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Sample records for classical swine h1n1

  1. Co-circulation of pandemic 2009 H1N1, classical swine H1N1 and avian-like swine H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China.

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    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Qiao, Chuanling; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Ying; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses emerged in both Mexico and the United States in March 2009, and were transmitted efficiently in the human population. They were transmitted occasionally from humans to other mammals including pigs, dogs and cats. In this study, we report the isolation and genetic analysis of novel viruses in pigs in China. These viruses were related phylogenetically to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and pigs, which indicates that the pandemic virus is currently circulating in swine populations, and this hypothesis was further supported by serological surveillance of pig sera collected within the same period. Furthermore, we isolated another two H1N1 viruses belonging to the lineages of classical swine H1N1 virus and avian-like swine H1N1 virus, respectively. Multiple genetic lineages of H1N1 viruses are co-circulating in the swine population, which highlights the importance of intensive surveillance for swine influenza in China.

  2. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

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    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  3. Efficacy of a high-growth reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against the classical swine H1N1 subtype influenza virus in mice and pigs.

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    Wen, Feng; Yu, Hai; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Yang, Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2014-11-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease caused by swine influenza A viruses (SwIVs), and it poses a potential global threat to human health. Classical H1N1 (cH1N1) SwIVs are still circulating and remain the predominant subtype in the swine population in China. In this study, a high-growth reassortant virus (GD/PR8) harboring the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel cH1N1 isolate in China, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (GD/11) and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34(PR8) virus was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics and tested as a candidate seed virus for the preparation of an inactivated vaccine. The protective efficacy of this vaccine was evaluated in mice and pigs challenged with GD/11 virus. Prime and boost inoculation of GD/PR8 vaccine yielded high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies and IgG antibodies for GD/11 in both mice and pigs. Complete protection of mice and pigs against cH1N1 SIV challenge was observed, with significantly fewer lung lesions and reduced viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with unvaccinated control animals. Our data demonstrated that the GD/PR8 may serve as the seed virus for a promising SwIVs vaccine to protect the swine population.

  4. Novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses in pigs in Tianjin, Northern China.

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    Sun, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Hua; Lu, Chao; Yang, Chun-Lei; Feng, Jing; Han, Wei; Ren, Wei-Ke; Tian, Xiang-Xue; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Wen, Feng; Li, Ze-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Yan, Ming-Hua; Yu, Hai

    2016-02-01

    Pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses and therefore have been proposed to be mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment. In this study, for the first time, we report the isolation and genetic analyses of three novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses from pigs in Tianjin, Northern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel viruses contained genes from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PB2, PB1, PA and NP), Eurasian swine (HA, NA and M) and triple-reassortant swine (NS) lineages. This indicated that the reassortment among the 2009 pandemic H1N1, Eurasian swine and triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in Tianjin and resulted in the generation of new viruses. Furthermore, three human-like H1N1, two classical swine H1N1 and two Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses were also isolated during the swine influenza virus surveillance from 2009 to 2013, which indicated that multiple genetic lineages of swine H1N1 viruses were co-circulating in the swine population in Tianjin, China. The emergence of novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses may be a potential threat to human health and emphasizes the importance of further continuous surveillance.

  5. H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect Risk

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    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161034.html H1N1 'Swine Flu' Vaccine Unlikely to Raise Birth Defect ... Swedish researchers report that the vaccine against the H1N1 "swine flu" strain of influenza doesn't seem ...

  6. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https:// ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the ...

  7. Protective efficacy of an inactivated Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza vaccine against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in mice.

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    Sui, Jinyu; Yang, Dawei; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Huiyang; Xu, Bangfeng; Wu, Yunpu; Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Chen, Hualan

    2016-07-19

    Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs in Europe and Asia, but occasionally cause human infection, which raises concern about their pandemic potential. Here, we produced a whole-virus inactivated vaccine with an EA H1N1 strain (A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011, SW/GX/18/11) and evaluated its efficacy against homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 influenza viruses in mice. A strong humoral immune response, which we measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN), was induced in the vaccine-inoculated mice upon challenge. The inactivated SW/GX/18/11 vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with homologous SW/GX/18/11 virus in mice and provided effective protection against challenge with heterologous H1N1 and H1N2 viruses with distinctive genomic combinations. Our findings suggest that this EA H1N1 vaccine can provide protection against both homologous H1N1 and heterologous H1N1 or H1N2 virus infection. As such, it is an excellent vaccine candidate to prevent H1N1 swine influenza.

  8. Nosocomial swine influenza (H1N1) pneumonia: lessons learned from an illustrative case.

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    Cunha, B A; Thekkel, V; Krilov, L

    2010-03-01

    In the spring of 2009, our institution found itself at the epicentre of the "herald wave" of the swine influenza (H1N1) pandemic in New York. We were inundated with hundreds of patients exhibiting influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), presenting for rapid influenza A testing. During this pandemic, an infant with newly diagnosed acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) was admitted for induction chemotherapy. After being in hospital for a week, she developed high fever and shortness of breath, although her chest X-ray was clear. She was admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for mechanical ventilation. As we were in the midst of the pandemic, diagnosis of H1N1 pneumonia was considered and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for H1N1 was positive. Contact investigation revealed that none of her family members/visitors had been in recent/close contact with anyone with ILI/H1N1. The investigation also revealed that paediatric healthcare staff, in contact with H1N1 patients, had rotated into PICU to care for the patient. Although no specific individual could be identified, it seems likely that H1N1 was transmitted to the patient by a healthcare worker who worked both in the paediatric ward and the PICU. This is the first known case of nosocomial paediatric transmission of H1N1 pneumonia.

  9. Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba.

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    Pérez, Lester J; Perera, Carmen Laura; Coronado, Liani; Rios, Liliam; Vega, Armando; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José Ignacio; Díaz de Arce, Heidy

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with both animal and public health risks.

  10. Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico.

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    Mena, Ignacio; Nelson, Martha I; Quezada-Monroy, Francisco; Dutta, Jayeeta; Cortes-Fernández, Refugio; Lara-Puente, J Horacio; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Cunha, Luis F; Trovão, Nídia S; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Rambaut, Andrew; van Bakel, Harm; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-06-28

    Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of the Americas, and to date the most closely related ancestor viruses were identified in Asian swine. Here, we use 58 new whole-genome sequences from IAVs collected in Mexican swine to establish that the swine virus responsible for the 2009 pandemic evolved in central Mexico. This finding highlights how the 2009 pandemic arose from a region not considered a pandemic risk, owing to an expansion of IAV diversity in swine resulting from long-distance live swine trade.

  11. Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigs in Italy.

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    Chiapponi, Chiara; Baioni, Laura; Luppi, Andrea; Moreno, Ana; Castellan, Alberto; Foni, Emanuela

    2013-10-03

    In this study, the full-genome sequence of a novel reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) is reported. The isolate has a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, but it carries the seven genome segments of the avian-origin H1N1 SIV currently circulating in European pig farms.

  12. Antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China.

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    Yin, Xiuchen; Yin, Xin; Rao, Baizhong; Xie, Chunfang; Zhang, Pengchao; Qi, Xian; Wei, Ping; Liu, Huili

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was first isolated in pigs in China. Recently, it was reported that a 3-year-old boy was infected with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) in Jiangsu Province, China. To investigate the prevalence of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection among swine farm residents in eastern China, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted on swine farms in this region from May 21, 2010 through April 22, 2012. A total of 1,162 participants were enrolled, including 1,136 persons from 48 pig farms, as well as 26 pig farm veterinarians. A total of 10.7% and 7.8% swine farm residents were positive for antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV by HI and NT assay, respectively, using 40 as the cut-off antibody titer. Meanwhile, all the serum samples collected from a control of healthy city residents were negative against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. As the difference in numbers of antibody positive samples between the swine farm residents and health city residents controls was statistically significant (P = 0.002), these data suggest that occupational exposure to pigs may increase swine farm residents' and veterinarians' risk of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection in eastern China. This study provides the first data on avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian-like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration.

  13. Swine flu (H1N1 infection: An autoimmune endocrine condition in pregnant females

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    Shilpa Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: H1N1 infection tends to be more severe in pregnant than nonpregnant women. It is not known whether this is due to hormonal changes during pregnancy and/or immune responses to hormones. Aims: Whether the effect of pregnancy on responses to the H1N1 pandemic is mediated by the effects of immune responses to hormones resulting in anti-hormone antibody production requires investigation. Settings and Design: A prospective study was designed, and H1N1-infected pregnant women were recruited from the Intensive Care Unit of a hospital during the period 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: Differences in the levels of anti-estrogen and anti-progesterone antibodies were determined in H1N1-infected pregnant patients and healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women, using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16.0 (SPSS inc, Chicago, USA software was used for all statistical procedures. Results: Pregnant women showed nonsignificant trends for higher immunoglobulin G (IgG and IgM anti-estrogen-antibodies as compared to the healthy non-pregnant women. IgG, IgM, and IgE anti-progesterone-antibodies were also higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women, with marginally significant effects for IgG and IgE. H1N1 infection was associated with increased anti-estrogen IgG and IgA relative to healthy pregnant females. Conclusion: Findings about elevated anti-estrogen and anti-progesterone antibodies might improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of pregnant females to swine flu, and thereby lead to better management of this disease.

  14. Spillback transmission of European H1N1 avian-like swine influenza viruses to turkeys: A strain-dependent possibility?

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    Bonfante, Francesco; Fusaro, Alice; Tassoni, Luca; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Milani, Adelaide; Maniero, Silvia; Salviato, Annalisa; Terregino, Calogero

    2016-04-15

    In 1979, an avian influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype began to circulate in European swine herds, rapidly replacing classical swine H1N1 viruses. Spill-back transmissions to turkeys were recorded occasionally, but they might have been underreported due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection and the lack of specific surveillance. In our study, we evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility in turkeys of seven strains of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses isolated from 1979 to 2006, and compared them with their closest progenitor A/duck/Bavaria/1/77 (H1N1), to establish whether the adaptation to pigs has gradually decreased their fitness in turkeys. Our data indicate that the circulation of European H1N1 in pigs might have impaired the possibility of infecting turkeys. Nevertheless, the two swine-origin strains, which showed the ability to replicate and transmit in turkeys, possess typical swine-like genetic traits, not different from the rest of the tested isolates, suggesting replication of avian-like swine H1N1 viruses in turkeys as a strain-dependent polygenic feature.

  15. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

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    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  16. Reassortment Networks and the evolution of pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza.

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    Bokhari, Shahid H; Pomeroy, Laura W; Janies, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Prior research developed Reassortment Networks to reconstruct the evolution of segmented viruses under both reassortment and mutation. We report their application to the swine-origin pandemic H1N1 virus (S-OIV). A database of all influenza A viruses, for which complete genome sequences were available in Genbank by October 2009, was created and dynamic programming was used to compute distances between all corresponding segments. A reassortment network was created to obtain the minimum cost evolutionary paths from all viruses to the exemplar S-OIV A/California/04/2009. This analysis took 35 hours on the Cray Extreme Multithreading (XMT) supercomputer, which has special hardware to permit efficient parallelization. Six specific H1N1/H1N2 bottleneck viruses were identified that almost always lie on minimum cost paths to S-OIV. We conjecture that these viruses are crucial to S-OIV evolution and worthy of careful study from a molecular biology viewpoint. In phylogenetics, ancestors are typically medians that have no functional constraints. In our method, ancestors are not inferred, but rather chosen from previously observed viruses along a path of mutation and reassortment leading to the target virus. This specificity and functional constraint render our results actionable for further experiments in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Severe swine influenza A (H1N1) versus severe human seasonal influenza A (H3N2): clinical comparisons.

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    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Strollo, Stephanie; Syed, Uzma; Laguerre, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of the swine influenza (H1N1) pandemic in the spring of 2009, there were still stories of human seasonal influenza A circulating in the New York area. Adult patients admitted with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) (fever > 102°F, dry cough, and myalgias) presented diagnostic problems. First, clinicians had to differentiate ILIs from influenza, and then differentiate human seasonal influenza A from H1N1 in hospitalized adults with ILIs and negative chest films (no focal segmental/lobar infiltrates). Human seasonal influenza A was diagnosed by rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), but H1N1 was often RIDT negative. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for H1N1 was restricted or not available. The Winthrop-University Hospital Infectious Disease Division developed clinical diagnostic criteria (a diagnostic weighted point score system) to rapidly and clinically diagnose H1N1 in patients with negative RIDTs. The point score system was modified and shortened for ease of use, that is, the diagnostic H1N1 triad (any 3 of 4) (ILI, see above) plus thrombocytopenia, relative lymphopenia, elevated serum transaminases, or an elevated creatine phosphokinase. Our clinical experience during the pandemic allowed us to develop the swine diagnostic H1N1 triad. In the process, similarities and differences between human seasonal influenza A and H1N1 were noted. We present 2 illustrative cases of severe influenza, one due to human seasonal influenza A and one due to H1N1, for clinical consideration reflective of our experiences early in the H1N1 pandemic in 2009.

  18. Computed Tomography Findings in New Swine Flu Influenza A (H1N1 Infection

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    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to"nevaluate the computed tomography scan of patients"nwith documented influenza A (H1N1."nPatients and Methods: Thirteen patients (six men,"nseven women, with documented H1N1 infection"nconfirmed by RT-PCR from November 2009 to January"n2010 were included in this study. The computed"ntomography scans of the patients were reviewed"nregarding pattern (consolidation, ground glass, nodules"nand reticulation, distribution (focal, multifocal and"ndiffuse and the lung zones involved. The patients'"nfiles were studied for their possible underlying disease."nLDH and CPK level was available for nine and ten"npatients, respectively."nResults: The mean age was 35.54 years. Eight patients"nhad a co-existing condition (two respiratory, two"ncardiovascular, one immunodeficiency, one cancer"nand three others. Six (46.2% patients required ICU"nadmission. Three (23.1% patients died. The most"ncommon radiographic abnormality was ground glass"nopacities (10/13; 76.9% followed by consolidation"n(6/13; 46.2% in the peribronchovascular region (8/13;"n61.5% which was most commonly observed in the"nupper zones (left 76.9%; right 76.9%. Six (46.2%"npatients had more than three lung zones involved."nSeven (53.8% patients had pleural thickening or"neffusion. Two (15.4% patients had hilar or mediastinal"nadenopathy. CPK was high in 3/10 and LDH in 9/10."nConclusion: In patients with the novel swine flu"ninfection the most common computed tomography"nmanifestation in our center was ground glass opacities"nin the upper lung zones.

  19. Immunosensor based on the ZnO nanorod networks for the detection of H1N1 swine influenza virus.

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    Jang, Yunseok; Park, Jungil; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Pak, James Jungho

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an immunosensor fabricated on patterned zinc oxide nanorod networks (ZNNs) for detecting the H1N1 swine influenza virus (H1N1 SIV). Nanostructured ZnO with a high isoelectric point (IEP, approximately 9.5) possesses good absorbability for proteins with low IEPs. Hydrothermally grown ZNNs were fabricated on a patterned Au electrode (0.02 cm2) through a lift-off process. To detect the H1N1 SIV, the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was employed in the immunosensor. The immunosensor was evaluated in an acetate buffer solution containing 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) via cyclic voltammetry at various H1N1 SIV concentrations (1 pg/mL-5 ng/mL). The measurement results of the fabricated immunosensor showed that the reduction currents of TMB at 0.25 V logarithmically increased from 259.37 to 577.98 nA as the H1N1 SIV concentration changed from 1 pg/mL to 5 ng/mL. An H1N1 SIV immunosensor, based on the patterned ZNNs, was successfully realized for detecting 1 pg/mL-5 ng/mL H1N1 SIV concentrations, with a detection limit of 1 pg/mL for H1N1 SIV.

  20. Genetic Characterization and Evolution of H1N1pdm09 after Circulation in a Swine Farm

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    Arianna Boni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the emergence of the A(H1N1pdm09 in humans, this novel influenza virus was reverse transmitted from infected people to swine population worldwide. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of A(H1N1pdm09 virus identified in pigs reared in a single herd. Nasal swabs taken from pigs showing respiratory distress were tested for influenza type A and A(H1N1pdm09 by real-time RT-PCR assays. Virus isolation from positive samples was attempted by inoculation of nasal swabs samples into specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (ECE and complete genome sequencing was performed on virus strains after replication on ECE or from original swab sample. The molecular analysis of hemagglutinin (HA showed, in four of the swine influenza viruses under study, a unique significant amino acid change, represented by a two-amino acid insertion at the HA receptor binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of HA, neuraminidase, and concatenated internal genes revealed a very similar topology, with viruses under study forming a separate cluster, branching outside the A(H1N1pdm09 isolates recognized until 2014. The emergence of this new cluster of A(H1N1pdm09 in swine raises further concerns about whether A(H1N1pdm09 with new molecular characteristics will become established in pigs and potentially transmitted to humans.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Avian-like H1N1 Swine Influenza A Viruses Isolated in Eastern China, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Qi; Yuning Pan; Yuanfang Qin; Rongqiang Zu; Fengyang Tang; Minghao Zhou; Hua Wang; Yongchun Song

    2012-01-01

    Currently,three predominant subtypes of influenza virus are prevalent in pig populations worldwide:H1N1,H3N2,and H1N2.European avian-like H1N1 viruses,which were initially detected in European pig populations in 1979,have been circulating in pigs in eastern China since 2007.In this study,six influenza A viruses were isolated from 60 swine lung samples collected from January to April 2011 in eastern China.Based on whole genome sequencing,molecular characteristics of two isolates were determined.Phylogenetic analysis showed the eight genes of the two isolates were closely related to those of the avian-like H1N1 viruses circulating in pig populations,especially similar to those found in China.Four potential glycosylation sites were observed at positions 13,26,198,277 in the HA1 proteins of the two isolates.Due to the presence of a stop codon at codon 12,the isolates contained truncated PB1-F2 proteins.In this study,the isolates contained 591Q,627E and 701N in the polymerase subunit PB2,which had been shown to be determinants of virulence and host adaptation.The isolates also had a D rather than E at position 92 of the NS1,a marker of mammalian adaptation.Both isolates contained the GPKV motif at the PDZ ligand domain of the 3' end of the NS1,a characteristic marker of the European avian-like swine viruses since about 1999,which is distinct from those of avian,human and classical swine viruses.The M2 proteins of the isolates have the mutation (S31N),a characteristic marker of the European avian-like swine viruses since about 1987,which may confer resistance to amantadine and rimantadine antivirals.Our findings further emphasize the importance of surveillance on the genetic diversity of influenza A viruses in pigs,and raise more concerns about the occurrence of cross-species transmission events.

  2. Computer-aided assessment of pulmonary disease in novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza on CT

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    Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The 2009 pandemic is a global outbreak of novel H1N1 influenza. Radiologic images can be used to assess the presence and severity of pulmonary infection. We develop a computer-aided assessment system to analyze the CT images from Swine-Origin Influenza A virus (S-OIV) novel H1N1 cases. The technique is based on the analysis of lung texture patterns and classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Pixel-wise tissue classification is computed from the SVM value. The method was validated on four H1N1 cases and ten normal cases. We demonstrated that the technique can detect regions of pulmonary abnormality in novel H1N1 patients and differentiate these regions from visually normal lung (area under the ROC curve is 0.993). This technique can also be applied to differentiate regions infected by different pulmonary diseases.

  3. Efficacy of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus vaccine in pigs against the pandemic influenza virus is superior to commercially available swine influenza vaccines.

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    Loeffen, W L A; Stockhofe, N; Weesendorp, E; van Zoelen-Bos, D; Heutink, R; Quak, S; Goovaerts, D; Heldens, J G M; Maas, R; Moormann, R J; Koch, G

    2011-09-28

    In April 2009 a new influenza A/H1N1 strain, currently named "pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009" (H1N1v), started the first official pandemic in humans since 1968. Several incursions of this virus in pig herds have also been reported from all over the world. Vaccination of pigs may be an option to reduce exposure of human contacts with infected pigs, thereby preventing cross-species transfer, but also to protect pigs themselves, should this virus cause damage in the pig population. Three swine influenza vaccines, two of them commercially available and one experimental, were therefore tested and compared for their efficacy against an H1N1v challenge. One of the commercial vaccines is based on an American classical H1N1 influenza strain, the other is based on a European avian H1N1 influenza strain. The experimental vaccine is based on reassortant virus NYMC X179A (containing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1v) and the internal genes of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1)). Excretion of infectious virus was reduced by 0.5-3 log(10) by the commercial vaccines, depending on vaccine and sample type. Both vaccines were able to reduce virus replication especially in the lower respiratory tract, with less pathological lesions in vaccinated and subsequently challenged pigs than in unvaccinated controls. In pigs vaccinated with the experimental vaccine, excretion levels of infectious virus in nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, were at or below 1 log(10)TCID(50) per swab and lasted for only 1 or 2 days. An inactivated vaccine containing the HA and NA of an H1N1v is able to protect pigs from an infection with H1N1v, whereas swine influenza vaccines that are currently available are of limited efficaciousness. Whether vaccination of pigs against H1N1v will become opportune remains to be seen and will depend on future evolution of this strain in the pig population. Close monitoring of the pig population, focussing on presence and evolution of

  4. Haemagglutinin and nucleoprotein replicon particle vaccination of swine protects against the pandemic H1N1 2009 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Veen, R L; Mogler, M A; Russell, B J; Loynachan, A T; Harris, D L H; Kamrud, K I

    2013-10-12

    The recent emergence of the pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and H3N2 variant influenza A viruses (IAV) in 2009 and 2011-2012, respectively, highlight the zoonotic potential of influenza viruses and the need for vaccines capable of eliciting heterosubtypic protection. In these studies, single-cycle, propagation-defective replicon particle (RP) vaccines expressing IAV haemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes were constructed and efficacy was evaluated in homologous and heterologous pig challenge studies with the pH1N1 2009 influenza virus (A/California/04/2009). Homologous HA RP vaccination eliminated virus shedding and decreased pulmonary pathology in pigs following pH1N1 2009 challenge. An RP vaccine expressing an H3N2-derived NP gene was able to decrease nasal shedding and viral load following heterosubtypic pH1N1 2009 challenge in pigs. These studies indicate that although homologous vaccination of swine remains the most effective means of preventing IAV infection, other vaccine alternatives do offer a level of heterosubtypic protection, and should continue to be evaluated for their ability to provide broader protection.

  5. Potency of a vaccine prepared from A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1 against A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 pandemic influenza virus strain

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    Okamatsu Masatoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pandemic 2009 (H1N1 influenza virus has spread throughout the world and is now causing seasonal influenza. To prepare for the emergence of pandemic influenza, we have established a library of virus strains isolated from birds, pigs, and humans in global surveillance studies. Methods Inactivated whole virus particle (WV and ether-split (ES vaccines were prepared from an influenza virus strain, A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1, from the library and from A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 pandemic strain. Each of the vaccines was injected subcutaneously into mice and their potencies were evaluated by challenge with A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1 virus strain in mice. Results A/swine/Hokkaido/2/81 (H1N1, which was isolated from the lung of a diseased piglet, was selected on the basis of their antigenicity and growth capacity in embryonated chicken eggs. Two injections of the WV vaccine induced an immune response in mice, decreasing the impact of disease caused by the challenge with A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1, as did the vaccine prepared from the homologous strain. Conclusion The WV vaccine prepared from an influenza virus in the library is useful as an emergency vaccine in the early phase of pandemic influenza.

  6. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

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    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  7. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  8. Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus.

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    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M2 proton channel of H1N1 influenza A virus is the target protein of anti-flu drugs amantadine and rimantadine. However, the two once powerful adamantane-based drugs lost their 90% bioactivity because of mutations of virus in recent twenty years. The NMR structure of the M2 channel protein determined by Schnell and Chou (Nature, 2008, 451, 591-595 may help people to solve the drug-resistant problem and develop more powerful new drugs against H1N1 influenza virus. METHODOLOGY: Docking calculation is performed to build the complex structure between receptor M2 proton channel and ligands, including existing drugs amantadine and rimantadine, and two newly designed inhibitors. The computer-aided drug design methods are used to calculate the binding free energies, with the computational biology techniques to analyze the interactions between M2 proton channel and adamantine-based inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The NMR structure of M2 proton channel provides a reliable structural basis for rational drug design against influenza virus. 2 The channel gating mechanism and the inhibiting mechanism of M2 proton channel, revealed by the NMR structure of M2 proton channel, provides the new ideas for channel inhibitor design. 3 The newly designed adamantane-based inhibitors based on the modeled structure of H1N1-M2 proton channel have two pharmacophore groups, which act like a "barrel hoop", holding two adjacent helices of the H1N1-M2 tetramer through the two pharmacophore groups outside the channel. 4 The inhibitors with such binding mechanism may overcome the drug resistance problem of influenza A virus to the adamantane-based drugs.

  9. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  10. Avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus antibodies among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Cao, Zhenpeng; Tan, Likai; Fu, Xinliang; Lu, Gang; Qi, Wenbao; Ke, Changwen; Wang, Heng; Sun, Lingshuang; Zhang, Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Infection of human with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) occasionally occurs in China, suggesting a potential risk of cross-species transmission of the swine influenza H1N1 virus from pigs to humans, particularly to those having direct contact with pigs. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess the prevalence of antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China to evaluate the risk of infection to swine farm workers. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays revealed that 11.17% (61/546) of the sera samples from swine farm residents in southern China were positive for antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. The difference in numbers of antibody-positive samples obtained from swine farm residents and a control group of healthy city residents was statistically significant (P = 0.031). In addition, 219 of the 1,180 serum samples from pigs were positive for the antibodies against an avian-like A (H1N1) SIV, A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2013(H1N1), as assessed by HI. The data suggest that occupational exposure of swine farm residents and veterinarians in southern China to pigs may increase their risk of acquiring avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection. According to a special pig farming model in southern China, the staff and residents are in close contact with infected pigs and may be among the first to become infected.

  11. Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children

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    Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

  12. Detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses using a paired surface plasma waves biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Chen; Chang, Ying-Feng; Li, Ying-Chang; Hsieh, Jo-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Chien

    2010-08-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity of conventional rapid test technique for the detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses (S-OIVs), we used a paired surface plasma waves biosensor (PSPWB) based on SPR in conjunction with an optical heterodyne technique. Experimentally, PSPWB showed a 125-fold improvement at least in the S-OIV detection as compared to conventional enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the detection limit of the PSPWB for the S-OIV detection was enhanced 250-fold in buffer at least in comparison with that of conventional rapid influenza diagnostic test.

  13. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  14. Association of swine influenza H1N1 pandemic virus (SIV-H1N1p) with porcine respiratory disease complex in sows from commercial pig farms in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Luisa Fernanda Mancipe; Ramírez Nieto, Gloria; Alfonso, Victor Vera; Correa, Jairo Jaime

    2014-08-01

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a serious health problem that mainly affects growing and finishing pigs. PRDC is caused by a combination of viral and bacterial agents, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Myh), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), Pasteurella multocida and Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). To characterize the specific role of swine influenza virus in PRDC presentation in Colombia, 11 farms from three major production regions in Colombia were examined in this study. Nasal swabs, bronchial lavage and lung tissue samples were obtained from animals displaying symptoms compatible with SIV. Isolation of SIV was performed in 9-day embryonated chicken eggs or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Positive isolates, identified via the hemagglutination inhibition test, were further analyzed using PCR. Overall, 7 of the 11 farms were positive for SIV. Notably, sequencing of the gene encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) protein led to grouping of strains into circulating viruses identified during the human outbreak of 2009, classified as pandemic H1N1-2009. Serum samples from 198 gilts and multiparous sows between 2008 and 2009 were obtained to determine antibody presence of APP, Myh, PCV2 and PRRSV in both SIV-H1N1p-negative and -positive farms, but higher levels were recorded for SIV-H1N1p-positive farms. Odds ratio (OR) and P values revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in PRDC presentation in gilts and multiparous sows of farms positive for SIV-H1N1p. Our findings indicate that positive farms have increased risk of PRDC presentation, in particular, PCV2, APP and Myh.

  15. Estimating time to onset of swine influenza symptoms after initial novel A(H1N1v) viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, B D M; Van Hoek, A J; Pebody, R; McMenamin, J; Robertson, C; Catchpole, M; De Angelis, D

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of the incubation time from infection to onset is important for understanding the natural history of infectious diseases. Attempts to estimate the incubation time distribution for novel A(H1N1v) have been, up to now, based on limited data or peculiar samples. We characterized this distribution for a generic group of symptomatic cases using laboratory-confirmed swine influenza case-information. Estimates of the incubation distribution for the pandemic influenza were derived through parametric time-to-event analyses of data on onset of symptoms and exposure dates, accounting for interval censoring. We estimated a mean of about 1·6-1·7 days with a standard deviation of 2 days for the incubation time distribution in those who became symptomatic after infection with the A(H1N1v) virus strain. Separate analyses for the <15 years and ≥ 15 years age groups showed a significant (P<0·02) difference with a longer mean incubation time in the older age group.

  16. Analysis of HA gene sequence of a subtype H1N1 swine influenza virus isolated from Guangxi strains%H1N1猪流感病毒广西分离株HA基因序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜健华; 梁丹洁; 李春英; 徐贤坤; 胡巧云; 孙翔翔; 何奇松; 熊毅

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解H1N1猪流感病毒广西分离株的分子特征,为广西猪流感疫情监控提供参考依据.[方法]采用RT-PCR对2011年分离获得的H1N1猪流感病毒广西分离株(A/swine/Guangxi/1/2011)的HA基因进行扩增,然后利用DNASTAR分析软件对测序基因片段进行整个阅读框架的核苷酸序列及其推导氨基酸序列同源性比对分析,并用MEGA 4.0绘制遗传进化树.[结果]广西分离株HA基因长1701 bp,编码566个氨基酸,核苷酸序列与经典SIV的同源性为88.0%~99.6%,与季节性H1N1人流感病毒的同源性为76.3%~77.3%,与欧洲类禽SⅣ分离株的同源性为72.9%~75.4%,与2009甲型H1N1流感病毒的同源性为99.2%~99.6%;从核苷酸遗传进化树可知,广西分离株与类禽H1N1流感病毒和人H1N1流感病毒分离株的亲缘关系较远,而与2009甲型H 1N l流感病毒分离株的亲缘关系最近.广西分离毒株HA基因的裂解位点序列为IPSIQSR↓G,具有典型低致病性流感病毒的分子生物学特征;共有8个糖基化位点,其中6个位于HAl区,两个位于HA2区;广西分离株HA蛋白RBS位点的氨基酸同时具有人和猪流感病毒的特点.[结论]广西分离株(A/swine/Guangxi/1/2011)属于2009甲型H1N1流感病毒.%[Objective]This study was to determine molecular biology information of HA gene of H 1N 1 swine influenza virus isolated from Guangxi strains to provide references for monitoring swine flu in Guangxi.[Method]To analyze HA gene of H1N1 from Genbank,the primer was designed,and then HA genes of A/swine/Guangxi/1/2011 (H1N1) influenza virus were cloned,sequenced and compared via DNASTAR software.A phylogenetic tree was made using MEGA 4.0.[Result]The results indicated that the length of HA gene was 1701 bp and coded for 566 amino acids.Comparing with classical swine influenza H1N1,human-like H1N1 and Eurasian avian-like H1N1,the nucleotide homologies of HA genes were from 88.0% to 99.6%,from 76.3% to

  17. Impact of information on intentions to vaccinate in a potential epidemic: Swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Luchini, Stéphane; Massoni, Sébastien; Vergnaud, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination campaigns to prevent the spread of epidemics are successful only if the targeted populations subscribe to the recommendations of health authorities. However, because compulsory vaccination is hardly conceivable in modern democracies, governments need to convince their populations through efficient and persuasive information campaigns. In the context of the swine-origin A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, we use an interactive study among the general public in the South of France, with 175 participants, to explore what type of information can induce change in vaccination intentions at both aggregate and individual levels. We find that individual attitudes to vaccination are based on rational appraisal of the situation, and that it is information of a purely scientific nature that has the only significant positive effect on intention to vaccinate.

  18. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

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    James Holland Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

  19. In vitro reassortment between endemic H1N2 and 2009 H1N1 pandemic swine influenza viruses generates attenuated viruses.

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    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available The pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 influenza virus was first reported in humans in the spring of 2009 and soon thereafter was identified in numerous species, including swine. Reassortant viruses, presumably arising from the co-infection of pH1N1 and endemic swine influenza virus (SIV, were subsequently identified from diagnostic samples collected from swine. In this study, co-infection of swine testicle (ST cells with swine-derived endemic H1N2 (MN745 and pH1N1 (MN432 yielded two reassortant H1N2 viruses (R1 and R2, both possessing a matrix gene derived from pH1N1. In ST cells, the reassortant viruses had growth kinetics similar to the parental H1N2 virus and reached titers approximately 2 log(10 TCID(50/mL higher than the pH1N1 virus, while in A549 cells these viruses had similar growth kinetics. Intranasal challenge of pigs with H1N2, pH1N1, R1 or R2 found that all viruses were capable of infecting and transmitting between direct contact pigs as measured by real time reverse transcription PCR of nasal swabs. Lung samples were also PCR-positive for all challenge groups and influenza-associated microscopic lesions were detected by histology. Interestingly, infectious virus was detected in lung samples for pigs challenged with the parental H1N2 and pH1N1 at levels significantly higher than either reassortant virus despite similar levels of viral RNA. Results of our experiment suggested that the reassortant viruses generated through in vitro cell culture system were attenuated without gaining any selective growth advantage in pigs over the parental lineages. Thus, reassortant influenza viruses described in this study may provide a good system to study genetic basis of the attenuation and its mechanism.

  20. Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs.

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    Annebel De Vleeschauwer

    Full Text Available Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.

  1. Recipients of vaccine against the 1976 "swine flu" have enhanced neutralization responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullers, Jonathan A; Van De Velde, Lee-Ann; Allison, Kim J; Branum, Kristen C; Webby, Richard J; Flynn, Patricia M

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND. The world is facing a novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. A pandemic scare with a similar influenza virus in 1976 resulted in the vaccination of nearly 45 million persons. We hypothesized that prior receipt of the 1976 "swine flu" vaccine would enhance immune responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza strain. METHODS. A prospective, volunteer sample of employees aged > or = 55 years at a children's cancer hospital in August 2009 was assessed for antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. RESULTS. Antibody responses by hemagglutination-inhibition assay were high against both the seasonal influenza virus (89.7% had a titer considered seroprotective) and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (88.8% had a seroprotective titer). These antibodies were effective at neutralizing the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus in 68.1% of participants (titer > or = 40), but only 18.1% had detectable neutralizing titers against the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Of 116 participants, 46 (39.7%) received the 1976 "swine flu" vaccine. Receipt of this vaccine significantly enhanced neutralization responses; 8 (17.4%) of 46 vaccine recipients had titers > or = 160, compared with only 3 (4.3%) of 70 who did not receive the vaccine (P = .018 by chi(2) test). CONCLUSIONS. In this cohort, persons aged > or = 55 years had evidence of robust immunity to the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. These antibodies were cross-reactive but nonneutralizing against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Receipt of a vaccine to a related virus significantly enhanced the neutralization capacity of these responses, suggesting homologous vaccination against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus would have a similar effect.

  2. Onset of a pandemic: characterizing the initial phase of the swine flu (H1N1 epidemic in Israel

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    Mendelson Ella

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The swine influenza H1N1 first identified in Mexico, spread rapidly across the globe and is considered the fastest moving pandemic in history. The early phase of an outbreak, in which data is relatively scarce, presents scientific challenges on key issues such as: scale, severity and immunity which are fundamental for establishing sound and rapid policy schemes. Our analysis of an Israeli dataset aims at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of H1N1 in its initial phase. Methods We constructed and analyzed a unique dataset from Israel on all confirmed cases (between April 26 to July 7, 2009, representing most swine flu cases in this period. We estimated and characterized fundamental epidemiological features of the pandemic in Israel (e.g. effective reproductive number, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups, infections between sexes, and spatial dynamics. Contact data collected during this stage was used to estimate the generation time distribution of the pandemic. Results We found a low effective reproductive number (Re = 1.06, an age-class distribution of infected individuals (skewed towards ages 18-25, at-risk social groups (soldiers and ultra Orthodox Jews, and significant differences in infections between sexes (skewed towards males. In terms of spatial dynamics, the pandemic spread from the central coastal plain of Israel to other regions, with higher infection rates in more densely populated sub-districts with higher income households. Conclusions Analysis of high quality data holds much promise in reducing uncertainty regarding fundamental aspects of the initial phase of an outbreak (e.g. the effective reproductive number Re, age-class distribution, at-risk social groups. The formulation for determining the effective reproductive number Re used here has many advantages for studying the initial phase of the outbreak since it neither assumes exponential growth of infectives and is independent of the

  3. Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings

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    Li Ping, E-mail: pinglee_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Su Dongju, E-mail: hyd_sdj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhang Jifeng, E-mail: zjf2005520@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Xia Xudong, E-mail: xiaxd888@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Sui Hong, E-mail: suisuihong@126.com [Department of Statistics, Harbin Medical University, 240 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Donghui, E-mail: yhwoooooo@yahoo.com.cn [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Heilongjiang, 187 Xiang An Street, Harbin 150036 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S

  4. Investigation of Pathogenesis of H1N1 Influenza Virus and Swine Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Co-Infection in Pigs by Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian; Huang, Canhui; Shi, Jian; Wang, Ruifang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaokun; Zhao, Lianzhong; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection pathogenesis in pigs is unclear. In the present study, co-infection experiments were performed using swine H1N1 influenza virus and Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2). The H1N1-SS2 co-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical symptoms, serious pathological changes, and robust apoptosis of lungs at 6 days post-infection compared with separate H1N1 and SS2 infections. A comprehensive gene expression profiling using a microarray approach was performed to investigate the global host responses of swine lungs against the swine H1N1 infection, SS2 infection, co-infection, and phosphate-buffered saline control. Results showed 457, 411, and 844 differentially expressed genes in the H1N1, SS2, and H1N1-SS2 groups, respectively, compared with the control. Noticeably, genes associated with the immune, inflammatory, and apoptosis responses were highly overexpressed in the co-infected group. Pathway analysis indicated that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, MAPK, toll-like receptor, complement and coagulation cascades, antigen processing and presentation, and apoptosis pathway were significantly regulated in the co-infected group. However, the genes related to these were less regulated in the separate H1N1 and SS2 infection groups. This observation suggested that a certain level of synergy was induced by H1N1 and SS2 co-infection with significantly stronger inflammatory and apoptosis responses, which may lead to more serious respiratory disease syndrome and pulmonary pathological lesion.

  5. 儿童甲型H1N1流感的现状、临床特点及处理%Current situation, clinical characteristics and management of human swine influenza A H1N1) in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃肇源; 陈丽植; 张玲

    2010-01-01

    目前在全球呈现大流行趋势的甲型H1N1流感病毒是具备高度传染性的病毒,儿童和年轻成年人是主要易患人群,其临床表现相对轻微,但仍有部分病例因出现严重并发症而需要住院治疗.儿童,尤其是小于5岁者,是此次甲型H1N1流感流行中较易成为重症病例的高危人群,容易发生严重并发症,尤其是伴有慢性呼吸道、心血管疾病及免疫缺陷的儿童可能面临更大的死亡危险.神经氨酸酶抑制剂奥司他韦和扎那米韦是目前推荐使用的用于预防和治疗的抗病毒药物.疫苗被认为是控制流行的有效手段.%Human swine influenza A (H1N1) is a highly transmissible infectious disease, which has spreaded globally and represented a continuous pandemic threat. The novel virus has predominantly affected the children and young adults. Clinical manifestations generally appear mild, but there are still many patients with severe complications leading to hospitalization. According to the current reports, the mortality in the early stages of the pandemic appears no more than seasonal influenza A . Children (especially less than 5years) are considered to be at higher risk of infection and complications. Pediatric patients with a underlying significant chronic disease such as chronic respiratory disease,cardiovascular disease and immunodeficiency disease, are at a higher risk of death. The neuraminidase inhibitors Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are effective for prophylaxis and treatment. Effective vaccines are regarded to be crucial for the control of influenza pandemics. This review focuses on the epidemiological situation, clinical characteristics and management of human swine influenza A (H1N1), so as to provide practical advice for clinicians.

  6. Simultaneous infection of pigs and people with triple-reassortant swine influenza virus H1N1 at a U.S. county fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M L; Swenson, S L; Vincent, A L; Landgraf, J G; Shu, B; Lindstrom, S; Xu, X; Klimov, A; Zhang, Y; Bowman, A S

    2013-05-01

    Influenza-like illness was noted in people and pigs in attendance at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. The morbidity rate in swine approached 100% within 1-2 days of initial clinical signs being recognized, and approximately two dozen people developed influenza-like illness. Triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses were identified in both pigs and people at the fair. The identified viruses (A/Sw/OH/511445/2007, A/Ohio/01/2007, and A/Ohio/02/2007) were similar to H1N1 swine influenza viruses currently found in the U.S. swine population. This case illustrates the possibility of transmission of swine influenza in settings where there is close human/swine interaction.

  7. Corticosteroid treatment ameliorates acute lung injury induced by 2009 swine origin influenza A (H1N1 virus in mice.

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    Chenggang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza pandemic affected people in almost all countries in the world, especially in younger age groups. During this time, the debate over whether to use corticosteroid treatment in severe influenza H1N1 infections patients resurfaced and was disputed by clinicians. There is an urgent need for a susceptible animal model of 2009 H1N1 infection that can be used to evaluate the pathogenesis and the therapeutic effect of corticosteroid treatment during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We intranasally inoculated two groups of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (using 4- or 6-to 8-week-old mice to compare the pathogenesis of several different H1N1 strains in mice of different ages. Based on the results, a very susceptible 4-week-old C57BL/6 mouse model of Beijing 501 strain of 2009 H1N1 virus infection was established, showing significantly elevated lung edema and cytokine levels compared to controls. Using our established animal model, the cytokine production profile and lung histology were assessed at different times post-infection, revealing increased lung lesions in a time-dependent manner. In additional,the mice were also treated with dexamethasone, which significantly improved survival rate and lung lesions in infected mice compared to those in control mice. Our data showed that corticosteroid treatment ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the 2009 A/H1N1 virus in mice and suggested that corticosteroids are valid drugs for treating 2009 A/H1N1 infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the established, very susceptible 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 mouse model, our studies indicate that corticosteroids are a potential therapeutic remedy that may address the increasing concerns over future 2009 A/H1N1 pandemics.

