complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 7 sequences. The HA sequences were related to samples from the northern hemisphere autumn-winter from September to December 2009. The NA of Argentinean sequences belonged to the New York group. The N-4 fragment as well as the hierarchical clustering of samples showed that a consensus sequence prevailed in time but also that different variants, including five H275Y oseltamivir-resistant strains, arose from May to August 2009. Fatal and oseltamivir-resistant isolates had impaired growth and a small plaque phenotype compared to oseltamivir-sensitive and consensus strains. Although these strains might not be fit enough to spread in the entire population, molecular surveillance proved to be essential to monitor resistance and viral dynamics in our country. PMID:21047959

  20. Language Generation of A/H1N1 Flu%"甲型H1N1流感"之语言生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周筱娟

    2010-01-01

    语言静态是相对的,动态是绝对的.当下"猪流感"到"甲型H1N1流感"术语变更的实际情形表明,语言生成会经过"基础、修正、生成"的直线过程,经受从言语到语言的心理认知过程.

  1. An epidemiological study of H1N1 influenza A%甲型H1N1流感病毒流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉香; 汪杨; 高玉伟; 王峰

    2014-01-01

    H1N1 influenza A spread around the world in 2009.There were lots of patients in China too.We did this research to know the epidemiological feature and transmission route and strengthen the prevention and control measure of the influenza.Methods:We collected the nasopharyngeal swab and serum samples of 56 patients who had flu symptom from the infectious disease department of 1st hospital of Jilin University from October in 2009 to December in 2009.The specific antibody of the serum samples were detected by the blood clots suppression method and the H 1N1 RNA of the nasopharyngeal swab was detected by the Nest-RT-PCR assay.Results:The results of nucleic acid test showed that 21(37.5%) and 16(27.8%) samples were found NP and M of influenza A positive respectively and only 2 ( 3.6%) were found H1N1 of influenza A positive.The results of the blood clots suppression method showed that the serum samples of 27 patients (48.2%) could suppress the red blood cells blot of H 1N1 influenza A specifically and all the antibody titer was more than 1∶320.The antibody titer was more than 1∶5 120 in 8 of them.There′s significant difference of the serum antibody titer between the recovery phase and the acute phase.The specific H1N1 influenza A antibody of 27 (48.2%) serum samples in the recovery phase were positive and it was much higher than the result of nucleic acid test .Conclusion:The nucleic acid could be detected in the acute phase and the serum antibody detection could be done in the later stage .Using both the assays could increase the positive rate of H 1N1 influenza.%目的:了解甲型H1 N1流感病毒的流行特点及传播规律,加强对流感大流行的防控。方法:收集2009年10~12月吉林大学第一医院住院发热门诊中具有流感症状患者的临床样品(鼻咽拭子和血清),采用血凝抑制法、巢式 RT-PCR技术检测具有流感症状患者血清标本中的特异性抗体、咽拭子中的甲型H1N1 RNA

  2. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Becher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs.

  3. Analysis of oseltamivir-resistant H275Y mutation in a novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strain%一株新型甲型H1N1流感病毒H275Y的奥司他韦耐药变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏彤; 李淑华; 鹿文英; 韩磊; 韩一芳; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the genetic characteristics and variations of glycosylation sites of neuraminidase (NA) gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods The sequences of NA gene of 110 A/H1N1 influenza virus strains isolated at different time and locations were downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA4.0 software and NJ method were used for nucleotide sequence alignment, coding protein sequence alignment and the phylogenetic tree construction. Results The NA gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strains isolated from different areas in 2009 shared an extremely high homology of 99. 5%-100%, but it was different from that of A/human/H1N1 influenza virus. The novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strains and Europe A/swine/HlNl influenza virus strains shared a high homology of 89. 6% - 92. 9%, with similar glycosylation sites at 50, 58, 63, 68, 88, 146, 235 and 386. Moreover, the homology of NA gene between the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus and A/chicken/H5N1 influenza virus amounted to 83. 6% -85. 3%. Amino acid residues at the enzyme active sites of the NA were strictly conservative in most novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strains, still manifesting as R118, D151, R152, R225, E277, R293, R368, Y402, E119, R156, W179, S180, D199, 1223, E228, H275, E278, N295 and E425. Four strains isolated from Denmark, Japan, and HongKong and Hunan province showed a H275Y mutatioa The NA gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus might originate from Europe A/swine/HlNl influenza virus, and had genetic relationship with A/ chicken/H5N1 influenza virus. Conclusions The novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 might be a reassorted virus rather than the result of gradual evolution of A/human/HlNl influenza virus. A novel A/H1N1 influenza virus strain isolated from Hunan has a H275Y mutation which might be oseltamivir resistant.%目的 探讨2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒神经氨酸酶(NA)基因的进化规律,分析NA蛋白酶活性位点以及糖基

  4. 2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行时空分布特征分析%Characterization of the Global Spatio-temporal Transmission of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋之犇; 白建军; 蔡俊; 李瑞云; 金震宇; 徐冰

    2012-01-01

    本文利用球面距离的Ripley'K函数,分析了全球2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行早期疫情的点空间分布模式.同时,通过对比2000-2008年甲型流感病例数据,分析不同纬度国家2009年甲型H1N1流感新增病例数的时间序列特征及其与国家入境人数的相关性.结果表明,2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行早期疫情呈聚类分布,其L函数值最大值区间与65个全球城市的最大值区间相同.78.5%的病例分布在全球城市周围600km半径内.时间序列特征总体上类似于历年甲型流感,但是北回归线以北部分国家在6、7月非甲型流感流行季节仍有大量病例出现.并且北回归线以北国家冬季暴发集中在第45周到第48周之间,早于历年甲型流感流行时间.进一步分析认为,全球城市是本次流感国际传播网络的关键节点.国际旅行是流感传播的重要途径,并在本次流感大流行前期主导着流感跨国传播方向.同时不同纬度的环境条件对2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行有重要影响.%In March of 2009, a novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus was first discovered in Mexico and quickly spread to over 200 countries in less than two years. However, limited research has been conducted on the characterization of the global spatio-temporal transmission of the pandemic. Applying Ripley 's K function based on the spherical distances, we analyzed spatial pattern of the outbreaks of the H1N1 pandemic from March 15, 2009 to June 9, 2009. Compared with other type A influenza occurred during 2000-2008, the 2009 H1N1 influenza showed generally similar temporal trend, but marked difference when we broke down the outbreak data of each country along the latitude. To look into the differences, we further associated the number of weekly cases of the H1N1 influenza with national arrivals through customs. Results show that the 2009 H1N1 influenza in early period was spatially clustered. The maximum value of the function L was

  5. Clinical Presentation of Novel Influenza A (H1N1 in Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Akbarpour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Human pandemic influenza H1N1 virus as the cause of febrile respiratory infection ranging from self-limited to severe illness has spread globally during 2009. Signs and symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract involvement, fever, sore throat, rhinitis, myalgia, malaise, headache, chills and fatigue are common. In this article we report the clinical presentation of Influenza A (H1N1 in our hospitalized children. Methods:Between September and October 2009, all children requiring hospitalization for suspected H1N1 infection were transferred to Pediatric Infectious Diseases ward. For all patients the throat swab was taken for PCR testing to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of H1N1 Influenza A. Case patients consisted of H1N1-positive patients. Age, sex, symptoms, signs, laboratory data, CXR changes, details of therapy, duration of admission and patient outcome were documented. Findings:Twenty patients were H1N1 positive. Mean age of the patients was 65.50±9.8 months. Fever and coughs were with 55% the most commonly reported symptoms. Other presentations included vomiting (55%, abdominal pain (25%, cyanosis and dyspnea (5%, body ache (40%, rhinorrhea (80%, sore throat (35%, head stiffness (5% and loss of conciousness (5%. The median temperature of the patients was 38.5ºC. Chest X-Ray changes were noted in 13 out of 20 patients (65%. Mean leukocyte and platelet was 6475 and 169000 respectively. Seventeen (85% patients were treated with Oseltamivir, 3 patients received adjuvant antibiotics. The mean duration of admission was 3 days. Three patients required intensive care support and all of them expired due to superinfection. Conclusion:Our data confirm that the presentation of influenza in children is variable and 2009 H1N1 influenza may cause leucopenia and thrombocytopenia.

  6. Effect of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells: computational and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, swine flu (H1N1) had spread significantly to levels that threatened pandemic influenza. There have been many treatments that have arisen for patients since the WHO first reported the disease. Although some progress in controlling influenza has taken place during the last few years, the disease is not yet under control. The development of new and less expensive anti-influenza drugs is still needed. Here, we show that sesamin from the seeds of the Thai medicinal plant Sesamum indicum has anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1. In this study, the combinatorial screening method combined with the computational approach was applied to investigate the new molecular binding structures of sesamin against the 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1 (p09N1) crystallized structure. Experimental methods were applied to propose the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from H1N1-induced human PBMC model. The molecular dynamics simulation of sesamin binding with the p09N1 crystallized structure showed new molecular binding structures at ARG118, ILE222, ARG224, and TYR406, and it has been proposed that sesamin could potentially be used to produce anti-H1N1 compounds. Furthermore, the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced PBMCs by ELISA and signaling transduction showed that sesamin exhibits the ability to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and to enhance the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2 via downregulating the phosphorylated JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. This information might very well be useful in the prevention and treatment of immune-induced inflammatory disorders. PMID:26424131

  7. Effect of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells: computational and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, swine flu (H1N1) had spread significantly to levels that threatened pandemic influenza. There have been many treatments that have arisen for patients since the WHO first reported the disease. Although some progress in controlling influenza has taken place during the last few years, the disease is not yet under control. The development of new and less expensive anti-influenza drugs is still needed. Here, we show that sesamin from the seeds of the Thai medicinal plant Sesamum indicum has anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1. In this study, the combinatorial screening method combined with the computational approach was applied to investigate the new molecular binding structures of sesamin against the 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1 (p09N1) crystallized structure. Experimental methods were applied to propose the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from H1N1-induced human PBMC model. The molecular dynamics simulation of sesamin binding with the p09N1 crystallized structure showed new molecular binding structures at ARG118, ILE222, ARG224, and TYR406, and it has been proposed that sesamin could potentially be used to produce anti-H1N1 compounds. Furthermore, the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced PBMCs by ELISA and signaling transduction showed that sesamin exhibits the ability to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and to enhance the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2 via downregulating the phosphorylated JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. This information might very well be useful in the prevention and treatment of immune-induced inflammatory disorders.

  8. From Swine Influenza to Influenza A (H1N1)%从"猪流感"到"甲型H1N1流感"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏星

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009年4月13日,墨西哥出现首例疑似感染"猪流感"死亡病例.随后疫情迅速扩散,至5月底,已有美国、加拿大、新西兰、英国等40多个国家和地区陆续出现确诊病例,全球高度戒备.

  9. Framing of Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in a Singaporean newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnyat, Iccha; Lee, Seow Ting

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to understand how public health messages provided by the government in Singapore during an Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic were framed by the news media for the public. News articles were analyzed to explore how the global pandemic was framed as a local event, providing a unique exploration of the dynamic involving public health communication, news media and the state. Thematic analysis (n = 309) included the government-issued press releases disseminating public health information about H1N1 that were directly linked to news stories (n = 56) and news stories about H1N1 generated by the newspaper (n = 253). Four themes were found: (i) imported disease, (ii) war/battle metaphors, (iii) social responsibility and (iv) lockdown policies. Frame analysis revealed that the news coverage during the H1N1 pandemic reflected how the newspaper framed and mediated the information flow, amplified a positive tone for the government response, emphasized individual responsibility and utilized gain frames to construct local messages about the global H1N1 pandemic that reified Singapore as a nation-state.

  10. Influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus - experience of the clinical microbiology laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lucia Chenal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009, a new variant of influenza A/H1N1 virus that had never been isolated before, was identified. From April 27 to December 31, 2009 the respiratory samples of 974 patients, obtained from suspected cases of pandemic influenza A virus infection, were analyzed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan. The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 infection was performed initially through the use of different molecular biological methods: Seeplex® RV12 ACE Detection (Seegene, NUCLISENS® EASYQ® INFLUENZA A/B (bioMérieux, Influenza A/B Q-PCR Alert (Nanogen running in parallel with rRT-PCR (CDC to confirm the positivity to the new influenza virus, then was used a single specific test, Fast set H1N1v (Arrow Diagnostics. Retrospective study of data showed that 293 (30.1% patients were positive for the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus and 8 (0.8% for influenza A other than H1N1 virus.The distribution of influenza A/H1N1 cases showed two peaks, one on July (62.9% and the other one on October (36%, moreover we observed that 155 patients (53% out of 293 positive for influenza A/H1N1 virus aged under 20 years old. The first positivity peak was found in travelers and the second one, occurred 2-3 months prior to the classic seasonal epidemic influenza, was attributed to autochthonous cases , by which the virus had spread worldwide. The highest proportion of cases were among subjects aged from 0 to 20 years and, over this age the positivity rate decreased proportionally with increasing age, in agreement with data reported in other countries.

  11. 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒的进化趋势及未来防控中应考虑的问题%Evolutionary trend of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 and the major problems concerning prevention and control of this pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广文

    2009-01-01

    2009年流行的新型甲型H1N1流感病毒的8个功能基因各自有一定的进化特点,其主要免疫原性基因--血凝素(HA)基因源于北美猪流感病毒.2005年在美国衣阿华(Iowa)州分离的感染人的猪H1N1的HA基因、病毒聚合酶(PB2、PBl和PA)基因、核蛋白基因(NP)和非结构基因(NS)与此次新型甲型HlNl病毒高度同源(同源性超过90%),可能是此次新型甲型H1N1病毒进化过程中的中间步骤.神经氨酸酶(NA)基因源于欧洲H1N1猪流感病毒,基质蛋白(M1和M2)基因来自欧洲H3N2亚型猪流感病毒,两段基因可能在猪体内与Iowa株发生重排而进化成此次新型甲型H1N1病毒.本文分析了新型甲型H1N1流感病毒可能的进化过程,并提出了未来防控工作中需要注意的几个科学问题.%Objective Eight functional fragments of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 had their own evolutionary characteristics. Among them, the hemagglutinin (HA), the major antigenic gene, was originated from swine influenza virus epidemics in North America. The HA gene, polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA), nucleoprotein gene (NP) and nonstructural protein gene (NS) of the virus strain isolated in Iowa of US in 2005 shared close homology (identities more than 90%) with the corresponding sequences of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. The Iowa strain might be an intermediate step of the evolutionary process of this novel A/H1N1 influenza virus. The evolutionary process of the novel A/H1N1 influenza might be realized in pigs re-assorted with the neuraminidase (NA) gene from European swine H1N1 influenza virus and matrix proteins (M1 and M2) genes from European H3N2 swine influenza virus. The present paper presented possible evolutionary processes of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009, and pointed out several relevant scientific points which should be emphasized in the prevention and control of the epidemics of the novel A/H1N1 influenza in

  12. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Huan-cheng; Shi Zi-xue; Sun Jin-fu; Li Su; Tu Chang-chun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inocula...

  13. 在线监测2009 H1N1流感%On-line Monitoring of 2009 H1N1 influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John S.Brownstein; Clark C.Freifeld; Lawrence C.Madoff; 黄海

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甲型H1N1流感的出现,使基于信息网络建立的疾病早期诊断、公共卫生监测以及风险交流体现出了显著的重要性.从现阶段的情况来看,互联网和社会媒体在这次流感爆发的发现和应对中发挥了突出作用.

  14. Predicting young adults' intentions to get the H1N1 vaccine: an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Janet

    2015-01-01

    Young adults 19 through 24 years of age were among the populations that had the highest frequency of infection from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. However, over the 2009-2010 flu season, H1N1 vaccine uptake among college students nationwide was around 8%. To explore the social cognitive factors that influenced their intentions to get the H1N1 vaccine, this study compares the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the health belief model (HBM), and an integrated model. The final model shows that several HBM variables influenced behavioral intentions through the TPB variables. The results suggest that even though the TPB seemed a superior model for behavior prediction, the addition of the HBM variables could inform future theory development by offering health-specific constructs that potentially enhance the predictive validity of TPB variables. PMID:24870976

  15. Two cases of exudative retina detachment and uveitis following H1N1 influenza vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong; CHANG Li-bing; ZHAO Min; LI Xiao-xin

    2011-01-01

    Uveitis was a rare adverse event of vaccination.We met two cases of acute uveitis with exudative retinal detachment following vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Case 1 was a 10-year-old boy who was admitted for bilateral blurred vision at 10 days after vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Vitreous opacity was obvious in both eyes.Broad exudative retinal detachment was observed in the right eye.Case 2 was a 47-year-old female who suffered from an acute high fever at 2 days after the vaccination of H1 N1 influenza.Later,she encountered bilateral headache and decreasing vision.In both eyes,mutton fat keratic precipitates,positive Tyndall phenomenon,congestion of optic disc and exudative retinal detachment were observed.