  8. The 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) ’Swine Flu’ Outbreak: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-26

    treatable with two antiviral drugs, oseltamivir ( brand name Tamiflu®) and zanamivir ( brand name Relenza®), though there is no available vaccine. WHO...www.who.int/ csr /disease/swineflu/en/ index.html and CRS Report R40554, The 2009 H1N1Swine Flu” Outbreak: An Overview, by Sarah A. Lister and C...the virus 5 See WHO, Swine influenza - update 3, April 27, 2009, http://www.who.int/ csr /don

  9. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-04-13

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full.

  10. Insights from investigating the interactions of adamantane-based drugs with the M2 proton channel from the H1N1 swine virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing-Fang [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wei, Dong-Qing, E-mail: dqwei@gordonlifescience.org [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States); Chou, Kuo-Chen [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States)

    2009-10-16

    The M2 proton channel is one of indispensable components for the influenza A virus that plays a vital role in its life cycle and hence is an important target for drug design against the virus. In view of this, the three-dimensional structure of the H1N1-M2 channel was developed based on the primary sequence taken from a patient recently infected by the H1N1 (swine flu) virus. With an explicit water-membrane environment, molecular docking studies were performed for amantadine and rimantadine, the two commercial drugs generally used to treat influenza A infection. It was found that their binding affinity to the H1N1-M2 channel is significantly lower than that to the H5N1-M2 channel, fully consistent with the recent report that the H1N1 swine virus was resistant to the two drugs. The findings and the relevant analysis reported here might provide useful structural insights for developing effective drugs against the new swine flu virus.

  11. Immunization of pigs with an attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinant expressing the haemagglutinin of pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2014-04-01

    Pigs can be severely harmed by influenza, and represent important reservoir hosts, in which new human pathogens such as the recent pandemic swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus can arise by mutation and reassortment of genome segments. To obtain novel, safe influenza vaccines for pigs, and to investigate the antigen-specific immune response, we modified an established live-virus vaccine against Aujeszky's disease of swine, pseudorabies virus (PrV) strain Bartha (PrV-Ba), to serve as vector for the expression of haemagglutinin (HA) of swine-origin H1N1 virus. To facilitate transgene insertion, the genome of PrV-Ba was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. HA expression occurred under control of the human or murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoters (P-HCMV, P-MCMV), but could be substantially enhanced by synthetic introns and adaptation of the codon usage to that of PrV. However, despite abundant expression, the heterologous glycoprotein was not detectably incorporated into mature PrV particles. Replication of HA-expressing PrV in cell culture was only slightly affected compared to that of the parental virus strain. A single immunization of pigs with the PrV vector expressing the codon-optimized HA gene under control of P-MCMV induced high levels of HA-specific antibodies. The vaccinated animals were protected from clinical signs after challenge with a related swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus, and challenge virus shedding was significantly reduced.

  12. Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Swine-Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection among Dental Professionals in India - A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Prabh Roohan; Nanda, Tarun; Arora, Gagandeep; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Swine flu or Influenza A (H1N1) flu is the most recent of the pandemic disease that has affected the world’s population. We, as health care providers should feel responsible for reducing the transmission of influenza. Aim To conduct a systematic review of observational studies and to assess dental professionals’ knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu. Materials and Methods Relevant cross-sectional observational studies were included in the systematic review to assess the level of knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu among dental professionals. Three studies out of 28 were finally included in the present review after conducting both electronic and manual search of scientific databases like Pubmed, Medline, and EMBASE. No limitation in terms of publication date and language was considered. Potential biases were reported and appropriate data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Descriptive statistics, student t-test were used for analysis. Results Majority of the subjects (92.6%) had heard about swine flu, and 64.3% of them knew about the H1N1 virus in one of the study reports. More than 80% of subjects were aware regarding the availability of swine flu vaccine in one study reports as compared to another study in which only 31.5% had awareness. Majority of the subjects were of the opinion that frequent hand washing and use of sanitizer are one of the effective methods to prevent swine flu in all the three studies. Conclusion The results of the present review showed that some knowledge gaps existed among dental professionals regarding swine flu. Therefore, there is an urgent need for training and continuous education programs regarding infectious diseases. PMID:27790597

  13. An equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) vectored H1 vaccine protects against challenge with swine-origin influenza virus H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abdelrahman; Damiani, Armando; Ma, Guanggang; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2011-12-29

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus (S-OIV), antigenically and genetically divergent from seasonal H1N1, caused a flu pandemic in humans. Development of an effective vaccine to limit transmission of S-OIV in animal reservoir hosts and from reservoir hosts to humans and animals is necessary. In the present study, we constructed and evaluated a vectored vaccine expressing the H1 hemagglutinin of a recent S-OIV isolate using equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) as the delivery vehicle. Expression of the recombinant protein was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and western blotting and the in vitro growth properties of the modified live vector were found to be comparable to those of the parental virus. The EHV-1-H1 vaccine induced an influenza virus-specific antibody response when inoculated into mice by both the intranasal and subcutaneous routes. Upon challenge infection, protection of vaccinated mice could be demonstrated by reduction of clinical signs and faster virus clearance. Our study shows that an EHV-1-based influenza H1N1 vaccine may be a promising alternative for protection against S-OIV infection.

  14. Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1 pandemic in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel Khattab; Malak Shaheen; Terez Kamel; Amel El Faramay; Safaa Abd El Rahman; Dalia Nabil; Mohamed Gouda

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection—post swine flu pandemic era—using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Methods:During two years (2010&2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test. Results: Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5%of the children;the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients. Conclusions:Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic.

  15. Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codon-optimized N1 neuraminidase (NA) was included. In vitro replication of this virus was only slightly affected compared to parental virus. Unlike HA, the abundantly expressed NA was efficiently incorporated into PrV particles. Immunization of pigs with the two PrV recombinants, either singly or in combination, induced B cell proliferation and the expected SoIV-specific antibodies, whose titers increased substantially after boost vaccination. After immunization of animals with either PrV recombinant H1N1 SoIV challenge virus replication was significantly reduced compared to PrV-Ba vaccinated or naïve controls. Protective efficacy of HA-expressing PrV was higher than of NA-expressing PrV, and not significantly enhanced by combination. Despite higher serum antibody titers obtained after intramuscular immunization, transmission of challenge virus to naïve contact animals was only prevented after intranasal prime-boost vaccination with HA-expressing PrV-Ba.

  16. A Meta-analysis of Point-of-care Laboratory Tests in the Diagnosis of Novel 2009 Swine-lineage Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Steven M.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Rothman, Richard E.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews fourteen published studies describing performance characteristics, including sensitivity and specificity, of commercially-available rapid, point-of-care (POC) influenza tests in patients affected by an outbreak of a novel swine-related influenza A (H1N1) that was declared a pandemic in 2009. Although these POC tests weren’t intended to be specific for this pandemic influenza strain, the non-specialized skills required and the timeliness of results make these POC tests potentially valuable for clinical and public health use. Pooled sensitivity and specificity for the POC tests studied were 68% and 81%, respectively, but published values were not homogeneous with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 10–88% and 51–100%, respectively. Pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.94 and 0.42, respectively. These results support current recommendations for use of rapid POC tests when H1N1 is suspected, recognizing that positive results are more reliable than negative results in determining infection, especially when disease prevalence is high. PMID:21396538

  17. Introduction of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus into Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2009

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    Swati Kumar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples in our laboratory allowed early confirmation of a large outbreak of S-OIV in southeastern Wisconsin (SEW. The initial case of S-OIV in SEW was detected on 28 April 2009. All influenza A samples obtained during the 16 week period prior to 28 April 2009, and the first four weeks of the subsequent epidemic were sub typed. Four different multiplex assays were employed, utilizing real time PCR and end point PCR to fully subtype human and animal influenza viral components. Specific detection of S-OIV was developed within days. Data regarding patient demographics and other concurrently circulating viruses were analyzed. During the first four weeks of the epidemic, 679 of 3726 (18.2% adults and children tested for influenza A were identified with S-OIV infection. Thirteen patients (0.34% tested positive for seasonal human subtypes of influenza A during the first two weeks and none in the subsequent 2 weeks of the epidemic. Parainfluenza viruses were the most prevalent seasonal viral agents circulating during the epidemic (of those tested, with detection rates of 12% followed by influenza B and RSV at 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. S-OIV was confirmed on day 2 of instituting subtype testing and within 4 days of report of national cases of S-OIV. Novel surge capacity diagnostic infrastructure exists in many specialty and research laboratories around the world. The capacity for broader influenza A sub typing at the local laboratory level allows timely and accurate detection of novel strains as they emerge in the community, despite the presence of other circulating viruses producing identical illness. This is likely to become increasingly important given the need for

  18. Clinical profile and outcome of recent outbreak of influenza A H1N1 (swine flu at a tertiary care center in Hyderabad, Telangana

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    Kadadanamari Subbaramareddy Amaravathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swine influenza, also called swine flu, hog flu, and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of the several types of swine influenza viruses. The World Health organization ( WHO raised a worldwide pandemic alert for swine flu on June 11, 2009 that was a first of its kind in the past 70 years. In India, the index cases were reported from Pune, Maharashtra. We witnessed a recent outbreak in India during late 2014 and early 2015. Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out to describe the clinical profile and outcome of the confirmed cases of swine flu who were admitted at our center between December 10, 2014 and May 11, 2015. The cases were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR on respiratory specimens. Results: A total of 514 patients with symptoms suggestive of swine flu were tested for hemagglutinin type 1 and neuraminidase type 1 (H1N1 out of whom 88 were positive, which accounted for 17.12% positivity. The mean age was 31.15 years with a range of 11-90 years, with equal distribution among males and females (males: 45, females: 43. The epidemic peaked in the month of January (n = 44.50%. Fever (95.45% was the most common clinical manifestation followed by cough (85.22%, breathlessness (51.22%, and myalgia (50%. The majority were in category C (59.09% based on the severity of the illness. All the patients were hospitalized and treated with oseltamivir. Of all the positive patients, 39 (44.31% were advised home isolation after discharge for 5-7 days in view of the mild disease. Hypertension, diabetes, existing lung diseases, cardiovascular diseases, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and pregnancy were found to be the major risk factors. Women in the third trimester of their pregnancy were found to be at a higher risk. Our study had an overall mortality of 14.77% (n = 13. Mortality was higher among pregnant women (n = 1/6, 16.66% compared to nonpregnant women (n = 5/37, 13.51%. Multiple organ

  19. In silico characterization of the functional and structural modules of the hemagglutinin protein from the swine-origin influenza virus A (H1N1)-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; VAVRICKA; GAO; George; F

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV,H1N1 subtype) has developed into a new pandemic influenza as announced by the World Health Organization.In order to uncover clues about the determinants for virulence and pathogenicity of the virus,we characterized the functional modules of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA),the most important protein in molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of influenza viruses.We analyzed receptor binding sites,basic patch,neutralization antibody epitopes and T cell epitopes in the HA protein of the current S-OIV according to the corresponding functional and structural modules previously characterized in other H1 HA molecules or HA molecules of other subtypes.We compared their differences and similarities systematically.Based on the amino acids defined as the functional and structural modules,the HA protein of 2009 S-OIV should specifically bind to the human 2,6-receptor.The D225G/E mutation in HA,which is found in some isolates,may confer dual binding specificity to the 2,3and 2,6-receptor based on previously reported work.This HA variant contains two basic patches,one of which results in increased basicity,suggesting enhanced membrane fusion function.The 2009 S-OIV HA also has an extra glycosylation site at position 276.Four of the five antibody neutralization epitopes identified in A/RP/8/34(H1N1) were exposed,but the other was hidden by a glycosylation site.The previously identified cytotoxic T cell epitopes in various HA molecules were summarized and their corresponding sequences in 2009 S-OIV HA were defined.These results are critical for understanding the pathogenicity of the virus and host immune response against the virus.

  20. Identification and Epidemiology of Severe Respiratory Disease due to Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus Infection in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zahariadis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In March 2009, global surveillance started detecting cases of influenza-like illness in Mexico. By mid-April 2009, two pediatric patients were identified in the United States who were confirmed to be infected by a novel influenza A (H1N1 strain. The present article describes the first identified severe respiratory infection and the first death associated with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 in Canada.

  1. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae modifies outcomes of infection with European swine influenza virus of H1N1, but not H1N2, subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, C; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Amenna, N; Cariolet, R; Simon, G

    2012-05-25

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are widespread in farms and are major pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The aim of this experiment was to compare the pathogenicity of European avian-like swine H1N1 and European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 viruses in naïve pigs and in pigs previously infected with Mhp. Six groups of SPF pigs were inoculated intra-tracheally with either Mhp, or H1N1, or H1N2 or Mhp+H1N1 or Mhp+H1N2, both pathogens being inoculated at 21 days intervals in these two last groups. A mock-infected group was included. Although both SIV strains induced clinical signs when singly inoculated, results indicated that the H1N2 SIV was more pathogenic than the H1N1 virus, with an earlier shedding and a greater spread in lungs. Initial infection with Mhp before SIV inoculation increased flu clinical signs and pathogenesis (hyperthermia, loss of appetite, pneumonia lesions) due to the H1N1 virus but did not modify significantly outcomes of H1N2 infection. Thus, Mhp and SIV H1N1 appeared to act synergistically, whereas Mhp and SIV H1N2 would compete, as H1N2 infection led to the elimination of Mhp in lung diaphragmatic lobes. In conclusion, SIV would be a risk factor for the severity of respiratory disorders when associated with Mhp, depending on the viral subtype involved. This experimental model of coinfection with Mhp and avian-like swine H1N1 is a relevant tool for studying the pathogenesis of SIV-associated PRDC and testing intervention strategies for the control of the disease.

  2. Adjuvant effects of invariant NKT cell ligand potentiates the innate and adaptive immunity to an inactivated H1N1 swine influenza virus vaccine in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Dhakal, Santosh; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Hiremath, Jagadish; Khatri, Mahesh; Hague, Jacquelyn Gervay; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-04-15

    Pigs are considered as the source of some of the emerging human flu viruses. Inactivated swine influenza virus (SwIV) vaccine has been in use in the US swine herds, but it failed to control the flu outbreaks. The main reason has been attributed to lack of induction of strong local mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell is a unique T cell subset, and activation of iNKT cell using its ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been shown to potentiate the cross-protective immunity to inactivated influenza virus vaccine candidates in mice. Recently, we discovered iNKT cell in pig and demonstrated its activation using α-GalCer. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated H1N1 SwIV coadministered with α-GalCer intranasally against a homologous viral challenge. Our results demonstrated the potent adjuvant effects of α-GalCer in potentiating both innate and adaptive immune responses to SwIV Ags in the lungs of pigs, which resulted in reduction in the lung viral load by 3 logs compared to without adjuvant. Immunologically, in the lungs of pigs vaccinated with α-GalCer an increased virus specific IgA response, IFN-α secretion and NK cell-cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, iNKT cell-stimulation enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) and reduced the production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the lungs of pigs⋅ In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time iNKT cell adjuvant effects in pigs to SwIV Ags through augmenting the innate and adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract.

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) for Early Event Detection of the H1N1 ("Swine Flu") Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    assessing their ability to detect the presence of a known H1N1 outbreak in Monterey County. This research found the cumulative sum ( CUSUM ) detection... CUSUM ), Adaptive Regression 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...found the cumulative sum ( CUSUM ) detection method to be the most reliable in signaling the H1N1 outbreak, across all combinations of logic explored

  4. Molecular characterization of a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus containing genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 virus in swine from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Haibo; Xu, Lihua; Peng, Xiaorong; Cheng, Linfang; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Lu, Xiangyun; Wu, Nanping

    2016-06-01

    Pandemic outbreaks of H1N1 swine influenza virus have been reported since 2009. Reassortant H1N2 viruses that contain genes from the pandemic H1N1 virus have been isolated in Italy and the United States. However, there is limited information regarding the molecular characteristics of reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses in eastern China. Active influenza surveillance programs in Zhejiang Province identified a novel H1N2 influenza virus isolated from pigs displaying clinical signs of influenza virus infection. Whole-genome sequencing was performed and this strain was compared with other influenza viruses available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the novel strain contained genes from the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 and swine H3N2 viruses. BALB/c mice were infected with the isolated virus to assess its virulence in mice. While the novel H1N2 isolate replicated well in mice, it was found to be less virulent. These results provide additional evidence that swine serve as intermediate hosts or 'mixing vessels' for novel influenza viruses. They also emphasize the importance of surveillance in the swine population for use as an early warning system for influenza outbreaks in swine and human populations.

  5. During the summer 2009 outbreak of "swine flu" in Scotland what respiratory pathogens were diagnosed as H1N1/2009?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carman William F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the April-July 2009 outbreak of H1N1/2009 in scotland the West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre (WoSSVC in Glasgow tested > 16 000 clinical samples for H1N1/2009. Most were from patients clinically diagnosed with H1N1/2009. Out of these, 9% were positive. This study sought to determine what respiratory pathogens were misdiagnosed as cases of H1N1/2009 during this time. Methods We examined the results from 3247 samples which were sent to the laboratory during April-July 2009. All were from patients clinically diagnosed as having H1N1/2009 (based on accepted criteria and all were given a full respiratory screen using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR assays. Results In total, respiratory pathogens were detected in 27.9% (95% confidence interval, 26.3-29.5% of the samples submitted. Numerous pathogens were detected, the most common of which were rhinovirus (8.9% (95% confidence interval, 7.9-9.9%, parainfluenza 1 (1.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.4% and 3 (4.1% (95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.9%, and adenovirus ((3.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.9-4.2%. Conclusions This study highlights the problems of using a clinical algorithm to detect H1N1/2009. Clinicians frequently misdiagnosed common respiratory pathogens as H1N1/2009 during the spring/summer outbreak in Scotland. Many undesirable consequences would have resulted, relating to treatment, infection control, and public health surveillance.

  6. 人感染 H7N9禽流感与甲型 H1N1流感重症肺炎的临床及CT影像比较%Comparative study of CT findings and clinical course of patients with severe pneumonia due to avian influenza H7N9 and swine influenza H1N1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少华; 米海峰; 张琦; 柳娇娇; 李宏军; 李宁; 胡春红; 李润涛; 齐石; 李云芳; 丁金立; 张岩岩

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the CT characteristics and clinical course in patients with severe pneumonia due to avian influenza H7N9 and swine influenza H1N1 infection.Methods:The materials of epidemiology,serology,clinical mani-festations,complications,treatment outcome and CT findings of severe pneumonia in 21 patients with influenza A (H1N1) and 12 patients with influenza H7N9 were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The age of H7N9 patients were older and they had more basic diseases (χ2= 3.111,P<0.05).In addition,the proportion of ICU treatment in H7N9 patients was higher than that in H1N1 patients (χ2= 3.599,P<0.05).The onset symptoms of the 2 groups were fever and cough,and might be accompanied by running nose,expectoration,fatigue,nausea,vomiting,diarrhea and abdominal pain.Moist rales and wheezing sound could be assessed on auscultation.Bloody or rusty sputum in H7N9 infections was more observed than that in H1N1 (P<0.05).Dyspnea and shortness of breath in H7N9 infections were more (P<0.001),as well as the incidence of complicated acute ARDS was higher (χ2= 3.111,P<0.05).Treatment with invasive mechanical ventilation as well as mortality were higher in H7N9 group compared with that of H1N1 group (χ2= 7.219,P<0.01;P<0.05).In both two groups,the major pathology was invasion of pulmonary parenchyma and interstitial tissue.The fundamental pulmonary CT findings were pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGOs)and consolidations,often associated with air bronchogram;inter-lobular septum thickening,bronchiectasis,lymph node enlargement or pleural effusion could also be revealed.Pleural effu-sion and reticular appearance of lung in H7N9 group were more observed than that in H1N1 group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Compared with influenza A (H1N1)patients,H7N9 patients were older in age,with more basic diseases,serious complica-tions and more rapid progression of disease,mortality was higher as well.CT not only could display objectively the imaging characteristics of the two disease

  7. High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could

  8. Computational analysis and determination of a highly conserved surface exposed segment in H5N1 avian flu and H1N1 swine flu neuraminidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Ashesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalytic activity of influenza neuraminidase (NA facilitates elution of progeny virions from infected cells and prevents their self-aggregation mediated by the catalytic site located in the body region. Research on the active site of the molecule has led to development of effective inhibitors like oseltamivir, zanamivir etc, but the high rate of mutation and interspecies reassortment in viral sequences and the recent reports of oseltamivir resistant strains underlines the importance of determining additional target sites for developing future antiviral compounds. In a recent computational study of 173 H5N1 NA gene sequences we had identified a 50-base highly conserved region in 3'-terminal end of the NA gene. Results We extend the graphical and numerical analyses to a larger number of H5N1 NA sequences (514 and H1N1 swine flu sequences (425 accessed from GenBank. We use a 2D graphical representation model for the gene sequences and a Graphical Sliding Window Method (GSWM for protein sequences scanning the sequences as a block of 16 amino acids at a time. Using a protein sequence descriptor defined in our model, the protein sliding scan method allowed us to compare the different strains for block level variability, which showed significant statistical correlation to average solvent accessibility of the residue blocks; single amino acid position variability results in no correlation, indicating the impact of stretch variability in chemical environment. Close to the C-terminal end the GSWM showed less descriptor-variability with increased average solvent accessibility (ASA that is also supported by conserved predicted secondary structure of 3' terminal RNA and visual evidence from 3D crystallographic structure. Conclusion The identified terminal segment, strongly conserved in both RNA and protein sequences, is especially significant as it is surface exposed and structural chemistry reveals the probable role of this stretch in

  9. Influenza A Viruses of Swine (IAV-S) in Vietnam from 2010 to 2015: Multiple Introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses into the Pig Population and Diversifying Genetic Constellations of Enzootic IAV-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemae, Nobuhiro; Harada, Michiyo; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Tien Ngoc; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Pham, Vu Phong; Le, Vu Tri; Do, Hoa Thi; Vo, Hung Van; Le, Quang Vinh Tin; Tran, Tan Minh; Nguyen, Thanh Duy; Thai, Phuong Duy; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Le, Anh Quynh Thi; Nguyen, Diep Thi; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Active surveillance of influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) involving 262 farms and 10 slaughterhouses in seven provinces in northern and southern Vietnam from 2010 to 2015 yielded 388 isolates from 32 farms; these viruses were classified into H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Whole-genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates represented 15 genotypes, according to the genetic constellation of the eight segments. All of the H1N1 viruses were entirely A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, whereas all of the H1N2 and H3N2 viruses were reassortants among 5 distinct ancestral viruses: H1 and H3 triple-reassortant (TR) IAV-S that originated from North American pre-2009 human seasonal H1, human seasonal H3N2, and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Notably, 93% of the reassortant IAV-S retained M genes that were derived from A(H1N1)pdm09, suggesting some advantage in terms of their host adaptation. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis revealed that multiple introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 and TR IAV-S into the Vietnamese pig population have driven the genetic diversity of currently circulating Vietnamese IAV-S. In addition, our results indicate that a reassortant IAV-S with human-like H3 and N2 genes and an A(H1N1)pdm09 origin M gene likely caused a human case in Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Our current findings indicate that human-to-pig transmission as well as cocirculation of different IAV-S have contributed to diversifying the gene constellations of IAV-S in Vietnam.

  10. Crystal structure of swine major histocompatibility complex class I SLA-1 0401 and identification of 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nianzhi; Qi, Jianxun; Feng, Sijia; Gao, Feng; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaocheng; Chen, Rong; Li, Qirun; Chen, Zhaosan; Li, Xiaoying; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F

    2011-11-01

    The presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is crucial for swine immunity. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the first SLA crystal structures, SLA-1 0401, complexed with peptides derived from either 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV(NW9); NSDTVGWSW) or Ebola virus (Ebola(AY9); ATAAATEAY) were determined in this study. The overall peptide-SLA-1 0401 structures resemble, as expected, the general conformations of other structure-solved peptide major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). The major distinction of SLA-1 0401 is that Arg(156) has a "one-ballot veto" function in peptide binding, due to its flexible side chain. S-OIV(NW9) and Ebola(AY9) bind SLA-1 0401 with similar conformations but employ different water molecules to stabilize their binding. The side chain of P7 residues in both peptides is exposed, indicating that the epitopes are "featured" peptides presented by this SLA. Further analyses showed that SLA-1 0401 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I HLA-A 0101 can present the same peptides, but in different conformations, demonstrating cross-species epitope presentation. CTL epitope peptides derived from 2009 pandemic S-OIV were screened and evaluated by the in vitro refolding method. Three peptides were identified as potential cross-species influenza virus (IV) CTL epitopes. The binding motif of SLA-1 0401 was proposed, and thermostabilities of key peptide-SLA-1 0401 complexes were analyzed by circular dichroism spectra. Our results not only provide the structural basis of peptide presentation by SLA I but also identify some IV CTL epitope peptides. These results will benefit both vaccine development and swine organ-based xenotransplantation.

  11. Genome evolution of novel influenza A (H1N1)viruses in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; HU SongNian; LI TianXian

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic situation of A H1N1 flu arose in North America in April 2009,which rapidly expanded to three continents of Europe,Asia and Africa,with the risk ranking up to 5.Until May 13th,the flu virus of A H1N1 had spread into 33 countries and regions,with a laboratory confirmed case number of 5728,including 61 deaths.Based on IRV and EpiFluDB database,425 parts of A H1N1 flu virus sequence were achieved,followed by sequenced comparison and evolution analysis.The results showed that the current predominant A H1N1 flu virus was a kind of triple reassortment A flu virus:(i) HA,NA,MP,NP and NS originated from swine influenza virus;PB2 and PA originated from bird influenza virus;PB1 originated from human influenza virus.(ii) The origin of swine influenza virus could be subdivided as follows:HA,NP and NS originated from classic swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype;NA and MP originated from bird origin swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype.(iii) A H1N1 flu virus experienced no significant mutation during the epidemic spread,accompanied with no reassortment of the virus genome.In the paper,the region of the representative strains for sequence analysis (A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) and A/Mexico/4486/2009 (H1N1)) included USA and Mexico and was relatively wide,which suggested that the analysis results were convincing.

  12. Protection of guinea pigs by vaccination with a recombinant swinepox virus co-expressing HA1 genes of swine H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiarong; Yang, Deji; Huang, Dongyan; Xu, Jiaping; Liu, Shichao; Lin, Huixing; Zhu, Haodan; Liu, Bao; Lu, Chengping

    2013-03-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory infectious disease of swine caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). SIV is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a potent threat to human health. Here, we report the construction of a recombinant swinepox virus (rSPV/H3-2A-H1) co-expressing hemagglutinin (HA1) of SIV subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Immune responses and protection efficacy of the rSPV/H3-2A-H1 were evaluated in guinea pigs. Inoculation of rSPV/H3-2A-H1 yielded neutralizing antibodies against SIV H1N1 and H3N2. The IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations in the supernatant of lymphocytes stimulated with purified SIV HA1 antigen were significantly higher (P guinea pigs against SIV H1N1 or H3N2 challenge was observed. No SIV shedding was detected from guinea pigs vaccinated with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 after challenge. Most importantly, the guinea pigs immunized with rSPV/H3-2A-H1 did not show gross and micrographic lung lesions. However, the control guinea pigs experienced distinct gross and micrographic lung lesions at 7 days post-challenge. Our data suggest that the recombinant swinepox virus encoding HA1 of SIV H1N1 and H3N2 might serve as a promising candidate vaccine for protection against SIV H1N1 and H3N2 infections.

  13. Post-pandemic seroprevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 infection (swine flu among children <18 years in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger von Kries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight pediatric hospitals distributed over Germany prospectively provided sera from in- or outpatients aged 1 to 17 years from April 1(st to July 31(st 2010. Vaccination history, recall of infections and sociodemographic factors were ascertained. Antibody titers were measured with a sensitive and specific in-house hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT and compared to age-matched sera collected during 6 months before the onset of the pandemic in Germany. We analyzed 1420 post-pandemic and 300 pre-pandemic sera. Among unvaccinated children aged 1-4 and 5-17 years the prevalence of HI titers (≥1∶10 was 27.1% (95% CI: 23.5-31.3 and 53.5% (95% CI: 50.9-56.2 compared to 1.7% and 5.5%, respectively, for pre-pandemic sera, accounting for a serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1 2009 during the season 2009/2010 of 25,4% (95% CI : 19.3-30.5 in children aged 1-4 years and 48.0% (95% CI: 42.6-52.0 in 5-17 year old children. Of children with HI titers ≥1∶10, 25.5% (95% CI: 22.5-28.8 reported no history of any infectious disease since June 2009. Among vaccinated children, 92% (95%-CI: 87.0-96.6 of the 5-17 year old but only 47.8% (95%-CI: 33.5-66.5 of the 1-4 year old children exhibited HI titers against influenza A virus (H1N1 2009. CONCLUSION: Serologically determined incidence of influenza A (H1N1 2009 infections in children indicates high infection rates with older children (5-17 years infected twice as often as younger children. In about a quarter of the children with HI titers after the season 2009/2010 subclinical infections must be assumed. Low HI titers in young children after vaccination with the AS03(B

  14. PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION AND ANTIGENIC ANALYSIS OF HA1 GENE OF AVIAN-LIKE H1N1 SUBTYPE SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS%H1N1亚型猪流感病毒 HA1基因原核表达及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮宝阳; 陈鸿军; 滕巧泱; 童光志; 于海; 王林; 宫晓倩; 汪秀会; 刘晓敏; 汪琪; 单同领; 李泽君; 刘芹防

    2015-01-01

    本研究利用RT-PCR技术扩增禽源H1N1亚型猪流感病毒(Swine influenza virus,SIV)的HA1基因片段,将其连接至pCold-TF载体上,菌液鉴定为阳性的克隆经测序验证正确后,提取质粒转化至高表达的表达宿主菌BL21(DE3)中,经IPTG诱导并大量表达目的蛋白。表达产物经过纯化及SDS-PAGE电泳分析,表明重组蛋白以可溶性形式在上清中大量表达,大小约90 kDa,且在15℃、0.8mmol/L IPTG条件下诱导24 h 表达效果最好。通过Ni 柱纯化后,经Western blot分析表明重组表达的蛋白能与禽源H1N1亚型 SIV阳性血清发生特异性反应,具有较好的反应原性。%To express HA1 protein of H1N1 Subtype Swine influenza virus(SIV), the HA1 gene was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into vector pCold-TF. After being sequenced, the recombinant plasmid was transformed into expression host strain DL21(DE3) then IPTG was added to induce expression. The expressed HA1 fusion protein was purified by Nickel colum and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results indicated that recombinant protein was expressed in soluble condition in the supernatant and was about 90 kDa in size. The optimum condition for the expres-sion was that the bacteria was induced for 24 h under the conditions (15℃ and 0.8m mol/L IPTG). The result in Western blot of purified recombi-nant protein showed that the HA1 protein had good antigenicity, and could berecognized by SIV positive serum.

  15. Genetic and biological characterisation of an avian-like H1N2 swine influenza virus generated by reassortment of circulating avian-like H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Bragstad, Karoline; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are the most prevalent subtypes in swine. In 2003, a reassorted H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype appeared and became prevalent in Denmark. In the present study, the reassortant H1N2 subtype was characterised genetically...... and the infection dynamics compared to an “avian-like” H1N1 virus by an experimental infection study. METHODS: Sequence analyses were performed of the H1N2 virus. Two groups of pigs were inoculated with the reassortant H1N2 virus and an “avian-like” H1N1 virus, respectively, followed by inoculation...... with the opposite subtype four weeks later. Measurements of HI antibodies and acute phase proteins were performed. Nasal virus excretion and virus load in lungs were determined by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the reassorted H1N2 virus contained a European “avian-like” H1-gene...

  16. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae induces oxidative stress that influences outcomes of a subsequent infection with a swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, C; Robert, F; Pinard, T; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Garraud, J M; Cariolet, R; Brack, M; Simon, G

    2013-03-23

    The severity of swine influenza is highly variable and can be exacerbated by many factors, such as a pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp). The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress induced by Mhp and the impact of this stress on the evolution of an infection with the European avian-like swine H1N1 influenza virus. Two experimental trials (E1 and E2), which differed only by the feed delivered to the animals, were conducted on SPF pigs. In each trial, one group of nine 6-week-old pigs was inoculated intra-tracheally with Mhp and H1N1 at 21 days intervals and a mock-infected group (8 pigs) was included. Clinical signs were observed, blood samples were collected throughout the study and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Results indicated that Mhp infection induced an oxidative stress in E1 and E2, but its level was more important in E2 than in E1 three weeks post-Mhp inoculation, before H1N1 infection. In both trials, a strong inflammatory response and a response to the oxidative stress previously induced by Mhp appeared after H1N1 infection. However, the severity of influenza disease was significantly more marked in E2 as compared to E1, as revealed by prolonged hyperthermia, stronger reduction in mean daily weight gain and earlier viral shedding. These results suggested that severity of flu syndrome and reduction in animal performance may vary depending on the level of oxidative stress at the moment of the influenza infection, and that host responses could be influenced by the feed.

  17. The new member of the swine influenza virus gene pool: the existence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus gene fragments and potential threats%猪流感病毒基因池中的新成员:新甲型H1N1流感病毒基因片段的存在及潜在威胁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高灵茜; 崔梦一; 樊晓晖

    2016-01-01

    新甲型H1N1流感病毒(2009 pandemic H1N1 virus,pdm/09)于2009年在人群中暴发以后,迅速在全球范围内传播,引起了21世纪的第一次流感大流行.pdm/09是由人的流感病毒、禽流感和猪流感病毒(swine influenza virus,SIV)经过重配后形成的病毒,它的基因片段已经进入了猪流感病毒当中并开始产生新的变异毒株,这些新的变异流感毒株在欧亚大陆、北美大陆及中国南部的各个地区被不断报道和发现,这表明猪源性pdm/09在人间流行后可返传给猪,成为猪流感病毒基因池中的固有组成,获得与SIV重组形成新的重配病毒的能力,并可能仍然具有感染人类的潜能.因此,必须关注新型重配病毒的进化:包括其在猪群中的生长适应、以及适应性感染人的进化过程.不仅如此,还必须加强对猪群及人群流感病毒的检测,了解重配病毒在人和猪两个种群中的进化过程.

  18. Likely Correlation between Sources of Information and Acceptability of A/H1N1 Swine-Origin Influenza Virus Vaccine in Marseille, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninove, Laetitia; Sartor, Catherine; Badiaga, Sékéné; Botelho, Elizabeth; Brouqui, Philippe; Zandotti, Christine; De Lamballerie, Xavier; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel; Gould, Ernest A.; Charrel, Rémi N.; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background In France, there was a reluctance to accept vaccination against the A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus despite government recommendation and investment in the vaccine programme. Methods and Findings We examined the willingness of different populations to accept A/H1N1vaccination (i) in a French hospital among 3315 employees immunized either by in-house medical personnel or mobile teams of MDs and (ii) in a shelter housing 250 homeless persons. Google was used to assess the volume of enquiries concerning incidence of influenza. We analyzed the information on vaccination provided by Google, the website of the major French newspapers, and PubMed. Two trust Surveys were used to assess public opinion on the trustworthiness of people in different professions. Paramedics were significantly more reluctant to accept immunisation than qualified medical staff. Acceptance was significantly increased when recommended directly by MDs. Anecdotal cases of directly observed severe infections were followed by enhanced acceptance of paramedical staff. Scientific literature was significantly more in favour of vaccination than Google and French newspaper websites. In the case of the newspaper websites, information correlated with their recognised political reputations, although they would presumably claim independence from political bias. The Trust Surveys showed that politicians were highly distrusted in contrast with doctors and pharmacists who were considered much more trustworthy. Conclusions The low uptake of the vaccine could reflect failure to convey high quality medical information and advice relating to the benefits of being vaccinated. We believe that the media and internet contributed to this problem by raising concerns within the general population and that failure to involve GPs in the control programme may have been a mistake. GPs are highly regarded by the public and can provide face-to-face professional advice and information. The top-down strategy of vaccine

  19. Triple-reassortant influenza A virus with H3 of human seasonal origin, NA of swine origin, and internal A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 genes is established in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Michael Albin

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004 to 2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine, and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09 has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been...... detected in several Danish pig herds during the last 2-3 years and may possess a challenge for human as well as animal health....

  20. A study of the swine flu (H1N1 epidemic among health care providers of a medical college hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Rajoura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach.

  1. Genetic Analysis of Influenza A/H1N1 of Swine Origin Virus (SOIV) Circulating in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovero, Merly; Garcia, Josefina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Gomez, Jorge; Aleman, Washington; Chicaiza, Wilson; Barrantes, Melvin; Sanchez, Felix; Jimenez, Mirna; Comach, Guillermo; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Barboza, Alma; Aguayo, Nicolas; Kochel, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    Since the first detection of swine origin virus (SOIV) on March 28, 2009, the virus has spread worldwide and oseltamivir-resistant strains have already been identified in the past months. Here, we show the phylogenetic analysis of 63 SOIV isolates from eight countries in Central and South America, and their sensitivity to oseltamivir. PMID:20810843

  2. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Mortier, Daniëlla; van Heteren, Melanie; Oostermeijer, Herman; Fagrouch, Zahra; de Laat, Rudy; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bogers, Willy M J M

    2015-01-01

    The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  3. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7 and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoop Roland

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus (IV infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1, were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options

  4. Transcriptomics and Proteomics in the Study of H1N1 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Zhang; Xiaojun Zhang; Qing Ma; Fang Ma; Honghao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus (HINI) 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A virus, has been spread worldwidely and causedgreat public fear. High-throughput transcriptomics and proteomies methods are now being used to identify H1N1and H1N1-host interaction. This article reviews recent transcriptomics and proteomics research in H1N1 diagnosis,treatment, and H1N1 virus-host interaction, to offer some help for further understanding the infection mechanismand controlling H1N1 transmission.

  5. Why were Turks unwilling to accept the A/H1N1 influenza-pandemic vaccination? People's beliefs and perceptions about the swine flu outbreak and vaccine in the later stage of the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygısız, Ümmügülsüm; Gaygısız, Esma; Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2010-12-16

    This study investigated the acceptability of the A/H1N1 influenza vaccination and related factors among 1137 adults in the later stage of the A/H1N1 outbreak in Turkey. Having already been vaccinated or intending to get vaccinated were related to trust in the vaccine effectiveness, perceived risk of the side effects, and benefits of getting vaccinated. Perceived long term consequences of the A/H1N1 infection, perceptions of the A/H1N1 information in media, and barriers for getting vaccinated were related to intention whereas anticipated epidemic situation in Turkey, being chronically ill, and being not married were related to having already been vaccinated.

  6. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009: a pandemic alarm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Khanna; Neha Gupta; Ankit Gupta; V K Vijayan

    2009-09-01

    At this critical juncture when the world has not yet recovered from the threat of avian influenza, the virus has returned in the disguise of swine influenza, a lesser known illness common in pigs. It has reached pandemic proportions in a short time span with health personnel still devising ways to identify the novel H1N1 virus and develop vaccines against it. The H1N1 virus has caused a considerable number of deaths within the short duration since its emergence. Presently, there are no effective methods to contain this newly emerged virus. Therefore, a proper and clear insight is urgently required to prevent an outbreak in the future and make preparations that may be planned well in advance. This review is an attempt to discuss the historical perspective of the swine flu virus, its epidemiology and route of transmission to better understand the various control measures that may be taken to fight the danger of a global pandemic.

  7. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  8. Antiviral Prophylaxis and H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Richard Pebody, a consultant epidemiologist at the Health Protection Agency in London, UK, discusses the use of antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis and pandemic H1N1.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  9. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  10. H1N1: pandemia e perspectiva atual H1N1: overview and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bellei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O vírus influenza de origem suína, A/California/04/2009 (H1N1, foi inicialmente detectado no México e determinou a pandemia de influenza de 2009. Em agosto de 2010, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS declarou o início da fase pós-pandêmica. As características dessa última pandemia foram marcadamente diferentes das anteriores. O vírus emergiu de rearranjos genéticos originários em hospedeiro mamífero não humano, demonstrou transmissibilidade interespécies e afetou a população humana de forma diferente dos vírus pandêmicos anteriores (1918, 1957 e 1968 com maior morbidade e mortalidade em crianças e adultos jovens. Atualmente, o vírus apresenta padrão sazonal da mesma forma que o influenza A H3N2 e o influenza B, mantendo, até o momento, o mesmo perfil de patogenicidade, espectro clínico e sensibilidade a antivirais. A cepa foi incluída na vacina sazonal trivalente anual recomendada, principalmente para proteção dos grupos de risco mais vulneráveis a complicações pelas diferentes cepas de influenza.The swine origin influenza virus A/CALIFORNIA/04/2009 (H1N1 was first detected in Mexico and determined the 2009 influenza pandemic. In August 2010, World Health Organization (WHO declared the beginning of the post-pandemic period. This last pandemic was distinctly different from previous ones. The virus emerged from genetic rearrangement in non-human mammalian host. Moreover, its inter-species transmission is fully reported. However, it affected human population differently from previous pandemic viruses (1918, 1957, 1968, with increased morbidity and mortality among children and young adults. Currently, the virus has a seasonal pattern in the same way as influenza A H3N2 and influenza B, maintaining the same pathogenicity profile, clinical spectrum and sensitivity to antiviral agents. The strain was included in the annual trivalent seasonal vaccine formulation, mainly for risk groups, which are more vulnerable to

  11. Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Lee, Hong Sik;

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A virus strains, such as the new H1N1 swine influenza (novel influenza), represents a serious threat to global human health. During our course of an anti-influenza screening program on natural products, one new licochalcone G (1) and seven known (2......-8) chalcones were isolated as active principles from the acetone extract of Glycyrrhiza inflata. Compounds 3 and 6 without prenyl group showed strong inhibitory effects on various neuraminidases from influenza viral strains, H1N1, H9N2, novel H1N1 (WT), and oseltamivir-resistant novel H1N1 (H274Y) expressed...

  12. 中国内地已准备好甲型H1N1流感疫苗以防病毒传播%China gears up for swine flu vaccination as virus spreads inland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Parry; 沈平虎

    2009-01-01

    @@ 中国卫生部已证实甲型H1N1流感正在中国内地传播,并正在向农村传播,在未来数月内将有数以千万计的人可能被传染.鉴于此,中国已开始执行第一阶段给6500万人接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗的计划.疫苗的接种工作已于9月9日在北京开始,并即将在上海和广东开展.

  13. The progress of research on influenza A(H1N1)%甲型H1N1流感的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷晓燕; 孙永红

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A(H1N1)virus is a re-mixed strains of human influenza virus genes,avian influenza virus gene and swine influenza virus gene.Influenza A(H1N1)pandemic influenza has spread around the world,which has drawn worldwide attention.In order to early discovery,early diagnosis,early treatment and effective prevention of Influenza A(H1N1),we describe the characteristics of linfluenza A(H1N1)virus,epidemiology,pathogenesis,clinical manifestations,laboratory examination and effective treatment and preventive measures.%甲型H1N1流感病毒是人流感病毒基因、禽流感病毒基因和猪流感病毒基因混合的重配株,其造成的疫情来势凶猛,引起世界各国的广泛关注.为了早发现、早诊断、早治疗及有效地预防甲型H1N1流感,本文综述了甲型H1N1流感病毒的特点、流行病学、致人发病的机制、甲型H1N1流感患者的临床表现、实验室检查及有效的治疗和预防措施.

  14. 2009 H1N1 Influenza 2009 H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth J. Sullivan, MD; Robert M. Jacobson, MD; Walter R. Dowdle, PhD; and Gregory A. Poland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within 2 months of its discovery last spring, a novel influenza A (H1N1 virus, currently referred to as 2009 H1N1, caused the first influenza pandemic in decades. The virus has caused disproportionate disease among young people with early reports of virulence similar to that of seasonal influenza. This clinical review provides an update encompassing the virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the 2009 H1N1 virus. Because information about this virus, its prevention,and treatment are rapidly evolving, readers are advised to seek additional information. We performed a literature search of PubMed using the following keywords: H1N1, influenza, vaccine, pregnancy, children, treatment, epidemiology, and review. Studies were selected for inclusion in this review on the basis of their relevance. Recent studies and articles were preferred.

    El Editor de este número especial agradece la autorización expresa, mediante comunicación escrita en nuestro poder, de los autores del trabajo “2009 H1N1 Influenza”, así como de los editores de la revista Mayo Clinic Proceedings, para su reproducción, como publicación secundaria en Medisur, artículo de revisión seleccionado por nosotros, que resume buena parte de los nuevos conocimientos adquiridos a partir de la literatura médica reciente relacionada con esta pandemia, durante el año 2009.

    De este modo, el artículo que a continuación de reproduce para los lectores de Medisur, está basado íntegramente en el estudio previamente publicado como: Sullivan SJ, Jacobson RM, Dowdle WR, Poland GA. 2009 H1N1 Influenza. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85(1:64-76.

    A continuación el resumen:

    Within 2 months of its discovery last spring, a novel influenza A (H1N1 virus, currently referred to as 2009 H1N1, caused the first influenza pandemic in decades. The virus has caused disproportionate disease among young people with early reports of virulence similar

  15. 甲型H1N1流感的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉杰

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2009年3~4月从墨西哥暴发的"猪流感"(Swine influenza,SI),后被更名为甲型H1N1流感[In-fluenza A(H1N1)],迅速在全世界范围内蔓延[1-2].研究表明这种病毒基因组由禽流感、猪流感和人流感病毒基因混合而成,是一种新型的甲型H1N1流感病毒(novel swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus,S-OIV)[1,3].

  16. Zoonoses: USDA ARS Lessons Learned During Novel Influenza H1N1 Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influenza illness was first recognized in pigs during the 1918 human Spanish flu pandemic, and influenza A virus has since remained of importance to the swine industry as a primary respiratory pathogen. Influenza virus H1N1 remained relatively stable in U.S. swine for nearly 80 years following 1918...

  17. Transplantation of solid organs procured from influenza A H1N1 infected donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockbain, Andrew J; Jacob, Matthew; Ecuyer, Clare; Hostert, Lutz; Ahmad, Niaz

    2011-12-01

    Following the influenza A H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic, there remains little evidence informing the safety of transplanting organs from donors suspected or diagnosed with H1N1. Limited guidelines from the major transplant societies leave the use of such organs at the discretion of individual transplant centres, and practice varies considerably both nationally and internationally. We present the largest published series of outcome following transplantation of organs from H1N1 positive donors and demonstrate that these organs can be transplanted safely and with good short-term outcome. We discuss our local policy for treatment of recipients with Oseltamivir.

  18. Cross-neutralizing antibodies to pandemic 2009 H1N1 and recent seasonal H1N1 influenza A strains influenced by a mutation in hemagglutinin subunit 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (2009 H1N1 differs from H1N1 strains that circulated in the past 50 years, but resembles the A/New Jersey/1976 H1N1 strain used in the 1976 swine influenza vaccine. We investigated whether sera from persons immunized with the 1976 swine influenza or recent seasonal influenza vaccines, or both, neutralize 2009 H1N1. Using retroviral pseudovirions bearing hemagglutinins on their surface (HA-pseudotypes, we found that 77% of the sera collected in 1976 after immunization with the A/New Jersey/1976 H1N1 swine influenza vaccine neutralized 2009 H1N1. Forty five percent also neutralized A/New Caledonia/20/1999 H1N1, a strain used in seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2000/01-2006/07 seasons. Among adults aged 48-64 who received the swine influenza vaccine in 1976 and recent seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2004/05-2008/09 seasons, 83% had sera that neutralized 2009 H1N1. However, 68% of age-matched subjects who received the same seasonal influenza vaccines, but did not receive the 1976 swine influenza vaccine, also had sera that neutralized 2009 H1N1. Sera from both 1976 and contemporary cohorts frequently had cross-neutralizing antibodies to 2009 H1N1 and A/New Caledonia/20/1999 that mapped to hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2. A conservative mutation in HA2 corresponding to a residue in the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 and A/Brisbane/59/2007 H1N1 strains that circulated in the 2006/07 and 2007/08 influenza seasons, respectively, abrogated this neutralization. These findings highlight a cross-neutralization determinant influenced by a point mutation in HA2 and suggest that HA2 may be evolving under direct or indirect immune pressure.

  19. The Genomic Contributions of Avian H1N1 Influenza A Viruses to the Evolution of Mammalian Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Carter, Robert; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Among the influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild aquatic birds, only H1, H2, and H3 subtypes have caused epidemics in humans. H1N1 viruses of avian origin have also caused 3 of 5 pandemics. To understand the reappearance of H1N1 in the context of pandemic emergence, we investigated whether avian H1N1 IAVs have contributed to the evolution of human, swine, and 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, we concluded that the polymerase gene segments (especially PB2 and PA) circulating in North American avian H1N1 IAVs have been reintroduced to swine multiple times, resulting in different lineages that led to the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. Moreover, the similar topologies of hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein and neuraminidase and matrix gene segments suggest that each surface glycoprotein coevolved with an internal gene segment within the H1N1 subtype. The genotype of avian H1N1 IAVs of Charadriiformes origin isolated in 2009 differs from that of avian H1N1 IAVs of Anseriformes origin. When the antigenic sites in the hemagglutinin of all 31 North American avian H1N1 IAVs were considered, 60%-80% of the amino acids at the antigenic sites were identical to those in 1918 and/or 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Thus, although the pathogenicity of avian H1N1 IAVs could not be inferred from the phylogeny due to the small dataset, the evolutionary process within the H1N1 IAV subtype suggests that the circulation of H1N1 IAVs in wild birds poses a continuous threat for future influenza pandemics in humans.

  20. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials conducted ...

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of surface proteins of novel H1N1 virus isolated from 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishuddin, Mohd; Khan, Shahper N; Khan, Asad U

    2009-09-30

    Swine Influenza Virus (H1N1) is a known causative agent of swine flu. Transmission of Swine Influenza Virus form pig to human is not a common event and may not always cause human influenza. The 2009 outbreak by subtype H1N1 in humans is due to transfer of Swine Influenza Virus from pig to human. Thus to analyze the origin of this novel virus we compared two surface proteins (HA and NA) with influenza viruses of swine, avian and humans isolates recovered from 1918 to 2008 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of hemagglutinin gene from 2009 pandemic found to be clustered with swine influenza virus (H1N2) circulated in U.S.A during the 1999-2004 outbreaks. Whereas, neuraminidase gene was clustered with H1N1 strains isolated from Europe and Asia during 1992-2007 outbreaks. This study concludes that the new H1N1 strain appeared in 2009 outbreak with high pathogenicity to human was originated as result of re-assortment (exchange of gene). Moreover, our data also suggest that the virus will remain sensitive to the pre-existing therapeutic strategies.

  2. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  3. Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F

    2015-12-01

    This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%-15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%-24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%-72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds ratio = .75) were associated with intention to take up influenza vaccination. Emotional representations were associated with lower likelihood of wearing face mask (odds ratio = .77) and hand washing (odds ratio = .67). Results confirm that illness representation variables are associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors.

  4. Phylodynamics of H1N1/2009 influenza reveals the transition from host adaptation to immune-driven selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yvonne C F; Bahl, Justin; Joseph, Udayan; Butt, Ka Man; Peck, Heidi A; Koay, Evelyn S C; Oon, Lynette L E; Barr, Ian G; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Smith, Gavin J D

    2015-08-06

    Influenza A H1N1/2009 virus that emerged from swine rapidly replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus. Although the early emergence and diversification of H1N1/2009 is well characterized, the ongoing evolutionary and global transmission dynamics of the virus remain poorly investigated. To address this we analyse >3,000 H1N1/2009 genomes, including 214 full genomes generated from our surveillance in Singapore, in conjunction with antigenic data. Here we show that natural selection acting on H1N1/2009 directly after introduction into humans was driven by adaptation to the new host. Since then, selection has been driven by immunological escape, with these changes corresponding to restricted antigenic diversity in the virus population. We also show that H1N1/2009 viruses have been subject to regular seasonal bottlenecks and a global reduction in antigenic and genetic diversity in 2014.

  5. H1N1快速治疗计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗炯尧; 陈艳莲

    2010-01-01

    近来,因为H1N1的流行,使得好多大型聚会都取消了,人们出行的活动也有所减少,大家都有点谈H1N1色变。如果我们能制造出一种H1N1快速治疗仪,那该多好啊!

  6. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenza A (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. L.; Hong, S. W.

    2012-01-15

    Swine influenza A, which has been pandemic worldwide since 2009, is a new type virus derived from A type influenza. Although some drugs against the contageous disease, such as relenza and tamiflu, have been commercialized, those drug resistant viruses could be also followed by the wide usage of drugs. For examples, Tamiflu-resistant viruses, the mutant type viruses, can not be cured by the treatment of tamiflu anymore. Thus, a quick diagnosis for the wild type (tamiflu-sensitive) and mutant (tamiflu-resistant) virus would be essential in order to prevent the wide spread of viruses. In spite of that, unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted until now. If we could tell the differences between tamiflu-resistant and -sensitive patients using by the proper diagnostic kit, not only patient specific treatment would be possible, but also the spread of viruses would be effectively prevented. Currently used detection methods for the swine influenza A H1N1, which were originated from CDC, USA, can not detect the tamiflu-resistant swine influenza A H1N1, but only can detect tamiflu-sensitive wine influenza A H1N1. In this study, all the primers for the detection of swInfA, swH1, MP and NA (neuraminidase) have been developed in order to detect both tamiflu-resistant and tamiflu-sensitive swine influenza A H1N1s simultaneously, and then, new multiplex RT-PCR methods has been established.

  7. The Influenza A(H1N1)v Pandemic: An Exploratory System Dynamics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Hamarat, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a small exploratory System Dynamics model related to the dynamics of the 2009 flu pandemic, also known as the Mexican flu, swine flu, or A(H1N1)v. The model was developed in May 2009 in order to quickly foster understanding about the possible dynamics of this new flu variant and

  8. Respiratory failure presenting in H1N1 influenza with Legionnaires disease: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannuzzi Michele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Media sensationalism on the H1N1 outbreak may have influenced decisional processes and clinical diagnosis. Case Presentation We report two cases of patients who presented in 2009 with coexisting H1N1 virus and Legionella infections: a 69-year-old Caucasian man and a 71-year-old Caucasian woman. In our cases all the signs and symptoms, including vomiting, progressive respiratory disease leading to respiratory failure, refractory hypoxemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated levels of creatine kinase and hepatic aminotransferases, were consistent with critical illness due to 2009 H1N1 virus infection. Other infectious disorders may mimic H1N1 viral infection especially Legionnaires' disease. Because the swine flu H1N1 pandemic occurred in Autumn in Italy, Legionnaires disease was to be highly suspected since the peak incidence usually occurs in early fall. We do think that our immediate suspicion of Legionella infection based on clinical history and X-ray abnormalities was fundamental for a successful resolution. Conclusion Our two case reports suggest that patients with H1N1 should be screened for Legionella, which is not currently common practice. This is particularly important since the signs and symptoms of both infections are similar.

  9. 2009甲型H1N1流感研究进展%Progress in the 2009 H1N1 influenza A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇红; 申昆玲

    2010-01-01

    In March 2009,a new influenza A H1N1 virus was identified in Mexico.It is a quadruple-reassortant influenza A virus, which is composed of a combination of swine, avian strains and human. The clinical symptoms of the 2009 new influenza A (H1N1) are similar with the seasonal influenza.The severe illness could happened in youth and middle-aged without underlying diseases that differs from seasonal influenza. The risk groups are individuals with underlying diseases,pregnancy and obesity which has not been considered as risk factor in previous. Although oseltamivir-resistant variant influenza A ( H1N1 ) were reported, strain is susceptible to oseltamivir. This review summarizes the current information concerning viral genom,clinical features and treatment of the new pandemic influenza virus A H1N1 infection.%2009年3月在墨西哥出现了一种新型甲型H1N1流感病毒,这是一个四源重排的A型流感病毒:来源于猪流感病毒、禽流感病毒及人流感病毒.其临床特点与季节性流感相似,但重症病例可发生在无基础疾病的青壮年人,这与季节性流感不同,其高危人群为患有基础疾病者、孕妇及肥胖者.尽管已经出现了耐药毒株,但奥司他韦治疗仍然有效.该文主要对2009年流行的甲型H1N1流感病毒的基因特点、临床表现及治疗的最新进展进行综述.

  10. Close Relationship between the 2009 H1N1 Virus and South Dakota AIV Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Li; Xiao-ping An; Zhi-qiang Mi; Da-bin Liu; Huan-huan Jiang; Bo Pan; Sheng Wang; Bin Chen; Yi-gang Tong

    2011-01-01

    Although previous publications suggest the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)virus was reassorted from swine viruses of North America and Eurasia, the immediate ancestry still remains elusive due to the big evolutionary distance between the 2009 H1N1 virus and the previously isolated strains. Since the unveiling of the2009 H1N1 influenza, great deal of interest has been drawn to influenza, consequently a large number of influenza virus sequences have been deposited into the public sequence databases. Blast analysis demonstrated that the recently submitted 2007 South Dakota avian influenza virus strains and other North American avian strains contained genetic segments very closely related to the 2009 H1N1 virus, which suggests these avian influenza viruses are very close relatives of the 2009 H1N1 virus. Phylogenetic analyses also indicate that the2009 H1N1 viruses are associated with both avian and swine influenza viruses circulating in North America. Since the migrating wild birds are preferable to pigs as the carrier to spread the influenza viruses across vast distances, it is very likely that birds played an important role in the inter-continental evolution of the 2009 H1N1virus. It is essential to understand the evolutionary route of the emerging influenza virus in order to find a way to prevent further emerging cases. This study suggests the close relationship between 2009 pandemic virus and the North America avian viruses and underscores enhanced surveillance of influenza in birds for understanding the evolution of the 2009 pandemic influenza.

  11. 1918 pandemic H1N1 DNA vaccine protects ferrets against 2007 H1N1 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent;

    of the H1N1 pandemic virus from 1918 induce protection in ferrets against infection with a H1N1 (A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)) virus which was included in the conventional vaccine for the 2006-2007 season. The viruses are separated by a time interval of 89 years and differ by 21.2% in the HA1 protein...

  12. H1N1 viral proteome peptide microarray predicts individuals at risk for H1N1 infection and segregates infection versus Pandemrix(®) vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Aditya; Valentini, Davide; Montomoli, Emanuele; Lapini, Guilia; Biuso, Fabrizio; Wenschuh, Holger; Magalhaes, Isabelle; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A high content peptide microarray containing the entire influenza A virus [A/California/08/2009(H1N1)] proteome and haemagglutinin proteins from 12 other influenza A subtypes, including the haemagglutinin from the [A/South Carolina/1/1918(H1N1)] strain, was used to gauge serum IgG epitope signatures before and after Pandemrix(®) vaccination or H1N1 infection in a Swedish cohort during the pandemic influenza season 2009. A very narrow pattern of pandemic flu-specific IgG epitope recognition was observed in the serum from individuals who later contracted H1N1 infection. Moreover, the pandemic influenza infection generated IgG reactivity to two adjacent epitopes of the neuraminidase protein. The differential serum IgG recognition was focused on haemagglutinin 1 (H1) and restricted to classical antigenic sites (Cb) in both the vaccinated controls and individuals with flu infections. We further identified a novel epitope VEPGDKITFEATGNL on the Ca antigenic site (251-265) of the pandemic flu haemagglutinin, which was exclusively recognized in serum from individuals with previous vaccinations and never in serum from individuals with H1N1 infection (confirmed by RNA PCR analysis from nasal swabs). This epitope was mapped to the receptor-binding domain of the influenza haemagglutinin and could serve as a correlate of immune protection in the context of pandemic flu. The study shows that unbiased epitope mapping using peptide microarray technology leads to the identification of biologically and clinically relevant target structures. Most significantly an H1N1 infection induced a different footprint of IgG epitope recognition patterns compared with the pandemic H1N1 vaccine.

  13. How Does Influenza A (H1N1 Infection Proceed in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Civriz Bozdağ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical course of H1N1 infection in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (AHSCT patients is contraversial. We report three AHSCT patients who were infected with Influenza A/H1N1 infection. All of the patients were diagnosed with different hematological diagnosis and were at different stages of transplantation.All of them were treated with oseltamivir,zanamivir was switched with oseltamivir in one patient. All of the three patients were survived without any complication. Swine flu, can display with different courses and progress with bacterial or other viral infections in immunsupressed patients.

  14. 甲型H1N1流感的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉杰

    2011-01-01

    2009年3~4月从墨西哥暴发的“猪流感”(Swine influenza,SI),后被更名为甲型H1N1流感[In-fluenzaA(H1N1)],迅速在全世界范围内蔓延。研究表明这种病毒基因组由禽流感、猪流感和人流感病毒基因混合而成,

  15. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Danish pigs: Diagnosis and lack of surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Nielsen, L. P.; Breum, Solvej Østergaard;

    In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1v) of likely swine origin emerged in the human population globally. The first case in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009 and presently almost all countries with pig production have reported cases. The emergence of a new influenza subtype...... in swine with a genetic profile similar to older circulating strains implied a challenge for the veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We report the development, validation and implementation of a diagnostic strategy for specific diagnosis of H1N1v in pigs and the results of tests of pigs performed...... in Denmark. Routinely, detection of swine influenza virus in clinical specimens is performed by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays (rRT-PCR) targeting the M and the NP genes. Alignment of the probe and primer sequences to available H1N1v gene sequences in GeneBank revealed that these assays most...

  16. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  17. Opinions on Influenza A (H1N1)%我的一点看法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟南山

    2009-01-01

    2009年4月,一场突如其来的疫情席卷全球,引起各国高度重视。这一疫情的命名经历了从“猪流感(swine influenza)”等词到“甲型H1N1流感(influenza A(H1N1))”的变化。本刊对此命名变化的来龙去脉以及“甲型H1N1流感”的含义进行了梳理与解读,并就命名问题征询了一些专家的意见。

  18. Initial incursion of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus into European pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, M D; Baird, P M; Guelbenzu-Gonzalo, M P; Hanna, A; Reid, S M; Essen, S; Russell, C; Thomas, S; Barrass, L; McNeilly, F; McKillen, J; Todd, D; Harkin, V; McDowell, S; Choudhury, B; Irvine, R M; Borobia, J; Grant, J; Brown, I H

    2010-05-22

    The initial incursion of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus (pH1N1) into a European pig population is reported. Diagnosis of swine influenza caused by pandemic virus was made during September 2009 following routine submission of samples for differential diagnosis of causative agents of respiratory disease, including influenza A virus. All four pigs (aged six weeks) submitted for investigation from a pig herd of approximately 5000 animals in Northern Ireland, experiencing acute-onset respiratory signs in finishing and growing pigs, were positive by immunofluorescence for influenza A. Follow-up analysis of lung tissue homogenates by real-time RT-PCR confirmed the presence of pH1N1. The virus was subsequently detected on two other premises in Northern Ireland; on one premises, detection followed the pre-export health certification testing of samples from pigs presumed to be subclinically infected as no clinical signs were apparent. None of the premises was linked to another epidemiologically. Sequencing of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes revealed high nucleotide identity (>99.4 per cent) with other pH1N1s isolated from human beings. Genotypic analyses revealed all gene segments to be most closely related to those of contemporary pH1N1 viruses in human beings. It is concluded that all three outbreaks occurred independently, potentially as a result of transmission of the virus from human beings to pigs.

  19. 甲型H1N1流感相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊璐; 赵景民

    2010-01-01

    @@ 甲型H1N1 流感(influenza A,H1N1)是由变异后的新型甲型H1N1 流感病毒所引起的急性呼吸道传染病,原称人感染猪流感.为避免误导公众,WHO 2009 年4 月30 日在日内瓦宣布,将停止使用"swine influenza"这一称呼,改为"influenza A(H1N1)".卫生部迅速作出反应,将"人感染猪流感"更名为"甲型H1N1 流感"[1].其主要临床表现为流感样症状,患者病情多较轻,少数病例病情严重,进展迅速,严重者可以导致死亡.

  20. 甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵苹

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2009年3月以来,许多国家先后发生甲型H1N1流感.甲型H1N1流感原名猪流感,为避免"猪流感"一词对人们的误导,世界卫生组织将此前被称为猪流感的新型致命病毒更名为"AH1N1型流感"(influenza A (H1N1)),我国按惯例称为"甲型H1N1流感". 世卫组织已将该病警告级别提高到6级,表明它将会成为全球性流行病.

  1. A/H1N1研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玲娜

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2009年3以来,包括墨西哥、美国和加拿大在内的许多国家发生了甲型H1N1流感[Swine-origin Influenza A (A/H1N1)]疫情,WHO已于2009年6月20日将此次流感流行的预警级别提升至6级.现已基本明确,引起此次流感疫情的A/H1N1流感病毒是猪流感病毒(Swine Influenza Virus, SIV)的一种新型变异株.此次流感疫情的发生,再次使猪流感成为社会各界关注的焦点之一.本文就甲型H1N1流感的临床表现、病毒特征、相互关系及其对动物卫生监督工作的影响等作一综述.

  2. Safety of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine among Pregnant U.S. Military Women and Their Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Macdonald TM, Shakir S, Dryburgh M, Mantay BJ, McDonnell P, et al. Influenza H1N1 (swine flu ) vaccination : a safety surveillance feasibility study using...Naval Health Research Center Safety of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine among Pregnant Women and Their Newborns Ava M.S. Conlin Anna...Safety of the Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Among Pregnant U.S. Military Women and Their Newborns Ava Marie S. Conlin, DO, MPH, Anna T. Bukowinski

  3. Positive Selection on Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes of H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Li, Wenfu

    2011-04-21

    Abstract Background Since its emergence in March 2009, the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health. To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both HA and NA genes have evolved into five distinct clusters, with further analyses indicating that the pandemic 2009 strains have experienced the strongest positive selection. We also found evidence of strong selection acting on the seasonal human H1N1 isolates. However, swine viruses from North America and Eurasia were under weak positive selection, while there was no significant evidence of positive selection acting on the avian isolates. A site-by-site analysis revealed that the positively selected sites were located in both of the cleaved products of HA (HA1 and HA2), as well as NA. In addition, the pandemic 2009 strains were subject to differential selection pressures compared to seasonal human, North American swine and Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses. Conclusions Most of these positively and\\/or differentially selected sites were situated in the B-cell and\\/or T-cell antigenic regions, suggesting that selection at these sites might be responsible for the antigenic variation of the viruses. Moreover, some sites were also associated with glycosylation and receptor-binding ability. Thus, selection at these positions might have helped the pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses to adapt to the new hosts after they were introduced from pigs to humans. Positive selection on position 274 of NA protein, associated with drug resistance, might account for the prevalence of drug-resistant variants of seasonal human H1N1 influenza viruses, but there was no evidence that positive selection was responsible for the spread of the drug resistance of the pandemic H1N1 strains.

  4. Molecular epidemiology and complete genome characterization of H1N1pdm virus from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus is one of world's major uncontrolled pathogen, causing seasonal epidemic as well as global pandemic. This was evidenced by recent emergence and continued prevalent 2009 swine origin pandemic H1N1 Influenza A virus, provoking first true pandemic in the past 40 years. In the course of its evolution, the virus acquired many mutations and multiple unidentified molecular determinants are likely responsible for the ability of the 2009 H1N1 virus to cause increased disease severity in humans. Availability of limited data on complete genome hampers the continuous monitoring of this type of events. Outbreaks with considerable morbidity and mortality have been reported from all parts of the country. METHODS/RESULTS: Considering a large number of clinical cases of infection complete genome based sequence characterization of Indian H1N1pdm virus and their phylogenetic analysis with respect to circulating global viruses was undertaken, to reveal the phylodynamic pattern of H1N1pdm virus in India from 2009-2011. The Clade VII was observed as a major circulating clade in phylogenetic analysis. Selection pressure analysis revealed 18 positively selected sites in major surface proteins of H1N1pdm virus. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly revealed that clade VII has been identified as recent circulating clade in India as well globally. Few clade VII specific well identified markers undergone positive selection during virus evolution. Continuous monitoring of the H1N1pdm virus is warranted to track of the virus evolution and further transmission. This study will serve as a baseline data for future surveillance and also for development of suitable therapeutics.

  5. NovelH1N1inlfuenzaAvirusinfectioninapatient withacuterejectionafterlivertransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Juan He; Sheng Yan; Min Zhang; Wei-Lin Wang; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza A virus was ifrst identiifed in April 2009 and rapidly evolved into a pandemic. Recipients of solid-organ transplants have a higher risk for severe infection because of immunosuppression. There are limited reports of 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza in liver transplant recipients, especially in China. METHODS: We present a case of a 48-year-old male liver transplant recipient with 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza A virus. He received therapy for acute rejection after transplantation and was conifrmed with H1N1 virus infection. RESULTS:The patient was started on oseltamivir (75 mg, orally twice daily) and had a benign hospital course, with defervescence and resolution of symptoms within 72 hours. The follow-up chest radiograph after discharge was normal. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 H1N1 inlfuenza in this hospitalized transplant recipient was relatively mild, and prolonged viral shedding was not noted. Oseltamivir can be a valid measure in immunocompromised individuals.

  6. H1N1, globalization and the epidemiology of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparke, Matthew; Anguelov, Dimitar

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the lessons learned from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in relation to wider work on globalization and the epidemiology of inequality. The media attention and economic resources diverted to the threats posed by H1N1 were significant inequalities themselves when contrasted with weaker responses to more lethal threats posed by other diseases associated with global inequality. However, the multiple inequalities revealed by H1N1 itself in 2009 still provide important insights into the future of global health in the context of market-led globalization. These lessons relate to at least four main forms of inequality: (1) inequalities in blame for the outbreak in the media; (2) inequalities in risk management; (3) inequalities in access to medicines; and (4) inequalities encoded in the actual emergence of new flu viruses.

  7. H1N1 in dialysis units: Prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkar Ayman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis patients are at increased risk of contracting influenza A H1N1 and deve-loping serious illness. Increasing the awareness of dialysis patients and continuous education and training of medical staff on early recognition and management of influenza A H1N1 can help in saving the life of patients. Antiviral drugs and influenza vaccines are effective in providing ade-quate immunity in dialysis patients with strict implementation of infection control policies and procedures can help in preventing and controlling the dissemination of influenza A H1N1 in dia-lysis units. We report a case of a patient who presented with HINI influenza and developed acute kidney injury during his hospitalization and his course with disease.

  8. Information Entropy Analysis of the H1N1 Genetic Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martwick, Andy

    2010-03-01

    During the current H1N1 pandemic, viral samples are being obtained from large numbers of infected people world-wide and are being sequenced on the NCBI Influenza Virus Resource Database. The information entropy of the sequences was computed from the probability of occurrence of each nucleotide base at every position of each set of sequences using Shannon's definition of information entropy, [ H=∑bpb,2( 1pb ) ] where H is the observed information entropy at each nucleotide position and pb is the probability of the base pair of the nucleotides A, C, G, U. Information entropy of the current H1N1 pandemic is compared to reference human and swine H1N1 entropy. As expected, the current H1N1 entropy is in a low entropy state and has a very large mutation potential. Using the entropy method in mature genes we can identify low entropy regions of nucleotides that generally correlate to critical protein function.

  9. Clinical features and prevention & control strategy of influenza A H1N1%甲型H1N1流行性感冒的临床特征与防控策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任成山

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甲型H1N1流感(influenza A H1N1 virus)于2009年3月18日首先在墨西哥出现,疫情迅速蔓延,席卷全球[1].经美国疾病预防与控制中心(centers for disease control and prevention,CDC)鉴定,致病源为甲型流感病毒的核酸序列发生基因重排(reassortment),同时含人、禽和猪流感病毒核酸序列的新型H1N1甲型流感病毒(novel swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus,S-OIV)[2-4].2009年5月11日我国内地首例甲型H1N1流感病例的确诊,意味着甲型H1N1流感已突破前哨闯入中国,也标志着我国防控甲型H1N1流感的阵地战已经打响.

  10. 1918 pandemic H1N1 DNA vaccine protects ferrets against 2007 H1N1 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent;

    of the H1N1 pandemic virus from 1918 induce protection in ferrets against infection with a H1N1 (A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)) virus which was included in the conventional vaccine for the 2006-2007 season. The viruses are separated by a time interval of 89 years and differ by 21.2% in the HA1 protein......Influenza vaccines with the ability to induce immune responses cross-reacting with drifted virus variants would be of great advantage for vaccine development against seasonal and emerging new strains. We demonstrate that gene gun administrated DNA vaccine encoding HA and NA and/or NP and M proteins....... These results suggest not only a unique ability of the DNA vaccines, but perhaps also natural infection, to induce cross-protective responses against even extremely drifted virus variants....

  11. O VÍRUS PANDEMICO (H1N1: UMA AMEAÇA A SUINOCULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Alexandra Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza A (H1N1 or Swine Flu is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease caused by one of several swine influenza virus A. Morbidity tends to be high while low mortality. Pigs are important hosts of H1N1 influenza (swine-like influenza A virus and susceptible to infection by influenza viruses of avian origin and human. These animals have an important role in viral transmission between species and the epidemiology of human influenza because it can harbor a virus that undergoes genetic recombination and mutation may therefore be more virulent or not. On April 24, 2009, there was a first alert from WHO (World Health Organization on the appearance of the disease. The spread of the H1N1 caused alarm because it could be quickly and become unmanageable, since its symptoms are similar to those of a common flu and could be easily confused and camouflage a possible pandemic. Considering the great impact of the recent epidemic H1N1 influenza virus, according to their potential risk, this article intends to clarify how to recognize, diagnose and prevent, to better understand the relationships between exposure to pigs and possible infection. Influenza suína (H1N1 ou Gripe Suína é uma doença respiratória aguda altamente contagiosa, causada por um dos diversos vírus da influenza suína A. A morbidade tende a ser alta, enquanto a mortalidade baixa. Os suínos são importantes hospedeiros do vírus Influenza H1N1(swine-like Influenza A e susceptíveis às infecções por vírus Influenza de origem aviária e humana. Estes animais possuem importante papel na transmissão viral entre espécies e na epidemiologia da influenza humana, pois pode abrigar um vírus que sofre recombinação genética e por consequência mutação que pode ficar ou não mais virulento. Em 24 de abril de 2009, houve o primeiro alerta da OMS (Organização Mundial da Saúde sobre o surgimento desta doença. O contágio pelo H1N1 causou alarme, pois poderia ser rápido e

  12. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in captive cheetah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Beate; Hietala, Sharon; Hunt, Tania; Benjamin, Glenn; Martinez, Marie; Darnell, Daniel; Rubrum, Adam; Webby, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus.

  13. Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-06

    Dr. George Nelson, a CDC medical officer, discusses the relationship between pneumococcal pneumonia and Pandemic H1N1.  Created: 6/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/6/2012.

  14. H1N1 Influenza A hos mennesker og svin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Den nye pandemiske influenza A stamme H1N1 er hovedsagelig et nyt virus, som spredes mellem mennesker, men virusset er formodentlig opstået ved blanding af to svineinfluenza-virus og har derfor bibeholdt evnen til at kunne smitte fra mennesker til svin og fra svin til svin. Det er derfor vigtigt...

  15. Narcolepsy and H1N1 Influenza Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of narcolepsy between January 2000 and December 2010 in children in western Sweden and its relation to the Pandemrix H1N1 influenza vaccination were assessed by collection of data from hospital and clinic medical records and by parent telephone interviews.

  16. H1N1 Message from the Acting Surgeon General

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-13

    In this podcast, Acting Surgeon General Dr. Steven Galson discusses what you can do to protect yourself from H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/13/2009 by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/13/2009.

  17. Stay Informed About Novel H1N1 Influenza

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-04

    This podcast discusses things you can do everyday to avoid getting sick from infectious diseases, such as the novel H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/4/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing.   Date Released: 5/4/2009.

  18. Novel H1N1 Flu and Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    This podcast gives tips to stay healthy and help prevent infection with novel H1N1 flu if your child or someone you know is going to camp.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  19. Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Escola de Medicina de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Objective: to describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: the most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: the most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or cranio caudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms. (author)

  20. H1N1 Flu and Antiviral Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-02

    This podcast discusses the use of antiviral drugs for treating and preventing the H1N1 flu virus.  Created: 5/2/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/2/2009.

  1. Influenza A (H1N1 2009: Impact on Frankfurt in due consideration of health care and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groneberg David A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009 a novel influenza A H1N1/2009 virus was identified in Mexico and in the United States which quickly spread around the world. Most of the countries established infection surveillance systems in order to track the number of (laboratory-confirmed H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and deaths. Methods The impact of the emergence of the novel pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus on Frankfurt was statistically evaluated by the Health Protection Authority, City of Frankfurt am Main. Vaccination rates of the health care workers (HCWs of the University Hospital Frankfurt were measured by the Occupational Health Service. Results Although the virulence of pandemic (H1N1 2009 seems to be comparable with seasonal influenza, a major patient load and wave of hospital admissions occurred in the summer of 2009. Even though the 2009 vaccination rate of the University Hospital Frankfurt (seasonal influenza [40.5%], swine flu [36.3%] is better than the average annual uptake of influenza vaccine in the German health care system (approximately 22% for seasonal and 15% for swine flu, vaccination levels remain insufficient. However, physicians were significantly (p Conclusions The outbreak of the pandemic (H1N1 2009 in April 2009 provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Nosocomial transmission of H1N1/2009 has been documented. Present experience should be used to improve pandemic preparedness plans and vaccination programs ought to target as many HCWs as possible.

  2. Mensajes importantes sobre la influenza H1N1: Higiene (H1N1 Flu Awareness: Hygiene)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Este podcast aborda brevemente las formas de protegerse contra el virus nuevo de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  3. Mensajes importantes sobre la influenza H1N1: Comunidad (H1N1 Flu Awareness: Community)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Este podcast aborda brevemente los planes de la comunidad frente al brote del virus nuevo de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  4. Communicating uncertainty - how Australian television reported H1N1 risk in 2009: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blood R Warwick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health officials face particular challenges in communicating with the public about emerging infectious diseases of unknown severity such as the 2009 H1N1(swine 'flu pandemic (pH1N1. Statements intended to create awareness and convey the seriousness of infectious disease threats can draw accusations of scare-mongering, while officials can be accused of complacency if such statements are not made. In these communication contexts, news journalists, often reliant on official sources to understand issues are pivotal in selecting and emphasising aspects of official discourse deemed sufficiently newsworthy to present to the public. This paper presents a case-study of news communication regarding the emergence of pH1N1. Methods We conducted a content analysis of all television news items about pH1N1. We examined news and current affairs items broadcast on 5 free-to-air Sydney television channels between April 25 2009 (the first report and October 9 (prior to the vaccine release for statements about 1 the seriousness of the disease 2 how the public could minimise contagion 3 government responses to emerging information. Results pH1N1 was the leading health story for eight of 24 weeks and was in the top 5 for 20 weeks. 353 news items were identified, yielding 3086 statements for analysis, with 63.4% related to the seriousness of the situation, 12.9% providing advice for viewers and 23.6% involving assurances from government. Coverage focused on infection/mortality rates, the spread of the virus, the need for public calm, the vulnerability of particular groups, direct and indirect advice for viewers, and government reassurances about effective management. Conclusions Overall, the reporting of 2009 pH1N1 in Sydney, Australia was generally non-alarmist, while conveying that pH1N1 was potentially serious. Daily infection rate tallies and commentary on changes in the pandemic alert level were seldom contextualised to assist viewers in

  5. Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Lu; CAO Bin; WANG Chen

    2011-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection ranged from self-limited mild illness to progressive pneumonia,or even a fatal outcome.We summarize the clinical manifestations,risk factors for severe and fatal cases,pathologic findings and treatment of this disease in this paper based on current reports from different regions of the world.

  6. Spread of H1N1 within Households

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-29

    This podcast describes an investigation into how H1N1 was spreading within households during the initial days of the pandemic in Texas. CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses what investigators learned about the role that children played in introducing the virus into households and spreading flu.  Created: 3/29/2010 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/29/2010.

  7. Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...

  8. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Norwegian pigs naïve to influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germundsson, A.; Gjerset, B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane;

    In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1-09v) emerged in the human population. The first case of pH1N1v infection in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009. In Norway, pH1N1v infection was recorded in a swine herd on the 10th of October of 2009. Here, we report...... showed clinical signs or iii) with a history of close contact with or close proximity to infected herds. In addition, blood samples were collected from nucleus and multiplier breeding herds. Detection of pH1N1-09v was initially performed using a real-time RT-PCR targeted to detect influenza A virus....... Positive samples were tested by a pH1N1-09v specific real-time RT-PCR. Blood samples were tested for presence of antibodies against influenza A virus by ELISA (IDVET) and positive samples in the ELISA were tested by haemagglutinin inhibition test using A/California/07/09 as antigen. From the onset...

  9. Identification of Suitable Natural Inhibitor against Influenza A (H1N1) Neuraminidase Protein by Molecular Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Maheswata; Jena, Lingaraja; Rath, Surya Narayan

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus, also known as swine flu is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality since 2009. There is a need to explore novel anti-viral drugs for overcoming the epidemics. Traditionally, different plant extracts of garlic, ginger, kalmegh, ajwain, green tea, turmeric, menthe, tulsi, etc. have been used as hopeful source of prevention and treatment of human influenza. The H1N1 virus contains an important glycoprotein, known as neuraminidase (NA) that is mainly responsible for initiation of viral infection and is essential for the life cycle of H1N1. It is responsible for sialic acid cleavage from glycans of the infected cell. We employed amino acid sequence of H1N1 NA to predict the tertiary structure using Phyre2 server and validated using ProCheck, ProSA, ProQ, and ERRAT server. Further, the modelled structure was docked with thirteen natural compounds of plant origin using AutoDock4.2. Most of the natural compounds showed effective inhibitory activity against H1N1 NA in binding condition. This study also highlights interaction of these natural inhibitors with amino residues of NA protein. Furthermore, among 13 natural compounds, theaflavin, found in green tea, was observed to inhibit H1N1 NA proteins strongly supported by lowest docking energy. Hence, it may be of interest to consider theaflavin for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. PMID:27729839

  10. Affective language during the H1N1 influenza health crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morant Marco, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the effects that, as seen through the written press, the arrival of H1N1 had on certain affective behaviors in society. After the spread of H1N1, health authorities recommended maintaining physical distance in social settings and, among other measures, advised against kissing. At first, this show of affection became a victim of the pandemic, especially in certain activities and rituals. However, once the media impact of swine flu had subsided, kissing recovered its habitual place and frequency, demonstrating that customs which are socially and culturally entrenched are resistant to change.

    El presente artículo analiza los efectos que según la prensa escrita tuvo la llegada de la gripe A en ciertos comportamientos afectivos de la población. Las autoridades sanitarias, tras la expansión del virus H1N1, recomendaron aumentar la distancia social y aconsejaron, entre otras medidas, evitar los besos. Esta manifestación afectiva, en un primer momento, notó los efectos de la pandemia, sobre todo en ciertas actividades y rituales. Sin embargo, una vez pasado el impacto mediático de la gripe A, recuperó su uso y frecuencia habitual, demostrando que las costumbres fuertemente enraizadas se resisten a cambiar.

  11. Development of a diagnostic kit for Tamiflu-resistant influenze A (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, I. L.

    2012-12-15

    Using by pre-developed multiplex RT-PCR kit that is able to diagnosis Tamiflu-sensitive and -resistant Swine Influenza A (H1N1) in the 1st research year, reproducibility and sentitivity of the kit has been investigated in this year. The optimum concentration of reverse transcriptase has also been determined and the economic evaluation has been carried out in this year. Based on the results, a international patent has been applied and a domestic patent has been registered in this year.