  16. Fatal pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus infection in a Pennsylvania domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E R; Rankin, J T; Daverio, S A; Hunt, E A; Lute, J R; Tewari, D; Acland, H M; Ostrowski, S R; Moll, M E; Urdaneta, V V; Ostroff, S M

    2011-11-01

    We report the earliest recognized fatality associated with laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza in a domestic cat in the United States. The 12-year old, indoor cat died on 6 November 2009 after exposure to multiple family members who had been ill with influenza-like illness during the peak period of the fall wave of pH1N1 in Pennsylvania during late October 2009. The clinical presentation, history, radiographic, laboratory and necropsy findings are presented to assist veterinary care providers in understanding the features of this disease in cats and the potential for transmission of infection to pets from infected humans. PMID:21824345

  17. Mongrelised genetics of H1N1 virus: A bird′s eyeview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarathna C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available H1N1 influenza, also known as "novel H1N1 virus" has led to a "global outcry." This virus is more virulent when compared with other seasonal flu viruses. Virulence may change as the adaptive mutation gene increases within the virus. A study at the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain as they showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction when compared with adults aged 18-64 years, who showed a cross-reactive antibody reaction of 6-9% and older adults with 33% immunity. This review article depicts H1N1 virus, its virulence with genetic evolution potential and preventive protocol for the dental professionals. This would allow us to comprehend the changes in the disease process and contribute in its prevention as "prevention is better than cure."

  18. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio Liberatore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (65years and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system.Case Presentation: A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus, a therapy with oseltamivir was started since the nasopharyngeal swab resulted positive for influenza A/H1N1. Clinical conditions andlaboratory findings progressively improved during hospitalization, becoming normal during a 2 month follow up.Conclusion: The possibility of a renal involvement after influenza A/H1N1 infection should be considered.

  19. Effect of the novel influenza A (H1N1 virus in the human immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pandemic by the novel H1N1 virus has created the need to study any probable effects of that infection in the immune system of the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood was sampled within the first two days of the presentation of signs of infection from 10 healthy volunteers; from 18 cases of flu-like syndrome; and from 31 cases of infection by H1N1 confirmed by reverse RT-PCR. Absolute counts of subtypes of monocytes and of lymphocytes were determined after staining with monoclonal antibodies and analysis by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from patients and stimulated with various bacterial stimuli. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (FN-alpha and of IFN-gamma were estimated in supernatants by an enzyme immunoassay. Infection by H1N1 was accompanied by an increase of monocytes. PBMCs of patients evoked strong cytokine production after stimulation with most of bacterial stimuli. Defective cytokine responses were shown in response to stimulation with phytohemagglutin and with heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adaptive immune responses of H1N1-infected patients were characterized by decreases of CD4-lymphocytes and of B-lymphocytes and by increase of T-regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Infection by the H1N1 virus is accompanied by a characteristic impairment of the innate immune responses characterized by defective cytokine responses to S.pneumoniae. Alterations of the adaptive immune responses are predominated by increase of Tregs. These findings signify a predisposition for pneumococcal infections after infection by H1N1 influenza.

  20. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed a the first influenza pandemic in this century and fourth overall since first flu pandemic was reported during the World War I. The past experiences with influenza viruses and this pandemic of H1N1 place a consider-able strain on health services and resulted in serious illnesses and a large number of deaths. Develop-ing countries were declared more likely to be at risk from the pandemic effects, as they faced the dual problem of highly vulnerable populations and limited resources to respond H1N1. The public health experts agreed that vaccination is the most effective ways to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic. The vaccines for H1N1 virus have been used in over 40 coun-tries and administered to over 200 million people helped in a great way and on August 10, 2010, World Health Organization (WHO announced H1N1 to be in postpandemic period. But based on knowledge about past pandemics, the H1N1 (2009 virus is expected to continue to circulate as a seasonal virus and may undergo some agenic-variation. As WHO strongly recommends vaccination, vigilance for regular updating of the composition of influenza vaccines, based on an assessment of the future impact of circulating viruses along with safety surveillance of the vaccines is necessary. This review has been done to take a stock of the currently available H1N1 vaccines and their possible use as public health intervention in the postpandemic period.

  1. [Effect of Yunnan herb Laggera pterodonta against influenza A (H1N1) virus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiao-ling; Sun, Qiang-ming; Wang, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Yu-jiao; Yang, Zi-feng; Huang, Qing-hui; Jiang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Xin-hua; Zhang, Rong-ping

    2015-09-01

    Laggera pterodonta is commonly used for treating influenza in Southwest China, especially in Yunnnan province. The main clinical effects of L. pterodonta include anti-influenza, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory. To investigate the anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus effect of L. pterodonta, neutralization inhibition and proliferation inhibition tests were performed. MDCK culture method was used to observe the cytopathic effect (CPE) of extracts from L. pterodonta in inhibiting influenza A (H1N1) virus and haemagglutination titre of H1N1 virus in vitro. The culture medium were collected at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and detected by Real time RT-PCR, in order to compare the effect of different extracts from L. pterodonta on in vitro proliferation of H1N1, virus. The result of neutralization inhibition test showed that hemagglutination titer of ethyl acetate extract were 8 times lower at 72 h; in proliferation inhibition test, hemagglutination titer of ethyl acetate extracts reduced by 2 and 4 times. According to the results of Real time RT-PCR test, the H1N1 inhibition ratio of ethyl acetate extract was 72.5%, while the proliferation inhibition ratio of ethyl acetate extract was 25.3%; as for petroleum ether extracts, the H1N1 inhibition ratio was 60.2%, while the proliferation inhibition ratio was 81.4%. In conclusion, both ethyl acetate extract and petroleum ether extract of L. pterodonta have significant neutralization and direct proliferation inhibition effects on influenza A virus.

  2. Preliminary results: surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine - United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon peripheral neuropathy causing paralysis and in severe cases respiratory failure and death. GBS often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or upper respiratory illness but, in rare cases, can follow vaccination. In 1976, vaccination against a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for GBS in the 42 days after vaccination (approximately 10 excess cases per 1 million vaccinations), a consideration in halting the vaccination program in the context of limited influenza virus transmission. To monitor influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine safety, several federal surveillance systems, including CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), are being used. In October 2009, EIP began active surveillance to assess the risk for GBS after 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Preliminary results from an analysis in EIP comparing GBS patients hospitalized through March 31, 2010, who did and did not receive 2009 H1N1 vaccination showed an estimated age-adjusted rate ratio of 1.77 (GBS incidence of 1.92 per 100,000 person-years among vaccinated persons and 1.21 per 100,000 person-years among unvaccinated persons). If end-of-surveillance analysis confirms this finding, this would correspond to 0.8 excess cases of GBS per 1 million vaccinations, similar to that found in seasonal influenza vaccines. No other federal system to date has detected a statistically significant association between GBS and 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Surveillance and further analyses are ongoing. The 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety profile is similar to that for seasonal influenza vaccines, which have an excellent safety record. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent serious illness and death from 2009 H1N1 influenza infection; illness from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus has been associated with a hospitalization rate of 222 per 1 million and a death rate of 9.7 per 1 million population.

  3. Clinical characteristics of acute encephalopathies associated with influenza H1N1-2009 in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report 12 cases of acute encephalopathy associated with influenza H1N1-2009 treated according to Japanese guideline (2009). In all 12 cases, electroencephalogram presented diffuse or localized high-amplitude slow waves. Brain CT and MRI showed abnormalities in 4 and 6 cases, respectively. We used hypothermia therapy for 5 patients. One patient showed impairment in short term memory, while the rest of the patients showed no sequelae. These 12 cases presented here suggest the early recognition and therapy according to the newly proposed guideline may reduce severe sequelae and mortality by acute encephalopathy associated with influenza H1N1-2009. (author)

  4. [Influenza A H1N1v treated with extra-corporal membrane oxygenation.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Reinhold; Severinsen, Inge Krogh; Terp, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with body mass index > 30 was admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia due to H1N1v. Thoracic X-ray showed bilateral, diffuse infiltrates. There was no sign of complicating bacterial infection and all microbiological tests of tracheal secretion, blood and urine were negative....... Polymerase chain reaction test for H1N1v was positive until day ten. No mutations were found in the virus. The patient was given oseltamivir tablets and inhalable zanamivir as well as antibiotics. The patient was treated with extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (EcmO) for 12 days followed by ventilator...

  5. Origin and fate of A/H1N1 influenza in Scotland during 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lycett, S.; McLeish, N.J.; Robertson, C.; Carman, W; Baillie, G.; McMenamin, J.; Rambaut, A; Simmonds, P.; Woolhouse, M.; Leigh Brown, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of influenza has usually been described by a ‘density’ model, where the largest centres of population drive the epidemic within a country. An alternative model emphasizing the role of air travel has recently been developed. We have examined the relative importance of the two in the context of the 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic in Scotland. We obtained genome sequences of 70 strains representative of the geographical and temporal distribution of H1N1 influenza during the summer and wi...

  6. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  7. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  8. Pulmonary Complication of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Infection: Imaging Features in Two Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wook; Seo, Joon Beom; Song, Jae Woo; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin Seong; Kim, Mi Young; Chae, Eun Jin; Song, Jin Woo; Kim, Won Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) virus is the pathogen of recent global outbreaks of febrile respiratory infection. We herein report the imaging findings of pulmonary complication in two patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. The first patient without secondary infection showed the ill-defined ground-glass opacity nodules and patch areas of ground-glass opacities. The second patient with secondary pneumococcal pneumonia showed areas of lobar consolidation in the right middle lobe and left lower lobe and ground-glass opacities.

  9. Genetic diversity of the haemagglutinin (HA) of human influenza a (H1N1) virus in montenegro: Focus on its origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugosa, Boban; Vujosevic, Danijela; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Valli, Maria Beatrice; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; Angeletti, Silvia; Scarpa, Fabio; Terzić, Dragica; Vratnica, Zoran

    2016-11-01

    In 2009 an influenza A epidemic caused by a swine origin H1N1strain, unusual in human hosts, has been described. The present research is aimed to perform the first phylogenetic investigation on the influenza virus A (H1N1) strains circulating in Montenegro, from December 1, 2009, when the first case of death due to H1N1 was confirmed, and the epidemic began causing a total of four fatalities. The phylogenetic analysis of the strains circulating showed the absence of a pure Montenegrin cluster, suggesting the occurrence of multiple re-introductions in that population from different areas till as far as the early 2010. The time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for the complete dataset has been dated in early 2008, pre-dating the first Montenegrin identification of H1N1 infection. These data suggest that virus was spreading undetected, may be as a consequence of unidentified infections in returning travelers. Anyhow, the estimated TMRCA of Montenegrin strains is fully consistent to that found in different areas. Compatibly with the time coverage of the study period here analyzed, molecular dynamic of Montenegrin strains follows similar trend as in other countries. J. Med. Virol. 88:1905-1913, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  11. How to Prevent Getting and Spreading Novel H1N1 Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to prevent giving and getting novel H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of the Director.   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  12. Correlates of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Acceptability among Parents and Their Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Gargano, Lisa M.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children were a priority group for receipt of the pandemic (2009) H1N1 influenza vaccine. Both parental and adolescent attitudes likely influence vaccination behaviors. Data were collected from surveys distributed to middle- and high-school students and their parents in two counties in rural Georgia. Multivariable logistic regression…

  13. Outcomes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were...

  14. Postvaccination Influenza 2009 H1N1 Respiratory Failure Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Mangino, Julie E.; Danielle Blais; Juan Crestanello; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Erik Abel

    2011-01-01

    The spread of pandemic Influenza A (H1N1-2009) was believed to have been attenuated by the effectiveness of worldwide vaccination initiatives. Despite the immunogenicity of a safe vaccine, we report a case of vaccine failure resulting in catastrophic influenza-associated respiratory failure.

  15. Outbreak of influenza A(H1N1) in a school in southern England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddard, N.; Paynter, S.; Paget, J.

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of influenza A (subtype H1N1) has occurred in a primary school in West Sussex, southern England [1]. The first cases of illness occurred during the first week of May 2004. One child was admitted to hospital during that week with symptoms of fever, confusion, headache, and conjunctivitis.

  16. Invasive group A streptococcal infection concurrent with 2009 H1N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Cynthia; Louie, Janice K; Glaser, Carol A; Harriman, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill K; Aranki, Faisal; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Farley, Susan; Ginsberg, Michele; Hernandez, Lisa B; Sallenave, Catherine S; Radner, Allen B

    2010-05-15

    We describe 10 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza and concurrent invasive group A streptococcal infection with marked associated morbidity and mortality. Seven patients required intensive care, 8 required mechanical ventilation, and 7 died. Five of the patients, including 4 of the fatalities, were previously healthy. PMID:20377405

  17. Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia: radiograph and CT features of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the imaging features on chest radiograph and CT in children with Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. Methods: The imaging data of chest radiograph and CT in six children with Influenza A H1N1 pneumonia confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay was retrospectively analysis. All patients had chest radiograph at first examination and 4 of them re-examed. One children took CT. Results: All cases showed thick lung markings with varied degrees of pulmonary infiltration and interstitial changes on chest radiograph. Among them, 3 cases showed bilateral pulmonary infiltration and 3 cases showed infiltration in left lung; enlarged hilar was observed in 3 cases. The imaging findings of the pneumonia changed quickly during the follow-up accompanied with the improvement of clinical symptoms. The only one chest CT examination showed bilateral infiltration, multiple ground-glass opacities, small subpleural nodulars, right pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy of lung hila and mediastinum. Conclusions: Chest radiograph and CT revealed certain typical imaging features in the children with influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. However, the final diagnosis of influenza A H1N1 pneumonia still should be made based on epidemiology and laboratory examination. (authors)

  18. H1N1 Preventive Health Behaviors in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Sanza, Megan; Johnston, Lindsay; Petinaux, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background: When H1N1 emerged in 2009, institutions of higher education were immediately faced with questions about how best to protect their community from the virus, yet limited information existed to help predict student preventive behaviors. Methods: The authors surveyed students at a large urban university in November 2009 to better…

  19. Novel H1N1 Flu - Creating a Safe and Healthy Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-20

    This podcast helps businesses understand how novel H1N1 flu can affect their business and how to keep their workers and worksites safe.  Created: 5/20/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/20/2009.

  20. Distribution and risk factors of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in mainland China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-Q. Fang (Li-Qun); L-P. Wang (Li-Ping); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); S. Liang (Song); S-L. Tong (Shi-Lu); Y-L. Li (Yan-Li); Y-P. Li (Ya-Pin); Q. Qian (Quan); H. Yang (Hong); M-G. Zhou (Mai-Geng); X-F. Wang (Xiao-Feng); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J-Q. Ma (Jia-Qi); W.C. Cao (Wu Chun)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractData from all reported cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The spatiotemporal distribution patterns of cases were characterized through spatial analysis. The impact of travel-related risk factors on

  1. Manténgase Informado Sobre la Influenza H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-03

    Este podcast habla sobre las medidas básicas que usted puede tomar para protegerse de cualquier enfermedad infecciosa, incluido el nuevo virus de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/3/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 5/3/2009.

  2. Antivirals Use During the Pandemic H1N1 2009 Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-23

    Charisma Atkins, CDC public health analyst, discusses antiviral use during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic flu outbreak.  Created: 1/23/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/23/2012.

  3. Immunization-Safety Monitoring Systems for the 2009 H1N1 Monovalent Influenza Vaccination Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Daniel A.; Akhtar, Aysha; Mergler, Michelle J.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Izurieta, Hector; Ball, Robert; Lee, Grace M.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Garman, Patrick; Cunningham, Francesca; Gellin, Bruce; Koh, Howard; Lurie, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The effort to vaccinate the US population against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus hinged, in part, on public confidence in vaccine safety. Early in the vaccine program, >20% of parents reported that they would not vaccinate their children. Concerns about the safety of the vaccines were reported by man

  4. The hemagglutinin structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tianwei; Wang, Gengyan; Li, Anzhang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Caiming; Zhang, Rongfu; Cai, Qixu; Song, Wenjun; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; (U. Hong Kong); (Inter. Inst. Infect. Imm.); (Xiamen)

    2009-09-15

    The interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) and receptors is a kernel in the study of evolution and host adaptation of H1N1 influenza A viruses. The notion that the avian HA is associated with preferential specificity for receptors with Sia{alpha}2,3Gal glycosidic linkage over those with Sia{alpha}2,6Gal linkage is not all consistent with the available data on H1N1 viruses. By x-ray crystallography, the HA structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as its complexes with the receptor analogs, was determined. The structures revealed no preferential binding of avian receptor analogs over that of the human analog, suggesting that the HA/receptor binding might not be as stringent as is commonly believed in determining the host receptor preference for some subtypes of influenza viruses, such as the H1N1 viruses. The structure also showed difference in glycosylation despite the preservation of related sequences, which may partly contribute to the difference between structures of human and avian origin.