  12. Isolation, Identification and Homology Analysis of the First Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in A District%某区甲型H1N1流感病毒分离鉴定及同源性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓; 巩飚; 胡淮洁; 许娇; 冉冉

    2014-01-01

    Objective Detection and separation of H1N1 influenza virus, the first area of Kaifeng virus strains were isolated from whole genome sequencing and homology analysis, to provide a scientific basis for the study of influenza virus epidemic and the variation law.Methods Real-time RT-PCR method for detection, screening to determine the influenza A H1N1 virus positive specimens; using MDCK cells isolated H1N1 influenza virus strain A/Kaifeng/01/2009 (H1N1); measured and analyzed their whole genome sequence; conducted using sequence alignment homology analysis.Results H1N1 influenza virus were detected in samples from 1828 were positive for influenza-like illness in 286 copies, the positive rate of 15.6%. The first time the whole strain of H1N1 influenza virus genome sequence and in Kaifeng area. Genome sequence analysis showed that: the strain and 2009 pandemic strain is highly homologous to the same evolutionary branch. Previous epidemic of swine influenza virus strains found in contrast, HA gene 12 bp point mutation occurred. Conclusion MDCK cells (H1N1) virus has a high sensitivity; Kaifeng area first case of H1N1 flu virus strains isolated in North America epidemic strains highly homologous; compared with the previous representative strains of classical swine influenza HA protein antigen appeared drift; lay the foundation for further research in molecular biology (H1N1) virus in the future.%目的:检测并分离甲型H1N1流感病毒,对开封地区首次分离到的病毒株进行全基因组序列测定及同源性分析,为研究流感病毒的流行及变异规律提供科学依据。方法采用Real-time RT-PCR方法检测,筛选确定出甲型H1N1流感病毒阳性标本;利用狗肾传代细胞分离得到甲型H1N1流感病毒株A/Kaifeng/01/2009(H1N1);测定并分析其全基因组序列;利用序列比对进行了同源性分析。结果从1828份流感样病例中检出甲型H1N1流感病毒阳性标本286份,阳性率15.6%。在开封地区首次获得甲型H

  13. Underreporting of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Cases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-08

    Influenza cases are difficult to track because many people don't go to the doctor or get tested for flu when they're sick. The first months of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic were no different. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Carrie Reed discusses a study in the December issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases that looked at the actual number of cases reported and estimated the true number of cases when correcting for underreporting.  Created: 12/8/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/8/2009.

  14. A candidate H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine elicits protective immunity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Steitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009 a new pandemic disease appeared and spread globally. The recent emergence of the pandemic influenza virus H1N1 first isolated in Mexico and USA raised concerns about vaccine availability. We here report our development of an adenovirus-based influenza H1N1 vaccine tested for immunogenicity and efficacy to confer protection in animal model. METHODS: We generated two adenovirus(Ad5-based influenza vaccine candidates encoding the wildtype or a codon-optimized hemagglutinin antigen (HA from the recently emerged swine influenza isolate A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm. After verification of antigen expression, immunogenicity of the vaccine candidates were tested in a mouse model using dose escalations for subcutaneous immunization. Sera of immunized animals were tested in microneutalization and hemagglutination inhibition assays for the presence of HA-specific antibodies. HA-specific T-cells were measured in IFNgamma Elispot assays. The efficiency of the influenza vaccine candidates were evaluated in a challenge model by measuring viral titer in lung and nasal turbinate 3 days after inoculation of a homologous H1N1 virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single immunization resulted in robust cellular and humoral immune response. Remarkably, the intensity of the immune response was substantially enhanced with codon-optimized antigen, indicating the benefit of manipulating the genetic code of HA antigens in the context of recombinant influenza vaccine design. These results highlight the value of advanced technologies in vaccine development and deployment in response to infections with pandemic potential. Our study emphasizes the potential of an adenoviral-based influenza vaccine platform with the benefits of speed of manufacture and efficacy of a single dose immunization.

  15. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children: Chest Radiographic and CT Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Kun Song [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chest radiographic and CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children, the population that is more vulnerable to respiratory infection than adults. The study population comprised 410 children who were diagnosed with an H1N1 infection from August 24, 2009 to November 11, 2009 and underwent chest radiography at Dankook University Hospital in Korea. Six of these patients also underwent chest CT. The initial chest radiographs were classified as normal or abnormal. The abnormal chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were assessed for the pattern and distribution of parenchymal lesions, and the presence of complications such as atelectasis, pleural effusion, and pneumomediastinum. The initial chest radiograph was normal in 384 of 410 (94%) patients and abnormal in 26 of 410 (6%) patients. Parenchymal abnormalities seen on the initial chest radiographs included prominent peribronchial marking (25 of 26, 96%), consolidation (22 of 26, 85%), and ground-glass opacities without consolidation (2 of 26, 8%). The involvement was usually bilateral (19 of 26, 73%) with the lower lung zone predominance (22 of 26, 85%). Atelectasis was observed in 12 (46%) and pleural effusion in 11 (42%) patients. CT (n = 6) scans showed peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (n = 6), ground-glass opacities (n = 5), centrilobular nodules (n = 4), consolidation (n = 3), mediastinal lymph node enlargement (n = 5), pleural effusion (n = 3), and pneumomediastinum (n = 3). Abnormal chest radiographs were uncommon in children with a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. In children, H1N1 virus infection can be included in the differential diagnosis, when chest radiographs and CT scans show prominent peribronchial markings and ill-defined patchy consolidation with mediastinal lymph node enlargement, pleural effusion and pneumomediastinum

  16. Imaging Findings in Patients With H1N1 Influenza A Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swine influenza (H1N1 is a very contagious respiratory infection and World Health Organization (WHO has raised the alert level to phase 6 (pandemic. The study of clinical and laboratory manifestations as well as radiologic imaging findings helps in its early diagnosis.Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of patients with documented H1N1 infection referred to our center.Patients and Methods: Thirty-one patients (16 men with documented H1N1 infection were included in our study. The initial radiography obtained from the patients was reviewed regarding pattern (consolidation, ground glass, nodules and reticulation, distribution (focal, multifocal, and diffuse and the lung zones involved. Computed tomography (CT scans were also reviewed for the same abnormalities. The patient files were studied for their possible underlying diseases.Results: The mean age was 37.97 ± 13.9 years. Seventeen (54.8% patients had co-existing condition (eight respiratory, five cardiovascular, two immunodeficiency, two cancer, four others. Twelve (38.7% patients required intensive care unit (ICU admission. Five (16.1% patients died. (25.8% had normal initial radiographs. The most common abnormality was consolidation (12/31; 38.7% in the peripheral region (11/31; 35.5% followed by peribronchovascular areas (10/31; 32.3% which was most commonly observed in the lower zone. The patients admitted to the ICU were more likely to have two or more lung zones involved (P = 0.005.Conclusions: In patients with the novel swine flu infection, the most common radiographic abnormality observed was consolidation in the lower lung zones. Patients admitted to ICU were more likely to have two or more lung zones involved.

  17. Pandemic (H1N1 influenza in Diyarbakir, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliksah Ertem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the pandemic (H1N1 influenza outbreak in 2009. Method: Influenza like illness (ILI cases were reported between the 36th to 53rd weeks of the pandemic, from all health centres. 731 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from ILI cases. Results: The first H1N1 confirmed case was reported at the 36th week and an increasing trend continued. At the 43rd week the outbreak reached its maximum level and at the 53rd week the level had decreased to the level at the start. During the outbreak 31117 cases were reported as ILI and 635 cases were hospitalized (hospitalization rate was 2.0% and 17 H1N1 laboratory confirmed cases died (mortality rate 11.5/1.000.000. Symptoms of laboratory confirmed cases were similar to seasonal influenza. Coughing (90.9%, fever (84.5%, running nose (69.5%, headache (73.4%, diarrhoea (17.5% were the some of the symptoms in laboratory confirmed cases. The median interval between the onset of symptoms and hospital admission was 3.5 days (min: 1, max: 11 days and this was 7.5 days for the occurrence of death. Conclusion: During 36th to 53rd week an important outbreak of ILI was occurred. The mortality rate was not so high as expected but the infectivity was high. The delay for hospital admission may lead to higher mortality particularly for pregnant women.Key Words: Pandemic influenza; H1N1; case fatality rate; hospitalization rateDiyarbakır’da pandemik (H1N1 influenza, 2009Amaç: Bu çalışmada 2009 yılında -Türkiye’de pandemik influenza salgınını değerlendirmek amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Diyarbakır ’da 36 ve 53. haftalar arasında tüm sağlık kuruluşlarından influenza benzeri hastalık rapor edilmiştir. 731 nazofaringeal sürüntü alınmıştır. Bulgular: İlk H1N1 doğrulanmış vaka 36.haftada rapor edilmiştir ve vaka sayıları zaman içinde artış göstermiştir. 43. haftada salgın başlamış ve 53. haftada başlangıç düzeyine inmiştir.Salgın s

  18. Late-stage Use of Low-dose Corticosteroids Aid Recovery of Severe H1N1 Viral Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The role of corticosteroids in the management of severely ill patients with inlfuenza A (H1N1) viral infection is unclear and controversial. Two critically ill cases with influenza A (H1N1) infections complicated with organizing pneumonia (OP) in 2011 successfully treated with low dose corticosteroids were reported here. After initial clinical improvement, the condition of both patients aggravated 20-23 days after the onset of illness. Chest X-ray and computed tomographies (CT) showed an increment of lung infiltrates. Cultures of blood, pleural lfuid and transbronchial aspirate were negative for bacteria and fungi. Organizing pneumonia was diagnosed clinically and both patients were successfully treated with low-dose corticosteroids. Low-dose corticosteroids initiated during convalescence may be beneficial for severe swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (S-OIV) infections.

  19. H1N1: pandemia e perspectiva atual

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    O vírus influenza de origem suína, A/California/04/2009 (H1N1), foi inicialmente detectado no México e determinou a pandemia de influenza de 2009. Em agosto de 2010, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) declarou o início da fase pós-pandêmica. As características dessa última pandemia foram marcadamente diferentes das anteriores. O vírus emergiu de rearranjos genéticos originários em hospedeiro mamífero não humano, demonstrou transmissibilidade interespécies e afetou a população humana de form...

  20. IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenggang Li; Chen Wang; Zhongwei Chen; Li Xing; Chong Tang; Xiangwu Ju; Feng Guo; Jiejie Deng; Yan Zhao; Peng Yang; Jun Tang; Penghui Yang; Huanling Wang; Zhongpeng Zhao; Zhinan Yin; Bin Cao; Xiliang Wang; Chengyu Jiang; Yang Sun; Taisheng Li; Chen Wang; Zhong Wang; Zhen Zou; Yiwu Yan; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus(S-OIV H1N1)that infected almost every country in the world.Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury.In this report,we are the first to describe a mouse model of S-OIV virus infection with acute lung injury and immune responses that reflect human clinical disease.The clinical efficacy of the antiviral oseltamivir(Tamiflu)administered in the early stages of S-OIV H1N1 infection was confirmed in the mouse model.Moreover,elevated levels of IL-17,Th-17 mediators and IL-17-responsive cytokines were found in serum samples of S-OIV-infected patients in Beijing.IL-17 deficiency or treatment with monoclonal antibodies against IL-17-ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the S-OIV H1N1 virus in mice.These results suggest that IL-17 plays an important role in S-OIV-induced acute lung injury and that monoclonal antibodies against IL-17 could be useful as a potential therapeutic remedy for future S-OIV H1N1 pandemics.

  1. Influenza A (H1N1. Radiological Patterns Influenza A (H1N1. Patrones Radiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Yudey Rodriguez Pino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influenza A (H1N1 has a wide radiological spectrum, difficult to differentiate from other epidemic respiratory diseases. One of the distinctive elements seems to be the quick evolution of the imagenologic lesions in the sick persons, as well as the slow resolution of these manifestations. The chest fillm is of vital importance to make a precise diagnosis, and it constitutes an indispensable tool for the identification of the cases according to the affection degree (light, moderate, and severe, besides contributing as an essential way to the classification of the patients according to a grade of uncertainty. Although as a confirmation complementary is not definitive, it is important in defining if a case is suspicious or probable.La influenza A (H1N1 tiene un espectro radiológico amplio, difícil de diferenciar de otras enfermedades respiratorias no epidémicas. Uno de los elementos distintivos parece estar en relación con la rápida evolución de las lesiones imagenológicas en los enfermos afectados, así como la lenta resolución de estas manifestaciones. La radiografía de tórax es de vital importancia para hacer un diagnóstico preciso, constituye una herramienta indispensable para la notificación de los casos según el grado de afección (leve, moderada, severa, además de contribuir de manera esencial a la clasificación de los pacientes según el grado de incertidumbre pues, aunque no es un complementario confirmatorio, sí es importante a la hora de definir si un caso es sospechoso o probable.

  2. Public anxiety and information seeking following the H1N1 outbreak: blogs, newspaper articles, and Wikipedia visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausczik, Yla; Faasse, Kate; Pennebaker, James W; Petrie, Keith J

    2012-01-01

    Web-based methodologies may provide a new and unique insight into public response to an infectious disease outbreak. This naturalistic study investigates the effectiveness of new web-based methodologies in assessing anxiety and information seeking in response to the 2009 H1N1 outbreak by examining language use in weblogs ("blogs"), newspaper articles, and web-based information seeking. Language use in blogs and newspaper articles was assessed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, and information seeking was examined using the number of daily visits to H1N1-relevant Wikipedia articles. The results show that blogs mentioning "swine flu" used significantly higher levels of anxiety, health, and death words and lower levels of positive emotion words than control blogs. Change in language use on blogs was strongly related to change in language use in newspaper coverage for the same day. Both the measure of anxiety in blogs mentioning "swine flu" and the number of Wikipedia visits followed similar trajectories, peaking shortly after the announcement of H1N1 and then declining rapidly. Anxiety measured in blogs preceded information seeking on Wikipedia. These results show that the public reaction to H1N1 was rapid and short-lived. This research suggests that analysis of web behavior can provide a source of naturalistic data on the level and changing pattern of public anxiety and information seeking following the outbreak of a public health emergency.

  3. Extreme evolutionary conservation of functionally important regions in H1N1 influenza proteome.

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    Samantha Warren

    Full Text Available The H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus has caused two of the four documented pandemics and is responsible for seasonal epidemic outbreaks, presenting a continuous threat to public health. Co-circulating antigenically divergent influenza strains significantly complicates vaccine development and use. Here, by combining evolutionary, structural, functional, and population information about the H1N1 proteome, we seek to answer two questions: (1 do residues on the protein surfaces evolve faster than the protein core residues consistently across all proteins that constitute the influenza proteome? and (2 in spite of the rapid evolution of surface residues in influenza proteins, are there any protein regions on the protein surface that do not evolve? To answer these questions, we first built phylogenetically-aware models of the patterns of surface and interior substitutions. Employing these models, we found a single coherent pattern of faster evolution on the protein surfaces that characterizes all influenza proteins. The pattern is consistent with the events of inter-species reassortment, the worldwide introduction of the flu vaccine in the early 80's, as well as the differences caused by the geographic origins of the virus. Next, we developed an automated computational pipeline to comprehensively detect regions of the protein surface residues that were 100% conserved over multiple years and in multiple host species. We identified conserved regions on the surface of 10 influenza proteins spread across all avian, swine, and human strains; with the exception of a small group of isolated strains that affected the conservation of three proteins. Surprisingly, these regions were also unaffected by genetic variation in the pandemic 2009 H1N1 viral population data obtained from deep sequencing experiments. Finally, the conserved regions were intrinsically related to the intra-viral macromolecular interaction interfaces. Our study may provide further insights

  4. Molecular characterization of H1N1 influenza A viruses from human cases in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; WANG ChengMin; DONG GuoYing; LUO Jing; ZHAO BaoHua; HE HongXuan

    2009-01-01

    Subtypes of H1N1 influenza virus can be found in humans in North America,while they are also associated with the infection of swine.Characterization of the genotypes of viral strains in human populations is important to understand the source and distribution of viral strains.Genomic and protein sequences of 10 isolates of the 2009 outbreak of influenza A (H1N1) virus in North America were obtained from GenBank database.To characterize the genotypes of these viruses,phylogenetic trees of genes PB2,PB1,PA,HA,NP,NA,NS and M were constructed by Phylip3.67 program and N-Linked glycosylation sites of HA,NA,PB2,NS1 and M2 proteins were analyzed online by NetNGIyc1.0 program.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these isolates are virtually identical but may be recombinant viruses because their genomic fragments come from different viruses.The isolates also contain a characteristic lowly pathogenic amino acid motif at their HA cleavage sites (IPSIQSR↓GL),and an E residue at position 627 of the PB2 protein which shows its high affinity to humans.The homologous model of M proteins showed that the viruses had obtained the ability of anti-amantadine due to the mutation at the drug-sensitive site,while sequence analysis of NA proteins indicated that the viruses are still susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor drug (i.e.oseltamivir and zanamivir) because no mutations have been observed.Our results strongly suggested that the viruses responsible for the 2009 outbreaks of influenza A (H1N1) virus have the ability to cross species barriers to infect human and mammalian animals based on molecular analysis.These findings may further facilitate the therapy and prevention of possible transmission from North America to other countries.

  5. Characterization of the 2009 pandemic A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 influenza strain in human airway epithelial cells and ferrets.

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    Penghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A novel 2009 swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus (S-OIV H1N1 has been transmitted among humans worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of this virus in human airway epithelial cells and mammals is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, we showed that a 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus strain, A/Beijing/501/2009, isolated from a human patient, caused typical influenza-like symptoms including weight loss, fluctuations in body temperature, and pulmonary pathological changes in ferrets. We demonstrated that the human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549 was susceptible to infection and that the infected cells underwent apoptosis at 24 h post-infection. In contrast to the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus, the 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus strain A/Beijing/501/2009 induced more cell death involving caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells. Additionally, ferrets infected with the A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 virus strain exhibited increased body temperature, greater weight loss, and higher viral titers in the lungs. Therefore, the A/Beijing/501/2009 H1N1 isolate successfully infected the lungs of ferrets and caused more pathological lesions than the seasonal influenza virus. Our findings demonstrate that the difference in virulence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus in vitro and in vivo may have been mediated by different mechanisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the 2009 A (H1N1 influenza virus infection in both humans and animals is broadened by our findings that apoptotic cell death is involved in the cytopathic effect observed in vitro and that the pathological alterations in the lungs of S-OIV H1N1-infected ferrets are much more severe.

  6. Genetic Characteristics and Immunogenicity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Isolate from Pig in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyoung Joon; Oh, Jin Sik; Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Han, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sung Jae; Park, Bong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    A pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus strain was isolated from a pig farm in Korea in December 2009. The strain was propagated in and isolated from both the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line and embryonated eggs. The partial and complete sequences of the strain were identical to those of A/California/04/2009, with >99% sequence similarity in the HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 genes. The isolated strain was inactivated and used to prepare a swine influenza vaccine. This trial vaccine, containing the new isolate that has high sequence similarity with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, resulted in seroconversion in Guinea pigs and piglets. This strain could therefore be a potential vaccine candidate for swine influenza control in commercial farms.

  7. [Epidemiology of influenza A (H1N1) worldwide and in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaqué, Josep

    2010-03-01

    On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared an established pandemic due to a new influenza virus A (H1N1) of swine origin. Initial cases were detected in Mexico in March and within 6 weeks the virus had spread worldwide. The transmissibility of influenza A (H1NA) is slightly higher than that of the seasonal virus, but its pathogenicity and virulence are low. The main target groups of this new virus have been children and young adults under 30 years old. Mortality has affected mainly persons aged between 20 and 50 years old. In areas with temperate climates, two epidemic waves have occurred. The first one, from mid-April to mid-August, affected Mexico, the United States and, consecutively, Spain, England, Japan, and other countries in the northern hemisphere. A few weeks later, coinciding with the beginning of the influenza season, the H1N1 epidemic started in the southern hemisphere countries, especially Argentina, Chile, Australia and New Zealand; in these countries, the epidemic finished at the end of September or October. The second wave affected the northern hemisphere, starting in the United States and Mexico at the beginning of September, and a few weeks later in European countries. In mid-December, this wave was considered to have ended, although some influenza activity persists. The intensity of this second wave was higher compared to the first one.

  8. Diagnosis of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) and Seasonal Influenza Using Rapid Influenza Antigen Tests, San Antonio, Texas, April-June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    CDC Atlanta US. CDC protocol of realtime RTPCR for influenza A(H1N1) revision 1. 30 April 2009. Available at: http://www.who.int/ csr / resources...2009; 325:483–7. 24. Munster VJ, de Wit E, van den Brand JM, et al. Pathogenesis and Transmission of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Virus in Fer

  9. H1N1-infected patients in ICU and their clinical outcome

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    Nagesh Kumar Chandrashekar Talkad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The swine flu (H1N1 with rapid spread and panic in population is truly global pandemic, affected mainly younger population. There is need to accumulate evidence regarding patient′s intensive care parameters for effective management of newer strains of influenza viral infections. Hence an observed retrospective record analysis of confirmed H1N1 patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU of a tertiary care centre is done. Aims: The study was designed to study the profile and pattern of H1N1 patients admitted to ICU and to study the distribution and associated factors with treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: The demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of 32 (RT-PCR confirmed H1N1cases were collected and analyzed using Fischer′s exact test/paired t test between survivors and nonsurvivors to know their significance. This data included criteria for admission to ICU, type of lung injury, mode of oxygenation, antiviral, and other drugs used. Results: There were 11 males and 21 female. Age ranged from 19 to 72 years. Age group of 15-45 years had most cases (78% and mortality (60%. Most common symptoms were fever and breathlessness (100%. The mean duration of breathlessness was statistically significant (P = 0.037 between two groups. Most common signs were tachycardia and tachypnea. The 75% cases developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, of this 16% survived. Among these fatal cases nine were positive for procalcitonin (PCT (P = 0.006. The rest of 25% developed acute lung injury (ALI and recovered completely (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Fever and breathlessness were the main presenting complaints. Tachypnea and tachycardia as clinical signs predict development of respiratory complications. Arterial blood gas analysis (ABG and PaO 2 /FiO 2 were important in deciding severity of lung injury and mode of ventilation. ARDS was observed to be the main cause of mortality in this study. Serum PCT level estimation is useful in

  10. Comparative evaluation of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with and without H1N1 infection at a tertiary care referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Samra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus has clinical presentation ranging from mild flu like illness to severe lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The aim of our study was to compare the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and mortality of critically ill patients with (H1N1+ and without H1N1 infection (H1N1-. We retrospectively analyzed medical charts of patients admitted in "Swine Flu ICU" with ARDS from August 2009 to May 2010. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay was used for detection of H1N1 virus in the respiratory specimens. Clinical data from 106 (H1N1 , 45; H1N1+, 61 patients was collected and compared. Mean delay in presentation to our hospital was 5.7 ± 3.1 days and co-morbidities were present in two-fifth of the total admissions. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score of patients with and without H1N1 infection was comparable; 7.8 ± 3.5 and 6.6 ± 3.1 on day 1 and 7.2 ± 4.5 and 6.5 ± 3.1 on day 3, respectively. H1N1+ patients were relatively younger in age (34.2 ± 12.9 years vs. 42.8 ± 18.1, P = 0.005 but presented with significantly lower PaO 2 :FiO 2 ratio (87.3 ± 48.7 vs. 114 ± 51.7 in comparison to those who subsequently tested as H1N1 . The total leucocyte counts were significantly lower in H1N1+ patients during the first four days of illness but incidence of renal failure (P = 0.02 was higher in H1N1+ patients. The mortality in both the groups was high (H1N1+, 77%; H1N1, 68% but comparable. There was a mean delay of 5.7 ± 3.1 days in initiation of antivirals. Patients with H1N1 infection were relatively younger in age and with a significantly higher incidence of refractory hypoxia and acute renal failure. Mortality from ARDS reported in our study in both the groups was high but comparable.

  11. A Metagenomic Analysis of Pandemic Influenza A (2009 H1N1) Infection in Patients from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greninger, Alexander L.; Chen, Eunice C.; Sittler, Taylor; Scheinerman, Alex; Roubinian, Nareg; Yu, Guixia; Kim, Edward; Pillai, Dylan R.; Guyard, Cyril; Mazzulli, Tony; Isa, Pavel; Arias, Carlos F.; Hackett, John; Schochetman, Gerald; Miller, Steve; Tang, Patrick; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2010-01-01

    Although metagenomics has been previously employed for pathogen discovery, its cost and complexity have prevented its use as a practical front-line diagnostic for unknown infectious diseases. Here we demonstrate the utility of two metagenomics-based strategies, a pan-viral microarray (Virochip) and deep sequencing, for the identification and characterization of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. Using nasopharyngeal swabs collected during the earliest stages of the pandemic in Mexico, Canada, and the United States (n = 17), the Virochip was able to detect a novel virus most closely related to swine influenza viruses without a priori information. Deep sequencing yielded reads corresponding to 2009 H1N1 influenza in each sample (percentage of aligned sequences corresponding to 2009 H1N1 ranging from 0.0011% to 10.9%), with up to 97% coverage of the influenza genome in one sample. Detection of 2009 H1N1 by deep sequencing was possible even at titers near the limits of detection for specific RT-PCR, and the percentage of sequence reads was linearly correlated with virus titer. Deep sequencing also provided insights into the upper respiratory microbiota and host gene expression in response to 2009 H1N1 infection. An unbiased analysis combining sequence data from all 17 outbreak samples revealed that 90% of the 2009 H1N1 genome could be assembled de novo without the use of any reference sequence, including assembly of several near full-length genomic segments. These results indicate that a streamlined metagenomics detection strategy can potentially replace the multiple conventional diagnostic tests required to investigate an outbreak of a novel pathogen, and provide a blueprint for comprehensive diagnosis of unexplained acute illnesses or outbreaks in clinical and public health settings. PMID:20976137

  12. A metagenomic analysis of pandemic influenza A (2009 H1N1 infection in patients from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L Greninger

    Full Text Available Although metagenomics has been previously employed for pathogen discovery, its cost and complexity have prevented its use as a practical front-line diagnostic for unknown infectious diseases. Here we demonstrate the utility of two metagenomics-based strategies, a pan-viral microarray (Virochip and deep sequencing, for the identification and characterization of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. Using nasopharyngeal swabs collected during the earliest stages of the pandemic in Mexico, Canada, and the United States (n = 17, the Virochip was able to detect a novel virus most closely related to swine influenza viruses without a priori information. Deep sequencing yielded reads corresponding to 2009 H1N1 influenza in each sample (percentage of aligned sequences corresponding to 2009 H1N1 ranging from 0.0011% to 10.9%, with up to 97% coverage of the influenza genome in one sample. Detection of 2009 H1N1 by deep sequencing was possible even at titers near the limits of detection for specific RT-PCR, and the percentage of sequence reads was linearly correlated with virus titer. Deep sequencing also provided insights into the upper respiratory microbiota and host gene expression in response to 2009 H1N1 infection. An unbiased analysis combining sequence data from all 17 outbreak samples revealed that 90% of the 2009 H1N1 genome could be assembled de novo without the use of any reference sequence, including assembly of several near full-length genomic segments. These results indicate that a streamlined metagenomics detection strategy can potentially replace the multiple conventional diagnostic tests required to investigate an outbreak of a novel pathogen, and provide a blueprint for comprehensive diagnosis of unexplained acute illnesses or outbreaks in clinical and public health settings.

  13. Epidemics and the politics of knowledge: contested narratives in Egypt's H1N1 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Melissa; Tadros, Mariz

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the politics of knowledge involved in understanding and responding to epidemics in an era of global health governance and biosecurity. It develops and applies an approach focused on how multiple, competing narratives about epidemics are constructed, mobilized and interact, and selectively justify pathways of intervention and response. A detailed ethnographic case study of national and local responses to H1N1 influenza, so-called swine flu, in Egypt reveals how global narratives were reworked by powerful actors in a particular political context, suppressing and delegitimizing the alternative narratives of the Zabaleen (Coptic Christian) people whose lives and livelihoods centered on raising pigs and working with them to control urban waste. The case study illustrates important ways in which geographies and politics of blame around epidemics emerge and are justified, their political contexts and consequences, and how they may feed back to shape the dynamics of disease itself.

  14. 64 multidetector CT findings of influenza A (H1N1) virus in patients with hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badrawy, Adel [Dept. of Radiology, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura (Egypt)], E-mail: adelelbadrawy@hotmail.com; Zeidan, Amany [Dept. of Thoracic Medicine, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura (Egypt); Ebrahim, Mohamed A. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    Background. The pandemic of swine-origin H1N1 influenza that began in early 2009 has provided evidence that radiology can assist in the early diagnosis of severe cases. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. MDCT is superior to radiography in showing the distribution of the disease. Purpose. To review the 64 multidetector CT thoracic findings of novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in patients with hematologic malignancies. Material and Methods. This study included 12 patients (3 women, 9 men; mean age, 32.2 years). All patients proved to be infected with influenza A (H1N1) virus. The hematologic malignancies were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 2), multiple myeloma (n = 1), and myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1). All the patients underwent CT scanning using a 64 multidetector CT scanner. Chest CT scans were reviewed for ground-glass opacities (GGOs), consolidation, airway thickening/dilatation, nodules, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion. Results. More than one CT finding was detected in every patient. Pulmonary affection was bilateral, more on the left side. The affections were mainly peribronchial. Airway wall thickening and dilatation were detected in all 12 patients, GGO in 9/12 patients, nodules in 6/12 patients, consolidation in 6/12 patients, hilar lymphadenopathy in 3/12 patients, and pleural effusion in 2/12 patients. Conclusion. Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common hematologic malignancy affected by influenza A (H1N1) virus. The left lung is affected more than the right one. The most common multidetector CT findings are unilateral or bilateral airway thickening and dilatation. Multidetector CT can be used for early and accurate assessment of pulmonary affection with influenza A H1N1 virus infection.

  15. Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs.

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    Jagadish Hiremath

    Full Text Available Pigs are believed to be one of the important sources of emerging human and swine influenza viruses (SwIV. Influenza virus conserved peptides have the potential to elicit cross-protective immune response, but without the help of potent adjuvant and delivery system they are poorly immunogenic. Biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle (PLGA-NP based vaccine delivery system enhances cross-presentation of antigens by the professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, Norovirus P particle containing SwIV M2e (extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 chimera and highly conserved two each of H1N1 peptides of pandemic 2009 and classical human influenza viruses were entrapped in PLGA-NPs. Influenza antibody-free pigs were vaccinated with PLGA-NPs peptides cocktail vaccine twice with or without an adjuvant, Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate, intranasally as mist. Vaccinated pigs were challenged with a virulent heterologous zoonotic SwIV H1N1, and one week later euthanized and the lung samples were analyzed for the specific immune response and viral load. Clinically, pigs vaccinated with PLGA-NP peptides vaccine had no fever and flu symptoms, and the replicating challenged SwIV was undetectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunologically, PLGA-NP peptides vaccination (without adjuvant significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells response in the lung lymphocytes, despite not boosting the antibody response both at pre- and post-challenge. In summary, our data indicated that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of conserved H1N1 influenza peptides induced the virus specific T cell response in the lungs and reduced the challenged heterologous virus load in the airways of pigs.

  16. Metabolic syndrome as an independent risk factor of hypoxaemia in influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijani, Behzad; Pahlevan, Ali Asghar; Qasemi-Barqi, Reza; Jahanihashemi, Hassan

    2016-06-01

    A swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) emerged as a pandemic in 2009. We investigated the association between the overweight, metabolic syndrome and the severity of disease in the confirmed cases in Qazvin province, Iran. The study sample included all patients over 12 years old with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) in the province of Qazvin, Iran, in the 2009 pandemic, excluding pregnant women. To define overweight, sex and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used. Metabolic syndrome was defined by ATP III criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify statistically independent predictors of hypoxaemia. Out of 55 confirmed cases, 28 (50.9%) were overweight and 24 (45.3%) were identified as having metabolic syndrome by ATP III criteria. Twenty four patients had hypoxaemia (arterial oxygen saturation below 90%) during the course of the disease. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pulmonary co-morbidity (OR=9.54; 95% CI, 1.36 to 66.88; p= 0.023) and the metabolic syndrome (OR=18.66; 95% CI, 1.60 to 217.47; p= 0.019) were revealed to be independent risk factors for hypoxaemia in influenza A (H1N1) pdm09. The results of the present study reveal the role of the metabolic syndrome on the severity of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infection.

  17. EFSA Panel Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and its potential implications for animal health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Brown, Ian; Capua, Ilaria;

    . Occasionally, pigs have been infected following exposure to pH1N1 infected humans. In pigs, a subclinical course was common and when clinical signs were seen (coughing, fever) they were generally mild. Presently, the clinical impact of pH1N1virus on the EU pig population is considered minimal. In poultry...... of wild birds with pH1N1 virus has been reported. From an animal health perspective, no specific disease control measures are considered necessary. Vaccines based on the pH1N1 virus appear to induce protection in swine similar to that induced by the existing swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccines....... Such vaccines efficiently prevent disease by reducing virus replication in the lungs. However, voluntary vaccination of swine with these vaccines has not halted the circulation of SIV in swine. There is no urgency for vaccination of pigs against pH1N1 virus. Currently, no vaccines against H1 viruses for poultry...

  18. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  19. 2009甲型H1N1流感病毒的研究综述%Review of the 2009 A ( H1N1 ) Influenza Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 胡春吉; 徐瑞芹

    2011-01-01

    2009年4月初,出现1种新型甲型( H1N1)流感病毒,并通过人—人传播蔓延全球,文章介绍了该病毒的分类与宿主范围,并对其病毒学及分子特征进行了概述,最后指出加强对猪群中流行的流感病毒监管的必要性及研制通用疫苗的重要性.%A novel influenza A/H1N1 virus, emerged in early April 2009. It quickly spread worldwide through human-to-human transmission. The classification and host range of the virus were introduced, and its virdogy and molecular characteristics were described. Then concluded that the necessity of supervision on strengthening pandemic influenza virus in swine and importance of developing common vaccines.

  20. 甲型H1N1流感死亡病例三株病毒分离株血凝素基因测序分析%Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of isolates viruses from 3 novel influenza A ( H1N1 )deaths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如胜; 欧新华; 田斌

    2010-01-01

    Objective To understand the origin and variation of the hemagglutinin gene of isolates viruses from 3 novel influenza A( H1N1 ) deaths in Changsha ( A/Hunan Kaifu/SWL4142/2009 ( H1N1 ) , A/Hunan Changsha/SWL4346/2009 ( H1 N1 ) and A/Hunan Furong/SWL4224/2009( H1N1 )). Methods The nasopharyngeal swab specimens from the 3 novel influenza A( H1N1 ) deaths in Changsha were tested by RT-PCR and influenza viruses were isolated simultaneously. With the sequencing primers recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), the HA gene of sequences of 3 novel influenza A( H1N1 ) deaths were tested by CEQTM 8000 Genetic Analysis System, through dye terminator cycle sequencing. The sequencing results were submitted to GenBank, then the results were analyzed for amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis with ClustalX and Mega4.1 software. Results All the nucleotide homologies of HA gene sequences in A/Hunan Kaifu/SWL4142/2009 ( H1N1 ), A/Hunan Changsha/SWL4346/2009 ( H1N1 ) and A/Hunan Furong/SWL4224/2009( H1N1 ) are 99% as compared with the novel influenza A( H1N1 ) virus strains of A/NewYork/3502/2009 ( H1N1 ), A/Shanghai/71T/2009 ( H1N1 ) and A/Chita/01/2009 ( H1N1 )The nucleotide homology of the 3 HA gene sequences are more than 99. 5% the same compared with the novel influenza A( H1N1 ) virus strain ( A/Sichuan/1/2009( H1N1 ) ) in China. Phylogenetic tree analysis reveals that 2009 novel influenza A(H1N1 ) viruses including 3 HA gene sequences of A/Hunan Kaifu/SWL4142/2009 ( H1 N1 ), A/Hunan Changsha/SWL4346/2009 ( H1N1 ), A/Hunan Furong/SWL4224/2009( H1N1 ) had a close evolutionary relationship with the swine H1 virus isolates in North America ( A/Swine/Indiana/P12439/00), but a distant evolutionary relationship with those human seasonal A( H1 N1 ) influenza virus and avian. After comparing with genes of A/Swine/Indiana/P12439/00, we found that the HA gene sequences of the 3 viruses isolated had 28,30 and 27 amino acids with mutation respectively, but only one (R53

  1. Influenza virus A(H1N1)2009 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in young children prior to the H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Annelies W; Westerhuis, Brenda M; Ten Hulscher, Hinke I; Jacobi, Ronald H; de Bruin, Erwin; van Beek, Josine; Buisman, Annemarie M; Koopmans, Marion P; van Binnendijk, Robert S

    2016-09-01

    Pre-existing immunity played a significant role in protection during the latest influenza A virus H1N1 pandemic, especially in older age groups. Structural similarities were found between A(H1N1)2009 and older H1N1 virus strains to which humans had already been exposed. Broadly cross-reactive antibodies capable of neutralizing the A(H1N1)2009 virus have been implicated in this immune protection in adults. We investigated the serological profile of a group of young children aged 9 years (n=55), from whom paired blood samples were available, just prior to the pandemic wave (March 2009) and shortly thereafter (March 2010). On the basis of A(H1N1)2009 seroconversion, 27 of the 55 children (49 %) were confirmed to be infected between these two time points. Within the non-infected group of 28 children (51 %), high levels of seasonal antibodies to H1 and H3 HA1 antigens were detected prior to pandemic exposure, reflecting past infection with H1N1 and H3N2, both of which had circulated in The Netherlands prior to the pandemic. In some children, this reactivity coincided with specific antibody reactivity against A(H1N1)2009. While these antibodies were not able to neutralize the A(H1N1)2009 virus, they were able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro upon interaction with the A(H1N1)2009 virus. This finding suggests that cross-reactive antibodies could contribute to immune protection in children via ADCC.

  2. Caveolin-1 influences human influenza A virus (H1N1 multiplication in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemgård Gun-Viol

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threat of recurring influenza pandemics caused by new viral strains and the occurrence of escape mutants necessitate the search for potent therapeutic targets. The dependence of viruses on cellular factors provides a weak-spot in the viral multiplication strategy and a means to interfere with viral multiplication. Results Using a motif-based search strategy for antiviral targets we identified caveolin-1 (Cav-1 as a putative cellular interaction partner of human influenza A viruses, including the pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1 strains of swine origin circulating from spring 2009 on. The influence of Cav-1 on human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 virus replication was determined in inhibition and competition experiments. RNAi-mediated Cav-1 knock-down as well as transfection of a dominant-negative Cav-1 mutant results in a decrease in virus titre in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK, a cell line commonly used in basic influenza research as well as in virus vaccine production. To understand the molecular basis of the phenomenon we focussed on the putative caveolin-1 binding domain (CBD located in the lumenal, juxtamembranal portion of the M2 matrix protein which has been identified in the motif-based search. Pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that caveolin-1 binds to M2. The data suggest, that Cav-1 modulates influenza virus A replication presumably based on M2/Cav-1 interaction. Conclusion As Cav-1 is involved in the human influenza A virus life cycle, the multifunctional protein and its interaction with M2 protein of human influenza A viruses represent a promising starting point for the search for antiviral agents.

  3. Protection against divergent influenza H1N1 virus by a centralized influenza hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Weaver

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a persistent worldwide threat to the human population. As evidenced by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, current vaccine technologies are unable to respond rapidly to this constantly diverging pathogen. We tested the utility of adenovirus (Ad vaccines expressing centralized consensus influenza antigens. Ad vaccines were produced within 2 months and protected against influenza in mice within 3 days of vaccination. Ad vaccines were able to protect at doses as low as 10(7 virus particles/kg indicating that approximately 1,000 human doses could be rapidly generated from standard Ad preparations. To generate broadly cross-reactive immune responses, centralized consensus antigens were constructed against H1 influenza and against H1 through H5 influenza. Twenty full-length H1 HA sequences representing the main branches of the H1 HA phylogenetic tree were used to create a synthetic centralized gene, HA1-con. HA1-con minimizes the degree of sequence dissimilarity between the vaccine and existing circulating viruses. The centralized H1 gene, HA1-con, induced stronger immune responses and better protection against mismatched virus challenges as compared to two wildtype H1 genes. HA1-con protected against three genetically diverse lethal influenza challenges. When mice were challenged with 1934 influenza A/PR/8/34, HA1-con protected 100% of mice while vaccine generated from 2009 A/TX/05/09 only protected 40%. Vaccination with 1934 A/PR/8/34 and 2009 A/TX/05/09 protected 60% and 20% against 1947 influenza A/FM/1/47, respectively, whereas 80% of mice vaccinated with HA1-con were protected. Notably, 80% of mice challenged with 2009 swine flu isolate A/California/4/09 were protected by HA1-con vaccination. These data show that HA1-con in Ad has potential as a rapid and universal vaccine for H1N1 influenza viruses.

  4. Porcine mast cells infected with H1N1 influenza virus release histamine and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Hong; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2017-04-01

    Mast cells reside in many tissues, including the lungs, and might play a role in enhancing influenza virus infections in animals. In this study, we cultured porcine mast cells from porcine bone marrow cells with IL-3 and stem cell factor to study the infectivity and activation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin. Porcine mast cells were infected with H1N1 influenza virus, without the subsequent production of infectious viruses but were activated, as indicated by the release of histamines. Inflammatory cytokine- and chemokine-encoding genes, including IL-1α, IL-6, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, were upregulated in the infected porcine mast cells. Our results suggest that mast cells could be involved in enhancing influenza-virus-mediated disease in infected animals.

  5. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; de Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; da Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses’ epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará. PMID:27598244

  6. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié da; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará.