  5. Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in pediatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Alicia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1 virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and substantial hospital resource utilization. Although influenza pandemics have the possibility of resulting in considerable illness, we must not ignore the impact that we can experience annually with SI. Methods We compared the outcomes of pediatric patients ≤18 years of age at a large urban hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza and an influenza-like illness (ILI during the 2009 pandemic and two prior influenza seasons. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS. All variables potentially associated with LOS based on univariable analysis, previous studies, or hypothesized relationships were included in the regression models to ensure adjustment for their effects. Results There were 133 pediatric cases of nH1N1 admitted during 2009 and 133 cases of SI admitted during the prior 2 influenza seasons (2007-8 and 2008-9. Thirty-six percent of children with SI and 18% of children with nH1N1 had no preexisting medical conditions (p = 0.14. Children admitted with SI had 1.73 times longer adjusted LOS than children admitted for nH1N1 (95% CI 1.35 - 2.13. There was a trend towards more children with SI requiring mechanical ventilation compared with nH1N1 (16 vs.7, p = 0.08. Conclusions This study strengthens the growing body of evidence demonstrating that SI results in significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Pandemic H1N1 received considerable attention with strong media messages urging people to undergo vaccination and encouraging improved

  6. Calculating the potential for within-flight transmission of influenza A (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blower Sally

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clearly air travel, by transporting infectious individuals from one geographic location to another, significantly affects the rate of spread of influenza A (H1N1. However, the possibility of within-flight transmission of H1N1 has not been evaluated; although it is known that smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, SARS and seasonal influenza can be transmitted during commercial flights. Here we present the first quantitative risk assessment to assess the potential for within-flight transmission of H1N1. Methods We model airborne transmission of infectious viral particles of H1N1 within a Boeing 747 using methodology from the field of quantitative microbial risk assessment. Results The risk of catching H1N1 will essentially be confined to passengers travelling in the same cabin as the source case. Not surprisingly, we find that the longer the flight the greater the number of infections that can be expected. We calculate that H1N1, even during long flights, poses a low to moderate within-flight transmission risk if the source case travels First Class. Specifically, 0-1 infections could occur during a 5 hour flight, 1-3 during an 11 hour flight and 2-5 during a 17 hour flight. However, within-flight transmission could be significant, particularly during long flights, if the source case travels in Economy Class. Specifically, two to five infections could occur during a 5 hour flight, 5-10 during an 11 hour flight and 7-17 during a 17 hour flight. If the aircraft is only partially loaded, under certain conditions more infections could occur in First Class than in Economy Class. During a 17 hour flight, a greater number of infections would occur in First Class than in Economy if the First Class Cabin is fully occupied, but Economy class is less than 30% full. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the potential utility of air travel restrictions on controlling influenza pandemics in the winter of 2009/2010. They show travel by one

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of novel influenza A (H1N1, Andhra Pradesh 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh R Allam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first case of pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 in India was reported from Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh on 16 th May 2009. Subsequently, all suspected cases seeking treatment from A (H1N1 treatment centers and their contacts were tested. Laboratory confirmed cases were hospitalized and treated with antivirals according to national guidelines. We reviewed the surveillance data to assess the morbidity and mortality due to A (H1N1 in the state of Andhra Pradesh (population-76,210,007 during the period from May 2009 to December 2010. Materials and Methods: We obtained the line-list of suspected (influenza like illness as per World Health Organization case definition and laboratory confirmed cases of A (H1N1 from the state unit of integrated disease surveillance project. We analyzed the data to describe the distribution of case-patients by time, place and person. Results: During May 2009 to December 2010, a total of 6527 suspected (attack rate: 8.6/100,000 and 1480 (attack rate: 1.9/100,000 laboratory confirmed cases were reported from the State. Nearly 90% of the suspected and 93% of the confirmed cases was from nine districts of Telangana region, which includes Hyderabad. Nearly 65% of total confirmed cases were reported from Hyderabad. The attack rate was maximum (2.6/100,000 in the age group of 25-49 years. The cases peaked during August-October. 109 case-patients died (Case fatality ratio: 7% and most (80% of these patients had comorbid conditions such as diabetes (24%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20%, hypertension (11% and pregnancy (11%. Case fatality was higher (16% among patients who were older than 60 years of age compared with other age groups. Conclusions: In Andhra Pradesh, H1N1 transmission peaked during August-October months and predominately affected adults. Case fatality was higher in patients older than 60 years with comorbid conditions.

  8. Genetic characterization of the influenza A pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus isolates from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha A Potdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Influenza A pandemic H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus appeared in India in May 2009 and thereafter outbreaks with considerable morbidity and mortality have been reported from many parts of the country. Continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of the virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country in relation to global diversification and to track the mutations that may affect the behavior of the virus. METHODS: H1N1pdm viruses were isolated from both recovered and fatal cases representing major cities and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of six concatenated whole genomes and the hemagglutinin (HA gene of seven more isolates from May-September 2009 was performed with reference to 685 whole genomes of global isolates available as of November 24, 2009. Molecular characterization of all the 8 segments was carried out for known pathogenic markers. RESULTS: The first isolate of May 2009 belonged to clade 5. Although clade 7 was the dominant H1N1pdm lineage in India, both clades 6 and 7 were found to be co-circulating. The neuraminidase of all the Indian isolates possessed H275, the marker for sensitivity to the neuraminidase inhibitor Oseltamivir. Some of the mutations in HA are at or in the vicinity of antigenic sites and may therefore be of possible antigenic significance. Among these a D222G mutation in the HA receptor binding domain was found in two of the eight Indian isolates obtained from fatal cases. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the 13 Indian isolates grouped in the globally most widely circulating H1N1pdm clade 7. Further, correlations of the mutations specific to clade 7 Indian isolates to viral fitness and adaptability in the country remains to be understood. The D222G mutation in HA from isolates of fatal cases needs to be studied for pathogenicity.

  9. Inside the outbreak of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1v virus in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector M Zepeda-Lopez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses pose a threat to human health because of their potential to cause global disease. Between mid March and mid April a pandemic influenza A virus emerged in Mexico. This report details 202 cases of infection of humans with the 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1v which occurred in Mexico City as well as the spread of the virus throughout the entire country. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: From May 1st to May 5th nasopharyngeal swabs, derived from 751 patients, were collected at 220 outpatient clinics and 28 hospitals distributed throughout Mexico City. Analysis of samples using real time RT-PCR revealed that 202 patients out of the 751 subjects (26.9% were confirmed to be infected with the new virus. All confirmed cases of human infection with the strain influenza (H1N1v suffered respiratory symptoms. The greatest number of confirmed cases during the outbreak of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1v were seen in neighbourhoods on the northeast side of Mexico City including Iztapalapa, Gustavo A. Madero, Iztacalco, and Tlahuac which are the most populated areas in Mexico City. Using these data, together with data reported by the Mexican Secretariat of Health (MSH to date, we plot the course of influenza (H1N1v activity throughout Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, which is backed up by MSH data, show that the greatest numbers of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1 cases were seen in the most populated areas. We speculate on conditions in Mexico which may have sparked this flu pandemic, the first in 41 years. We accept the hypothesis that high population density and a mass gathering which took in Iztapalapa contributed to the rapid spread of the disease which developed in three peaks of activity throughout the Country.

  10. Inside the Outbreak of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)v Virus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Lopez, Hector M.; Perea-Araujo, Lizbeth; Miliar-García, Angel; Dominguez-López, Aarón; Xoconostle-Cázarez, Beatriz; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Ramírez Hernandez, Jorge A.; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar; Orozco, Maria Esther; Ahued-Ortega, Armando; Villaseñor-Ruiz, Ignacio; Garcia-Cavazos, Ricardo J.; Teran, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses pose a threat to human health because of their potential to cause global disease. Between mid March and mid April a pandemic influenza A virus emerged in Mexico. This report details 202 cases of infection of humans with the 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1)v which occurred in Mexico City as well as the spread of the virus throughout the entire country. Methodology and Findings From May 1st to May 5th nasopharyngeal swabs, derived from 751 patients, were collected at 220 outpatient clinics and 28 hospitals distributed throughout Mexico City. Analysis of samples using real time RT-PCR revealed that 202 patients out of the 751 subjects (26.9%) were confirmed to be infected with the new virus. All confirmed cases of human infection with the strain influenza (H1N1)v suffered respiratory symptoms. The greatest number of confirmed cases during the outbreak of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1)v were seen in neighbourhoods on the northeast side of Mexico City including Iztapalapa, Gustavo A. Madero, Iztacalco, and Tlahuac which are the most populated areas in Mexico City. Using these data, together with data reported by the Mexican Secretariat of Health (MSH) to date, we plot the course of influenza (H1N1)v activity throughout Mexico. Conclusions Our data, which is backed up by MSH data, show that the greatest numbers of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) cases were seen in the most populated areas. We speculate on conditions in Mexico which may have sparked this flu pandemic, the first in 41 years. We accept the hypothesis that high population density and a mass gathering which took in Iztapalapa contributed to the rapid spread of the disease which developed in three peaks of activity throughout the Country. PMID:20949040

  11. Illinois department of public health H1N1/A pandemic communications evaluation survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-09-16

    Because of heightened media coverage, a 24-hour news cycle and the potential miscommunication of health messages across all levels of government during the onset of the H1N1 influenza outbreak in spring 2009, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) decided to evaluate its H1N1 influenza A communications system. IDPH wanted to confirm its disease information and instructions were helping stakeholders prepare for and respond to a novel influenza outbreak. In addition, the time commitment involved in preparing, issuing, monitoring, updating, and responding to H1N1 federal guidelines/updates and media stories became a heavy burden for IDPH staff. The process and results of the H1N1 messaging survey represent a best practice that other health departments and emergency management agencies can replicate to improve coordination efforts with stakeholder groups during both emergency preparedness and response phases. Importantly, the H1N1 survey confirmed IDPH's messages were influencing stakeholders decisions to activate their pandemic plans and initiate response operations. While there was some dissatisfaction with IDPH's delivery of information and communication tools, such as the fax system, this report should demonstrate to IDPH that its core partners believe it has the ability and expertise to issue timely and accurate instructions that can help them respond to a large-scale disease outbreak in Illinois. The conclusion will focus on three main areas: (1) the survey development process, (2) survey results: best practices and areas for improvement and (3) recommendations: next steps.

  12. The first pandemic of the 21st century: a review of the 2009 pandemic variant influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalera, Nikole M; Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Swine influenza was first described in the 1918 pandemic and made a resurgence in April 2009 in the form of a triple-reassortant influenza A virus, which is composed of a combination of human, swine, and Eurasian avian strains. As evidenced with previous influenza pandemics, young adults and children aged < 24 years are the population most affected. Definitive diagnosis has largely been limited by the inability of conventional influenza testing to distinguish among influenza A subtypes; however, the surge in pandemic cases clearly emerged at the end of the annual influenza season in the northern hemisphere. The pandemic variant influenza A (H1N1) strain is typically susceptible to oseltamivir and resistant to adamantanes, unlike the 2008 to 2009 seasonal influenza A (H1N1). However, 2 cases of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic-variant influenza A (H1N1) were reported in late August 2009. The full impact of the current pandemic is not yet clear, and further reassortment with the circulating seasonal influenza strains in the upcoming 2009 fall season could potentially lead to acquisition of widespread oseltamivir resistance. Vaccination will become paramount in importance for prevention and public health safety. PMID:19820273

  13. Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury:Novel or classical pathogenesis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoyoshi; Maeda; Toshimitsu; Uede

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia.Due to their hostrange diversity,genetic and antigenic diversity,and potential to reassort genetically in vivo,influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans.Thus,newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health.In March 2009,a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic.The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses;it was identified to have originated from pigs,and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1,thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.Since the novel virus emerged,epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted,and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.In this editorial,we summa-rize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

  14. Detection of the Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza A Virus by a Highly Sensitive Quantitative Real-time Reverse-transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yang; Guoliang Mao; Yujun Liu; Yuan-Chuan Chen; Chengjing Liu; Jun Luo; Xihan Li

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with specific primers recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) has been widely used successfully for detection and monitoring of the pandemic H1N 1/2009 influenza A virus.In this study,we report the design and characterization of a novel set of primers to be used in a qRT-PCR assay for detecting the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus.The newly designed primers target three regions that are highly conserved among the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and are different from those targeted by the WHO-recommended primers.The qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers are highly specific,and as specific as the WHO-recommended primers for detecting pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and other influenza viruses including influenza B viruses and influenza A viruses of human,swine,and raccoon dog origin.Furthermore,the qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers appeared to be at least 10-fold more sensitive than those with the WHO-recommended primers as the detection limits of the assays with our primers and the WHO-recommended primers were 2.5 and 25 copies of target RNA per reaction,respectively.When tested with 83 clinical samples,32 were detected to be positive using the qRT-PCR assays with our designed primers,while only 25 were positive by the assays with the WHO-recommended primers.These results suggest that the qRT-PCR system with the newly designed primers represent a highly sensitive assay for diagnosis of the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus infection.

  15. 甲型H1N1流感患者的护理现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉华; 杨桂红

    2009-01-01

    目的:为了提高甲型H1N1流感患者的护理水平,有效控制甲型H1N1流感的传播.方法:根据近期甲型H1N1流感相关信息进行了收集和分析,在此理论基础上提出了甲型H1N1流感患者护理的相关理论和经验.结果:甲型H1N1流感是可防、可控的.结论:提高甲型H1N1流感患者的护理水平,能有效控制甲型H1N1流感的传播.

  16. Low adherence to influenza vaccination campaigns: is the H1N1 virus pandemic to be blamed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivellin Valeria

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few months, debates about the handling of the influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic took place, in particular regarding the change of the WHO pandemic definition, economic interests, the dramatic communication style of mass media. The activation of plans to reduce the virus diffusion resulted in an important investment of resources. Were those investments proportionate to the risk? Was the pandemic overrated? The workload of the Pediatric Emergency Room (P.E.R. at a teaching hospital in Varese (Northern Italy was investigated in order to evaluate the local diffusion and severity of the new H1N1 influenza epidemic. Discussion A 100% increase of the number of P.E.R. visits, particularly for influenza-like illness, was recorded during weeks 42-46 of 2009 (October, 17 to November, 2; the low rate of hospitalization and the mild presentation of the infection gave rise to the conclusion that the pandemic risk was overrated. Mass media communications concerning the new virus created a disproportionate fear in the population that significantly enhanced the burden of cares at the hospital. In the absence of generally implemented measures for etiological diagnosis, the actual incidence of the H1N1 infection could not be estimated. Virus identification, in fact, was limited to children showing severe symptoms after consultancy with an infectious disease specialist. The alarming nature of the communication campaign and the choice to limit etiologic diagnosis to severe cases created a climate of uncertainty which significantly contributed to the massive admissions to the P.E.R.. Summary The communication strategy adopted by the mass media was an important element during the pandemic: the absence of clarity contributed to the spread of a pandemic phobia that appeared to result more from the sensationalism of the campaign than from infection with the novel influenza A variant of human, avian, swine origin virus. One relevant effect

  17. Mutations in classical swine fever virus NS4B affect virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a virus causing a severe disease in swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of NS4B in highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor like domain (TIR...

  18. Patterns of gene expression in swine macrophages infected with classical swine fever virus detected by microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine that is characterized by fever, hemorrhage, leukopenia, abortion, and high mortality. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is classified as a Pestivirus, along with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus...

  19. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  20. C反应蛋白在甲型H1N1流感中的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕; 平芬; 张小平; 高爱武

    2010-01-01

    目的 本研究目的 在于探讨患者血中C-反应蛋白(CRP)浓度对诊断甲型H1N1流感的价值,观察甲型H1N1流感中CRP的变化.方法 选取20例确诊为甲型H1N1流感患者作为甲型H1N1流感组,选取20例上感患者排除甲型H1N1流感患者作为非H1N1流感组,分别测定其急性期CRP浓度,并进行比较.结果 甲型H1N1流感组的CRP浓度(94±17)mg/L明显高于非H1N1流感组(56±10)mg/L(P<0.05).结论 CRP浓度可以作为诊断甲型H1N1流感患者的敏感指标,有助于甲型H1N1流感患者的预后和治疗效果的评价.

  1. Identification of small molecules acting against H1N1 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamennone, Mariangela; Pietrantoni, Agostina; Superti, Fabiana

    2016-01-15

    Influenza virus represents a serious threat to public health. The lack of effective drugs against flu prompted researchers to identify more promising viral target. In this respect hemagglutinin (HA) can represent an interesting option because of its pivotal role in the infection process. With this aim we collected a small library of commercially available compounds starting from a large database and performing a diversity-based selection to reduce the number of screened compounds avoiding structural redundancy of the library. Selected compounds were tested for their hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) ability against two different A/H1N1 viral strains (one of which is oseltamivir sensitive), and 17 of them showed the ability to interact with HA. Five drug-like molecules, in particular, were able to impair hemagglutination of both A/H1N1 viral strains under study and to inhibit cytopathic effect and hemolysis at sub-micromolar level. PMID:26655243

  2. Learning from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: prospects for more broadly effective influenza vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ethan C. Settembre; Philip R. Dormitzer; Rino Rappuoli

    2011-01-01

    Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic. This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.%@@ Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic.This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies.Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.

  3. Computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Brandao Amorim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to review high resolution computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection. The most common tomographic findings include ground-glass opacities, areas of consolidation or a combination of both patterns. Some patients may also present bronchial wall thickening, airspace nodules, crazy-paving pattern, perilobular opacity, air trapping and findings related to organizing pneumonia. These abnormalities are frequently bilateral, with subpleural distribution. Despite their nonspecificity, it is important to recognize the main tomographic findings in patients affected by H1N1 virus in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis, characterize complications and contribute in the follow-up, particularly in cases of severe disease.

  4. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a child with H1N1 influenza infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Jane B. [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Remigio, Cheryl [Pediatric Residency Program, Department of Medical Education, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Milligan, Thomas [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Deline, Carol [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Division of Neurology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Since the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic of novel influenza A H1N1 in June 2009, there has been a sustained rise in the number of cases of this strain of influenza. Although most cases are mild with complete and uneventful recovery, multiple cases of severe infection with complications including death have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the majority of fatal outcomes in the United States have been related to pulmonary complications. We report a 12-year-old girl infected with influenza A H1N1 whose clinical course was complicated by rapid progressive neurologic deterioration and striking CT and MRI findings consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). To our knowledge this has not been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. We hope this case will alert radiologists to this complication and familiarize radiologists with imaging findings that herald ANE. (orig.)

  5. THE A (H1N1 INFLUENZA. SYMBOLIC DIMENSIONS OF A PANDEMIC ARTEFACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés G. Seguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to present the symbolic features that are exposed by the concept of artefact in the context of a pandemic alarm, such as the A (H1N1 influenza. The symbolic qualities entailed by the notion of artefact are well-known within the Social Sciences: Sociology, Anthropology, Archaeology, and Linguistics. The artefact is basically not an object, but an action aimed at designing, simulating or creating a simile by means of material, technological or linguistic structures. The purpose of the present work is to unveil the symbolic dimensions that are activated by the A (H1N1 influenza as a Pandemic Artefact: a the assumption of separating information from matter; b the need for a material support to enable the exchange; c the sociological reflexivity of the artefact and its agency; d the arbitrariness of its social use, that detaches it from the design as intention.

  6. Computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    The present study aimed to review high resolution computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection. The most common tomographic findings include ground-glass opacities, areas of consolidation or a combination of both patterns. Some patients may also present bronchial wall thickening, airspace nodules, crazy-paving pattern, perilobular opacity, air trapping and findings related to organizing pneumonia. These abnormalities are frequently bilateral, with subpleural distribution. Despite their non specificity, it is important to recognize the main tomographic findings in patients affected by H1N1 virus in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis, characterize complications and contribute in the follow-up, particularly in cases of severe disease. (author)

  7. Antiviral Medications for Treatment of 2009 H1N1 Influenza and Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-09

    This podcast features CDC's Dr. Sonja Rasmussen discussing the latest guidelines related to antiviral medications for treatment of 2009 H1N1 Influenza. Excerpt from a CDC-Medscape video series for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals.  Created: 11/9/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM); National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 1/21/2010.

  8. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in households with young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Ville; Teros‐Jaakkola, Tamara; Rulli, Maris; Toivonen, Laura; Broberg, Eeva; Waris, Matti; Mertsola, Jussi

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Peltola et al. (2011) Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in households with young children. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e21–e24. Abstract Background  Influenza viruses may cause a severe infection in infants and young children. The transmission patterns of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) within households with young children are poorly characterized. Methods  Household members of six children younger than 1·5 years with documented 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection were studied by daily symptom diaries and serial parent‐collected nasal swab samples for detection of influenza A by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) assay. Results  Laboratory‐confirmed, symptomatic influenza was documented in 11 of 15 household contacts of young children with pandemic influenza (73%; 95% CI, 48–99). In five contact cases symptoms started earlier, in three cases on the same day, and in three cases after the onset of symptoms in the youngest child. The first case with influenza A (H1N1) within the household was an elder sibling in two households, father in two households, the youngest child in one household, and the youngest child at the same time with a sibling in one household. The median copy number of influenza virus was higher in children than in adults (4·2 × 107 versus 4·9 × 104, P = 0·02). Conclusions  This study demonstrates the feasibility of nasal swab sampling by parents in investigation of household transmission of influenza. The results support influenza vaccination of all household contacts of young children. PMID:21951638

  9. Mechanical ventilation in patients with most severe forms of influenza a H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pandemic of A H1N1 influenza is noted for its rapid spreading and life-threatening consequences like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS which requires mechanical ventilation (MV and intensive therapy (IT. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of mechanical ventilation application in the presence of comorbidities on the outcome of the disease and patients with severe forms of acute influenza caused by A H1N1 virus. Methods. Five patients with acute respiratory failure caused by A H1N1 influenza that required MV were included in the study. Course and outcome of the treatment were monitored in relation to age and sex of the patients, concomitant diseases, time of influenza beginning, a time of admittance in an intensive care unit, a time of an endotracheal intubation and MV beginning, MV duration and occurrence of secondary infections. Results. Three patients were on a very prolonged MV (39, 43 and 20 days, respectively and they all survived. Two patients with a significantly shorter duration of MV (14 and 12 days, respectively died because of a very severe clinical course and concomitant diseases. Unexpectedly, we found a positive correlation between duration of MV and survival although two patients, who were on MV for the longest period of time (43 and 39 days, respectively, developed, as a complication, secondary bacterial pneumonia. Conclusion. Intensive therapy of patients with ARDS due to A H1N1 influenza virus requires MV which should be carried out according to guidelines of international expert forums. That is in accordance with our unexpected observation on negative correlation between duration of MV and fatal outcome. Intensive treatment of these patients, specially MV, can be very prolonged and, therefore, requires specialized teams of anesthesiologists, separate, isolated intensive therapy units and high level of medical staff protection, as was the case in this study, so no member of medical

  10. Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëlle, Pierre‐Yves; Ansart, Séverine; Cori, Anne; Valleron, Alain‐Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Boëlle P‐Y et al. (2011) Transmission parameters of the A/H1N1 (2009) influenza virus pandemic: a review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 306–316. Background  The new influenza virus A/H1N1 (2009), identified in mid‐2009, rapidly spread over the world. Estimating the transmissibility of this new virus was a public health priority. Methods  We reviewed all studies presenting estimates of the serial interval or generation time and the reproduction number of the A/H1N1 (2009) virus infection. Results  Thirteen studies documented the serial interval from household or close‐contact studies, with overall mean 3 days (95% CI: 2·4, 3·6); taking into account tertiary transmission reduced this estimate to 2·6 days. Model‐based estimates were more variable, from 1·9 to 6 days. Twenty‐four studies reported reproduction numbers for community‐based epidemics at the town or country level. The range was 1·2–3·1, with larger estimates reported at the beginning of the pandemic. Accounting for under‐reporting in the early period of the pandemic and limiting variation because of the choice of the generation time interval, the reproduction number was between 1·2 and 2·3 with median 1·5. Discussion  The serial interval of A/H1N1 (2009) flu was typically short, with mean value similar to the seasonal flu. The estimates of the reproduction number were more variable. Compared with past influenza pandemics, the median reproduction number was similar (1968) or slightly smaller (1889, 1918, 1957). PMID:21668690

  11. Intravenous ketamine for refractory bronchospasm precipitated by H1N1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eAgrawal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute severe bronchospasm is an emergency situation and sometimes these children may fail to respond to conventional treatment and deteriorate rapidly to respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. We present a case of 2-year-old girl, who presented with severe bronchospasm resulting in respiratory failure not responding to conventional management including mechanical ventilation and was found to be H1N1 positive. She was treated with ketamine infusion, which led to prompt improvement in airway obstruction.

  12. Oseltamivir use and outcomes during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chia-Hung; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Su, Chia-Ping; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan CDC provided free oseltamivir to all patients with influenza infections confirmed by rapid testing or who had clinical warning symptoms during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in Taiwan. However, oseltamivir utilization patterns, cost, and outcomes among oseltamivir-treated patients remained unclear. Method A population-level, observational cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from January to December 2009 to describe the use of ...

  13. Modeling of the influence of humidity on H1N1 flu in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEI, Y.; Tian, H.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2009, a heavy Flu hit the whole world. It was caused by the virus H1N1. The influenza first broke out in Mexico in March and the United States in April, 2009. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the H1N1 influenza became pandemic, alert to a warning phase of six. By the end of 2011, 181302 H1N1 cases were reported in mainland China. To improve our understanding on the impact of environmental factors on the disease transmission, we constructed an SIR (Susceptible - Infectious - Recovered) model incorporating environmental factors. It was found that the absolute humidity was a dominant environmental factor. The study interpolated the humidity data monitored with 340 weather stations from 1951 to 2011 in mainland China. First, the break point of the trend for the absolutely humidity was detected by the BFAST (Break For Additive Season and Trend) method. Then, the SIR model with and without the absolutely humidity incorporated in the model was built and tested. Finally, the results with the two scenarios were compared. Results indicate that lower absolutely humidity may promote the transmission of the H1N1 cases. The calculated basic reproductive number ranges from 1.65 to 3.66 with a changing absolute humidity. This is consistent with the former study result with basic reproductive number ranging from 2.03 to 4.18. The average recovery duration was estimated to be 5.7 days. The average duration to get immunity from the influenza is 399.02 days. A risk map is also produced to illustrate the model results.

  14. Information Needs and Seeking Behavior During the H1N1 Virus Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Ain Rahmat; Shaheen Majid

    2013-01-01

    Timely access to quality healthcare information during an outbreak plays an important role in curtailing its spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the information needs and seeking behavior of the general public in Singapore during the H1N1 pandemic. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The convenience snowball sampling method was used and 260 working adults and tertiary-level students participated in this study. The most crucial information needs of a majority ...

  15. Critical influenza (H1N1) pneumonia: imaging manifestations and histopathological findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; LI Ning; LI Yun-fang; ZHANG Hui-mao

    2012-01-01

    Background The global outbreak of influenza A (H1N1 ) has led to the Ministry of Health of China listing it as one of the A-class infectious diseases.Pneumonia is the most serious complication of influenza A,commonly causing death.Populations are ordinarily susceptible to influenza A.This study aimed to investigate the imaging manifestation features of cdtical influenza A (H1 N1 ) pneumonia and to improve its diagnostic techniques.Methods A total of seven death cases from critical influenza A (H1 N1 ) pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed on their imaging manifestations and autopsy data.Pulmonary CT scanning was performed for five cases,with one receiving additional chest X-ray and chest CT scanning,and chest postero-anterior position X-ray examination was performed for other two.Autopsy was performed for five cases and postmortem examinations were performed for other two cases.Results The seven cases of influenza A showed critical manifestations in 4-7 days after symptoms onset,with two having basic diseases of diabetes and one being pregnant.Extensive blurry high-density shadows of bilateral lungs were found in three cases,which were most obvious in middle and infedor parts of lungs.Pulmonary CT scanning revealed bilateral flaky parenchymal shadows in peripheral,dorsal and fundus segments of the middle-inferior parts of lungs,with one case of complicated pneumothorax,atelectasis and pleural effusion and another case of thin-walled cavity and dilated bronchi shadows in the superior parts of lungs.Conclusions Diagnostic imaging is an important assessing tool for cdtical influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia The imaging manifestations are characteristic instead of being specific.The definitive diagnosis can be made in combination with clinical examinations and laboratory tests.

  16. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Pio Liberatore; Francesca del Bufalo; Giorgia Bottaro; Pietro Ferrara; Antonio Gatto; Ottavio Vitelli

    2012-01-01

    Background: The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (65 years) and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system.Case Presentation: A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus,...

  17. Community-based measures for mitigating the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyi Tang

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus in March-April 2009, very stringent interventions including Fengxiao were implemented to prevent importation of infected cases and decelerate the disease spread in mainland China. The extent to which these measures have been effective remains elusive. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of Fengxiao that may inform policy decisions on improving community-based interventions for management of on-going outbreaks in China, in particular during the Spring Festival in mid-February 2010 when nationwide traveling will be substantially increased. We obtained data on initial laboratory-confirmed cases of H1N1 in the province of Shaanxi and used Markov-chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC simulations to estimate the reproduction number. Given the estimates for the exposed and infectious periods of the novel H1N1 virus, we estimated a mean reproduction number of 1.68 (95% CI 1.45-1.92 and other A/H1N1 epidemiological parameters. Our results based on a spatially stratified population dynamical model show that the early implementation of Fengxiao can delay the epidemic peak significantly and prevent the disease spread to the general population but may also, if not implemented appropriately, cause more severe outbreak within universities/colleges, while late implementation of Fengxiao can achieve nothing more than no implementation. Strengthening local control strategies (quarantine and hygiene precaution is much more effective in mitigating outbreaks and inhibiting the successive waves than implementing Fengxiao. Either strong mobility or high transport-related transmission rate during the Spring Festival holiday will not reverse the ongoing outbreak, but both will result in a large new wave. The findings suggest that Fengxiao and travel precautions should not be relaxed unless strict measures of quarantine, isolation, and hygiene precaution practices are put in place. Integration and prompt implementation of

  18. Genetic Characteristics of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-ru Zhao; Han Xia; Na Han; Shuang Tang; Zhong Zhang; Zheng Kou; Simon Rayner; Tian-xian Li; Yong-dong Li; Li-min Pan; Na Zhu; Hong-xia Ni; Guo-zhang Xu; Yong-zhong Jiang; Xi-xiang Huo; Jun-qiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    A total of 100 HIN1 flu real-time-PCR positive throat swabs collected from fever patients in Zhejiang,Hubei and Guangdong between June and November 2009,were provided by local CDC laboratories.After MDCK cell culture,57 Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) viruses were isolated and submitted for whole genome sequencing.A total of 39 HA sequences,52 NA sequences,36 PB2 sequences,31 PB1 sequences,40 PA sequences,48 NP sequences,51 MP sequences and 36 NS sequences were obtained,including 20 whole genome sequences.Sequence comparison revealed they shared a high degree of homology (96%~99%) with known epidemic strains (A/Califomia/04/2009(H1N1).Phylogenetic analysis showed that although the sequences were highly conserved,they clustered into a small number of groups with only a few distinct strains.Site analysis revealed three substitutions at loop 220 (221-228) of the HA receptor binding site in the 39 HA sequences:A/Hubei/86/2009 PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQEA,A/Zhejiang/08/2009 PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQER,A/Hubei/75/2009PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQGG,the A/Hubei/75/2009 was isolated from an acute case,while the other two were from patients with mild symptoms.Other key sites such as 119,274,292 and 294 amino acids of NA protein,627 of PB2 protein were conserved.Meanwhile,all the M2 protein sequences possessed the Ser32Asn mutation,suggesting that these viruses were resistant to adamantanes.Comparison of these sequences with other H1N1 viruses collected from the NCBI database provides insight into H1N1 transmission and circulation patterns.

  19. Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza: Experience from a critical care unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This case series details our experience with seven patients with pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza from an intensive care unit in India. All the patients had respiratory failure requiring ventilation except one; two patients developed pneumothorax. Of the seven patients, two died (28.5% and five recovered. Four patients had co-morbid conditions and one was morbidly obese; all the five patients were discharged alive.

  20. Seroprevalence study in Vojvodina (Serbia following 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The seroprevalence study was performed in Vojvodina during May and June 2010 in order to asses the effects of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v epidemic on herd immunity. It was a part of the Serbian Ministry of Health funded nationwide study. Objective. Prevalence of antibodies against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v was determined in a 1% sample of the population monitored for influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infections in Vojvodina through sentinel surveillance system. Methods. The study sample involved a total of 1004 inhabitants of Vojvodina. The control group consisted of randomly selected and age-adjusted 1054 sera collected in the pre-pandemic period. Sera were tested by the reaction of hemagglutination inhibition using influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 antigen in dilution from 1:8 to 1:256. Antibody titers ≥1:32 and ≥1:8 were considered protective and diagnostic, respectively. Results. The differences between control and study sera in all age groups were significant for both diagnostic ≥1/8 and protective titres ≥1/32 of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies (chi square test, p<0.001. The highest percentage of seropositive subjects was registered in the age group 15-19 years followed by children aged 5-14 years. Both diagnostic and protective titres were about twice higher in the vaccinated as compared to the non-vaccinated group. There were no statistically significant differences in seroprevalence between seven districts of Vojvodina. Conclusion. The 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v epidemic significantly influenced the herd immunity in our population regardless of low immunization coverage with highest immunity levels in adolescents aged 15-19 years and with similar herd immunity levels in all the regions in the province six months after the outbreak.

  1. Hospitalization in two waves of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C N J; Mytton, O T; McLean, E M; Rutter, P D; Pebody, R G; Sachedina, N; White, P J; Hawkins, C; Evans, B; Waight, P A; Ellis, J; Bermingham, A; Donaldson, L J; Catchpole, M

    2011-10-01

    Uncertainties exist regarding the population risks of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1). Understanding these risks is important for patients, clinicians and policy makers. This study aimed to clarify these uncertainties. A national surveillance system was established for patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England. Information was captured on demographics, pre-existing conditions, treatment and outcomes. The relative risks of hospitalization associated with pre-existing conditions were estimated by combining the captured data with population prevalence estimates. A total of 2416 hospitalizations were reported up to 6 January 2010. Within the population, 4·7 people/100,000 were hospitalized with pandemic influenza A(H1N1). The estimated hospitalization rate of cases showed a U-shaped distribution with age. Chronic kidney disease, chronic neurological disease, chronic respiratory disease and immunosuppression were each associated with a 10- to 20-fold increased risk of hospitalization. Patients who received antiviral medication within 48 h of symptom onset were less likely to be admitted to critical care than those who received them after this time (adjusted odds ratio 0·64, 95% confidence interval 0·44-0·94, P=0·024). In England the risk of hospitalization with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) has been concentrated in the young and those with pre-existing conditions. By quantifying these risks, this study will prove useful in planning for the next winter in the northern and southern hemispheres, and for future pandemics. PMID:21108872

  2. Information Needs and Seeking Behavior During the H1N1 Virus Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid, Shaheen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely access to quality healthcare information during an outbreak plays an important role in curtailing its spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the information needs and seeking behavior of the general public in Singapore during the H1N1 pandemic. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The convenience snowball sampling method was used and 260 working adults and tertiary-level students participated in this study. The most crucial information needs of a majority of the participants were: symptoms of H1N1, causes of the infection, preventive measures, and possible treatments. Data analysis also revealed that mass media such as television, newspapers, and radio were most frequently used for seeking the needed information. The use of human information sources was also quite high while only a small number of the respondents accessed online news and healthcare websites. About three-quarters of the participants indicated that the gathered information helped them to stay vigilant and take necessary precautionary measures. A major problem identified by the participants in using H1N1 information was the lack of understanding of certain terms used in public communications. This paper suggests certain measures for strengthening health information communication during future outbreaks.