  7. Novel reassortant influenza viruses between pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and other influenza viruses pose a risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weili; Wang, Feibing; Dong, Bin; Ou, Changbo; Meng, Demei; Liu, Jinhua; Fan, Zhen-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is characterized by eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allows for gene reassortment among different IAV subtypes when they co-infect a single host cell simultaneously. Genetic reassortment is an important way to favor the evolution of influenza virus. Novel reassortant virus may pose a pandemic among humans. In history, three human pandemic influenza viruses were caused by genetic reassortment between avian, human and swine influenza viruses. Since 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pdm/09 H1N1) influenza virus composed of two swine influenza virus genes highlighted the genetic reassortment again. Due to wide host species and high transmission of the pdm/09 H1N1 influenza virus, many different avian, human or swine influenza virus subtypes may reassert with it to generate novel reassortant viruses, which may result in a next pandemic among humans. So, it is necessary to understand the potential threat of current reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses to public health. This study summarized the status of the reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses of different species origins in natural and experimental conditions. The aim of this summarization is to facilitate us to further understand the potential threats of novel reassortant influenza viruses to public health and to make effective prevention and control strategies for these pathogens.

  8. Pandemics in the age of Twitter: content analysis of Tweets during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Chew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surveys are popular methods to measure public perceptions in emergencies but can be costly and time consuming. We suggest and evaluate a complementary "infoveillance" approach using Twitter during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our study aimed to: 1 monitor the use of the terms "H1N1" versus "swine flu" over time; 2 conduct a content analysis of "tweets"; and 3 validate Twitter as a real-time content, sentiment, and public attention trend-tracking tool. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between May 1 and December 31, 2009, we archived over 2 million Twitter posts containing keywords "swine flu," "swineflu," and/or "H1N1." using Infovigil, an infoveillance system. Tweets using "H1N1" increased from 8.8% to 40.5% (R(2 = .788; p<.001, indicating a gradual adoption of World Health Organization-recommended terminology. 5,395 tweets were randomly selected from 9 days, 4 weeks apart and coded using a tri-axial coding scheme. To track tweet content and to test the feasibility of automated coding, we created database queries for keywords and correlated these results with manual coding. Content analysis indicated resource-related posts were most commonly shared (52.6%. 4.5% of cases were identified as misinformation. News websites were the most popular sources (23.2%, while government and health agencies were linked only 1.5% of the time. 7/10 automated queries correlated with manual coding. Several Twitter activity peaks coincided with major news stories. Our results correlated well with H1N1 incidence data. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the potential of using social media to conduct "infodemiology" studies for public health. 2009 H1N1-related tweets were primarily used to disseminate information from credible sources, but were also a source of opinions and experiences. Tweets can be used for real-time content analysis and knowledge translation research, allowing health authorities to respond to public concerns.

  9. Evaluation of clinical features scoring system as screening tool for influenza A (H1N1 in epidemic situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza A (H1N1 hit the headlines in recent times and created mass hysteria and general panic. The high cost and non-availability of diagnostic laboratory tests for swine flu, especially in the developing countries underlines the need of having a cheaper, easily available, yet reasonably accurate screening test. Aims: This study was carried out to develop a clinical feature-based scoring system (CFSS for influenza A (H1N1 and to evaluate its suitability as a screening tool when large numbers of influenza-like illness cases are suspect. Settings and Design: Clinical-record based study, carried out retrospectively in post-pandemic period on subject′s case-sheets who had been quarantined at IG International Airport′s quarantine center at Delhi. Materials and Methods: Clinical scoring of each suspected case was done by studying their case record sheet and compared with the results of RT-PCR. RT-PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis (Gold Standard. Statistical Analysis: We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical feature-based scoring system (the proposed new screening tool at different cut-off values. The most discriminant cut-off value was determined by plotting the ROC curve. Results: Of the 638 suspected cases, 127 (20% were confirmed to have H1N1 by RT-PCR examination. On the basis of ROC, the most discriminant clinical feature score for diagnosing Influenza A was found to be 7, which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 86%, 88%, 64%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical features scoring system (CFSS can be used as a valid and cost-effective tool for screening swine flu (influenza A (H1N1 cases from large number of influenza-like illness suspects.

  10. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  11. Vitamin D Levels, Natural H1N1 Infection and Response to H1N1 Vaccine among HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momplaisir, Florence; Frank, Ian; Meyer, Wa; Kim, Deborah; Kappes, Rosemary; Tebas, Pablo

    2012-05-20

    BACKGROUND: Beyond its role in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D plays a critical role in immunological responses to pathogens. We evaluated the relationship between 25-OH vitamin D levels and susceptibility to natural H1N1 infection and H1N1 vaccine responses in HIV infected individuals. METHODS: This was a sub study of an H1N1 vaccine trial conducted at the University of Pennsylvania in 2009/10. We compared the 25-OH vitamin D levels among individuals with and without baseline evidence of prior H1N1 infection and between vaccine responders and non-responders. RESULTS: 120 participants enrolled in the trial, 71% male, 68% African American, median age 46 years. The majority had controlled HIV disease. At baseline, 86% had 25-OH vitamin D levels < 30 ng/ml and 54% had levels < 20 ng/ml. Thirty participants (25%) had evidence of prior H1N1 exposure. There was no difference in mean 25-OH vitamin D levels among patients with or without prior natural H1N1 infection (21 ng/ml vs 20 ng/ml, p=0.72). Among participants without previous H1N1 exposure, only 61% developed protective antibody titers following vaccination. 25-OH vitamin D levels were similar between vaccine responders (20 ng/ml) and non-responders (20 ng/ml) (p=0.83). CONCLUSION: Although 25-OH vitamin D deficiency was very common among HIV-infected individuals, it was not associated with natural susceptibility to H1N1 or to vaccine responses.

  12. Predicting H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs: the role of individual difference in consideration of future consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Kim, Jarim

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the influence of individual difference in consideration of future consequences on H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs (i.e., perceived susceptibility to and severity of the H1N1 flu, perceived efficacy and safety of the H1N1 vaccine, and perceived self-efficacy in obtaining the H1N1 vaccine). A survey of 411 college students showed that consideration of future consequences had no direct effect on vaccine uptake, but higher consideration of future consequences was associated with greater perceived severity of the flu, higher perceived effectiveness of the vaccine, and greater perceived self-efficacy. Additional analysis suggested that consideration of future consequences had a significant indirect effect on vaccine uptake through perceived vaccine efficacy. Results of the study also revealed gender and racial differences in some of the H1N1-related health beliefs. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  13. Research progress of severe influenza A H1N1%重症甲型H1N1流感研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 高占成

    2010-01-01

    甲型H1N1流感最新疫情的突出特点是重症和死亡病例数显著增加,有关我国重症甲型H1N1流感患者的临床特征、预后、危险因素等方面的研究尚未见相关报道.本文拟对国外有关这方面的研究进行总结,为我国重症甲型H1N1流感的诊断及治疗提供借鉴.%The latest epidemic of influenza A H1N1 is characterized by the significant increase of severe and dead cases. The researches about clinical features, prognosis, risk factors and other aspects of Chinese patients with severe influenza A H1N1 have not been reported. This paper is to summarize foreign researches and provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of severe influenza A H1N1 in China.

  14. 直击甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甲型H1N1流感是什么 甲型H1N1流感是一种由A型甲型H1N1流感病毒引起的猪呼吸系统疾病,该病毒可在猪群中造成流感暴发.这次在实验室已被证实的引发疫情的病毒是甲型H1N1流感病毒A(H1N1)亚型,是一种之前从未在人和猪身上出现过的新型甲型H1N1流感病毒;

  15. 成人甲型H1N1流感的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴妹英

    2010-01-01

    成人甲型H1N1流感是由甲型H1N1流感病毒感染引起的新型呼吸道传染病。甲型H1N1流感病毒属于正黏病毒科(Orthomyxoviridae),甲型流感病毒属(Influenza virus A)。

  16. Guillain-Barré syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines: A multinational self-controlled case series in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Romio (Silvana); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); H.K. Olberg (Henning); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); C. Sammon (Cormac); N.J. Andrews (Nick); H. Svanström (Henrik); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); A. Hviid (Anders); M. Lapeyre-Mestre (Maryse); A. Sommet (Agnès); C. Saussier (Christel); A. Castot (Anne); H. Heijbel (Harald); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); P. Sparen (Pär); M. Mosseveld (Mees); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); T. Leino (Tuija); T. Kilpi (Terhi); J. Storsaeter (Jann); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09) immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following

  17. Recombination analysis and homology alignment of full-length genome sequences of die novel A/H1N1 influenza virus in 2009%2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒全基因组序列重组分析及同源性比对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿文英; 殷建华; 李淑华; 韩磊; 韩一芳; 苏彤; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the genetic variation and recombination of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods Full-length sequence of typical novel A/H1N1 influenza virus was downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA4.0 software was used to connect and align the eight fragments of the virus. Then the fragments of different subtypes such as H1N1, H5N1 and H3N2 of the historical strains from different hosts, including human, poultry and pigs, were connected and aligned in the same way. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by NJ method. The recombination analysis of 2009 pandemic virus was made with Simplot 3. 5.1 software. Results There was no clear variation (identity was 99.69% - 99. 93%) in the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus from April to September, 2009. Simplot and MEGA analysis indicated that the PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP and NS of the novel A/H1N1 virus might originally evolve from the swine and human H1N1 virus isolated in North America (identity was 95. 25%, 95.08%, 95.21%, 93.52%, 95.23% and 94.78%, respectively). NA and MP showed high homology with the European swine H1N1 virus, the identity was 90.21% and 94.43%, respectively. Full-length sequence of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus had a highest similarity with swine H1N1 virus isolated from North America (identity was 92.22%). Conclusions The novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 was originated from the reassortment and evolution of swine H1N1 2005 pandemic virus in North America, and the NA and MP fragments of European swine H1N1. There is no clear variation in novel influenza virus up to now. The novel A/H1N1 influenza vaccine possesses protective effect.%目的 分析2009年新型甲型H1N1流感爆发以来流感病毒的全基因组进化变异及重组情况.方法 从NCBI基因数据库下载2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒(A/H1N1)代表性全基因组序列,先用MEGA4.0软件对8个基因序列片段进行比对和拼接;然后将历史上流行的H1N1、H5N1、H3N2等不同宿

  18. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND...

  19. The 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic: the role of threat, coping, and media trust on vaccination intentions in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Sheena Aislinn; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2013-01-01

    Swine flu (H1N1) reached pandemic proportions in 2009, yet ambivalence was met concerning intentions to be vaccinated. The present investigation determined predictors of perceived H1N1 contraction risk and vaccination intentions among Canadian adults (N = 1,027) responding to an online questionnaire. The relatively low rate of vaccination intent (30.12%, and 34.99% being unsure of their intent) was related to a sense of invulnerability regarding illness contraction and symptom severity. Most individuals were skeptical that H1N1 would be widespread, believing that less than 10% of the population would contract H1N1. Yet, they also indicated that their attitudes would change once a single person they knew contracted the illness. Also, worry regarding H1N1 was related to self-contraction risk and odds of individuals seeking vaccination. Moreover, vaccination intent was related to the perception that the threat was not particularly great, mistrust of the media to provide accurate information regarding H1N1, and whether individuals endorsed problem-focused versus avoidant coping strategies. Given the role media plays in public perceptions related to a health crisis, trust in this outlet and credibility regarding the threat are necessary for adherence to recommended measures to minimize health risk.

  20. Reasons for Low Pandemic H1N1 2009 Vaccine Acceptance within a College Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Ravert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined health beliefs associated with novel influenza A (H1N1 immunization among US college undergraduates during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Undergraduates (ages 18–24 years from a large Midwestern University were invited to complete an online survey during March, 2010, five months after H1N1 vaccines became available. Survey items measured H1N1 vaccine history and H1N1-related attitudes based on the health belief literature. Logistic regression was used to identify attitudes associated with having received an H1N1 vaccine, and thematic analysis of student comments was conducted to further understand influences on vaccine decisions. Among the 296 students who participated in the survey, 15.2% reported having received an H1N1 vaccine. In regression analysis, H1N1 immunization was associated with seasonal flu vaccine history, perceived vaccine effectiveness, perceived obstacles to vaccination, and vaccine safety concerns. Qualitative results illustrate the relationship of beliefs to vaccine decisions, particularly in demonstrating that students often held concerns that vaccine could cause H1N1 or side effects. Vaccine safety, efficacy, and obstacles to immunization were major considerations in deciding whether to accept the H1N1 pandemic vaccine. Therefore, focusing on those aspects might be especially useful in future vaccine efforts within the college population.

  1. 中药治疗甲型H1N1流感浅见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕燕

    2010-01-01

    运用中医理论对甲型H1N1流感进行定义与归纳,分析中药在治疗甲型H1N1流感方面的优势,总结目前治疗甲型H1N1流感行之有效的中药制剂.认为中药治疗甲型H1N1流感具有独特优势,临床应大力推广.

  2. 儿童如何预防甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖满田

    2009-01-01

    甲型H1N1流感是由甲型H1N1流感病毒引起的一种急性呼吸道传染病。该病毒最常见的是H1N1亚型,但是也存在其他的亚型(如H1N2,H3N1,H3N2),今年4月在墨西哥流行的是甲型H1N1病毒。

  3. Structural and Functional Analysis of NS1 and NS2 Proteins of H1N1 Subtype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parveen Salahuddin; Asad U.Khan

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus(H1N1),a genetic reassortment of endemic strains of human,avian and swine flu,has crossed species barrier to human and apparently acquired the capability of human to human transmission.Some strains of H5N1 subtype are highly virulent because NS1 protein inhibits antiviral interferon α/β production.Another protein NS2 mediates export of viral ribonucleoprotein from nucleus to the cytoplasm through export signal.In this paper,we have studied structure-function relationships of these proteins of H1N1 subtype and have determined the cause of their pathogenicity.Our results showed that non-conservative mutations slightly stabilized or destabilized structural domains of NS1 or NS1-dsRNA complex,hence slightly increased or decreased the function of NS1 protein and consequently enhanced or reduced the pathogenicity of the H1N1 virus.NS2 protein of different strains carried non-conservative mutations in different domains,resulting in slight loss of function.These mutations slightly decreased the pathogenicity of the virus.Thus,the results confirm the structure-function relation-ships of these viral proteins.

  4. H1N1 Influenza Flu:Report of 130 Cases%甲型H1N1流行性感冒临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴传芬; 何爱民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment of H1N1 pandemic influenza. Methods Clinical characteristics and treatment of 130 cases of H1N1 influenza were retrospectively analyzed. Results Patients with mild H1N1 flu responsed to the supportive treatment by traditional Chinese medicine, Lianhuaqingwen capsule while severe patients with complicated infections responsed to combined anti - infection traditional Chinese medicine therapy , supportive treatment, and oseltamivir, an anti -influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor. Comparison of WBC count, lymphocyte fraction, neutrophil fraction, and platelet count between hefore and after treatment showed significant differences ( P < 0.05 ) . Conclusion H1N1 pandemic influenza spread widely and rapidly, which were easily be infected. Combination of anti - infection traditional Chinese medicine therapy , supportive treatment, and oseltamivir is effective in treating H1N1 flu with complicated infections.%目的 探讨甲型H1N1流行性感冒(流感)的诊断、治疗要点.方法 回顾性分析130例甲型H1N1流感患者的临床特点、治疗方法.结果 病情轻的甲型H1N1流感患者给予中成药连花清瘟胶囊对症、支持治疗有效;病情重合并感染者给予抗感染中药对症、支持治疗基础上,加用神经氨酸酶抑制剂奥司他韦抗病毒治疗有效.130例患者治疗前后白细胞计数、淋巴细胞分数、中性粒细胞分数、血小板计数比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 甲型H1N1流感传播广而迅猛,人群普遍易感.抗病毒(神经氨酸酶抑制剂奥司他韦)、中成药(连花清瘟胶囊)及对症支持治疗合并感染者有效.

  5. Emerging influenza A/H1N1: challenges and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human population suffered to four major influenza pandemics in the past by influenza virus in the form of either bird flu or swine flu. The virus has immense capability to diverse as it is capable in antigenic shift, antigenic drift and reassortment due to its fragmented RNA genome. The severity of previous pandemics suggests that severity in human population is directly proportional to the degree of divergence in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes and so the virus is named as HnNn (H1N1, H5N1, etc. Till date no treatment (vaccines and drugs is available against influenza virus infection. Therefore, evolution of new strains, lack of herd immunity, high divergence rate, resistance against antiviral, co-infection with different influenza strains and replication in multiple hosts might help the present virus to develop in super-virus with a potential health threat to man-kind. To tackle the issue, there is a need for a joint venture among government health department, researchers, clinicians, ecologists and general public for future preparedness to combat future influenza pandemics.

  6. Vulnerability of the British swine industry to classical swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Gamado, Kokouvi; Auty, Harriet K.; Hutchinson, Ian; Reeves, Aaron; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a notifiable, highly contagious viral disease of swine which results in severe welfare and economic consequences in affected countries. To improve preparedness, it is critical to have some understanding of how CSF would spread should it be introduced. Based on the data recorded during the 2000 epidemic of CSF in Great Britain (GB), a spatially explicit, premises-based model was developed to explore the risk of CSF spread in GB. We found that large outbreaks of CSF would be rare and generated from a limited number of areas in GB. Despite the consistently low vulnerability of the British swine industry to large CSF outbreaks, we identified concerns with respect to the role played by the non-commercial sector of the industry. The model further revealed how various epidemiological features may influence the spread of CSF in GB, highlighting the importance of between-farm biosecurity in preventing widespread dissemination of the virus. Knowledge of factors affecting the risk of spread are key components for surveillance planning and resource allocation, and this work provides a valuable stepping stone in guiding policy on CSF surveillance and control in GB. PMID:28225040

  7. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Middle East 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study hemagglutinin genetic evolution of some Middle East(ME) 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates and compared them with prototype vaccine strain [A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)], which is used as a vaccine strain in the Northern Hemisphere2010-2011.Methods: Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences ofHA gene of fifty-fourME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates were retrieved from GenBank Database by using BasicBLAST engine. Phylogenetic trees were established for both nucleotide and amino acid sequences using the muscle algorithm of the computer programCLC free workbench 5.6.1 JREsoftware. Amino acids alignment was also done to compare sequences HA1 domains of HA genes of ME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates (n=39) with amino acid sequence of prototype vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1).Results: Phylogenetic analysis of amino acids and nucleotides of theHA gene of theME 2009 H1N1 pdm isolates confirmed their evolutionary position in cluster with prototype vaccine strain (A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)) which is used as vaccine strain in the Northern Hemisphere2010-2011. Antigenically, theME 2009 H1N1pdm isolates were homogeneous and closely related to prototype vaccine. Only a few amino acid substitutions in the HA among the ME2009 H1N1 pdm isolates were analyzed.Conclusions:The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide a good protection againstME 2009 H1N1 pdm because it contains strains withH1 HA [A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)]-like strain.

  8. 科学面对甲型H1N1流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏

    2011-01-01

    @@ 一、主题的提出 2009年10月,甲型H1N1流感在全国迅速蔓延,出现了一些死亡案例,每天新闻都播报全国甲型H1N1流感疫情,由于当时还没找到特别有效的防治办法,引起很多人的恐慌.为了帮助师生更好地面对甲型H1N1流感,我们开展了"科学面对甲型H1N1流感"综合实践活动. 二、活动背景 由国家卫生部发布的中国内地甲型H1N1流感疫情形势及活动前对学生的调查发现,部分初中学生缺乏对甲型H1N1流感的科学认识,对甲型H1N1流感普遍持恐慌心理;还有部分初中学生未意识到感染甲型H1N1流感的潜在危险,不知道感染甲型H1N1流感的危险行为.这样,他们就成了感染甲型H1N1流感的脆弱人群和预防甲型H1N1流感健康教育的重点人群,所以有必要对初中学生进行这方面的教育.

  9. 甲型H1N1流感患者的护理%Influenza A H1N1 influenza patient care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖蓉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨甲型H1N1流感患者的护理方法.方法:回顾分析我院2009年8月至2010年1月收治的112例患者的临床资料.结果:112例患者治愈出院.结论:对甲型H1N1流感患者在治疗的同时,有针对性采取护理措施以及严格的消毒隔离制度,是救治甲型H1N1流感的保证.

  10. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus A (H1N1), Europe, 2007/08 season.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Lackenby, A.; Hungnes, O.; Lina, B.; Werf, S. van der; Schweiger, B.; Opp, M.; Paget, J.; Kassteele, J. van de; Hay, A.; Zambon, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, the 2007/08 winter season was dominated by influenza virus A (H1N1) circulation through week 7, followed by influenza B virus from week 8 onward. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1) (ORVs) with H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase emerged independently of drug use. By country,

  11. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  12. Influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Vitis amurensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Dao, Trong Tuan; Tung, Bui Thanh;

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1/09 virus) was identified and considered a strong candidate for a novel influenza pandemic. As part of an ongoing anti-influenza screening programme on natural products, eight oligostilbenes were isolated as active principles from the methanol extract...

  13. Safety of pandemic H1N1 vaccines in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Wijnans (Leonoor); S. de Bie (Sandra); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDuring the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic several pandemic H1N1 vaccines were licensed using fast track procedures, with relatively limited data on the safety in children and adolescents. Different extensive safety monitoring efforts were put in place to ensure timely detection of adve

  14. Experience of influenza A H1N1 in a paediatric emergency unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Suat; Ercan Sariçoban, Hülya; Özen, Ahmet Oğuzhan; Saf, Coşkun; Ergenekon Ulutaş, Pinar; Gürol, Yeşim; Yilmaz, Gülden; Vitrinel, Ayça; Özelgün, Berna

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate symptoms, clinical findings, treatment options and complications of H1N1 influenza infection in patients who applied to our emergency unit during the influenza season in 2009. The clinical and laboratory findings of children with influenza A (H1N1) during the influenza season in 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Influenza A was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction and/or rapid antigen test. Clinical and laboratory findings of the patients with H1N1 (group I) and without H1N1 (group II) were compared. Fever and myalgia were noted to be higher in group I (p H1N1 (average of 39°C) and myalgia was present only in patients with H1N1. The lymphocyte count was significantly lower in patients with H1N1 than those without H1N1. While none of the patients required intensive care, three patients requiring hospitalization were discharged after referral and completion of their treatment.

  15. 理性看待甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 继墨西哥出现甲型H1N1流感疫情后,美国、英国、韩国等国相继出现甲型H1N1流感疫情.世卫组织警告:甲型H1N1流感比禽流感更可怕.甲型H1N1流感病毒早晚都会发生变异,使甲型H1N1流感能轻易在人与人之间传播,这只是个时间问题.一旦如此,那么它将给人类带来一场前所未有的大灾难.

  16. 理性看待甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海霞

    2009-01-01

    继墨西哥出现甲型H1N1流感疫情后,美国、英国、韩国等国相继出现甲型H1N1流感疫情。世卫组织警告:甲型H1N1流感比禽流感更可怕。甲型H1N1流感病毒早晚都会发生变异,使甲型H1N1流感能轻易在人与人之间传播,这只是个时间问题。一旦如此,那么它将给人类带来一场前所未有的大灾难。

  17. Recombinant equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) vaccine protects pigs against challenge with influenza A(H1N1)pmd09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Abdelrahman; Lange, Elke; Beer, Martin; Damiani, Armando; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) is not only an important respiratory pathogen in pigs but also a threat to human health. The pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus likely originated in swine through reassortment between a North American triple reassortant and Eurasian avian-like SIV. The North American triple reassortant virus harbors genes from avian, human and swine influenza viruses. An effective vaccine may protect the pork industry from economic losses and curb the development of new virus variants that may threaten public health. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine (rH_H1) expressing the hemagglutinin H1 of A(H1N1)pdm09 in the natural host. Our data shows that the engineered rH_H1 vaccine induces influenza virus-specific antibody responses in pigs and is able to protect at least partially against challenge infection: no clinical signs of disease were detected and virus replication was reduced as evidenced by decreased nasal virus shedding and faster virus clearance. Taken together, our results indicate that recombinant EHV-1 encoding H1 of A(H1N1)pdm09 may be a promising alternative for protection of pigs against infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 or other influenza viruses.

  18. An analysis of peripheral blood cells in patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection or non-H1N1 virus infection%甲型H1N1流感病毒与非甲型H1N1流感病毒患者外周血象的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新华; 邵冬华; 梁国威; 曹清云

    2010-01-01

    目的:对航天中心医院就诊的甲型H1N1流感病毒感染者与非甲型H1N1流感病毒感染者、正常对照者的外周血象进行对比分析,以期为临床的诊断、治疗以及病情监测提供有利的工具.方法:采用RT-PCR的方法对患者是否患甲型H1N1流感进行确认.采用流式细胞技术的方法,利用全血细胞计数仪对甲型H1N1组、非甲型H1N1组患者以及正常对照组外周血象进行对比分析.利用免疫比浊的方法对3组患者外周血中C反应蛋白(CRP)浓度进行比较分析.结果:甲型H1N1组患者中单核细胞百分数阳性百分率占77.1%,非甲型H1N1组患者单核细胞百分数阳性百分率占7.8%.正常对照组单核细胞百分数阳性百分率占6.7%.甲型H1N1组白细胞总数、淋巴细胞百分比以及嗜酸细胞百分比与非甲型H1N1组相比明显降低,但甲型H1N1组中性粒细胞百分比与正常对照组相比明显升高,而单核细胞百分比在甲型H1N1组中显著升高.甲型H1N1组血小板总数、血小板压积与非甲型H1N1组相比降低,而血小板分布宽度相比非甲型H1N1组数值升高,但与正常对照组相比,血小板总数以及3项参数未有明显差异.甲型H1N1组中CRP浓度与非甲型H1N1组相比差异无显著性,但与正常对照组相比明显升高.结论:甲型H1N1感染患者外周血象与一般流感存在相似之处,但它有其独特特点,在诊断过程中不应该以一般流感的外周血象以及CRP浓度特点来排除甲型H1N1流感病毒的感染.

  19. Origin and future distribution of the new A (H1N1) influenza virus emerging in North America in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JiMing; SUN YingXue; LIU Shuo; JIANG WenMing; CHEN Jie; HOU GuangYu; LI JinPing

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the new A (H1N1) influenza virus recently emerging in North America is a hot controversial topic of significance in disease control and risk assessment.Some experts claimed that it was an unusually mongrelized mix of human,avian and swine influenza viruses,while some others concluded that it was totally a simple re-assortment hybrid of two lineages of swine influenza viruses.Here the phylogenetic diversity of the viral PB1,PA and PB2 gene sequences using online web servers,and the results suggest that all the 8 genetic segments of the new virus were possibly from two lineages of swine influenza viruses,and one of the lineage was a mongrelized mix of human,avian and swine influenza viruses emerging in the world approximately 10 years ago.Considering the recent epidemiological trends of the new virus,we believe it will spread more widely in the world and persist long in human populations.It also could spread among swine populations.The future wide spreading of the new virus may coincide the disappearance of a subtype of previous human influenza A virus.

  20. 接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗后患甲型H1N1流感分析%H1N1 Influenza Infection after Injecting A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韶辉; 沈忆光; 王彤; 梁雪梅; 赵金彩

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗后发生甲型H1N1流感感染的病例,探讨发病原因,为进一步提高疫苗预防效果提供参考依据.方法 对接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗后发生甲型H1N1流感感染148例,进行回顾性调查分析.结果 接种甲型H1N1流感疫苗11176例.发生甲型H1N1感染148例,感染率1.32%,其中1~14 d感染81例,感染率0.72%,>15 d感染67例,感染率0.60%.结论 甲型H1N1流感病毒裂解疫苗是一种安全高效的疫苗,不足之处尚待进一步探讨、完善.

  1. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-09-28

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control.

  2. The Neurological Manifestations of H1N1 Influenza Infection; Diagnostic Challenges and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization declared pandemic phase of human infection with novel influenza A (H1N1 in April 2009. There are very few reports about the neurological complications of H1N1 virus infection in the literature. Occasionally, these complications are severe and even fatal in some individuals. The aims of this study were to report neurological complaints and/or complications associated with H1N1 virus infection. Methods: The medical files of all patients with H1N1 influenza infection admitted to a specified hospital in the city of Shiraz, Iran from October through November 2009 were reviewed. More information about the patients were obtained by phone calls to the patients or their care givers. All patients had confirmed H1N1 virus infection with real-time PCR assay. Results: Fifty-five patients with H1N1 infection were studied. Twenty-three patients had neurological signs and/or symptoms. Mild neurological complaints may be reported in up to 42% of patients infected by H1N1 virus. Severe neurological complications occurred in 9% of the patients. The most common neurological manifestations were headache, numbness and paresthesia, drowsiness and coma. One patient had a Guillain-Barre syndrome-like illness, and died in a few days. Another patient had focal status epilepticus and encephalopathy. Conclusions: The H1N1 infection seems to have been quite mild with a self-limited course in much of the world, yet there appears to be a subset, which is severely affected. We recommend performing diagnostic tests for H1N1influenza virus in all patients with respiratory illness and neurological signs/symptoms. We also recommend initiating treatment with appropriate antiviral drugs as soon as possible in those with any significant neurological presentation accompanied with respiratory illness and flu-like symptoms

  3. Why do I need it? I am not at risk! Public perceptions towards the pandemic (H1N1 2009 vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kirsten F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the 30th September 2009, the pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine was made available to adults and children aged 10 years and over, in Australia. Acceptance of a novel vaccine is influenced by perceptions of risk including risk of infection, risk of death or severe illness and risk of serious vaccine side-effects. We surveyed a sample of residents from Sydney, Australia to ascertain their risk perception, attitudes towards the pandemic and willingness to accept the pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine. Methods We sampled residents using a cross-sectional intercept design during the WHO Phase 6. Members of the public were approached in shopping and pedestrian malls to undertake the survey during September and October 2009. The survey measured perceived risk, seriousness of disease, recent behavioural changes, likely acceptance of the pandemic (H1N1 2009 vaccine and issues relating to uptake and perceived safety. Results Of the 627 respondents, the majority felt that they had a "very low to low" (332/627, 52.9% risk of acquiring H1N1. 24.5% (154/627 of respondents believed that the disease would "very seriously or extremely" affect their health. Nearly half (305/627, 48.6% reported that in response to the "swine flu" outbreak they had undertaken one or more of the investigated behavioural changes. Overall, the self-reported likelihood of accepting vaccination against novel H1N1 was 54.7% (343/627. Conclusions While, most participants did not believe they were at high risk of acquiring pandemic H1N1 2009, over half of the sample indicated that they would accept the vaccine. Participants who were vaccinated against the seasonal influenza were more likely to receive the H1N1 vaccine. Concerns about safety, the possibility of side effects and the vaccine development process need to be addressed.

  4. Establishment of oligonucleotide microarray for detection of influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2%H1N1和H3N2亚型流感病毒基因芯片检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧煜; 梅琳; 侯义宏; 李全芬; 林祥梅; 韩雪清

    2011-01-01

    为建立同时能鉴别甲型H1N1和猪流感病毒常见亚型的新型基因芯片检测方法,根据GenBank中已发表的甲型流感病毒MP的基因序列和甲型H1N1(2009)和猪流感病毒H1N1、H3N2亚型的基因序列,设计、筛选并合成7对特异性引物和1对通用引物;根据扩增的靶序列,设计并合成14条特异性探针和3条质控探针,制备了甲型H1N1(2009)流感病毒和猪流感病毒H1N1、H3N2亚型基因芯片;并进行了特异性试验、敏感性试验和田间样品的检测。结果显示,该芯片检测方法与猪细小病毒(PPV)、猪瘟病毒(CSFV)、猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒(PRRSV)等猪常见病毒无交叉反应;对猪H1N1、猪H3N2和甲型H1N1(2009)流感病毒而言,最低可检测到105、104和105稀释的病毒株。结果证实,该方法特异性强、敏感性高,是一种高通量的甲型H1N1和猪流感常见亚型筛查方法。%Seven pairs of primers specific for different subtypes and a pair of universal primers were carefully designed based on the genomic sequences of A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus retrieved from GenBank database.Several multiplex RT-PCR methods were then developed.Further 14 oligonucleotide probes specific for A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus were designed according to the published gene in target cDNA domains.Then a microarray for A/H1N1 and swine influenza virus was developed with its specificity and sensitivity validated by using swine influenza virus strains and samples from different areas.The results showed that all the subtypes of swine influenza virus and A/H1N1 virus could be identified simultaneously on this microarray with high sensitivity,which could reach to 105 dilute viruses.Furthermore,there was no cross reactions with PPV,CSFV and PRRSV.Therefore the microarray is a useful diagnostic method with high specificity and sensitivity,and could be used for A/H1N1 and swine influenza surveillance.

  5. 甲型H1N1流感防护手册

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    甲型H1N1流感是一种新型甲型流感病毒引起的急性呼吸道传染病。甲型H1N1流感病人为主要传染源。目前认为,甲型H1N1流感传播性较季节性流感强,但病死率与季节性流感没有明显差异。

  6. H1N1病毒全球疫情防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    1、H1N1全病毒灭活疫苗(SlV inactivated vaccines)在已研制的H1N1疫苗中,技术最成熟并用于生产的主要是H1NI型和H3N2亚型单价或双价H1N1全病毒灭活疫苗。其形式多为油佐剂疫苗,灭活剂一般采用甲醛或BEI。据报

  7. 甲型H1N1流感疫情问答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1.问:什么是甲型H1N1流感? 答:美国疾病控制和预防中心专家解释说,甲型H1N1流感是由甲型H1N1流感病毒引起的一种急性呼吸道传染病,这种病在猪中经常发生,但很少导致猪的死亡.

  8. 预防甲型H1N1流感科普知识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海伦

    2009-01-01

    @@ 自2009年3~4月墨西哥、美国相继爆发甲型H1N1流感以来,世界正面临甲型H1N1流感大流行的威胁.目前,全世界已有100多个国家和地区出现甲型H1N1流感流行,确诊病例数已超过10万.

  9. 甲型H1N1流感病人的人文护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]总结甲型H1N1流感病人的人文护理.[方法]对9例甲型H1N1流感病人进行隔离和治疗,同时加强人文护理.[结果]本组病人均治愈出院.[结论]加强甲型H1N1流感病人的人文护理有利于病人预后.

  10. A(H1N1)Influenza Pneumonia with Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN YANG; YU-GUANG WANG; YUN-LIANG XU; XIAN-LING REN; YU MAO; XING-WANG LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION A 56-year-old Chinese female patient with A (H1N1) influenza pneumonia accompanied by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) of the Central Nervous System (CNS) is described in this article. The patient had typical clinical manifestation,and the diagnosis was reached after MRI and other examinations. From this case, we can conclude that the virus ofA (H1N1) influenza can infect CNS, and we should pay more attention to patients of A (H1N1)influenza pneumonia with neurological complications.

  11. Influenza A (H1N1) Prevention and Control Model Establish%甲型H1N1流感防控模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉婷

    2011-01-01

    本文在对经典传染病数学模型进行研究与讨论的基础上,根据所掌握的甲型H1N1流感病理知识,按照数学建模的一般步骤:模型准备、模型假设、模型构成、模型求解与分析、模型检验、模型应用,在MATLAB运行环境中,运用数据拟合和四、五阶Runge-kutta法,通过研究、分析,建立了甲型H1N1流感中后期防控数学模型。%In the classical mathematical model of infectious diseases on the basis of research and discussion,based on available knowledge of HIN1 influenza pathology, according to mathematical modeling of the general steps:model preparation,model assumptions,model structure,model solution and analysis,model testing,model application,running in the MATLAB environment,the use of data fitting and fourth,the fifth-order Runge-kutta method,through research,analysis,influenza A H1N1 influenza prevention and control in the latter part of the mathematical model.

  12. 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒血凝素基因进化及变异特征分析%Genetic evolution and variation of hemagglutinin gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑华; 韩一芳; 谢佳新; 韩磊; 苏彤; 鹿文英; 曹广文

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解自2009年3月新型甲型H1N1流感流行以来,其主要免疫原件基因-HA基因的进化及氨基酸变异特性.方法 从NCBI下载2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒以及北美地区、欧洲地区、亚洲地区以往流行的甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因序列,利用MEGA 4.0软件对所选序列进行基因进化系统发育树分析;对2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因的核苷酸同源性及氨基酸特异性进行分析,并与北美地区、欧洲地区、亚洲地区分离株进行比较.结果 2009年新型甲型HlNl流感病毒HA基因与2006-2007年美国A/swine/H1N1流感病毒同源性最高,核苷酸序列差异为0%~0.8%;与美国各州1930-2007年分离的A/swine/H1N1流感病毒具有明显的时间上的进化关系;与欧洲及亚洲地区A/swine/H1N1流感病毒进化无关.其重要的抗原性位点与A/human/H1N1流感病毒及流感疫苗株存在较大差异.全球流行半年多以来该病毒株没有发生明显变异.结论 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒HA基因是北美A/swine/H1N1流感病毒长期进化的结果,目前尚未发现明显抗原位点的变异.%Objective To elucidate the characteristics of genetic evolution and variation trend of hemagglutinin ( HA). a major antigenic gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. Methods HA gene sequences of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009, as well as that of the A/H1N1 influenza virus spread in North America, Europe and Asia, were downloaded from NCBI database. MEGA4.0 software was used to analyze the constructed phylogenetic tree of the selected sequences of HA gene. The nucleotide homology and amino acid specificity of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 were analyzed and compared with those in North America, Europe and Asia regions. Results HA gene of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 showed a highest homology (93. 2%-93. 4%) with the corresponding sequences of A/swine/H1N1 influenza

  13. 66例甲型H1N1流感的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤霞

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨甲型H1N1流感的有效护理措施.方法:根据甲型H1N1流感的病原学、流行病学以及临床表现,制定一整套科学有效的护理方法.结果:66例甲型H1N1流感全部治愈出院.结论:通过对66例甲型H1N1流感的护理效果观察,此套护理方法值得推广.

  14. Peramivir获准紧急用于H1N1的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ FDA已于近期批准BioCryst制药公司开发的神经氨酸酶抑制剂peramivir用于H1N1流感的紧急治疗,并已将其列入与H1N1流感爆发有关的突发公共卫生事件的应急措施清单,与H1N1疫苗及已批准的抗病毒药--罗氏公司的达菲(奥塞米韦)和葛兰素史克公司的Relenza(扎那米韦)共同用于H1N1的防治.

  15. 66例甲型H1N1流感的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤霞

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨甲型H1N1流感的有效护理措施。方法:根据甲型H1N1流感的病原学、流行病学以及临床表现,制定一整套科学有效的护理方法。结果:66例甲型H1N1流感全部治愈出院。结论:通过对66例甲型H1N1流感的护理效果观察,此套护理方法值得推广。

  16. Pediatric Healthcare Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Stakeholder Meeting - Summary of Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the meeting was to bring together subject matter experts to develop tools and resources for use by the pediatric healthcare community in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza activity during the 2009 influenza season.

  17. H1N1 infection in emergency surgery: A cautionary tale.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, J G

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 has spread rapidly since its first report in Mexico in March 2009. This is the first influenza pandemic in over 40 years and it atypically affects previously healthy young adults, with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The medical literature has been inundated with reports of H1N1 infection, the majority found in critical care and internal medicine journals with a relative paucity in the surgical literature. Despite this, it remains an important entity that can impact greatly on acute surgical emergencies. We present a case of previously healthy 31-year-old male who underwent open appendectomy. His post-operative recovery was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to H1N1 infection. This case report highlights the impact that H1N1 virus can have on acute surgical emergencies and how it can complicate the post-operative course.

  18. Encephalitis in a child with H1N1 infection: First case report from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications have been described with seasonal influenza infection. We report encephalitis manifesting as seizures in a child with confirmed H1N1 infection. Treatment with oseltamivir was started. Child was discharged without any neurological sequelae.

  19. The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009 virus (pH1N1 with peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stored serum samples (n = 2,379 collected during 2006-2008 were used to estimate baseline serum reactogenicity to pH1N1. In January 2010, we used a multistage-stratified random sampling method to select 50,111 subjects who met eligibility criteria and collected serum samples and administered a standardized questionnaire. Antibody response to pH1N1 was measured using haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay and the weighted seroprevalence was calculated using the Taylor series linearization method. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine risk factors for pH1N1 seropositivity. Baseline seroprevalence of pH1N1 antibody (HI titer ≥40 was 1.2%. The weighted seroprevalence of pH1N1 among the Chinese population was 21.5%(vaccinated: 62.0%; unvaccinated: 17.1%. Among unvaccinated participants, those aged 6-15 years (32.9% and 16-24 years (30.3% had higher seroprevalence compared with participants aged 25-59 years (10.7% and ≥60 years (9.9%, P<0.0001. Children in kindergarten and students had higher odds of seropositivity than children in family care (OR: 1.36 and 2.05, respectively. We estimated that 207.7 million individuals (15.9% experienced pH1N1 infection in China. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Chinese population had low pre-existing immunity to pH1N1 and experienced a relatively high attack rate in 2009 of this virus. We recommend routine control measures such as vaccination to reduce transmission and spread of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.

  20. Chart-confirmed guillain-barre syndrome after 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination among the Medicare population, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakowski, Laura L; Sandhu, Sukhminder K; Martin, David B; Ball, Robert; Macurdy, Thomas E; Franks, Riley L; Gibbs, Jonathan M; Kropp, Garner F; Avagyan, Armen; Kelman, Jeffrey A; Worrall, Christopher M; Sun, Guoying; Kliman, Rebecca E; Burwen, Dale R

    2013-09-15

    Given the increased risk of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) found with the 1976 swine influenza vaccine, both active surveillance and end-of-season analyses on chart-confirmed cases were performed across multiple US vaccine safety monitoring systems, including the Medicare system, to evaluate the association of GBS after 2009 monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccination. Medically reviewed cases consisted of H1N1-vaccinated Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalized for GBS. These cases were then classified by using Brighton Collaboration diagnostic criteria. Thirty-one persons had Brighton level 1, 2, or 3 GBS or Fisher Syndrome, with symptom onset 1-119 days after vaccination. Self-controlled risk interval analyses estimated GBS risk within the 6-week period immediately following H1N1 vaccination compared with a later control period, with additional adjustment for seasonality. Our results showed an elevated risk of GBS with 2009 monovalent H1N1 vaccination (incidence rate ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 5.11; attributable risk = 2.84 per million doses administered, 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 5.48). This observed risk was slightly higher than that seen with previous seasonal influenza vaccines; however, additional results that used a stricter case definition (Brighton level 1 or 2) were not statistically significant, and our ability to account for preceding respiratory/gastrointestinal illness was limited. Furthermore, the observed risk was substantially lower than that seen with the 1976 swine influenza vaccine.