  3. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 with neurological manifestations, a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Luis Miguel; Verdugo, Renato J.; Araos, Rafael; Munita, José Manuel; Díaz, Violeta; Marcotti, Alejandra; Perez, Jorge; Gonzalez, Patricia; Thompson, Luis; Canals, Magdalena; Hoppe, Arnold; Mounts, Anthony W.; Vial, Pablo A.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Noriega et al. (2010) Pandemic influenza a (H1N1) 2009 with neurological manifestations, a case series. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(3), 117–120. Objectives  Describe a series of atypical presentations of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. Methods  Description of case series using hospital records. Results  Six patients aged 1 to 65 years with confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection presented with neurological complications within 2 to 5 days after the first signs of influenza‐like illness. All six were admitted with seizures or altered mental status. No abnormalities were found in brain scans or cerebral spinal fluid studies of any of the six. All were discharged without sequelae within days of admission. Conclusions  This is only the second report of pandemic influenza presenting with neurological manifestations. Clinicians caring for patients when pandemic influenza is prevalent in their communities should maintain a high level of awareness of the potential atypical presentations with which this disease can appear. PMID:20409207

  4. Protecting the Public from H1N1 through Points of Dispensing (PODs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchiuso-Hasselmann, Anne; McKay, Ryan L; Williams, Christopher A; Starr, David T; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Zucker, Jane R; Raphael, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    In fall 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) operated 58 points of dispensing (PODs) over 5 weekends to provide influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination to New Yorkers. Up to 7 sites were opened each day across the 5 boroughs, with almost 50,000 New Yorkers being vaccinated. The policies and protocols used were based on those developed for New York City's POD Plan, the cornerstone of the city's mass prophylaxis planning. Before the H1N1 experience, NYC had not opened more than 5 PODs simultaneously and had only experienced the higher patient volume seen with the H1N1 PODs on 1 prior occasion. Therefore, DOHMH identified factors that contributed to the success of POD operations, as well as areas for improvement to inform future mass prophylaxis planning and response. Though this was a relatively small-scale, preplanned operation, during which a maximum of 7 PODs were operated on a given day, the findings have implications for larger-scale mass prophylaxis planning for emergencies. PMID:21361797

  5. An uncertain risk: the World Health Organization's account of H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Sudeepa

    2014-09-01

    Scientific uncertainty is fundamental to the management of contemporary global risks. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the start of the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic. This declaration signified the risk posed by the spread of the H1N1 virus, and in turn precipitated a range of actions by global public health actors. This article analyzes the WHO's public representation of risk and examines the centrality of scientific uncertainty in the case of H1N1. It argues that the WHO's risk narrative reflected the context of scientific uncertainty in which it was working. The WHO argued that it was attempting to remain faithful to the scientific evidence, and the uncertain nature of the threat. However, as a result, the WHO's public risk narrative was neither consistent nor socially robust, leading to the eventual contestation of the WHO's position by other global public health actors, most notably the Council of Europe. This illustrates both the significance of scientific uncertainty in the investigation of risk, and the difficulty for risk managing institutions in effectively acting in the face of this uncertainty. PMID:25233744

  6. Imaging manifestation of A H1N1 influenza with pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging features of pneumonia caused by A (H1N1) influenza virus. Methods: Imaging data of 51 patients with pneumonia caused by A H1N1 influenza were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent mobile chest radiographs and 44 patients underwent CT as well. On the basis of the lesion degree in the lung, the patients were classified into mild, moderate and serious types. Results: Mild type showed patchy consolidation at chest imaging in 4 patients. Moderate type demonstrated consolidation and (or) ground-glass opacities more than 2 lung fields in 33 patients, including 30 bilateral and 3 unilateral. Serious type displayed diffuse consolidation and ground-glass opacities, probably accompanying with interstitial lesions in the lungs in 14 patients, including 6 patients with ARDS, 2 with infection and 1 with cutaneous emphysema. Conclusion: The imaging features of pneumonia caused by A H1N1 influenza mainly manifest as consolidation and ground-glass opacities, probably accompanying with interstitial changes. The imaging findings show various in patients with infection. Some serious patients even develope to ARDS. (authors)

  7. Radiographic study of severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To characterize the radiographic findings of pediatric patients with severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Methods: A retrospective study of data from chest X-ray, CT and MRI exam of 29 pediatric patients treated in intensive care unit for severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Results: Disease developed quickly at early stage. Here are four types of radiographic findings. The disease continued to progress for 2-3 days and X-ray showed that all 29 patients had increased solid lesions with the existence of interstitial lesions. Four days later, all lung lesions showed absorption to certain degree. Fifteen days later, X-ray and CT showed complete or significant absorption in 19 cases (85.5%); delayed recovery was identified in 8 cases (27.6%), pulmonary fibrosis was found in 3 cases (10.3%), and 3 patients (10.3%) died. But the latter identified more lesions. Cranial CT and MRI were performed for 8 patients who had neurological symptoms. Of them, 3 cases (10.3%) were abnormal, showed symmetrical long T1 and T2 signal shadow in bilateral thalamus and longer T1 and T2 signals in the between. 3 cases had autopsy completed. Conclusion: The severe Influenza-A (H1N1) among children progression was generally rapid in the first 3 days. The overall radiographic findings are similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A small portion of the patients occurred acute necrotizing encephalopathy and plastic bronchitis.

  8. Altered response to A(H1N1)pnd09 vaccination in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Carson, Charlotte Giwercman;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were suspected to be at particular risk when H1N1pnd09 influenza became pandemic in 2009. Our primary objective was to compare the immune responses conferred by MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria®) in H1N1pnd09-naïve pregnant and non-pregnant women. The secondary aims...... at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 and 10 months after vaccination, adverse events were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: 58 pregnant women were allocated to Pa7.5 µg and 149 non-pregnant women were recruited to NPa7.5 µg. The sero-conversion rate was significantly increased in non-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) compared......-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) groups (OR = 0.49 [0.13-1.85], p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests the immune response to the 7.5 µg MF59-adjuvanted Focetria® H1N1pnd09 vaccine in pregnant women may be diminished compared with non-pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012557....

  9. Meteorological Influence on the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Cai, J.; Feng, D.; Bai, Y.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since May 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has spread rapidly in mainland China from Mexico. Although there has been substantial analysis of this influenza, reliable work estimating its spatial dynamics and determinants remain scarce. The survival and transmission of this pandemic virus not only depends on its biological properties, but also a correlation with external environmental factors. In this study, we collected daily influenza A (H1N1) cases and corresponding annual meteorological factors in mainland China from May 2009 to April 2010. By analyzing these data at county-level, a similarity index, which considered the spatio-temporal characteristics of the disease, was proposed to evaluate the role and lag time of meteorological factors in the influenza transmission. The results indicated that the influenza spanned a large geographical area, following an overall trend from east to west across the country. The spatio-temporal transmission of the disease was affected by a series of meteorological variables, especially absolute humidity with a 3-week lag. These findings confirmed that the absolute humidity and other meteorological variables contributed to the local occurrence and dispersal of influenza A (H1N1). The impact of meteorological variables and their lag effects could be involved in the improvement of effective strategies to control and prevent disease outbreaks.

  10. Evolutionary pathways of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Galiano

    Full Text Available The emergence of the influenza (H1N1 2009 virus provided a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a pandemic virus following its introduction into the human population. Virological and clinical surveillance in the UK were comprehensive during the first and second waves of the pandemic in 2009, with extensive laboratory confirmation of infection allowing a detailed sampling of representative circulating viruses. We sequenced the complete coding region of the haemagglutinin (HA segment of 685 H1N1 pandemic viruses selected without bias during two waves of pandemic in the UK (April-December 2009. Phylogenetic analysis showed that although temporal accumulation of amino acid changes was observed in the HA sequences, the overall diversity was less than that typically seen for seasonal influenza A H1N1 or H3N2. There was co-circulation of multiple variants as characterised by signature amino acid changes in the HA. A specific substitution (S203T became predominant both in UK and global isolates. No antigenic drift occurred during 2009 as viruses with greater than four-fold reduction in their haemagglutination inhibition (HI titre ("low reactors" were detected in a low proportion (3% and occurred sporadically. Although some limited antigenic divergence in viruses with four-fold reduction in HI titre might be related to the presence of 203T, additional studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  11. Radiographic study of severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Cailei, E-mail: zhaocailei197866@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Gan Yungen, E-mail: mickeyym@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Sun Jie, E-mail: sunxixi@21cn.com [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To characterize the radiographic findings of pediatric patients with severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Methods: A retrospective study of data from chest X-ray, CT and MRI exam of 29 pediatric patients treated in intensive care unit for severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Results: Disease developed quickly at early stage. Here are four types of radiographic findings. The disease continued to progress for 2-3 days and X-ray showed that all 29 patients had increased solid lesions with the existence of interstitial lesions. Four days later, all lung lesions showed absorption to certain degree. Fifteen days later, X-ray and CT showed complete or significant absorption in 19 cases (85.5%); delayed recovery was identified in 8 cases (27.6%), pulmonary fibrosis was found in 3 cases (10.3%), and 3 patients (10.3%) died. But the latter identified more lesions. Cranial CT and MRI were performed for 8 patients who had neurological symptoms. Of them, 3 cases (10.3%) were abnormal, showed symmetrical long T1 and T2 signal shadow in bilateral thalamus and longer T1 and T2 signals in the between. 3 cases had autopsy completed. Conclusion: The severe Influenza-A (H1N1) among children progression was generally rapid in the first 3 days. The overall radiographic findings are similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A small portion of the patients occurred acute necrotizing encephalopathy and plastic bronchitis.

  12. Clinical and radiological features of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection manifesting as acute febrile respiratory illness at their initial presentations: comparison with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background Since the first outbreak caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza in Mexico, the virus has spread widely across the world with meaningful morbidity and mortality. However, there are few data on the comparative investigations to assess the clinical and radiological features between the H1N1 patient and non-H1N1 patients. Purpose To assess the clinical and radiological features of patients infected by the pandemic H1N1 2009 flu virus at their initial presentation and to compare them with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients with acute febrile respiratory illness. Material and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Armed Forces Medical Command, South Korea. From August to September 2009, 337 consecutive patients presented with an acute febrile respiratory illness in a tertiary military hospital. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction tests were performed in 62 of these patients under the impression of H1N1 infection. Clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation were described for the H1N1 group (n = 35) and non-H1N1 group (n = 27) and compared between the two groups. Results Increased C-reactive protein level (97%) without leukocytosis (9%) or increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0%) was common in the H1N1 group at their initial presentation. On chest radiographs, 12 of 35 (34%) H1N1 patients had abnormal findings; nodules in 10 patients (83%) and consolidations in two (17%). Of the 28 H1N1 patients who underwent thin-section CT 16 patients (57%) showed abnormal findings; ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in 15 (94%), and nodules in 13 (81%). However, there were no significant differences between the H1N1 group and non-H1N1 group in terms of symptoms, laboratory results, or radiological findings (P > 0.05). Conclusion Patients with H1N1 infection show consistent clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation, however, clinical and radiological features of the H1N1 group are

  13. 甲型流感H1N1病毒遗传进化关系分析%Analysis of the Variation and Evolution of Influenza A (H1N1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常彦磊; 石磊

    2009-01-01

    探讨研究当前流行性甲型流感H1N1病毒与已知人流感H1N1病毒、禽流感H1N1病毒,猪流感H1N1病毒之间的遗传进化关系,对7株甲型H1N1、32株已知人流感H1N1、18株禽流感H1N1、33株猪流感H1N1病毒的基因组各基因片段分别进行基因序列遗传进化分析,选取同源性高的毒株构建进化树.结果显示,新型人流感病毒A型H1N1中HA,MP、NA,NP、NS、PB1基因片段与猪流感病毒分离株有很高的同源性,而PA、PB2基因与禽流感病毒分离株同源性较高.

  14. Clinical and radiological features of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection manifesting as acute febrile respiratory illness at their initial presentations: comparison with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Tae Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Park, Chang Min; Choi, Seung Hong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Kwon, Gu Jin (Dept. of Family Medicine, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Family Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)); Woo, Sung Koo (Dept. of Radiology, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)); Park, Seung Hoon (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-05-15

    Background Since the first outbreak caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza in Mexico, the virus has spread widely across the world with meaningful morbidity and mortality. However, there are few data on the comparative investigations to assess the clinical and radiological features between the H1N1 patient and non-H1N1 patients. Purpose To assess the clinical and radiological features of patients infected by the pandemic H1N1 2009 flu virus at their initial presentation and to compare them with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients with acute febrile respiratory illness. Material and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Armed Forces Medical Command, South Korea. From August to September 2009, 337 consecutive patients presented with an acute febrile respiratory illness in a tertiary military hospital. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction tests were performed in 62 of these patients under the impression of H1N1 infection. Clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation were described for the H1N1 group (n = 35) and non-H1N1 group (n = 27) and compared between the two groups. Results Increased C-reactive protein level (97%) without leukocytosis (9%) or increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0%) was common in the H1N1 group at their initial presentation. On chest radiographs, 12 of 35 (34%) H1N1 patients had abnormal findings; nodules in 10 patients (83%) and consolidations in two (17%). Of the 28 H1N1 patients who underwent thin-section CT 16 patients (57%) showed abnormal findings; ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in 15 (94%), and nodules in 13 (81%). However, there were no significant differences between the H1N1 group and non-H1N1 group in terms of symptoms, laboratory results, or radiological findings (P > 0.05). Conclusion Patients with H1N1 infection show consistent clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation, however, clinical and radiological features of the H1N1 group are

  15. Neutralization and Binding Profile of Monoclonal Antibodies Generated Against Influenza A H1N1 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Malik, Ankita; Saini, Ashok; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide scope for the development of better therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Herein, we describe the binding and neutralization profile(s) for a panel of murine MAbs generated against influenza A H1N1 viruses elicited by immunization with pandemic H1 recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)/whole virus or seasonal H1 rHA. Neutralizing MAbs, MA-2070 and MA-M, were obtained after pandemic A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus/rHA immunization(s). Both MAbs reacted specifically with rHA from A/California/07/2009 and A/England/195/2009 in ELISA. MA-2070 bound rHA of A/California/07/2009 with high affinity (KD = 51.36 ± 9.20 nM) and exhibited potent in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.50 μg/mL). MA-2070 bound within the stem domain of HA. MA-M exhibited both hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 1.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 0.66 μg/mL) activity against the pandemic A/California/07/2009 virus and showed higher binding affinity (KD = 9.80 ± 0.67 nM) than MA-2070. MAb, MA-H generated against the seasonal A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 (H1N1) rHA binds within the head domain and bound the seasonal H1N1 (A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 and A/New Caledonia/20/1990) rHAs with high affinity (KD; 0.72-8.23 nM). MA-H showed high HI (2.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.61 μg/mL) activity against the A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 virus. All 3 MAbs failed to react in ELISA with rHA from various strains of H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H7N9, and influenza virus B, suggesting their specificity for either pandemic or seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. The MAbs reported here may be useful in developing diagnostic assays.

  16. Viral shedding in Chinese young adults with mild 2009 H1N1 influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Ning; GAO Yan; SUO Ji-jiang; XIE Li-jun; YAN Zhong-qiang; XING Yu-bin; HE Lei; LIU Yun-xi

    2011-01-01

    Background The duration of viral shedding and the transmission of 2009 H1N1 influenza among individuals, especially among the younger population with mild illness, are not well understood now. The aim of this study was to determine the viral shedding of the young adult patients with mild 2009 H1N1 influenza in China.Methods From September 2009 to January 2010, the clinical data and serial nasopharyngeal swabs of 67 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza and 37 patients with seasonal influenza aged from 18 years to 35 years were collected. The nasopharyngeal swab samples were detected by real time RT-PCR to determine the viral shedding. All the patients did not receive the antiviral therapy but Chinese medicine for detoxicating.Results Among the patients with H1N1 virus infection, 82.1% (55/67) patients presented with fever symptom, while more patients with high fever (≥39℃) were found in seasonal influenza patients (P<0.05). For the H1N1 patients, the median interval between the symptom onset and the undetectable RNA was six days (4-10 days). But viral shedding was still found in 31.3% patients after 7 days following illness onset. The median interval between disappearance of fever and an undetectable viral RNA level was three days (2-8 days), and 17.9% patients were found to be viral shedding 6 days later after normalization of body temperature. For the seasonal influenza patients, 94.6% patients were detected out viral RNA within 7 days. The median interval of seasonal influenza between the symptom onset and the undetectable RNA was four days (3-8 days). The median interval between disappearance of fever and an undetectable viral RNA level was three days (2-6 days).Conclusion It suggests that 7 days isolation period from the illness onset or 24 hours after the resolution of fever and respiratory symptoms are not long enough to cut off the transmission among Chinese young adults with mild illness.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is correlated with the severity of H1N1 pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Palacios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Initial reports in May 2009 of the novel influenza strain H1N1pdm estimated a case fatality rate (CFR of 0.6%, similar to that of seasonal influenza. In July 2009, however, Argentina reported 3056 cases with 137 deaths, representing a CFR of 4.5%. Potential explanations for increased CFR included virus reassortment or genetic drift, or infection of a more vulnerable population. Virus genomic sequencing of 26 Argentinian samples representing both severe and mild disease indicated no evidence of reassortment, mutations associated with resistance to antiviral drugs, or genetic drift that might contribute to virulence. Furthermore, no evidence was found for increased frequency of risk factors for H1N1pdm disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined nasopharyngeal swab samples (NPS from 199 cases of H1N1pdm infection from Argentina with MassTag PCR, testing for 33 additional microbial agents. The study population consisted of 199 H1N1pdm-infected subjects sampled between 23 June and 4 July 2009. Thirty-nine had severe disease defined as death (n = 20 or hospitalization (n = 19; 160 had mild disease. At least one additional agent of potential pathogenic importance was identified in 152 samples (76%, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 62; Haemophilus influenzae (n = 104; human respiratory syncytial virus A (n = 11 and B (n = 1; human rhinovirus A (n = 1 and B (n = 4; human coronaviruses 229E (n = 1 and OC43 (n = 2; Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 2; Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 2; Serratia marcescens (n = 1; and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 35 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, n = 6. The presence of S. pneumoniae was strongly correlated with severe disease. S. pneumoniae was present in 56.4% of severe cases versus 25% of mild cases; more than one-third of H1N1pdm NPS with S. pneumoniae were from subjects with severe disease (22 of 62 S. pneumoniae-positive NPS, p = 0.0004. In subjects 6 to 55 years of age, the adjusted odds ratio

  18. Planning for the next influenza H1N1 season: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelat Camille

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of herd immunity before and after the first 2009 pandemic season is not precisely known, and predicting the shape of the next pandemic H1N1 season is a difficult challenge. Methods This was a modelling study based on data on medical visits for influenza-like illness collected by the French General Practitioner Sentinel network, as well as pandemic H1N1 vaccination coverage rates, and an individual-centred model devoted to influenza. We estimated infection attack rates during the first 2009 pandemic H1N1 season in France, and the rates of pre- and post-exposure immunity. We then simulated various scenarios in which a pandemic influenza H1N1 virus would be reintroduced into a population with varying levels of protective cross-immunity, and considered the impact of extending influenza vaccination. Results During the first pandemic season in France, the proportion of infected persons was 18.1% overall, 38.3% among children, 14.8% among younger adults and 1.6% among the elderly. The rates of pre-exposure immunity required to fit data collected during the first pandemic season were 36% in younger adults and 85% in the elderly. We estimated that the rate of post-exposure immunity was 57.3% (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI 49.6%-65.0% overall, 44.6% (95%CI 35.5%-53.6% in children, 53.8% (95%CI 44.5%-63.1% in younger adults, and 87.4% (95%CI 82.0%-92.8% in the elderly. The shape of a second season would depend on the degree of persistent protective cross-immunity to descendants of the 2009 H1N1 viruses. A cross-protection rate of 70% would imply that only a small proportion of the population would be affected. With a cross-protection rate of 50%, the second season would have a disease burden similar to the first, while vaccination of 50% of the entire population, in addition to the population vaccinated during the first pandemic season, would halve this burden. With a cross-protection rate of 30%, the second season could be

  19. Neutralization and Binding Profile of Monoclonal Antibodies Generated Against Influenza A H1N1 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Malik, Ankita; Saini, Ashok; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide scope for the development of better therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Herein, we describe the binding and neutralization profile(s) for a panel of murine MAbs generated against influenza A H1N1 viruses elicited by immunization with pandemic H1 recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)/whole virus or seasonal H1 rHA. Neutralizing MAbs, MA-2070 and MA-M, were obtained after pandemic A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus/rHA immunization(s). Both MAbs reacted specifically with rHA from A/California/07/2009 and A/England/195/2009 in ELISA. MA-2070 bound rHA of A/California/07/2009 with high affinity (KD = 51.36 ± 9.20 nM) and exhibited potent in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.50 μg/mL). MA-2070 bound within the stem domain of HA. MA-M exhibited both hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 1.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 0.66 μg/mL) activity against the pandemic A/California/07/2009 virus and showed higher binding affinity (KD = 9.80 ± 0.67 nM) than MA-2070. MAb, MA-H generated against the seasonal A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 (H1N1) rHA binds within the head domain and bound the seasonal H1N1 (A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 and A/New Caledonia/20/1990) rHAs with high affinity (KD; 0.72-8.23 nM). MA-H showed high HI (2.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.61 μg/mL) activity against the A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 virus. All 3 MAbs failed to react in ELISA with rHA from various strains of H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H7N9, and influenza virus B, suggesting their specificity for either pandemic or seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. The MAbs reported here may be useful in developing diagnostic assays. PMID:27463230

  20. Influenza pandêmica A (H1N1 2009: fatores de risco para o internamento Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009: risk factors for hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Lenzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos da influenza pandêmica A (H1N1 2009 em pacientes hospitalizados a fim de identificar os fatores de risco para o internamento e, consequentemente, para o agravamento da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional e retrospectivo realizado entre março e dezembro de 2010. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde. Foram incluídos somente os pacientes hospitalizados e não hospitalizados com confirmação laboratorial da infecção durante o período de estudo. As variáveis referentes às características demográficas e clínicas foram avaliadas estatisticamente a fim de comparar as taxas de internamento na presença ou na ausência desses fatores. Os fatores de risco foram identificados por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 4.740 pacientes com confirmação laboratorial da infecção. Desses, 1.911 foram internados, e 258 (13,5% foram a óbito. Os fatores de risco para o internamento foram idade (faixa etária de 20 a 29 anos, etnia negra ou indígena, presença de algumas comorbidades (cardiopatias, pneumopatias, nefropatias, hemoglobinopatia, imunodepressão, diabetes, obesidade, puerpério e tabagismo, número alto de comorbidades associadas, e alguns sintomas (dispneia, diarreia, vômito, dor torácica, hemoptise, pneumonia e sibilos. Níveis maiores de escolaridade e uso precoce do oseltamivir foram relacionados a fatores de proteção. A hospitalização contribuiu para o aumento da sobrevida. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento das características epidemiológicas que podem estar associadas a internação, gravidade da doença e mortalidade podem ser úteis na adoção de medidas preventivas e no diagnóstico e tratamento precoce da doença, colaborando para a diminuição dos óbitos e da necessidade de hospitalização.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 in hospitalized patients in order to identify risk

  1. Antibody response of healthy children to pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus

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    Esposito Susanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the proportion of pediatric pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza cases who showed seroconversion, the magnitude of this seroconversion, or the factors that can affect the antibody level evoked by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Aims of this study were to analyse antibody responses and the factors associated with high antibody titres in a cohort of children with naturally acquired A/H1N1/2009 influenza infection confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Demographic, clinical and virologic data were collected from 69 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza (27 females, mean age ± SD: 5.01 ± 4.55 years. Their antibody levels against pandemic A/H1N1/2009 and seasonal A/H1N1 influenza viruses were evaluated by measuring hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies using standard assays. Sixty-four patients (92.8% with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza had A/H1N1/2009 antibody levels of ≥40, whereas only 28/69 (40.6% were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus. Those who were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 virus were significantly older, significantly more often hospitalised, had a diagnosis of pneumonia significantly more frequently, and were significantly more often treated with oseltamivir than those who were not seroprotected (p Conclusions Otherwise healthy children seem to show seroprotective antibody titres after natural infection with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus. The strength of the immune response seems to be related to the severity of the disease, but not to previous seasonal A/H1N1 influenza immunity.

  2. 滕州市积极应对甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    为积极做好甲型H1N1流感防控工作,应对町能发生的甲型H1N1流感疫情,滕州市卫生局坚持以人为本,积极部署,全面防控,迅速开展了甲型H1N1流感疫情防控工作。

  3. Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.

    2003-01-01

    There are two types of classical swine fever vaccines available: the classical live and the recently developed E2 subunit vaccines. The live Chinese strain vaccine is the most widely used. After a single vaccination, it confers solid immunity within a few days that appears to persist lifelong. The E

  4. ‘Presenting CXR phenotype of H1N1’ flu compared with contemporaneous non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia, during pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Patients with H1N1 pneumonia demonstrated more opacified zones on chest x-ray than patients with non-H1N1 pneumonias. • A particular ‘phenotype’ of chest x-ray changes was identified in H1N1 patients. • This H1N1 ‘phenotype’ was the same for the two evaluated ‘flu seasons, during both pandemic and post pandemic stages. - Abstract: Aims: To review, phenotype and assess potential prognostic value of initial chest X-ray findings in patients with H1N1 influenza during seasonal outbreaks of 2009 and 2010, in comparison with non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We retrospectively identified 72 patients admitted to hospital with pneumonia during the seasons of 2009 and 2010. H1N1 cases were confirmed by virology PCR. Presenting chest X-rays were jointly read by 2 radiologists, who were ‘blinded’ to further patient details and divided into 6 zones. Total number of opacified zones, the pattern and distribution of changes and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: Patients with H1N1 demonstrated more opacified zones (mean of 2.9 compared with 2.0; p = 0.006), which were bilateral in two-thirds compared with a quarter of those with non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.001). H1N1 radiographs were more likely to be ‘patchy’ versus ‘confluent’ changes of non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.03) and more often demonstrated peripheral distribution (p = 0.01). H1N1 patients tended to stay in hospital longer (not significant; p = 0.08). A positive correlation existed between number of affected zones and length of inpatient stay, which was statistically significant for the cohorts combined (p = 0.02). The findings were the same for the two evaluated seasons. Conclusion: H1N1 patients demonstrated more extensive disease, which was more likely bilateral, ‘patchy’, and peripheral in distribution. With increasing global cases of H1N1, knowledge of the typical findings of the H1N1 presenting chest X-ray may assist with early triage of patients

  5. ‘Presenting CXR phenotype of H1N1’ flu compared with contemporaneous non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia, during pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks’

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, F.C., E-mail: Fiona.Minns@nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Nimhuineachain, A, E-mail: draideen@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Beek, E.J.R. van, E-mail: Edwin-vanbeek@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Ritchie, G., E-mail: drgillritchie@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Hill, A., E-mail: adam.hill318@nhs.net [Department of Respiratory Medicine, New Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Murchison, J.T., E-mail: john.murchison@nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Patients with H1N1 pneumonia demonstrated more opacified zones on chest x-ray than patients with non-H1N1 pneumonias. • A particular ‘phenotype’ of chest x-ray changes was identified in H1N1 patients. • This H1N1 ‘phenotype’ was the same for the two evaluated ‘flu seasons, during both pandemic and post pandemic stages. - Abstract: Aims: To review, phenotype and assess potential prognostic value of initial chest X-ray findings in patients with H1N1 influenza during seasonal outbreaks of 2009 and 2010, in comparison with non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We retrospectively identified 72 patients admitted to hospital with pneumonia during the seasons of 2009 and 2010. H1N1 cases were confirmed by virology PCR. Presenting chest X-rays were jointly read by 2 radiologists, who were ‘blinded’ to further patient details and divided into 6 zones. Total number of opacified zones, the pattern and distribution of changes and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: Patients with H1N1 demonstrated more opacified zones (mean of 2.9 compared with 2.0; p = 0.006), which were bilateral in two-thirds compared with a quarter of those with non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.001). H1N1 radiographs were more likely to be ‘patchy’ versus ‘confluent’ changes of non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.03) and more often demonstrated peripheral distribution (p = 0.01). H1N1 patients tended to stay in hospital longer (not significant; p = 0.08). A positive correlation existed between number of affected zones and length of inpatient stay, which was statistically significant for the cohorts combined (p = 0.02). The findings were the same for the two evaluated seasons. Conclusion: H1N1 patients demonstrated more extensive disease, which was more likely bilateral, ‘patchy’, and peripheral in distribution. With increasing global cases of H1N1, knowledge of the typical findings of the H1N1 presenting chest X-ray may assist with early triage of patients

  6. Prevalence of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Antibodies, Tampa Bay Florida — November–December, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Chad M.; Kate Goodin; Emily Fisher; Dawood, Fatimah S.; Hamilton, Janet J.; Leparc, German F.; Monica Gray; Linda Nelson; Rebekah H Borse; Singleton, James A.; Carrie Reed; Balish, Amanda L.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Fry, Alicia M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, a novel influenza virus (2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1)) caused significant disease in the United States. Most states, including Florida, experienced a large fall wave of disease from September through November, after which disease activity decreased substantially. We determined the prevalence of antibodies due to the pH1N1 virus in Florida after influenza activity had peaked and estimated the proportion of the population infected with pH1N1 virus during t...

  7. Assessment of epicutaneous testing of a monovalent Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in egg allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt Tracy; Kalicinsky Chrystyna; Warrington Richard; Cisneros Nestor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background H1N1 is responsible for the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. In the fall of 2009, an H1N1 vaccine became available in Canada with the hopes of reducing the overall effect of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of administering 2 different doses of a monovalent split virus 2009 H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients. Methods Patients were skin tested to the H1N1 vaccine in the outpatient paediatric and adult allergy and immunology clinics of...

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in 2009-H1N1 and Seasonal Influenza Vaccination and Location of Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Maurer, Jurgen; Harris, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    State and local governments employed various distribution strategies to minimize racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination during the 2009-H1N1 pandemic. Using nationally representative survey data of U.S. adults, we found disparities in 2009-H1N1 vaccine uptake between Blacks and Whites (13.8% vs. 20.4%), while Whites and Hispanics had similar 2009-H1N1 vaccination rates. Physician offices were the dominant location for 2009-H1N1 vaccinations, especially among minorities. Our re...

  9. Guillain-Barre syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccines: a multinational self-controlled case series in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Romio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1pdm09 immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination. METHODS: A self-controlled case series (SCCS analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1-4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI. Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. RESULTS: Three hundred and three (303 GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99 were exposed to A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria. The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 2.2-5.5, based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.1 after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.2 when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8, which is the main finding. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination (RI = 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8. Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule out with

  10. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Goldstein

    Full Text Available Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1 that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100 were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40, supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010 in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife.

  11. Pig producers' perceptions of the Influenza Pandemic H1N1/09 outbreak and its effect on their biosecurity practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Taylor, Melanie; Holyoake, Patricia; Dhand, Navneet

    2012-10-01

    The Influenza Pandemic (H1N1/09) virus was first reported in humans in Mexico in April 2009 and a pandemic level was declared on 11th of June 2009 by the World Health Organization (Chan, 2009; WHO, 2009a). Public misconceptions about the transmission of H1N1/09 were caused by the inadequate naming of the disease as 'swine influenza'. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the height of the outbreak in the Australian human population and before the virus was reported in the first piggery in Australia in July 2009 (OIE, 2009b; Holyoake et al., 2011). The aims of this study were to evaluate pig producers' perceptions about the virus and the outbreak financial impact and influence on on-farm biosecurity practices. A questionnaire was designed and posted to Australian Pork Limited (APL) members (n=460), obtaining responses from 182 producers (39.6%). Pig producers had good general knowledge on potential transmission pathways for H1N1/09 between people, with direct or close contact with a sick person perceived as the most likely pathways. Changes on biosecurity practices, such as asking visitors if they had recently been overseas (27.8%) and not allowing any visitor to inspect their pigs (18.3%), were reported among respondents. In addition, approximately 40% of producers asked their employees to notify flu like symptoms, consulted a veterinarian on H1N1/09 and visited websites to seek information on H1N1/09. A higher adoption of these practices was observed among large (>100 sows) than small herds. Only 2.9% of respondents reported a reduction in pig sales during the outbreak. However, approximately one third of producers reported being financially and emotionally stressed, 38.2% were distressed about the health of their pigs and 16.7% about their own health. The most important sources of information were APL (93%), veterinarians (89%) and the state Department of Primary Industries (DPI) (75%). The first two considered the most trusted sources of information

  12. Monitoring bound HA1(H1N1) and HA1(H5N1) on freely suspended graphene over plasmonic platforms with infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Chakraborty, Sumit; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Grebel, Haim

    2013-09-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides fingerprinting of the energy and orientation of molecular bonds. The IR signals are generally weak and require amplification. Here we present a new plasmonic platform, made of freely suspended graphene, which was coating periodic metal structures. Only monolayer thick films were needed for a fast signal recording. We demonstrated unique IR absorption signals of bound proteins: these were the hemagglutinin area (HA1) of swine influenza (H1N1) and the avian influenza (H5N1) viruses bound to their respective tri-saccharides ligand receptors. The simplicity and sensitivity of such approach may find applications in fast monitoring of binding events.

  13. Assessing Google flu trends performance in the United States during the 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic.