  1. Blood libel rebooted : traditional scapegoats, online media, and the H1N1 epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Atlani Duault, Laëtitia (ed.); Mercier, A.; Rousseau, C; Guyot, P; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study of comments posted on major French print and TV media websites during the H1N1 epidemic illustrates the relationship between the traditional media and social media in responding to an emerging disease. A disturbing "geography of blame" was observed suggesting the metamorphosis of the folk-devil phenomenon to the Internet. We discovered a subterranean discourse about the putative origins and "objectives" of the H1N1 virus, which was absent from the discussions in mainstream televisi...

  2. 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and necrotizing pneumonia treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntae Ji

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old girl with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to a H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection was complicated by necrotizing pneumonia was successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. This is the first reported case in which a pediatric patient was rescued with ECMO during the H1N1 influenza epidemic in Korea in 2009.

  3. Radiologic Findings of Influenza A (H1N1) Pneumonia: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee; Park, Seog Hee; Park, Chan Kwon; Kim, Young Kyoon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) infection is a highly infectious disease, which has been rapidly spreading worldwide since it was first documented in March of 2009 in Mexico. We experienced and report two cases of Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia, accompanied by chest radiographic and CT findings. The chest radiographs revealed diffuse haziness and extensive airspace consolidation, whereas the CT scans demonstrated multifocal areas of ground glass opacity and airspace consolidation with a CT halo sign.

  4. 理性看待甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海霞

    2009-01-01

    继墨西哥、美国、英国、韩国等国相继出现甲型H1N1流感疫情后,2009年5月11日,中国内地也确诊了首例甲型H1N1流感病例。截至6月12日,全球确诊甲型H1N1流感病例已达28774例,我国内地也确诊126例。世界卫生组织警告:甲型H1N1流感比禽流感更可怕。甲型H1N1流感病毒早晚都会发生变异,使甲型H1N1流感能轻易在人与人之间传播,

  5. The investigation of Risk factors of influenza pandemic H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koorosh Holakooyi Naeini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza pandemic H1N1 is an acute respiratory infectious disease that is combination of two types of influenza virus type A (H1N1. This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting influenza pandemic H1N1. Methods: In this case-control study, the cases were 18 positive cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 and the controls were the patients who were admitted during the same time as the cases to sections of Orthopedics, Urology, Surgery and Women of the same hospital for reasons other than influenza. The data were collected through a form by two experienced nurses and then were fed into SPSS, and were analyzed using independent T-test and chi-square. Results: A significant relationship was observed between pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and a history of domestic travel, contact with confirmed patients, respiratory diseases, and diabetes (P0.05. Conclusion: People with underlying diseases, especially respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart disease and a secondary infection and cardiovascular disease most likely are susceptible to influenza pandemic H1N1.

  6. When pictures waste a thousand words: analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on television news.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerly Luth

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Effective communication by public health agencies during a pandemic promotes the adoption of recommended health behaviours. However, more information is not always the solution. Rather, attention must be paid to how information is communicated. Our study examines the television news, which combines video and audio content. We analyse (1 the content of television news about the H1N1 pandemic and vaccination campaign in Alberta, Canada; (2 the extent to which television news content conveyed key public health agency messages; (3 the extent of discrepancies in audio versus visual content. METHODS: We searched for "swine flu" and "H1N1" in local English news broadcasts from the CTV online video archive. We coded the audio and visual content of 47 news clips during the peak period of coverage from April to November 2009 and identified discrepancies between audio and visual content. RESULTS: The dominant themes on CTV news were the vaccination rollout, vaccine shortages, long line-ups (queues at vaccination clinics and defensive responses by public health officials. There were discrepancies in the priority groups identified by the provincial health agency (Alberta Health and Wellness and television news coverage as well as discrepancies between audio and visual content of news clips. Public health officials were presented in official settings rather than as public health practitioners. CONCLUSION: The news footage did not match the main public health messages about risk levels and priority groups. Public health agencies lost control of their message as the media focused on failures in the rollout of the vaccination campaign. Spokespeople can enhance their local credibility by emphasizing their role as public health practitioners. Public health agencies need to learn from the H1N1 pandemic so that future television communications do not add to public confusion, demonstrate bureaucratic ineffectiveness and contribute to low vaccination rates.

  7. Intense Seasonal A/H1N1 Influenza in Mexico, Winter 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; Chowell, Gerardo; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H.; Viboud, Cécile; Grajalez-Muñiz, Concepción; Miller, Mark. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A recrudescent wave of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 affected Mexico during the winter of 2013–2014 following a mild 2012–2013 A/H3N2 influenza season. Methods We compared the demographic and geographic characteristics of hospitalizations and inpatient deaths for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2013–2014 influenza season compared to previous influenza seasons, based on a large prospective surveillance system maintained by the Mexican Social Security health care system. Results A total of 14,236 SARI hospitalizations and 1,163 inpatient deaths (8.2%) were reported between October 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014. Rates of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths were significantly higher among individuals aged 30–59 years and lower among younger age groups for the 2013–2014 A/H1N1 season compared to the previous A/H1N1 season in 2011–2012 (χ2 test, p <0.001). The reproduction number for the winter 2013–2014 influenza season in central Mexico was estimated at 1.3–1.4, in line with that reported for the 2011–2012 A/H1N1 season but lower than during the initial waves of pandemic A/H1N1 activity in 2009. Conclusions We documented a substantial increase in the number of A/H1N1-related hospitalizations and deaths during the period from October 2013–March 2014 in Mexico and a proportionate shift of severe disease to middle-aged adults, relative to the preceding A/H1N1 2011–2012 season. In the absence of clear antigenic drift in globally circulating A/H1N1 viruses in the post-2009 pandemic period, the gradual change in the age distribution of A/H1N1 infections observed in Mexico suggests a slow build-up of immunity among younger populations, reminiscent of the age profile of past pandemics. PMID:25446616

  8. 2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行时空分布特征分析%Characterization of the Global Spatio-temporal Transmission of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋之犇; 白建军; 蔡俊; 李瑞云; 金震宇; 徐冰

    2012-01-01

    本文利用球面距离的Ripley'K函数,分析了全球2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行早期疫情的点空间分布模式.同时,通过对比2000-2008年甲型流感病例数据,分析不同纬度国家2009年甲型H1N1流感新增病例数的时间序列特征及其与国家入境人数的相关性.结果表明,2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行早期疫情呈聚类分布,其L函数值最大值区间与65个全球城市的最大值区间相同.78.5%的病例分布在全球城市周围600km半径内.时间序列特征总体上类似于历年甲型流感,但是北回归线以北部分国家在6、7月非甲型流感流行季节仍有大量病例出现.并且北回归线以北国家冬季暴发集中在第45周到第48周之间,早于历年甲型流感流行时间.进一步分析认为,全球城市是本次流感国际传播网络的关键节点.国际旅行是流感传播的重要途径,并在本次流感大流行前期主导着流感跨国传播方向.同时不同纬度的环境条件对2009年甲型H1N1流感大流行有重要影响.%In March of 2009, a novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus was first discovered in Mexico and quickly spread to over 200 countries in less than two years. However, limited research has been conducted on the characterization of the global spatio-temporal transmission of the pandemic. Applying Ripley 's K function based on the spherical distances, we analyzed spatial pattern of the outbreaks of the H1N1 pandemic from March 15, 2009 to June 9, 2009. Compared with other type A influenza occurred during 2000-2008, the 2009 H1N1 influenza showed generally similar temporal trend, but marked difference when we broke down the outbreak data of each country along the latitude. To look into the differences, we further associated the number of weekly cases of the H1N1 influenza with national arrivals through customs. Results show that the 2009 H1N1 influenza in early period was spatially clustered. The maximum value of the function L was

  9. Clinical profile and outcome of critically ill pregnant females with H1N1 influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Shastri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Record based review of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic suggests that pregnant women are at higher risk for hospitalization and death due to H1N1 Influenza. Aims To study the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill pregnant females admitted in intensive care unit (ICU with real-time recombinant polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR proven positive H1N1 cases. Methods A retrospective record-review based study was conducted at Sir SayajiRao General Hospital (SSGH and Medical College, Vadodara on data of confirmed rRT-PCR H1N1 pregnant females admitted during the pandemics of 2010and 2015. Demographics, clinical profile and laboratory investigations were recorded and outcomes (survived or expired were analysed. Results There were a total of 20 H1N1 positive pregnant females requiring ICU admission. With equal demographic distribution among rural and urban population, cough and fever were the most common presenting complaints. 65 per cent were in third trimester, the subgroup which also had the highest mortality. Mean days from onset until presentation was 5.05 days. 12 (60 per cent patients’ required invasive mode of ventilation and all died. Average hospital stay was 7 days. Foetus had favourable outcome in patients who recovered from H1N1 acute illness. Conclusion Pregnant females in our study had 60 per cent mortality. Thus, awareness, early diagnosis and treatment should be provided to them. Guidelines, policy changes and government protocols are required specifically for pregnant females with H1N1 Influenza A infection. Our study was an observational study and comparisons with non-pregnant females were not done, conclusions applicable to entire pregnant population was not derived.

  10. INFLUENZA A H1N1 DE ORIGEN PORCINO: Métodos diagnósticos Influenza A H1N1 swine origin: diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Vargas-Córdoba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El diagnóstico de la infección por virus influenza reposa sobre técnicas virológicas directas e indirectas. Las diferentes pruebas diagnósticas poseen niveles de sensibilidad y especificidad variables que dependen en gran parte de las características genéticas y antigénicas del virus circulante. En el caso de la aparición de una nueva variante viral las pruebas disponibles en el mercado deben ser validadas para comprobar su eficiencia de detección para el nuevo virus. En caso de baja sensibilidad y especificidad, las pruebas deben ajustarse con el fin de mejorar su poder de detección del nuevo agente. Existen múltiples pruebas diagnósticas que presentan cada una sus ventajas y limitaciones y su selección dependerá de las condiciones específicas de cada laboratorio diagnóstico.The diagnosis of infection by influenza viruses relays on direct and indirect virologic techniques. Different diagnostic tests have variable sensitivities and specificities depending to a large extent on the genetic and antigenic features of the circulating virus. When a new viral variant appears, commercially available tests must be validated in order to verify their performance at detecting the new virus. If a low sensitivity or specificity is found, tests must be adjusted in order to improve their detection power for the new agent. There are multiple diagnostic tests, each one with its own advantages and limitations; so the selection of a test will depend on the specific conditions of a particular diagnostic laboratory.

  11. Effect of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells: computational and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, swine flu (H1N1) had spread significantly to levels that threatened pandemic influenza. There have been many treatments that have arisen for patients since the WHO first reported the disease. Although some progress in controlling influenza has taken place during the last few years, the disease is not yet under control. The development of new and less expensive anti-influenza drugs is still needed. Here, we show that sesamin from the seeds of the Thai medicinal plant Sesamum indicum has anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1. In this study, the combinatorial screening method combined with the computational approach was applied to investigate the new molecular binding structures of sesamin against the 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1 (p09N1) crystallized structure. Experimental methods were applied to propose the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from H1N1-induced human PBMC model. The molecular dynamics simulation of sesamin binding with the p09N1 crystallized structure showed new molecular binding structures at ARG118, ILE222, ARG224, and TYR406, and it has been proposed that sesamin could potentially be used to produce anti-H1N1 compounds. Furthermore, the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced PBMCs by ELISA and signaling transduction showed that sesamin exhibits the ability to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and to enhance the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2 via downregulating the phosphorylated JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. This information might very well be useful in the prevention and treatment of immune-induced inflammatory disorders.

  12. A whole virus pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine is highly immunogenic and protective in active immunization and passive protection mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otfried Kistner

    Full Text Available The recent emergence and rapid spread of a novel swine-derived H1N1 influenza virus has resulted in the first influenza pandemic of this century. Monovalent vaccines have undergone preclinical and clinical development prior to initiation of mass immunization campaigns. We have carried out a series of immunogenicity and protection studies following active immunization of mice, which indicate that a whole virus, nonadjuvanted vaccine is immunogenic at low doses and protects against live virus challenge. The immunogenicity in this model was comparable to that of a whole virus H5N1 vaccine, which had previously been demonstrated to induce high levels of seroprotection in clinical studies. The efficacy of the H1N1 pandemic vaccine in protecting against live virus challenge was also seen to be equivalent to that of the H5N1 vaccine. The protective efficacy of the H1N1 vaccine was also confirmed using a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mouse model. It was demonstrated that mouse and guinea pig immune sera elicited following active H1N1 vaccination resulted in 100% protection of SCID mice following passive transfer of immune sera and lethal challenge. The immune responses to a whole virus pandemic H1N1 and a split seasonal H1N1 vaccine were also compared in this study. It was demonstrated that the whole virus vaccine induced a balanced Th-1 and Th-2 response in mice, whereas the split vaccine induced mainly a Th-2 response and only minimal levels of Th-1 responses. These data supported the initiation of clinical studies with the same low doses of whole virus vaccine that had previously been demonstrated to be immunogenic in clinical studies with a whole virus H5N1 vaccine.

  13. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neatherlin, John; Cramer, Elaine H; Dubray, Christine; Marienau, Karen J; Russell, Michelle; Sun, Hong; Whaley, Melissa; Hancock, Kathy; Duong, Krista K; Kirking, Hannah L; Schembri, Christopher; Katz, Jacqueline M; Cohen, Nicole J; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    The global spread of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) associated with travelers from North America during the onset of the 2009 pandemic demonstrates the central role of international air travel in virus migration. To characterize risk factors for pH1N1 transmission during air travel, we investigated travelers and airline employees from four North American flights carrying ill travelers with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Of 392 passengers and crew identified, information was available for 290 (74%) passengers were interviewed. Overall attack rates for acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness 1-7 days after travel were 5.2% and 2.4% respectively. Of 43 individuals that provided sera, 4 (9.3%) tested positive for pH1N1 antibodies, including 3 with serologic evidence of asymptomatic infection. Investigation of novel influenza aboard aircraft may be instructive. However, beyond the initial outbreak phase, it may compete with community-based mitigation activities, and interpretation of findings will be difficult in the context of established community transmission.

  14. New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus in a Young Man with H1N1 Infection

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    Faisal Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report a case of refractory status epilepticus (SE as an unusual early manifestation of H1N1 influenza infection. Introduction. H1N1 neurological complications have been reported and consist mainly of seizures or encephalopathy occurring in children. However, we only found a single report of an adult developing complex partial SE with H1N1 infection. Case Report. A 21-year-old previously healthy man was brought to the emergency room (ER after a witnessed generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTCS. He was fully alert and afebrile upon ER arrival, but a second GTCS prompted treatment with Lorazepam and Fosphenytoin. The initial EEG showed diffuse slowing, but a repeat one requested as the patient failed to regain consciousness revealed recurrent focal seizures of independent bihemispheric origin, fulfilling the criteria for nonconvulsive SE. Chest X-ray, followed by chest CT scan, showed a left upper lobe consolidation. H1N1 infection was confirmed with PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage material. Despite aggressive treatment with Midazolam, Propofol, and multiple high dose antiepileptic drugs, the electrographic seizures recurred at every attempt to reduce the intravenous sedative drugs. The patient died two weeks after his initial presentation. Conclusion. H1N1 should be added to the list of rare causes of refractory SE, regardless of the patient’s age.

  15. Framing of Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in a Singaporean newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnyat, Iccha; Lee, Seow Ting

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to understand how public health messages provided by the government in Singapore during an Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic were framed by the news media for the public. News articles were analyzed to explore how the global pandemic was framed as a local event, providing a unique exploration of the dynamic involving public health communication, news media and the state. Thematic analysis (n = 309) included the government-issued press releases disseminating public health information about H1N1 that were directly linked to news stories (n = 56) and news stories about H1N1 generated by the newspaper (n = 253). Four themes were found: (i) imported disease, (ii) war/battle metaphors, (iii) social responsibility and (iv) lockdown policies. Frame analysis revealed that the news coverage during the H1N1 pandemic reflected how the newspaper framed and mediated the information flow, amplified a positive tone for the government response, emphasized individual responsibility and utilized gain frames to construct local messages about the global H1N1 pandemic that reified Singapore as a nation-state.

  16. 2009年新型甲型H1N1流感病毒的进化趋势及未来防控中应考虑的问题%Evolutionary trend of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 and the major problems concerning prevention and control of this pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广文

    2009-01-01

    2009年流行的新型甲型H1N1流感病毒的8个功能基因各自有一定的进化特点,其主要免疫原性基因--血凝素(HA)基因源于北美猪流感病毒.2005年在美国衣阿华(Iowa)州分离的感染人的猪H1N1的HA基因、病毒聚合酶(PB2、PBl和PA)基因、核蛋白基因(NP)和非结构基因(NS)与此次新型甲型HlNl病毒高度同源(同源性超过90%),可能是此次新型甲型H1N1病毒进化过程中的中间步骤.神经氨酸酶(NA)基因源于欧洲H1N1猪流感病毒,基质蛋白(M1和M2)基因来自欧洲H3N2亚型猪流感病毒,两段基因可能在猪体内与Iowa株发生重排而进化成此次新型甲型H1N1病毒.本文分析了新型甲型H1N1流感病毒可能的进化过程,并提出了未来防控工作中需要注意的几个科学问题.%Objective Eight functional fragments of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009 had their own evolutionary characteristics. Among them, the hemagglutinin (HA), the major antigenic gene, was originated from swine influenza virus epidemics in North America. The HA gene, polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA), nucleoprotein gene (NP) and nonstructural protein gene (NS) of the virus strain isolated in Iowa of US in 2005 shared close homology (identities more than 90%) with the corresponding sequences of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009. The Iowa strain might be an intermediate step of the evolutionary process of this novel A/H1N1 influenza virus. The evolutionary process of the novel A/H1N1 influenza might be realized in pigs re-assorted with the neuraminidase (NA) gene from European swine H1N1 influenza virus and matrix proteins (M1 and M2) genes from European H3N2 swine influenza virus. The present paper presented possible evolutionary processes of the novel A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus in 2009, and pointed out several relevant scientific points which should be emphasized in the prevention and control of the epidemics of the novel A/H1N1 influenza in

  17. Influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus - experience of the clinical microbiology laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lucia Chenal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2009, a new variant of influenza A/H1N1 virus that had never been isolated before, was identified. From April 27 to December 31, 2009 the respiratory samples of 974 patients, obtained from suspected cases of pandemic influenza A virus infection, were analyzed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the “L. Sacco” University Hospital in Milan. The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 infection was performed initially through the use of different molecular biological methods: Seeplex® RV12 ACE Detection (Seegene, NUCLISENS® EASYQ® INFLUENZA A/B (bioMérieux, Influenza A/B Q-PCR Alert (Nanogen running in parallel with rRT-PCR (CDC to confirm the positivity to the new influenza virus, then was used a single specific test, Fast set H1N1v (Arrow Diagnostics. Retrospective study of data showed that 293 (30.1% patients were positive for the new strain of influenza A/H1N1 virus and 8 (0.8% for influenza A other than H1N1 virus.The distribution of influenza A/H1N1 cases showed two peaks, one on July (62.9% and the other one on October (36%, moreover we observed that 155 patients (53% out of 293 positive for influenza A/H1N1 virus aged under 20 years old. The first positivity peak was found in travelers and the second one, occurred 2-3 months prior to the classic seasonal epidemic influenza, was attributed to autochthonous cases , by which the virus had spread worldwide. The highest proportion of cases were among subjects aged from 0 to 20 years and, over this age the positivity rate decreased proportionally with increasing age, in agreement with data reported in other countries.

  18. Influenza pandêmica A (H1N1) 2009: fatores de risco para o internamento Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: risk factors for hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos da influenza pandêmica A (H1N1) 2009 em pacientes hospitalizados a fim de identificar os fatores de risco para o internamento e, consequentemente, para o agravamento da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional e retrospectivo realizado entre março e dezembro de 2010. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde. Foram incluídos somente os pacientes hospitalizados e não hospitalizados com confirmação laborator...

  19. Neurological complications after H1N1 influenza vaccination: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lessa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report 4 different neurological complications of H1N1 virus vaccination. Method: Four patients (9, 16, 37 and 69 years of age had neurological symptoms (intracranial hypertension, ataxia, left peripheral facial palsy of abrupt onset, altered mental status, myelitis starting 4-15 days after H1N1 vaccination. MRI was obtained during the acute period. Results: One patient with high T2 signal in the cerebellum interpreted as acute cerebellitis; another, with left facial palsy, showed contrast enhancement within both internal auditory canals was present, however it was more important in the right side; one patient showed gyriform hyperintensities on FLAIR with sulcal effacement in the right fronto-parietal region; and the last one showed findings compatible with thoracic myelitis. Conclusion: H1N1 vaccination can result in important neurological complications probably secondary to post-vaccination inflammation. MRI detected abnormalities in all patients.

  20. Two cases of exudative retina detachment and uveitis following H1N1 influenza vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong; CHANG Li-bing; ZHAO Min; LI Xiao-xin

    2011-01-01

    Uveitis was a rare adverse event of vaccination.We met two cases of acute uveitis with exudative retinal detachment following vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Case 1 was a 10-year-old boy who was admitted for bilateral blurred vision at 10 days after vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Vitreous opacity was obvious in both eyes.Broad exudative retinal detachment was observed in the right eye.Case 2 was a 47-year-old female who suffered from an acute high fever at 2 days after the vaccination of H1 N1 influenza.Later,she encountered bilateral headache and decreasing vision.In both eyes,mutton fat keratic precipitates,positive Tyndall phenomenon,congestion of optic disc and exudative retinal detachment were observed.

  1. Mongrelised genetics of H1N1 virus: A bird′s eyeview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarathna C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available H1N1 influenza, also known as "novel H1N1 virus" has led to a "global outcry." This virus is more virulent when compared with other seasonal flu viruses. Virulence may change as the adaptive mutation gene increases within the virus. A study at the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain as they showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction when compared with adults aged 18-64 years, who showed a cross-reactive antibody reaction of 6-9% and older adults with 33% immunity. This review article depicts H1N1 virus, its virulence with genetic evolution potential and preventive protocol for the dental professionals. This would allow us to comprehend the changes in the disease process and contribute in its prevention as "prevention is better than cure."

  2. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio Liberatore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (65years and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system.Case Presentation: A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus, a therapy with oseltamivir was started since the nasopharyngeal swab resulted positive for influenza A/H1N1. Clinical conditions andlaboratory findings progressively improved during hospitalization, becoming normal during a 2 month follow up.Conclusion: The possibility of a renal involvement after influenza A/H1N1 infection should be considered.

  3. Neuronal Antibodies in Children with or without Narcolepsy following H1N1-AS03 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Simon; Waters, Patrick; Snape, Matthew D; Cottrell, Dominic; Darin, Niklas; Hallböök, Tove; Huutoniemi, Anne; Partinen, Markku; Pollard, Andrew J; Vincent, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is caused by deficiency of hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin. An autoimmune basis is suspected, but no specific antibodies, either causative or as biomarkers, have been identified. However, the AS03 adjuvanted split virion H1N1 (H1N1-AS03) vaccine, created to protect against the 2009 Pandemic, has been implicated as a trigger of narcolepsy particularly in children. Sera and CSFs from 13 H1N1-AS03-vaccinated patients (12 children, 1 young adult) with type 1 narcolepsy were tested for autoantibodies to known neuronal antigens including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2), both associated with encephalopathies that include disordered sleep, to rodent brain tissue including the lateral hypothalamus, and to live hippocampal neurons in culture. When sufficient sample was available, CSF levels of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were measured. Sera from 44 H1N1-ASO3-vaccinated children without narcolepsy were also examined. None of these patients' CSFs or sera was positive for NMDAR or CASPR2 antibodies or binding to neurons; 4/13 sera bound to orexin-neurons in rat brain tissue, but also to other neurons. MCH levels were a marginally raised (n = 8; p = 0.054) in orexin-deficient narcolepsy patients compared with orexin-normal children (n = 6). In the 44 H1N1-AS03-vaccinated healthy children, there was no rise in total IgG levels or in CASPR2 or NMDAR antibodies three weeks following vaccination. In conclusion, there were no narcolepsy-specific autoantibodies identified in type 1 narcolepsy sera or CSFs, and no evidence for a general increase in immune reactivity following H1N1-AS03 vaccination in the healthy children. Antibodies to other neuronal specific membrane targets, with their potential for directing use of immunotherapies, are still an important goal for future research.

  4. Effect of the novel influenza A (H1N1 virus in the human immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pandemic by the novel H1N1 virus has created the need to study any probable effects of that infection in the immune system of the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood was sampled within the first two days of the presentation of signs of infection from 10 healthy volunteers; from 18 cases of flu-like syndrome; and from 31 cases of infection by H1N1 confirmed by reverse RT-PCR. Absolute counts of subtypes of monocytes and of lymphocytes were determined after staining with monoclonal antibodies and analysis by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from patients and stimulated with various bacterial stimuli. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (FN-alpha and of IFN-gamma were estimated in supernatants by an enzyme immunoassay. Infection by H1N1 was accompanied by an increase of monocytes. PBMCs of patients evoked strong cytokine production after stimulation with most of bacterial stimuli. Defective cytokine responses were shown in response to stimulation with phytohemagglutin and with heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adaptive immune responses of H1N1-infected patients were characterized by decreases of CD4-lymphocytes and of B-lymphocytes and by increase of T-regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Infection by the H1N1 virus is accompanied by a characteristic impairment of the innate immune responses characterized by defective cytokine responses to S.pneumoniae. Alterations of the adaptive immune responses are predominated by increase of Tregs. These findings signify a predisposition for pneumococcal infections after infection by H1N1 influenza.

  5. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed a the first influenza pandemic in this century and fourth overall since first flu pandemic was reported during the World War I. The past experiences with influenza viruses and this pandemic of H1N1 place a consider-able strain on health services and resulted in serious illnesses and a large number of deaths. Develop-ing countries were declared more likely to be at risk from the pandemic effects, as they faced the dual problem of highly vulnerable populations and limited resources to respond H1N1. The public health experts agreed that vaccination is the most effective ways to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic. The vaccines for H1N1 virus have been used in over 40 coun-tries and administered to over 200 million people helped in a great way and on August 10, 2010, World Health Organization (WHO announced H1N1 to be in postpandemic period. But based on knowledge about past pandemics, the H1N1 (2009 virus is expected to continue to circulate as a seasonal virus and may undergo some agenic-variation. As WHO strongly recommends vaccination, vigilance for regular updating of the composition of influenza vaccines, based on an assessment of the future impact of circulating viruses along with safety surveillance of the vaccines is necessary. This review has been done to take a stock of the currently available H1N1 vaccines and their possible use as public health intervention in the postpandemic period.

  6. [Effect of Yunnan herb Laggera pterodonta against influenza A (H1N1) virus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiao-ling; Sun, Qiang-ming; Wang, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Yu-jiao; Yang, Zi-feng; Huang, Qing-hui; Jiang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Xin-hua; Zhang, Rong-ping

    2015-09-01

    Laggera pterodonta is commonly used for treating influenza in Southwest China, especially in Yunnnan province. The main clinical effects of L. pterodonta include anti-influenza, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory. To investigate the anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus effect of L. pterodonta, neutralization inhibition and proliferation inhibition tests were performed. MDCK culture method was used to observe the cytopathic effect (CPE) of extracts from L. pterodonta in inhibiting influenza A (H1N1) virus and haemagglutination titre of H1N1 virus in vitro. The culture medium were collected at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and detected by Real time RT-PCR, in order to compare the effect of different extracts from L. pterodonta on in vitro proliferation of H1N1, virus. The result of neutralization inhibition test showed that hemagglutination titer of ethyl acetate extract were 8 times lower at 72 h; in proliferation inhibition test, hemagglutination titer of ethyl acetate extracts reduced by 2 and 4 times. According to the results of Real time RT-PCR test, the H1N1 inhibition ratio of ethyl acetate extract was 72.5%, while the proliferation inhibition ratio of ethyl acetate extract was 25.3%; as for petroleum ether extracts, the H1N1 inhibition ratio was 60.2%, while the proliferation inhibition ratio was 81.4%. In conclusion, both ethyl acetate extract and petroleum ether extract of L. pterodonta have significant neutralization and direct proliferation inhibition effects on influenza A virus.

  7. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  8. Kompliceret influenza A (H1N1) hos gravid i andet trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, A.S.; Hedegaard, M.; Hesselvig, A.B.;

    2012-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman at 25 weeks of gestation was admitted to hospital due to bilateral pneumonia with increasing hypoxia. She was tested positive for influenza A (H1N1) and successfully treated with oral oseltamivir. Nine days after the admission pathological umbilical flows were recorded and an ...... and an emergency caesarean was performed at 26 weeks + 2 days of gestation. The neonatal period was uncomplicated. Influenza A (H1N1) is especially dangerous in pregnant women and vaccination is important....

  9. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverio, Paola; Messinesi, Grazia; Brenna, Ambrogio; Pesci, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage. PMID:25383078

  10. Influenza A H1N1/2009 Infection in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral Galeano, Evelyn; Gavaldà i Santapau, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection. A retrospective study was performed in pediatric patients with solid organ transplantation and confirmed influenza A H1N1/2009 infection from June to December 2009, diagnosed in two Spanish teaching. Forty-nine patients were included. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 4 patients (8.2%), and 3 of them required respiratory support. There were no related deaths. Antiviral treatment within 48 hours...

  11. Breve revisión de la influenza A H1N1

    OpenAIRE

    Solari,Lely

    2009-01-01

    La influenza H1N1 (conocida como "gripe porcina") es un nuevo virus de influenza que se detectó por primera vez en seres humanos en los Estados Unidos en abril del 2009; Este virus es muy diferente y se está propagando alrededor del mundo. Puede causar más enfermedades o enfermedades más graves de lo normal; Las personas que tienen mayor riesgo de infección por la influenza "2009 H1N1" incluyen niños, mujeres embarazadas y personas con problemas crónicos de salud como el asma, la diabetes y e...

  12. Pulmonary Complication of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Infection: Imaging Features in Two Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wook; Seo, Joon Beom; Song, Jae Woo; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin Seong; Kim, Mi Young; Chae, Eun Jin; Song, Jin Woo; Kim, Won Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Novel influenza A (H1N1) virus is the pathogen of recent global outbreaks of febrile respiratory infection. We herein report the imaging findings of pulmonary complication in two patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. The first patient without secondary infection showed the ill-defined ground-glass opacity nodules and patch areas of ground-glass opacities. The second patient with secondary pneumococcal pneumonia showed areas of lobar consolidation in the right middle lobe and left lower lobe and ground-glass opacities.

  13. Preliminary results: surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine - United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon peripheral neuropathy causing paralysis and in severe cases respiratory failure and death. GBS often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or upper respiratory illness but, in rare cases, can follow vaccination. In 1976, vaccination against a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for GBS in the 42 days after vaccination (approximately 10 excess cases per 1 million vaccinations), a consideration in halting the vaccination program in the context of limited influenza virus transmission. To monitor influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine safety, several federal surveillance systems, including CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), are being used. In October 2009, EIP began active surveillance to assess the risk for GBS after 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Preliminary results from an analysis in EIP comparing GBS patients hospitalized through March 31, 2010, who did and did not receive 2009 H1N1 vaccination showed an estimated age-adjusted rate ratio of 1.77 (GBS incidence of 1.92 per 100,000 person-years among vaccinated persons and 1.21 per 100,000 person-years among unvaccinated persons). If end-of-surveillance analysis confirms this finding, this would correspond to 0.8 excess cases of GBS per 1 million vaccinations, similar to that found in seasonal influenza vaccines. No other federal system to date has detected a statistically significant association between GBS and 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Surveillance and further analyses are ongoing. The 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety profile is similar to that for seasonal influenza vaccines, which have an excellent safety record. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent serious illness and death from 2009 H1N1 influenza infection; illness from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus has been associated with a hospitalization rate of 222 per 1 million and a death rate of 9.7 per 1 million population.

  14. Genetic diversity of the haemagglutinin (HA) of human influenza a (H1N1) virus in montenegro: Focus on its origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugosa, Boban; Vujosevic, Danijela; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Valli, Maria Beatrice; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; Angeletti, Silvia; Scarpa, Fabio; Terzić, Dragica; Vratnica, Zoran

    2016-11-01

    In 2009 an influenza A epidemic caused by a swine origin H1N1strain, unusual in human hosts, has been described. The present research is aimed to perform the first phylogenetic investigation on the influenza virus A (H1N1) strains circulating in Montenegro, from December 1, 2009, when the first case of death due to H1N1 was confirmed, and the epidemic began causing a total of four fatalities. The phylogenetic analysis of the strains circulating showed the absence of a pure Montenegrin cluster, suggesting the occurrence of multiple re-introductions in that population from different areas till as far as the early 2010. The time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for the complete dataset has been dated in early 2008, pre-dating the first Montenegrin identification of H1N1 infection. These data suggest that virus was spreading undetected, may be as a consequence of unidentified infections in returning travelers. Anyhow, the estimated TMRCA of Montenegrin strains is fully consistent to that found in different areas. Compatibly with the time coverage of the study period here analyzed, molecular dynamic of Montenegrin strains follows similar trend as in other countries. J. Med. Virol. 88:1905-1913, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  16. Replication, Pathogenesis and Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Non-Immune Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookes, S.M.; Nunez, A.; Choudhury, B.; Matrosovich, M.; Essen, S.C.; Clifford, D.; Slomka, M.J.; Kuntz-Simon, G.; Garcon, F.; Nash, B.; Hanna, A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.; Queguiner, S.; Chiapponi, C.; Bublot, M.; Garcia, J.M.; Gardner, R.; Foni, E.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Larsen, L.; Reeth, K.; Banks, J.; Irvine, R.M.; Brown, I.H.

    2010-01-01

    The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1,2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment and evo

  17. Determinants of Parental Acceptance of the H1N1 Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilyard, Karen M.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Kim, Kevin H.; Musa, Don; Freimuth, Vicki S.

    2014-01-01

    Although designated as a high-risk group during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, only about 40% of U.S. children received the vaccine, a relatively low percentage compared with high-risk groups in seasonal influenza, such as the elderly, whose vaccine rates typically top 70%. To better understand parental decision making and predictors of acceptance…

  18. H1N1 Preventive Health Behaviors in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Sanza, Megan; Johnston, Lindsay; Petinaux, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background: When H1N1 emerged in 2009, institutions of higher education were immediately faced with questions about how best to protect their community from the virus, yet limited information existed to help predict student preventive behaviors. Methods: The authors surveyed students at a large urban university in November 2009 to better…

  19. Novel H1N1 Flu - Creating a Safe and Healthy Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-20

    This podcast helps businesses understand how novel H1N1 flu can affect their business and how to keep their workers and worksites safe.  Created: 5/20/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/20/2009.

  20. Radiological findings in patients with H1N1 influenza pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Abdelsalam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The predominant radiological pattern in H1N1 pneumonia is bilateral GGO and alveolar consolidation. In the CXR, the opacities were basal and midzonal while in the chest CT were peripheral and peribronchovascular with diffuse zonal involvement. Chest CT is more sensitive than CXR in diagnosing doubtful cases and in showing different patterns of opacities.

  1. Polymyositis following Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 and 2009-10 Seasonal Trivalent Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodoveo Ferri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic associations between inflammatory myopathies with vaccinations were described in the literature, raising the possible trigger value of vaccines in the development of these autoimmune disorders. Here, we reported the clinical history of 3 patients who developed polymyositis complicated by interstitial lung disease (2 cases and dermatomyositis (1 case, after influenza A (H1N1 vaccination.

  2. How to Prevent Getting and Spreading Novel H1N1 Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to prevent giving and getting novel H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of the Director.   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  3. Outcomes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were...

  4. Narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease: the role of H1N1 infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partinen, Markku; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Jennum, Poul; Julkunen, Ilkka; Vaarala, Outi

    2014-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterised by loss of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. The prevalence of narcolepsy is about 30 per 100 000 people, and typical age at onset is 12-16 years. Narcolepsy is strongly associated with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 genotype, and has been thought of as an immune-mediated disease. Other risk genes, such as T-cell-receptor α chain and purinergic receptor subtype 2Y11, are also implicated. Interest in narcolepsy has increased since the epidemiological observations that H1N1 infection and vaccination are potential triggering factors, and an increase in the incidence of narcolepsy after the pandemic AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 vaccination in 2010 from Sweden and Finland supports the immune-mediated pathogenesis. Epidemiological observations from studies in China also suggest a role for H1N1 virus infections as a trigger for narcolepsy. Although the pathological mechanisms are unknown, an H1N1 virus-derived antigen might be the trigger.

  5. Correlates of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Acceptability among Parents and Their Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Gargano, Lisa M.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children were a priority group for receipt of the pandemic (2009) H1N1 influenza vaccine. Both parental and adolescent attitudes likely influence vaccination behaviors. Data were collected from surveys distributed to middle- and high-school students and their parents in two counties in rural Georgia. Multivariable logistic regression…

  6. The hemagglutinin structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tianwei; Wang, Gengyan; Li, Anzhang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Caiming; Zhang, Rongfu; Cai, Qixu; Song, Wenjun; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; (U. Hong Kong); (Inter. Inst. Infect. Imm.); (Xiamen)

    2009-09-15

    The interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) and receptors is a kernel in the study of evolution and host adaptation of H1N1 influenza A viruses. The notion that the avian HA is associated with preferential specificity for receptors with Sia{alpha}2,3Gal glycosidic linkage over those with Sia{alpha}2,6Gal linkage is not all consistent with the available data on H1N1 viruses. By x-ray crystallography, the HA structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as its complexes with the receptor analogs, was determined. The structures revealed no preferential binding of avian receptor analogs over that of the human analog, suggesting that the HA/receptor binding might not be as stringent as is commonly believed in determining the host receptor preference for some subtypes of influenza viruses, such as the H1N1 viruses. The structure also showed difference in glycosylation despite the preservation of related sequences, which may partly contribute to the difference between structures of human and avian origin.

  7. Manténgase Informado Sobre la Influenza H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-03

    Este podcast habla sobre las medidas básicas que usted puede tomar para protegerse de cualquier enfermedad infecciosa, incluido el nuevo virus de la influenza H1N1.  Created: 5/3/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 5/3/2009.

  8. Antivirals Use During the Pandemic H1N1 2009 Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-23

    Charisma Atkins, CDC public health analyst, discusses antiviral use during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic flu outbreak.  Created: 1/23/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/23/2012.

  9. [Influenza A H1N1v treated with extra-corporal membrane oxygenation.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Reinhold; Severinsen, Inge Krogh; Terp, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    . Polymerase chain reaction test for H1N1v was positive until day ten. No mutations were found in the virus. The patient was given oseltamivir tablets and inhalable zanamivir as well as antibiotics. The patient was treated with extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (EcmO) for 12 days followed by ventilator...

  10. Outbreak of influenza A(H1N1) in a school in southern England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddard, N.; Paynter, S.; Paget, J.

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of influenza A (subtype H1N1) has occurred in a primary school in West Sussex, southern England [1]. The first cases of illness occurred during the first week of May 2004. One child was admitted to hospital during that week with symptoms of fever, confusion, headache, and conjunctivitis.

  11. De Quervain thyroiditis in the course of H1N1 influenza infection

    OpenAIRE

    Michas, G.; Alevetsovitis, G; Andrikou, I; Tsimiklis, S; Vryonis, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background/aim: Viral infections have been frequently associated with subacute (De Quervain) thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases. In the present case report we document a rare case of De Quervain thyroiditis in the course of H1N1 influenza infection.

  12. Experimental pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection of cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo demonstrate that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus may cause respiratory disease in cats, we intratracheally infected cats. Diffuse alveolar damage developed. Seroconversion of sentinel cats indicated cat-to-cat virus transmission. Unlike in cats infected with highly pathogenic avian influen

  13. Was Mandatory Quarantine Necessary in China for Controlling the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Geng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government enforced mandatory quarantine for 60 days (from 10 May to 8 July 2009 as a preventative strategy to control the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Such a prevention strategy was stricter than other non-pharmaceutical interventions that were carried out in many other countries. We evaluated the effectiveness of the mandatory quarantine and provide suggestions for interventions against possible future influenza pandemics. We selected one city, Beijing, as the analysis target. We reviewed the epidemiologic dynamics of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the implementation of quarantine measures in Beijing. The infectious population was simulated under two scenarios (quarantined and not quarantined using a deterministic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model. The basic reproduction number R0 was adjusted to match the epidemic wave in Beijing. We found that mandatory quarantine served to postpone the spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Beijing by one and a half months. If mandatory quarantine was not enforced in Beijing, the infectious population could have reached 1,553 by 21 October, i.e., 5.6 times higher than the observed number. When the cost of quarantine is taken into account, mandatory quarantine was not an economically effective intervention approach against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We suggest adopting mitigation methods for an influenza pandemic with low mortality and morbidity.