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    Samantha Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends (GFT uses anonymized, aggregated internet search activity to provide near-real time estimates of influenza activity. GFT estimates have shown a strong correlation with official influenza surveillance data. The 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic [pH1N1] provided the first opportunity to evaluate GFT during a non-seasonal influenza outbreak. In September 2009, an updated United States GFT model was developed using data from the beginning of pH1N1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the accuracy of each U.S. GFT model by comparing weekly estimates of ILI (influenza-like illness activity with the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet. For each GFT model we calculated the correlation and RMSE (root mean square error between model estimates and ILINet for four time periods: pre-H1N1, Summer H1N1, Winter H1N1, and H1N1 overall (Mar 2009-Dec 2009. We also compared the number of queries, query volume, and types of queries (e.g., influenza symptoms, influenza complications in each model. Both models' estimates were highly correlated with ILINet pre-H1N1 and over the entire surveillance period, although the original model underestimated the magnitude of ILI activity during pH1N1. The updated model was more correlated with ILINet than the original model during Summer H1N1 (r = 0.95 and 0.29, respectively. The updated model included more search query terms than the original model, with more queries directly related to influenza infection, whereas the original model contained more queries related to influenza complications. CONCLUSIONS: Internet search behavior changed during pH1N1, particularly in the categories "influenza complications" and "term for influenza." The complications associated with pH1N1, the fact that pH1N1 began in the summer rather than winter, and changes in health-seeking behavior each may have played a part. Both GFT models performed well prior to and during pH1

  14. Mass vaccination for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: approaches, challenges, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Kunal J; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk; Waldhorn, Richard; Toner, Eric

    2010-12-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic stimulated a nationwide response that included a mass vaccination effort coordinated at the federal, state, and local levels. This article examines a sampling of state and local efforts during the pandemic in order to better prepare for future public health emergencies involving mass distribution, dispensing, and administration of medical countermeasures. In this analysis, the authors interviewed national, state, and local leaders to gain a better understanding of the accomplishments and challenges of H1N1 vaccination programs during the 2009-10 influenza season. State and local health departments distributed and administered H1N1 vaccine using a combination of public and private efforts. Challenges encountered during the vaccination campaign included the supply of and demand for vaccine, prioritization strategies, and local logistics. To improve the response capabilities to deal with infectious disease emergencies, the authors recommend investing in technologies that will assure a more timely availability of the needed quantities of vaccine, developing local public health capacity and relationships with healthcare providers, and enhancing federal support of state and local activities. The authors support in principle the CDC recommendation to vaccinate annually all Americans over 6 months of age against seasonal influenza to establish a standard of practice on which to expand the ability to vaccinate during a pandemic. However, expanding seasonal influenza vaccination efforts will be an expensive and long-term investment that will need to be weighed against anticipated benefits and other public health needs. Such investments in public health infrastructure could be important for building capacity and practice for distributing, dispensing, and administering countermeasures in response to a future pandemic or biological weapons attack.

  15. Long-term respiratory follow-up of H1N1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerenidi Theodora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus infection was documented in our Hospital on 10th August 2009. Metdods and findings Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR testing was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients were treated with oseltamivir from the first day of hospitalization. Upon admission 12/44 had local patchy shadowing in their chest x-ray and additionally antibiotic regimen was added to these patients as pneumonia was suspected based on clinical evidence. In total 44 patients were hospitalized 15/44 had asthma, 6/44 COPD, 5/44 leukemia. Lung function was evaluated with forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and diffused carbon monoxide upon discharge and every 3 months, until 6 months of observation was completed after discharge. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate whether influenza A (H1N1 had an impact on the respiratory capacity of the infected patients. Conclusions An improvement of pulmonary function tests was observed between the first two measurements, implicating an inflammatory pathogenesis of influenza A (H1N1 to the respiratory tract. This inflammation was not associated with the severity or clinical outcome of the patients. All patients had a mild clinical course and their respiratory capacity was stable between the second and third measurement, suggesting that the duration of respiratory inflammation was two months. Early treatment with antiviral agents and vaccination represent the mainstay of management.

  16. Neurological events related to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Graciela; Soto-Hernández, José Luis; Díaz-Alba, Alexandra; Ugalde, Yair; Mérida-Puga, Jorge; Rosetti, Marcos; Sciutto, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review neurological complications after the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, highlighting the clinical differences between patients with post-vaccine or viral infection. Design A search on Medline, Ovid, EMBASE, and PubMed databases using the keywords “neurological complications of Influenza AH1N1” or “post-vaccine Influenza AH1N1.” Setting Only papers written in English, Spanish, German, French, Portuguese, and Italian published from March 2009 to December 2012 were included. Sample We included 104 articles presenting a total of 1636 patient cases. In addition, two cases of influenza vaccine-related neurological events from our neurological care center, arising during the period of study, were also included. Main outcome measures Demographic data and clinical diagnosis of neurological complications and outcomes: death, neurological sequelae or recovery after influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine or infection. Results The retrieved cases were divided into two groups: the post-vaccination group, with 287 patients, and the viral infection group, with 1349 patients. Most patients in the first group were adults. The main neurological complications were Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) or polyneuropathy (125), and seizures (23). All patients survived. Pediatric patients were predominant in the viral infection group. In this group, 60 patients (4.7%) died and 52 (30.1%) developed permanent sequelae. A wide spectrum of neurological complications was observed. Conclusions Fatal cases and severe, permanent, neurological sequelae were observed in the infection group only. Clinical outcome was more favorable in the post-vaccination group. In this context, the relevance of an accurate neurological evaluation is demonstrated for all suspicious cases, as well as the need of an appropriate long-term clinical and imaging follow-up of infection and post-vaccination events related to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, to clearly estimate the magnitude of neurological complications

  17. Twitter influence on vaccination and antiviral uptake during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMcNeill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveInformation exchange via Twitter and other forms of social media make public health communication more complex as citizens play an increasingly influential role in shaping acceptable or desired health behaviours. Taking the case of the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic, we explore in detail the dissemination of H1N1-related advice in the UK through Twitter to see how it was used to discourage or encourage vaccine and antiviral uptake.MethodsIn three stages we conducted (1 an analysis of general content, retweeting patterns and URL sharing, (2 a discourse analysis of the public evaluation of press releases and (3 a template analysis of conversations around vaccine and antiviral uptake, using Protection Motivation Theory (PMT as a way of understanding how the public weighed the costs and benefits.ResultsNetwork analysis of retweets showed that information from official sources predominated. Analysing the spread of significant messages through Twitter showed that most content was descriptive but there was some criticism of health authorities. A detailed analysis of responses to press releases revealed some scepticism over the economic beneficiaries of vaccination, that served to undermine public trust. Finally, the conversational analysis showed the influence of peers when weighing up the risks and benefits of medication.ConclusionsMost tweets linked to reliable sources, however Twitter was used to discuss both individual and health authority motivations to vaccinate. The PMT framework describes the ways individuals assessed the threat of the H1N1 pandemic, weighing this against the perceived cost of taking medication. These findings offer some valuable insights for social media communication practices in future pandemics.

  18. Brotes escolares de gripe (H1N1 2009 en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el conocimiento del virus de la gripe (H1N1 2009, la eficacia de su transmision entre contactos, asi como la eficacia de las intervenciones no farmacologicas es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la ocurrencia de brotes confirmados de virus (H1N1 2009 en Cataluna en el ambito escolar durante el periodo pandemico y evaluar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo para su control. Metodos: Se estudio la incidencia de brotes de VGA(H1N12009 de mayo a diciembre 2009. Se calcularon las tasas de ataque en funcion de emision de recomendaciones preventivas y ejecucion de intervenciones. La asociacion entre variables se calculo mediante ¿Ô2, comparacion de medias mediante t-Student y comparacion de proporciones mediante estadistico z , estableciendo el grado de significacion estadistica en ¿¿=0,05. Resultados: En total se notificaron 238 brotes. La TA global fue del 15,5%. Del total de brotes solo se conoce la tasa de ataque de 173 (72,7%, de los cuales 142 (82,1%; p<0,001 tuvieron una TA inferior al 25%. El principal ambito de transmision fue el escolar, donde se produjeron 209 (88%; p<0,001 brotes, de los cuales 187 (78,6%; p<0,001 correspondian a centros educativos. La duracion media de los brotes fue significativamente menor en funcion de la emision de recomendaciones (p=0,04. Conclusiones: El estudio de los brotes de gripe A/H1N1 2009 permite evidenciar que la adopcion de medidas preventivas y de higiene es de vital importancia para el control de la transmision en centros educativos.

  19. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  20. Factors Affecting Medical Students' Uptake of the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siang I; Aung, Ei M; Chin, Ik S; Hing, Jeremy W; Mummadi, Sanghamitra; Palaniandy, Ghunavadee D; Jordan, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pandemic influenza vaccination rate amongst healthcare workers in England 2009/2010 was suboptimal (40.3%). Targeting medical students before they enter the healthcare workforce is an attractive future option. This study assessed the H1N1 vaccine uptake rate amongst medical students and factors that influenced this. Methods. Anonymised, self-administered questionnaire at a medical school. Results. The uptake rate amongst 126 medical students offered the vaccine was 49.2% and intended uptake amongst 77 students was 63.6%. Amongst those offered the vaccine, the strongest barriers to acceptance were fear of side effects (67.9%), lack of vaccine information (50.9%), lack of perceived risk (45.3%), and inconvenience (35.8%). Having a chronic illness (OR 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-10.2)), 4th/5th year of study (OR 3.0 (95% CI 1.3-7.1)), and correct H1N1 knowledge (OR 2.6 (95% CI 1.1-6.0)) were positively associated with uptake. Non-white ethnicity was an independent negative predictor of uptake (OR 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.8)). Students who accepted the H1N1 vaccine were three times more likely (OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-7.7)) to accept future seasonal influenza vaccination. Conclusion. Efforts to increase uptake should focus on routine introduction of influenza vaccine and creating a culture of uptake during medical school years, evidence-based education on vaccination, and improving vaccine delivery. PMID:23251794

  1. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.-Y. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jhkate@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, H.; Jeon, T.Y.; Shin, K.E.; Shin, W.S.; Jung, H.N. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  2. Pre-existing immunity with high neutralizing activity to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Shanghai population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Liu

    Full Text Available Pre-existing immunity is an important factor countering the pandemic potential of an emerging influenza virus strain. Thus, studying of pre-existing immunity to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (2009 H1N1 will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. In the present study, sera were collected from 486 individuals in a hospital in Shanghai, China, before the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The serum anti-hemagglutinins (HA antibody, hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibody and neutralizing antibody against the 2009 H1N1 were assayed. Among this population, 84.2%, 14.61% and 26.5% subjects possessed anti-HA antibody, HI antibody and neutralizing antibody, respectively. Although neutralizing antibody only existed in those sera with detectable anti-HA antibody, there was no obvious correlation between the titers of anti-HA and neutralizing antibody. However, the titers of anti-HA and neutralizing antibody against seasonal H1N1 virus were highly correlated. In the same population, there was no correlation between titers of neutralizing antibody against 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H1N1. DNA immunization performed on mice demonstrated that antibodies to the HA of 2009 pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses were strain-specific and had no cross-neutralizing activity. In addition, the predicted conserved epitope in the HA of 2009 H1N1 and recently circulating seasonal H1N1 virus, GLFGAIAGFIE, was not an immunologically valid B-cell epitope. The data in this report are valuable for advancing our understanding of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection.

  3. Who Takes Precautionary Action in the Face of the New H1N1 Influenza? Prediction of Who Collects a Free Hand Sanitizer Using a Health Behavior Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tabea; Renner, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to fight the spread of the novel H1N1 influenza, health authorities worldwide called for a change in hygiene behavior. Within a longitudinal study, we examined who collected a free bottle of hand sanitizer towards the end of the first swine flu pandemic wave in December 2009. Methods 629 participants took part in a longitudinal study assessing perceived likelihood and severity of an H1N1 infection, and H1N1 influenza related negative affect (i.e., feelings of threat, concern, and worry) at T1 (October 2009, week 43–44) and T2 (December 2009, week 51–52). Importantly, all participants received a voucher for a bottle of hand sanitizer at T2 which could be redeemed in a university office newly established for this occasion at T3 (ranging between 1–4 days after T2). Results Both a sequential longitudinal model (M2) as well as a change score model (M3) showed that greater perceived likelihood and severity at T1 (M2) or changes in perceived likelihood and severity between T1 and T2 (M3) did not directly drive protective behavior (T3), but showed a significant indirect impact on behavior through H1N1 influenza related negative affect. Specifically, increases in perceived likelihood (β = .12), severity (β = .24) and their interaction (β = .13) were associated with a more pronounced change in negative affect (M3). The more threatened, concerned and worried people felt (T2), the more likely they were to redeem the voucher at T3 (OR = 1.20). Conclusions Affective components need to be considered in health behavior models. Perceived likelihood and severity of an influenza infection represent necessary but not sufficient self-referential knowledge for paving the way for preventive behaviors. PMID:21789224

  4. Who takes precautionary action in the face of the new H1N1 influenza? Prediction of who collects a free hand sanitizer using a health behavior model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to fight the spread of the novel H1N1 influenza, health authorities worldwide called for a change in hygiene behavior. Within a longitudinal study, we examined who collected a free bottle of hand sanitizer towards the end of the first swine flu pandemic wave in December 2009. METHODS: 629 participants took part in a longitudinal study assessing perceived likelihood and severity of an H1N1 infection, and H1N1 influenza related negative affect (i.e., feelings of threat, concern, and worry at T1 (October 2009, week 43-44 and T2 (December 2009, week 51-52. Importantly, all participants received a voucher for a bottle of hand sanitizer at T2 which could be redeemed in a university office newly established for this occasion at T3 (ranging between 1-4 days after T2. RESULTS: Both a sequential longitudinal model (M2 as well as a change score model (M3 showed that greater perceived likelihood and severity at T1 (M2 or changes in perceived likelihood and severity between T1 and T2 (M3 did not directly drive protective behavior (T3, but showed a significant indirect impact on behavior through H1N1 influenza related negative affect. Specifically, increases in perceived likelihood (β = .12, severity (β = .24 and their interaction (β = .13 were associated with a more pronounced change in negative affect (M3. The more threatened, concerned and worried people felt (T2, the more likely they were to redeem the voucher at T3 (OR = 1.20. CONCLUSIONS: Affective components need to be considered in health behavior models. Perceived likelihood and severity of an influenza infection represent necessary but not sufficient self-referential knowledge for paving the way for preventive behaviors.

  5. Long-term respiratory follow-up of H1N1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kerenidi Theodora; Matthaios Dimitris; Mabroudi Maria; Steiropoulos Paschalis; Kouroumichakis Ioannis; Constantinidis Theodoros C; Spyratos Dionysis; Papanas Nikolaos; Kouliatsis George; Zarogoulidis Paul; Courcoutsakis Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis Konstantinos; Maltezos Efstratios

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection was documented in our Hospital on 10th August 2009. Metdods and findings Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) testing was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients were treated with oseltamivir from the first day of hospitalization. Upon admission 12/44 had local patchy shadowing in their chest x-ray and additionally antibiotic regimen was added to these patients as pneumonia...

  6. Long-term respiratory follow-up of H1N1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kouliatsis, George; Papanas, Nikolaos; Spyratos, Dionysis; Theodoros C Constantinidis; Kouroumichakis, Ioannis; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Mabroudi, Maria; Matthaios, Dimitris; Kerenidi, Theodora; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2011-01-01

    Background The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection was documented in our Hospital on 10th August 2009. Metdods and findings Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) testing was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients were treated with oseltamivir from the first day of hospitalization. Upon admission 12/44 had local patchy shadowing in their chest x-ray and additionally antibiotic regimen was added to these patients as pneumonia was susp...

  7. Identification of the First Chinese Cases of H1N1 Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-04

    In this podcast, Dr. Scott Dowell discusses the first cases of the new H1N1 influenza virus in China in May 2009, which occurred in three students who had been studying in North America during the early days of the pandemic and returned home to visit their friends and family. Chinese health officials acted swiftly to investigate and determine whether the students had spread their illness to others. The article, which appears in the September 2009 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases, details what they found.  Created: 8/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/4/2009.

  8. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  9. VIGILANCIA EPIDEMIOLÓGICA DE LA GRIPE (H1N1 2009 SIN RED CENTINELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Malvar Pintos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: En Galicia no existe red centinela de vigilancia epidemiológica por lo que se utilizan sistemas alternativos de vigilancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es describirlos y presentar los resultados observados durante la pandemia de gripe (H1N1 2009. Métodos: Los sistemas utilizados fueron llamadas recibidas por gripe (H1N1 2009 e infección respiratoria aguda en el 061, sistema de notificación de enfermedades obligatorias (SXNOE, vigilancia virológica, registros de atención primaria e ingresos hospitalarios. Los datos se analizaron con Excell. Resultados: La primera onda por virus A(H1N1v se registró a través del 061 entre las semanas 39/2009 y 49/2009, alcanzando el pico en la 44/2009 con la mayor tasa de llamadas acumuladas en el grupo de 5-19 años. SXNOE proporcionó una onda (semanas 39/2009 a 49/2009 con pico en la 44/2009. Microbiológicamente se estudiaron con RT-PRC 6.181 muestras (31% positivas y pico en la semana 44/2009. Los registros de Atención Primaria proporcionaron una onda (semanas 39/2009 a 49/2009 con pico en la semana 44/2009 con la mayor tasa de consultas para los de 5-19 años. Entre las semanas 26/2009 y 17/2010, ingresaron 698 personas con gripe (H1N1 2009, con mayor número de hospitalizaciones en la 44/2009. Conclusiones: Los sistemas descritos quedan avalados por la homogeneidad de los resultados, ya que dibujan la misma onda (semanas 39/2009 a 49/2009 y coinciden en el pico (semana 44/2009 donde se observa la mayor tasa de consultas entre 5-19 años. El 061 aparece como el sistema más operativo al proporcionar datos diarios.

  10. Epidemiological Characteristics of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in Antiviral Drug Users in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kyunghi Choi; Sung-il Cho; Masahiro Hashizume; Ho Kim

    2012-01-01

    Soon after the first novel influenza A (H1N1) death was documented in Korea on August 15, 2009, prompt treatment with antiviral drugs was recommended when an infection was suspected. Free antiviral drugs were distributed to patients who met the case definition in the treatment guidelines, and patients prescribed the antiviral drugs were included in the Antiviral Drug Surveillance System (ADSS). A total of 2,825,821 patients were reported to the ADSS from September 1 to December 31, 2009. Odds...

  11. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a complication of influenza A (H1N1) pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Jose Maria; Marcos, Pedro J; Pombo, Francisco; Otero-Gonzalez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease characterized by its acute onset and a clinical presentation simulating a bacterial pneumonia. Although it can be idiopathic, it has been described related to drugs, toxic agents and infections, mostly parasitic. We describe the case of influenza A (H1N1) severe pneumonia complicated by an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patient presented with respiratory failure and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest-computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this complication and bronchoalveolar lavage with cellular count analysis is crucial. PMID:27055842

  12. Risk factors affecting seroconversion after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Sung Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Hemodialysis (HD patients have multiple causes of immune dysfunction and poor immune response to influenza vaccination. We investigated the antibody response rate to a pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza vaccination and clinical parameters influencing the induction of antibody responses in HD patients. Methods A total of 114 HD patients were vaccinated with a monovalent adjuvanted H1N1 inactivated influenza vaccine. Titers of neutralizing antibodies were evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay at pre- and 4 weeks after vaccination. Seroconversion was defined as either a pre-vaccination HI titer  1:40 or a pre-vaccination HI titer ≥ 1:10 and a minimum four-fold rise in post-vaccination HI antibody titer. Seventeen out of 114 HD patients (14.9% tested positive for antibodies against influenza A/H1N1/2009 before vaccination. The remaining 97 baseline sero-negative patients were included in the analysis. Results Only 30 (30.9% HD patients had seroconversion 4 weeks after vaccination. The elderly patients, those over 65 years of age, showed significantly lower seroconversion rate compared to younger HD patients (20.5% vs. 39.6%, p = 0.042. Furthermore, patients with hemoglobin values less than 10 g/dL had a significantly lower seroconversion rate compared to those with higher hemoglobin values (20.0 vs. 38.6%, p = 0.049. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, only age ≥65 years (OR = 0.336, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.116-0.971, p = 0.044 and hemoglobin levels Conclusions Our data show that HD patients, especially who are elderly with low hemoglobin levels, are at increased risk for lower seroconversion rate after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Further studies are needed to improve the efficacy of vaccination in these high risk patients.

  13. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis [General Hospital, PET/CT Unit, Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  14. Seroepidemiologic Study of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 during Outbreak in Boarding School, England

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sandra; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Hardelid, Pia; Raphaely, Nika; Hoschler, Katja; Bermingham, Alison; Abid, Muhammad; Pebody, Richard; Bickler, Graham; Watson, John; O’Moore, Éamonn

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a seroepidemiologic study during an outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in a boarding school in England. Overall, 353 (17%) of students and staff completed a questionnaire and provided a serum sample. The attack rate was 40.5% and 34.1% for self-reported acute respiratory infection (ARI). Staff were less likely to be seropositive than students 13–15 years of age (staff 20–49 years, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.30; >50 years AOR 0.20). Teachers were more likely to be seropositive than...

  15. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  16. Pandemic H1N1 (2009) and renal failure: the experience of the Irish national tertiary referral centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Brien, F J

    2011-03-01

    H1N1 influenza A, was first described in April 2009. A significant cohort of patients from this outbreak developed acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia. H1N1 has since been transmitted across the world. Little has been described on the renal complications of this illness.

  17. Generation and Characterization of Recombinant Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses Resistant to Neuraminidase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzorno, Andrés; Bouhy, Xavier; Abed, Yacine; Boivin, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Background. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) play a key role in the management of influenza epidemics and pandemics. Given the novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) virus and the restricted number of approved anti-influenza drugs, evaluation of potential drug-resistant variants is of high priority.

  18. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was ass

  19. Correlates of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Acceptance among Middle and High School Teachers in Rural Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M.; Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Weiss, Paul; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Teachers play an essential role in the school community, and H1N1 vaccination of teachers is critical to protect not only themselves but also adolescents they come in contact within the classroom through herd immunity. School-aged children have a greater risk of developing H1N1 disease than seasonal influenza. The goal of this study…

  20. Possible basis for the emergence of H1N1 viruses with pandemic potential from avian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Krauss, Scott; Zanin, Mark; Danner, Angela; Gulati, Shelly; Jones, Jeremy C; Friedman, Kimberly; Graham, Allison; Forrest, Heather; Seiler, Jon; Air, Gillian M; Webster, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    Influenza A viruses of the H1N1 subtype have emerged from the avian influenza gene pool in aquatic birds and caused human pandemics at least twice during the past century. Despite this fact, surprisingly little is known about the H1N1 gene pool in the aquatic bird reservoir. A preliminary study showed that an H1N1 virus from a shorebird of the Charadriiformes order was transmitted between animals through the airborne route of infection, whereas an H1N1 virus from a bird of the Anseriformes order was not. Here we show that two of the three H1N1 viruses isolated from Charadriiformes species in 2009 were transmitted between animals through the airborne route of infection, and five H1N1 isolates from Anseriformes species were not. The one H1N1 virus from a Charadriiformes species that failed to transmit through the airborne route was a reassortant possessing multiple internal gene segments from Anseriformes species. The molecular differences between the airborne-transmissible and non-airborne-transmissible H1N1 viruses were multigenic, involving the selection of virus with human-like receptor-binding specificity (α2-6 sialic acid) and multiple differences in the polymerase complex, mainly in the PB2, PB1-F2, and nonstructural genes.

  1. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was ass

  2. [Immune Protection against H9N2 Provided by H1N1 Pre-infection in Pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Maocai; Hong, Wenshan; Zheng, Zuoyi; Chen, Rirong

    2015-07-01

    To explore the impact of the history of infection by the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 on secondary infection by the influenza A virus subtype H9N2, pigs non-infected and pre-infected with H1N1 were inoculated with H9N2 in parallel to compare nasal shedding and seroconversion patterns. Unlike pigs without a background of H1N1 infection, nasal shedding was not detected in pigs pre-infected with H1N1. Both groups generated antibodies against H9N2. However, levels of H1N1 antibodies in pigs pre-infected with H1N1 increased quickly and dramatically after challenge with H9N2. Cross-reaction was not observed between H1N1 antibodies and H9N2 viruses. These findings suggest that circulation of the H1N1 virus might be a barrier to the introduction and transmission of the avian H9N2 virus, thereby delaying its adaptation in pigs.

  3. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  4. Properly folded bacterially expressed H1N1 hemagglutinin globular head and ectodomain vaccines protect ferrets against H1N1 pandemic influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Khurana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the face of impending influenza pandemic, a rapid vaccine production and mass vaccination is the most effective approach to prevent the large scale mortality and morbidity that was associated with the 1918 "Spanish Flu". The traditional process of influenza vaccine production in eggs is time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to curtail influenza pandemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recombinant technology can be used to express the hemagglutinin (HA of the emerging new influenza strain in a variety of systems including mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. In this study, two forms of HA proteins derived from the currently circulating novel H1N1 A/California/07/2009 virus, HA1 (1-330 and HA (1-480, were expressed and purified from E. coli under controlled redox refolding conditions that favoured proper protein folding. However, only the recombinant HA1 (1-330 protein formed oligomers, including functional trimers that bound receptor and caused agglutination of human red blood cells. These proteins were used to vaccinate ferrets prior to challenge with the A/California/07/2009 virus. Both proteins induced neutralizing antibodies, and reduced viral loads in nasal washes. However, the HA1 (1-330 protein that had higher content of multimeric forms provided better protection from fever and weight loss at a lower vaccine dose compared with HA (1-480. Protein yield for the HA1 (1-330 ranged around 40 mg/Liter, while the HA (1-480 yield was 0.4-0.8 mg/Liter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that describes production in bacterial system of properly folded functional globular HA1 domain trimers, lacking the HA2 transmembrane protein, that elicit potent neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination and protect ferrets from in vivo challenge. The combination of bacterial expression system with established quality control methods could provide a mechanism for rapid large

  5. Prostaglandin A1 Inhibits Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Rosária Pereira Freitas; Lucio Ayres Caldas; Moacyr Alcoforado Rebello

    1998-01-01

    Prostaglandins (Pgs) have been shown to inhibit the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report the effect of prostaglandin (PgA1) on the multiplication of a positive strand RNA virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) in PK15 cells. PgA1 was found to inhibit the multiplication of CSFV. At a concentration of 5 µg/ml, which was nontoxic to the cells, PgA1 inhibitis virus production in 99%. In PgA1 treated cells the size and number of characteristic Classical Swine Fever focus d...

  6. Prostaglandin A1 Inhibits Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Rosária Pereira Freitas

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (Pgs have been shown to inhibit the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report the effect of prostaglandin (PgA1 on the multiplication of a positive strand RNA virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV in PK15 cells. PgA1 was found to inhibit the multiplication of CSFV. At a concentration of 5 µg/ml, which was nontoxic to the cells, PgA1 inhibitis virus production in 99%. In PgA1 treated cells the size and number of characteristic Classical Swine Fever focus decreased in amount.

  7. Measured dynamic social contact patterns explain the spread of H1N1v influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Ken T D; Tilston, Natasha L; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Edmunds, W John

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of social mixing are key determinants of epidemic spread. Here we present the results of an internet-based social contact survey completed by a cohort of participants over 9,000 times between July 2009 and March 2010, during the 2009 H1N1v influenza epidemic. We quantify the changes in social contact patterns over time, finding that school children make 40% fewer contacts during holiday periods than during term time. We use these dynamically varying contact patterns to parameterise an age-structured model of influenza spread, capturing well the observed patterns of incidence; the changing contact patterns resulted in a fall of approximately 35% in the reproduction number of influenza during the holidays. This work illustrates the importance of including changing mixing patterns in epidemic models. We conclude that changes in contact patterns explain changes in disease incidence, and that the timing of school terms drove the 2009 H1N1v epidemic in the UK. Changes in social mixing patterns can be usefully measured through simple internet-based surveys. PMID:22412366

  8. Heterogeneous virulence of pandemic 2009 influenza H1N1 virus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Amber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathogenesis of influenza infection is a key factor leading to the prevention and control of future outbreaks. Pandemic 2009 Influenza H1N1 infection, although frequently mild, led to a severe and fatal form of disease in certain cases that make its virulence nature debatable. Much effort has been made toward explaining the determinants of disease severity; however, no absolute reason has been established. Results This study presents the heterogeneous virulence of clinically similar strains of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells and mice. The viruses were obtained from patients who were admitted in a local hospital in China with a similar course of infection and recovered. The A/Nanchang/8002/2009 and A/Nanchang/8011/2009 viruses showed efficient replication and high lethality in mice while infection with A/Nanchang/8008/2009 was not lethal with impaired viral replication, minimal pathology and modest proinflammatory activity in lungs. Sequence analysis displayed prominent differences between polymerase subunits (PB2 and PA of viral genomes that might correlate with their different phenotypic behavior. Conclusions The study confirms that biological heterogeneity, linked with the extent of viral replication, exists among pandemic H1N1 strains that may serve as a benchmark for future investigations on influenza pathogenesis.

  9. The economic impact of H1N1 on Mexico's tourist and pork sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassy, Dunia; Smith, Richard D

    2013-07-01

    By examining tourist arrivals and pork output and trade statistics, this analysis estimates the economic impact to the Mexican tourism and pork sectors because of the H1N1 influenza pandemic. It also assesses the role of the international response in the context of this economic impact. For tourism, losing almost a million overseas visitors translated into losses of around $US2.8bn, which extended over a five-month period, mostly because of the slow return of European travellers. For the pork industry, temporal decreases in output were observed in most of the country and related to H1N1 incidence (p = 0.048, r = 0.37). By the end of 2009, Mexico had a pork trade deficit of $US27m. The losses derived from this pandemic were clearly influenced by the risk perception created in tourist-supplying and pork trade partners. Results suggest that the wider economic implications of health-related emergencies can be significant and need to be considered in preparedness planning. For instance, more effective surveillance and data gathering would enable policy to target emergency funding to the sectors and regions hardest hit. These results also stress the importance of being familiar with trade networks so as to be able to anticipate the international response and respond accordingly. PMID:23744805

  10. The pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus is resistant to mannose-binding lectin

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    Ushirogawa Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is an important component of innate immunity because it promotes bacterial clearance and neutralization of human influenza A viruses. Since a majority of humans have no neutralizing antibody against the pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza (pandemic 2009 virus, innate immunity may be crucial and MBL susceptibility may therefore influence viral pathogenesis. Results We examined MBL susceptibility of influenza A viruses and observed that the pandemic 2009 virus was resistant to MBL, whereas all seasonal influenza A viruses tested were susceptible. The mortality of mice infected with a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus was evidently enhanced on transient blockage of MBL activity by simultaneous inoculation of mannan, whereas mannan inoculation had no effect on mice infected with a pandemic 2009 virus. This indicates that MBL protects mice against infection with the seasonal virus but not against that with the pandemic 2009 virus. Conclusions These results indicate that the pandemic 2009 virus is not susceptible to MBL, an important component of innate immunity.

  11. Antiviral activity of silver nanoparticle/chitosan composites against H1N1 influenza A virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yasutaka; Ono, Takeshi; Miyahira, Yasushi; Nguyen, Vinh Quang; Matsui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    Silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)/chitosan (Ch) composites with antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus were prepared. The Ag NP/Ch composites were obtained as yellow or brown floc-like powders following reaction at room temperature in aqueous medium. Ag NPs (3.5, 6.5, and 12.9 nm average diameters) were embedded into the chitosan matrix without aggregation or size alternation. The antiviral activity of the Ag NP/Ch composites was evaluated by comparing the TCID50 ratio of viral suspensions treated with the composites to untreated suspensions. For all sizes of Ag NPs tested, antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus increased as the concentration of Ag NPs increased; chitosan alone exhibited no antiviral activity. Size dependence of the Ag NPs on antiviral activity was also observed: antiviral activity was generally stronger with smaller Ag NPs in the composites. These results indicate that Ag NP/Ch composites interacting with viruses exhibit antiviral activity.

  12. Research Preparedness Paves the Way to Respond to Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B French

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The international community has been preparing for an influenza pandemic because of the threat posed by H5N1 avian influenza. Over the past several years, Canada has dedicated funding to boost capacity for research, and public health and health care system readiness and response in the event of a pandemic. The current H1N1/09 influenza pandemic is now testing our readiness. From a research perspective, the present commentary discusses how have we prepared, along with the research gaps. We conclude that: sources of pandemics are not always predictable; investment in the past few years has paid off in a rapid response to pandemic H1N1/09 virus in Canada; and research to meet the challenges of infectious diseases has to be done on an ongoing long-term basis, and its funding has to be flexible, available and predictable to maintain capacity and expertise. In addition, new vaccine technologies are needed to develop and produce vaccines for public health emergencies in a timely fashion.

  13. The knowledge of the importance on the influenza virus a (H1N1: experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaine Kareny da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although infection rates by influenza A H1N1, present reduction since 2010 through immunization, it is still notorious some cases and outbreaks of the disease in the country. To minimize such cases it is important, among other measures, the qualification of the health worker. In this sense, the objective was to describe the level of awareness of nursing professionals in a hospital Bahia interior, on the transmission of the H1N1 virus, symptoms and what PPE is needed in assisting patients with suspected or diagnostic confirmation. Methods: This is an experience report experienced by nursing students at the State University of Bahia, who developed curricular component activities Caring Process: Rationale and practice in a public hospital in Bahia. The report data is from the collection conducted with the nurses, addressing aspects of symptoms, transmission and personal protective equipment. Each professional nursing spontaneously answered the questions and the end was discussed each item aiming answer questions by promoting thus an educational activity based on the knowledge of professionals. Results: Although most participants recognize the personal protective equipment and the symptoms of the viral disease, some are still unaware of the transmission routes. Most received no training on the subject. Conclusion: It is necessary to implement a Center for Continuing Education to answer questions about this and other topics, but are not limited to specific actions and seeking partnerships with higher education institutions. KEYWORDS: Education, Continuing. Education, Nursing. Disease Transmission, Infectious. Communicable Disease Control

  14. 甲型H1N1流感医院感染预防和控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家琳

    2009-01-01

    甲型H1N1流感是由甲型H1N1流感病毒引起急性呼吸道传染病,潜伏期短,具有高度传染性和传播快特点,常引起暴发,甚至世界性大流行.作为医疗卫生单位,提高对甲型H1N1流感认识,及时发现甲型H1N1流感病人.切断传播途径,防止院内感染,有效地防控甲型H1N1流感起着至关重要作用.