  14. Narcolepsy and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Most, Robbert; Van Mechelen, Marcelle; Destexhe, Eric; Wettendorff, Martine; Hanon, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data from several European countries suggested an increased risk of the chronic sleep disorder narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™, an AS03-adjuvanted, pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine. Further research to investigate potential associations between Pandemrix™ vaccination, A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection and narcolepsy is required. Narcolepsy is most commonly caused by a reduction or absence of hypocretin produced by hypocretin-secreting neurons in the hypothalamus, and is tightly associated with HLA-II DQB1*06:02. Consequently, research focusing on CD4+ T-cell responses, building on the hypothesis that for disease development, T cells specific for antigen(s) from hypocretin neurons must be activated or reactivated, is considered essential. Therefore, the following key areas of research can be identified, (1) characterization of hypothetical narcolepsy-specific auto-immune CD4+ T cells, (2) mapping epitopes of such T cells, and (3) evaluating potential mechanisms that would enable such cells to gain access to the hypothalamus. Addressing these questions could further our understanding of the potential links between narcolepsy and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and/or infection. Of particular interest is that any evidence of a mimicry-based mechanism could also explain the association between narcolepsy and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection. PMID:24342916

  15. Learning from Successful School-based Vaccination Clinics during 2009 pH1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar; O'Connell, Katherine; Stoto, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign was the largest in US history. State health departments received vaccines from the federal government and sent them to local health departments (LHDs) who were responsible for getting vaccines to the public. Many LHD's used school-based clinics to ensure children were the first to receive limited…

  16. Immunization-Safety Monitoring Systems for the 2009 H1N1 Monovalent Influenza Vaccination Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Daniel A.; Akhtar, Aysha; Mergler, Michelle J.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Izurieta, Hector; Ball, Robert; Lee, Grace M.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Garman, Patrick; Cunningham, Francesca; Gellin, Bruce; Koh, Howard; Lurie, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The effort to vaccinate the US population against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus hinged, in part, on public confidence in vaccine safety. Early in the vaccine program, >20% of parents reported that they would not vaccinate their children. Concerns about the safety of the vaccines were reported by man

  17. Calculating the potential for within-flight transmission of influenza A (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blower Sally

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clearly air travel, by transporting infectious individuals from one geographic location to another, significantly affects the rate of spread of influenza A (H1N1. However, the possibility of within-flight transmission of H1N1 has not been evaluated; although it is known that smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, SARS and seasonal influenza can be transmitted during commercial flights. Here we present the first quantitative risk assessment to assess the potential for within-flight transmission of H1N1. Methods We model airborne transmission of infectious viral particles of H1N1 within a Boeing 747 using methodology from the field of quantitative microbial risk assessment. Results The risk of catching H1N1 will essentially be confined to passengers travelling in the same cabin as the source case. Not surprisingly, we find that the longer the flight the greater the number of infections that can be expected. We calculate that H1N1, even during long flights, poses a low to moderate within-flight transmission risk if the source case travels First Class. Specifically, 0-1 infections could occur during a 5 hour flight, 1-3 during an 11 hour flight and 2-5 during a 17 hour flight. However, within-flight transmission could be significant, particularly during long flights, if the source case travels in Economy Class. Specifically, two to five infections could occur during a 5 hour flight, 5-10 during an 11 hour flight and 7-17 during a 17 hour flight. If the aircraft is only partially loaded, under certain conditions more infections could occur in First Class than in Economy Class. During a 17 hour flight, a greater number of infections would occur in First Class than in Economy if the First Class Cabin is fully occupied, but Economy class is less than 30% full. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the potential utility of air travel restrictions on controlling influenza pandemics in the winter of 2009/2010. They show travel by one

  18. French experience of 2009 A/H1N1v influenza in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Dubar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The first reports on the pandemic influenza 2009 A/H1N1v from the USA, Mexico, and Australia indicated that this disease was associated with a high mortality in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the characteristics of severe critically ill and non-severe pregnant women with 2009 A/H1N1v-related illness in France. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national registry was created to screen pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed 2009 A/H1N1v influenza. Three hundred and fifteen patients from 46 French hospitals were included: 40 patients were admitted to intensive care units (severe outcomes, 111 were hospitalized in obstetric or medical wards (moderate outcomes, and 164 were outpatients (mild outcomes. The 2009 A/H1N1v influenza illness occurred during all pregnancy trimesters, but most women (54%, notably the severe patients (70%, were in the third trimester. Among the severe patients, twenty (50% underwent mechanical ventilation, and eleven (28% were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Three women died from A/H1N1v influenza. We found a strong association between the development of a severe outcome and both co-existing illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-11.8 and a delay in oseltamivir treatment after the onset of symptoms (>3 or 5 days (adjusted OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.9-12.1 and 61.2, 95% CI; 14.4-261.3, respectively. Among the 140 deliveries after 22 weeks of gestation known to date, 19 neonates (14% were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, mainly for preterm delivery, and two neonates died. None of these neonates developed 2009 A/H1N1v infection. CONCLUSIONS: This series confirms the high incidence of complications in pregnant women infected with pandemic A/H1N1v observed in other countries but depicts a lower overall maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity than indicated in the USA or Australia. Moreover, our data demonstrate the

  19. Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury:Novel or classical pathogenesis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoyoshi; Maeda; Toshimitsu; Uede

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia.Due to their hostrange diversity,genetic and antigenic diversity,and potential to reassort genetically in vivo,influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans.Thus,newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health.In March 2009,a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic.The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses;it was identified to have originated from pigs,and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1,thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.Since the novel virus emerged,epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted,and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.In this editorial,we summa-rize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

  20. Descriptive epidemiology of novel influenza A (H1N1, Andhra Pradesh 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh R Allam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first case of pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 in India was reported from Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh on 16 th May 2009. Subsequently, all suspected cases seeking treatment from A (H1N1 treatment centers and their contacts were tested. Laboratory confirmed cases were hospitalized and treated with antivirals according to national guidelines. We reviewed the surveillance data to assess the morbidity and mortality due to A (H1N1 in the state of Andhra Pradesh (population-76,210,007 during the period from May 2009 to December 2010. Materials and Methods: We obtained the line-list of suspected (influenza like illness as per World Health Organization case definition and laboratory confirmed cases of A (H1N1 from the state unit of integrated disease surveillance project. We analyzed the data to describe the distribution of case-patients by time, place and person. Results: During May 2009 to December 2010, a total of 6527 suspected (attack rate: 8.6/100,000 and 1480 (attack rate: 1.9/100,000 laboratory confirmed cases were reported from the State. Nearly 90% of the suspected and 93% of the confirmed cases was from nine districts of Telangana region, which includes Hyderabad. Nearly 65% of total confirmed cases were reported from Hyderabad. The attack rate was maximum (2.6/100,000 in the age group of 25-49 years. The cases peaked during August-October. 109 case-patients died (Case fatality ratio: 7% and most (80% of these patients had comorbid conditions such as diabetes (24%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20%, hypertension (11% and pregnancy (11%. Case fatality was higher (16% among patients who were older than 60 years of age compared with other age groups. Conclusions: In Andhra Pradesh, H1N1 transmission peaked during August-October months and predominately affected adults. Case fatality was higher in patients older than 60 years with comorbid conditions.

  1. Illinois department of public health H1N1/A pandemic communications evaluation survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-09-16

    Because of heightened media coverage, a 24-hour news cycle and the potential miscommunication of health messages across all levels of government during the onset of the H1N1 influenza outbreak in spring 2009, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) decided to evaluate its H1N1 influenza A communications system. IDPH wanted to confirm its disease information and instructions were helping stakeholders prepare for and respond to a novel influenza outbreak. In addition, the time commitment involved in preparing, issuing, monitoring, updating, and responding to H1N1 federal guidelines/updates and media stories became a heavy burden for IDPH staff. The process and results of the H1N1 messaging survey represent a best practice that other health departments and emergency management agencies can replicate to improve coordination efforts with stakeholder groups during both emergency preparedness and response phases. Importantly, the H1N1 survey confirmed IDPH's messages were influencing stakeholders decisions to activate their pandemic plans and initiate response operations. While there was some dissatisfaction with IDPH's delivery of information and communication tools, such as the fax system, this report should demonstrate to IDPH that its core partners believe it has the ability and expertise to issue timely and accurate instructions that can help them respond to a large-scale disease outbreak in Illinois. The conclusion will focus on three main areas: (1) the survey development process, (2) survey results: best practices and areas for improvement and (3) recommendations: next steps.

  2. Mapping the sequence mutations of the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus neuraminidase relative to drug and antibody binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirota Fernanda L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we study the consequences of sequence variations of the "2009 H1N1" (swine or Mexican flu influenza A virus strain neuraminidase for drug treatment and vaccination. We find that it is phylogenetically more closely related to European H1N1 swine flu and H5N1 avian flu rather than to the H1N1 counterparts in the Americas. Homology-based 3D structure modeling reveals that the novel mutations are preferentially located at the protein surface and do not interfere with the active site. The latter is the binding cavity for 3 currently used neuraminidase inhibitors: oseltamivir (Tamiflu®, zanamivir (Relenza® and peramivir; thus, the drugs should remain effective for treatment. However, the antigenic regions of the neuraminidase relevant for vaccine development, serological typing and passive antibody treatment can differ from those of previous strains and already vary among patients. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Sandor Pongor and L. Aravind.

  3. Efficacy of vaccination with different combinations of MF59-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines against pandemic H1N1 (2009) influenza virus infection in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Bodewes, Rogier; Stittelaar, Koert J; van Amerongen, Geert; Kuiken, Thijs; Simon, James; Fouchier, Ron A M; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2011-03-01

    Serum antibodies induced by seasonal influenza or seasonal influenza vaccination exhibit limited or no cross-reactivity against the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype (pH1N1). Ferrets immunized once or twice with MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine exhibited significantly reduced lung virus titers but no substantial clinical protection against pH1N1-associated disease. However, priming with MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine significantly increased the efficacy of a pandemic MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine against pH1N1 challenge. Elucidating the mechanism involved in this priming principle will contribute to our understanding of vaccine- and infection-induced correlates of protection. Furthermore, a practical consequence of these findings is that during an emerging pandemic, the implementation of a priming strategy with an available adjuvanted seasonal vaccine to precede the eventual pandemic vaccination campaign may be useful and life-saving.

  4. Detection of the Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza A Virus by a Highly Sensitive Quantitative Real-time Reverse-transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yang; Guoliang Mao; Yujun Liu; Yuan-Chuan Chen; Chengjing Liu; Jun Luo; Xihan Li

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with specific primers recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) has been widely used successfully for detection and monitoring of the pandemic H1N 1/2009 influenza A virus.In this study,we report the design and characterization of a novel set of primers to be used in a qRT-PCR assay for detecting the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus.The newly designed primers target three regions that are highly conserved among the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and are different from those targeted by the WHO-recommended primers.The qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers are highly specific,and as specific as the WHO-recommended primers for detecting pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and other influenza viruses including influenza B viruses and influenza A viruses of human,swine,and raccoon dog origin.Furthermore,the qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers appeared to be at least 10-fold more sensitive than those with the WHO-recommended primers as the detection limits of the assays with our primers and the WHO-recommended primers were 2.5 and 25 copies of target RNA per reaction,respectively.When tested with 83 clinical samples,32 were detected to be positive using the qRT-PCR assays with our designed primers,while only 25 were positive by the assays with the WHO-recommended primers.These results suggest that the qRT-PCR system with the newly designed primers represent a highly sensitive assay for diagnosis of the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus infection.

  5. 甲型H1N1流感患者的护理现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉华; 杨桂红

    2009-01-01

    目的:为了提高甲型H1N1流感患者的护理水平,有效控制甲型H1N1流感的传播.方法:根据近期甲型H1N1流感相关信息进行了收集和分析,在此理论基础上提出了甲型H1N1流感患者护理的相关理论和经验.结果:甲型H1N1流感是可防、可控的.结论:提高甲型H1N1流感患者的护理水平,能有效控制甲型H1N1流感的传播.

  6. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.9 Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine...

  7. Preliminary study about sublingual administration of bacteria-expressed pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyekwon; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Song, Hohyun; Choi, Jungah; Shim, Byoungshik; Kang, Bokyu; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Yeom, Minjoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Song, Daesub; Song, Manki

    2014-09-01

    Sublingual (SL) administration of influenza vaccine would be non-invasive and effective way to give human populations protective immunity against the virus, especially when pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this study, the efficacy of pandemic influenza virus-based subunit vaccines was tested after sublingual (SL) adjuvant administration in pigs. Eight specific pathogen-free Yucatan pigs were divided into 4 groups: nonvaccinated but challenged (A) and vaccinated and challenged (B, C, and D). The vaccinated groups were subdivided by vaccine type and inoculation route: SL subunit vaccine (hemagglutinin antigen 1 [HA1] + wild-type cholera toxin [wtCT], B); IM subunit vaccine (HA1 + aluminum hydroxide, C); and IM inactivated vaccine (+ aluminum hydroxide, D). The vaccines were administered twice at a 2-week interval. All pigs were challenged with pandemic influenza virus (A/swine/GCVP-KS01/2009 [H1N1]) and monitored for clinical signs, serology, viral shedding, and histopathology. After vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition titre was higher in group D (320) than in the other vaccinated groups (40-80) at the time of challenge. The mobility and feed intake were reduced in group C. Both viral shedding and histopathological lesions were reduced in groups B and D. Although this study has limitation due to the limited number of pigs (2 pigs per a group), the preliminary data in this study provided the protective potential of SL administration of bacteria-expressed pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in pigs. There should be additional animal studies about effective adjuvant system and vaccine types for the use of SL influenza vaccination.

  8. Persistence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus on N95 respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulliette, A D; Perry, K A; Edwards, J R; Noble-Wang, J A

    2013-04-01

    In the United States, the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infected almost 20% of the population and caused >200,000 hospitalizations and >10,000 deaths from April 2009 to April 2010. On 24 April 2009, the CDC posted interim guidance on infection control measures in health care settings explicitly for pH1N1 and recommended using filtering face respirators (FFRs) when in close contact with a suspected- or confirmed-to-be-infected individual, particularly when performing aerosol-generating procedures. The persistence and infectivity of pH1N1 were evaluated on FFRs, specifically N95 respirators, under various conditions of absolute humidity (AH) (4.1 × 10(5) mPa, 6.5 × 10(5) mPa, and 14.6 × 10(5) mPa), sample matrices (2% fetal bovine serum [FBS], 5 mg/ml mucin, and viral medium), and times (4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 144 h). pH1N1 was distributed onto N95 coupons (3.8 to 4.2 cm(2)) and extracted by a vortex-centrifugation-filtration process, and the ability of the remaining virus to replicate was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the log10 concentration of the infectious virus per coupon. Overall, pH1N1 remained infectious for 6 days, with an approximately 1-log10 loss of virus concentrations over this time period. Time and AH both affected virus survival. We found significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) reductions in virus concentrations at time points beyond 24 to 72 h (-0.52-log10 reduction) and 144 h (-0.74) at AHs of 6.5 × 10(5) mPa (-0.53) and 14.6 × 10(5) mPa (-0.47). This research supports discarding respirators after close contact with a person with suspected or confirmed influenza infection due to the virus's demonstrated ability to persist and remain infectious.

  9. Vaccine Narratives and Public Health: Investigating Criticisms of H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Sudeepa

    2015-02-25

    Vaccine hesitancy is often understood and explored on the level of individual decision-making. However, questions surrounding the risk and efficacy of vaccination are evident in wider public discourse; social narratives of vaccination inform and impact on the individual level. This paper takes a narrative analysis approach from the sociology of health to examine data drawn from a wider study on global public health responses to the H1N1 pandemic. The paper concentrates upon criticisms to mass vaccination as recounted within the Council of Europe's debate of the handling of H1N1. It shows that three narratives were particularly dominant: problematizing the use of vaccination as a public health response; criticising the efficacy of the vaccines; and, questioning the safety of the strategy. This debate presents an important case study in understanding the way in which vaccines are problematized within the public discourse.

  10. Computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Viviane Brandao; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia [Faculdade de Medicina de Petropolis (FMP), RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    The present study aimed to review high resolution computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection. The most common tomographic findings include ground-glass opacities, areas of consolidation or a combination of both patterns. Some patients may also present bronchial wall thickening, airspace nodules, crazy-paving pattern, perilobular opacity, air trapping and findings related to organizing pneumonia. These abnormalities are frequently bilateral, with subpleural distribution. Despite their non specificity, it is important to recognize the main tomographic findings in patients affected by H1N1 virus in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis, characterize complications and contribute in the follow-up, particularly in cases of severe disease. (author)

  11. Blood libel rebooted: traditional scapegoats, online media, and the H1N1 epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlani-Duault, L; Mercier, A; Rousseau, C; Guyot, P; Moatti, J P

    2015-03-01

    This study of comments posted on major French print and TV media websites during the H1N1 epidemic illustrates the relationship between the traditional media and social media in responding to an emerging disease. A disturbing "geography of blame" was observed suggesting the metamorphosis of the folk-devil phenomenon to the Internet. We discovered a subterranean discourse about the putative origins and "objectives" of the H1N1 virus, which was absent from the discussions in mainstream television channels and large-circulation print media. These online rumours attributed hidden motives to governments, pharmaceutical companies, and figures of Otherness that were scapegoated in the social history of previous European epidemics, notably Freemasons and Jews.

  12. Learning from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: prospects for more broadly effective influenza vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ethan C. Settembre; Philip R. Dormitzer; Rino Rappuoli

    2011-01-01

    Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic. This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.%@@ Calls to develop a universal influenza vaccine have increased in the wake of the 2009 H1 N1 influenza pandemic.This demand comes at a time when analyses of the human antibody repertoire, informed by structures of complexes between broadly neutralizing antibodies and influenza hemagglutinin, have revealed the target of a class of broadly neutralizing antibodies.Recent studies suggest a path forward to more broadly protective influenza vaccines.

  13. Factors associated with vaccination against Influenza A (H1N1 in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Fonseca Victor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors and receiving information about the vaccine against pandemic influenza A (H1N1 associated with vaccination of elderly people. Study of quantitative and transversal nature, in which 286 elderly residents in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil participated. The association between variables was analyzed by the Pearson chi-square test, considering a 95% confidence interval and significance level (p≤0.05. The results revealed that, unlike the sociodemographic characteristics, many clinical, behavioral and informational aspects correlated significantly with adherence to Influenza A (H1N1 vaccination. It is believed that the findings can be used in strategies to control and prevent infection by viral subtypes within the elderly population, extensible even to other vaccine-preventable diseases, especially in light of possible future pandemics.

  14. Difficult airway in a patient with H1N1 pneumonia in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Türkay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficult airway is a frequent problem among adult patients in intensive care unit. All critical patients should initially be evaluated as a potential difficult airway cases. Development of a serious desaturation should be considered since these patients have less physiological reserve compared to those with difficult airway due to elective surgery. Development of respiratory failure with H1N1 associated pneumonia is likely and support of intubation and mechanic ventilator shall be needed. The objective of this report is to present the management of a patient with H1N1 associated pneumonia who required intubation however could not be intubated due to difficult airway. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 617-619

  15. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a child with H1N1 influenza infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Jane B. [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Remigio, Cheryl [Pediatric Residency Program, Department of Medical Education, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Milligan, Thomas [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Deline, Carol [Driscoll Children' s Hospital, Division of Neurology, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Since the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic of novel influenza A H1N1 in June 2009, there has been a sustained rise in the number of cases of this strain of influenza. Although most cases are mild with complete and uneventful recovery, multiple cases of severe infection with complications including death have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the majority of fatal outcomes in the United States have been related to pulmonary complications. We report a 12-year-old girl infected with influenza A H1N1 whose clinical course was complicated by rapid progressive neurologic deterioration and striking CT and MRI findings consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). To our knowledge this has not been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. We hope this case will alert radiologists to this complication and familiarize radiologists with imaging findings that herald ANE. (orig.)

  16. THE A (H1N1 INFLUENZA. SYMBOLIC DIMENSIONS OF A PANDEMIC ARTEFACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés G. Seguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to present the symbolic features that are exposed by the concept of artefact in the context of a pandemic alarm, such as the A (H1N1 influenza. The symbolic qualities entailed by the notion of artefact are well-known within the Social Sciences: Sociology, Anthropology, Archaeology, and Linguistics. The artefact is basically not an object, but an action aimed at designing, simulating or creating a simile by means of material, technological or linguistic structures. The purpose of the present work is to unveil the symbolic dimensions that are activated by the A (H1N1 influenza as a Pandemic Artefact: a the assumption of separating information from matter; b the need for a material support to enable the exchange; c the sociological reflexivity of the artefact and its agency; d the arbitrariness of its social use, that detaches it from the design as intention.

  17. C反应蛋白在甲型H1N1流感中的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕; 平芬; 张小平; 高爱武

    2010-01-01

    目的 本研究目的 在于探讨患者血中C-反应蛋白(CRP)浓度对诊断甲型H1N1流感的价值,观察甲型H1N1流感中CRP的变化.方法 选取20例确诊为甲型H1N1流感患者作为甲型H1N1流感组,选取20例上感患者排除甲型H1N1流感患者作为非H1N1流感组,分别测定其急性期CRP浓度,并进行比较.结果 甲型H1N1流感组的CRP浓度(94±17)mg/L明显高于非H1N1流感组(56±10)mg/L(P<0.05).结论 CRP浓度可以作为诊断甲型H1N1流感患者的敏感指标,有助于甲型H1N1流感患者的预后和治疗效果的评价.

  18. Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza: Experience from a critical care unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This case series details our experience with seven patients with pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza from an intensive care unit in India. All the patients had respiratory failure requiring ventilation except one; two patients developed pneumothorax. Of the seven patients, two died (28.5% and five recovered. Four patients had co-morbid conditions and one was morbidly obese; all the five patients were discharged alive.

  19. Seroprevalence study in Vojvodina (Serbia following 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v

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    Petrović Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The seroprevalence study was performed in Vojvodina during May and June 2010 in order to asses the effects of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v epidemic on herd immunity. It was a part of the Serbian Ministry of Health funded nationwide study. Objective. Prevalence of antibodies against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v was determined in a 1% sample of the population monitored for influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infections in Vojvodina through sentinel surveillance system. Methods. The study sample involved a total of 1004 inhabitants of Vojvodina. The control group consisted of randomly selected and age-adjusted 1054 sera collected in the pre-pandemic period. Sera were tested by the reaction of hemagglutination inhibition using influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 antigen in dilution from 1:8 to 1:256. Antibody titers ≥1:32 and ≥1:8 were considered protective and diagnostic, respectively. Results. The differences between control and study sera in all age groups were significant for both diagnostic ≥1/8 and protective titres ≥1/32 of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies (chi square test, p<0.001. The highest percentage of seropositive subjects was registered in the age group 15-19 years followed by children aged 5-14 years. Both diagnostic and protective titres were about twice higher in the vaccinated as compared to the non-vaccinated group. There were no statistically significant differences in seroprevalence between seven districts of Vojvodina. Conclusion. The 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v epidemic significantly influenced the herd immunity in our population regardless of low immunization coverage with highest immunity levels in adolescents aged 15-19 years and with similar herd immunity levels in all the regions in the province six months after the outbreak.

  20. Modeling of the influence of humidity on H1N1 flu in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEI, Y.; Tian, H.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2009, a heavy Flu hit the whole world. It was caused by the virus H1N1. The influenza first broke out in Mexico in March and the United States in April, 2009. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the H1N1 influenza became pandemic, alert to a warning phase of six. By the end of 2011, 181302 H1N1 cases were reported in mainland China. To improve our understanding on the impact of environmental factors on the disease transmission, we constructed an SIR (Susceptible - Infectious - Recovered) model incorporating environmental factors. It was found that the absolute humidity was a dominant environmental factor. The study interpolated the humidity data monitored with 340 weather stations from 1951 to 2011 in mainland China. First, the break point of the trend for the absolutely humidity was detected by the BFAST (Break For Additive Season and Trend) method. Then, the SIR model with and without the absolutely humidity incorporated in the model was built and tested. Finally, the results with the two scenarios were compared. Results indicate that lower absolutely humidity may promote the transmission of the H1N1 cases. The calculated basic reproductive number ranges from 1.65 to 3.66 with a changing absolute humidity. This is consistent with the former study result with basic reproductive number ranging from 2.03 to 4.18. The average recovery duration was estimated to be 5.7 days. The average duration to get immunity from the influenza is 399.02 days. A risk map is also produced to illustrate the model results.

  1. Challenge of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators with Viable H1N1 Influenza Aerosols (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    viable H1N1 influenza aerosols representative of human respiratory secretions and compares the VFE to the inert particle filtration efficiency ( PFE ) at 2...dose units) of the viable assay was used to calculate the reduction.24 The VFE of the FFRs was determined using equation (2), and the PFE was determined...model. The average PFE and VFE values for the 2 flow rates were compared using a 2-tailed unpaired t test. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test

  2. Analysis of a pandemic in the Italian newspapers: the A(H1N1 experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zanetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in 2009 a novel infective agent, a(H1n1, was recognized by the World Health organization (WHo as a pandemic virus. Like most European countries, Italy experienced a single pandemic wave during fall-winter 2009. The objective of our study was to evaluate the news reports and the representation of the a(H1n1 pandemic in the Italian newspapers both quantitatively and qualitatively.

    Methods: from april 24th, 2009 to February 28th, 2010, seven national newspapers were monitored for the quantitative reporting of a(H1n1. In a three month sample period, reports were evaluated quali- tatively by considering their front page presence, tones used for headlines, and images and figures dedicated to the topic.

    Results: in a ten month window, a total of 1220 articles were published. The reporting period showed four peaks and one hollow, with a similar pattern for all the newspapers. during the three-month sample period, we found a total of 382 articles, 98.4% of which appeared on front pages, 33.8% of which contained headlines using alarming tones, and 47.8% which contained info-graphic elements.

    Conclusions: the a(H1n1 2009 pandemic in Italy was mild; nonetheless, newspapers devoted great attention to the new influenza and used alarmist tones. In similar situations, there are several areas where scientists should play a greater role. scientists should support journalists in understanding scientific issues and help them translate scientific information into news items. scientists should also help to contain the anxiety aroused in lay people by a pandemic, and support vaccination efforts dedicated to it....

  3. Critical influenza (H1N1) pneumonia: imaging manifestations and histopathological findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; LI Ning; LI Yun-fang; ZHANG Hui-mao

    2012-01-01

    Background The global outbreak of influenza A (H1N1 ) has led to the Ministry of Health of China listing it as one of the A-class infectious diseases.Pneumonia is the most serious complication of influenza A,commonly causing death.Populations are ordinarily susceptible to influenza A.This study aimed to investigate the imaging manifestation features of cdtical influenza A (H1 N1 ) pneumonia and to improve its diagnostic techniques.Methods A total of seven death cases from critical influenza A (H1 N1 ) pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed on their imaging manifestations and autopsy data.Pulmonary CT scanning was performed for five cases,with one receiving additional chest X-ray and chest CT scanning,and chest postero-anterior position X-ray examination was performed for other two.Autopsy was performed for five cases and postmortem examinations were performed for other two cases.Results The seven cases of influenza A showed critical manifestations in 4-7 days after symptoms onset,with two having basic diseases of diabetes and one being pregnant.Extensive blurry high-density shadows of bilateral lungs were found in three cases,which were most obvious in middle and infedor parts of lungs.Pulmonary CT scanning revealed bilateral flaky parenchymal shadows in peripheral,dorsal and fundus segments of the middle-inferior parts of lungs,with one case of complicated pneumothorax,atelectasis and pleural effusion and another case of thin-walled cavity and dilated bronchi shadows in the superior parts of lungs.Conclusions Diagnostic imaging is an important assessing tool for cdtical influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia The imaging manifestations are characteristic instead of being specific.The definitive diagnosis can be made in combination with clinical examinations and laboratory tests.

  4. Melting muscles: novel H1N1 influenza A associated rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Dimple; Hewagama, Saliya; Doherty, Richard; Korman, Tony M; Buttery, Jim

    2009-12-01

    We report the first case of myositis and rhabdomyolysis after infection with novel influenza A (H1N1/09) virus. The case demonstrates the novel virus' capacity for causing significant disease. Myositis and the possibility of rhabdomyolysis should be considered in any individual presenting with influenza-like symptoms in which severe myalgia or muscle weakness is apparent. It is likely that we will see severe clinical manifestations of infection with this novel influenza virus in the coming respiratory virus season.

  5. Mechanical ventilation in patients with most severe forms of influenza a H1N1

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    Romić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pandemic of A H1N1 influenza is noted for its rapid spreading and life-threatening consequences like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS which requires mechanical ventilation (MV and intensive therapy (IT. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of mechanical ventilation application in the presence of comorbidities on the outcome of the disease and patients with severe forms of acute influenza caused by A H1N1 virus. Methods. Five patients with acute respiratory failure caused by A H1N1 influenza that required MV were included in the study. Course and outcome of the treatment were monitored in relation to age and sex of the patients, concomitant diseases, time of influenza beginning, a time of admittance in an intensive care unit, a time of an endotracheal intubation and MV beginning, MV duration and occurrence of secondary infections. Results. Three patients were on a very prolonged MV (39, 43 and 20 days, respectively and they all survived. Two patients with a significantly shorter duration of MV (14 and 12 days, respectively died because of a very severe clinical course and concomitant diseases. Unexpectedly, we found a positive correlation between duration of MV and survival although two patients, who were on MV for the longest period of time (43 and 39 days, respectively, developed, as a complication, secondary bacterial pneumonia. Conclusion. Intensive therapy of patients with ARDS due to A H1N1 influenza virus requires MV which should be carried out according to guidelines of international expert forums. That is in accordance with our unexpected observation on negative correlation between duration of MV and fatal outcome. Intensive treatment of these patients, specially MV, can be very prolonged and, therefore, requires specialized teams of anesthesiologists, separate, isolated intensive therapy units and high level of medical staff protection, as was the case in this study, so no member of medical

  6. CAN GOOD KAP AMONGST SCHOOL TEACHERS PREVENT H1N1 INFLUENZA? A BEGINNING .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Pune served as hub of H1N1 and recorded maximum deaths in India during 2009 pandemic. Teachers form important part of society which can greatly influence population. AIM: To study knowledge , attitude and practices on H1N1 amongst school teachers in Pune. Study endeavors to bring forth positive practices , which besides benefitting teachers would also translate into disseminating knowledge to students and families , resulting in maximum benefit to society. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: C ross sectional , KAP study amongst school teachers taken was undertaken METHODS: A questionnaire based , cross sectional KAP study was undertaken on 96 teachers from a public school in Pune during June - September 2010. Epi Info version – 2006 was used for data analysis . RESULTS : While most were well aware of H1N1 basics , 40% didn’t know danger signs/ complications. Knowledge on prevention demanded attention. 45% believed that H1N1 isn’t a big problem. About 1/3 rd couldn’t appreciate importance of isolation or use of mask. Only 6 4.6% would stay home on having flu. One fifth believed in wearing mask at workplace and about half in keeping distance of 1m from patients. About 60% didn’t believe in avoiding crowed places. 15% won’t wash hands. About 17% wouldn’t stay home or visit doct or if suffering from cold. Half would not take medicines. CONCLUSION: Fact that ‘good’ knowledge dwindled to ‘fair’ attitudes , which in turn didn’t translate into desirable robust practices , is alarming. Efforts must be directed towards enhancing knowledge , improving attitudes and imparting behavior changes for desirable practices , which will bring change in society. It’s recommended that IEC emphasizing prevention must be undertaken immediately.

  7. Community-based measures for mitigating the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyi Tang

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus in March-April 2009, very stringent interventions including Fengxiao were implemented to prevent importation of infected cases and decelerate the disease spread in mainland China. The extent to which these measures have been effective remains elusive. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of Fengxiao that may inform policy decisions on improving community-based interventions for management of on-going outbreaks in China, in particular during the Spring Festival in mid-February 2010 when nationwide traveling will be substantially increased. We obtained data on initial laboratory-confirmed cases of H1N1 in the province of Shaanxi and used Markov-chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC simulations to estimate the reproduction number. Given the estimates for the exposed and infectious periods of the novel H1N1 virus, we estimated a mean reproduction number of 1.68 (95% CI 1.45-1.92 and other A/H1N1 epidemiological parameters. Our results based on a spatially stratified population dynamical model show that the early implementation of Fengxiao can delay the epidemic peak significantly and prevent the disease spread to the general population but may also, if not implemented appropriately, cause more severe outbreak within universities/colleges, while late implementation of Fengxiao can achieve nothing more than no implementation. Strengthening local control strategies (quarantine and hygiene precaution is much more effective in mitigating outbreaks and inhibiting the successive waves than implementing Fengxiao. Either strong mobility or high transport-related transmission rate during the Spring Festival holiday will not reverse the ongoing outbreak, but both will result in a large new wave. The findings suggest that Fengxiao and travel precautions should not be relaxed unless strict measures of quarantine, isolation, and hygiene precaution practices are put in place. Integration and prompt implementation of

  8. Antiviral Medications for Treatment of 2009 H1N1 Influenza and Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-09

    This podcast features CDC's Dr. Sonja Rasmussen discussing the latest guidelines related to antiviral medications for treatment of 2009 H1N1 Influenza. Excerpt from a CDC-Medscape video series for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals.  Created: 11/9/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM); National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 1/21/2010.

  9. Vaccinology of classical swine fever: from lab to field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.

    2003-01-01

    There are two types of classical swine fever vaccines available: the classical live and the recently developed E2 subunit vaccines. The live Chinese strain vaccine is the most widely used. After a single vaccination, it confers solid immunity within a few days that appears to persist lifelong. The E

  10. H1N1 Influenza Patient Saved by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: First Report from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jahangirifard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a serious complication of H1N1 influenza that, if not properly managed, can cause death. When mechanical ventilation is not effective, the only way to save the patient’s life is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO. A prolonged type of cardiopulmonary bypass, ECMO is a high-cost management modality compared to other conventional types and its maintenance requires skilled personnel. Such staff usually comprises the members of open-heart surgical teams.  Herein, we describe a patient with H1N1 influenza and severe respiratory failure not improved by mechanical ventilation who was admitted to Masih Daneshvari Medical Center in March 2015. She was placed on ECMO, from which she was successfully weaned 9 days later. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 52 days. Follow-up till 11 months after discharge revealed completely active life with no problem. There should be a close collaboration among infectious disease specialists, cardiac anesthetists, cardiac surgeons, and intensivists for the correct timing of ECMO placement, subsequent weaning, and care of the patient. This team work was the key to our success story. This is the first patient to survive H1N1 with the use of ECMO in Iran. 

  11. Radiographic study of severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Cailei, E-mail: zhaocailei197866@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Gan Yungen, E-mail: mickeyym@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China); Sun Jie, E-mail: sunxixi@21cn.com [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, Shenzhen 518026 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To characterize the radiographic findings of pediatric patients with severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Methods: A retrospective study of data from chest X-ray, CT and MRI exam of 29 pediatric patients treated in intensive care unit for severe Influenza-A (H1N1) disease. Results: Disease developed quickly at early stage. Here are four types of radiographic findings. The disease continued to progress for 2-3 days and X-ray showed that all 29 patients had increased solid lesions with the existence of interstitial lesions. Four days later, all lung lesions showed absorption to certain degree. Fifteen days later, X-ray and CT showed complete or significant absorption in 19 cases (85.5%); delayed recovery was identified in 8 cases (27.6%), pulmonary fibrosis was found in 3 cases (10.3%), and 3 patients (10.3%) died. But the latter identified more lesions. Cranial CT and MRI were performed for 8 patients who had neurological symptoms. Of them, 3 cases (10.3%) were abnormal, showed symmetrical long T1 and T2 signal shadow in bilateral thalamus and longer T1 and T2 signals in the between. 3 cases had autopsy completed. Conclusion: The severe Influenza-A (H1N1) among children progression was generally rapid in the first 3 days. The overall radiographic findings are similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A small portion of the patients occurred acute necrotizing encephalopathy and plastic bronchitis.

  12. Meteorological Influence on the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Cai, J.; Feng, D.; Bai, Y.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since May 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has spread rapidly in mainland China from Mexico. Although there has been substantial analysis of this influenza, reliable work estimating its spatial dynamics and determinants remain scarce. The survival and transmission of this pandemic virus not only depends on its biological properties, but also a correlation with external environmental factors. In this study, we collected daily influenza A (H1N1) cases and corresponding annual meteorological factors in mainland China from May 2009 to April 2010. By analyzing these data at county-level, a similarity index, which considered the spatio-temporal characteristics of the disease, was proposed to evaluate the role and lag time of meteorological factors in the influenza transmission. The results indicated that the influenza spanned a large geographical area, following an overall trend from east to west across the country. The spatio-temporal transmission of the disease was affected by a series of meteorological variables, especially absolute humidity with a 3-week lag. These findings confirmed that the absolute humidity and other meteorological variables contributed to the local occurrence and dispersal of influenza A (H1N1). The impact of meteorological variables and their lag effects could be involved in the improvement of effective strategies to control and prevent disease outbreaks.

  13. Altered response to A(H1N1)pnd09 vaccination in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Carson, Charlotte Giwercman;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were suspected to be at particular risk when H1N1pnd09 influenza became pandemic in 2009. Our primary objective was to compare the immune responses conferred by MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine (Focetria®) in H1N1pnd09-naïve pregnant and non-pregnant women. The secondary aims...... at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 and 10 months after vaccination, adverse events were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: 58 pregnant women were allocated to Pa7.5 µg and 149 non-pregnant women were recruited to NPa7.5 µg. The sero-conversion rate was significantly increased in non-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) compared......-pregnant (NPa7.5 µg) groups (OR = 0.49 [0.13-1.85], p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests the immune response to the 7.5 µg MF59-adjuvanted Focetria® H1N1pnd09 vaccine in pregnant women may be diminished compared with non-pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01012557....

  14. Information Needs and Seeking Behavior During the H1N1 Virus Outbreak

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    Nor Ain Rahmat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely access to quality healthcare information during an outbreak plays an important role in curtailing its spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the information needs and seeking behavior of the general public in Singapore during the H1N1 pandemic. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The convenience snowball sampling method was used and 260 working adults and tertiary-level students participated in this study. The most crucial information needs of a majority of the participants were: symptoms of H1N1, causes of the infection, preventive measures, and possible treatments. Data analysis also revealed that mass media such as television, newspapers, and radio were most frequently used for seeking the needed information. The use of human information sources was also quite high while only a small number of the respondents accessed online news and healthcare websites. About three-quarters of the participants indicated that the gathered information helped them to stay vigilant and take necessary precautionary measures. A major problem identified by the participants in using H1N1 information was the lack of understanding of certain terms used in public communications. This paper suggests certain measures for strengthening health information communication during future outbreaks.

  15. Protecting the Public from H1N1 through Points of Dispensing (PODs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchiuso-Hasselmann, Anne; McKay, Ryan L; Williams, Christopher A; Starr, David T; Morgenthau, Beth Maldin; Zucker, Jane R; Raphael, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    In fall 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) operated 58 points of dispensing (PODs) over 5 weekends to provide influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination to New Yorkers. Up to 7 sites were opened each day across the 5 boroughs, with almost 50,000 New Yorkers being vaccinated. The policies and protocols used were based on those developed for New York City's POD Plan, the cornerstone of the city's mass prophylaxis planning. Before the H1N1 experience, NYC had not opened more than 5 PODs simultaneously and had only experienced the higher patient volume seen with the H1N1 PODs on 1 prior occasion. Therefore, DOHMH identified factors that contributed to the success of POD operations, as well as areas for improvement to inform future mass prophylaxis planning and response. Though this was a relatively small-scale, preplanned operation, during which a maximum of 7 PODs were operated on a given day, the findings have implications for larger-scale mass prophylaxis planning for emergencies.

  16. Evolutionary pathways of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 in the UK.

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    Monica Galiano

    Full Text Available The emergence of the influenza (H1N1 2009 virus provided a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a pandemic virus following its introduction into the human population. Virological and clinical surveillance in the UK were comprehensive during the first and second waves of the pandemic in 2009, with extensive laboratory confirmation of infection allowing a detailed sampling of representative circulating viruses. We sequenced the complete coding region of the haemagglutinin (HA segment of 685 H1N1 pandemic viruses selected without bias during two waves of pandemic in the UK (April-December 2009. Phylogenetic analysis showed that although temporal accumulation of amino acid changes was observed in the HA sequences, the overall diversity was less than that typically seen for seasonal influenza A H1N1 or H3N2. There was co-circulation of multiple variants as characterised by signature amino acid changes in the HA. A specific substitution (S203T became predominant both in UK and global isolates. No antigenic drift occurred during 2009 as viruses with greater than four-fold reduction in their haemagglutination inhibition (HI titre ("low reactors" were detected in a low proportion (3% and occurred sporadically. Although some limited antigenic divergence in viruses with four-fold reduction in HI titre might be related to the presence of 203T, additional studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  17. Entry screening to delay local transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1

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    Wong Helen WC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the WHO issued the global alert for 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1, many national health agencies began to screen travelers on entry in airports, ports and border crossings to try to delay local transmission. Methods We reviewed entry screening policies adopted by different nations and ascertained dates of official report of the first laboratory-confirmed imported H1N1 case and the first laboratory-confirmed untraceable or 'local' H1N1 case. Results Implementation of entry screening policies was associated with on average additional 7-12 day delays in local transmission compared to nations that did not implement entry screening, with lower bounds of 95% confidence intervals consistent with no additional delays and upper bounds extending to 20-30 day additional delays. Conclusions Entry screening may lead to short-term delays in local transmission of a novel strain of influenza virus. The resources required for implementation should be balanced against the expected benefits of entry screening.

  18. Subacute thyroiditis in the course of novel H1N1 influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimos, Georgios; Pappas, Georgios; Akritidis, Nikolaos

    2010-06-01

    To describe the first documented case of subacute (De Quervain) thyroiditis in the course of novel H1N1 influenza infection. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed at the General Hospital "G. Hatzikosta" of Ioannina, Greece. A 55-year-old previously healthy male developed an influenza-like syndrome that was accompanied by severe neck pain, palpitations, weight loss, and disproportionately increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Polymerase chain reaction assay of pharyngeal swabs confirmed the diagnosis of novel H1N1 influenza infection. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was suppressed to zero and levels of free thyroxine and particularly triiodothyronine were increased. Technetium-99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed diffuse and inhomogeneous very low technetium trapping. The patient was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and thyroid function gradually normalized without evolving to a hypothyroid phase. This is the first case of subacute thyroiditis associated with novel H1N1 influenza infection. Furthermore, this is the first case to definitely demonstrate active influenza infection of any type concurrent with thyroiditis, and one of the very rare similar cases for any active viral disease etiologically implicated in the pathogenesis of subacute thyroiditis.

  19. 甲型流感H1N1病毒遗传进化关系分析%Analysis of the Variation and Evolution of Influenza A (H1N1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常彦磊; 石磊

    2009-01-01

    探讨研究当前流行性甲型流感H1N1病毒与已知人流感H1N1病毒、禽流感H1N1病毒,猪流感H1N1病毒之间的遗传进化关系,对7株甲型H1N1、32株已知人流感H1N1、18株禽流感H1N1、33株猪流感H1N1病毒的基因组各基因片段分别进行基因序列遗传进化分析,选取同源性高的毒株构建进化树.结果显示,新型人流感病毒A型H1N1中HA,MP、NA,NP、NS、PB1基因片段与猪流感病毒分离株有很高的同源性,而PA、PB2基因与禽流感病毒分离株同源性较高.

  20. Clinical and radiological features of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection manifesting as acute febrile respiratory illness at their initial presentations: comparison with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients

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    Yun, Tae Jin (Dept. of Radiology, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Park, Chang Min; Choi, Seung Hong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Kwon, Gu Jin (Dept. of Family Medicine, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Family Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)); Woo, Sung Koo (Dept. of Radiology, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)); Park, Seung Hoon (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Armed Force Byukjae Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-05-15

    Background Since the first outbreak caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza in Mexico, the virus has spread widely across the world with meaningful morbidity and mortality. However, there are few data on the comparative investigations to assess the clinical and radiological features between the H1N1 patient and non-H1N1 patients. Purpose To assess the clinical and radiological features of patients infected by the pandemic H1N1 2009 flu virus at their initial presentation and to compare them with contemporaneous non-H1N1 patients with acute febrile respiratory illness. Material and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the ethics committee of the Armed Forces Medical Command, South Korea. From August to September 2009, 337 consecutive patients presented with an acute febrile respiratory illness in a tertiary military hospital. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction tests were performed in 62 of these patients under the impression of H1N1 infection. Clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation were described for the H1N1 group (n = 35) and non-H1N1 group (n = 27) and compared between the two groups. Results Increased C-reactive protein level (97%) without leukocytosis (9%) or increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0%) was common in the H1N1 group at their initial presentation. On chest radiographs, 12 of 35 (34%) H1N1 patients had abnormal findings; nodules in 10 patients (83%) and consolidations in two (17%). Of the 28 H1N1 patients who underwent thin-section CT 16 patients (57%) showed abnormal findings; ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in 15 (94%), and nodules in 13 (81%). However, there were no significant differences between the H1N1 group and non-H1N1 group in terms of symptoms, laboratory results, or radiological findings (P > 0.05). Conclusion Patients with H1N1 infection show consistent clinical and radiological features at their initial presentation, however, clinical and radiological features of the H1N1 group are

  1. Influenza pandêmica A (H1N1 2009: fatores de risco para o internamento Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009: risk factors for hospitalization

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    Luana Lenzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos da influenza pandêmica A (H1N1 2009 em pacientes hospitalizados a fim de identificar os fatores de risco para o internamento e, consequentemente, para o agravamento da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional e retrospectivo realizado entre março e dezembro de 2010. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde. Foram incluídos somente os pacientes hospitalizados e não hospitalizados com confirmação laboratorial da infecção durante o período de estudo. As variáveis referentes às características demográficas e clínicas foram avaliadas estatisticamente a fim de comparar as taxas de internamento na presença ou na ausência desses fatores. Os fatores de risco foram identificados por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 4.740 pacientes com confirmação laboratorial da infecção. Desses, 1.911 foram internados, e 258 (13,5% foram a óbito. Os fatores de risco para o internamento foram idade (faixa etária de 20 a 29 anos, etnia negra ou indígena, presença de algumas comorbidades (cardiopatias, pneumopatias, nefropatias, hemoglobinopatia, imunodepressão, diabetes, obesidade, puerpério e tabagismo, número alto de comorbidades associadas, e alguns sintomas (dispneia, diarreia, vômito, dor torácica, hemoptise, pneumonia e sibilos. Níveis maiores de escolaridade e uso precoce do oseltamivir foram relacionados a fatores de proteção. A hospitalização contribuiu para o aumento da sobrevida. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento das características epidemiológicas que podem estar associadas a internação, gravidade da doença e mortalidade podem ser úteis na adoção de medidas preventivas e no diagnóstico e tratamento precoce da doença, colaborando para a diminuição dos óbitos e da necessidade de hospitalização.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 in hospitalized patients in order to identify risk

  2. Factors Affecting Intention among Students to Be Vaccinated against A/H1N1 Influenza: A Health Belief Model Approach

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    Sharon Teitler-Regev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of A/H1N1 influenza (henceforth, swine flu in 2009 was characterized mainly by morbidity rates among young people. This study examined the factors affecting the intention to be vaccinated against the swine flu among students in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed in December 2009 among 387 students at higher-education institutions. The research questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and Health Belief Model principles. The results show that the factors positively affecting the intention to take the swine flu vaccine were past experience with seasonal flu shot and three HBM categories: higher levels of perceived susceptibility for catching the illness, perceived seriousness of illness, and lower levels of barriers. We conclude that offering the vaccine at workplaces may raise the intention to take the vaccine among young people in Israel.

  3. Planning for the next influenza H1N1 season: a modelling study

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    Pelat Camille

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of herd immunity before and after the first 2009 pandemic season is not precisely known, and predicting the shape of the next pandemic H1N1 season is a difficult challenge. Methods This was a modelling study based on data on medical visits for influenza-like illness collected by the French General Practitioner Sentinel network, as well as pandemic H1N1 vaccination coverage rates, and an individual-centred model devoted to influenza. We estimated infection attack rates during the first 2009 pandemic H1N1 season in France, and the rates of pre- and post-exposure immunity. We then simulated various scenarios in which a pandemic influenza H1N1 virus would be reintroduced into a population with varying levels of protective cross-immunity, and considered the impact of extending influenza vaccination. Results During the first pandemic season in France, the proportion of infected persons was 18.1% overall, 38.3% among children, 14.8% among younger adults and 1.6% among the elderly. The rates of pre-exposure immunity required to fit data collected during the first pandemic season were 36% in younger adults and 85% in the elderly. We estimated that the rate of post-exposure immunity was 57.3% (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI 49.6%-65.0% overall, 44.6% (95%CI 35.5%-53.6% in children, 53.8% (95%CI 44.5%-63.1% in younger adults, and 87.4% (95%CI 82.0%-92.8% in the elderly. The shape of a second season would depend on the degree of persistent protective cross-immunity to descendants of the 2009 H1N1 viruses. A cross-protection rate of 70% would imply that only a small proportion of the population would be affected. With a cross-protection rate of 50%, the second season would have a disease burden similar to the first, while vaccination of 50% of the entire population, in addition to the population vaccinated during the first pandemic season, would halve this burden. With a cross-protection rate of 30%, the second season could be

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection is correlated with the severity of H1N1 pandemic influenza.

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    Gustavo Palacios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Initial reports in May 2009 of the novel influenza strain H1N1pdm estimated a case fatality rate (CFR of 0.6%, similar to that of seasonal influenza. In July 2009, however, Argentina reported 3056 cases with 137 deaths, representing a CFR of 4.5%. Potential explanations for increased CFR included virus reassortment or genetic drift, or infection of a more vulnerable population. Virus genomic sequencing of 26 Argentinian samples representing both severe and mild disease indicated no evidence of reassortment, mutations associated with resistance to antiviral drugs, or genetic drift that might contribute to virulence. Furthermore, no evidence was found for increased frequency of risk factors for H1N1pdm disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined nasopharyngeal swab samples (NPS from 199 cases of H1N1pdm infection from Argentina with MassTag PCR, testing for 33 additional microbial agents. The study population consisted of 199 H1N1pdm-infected subjects sampled between 23 June and 4 July 2009. Thirty-nine had severe disease defined as death (n = 20 or hospitalization (n = 19; 160 had mild disease. At least one additional agent of potential pathogenic importance was identified in 152 samples (76%, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 62; Haemophilus influenzae (n = 104; human respiratory syncytial virus A (n = 11 and B (n = 1; human rhinovirus A (n = 1 and B (n = 4; human coronaviruses 229E (n = 1 and OC43 (n = 2; Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 2; Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 2; Serratia marcescens (n = 1; and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 35 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, n = 6. The presence of S. pneumoniae was strongly correlated with severe disease. S. pneumoniae was present in 56.4% of severe cases versus 25% of mild cases; more than one-third of H1N1pdm NPS with S. pneumoniae were from subjects with severe disease (22 of 62 S. pneumoniae-positive NPS, p = 0.0004. In subjects 6 to 55 years of age, the adjusted odds ratio

  5. Neutralization and Binding Profile of Monoclonal Antibodies Generated Against Influenza A H1N1 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Malik, Ankita; Saini, Ashok; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide scope for the development of better therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Herein, we describe the binding and neutralization profile(s) for a panel of murine MAbs generated against influenza A H1N1 viruses elicited by immunization with pandemic H1 recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA)/whole virus or seasonal H1 rHA. Neutralizing MAbs, MA-2070 and MA-M, were obtained after pandemic A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus/rHA immunization(s). Both MAbs reacted specifically with rHA from A/California/07/2009 and A/England/195/2009 in ELISA. MA-2070 bound rHA of A/California/07/2009 with high affinity (KD = 51.36 ± 9.20 nM) and exhibited potent in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.50 μg/mL). MA-2070 bound within the stem domain of HA. MA-M exhibited both hemagglutination inhibition (HI, 1.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 0.66 μg/mL) activity against the pandemic A/California/07/2009 virus and showed higher binding affinity (KD = 9.80 ± 0.67 nM) than MA-2070. MAb, MA-H generated against the seasonal A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 (H1N1) rHA binds within the head domain and bound the seasonal H1N1 (A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 and A/New Caledonia/20/1990) rHAs with high affinity (KD; 0.72-8.23 nM). MA-H showed high HI (2.50 μg/mL) and in vitro neutralization (IC50 = 2.61 μg/mL) activity against the A/Solomon Islands/03/2006 virus. All 3 MAbs failed to react in ELISA with rHA from various strains of H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H7N9, and influenza virus B, suggesting their specificity for either pandemic or seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. The MAbs reported here may be useful in developing diagnostic assays.

  6. Viral shedding in Chinese young adults with mild 2009 H1N1 influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Ning; GAO Yan; SUO Ji-jiang; XIE Li-jun; YAN Zhong-qiang; XING Yu-bin; HE Lei; LIU Yun-xi

    2011-01-01

    Background The duration of viral shedding and the transmission of 2009 H1N1 influenza among individuals, especially among the younger population with mild illness, are not well understood now. The aim of this study was to determine the viral shedding of the young adult patients with mild 2009 H1N1 influenza in China.Methods From September 2009 to January 2010, the clinical data and serial nasopharyngeal swabs of 67 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza and 37 patients with seasonal influenza aged from 18 years to 35 years were collected. The nasopharyngeal swab samples were detected by real time RT-PCR to determine the viral shedding. All the patients did not receive the antiviral therapy but Chinese medicine for detoxicating.Results Among the patients with H1N1 virus infection, 82.1% (55/67) patients presented with fever symptom, while more patients with high fever (≥39℃) were found in seasonal influenza patients (P<0.05). For the H1N1 patients, the median interval between the symptom onset and the undetectable RNA was six days (4-10 days). But viral shedding was still found in 31.3% patients after 7 days following illness onset. The median interval between disappearance of fever and an undetectable viral RNA level was three days (2-8 days), and 17.9% patients were found to be viral shedding 6 days later after normalization of body temperature. For the seasonal influenza patients, 94.6% patients were detected out viral RNA within 7 days. The median interval of seasonal influenza between the symptom onset and the undetectable RNA was four days (3-8 days). The median interval between disappearance of fever and an undetectable viral RNA level was three days (2-6 days).Conclusion It suggests that 7 days isolation period from the illness onset or 24 hours after the resolution of fever and respiratory symptoms are not long enough to cut off the transmission among Chinese young adults with mild illness.

  7. Community responses to communication campaigns for influenza A (H1N1: a focus group study

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    Gray Lesley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study contributed to the initiative by providing qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behavioural change and the differential impact on vulnerable groups in New Zealand. Methods Qualitative data were collected on community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 Ministry of Health H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behaviour and the differential impact on vulnerable groups. Eight focus groups were held in the winter of 2010 with 80 participants from groups identified by the Ministry of Health as vulnerable to the H1N1 virus, such as people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, children, Pacific Peoples and Māori. Because this study was part of a rapid response initiative, focus groups were selected as the most efficient means of data collection in the time available. For Māori, focus group discussion (hui is a culturally appropriate methodology. Results Thematic analysis of data identified four major themes: personal and community risk, building community strategies, responsibility and information sources. People wanted messages about specific actions that they could take to protect themselves and their families and to mitigate any consequences. They wanted transparent and factual communication where both good and bad news is conveyed by people who they could trust. Conclusions The responses from all groups endorsed the need for community based risk management including information dissemination. Engaging

  8. CLINICAL FEATURES AND OUTCOMES OF H1N1 PNEUMONIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Dhanasekar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus causes mild-to-severe acute respiratory illness. H1N1 bronchopneumonia carries a higher mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study was a prospective observational study conducted in a 24 bedded multidisciplinary ICU from January 2010 to December 2010. We included all adult patients admitted to our intensive care unit presenting with clinical features/suspicion of H1N1 bronchopneumonia and respiratory failure. These patients also subsequently tested positive for H1N1 Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR assay. Data was collected on demography, co-morbid illness, APACHE II and SOFA scores, organ failure and support. Outcome data on mortality, ICU LOS and ventilator days was also collected. RESULTS 28 patients with H1N1 bronchopneumonia required intensive care treatment. Majority of patients were females 60.7 % (n=17; of these 17 patients 7 patients were pregnant. Mean age of our patients was 50.6 (±19.1 years. Most common co-existing illnesses were diabetes mellitus (32.1% and hypertension (32.1% followed by bronchial asthma (10.7%; 85.7% patients had at least one organ dysfunction on admission, of which respiratory system was involved in 96.5% followed by renal system 57.1%. Patients were sick on admission as indicated by high APACHE II (17.75±6.5 and SOFA (5.25±1.8 scores. Mean PaO2/FiO2 on admission was 148.9±77.2. Severe ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 <100 was seen in 39.35% of patients. Of the 28 patients, 27 patients required ventilator support; 17 patients died out of 28 patients (mortality rate 60.7%. Higher APACHE II, SOFA scores and low PaO2/FiO2 on admission were identified as significant risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION Critically ill H1N1 pneumonia patients present with multisystem involvement and they had a high mortality in our study.

  9. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm in Italy: age, risk and population susceptibility.

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    Stefano Merler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common pattern emerging from several studies evaluating the impact of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza (A/H1N1pdm conducted in countries worldwide is the low attack rate observed in elderly compared to that observed in children and young adults. The biological or social mechanisms responsible for the observed age-specific risk of infection are still to be deeply investigated. METHODS: The level of immunity against the A/H1N1pdm in pre and post pandemic sera was determined using left over sera taken for diagnostic purposes or routine ascertainment obtained from clinical laboratories. The antibody titres were measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. To investigate whether certain age groups had higher risk of infection the presence of protective antibody (≥1∶40, was calculated using exact binomial 95% CI on both pre- and post- pandemic serological data in the age groups considered. To estimate age-specific susceptibility to infection we used an age-structured SEIR model. RESULTS: By comparing pre- and post-pandemic serological data in Italy we found age- specific attack rates similar to those observed in other countries. Cumulative attack rate at the end of the first A/H1N1pdm season in Italy was estimated to be 16.3% (95% CI 9.4%-23.1%. Modeling results allow ruling out the hypothesis that only age-specific characteristics of the contact network and levels of pre-pandemic immunity are responsible for the observed age-specific risk of infection. This means that age-specific susceptibility to infection, suspected to play an important role in the pandemic, was not only determined by pre-pandemic levels of H1N1pdm antibody measured by HI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results claim for new studies to better identify the biological mechanisms, which might have determined the observed pattern of susceptibility with age. Moreover, our results highlight the need to obtain early estimates of differential susceptibility with age in

  10. 滕州市积极应对甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    为积极做好甲型H1N1流感防控工作,应对町能发生的甲型H1N1流感疫情,滕州市卫生局坚持以人为本,积极部署,全面防控,迅速开展了甲型H1N1流感疫情防控工作。

  11. ‘Presenting CXR phenotype of H1N1’ flu compared with contemporaneous non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia, during pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks’

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    Minns, F.C., E-mail: Fiona.Minns@nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Nimhuineachain, A, E-mail: draideen@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Beek, E.J.R. van, E-mail: Edwin-vanbeek@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, Midlothian EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Ritchie, G., E-mail: drgillritchie@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Hill, A., E-mail: adam.hill318@nhs.net [Department of Respiratory Medicine, New Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Murchison, J.T., E-mail: john.murchison@nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Patients with H1N1 pneumonia demonstrated more opacified zones on chest x-ray than patients with non-H1N1 pneumonias. • A particular ‘phenotype’ of chest x-ray changes was identified in H1N1 patients. • This H1N1 ‘phenotype’ was the same for the two evaluated ‘flu seasons, during both pandemic and post pandemic stages. - Abstract: Aims: To review, phenotype and assess potential prognostic value of initial chest X-ray findings in patients with H1N1 influenza during seasonal outbreaks of 2009 and 2010, in comparison with non-H1N1, community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We retrospectively identified 72 patients admitted to hospital with pneumonia during the seasons of 2009 and 2010. H1N1 cases were confirmed by virology PCR. Presenting chest X-rays were jointly read by 2 radiologists, who were ‘blinded’ to further patient details and divided into 6 zones. Total number of opacified zones, the pattern and distribution of changes and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: Patients with H1N1 demonstrated more opacified zones (mean of 2.9 compared with 2.0; p = 0.006), which were bilateral in two-thirds compared with a quarter of those with non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.001). H1N1 radiographs were more likely to be ‘patchy’ versus ‘confluent’ changes of non-H1N1 CAP (p = 0.03) and more often demonstrated peripheral distribution (p = 0.01). H1N1 patients tended to stay in hospital longer (not significant; p = 0.08). A positive correlation existed between number of affected zones and length of inpatient stay, which was statistically significant for the cohorts combined (p = 0.02). The findings were the same for the two evaluated seasons. Conclusion: H1N1 patients demonstrated more extensive disease, which was more likely bilateral, ‘patchy’, and peripheral in distribution. With increasing global cases of H1N1, knowledge of the typical findings of the H1N1 presenting chest X-ray may assist with early triage of patients

  12. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  13. Monitoring bound HA1(H1N1) and HA1(H5N1) on freely suspended graphene over plasmonic platforms with infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Chakraborty, Sumit; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Grebel, Haim

    2013-09-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides fingerprinting of the energy and orientation of molecular bonds. The IR signals are generally weak and require amplification. Here we present a new plasmonic platform, made of freely suspended graphene, which was coating periodic metal structures. Only monolayer thick films were needed for a fast signal recording. We demonstrated unique IR absorption signals of bound proteins: these were the hemagglutinin area (HA1) of swine influenza (H1N1) and the avian influenza (H5N1) viruses bound to their respective tri-saccharides ligand receptors. The simplicity and sensitivity of such approach may find applications in fast monitoring of binding events.

  14. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  15. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Goldstein

    Full Text Available Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1 that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100 were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40, supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010 in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife.

  16. Guillain-Barre syndrome and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccines: a multinational self-controlled case series in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Romio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1pdm09 immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination. METHODS: A self-controlled case series (SCCS analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1-4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI. Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. RESULTS: Three hundred and three (303 GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99 were exposed to A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria. The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 2.2-5.5, based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.1 after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.2 when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8, which is the main finding. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1pdm09 vaccination (RI = 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7-2.8. Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule out with

  17. Pig producers' perceptions of the Influenza Pandemic H1N1/09 outbreak and its effect on their biosecurity practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Taylor, Melanie; Holyoake, Patricia; Dhand, Navneet

    2012-10-01

    The Influenza Pandemic (H1N1/09) virus was first reported in humans in Mexico in April 2009 and a pandemic level was declared on 11th of June 2009 by the World Health Organization (Chan, 2009; WHO, 2009a). Public misconceptions about the transmission of H1N1/09 were caused by the inadequate naming of the disease as 'swine influenza'. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the height of the outbreak in the Australian human population and before the virus was reported in the first piggery in Australia in July 2009 (OIE, 2009b; Holyoake et al., 2011). The aims of this study were to evaluate pig producers' perceptions about the virus and the outbreak financial impact and influence on on-farm biosecurity practices. A questionnaire was designed and posted to Australian Pork Limited (APL) members (n=460), obtaining responses from 182 producers (39.6%). Pig producers had good general knowledge on potential transmission pathways for H1N1/09 between people, with direct or close contact with a sick person perceived as the most likely pathways. Changes on biosecurity practices, such as asking visitors if they had recently been overseas (27.8%) and not allowing any visitor to inspect their pigs (18.3%), were reported among respondents. In addition, approximately 40% of producers asked their employees to notify flu like symptoms, consulted a veterinarian on H1N1/09 and visited websites to seek information on H1N1/09. A higher adoption of these practices was observed among large (>100 sows) than small herds. Only 2.9% of respondents reported a reduction in pig sales during the outbreak. However, approximately one third of producers reported being financially and emotionally stressed, 38.2% were distressed about the health of their pigs and 16.7% about their own health. The most important sources of information were APL (93%), veterinarians (89%) and the state Department of Primary Industries (DPI) (75%). The first two considered the most trusted sources of information

  18. Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Vaccines: A Multinational Self-Controlled Case Series in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Jeanne P.; Olberg, Henning K.; de Vries, Corinne S.; Sammon, Cormac; Andrews, Nick; Svanström, Henrik; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Hviid, Anders; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Sommet, Agnès; Saussier, Christel; Castot, Anne; Heijbel, Harald; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Sparen, Par; Mosseveld, Mees; Schuemie, Martijn; van der Maas, Nicoline; Jacobs, Bart C.; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Storsaeter, Jann; Johansen, Kari; Kramarz, Piotr; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the United States' 1976 swine flu vaccination campaign in the USA led to enhanced active surveillance during the pandemic influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09) immunization campaign. This study aimed to estimate the risk of GBS following influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Methods A self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis was performed in Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Information was collected according to a common protocol and standardised procedures. Cases classified at levels 1–4a of the Brighton Collaboration case definition were included. The risk window was 42 days starting the day after vaccination. Conditional Poisson regression and pooled random effects models estimated adjusted relative incidences (RI). Pseudo likelihood and vaccinated-only methods addressed the potential contraindication for vaccination following GBS. Results Three hundred and three (303) GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome cases were included. Ninety-nine (99) were exposed to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination, which was most frequently adjuvanted (Pandemrix and Focetria). The unadjusted pooled RI for A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and GBS was 3.5 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2–5.5), based on all countries. This lowered to 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2–3.1) after adjustment for calendartime and to 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–3.2) when we accounted for contra-indications. In a subset (Netherlands, Norway, and United Kingdom) we further adjusted for other confounders and there the RI decreased from 1.7 (adjusted for calendar month) to 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8), which is the main finding. Conclusion This study illustrates the potential of conducting European collaborative vaccine safety studies. The main, fully adjusted analysis, showed that the RI of GBS was not significantly elevated after influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination (RI = 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7–2.8). Based on the upper limits of the pooled estimate we can rule

  19. Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Isolated from Free-Ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Simon J.; Medina, Rafael; Robinson, Patrick W.; Greig, Denise J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Boyce, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100) were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40), supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010) in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife. PMID:23690933

  20. Persistent Classical Swine Fever infection in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Lohse, Louise; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    Pestiviruses are unique in their ability to cause persistent infection (PI) in pigs infected in utero. In cattle, PI calves play an important role in maintenance of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in the herd. In pigs, the occurence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) PI piglets is antic......Pestiviruses are unique in their ability to cause persistent infection (PI) in pigs infected in utero. In cattle, PI calves play an important role in maintenance of bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in the herd. In pigs, the occurence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) PI piglets...

  1. Mass vaccination for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: approaches, challenges, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Kunal J; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk; Waldhorn, Richard; Toner, Eric

    2010-12-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic stimulated a nationwide response that included a mass vaccination effort coordinated at the federal, state, and local levels. This article examines a sampling of state and local efforts during the pandemic in order to better prepare for future public health emergencies involving mass distribution, dispensing, and administration of medical countermeasures. In this analysis, the authors interviewed national, state, and local leaders to gain a better understanding of the accomplishments and challenges of H1N1 vaccination programs during the 2009-10 influenza season. State and local health departments distributed and administered H1N1 vaccine using a combination of public and private efforts. Challenges encountered during the vaccination campaign included the supply of and demand for vaccine, prioritization strategies, and local logistics. To improve the response capabilities to deal with infectious disease emergencies, the authors recommend investing in technologies that will assure a more timely availability of the needed quantities of vaccine, developing local public health capacity and relationships with healthcare providers, and enhancing federal support of state and local activities. The authors support in principle the CDC recommendation to vaccinate annually all Americans over 6 months of age against seasonal influenza to establish a standard of practice on which to expand the ability to vaccinate during a pandemic. However, expanding seasonal influenza vaccination efforts will be an expensive and long-term investment that will need to be weighed against anticipated benefits and other public health needs. Such investments in public health infrastructure could be important for building capacity and practice for distributing, dispensing, and administering countermeasures in response to a future pandemic or biological weapons attack.

  2. Long-term respiratory follow-up of H1N1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerenidi Theodora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus infection was documented in our Hospital on 10th August 2009. Metdods and findings Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR testing was used to confirm the diagnosis. All patients were treated with oseltamivir from the first day of hospitalization. Upon admission 12/44 had local patchy shadowing in their chest x-ray and additionally antibiotic regimen was added to these patients as pneumonia was suspected based on clinical evidence. In total 44 patients were hospitalized 15/44 had asthma, 6/44 COPD, 5/44 leukemia. Lung function was evaluated with forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and diffused carbon monoxide upon discharge and every 3 months, until 6 months of observation was completed after discharge. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate whether influenza A (H1N1 had an impact on the respiratory capacity of the infected patients. Conclusions An improvement of pulmonary function tests was observed between the first two measurements, implicating an inflammatory pathogenesis of influenza A (H1N1 to the respiratory tract. This inflammation was not associated with the severity or clinical outcome of the patients. All patients had a mild clinical course and their respiratory capacity was stable between the second and third measurement, suggesting that the duration of respiratory inflammation was two months. Early treatment with antiviral agents and vaccination represent the mainstay of management.

  3. Brotes escolares de gripe (H1N1 2009 en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el conocimiento del virus de la gripe (H1N1 2009, la eficacia de su transmision entre contactos, asi como la eficacia de las intervenciones no farmacologicas es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la ocurrencia de brotes confirmados de virus (H1N1 2009 en Cataluna en el ambito escolar durante el periodo pandemico y evaluar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo para su control. Metodos: Se estudio la incidencia de brotes de VGA(H1N12009 de mayo a diciembre 2009. Se calcularon las tasas de ataque en funcion de emision de recomendaciones preventivas y ejecucion de intervenciones. La asociacion entre variables se calculo mediante ¿Ô2, comparacion de medias mediante t-Student y comparacion de proporciones mediante estadistico z , estableciendo el grado de significacion estadistica en ¿¿=0,05. Resultados: En total se notificaron 238 brotes. La TA global fue del 15,5%. Del total de brotes solo se conoce la tasa de ataque de 173 (72,7%, de los cuales 142 (82,1%; p<0,001 tuvieron una TA inferior al 25%. El principal ambito de transmision fue el escolar, donde se produjeron 209 (88%; p<0,001 brotes, de los cuales 187 (78,6%; p<0,001 correspondian a centros educativos. La duracion media de los brotes fue significativamente menor en funcion de la emision de recomendaciones (p=0,04. Conclusiones: El estudio de los brotes de gripe A/H1N1 2009 permite evidenciar que la adopcion de medidas preventivas y de higiene es de vital importancia para el control de la transmision en centros educativos.

  4. An influenza A/H1N1/2009 hemagglutinin vaccine produced in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Aguilar-Yáñez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The A/H1N1/2009 influenza pandemic made evident the need for faster and higher-yield methods for the production of influenza vaccines. Platforms based on virus culture in mammalian or insect cells are currently under investigation. Alternatively, expression of fragments of the hemagglutinin (HA protein in prokaryotic systems can potentially be the most efficacious strategy for the manufacture of large quantities of influenza vaccine in a short period of time. Despite experimental evidence on the immunogenic potential of HA protein constructs expressed in bacteria, it is still generally accepted that glycosylation should be a requirement for vaccine efficacy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We expressed the globular HA receptor binding domain, referred to here as HA(63-286-RBD, of the influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus in Escherichia coli using a simple, robust and scalable process. The recombinant protein was refolded and purified from the insoluble fraction of the cellular lysate as a single species. Recombinant HA(63-286-RBD appears to be properly folded, as shown by analytical ultracentrifugation and bio-recognition assays. It binds specifically to serum antibodies from influenza A/H1N1/2009 patients and was found to be immunogenic, to be capable of triggering the production of neutralizing antibodies, and to have protective activity in the ferret model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Projections based on our production/purification data indicate that this strategy could yield up to half a billion doses of vaccine per month in a medium-scale pharmaceutical production facility equipped for bacterial culture. Also, our findings demonstrate that glycosylation is not a mandatory requirement for influenza vaccine efficacy.

  5. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.-Y. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jhkate@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, H.; Jeon, T.Y.; Shin, K.E.; Shin, W.S.; Jung, H.N. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  6. 植物阿魏可抗H1N1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文斌

    2009-01-01

    随着甲型H1N1流感疫情的进一步蔓延,开发有效药物成为科学家们的迫切任务。近日,《天然产物杂志》刊登论文,台湾高雄医科大学的研究人员从一种被称为阿魏(Ferula assa—foetida)的植物萃取物中找到了新的希望。

  7. Influenza pandêmica A (H1N1) 2009: fatores de risco para o internamento

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos da influenza pandêmica A (H1N1) 2009 em pacientes hospitalizados a fim de identificar os fatores de risco para o internamento e, consequentemente, para o agravamento da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional e retrospectivo realizado entre março e dezembro de 2010. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde. Foram incluídos somente os pacientes hospitalizados e não hospitalizados com confirmação laborator...

  8. 当我们与H1N1狭路相逢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    《家庭科学·新健康》编辑部; 李蕙君

    2009-01-01

    @@ 世界卫生组织将甲型H1N1流感大流行警戒级别提升至最高的第六级,这意味着宣布"甲流"进入全球大流行阶段,这是41年来首次宣布全球流感大流行.世卫驻华代表称甲流大流行可能感染遍布100个国家和地区的4亿人--

  9. Identification of the First Chinese Cases of H1N1 Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-04

    In this podcast, Dr. Scott Dowell discusses the first cases of the new H1N1 influenza virus in China in May 2009, which occurred in three students who had been studying in North America during the early days of the pandemic and returned home to visit their friends and family. Chinese health officials acted swiftly to investigate and determine whether the students had spread their illness to others. The article, which appears in the September 2009 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases, details what they found.  Created: 8/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/4/2009.

  10. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis [General Hospital, PET/CT Unit, Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  11. VIGILANCIA EPIDEMIOLÓGICA DE LA GRIPE (H1N1 2009 SIN RED CENTINELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Malvar Pintos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: En Galicia no existe red centinela de vigilancia epidemiológica por lo que se utilizan sistemas alternativos de vigilancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es describirlos y presentar los resultados observados durante la pandemia de gripe (H1N1 2009. Métodos: Los sistemas utilizados fueron llamadas recibidas por gripe (H1N1 2009 e infección respiratoria aguda en el 061, sistema de notificación de enfermedades obligatorias (SXNOE, vigilancia virológica, registros de atención primaria e ingresos hospitalarios. Los datos se analizaron con Excell. Resultados: La primera onda por virus A(H1N1v se registró a través del 061 entre las semanas 39/2009 y 49/2009, alcanzando el pico en la 44/2009 con la mayor tasa de llamadas acumuladas en el grupo de 5-19 años. SXNOE proporcionó una onda (semanas 39/2009 a 49/2009 con pico en la 44/2009. Microbiológicamente se estudiaron con RT-PRC 6.181 muestras (31% positivas y pico en la semana 44/2009. Los registros de Atención Primaria proporcionaron una onda (semanas 39/2009 a 49/2009 con pico en la semana 44/2009 con la mayor tasa de consultas para los de 5-19 años. Entre las semanas 26/2009 y 17/2010, ingresaron 698 personas con gripe (H1N1 2009, con mayor número de hospitalizaciones en la 44/2009. Conclusiones: Los sistemas descritos quedan avalados por la homogeneidad de los resultados, ya que dibujan la misma onda (semanas 39/2009 a 49/2009 y coinciden en el pico (semana 44/2009 donde se observa la mayor tasa de consultas entre 5-19 años. El 061 aparece como el sistema más operativo al proporcionar datos diarios.

  12. Assessing Google flu trends performance in the United States during the 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends (GFT uses anonymized, aggregated internet search activity to provide near-real time estimates of influenza activity. GFT estimates have shown a strong correlation with official influenza surveillance data. The 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic [pH1N1] provided the first opportunity to evaluate GFT during a non-seasonal influenza outbreak. In September 2009, an updated United States GFT model was developed using data from the beginning of pH1N1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the accuracy of each U.S. GFT model by comparing weekly estimates of ILI (influenza-like illness activity with the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet. For each GFT model we calculated the correlation and RMSE (root mean square error between model estimates and ILINet for four time periods: pre-H1N1, Summer H1N1, Winter H1N1, and H1N1 overall (Mar 2009-Dec 2009. We also compared the number of queries, query volume, and types of queries (e.g., influenza symptoms, influenza complications in each model. Both models' estimates were highly correlated with ILINet pre-H1N1 and over the entire surveillance period, although the original model underestimated the magnitude of ILI activity during pH1N1. The updated model was more correlated with ILINet than the original model during Summer H1N1 (r = 0.95 and 0.29, respectively. The updated model included more search query terms than the original model, with more queries directly related to influenza infection, whereas the original model contained more queries related to influenza complications. CONCLUSIONS: Internet search behavior changed during pH1N1, particularly in the categories "influenza complications" and "term for influenza." The complications associated with pH1N1, the fact that pH1N1 began in the summer rather than winter, and changes in health-seeking behavior each may have played a part. Both GFT models performed well prior to and during pH1

  13. Pathological Analysis of Influenza A(H1N1) and How to Prevent It%甲型H1N1流感的病原学分析及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁华; 林彩美

    2010-01-01

    本文介绍了甲型H1N1流感患者的临床表现和甲型H1N1流感病毒附着能力,分析了甲型H1N1流感的病原学及其变异特性,简述了甲型H1N1流感疫苗的生产流程及接种效果,介绍了甲型H1N1流感的药物治疗.但此种病毒毒力低,患者症状轻,不必恐慌,可通过综合预防措施进行预防.

  14. Properly folded bacterially expressed H1N1 hemagglutinin globular head and ectodomain vaccines protect ferrets against H1N1 pandemic influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Khurana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the face of impending influenza pandemic, a rapid vaccine production and mass vaccination is the most effective approach to prevent the large scale mortality and morbidity that was associated with the 1918 "Spanish Flu". The traditional process of influenza vaccine production in eggs is time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to curtail influenza pandemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recombinant technology can be used to express the hemagglutinin (HA of the emerging new influenza strain in a variety of systems including mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. In this study, two forms of HA proteins derived from the currently circulating novel H1N1 A/California/07/2009 virus, HA1 (1-330 and HA (1-480, were expressed and purified from E. coli under controlled redox refolding conditions that favoured proper protein folding. However, only the recombinant HA1 (1-330 protein formed oligomers, including functional trimers that bound receptor and caused agglutination of human red blood cells. These proteins were used to vaccinate ferrets prior to challenge with the A/California/07/2009 virus. Both proteins induced neutralizing antibodies, and reduced viral loads in nasal washes. However, the HA1 (1-330 protein that had higher content of multimeric forms provided better protection from fever and weight loss at a lower vaccine dose compared with HA (1-480. Protein yield for the HA1 (1-330 ranged around 40 mg/Liter, while the HA (1-480 yield was 0.4-0.8 mg/Liter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that describes production in bacterial system of properly folded functional globular HA1 domain trimers, lacking the HA2 transmembrane protein, that elicit potent neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination and protect ferrets from in vivo challenge. The combination of bacterial expression system with established quality control methods could provide a mechanism for rapid large

  15. Correlates of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Acceptance among Middle and High School Teachers in Rural Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M.; Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M.; Weiss, Paul; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Hughes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Teachers play an essential role in the school community, and H1N1 vaccination of teachers is critical to protect not only themselves but also adolescents they come in contact within the classroom through herd immunity. School-aged children have a greater risk of developing H1N1 disease than seasonal influenza. The goal of this study…

  16. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was ass

  17. Pandemic H1N1 (2009) and renal failure: the experience of the Irish national tertiary referral centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Brien, F J

    2011-03-01

    H1N1 influenza A, was first described in April 2009. A significant cohort of patients from this outbreak developed acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia. H1N1 has since been transmitted across the world. Little has been described on the renal complications of this illness.

  18. Possible basis for the emergence of H1N1 viruses with pandemic potential from avian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Krauss, Scott; Zanin, Mark; Danner, Angela; Gulati, Shelly; Jones, Jeremy C; Friedman, Kimberly; Graham, Allison; Forrest, Heather; Seiler, Jon; Air, Gillian M; Webster, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    Influenza A viruses of the H1N1 subtype have emerged from the avian influenza gene pool in aquatic birds and caused human pandemics at least twice during the past century. Despite this fact, surprisingly little is known about the H1N1 gene pool in the aquatic bird reservoir. A preliminary study showed that an H1N1 virus from a shorebird of the Charadriiformes order was transmitted between animals through the airborne route of infection, whereas an H1N1 virus from a bird of the Anseriformes order was not. Here we show that two of the three H1N1 viruses isolated from Charadriiformes species in 2009 were transmitted between animals through the airborne route of infection, and five H1N1 isolates from Anseriformes species were not. The one H1N1 virus from a Charadriiformes species that failed to transmit through the airborne route was a reassortant possessing multiple internal gene segments from Anseriformes species. The molecular differences between the airborne-transmissible and non-airborne-transmissible H1N1 viruses were multigenic, involving the selection of virus with human-like receptor-binding specificity (α2-6 sialic acid) and multiple differences in the polymerase complex, mainly in the PB2, PB1-F2, and nonstructural genes.

  19. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Tacken, Margot; Bos, Jens; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Wolters, Bert; Bijl, Marc; Postma, Maarten J.; Wilschut, Jan; Nichol, Kristin L.; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was ass

  20. [Immune Protection against H9N2 Provided by H1N1 Pre-infection in Pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Maocai; Hong, Wenshan; Zheng, Zuoyi; Chen, Rirong

    2015-07-01

    To explore the impact of the history of infection by the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 on secondary infection by the influenza A virus subtype H9N2, pigs non-infected and pre-infected with H1N1 were inoculated with H9N2 in parallel to compare nasal shedding and seroconversion patterns. Unlike pigs without a background of H1N1 infection, nasal shedding was not detected in pigs pre-infected with H1N1. Both groups generated antibodies against H9N2. However, levels of H1N1 antibodies in pigs pre-infected with H1N1 increased quickly and dramatically after challenge with H9N2. Cross-reaction was not observed between H1N1 antibodies and H9N2 viruses. These findings suggest that circulation of the H1N1 virus might be a barrier to the introduction and transmission of the avian H9N2 virus, thereby delaying its adaptation in pigs.

  1. Antiviral activity of silver nanoparticle/chitosan composites against H1N1 influenza A virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yasutaka; Ono, Takeshi; Miyahira, Yasushi; Nguyen, Vinh Quang; Matsui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    Silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)/chitosan (Ch) composites with antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus were prepared. The Ag NP/Ch composites were obtained as yellow or brown floc-like powders following reaction at room temperature in aqueous medium. Ag NPs (3.5, 6.5, and 12.9 nm average diameters) were embedded into the chitosan matrix without aggregation or size alternation. The antiviral activity of the Ag NP/Ch composites was evaluated by comparing the TCID50 ratio of viral suspensions treated with the composites to untreated suspensions. For all sizes of Ag NPs tested, antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus increased as the concentration of Ag NPs increased; chitosan alone exhibited no antiviral activity. Size dependence of the Ag NPs on antiviral activity was also observed: antiviral activity was generally stronger with smaller Ag NPs in the composites. These results indicate that Ag NP/Ch composites interacting with viruses exhibit antiviral activity.

  2. Update: novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection - Mexico, March-May, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-05

    On April 12, 2009, Mexico responded to a request for verification by the World Health Organization (WHO) of an outbreak of acute respiratory illness in the small community of La Gloria, Veracruz. During April 15-17, the Mexico Ministry of Health received informal notification of clusters of rapidly progressive severe pneumonia occurring mostly in Distrito Federal (metropolitan Mexico City) and San Luis Potosi. In response, on April 17, Mexico intensified national surveillance for acute respiratory illness and pneumonia. During April 22-24, novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, previously identified in two children in the United States, was confirmed in several patients. This report updates a previous report on the outbreak in Mexico and summarizes public health actions taken to date by Mexico to monitor and control the outbreak. During March 1-May 29, national surveillance identified 41,998 persons with acute respiratory illness; specimens from 25,127 (59.8%) patients were tested, of which 5,337 (21.2%) were positive for novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection by real-time reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). As of May 29, 97 patients with laboratory-confirmed infection had died. Epidemiologic evidence to date suggests that the outbreak likely peaked nationally in late April, although localized cases continue to be identified.

  3. Household responses to pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures, Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effler, Paul V; Carcione, Dale; Giele, Carolien; Dowse, Gary K; Goggin, Leigh; Mak, Donna B

    2010-02-01

    School closure is often purported to reduce influenza transmission, but little is known about its effect on families. We surveyed families affected by pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures in Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Surveys were returned for 233 (58%) of 402 students. School closure was deemed appropriate by 110 parents (47%); however, 91 (45%) parents of 202 asymptomatic students reported taking >or=1 day off work to care for their child, and 71 (35%) had to make childcare arrangements because of the class closures. During the week, 172 (74%) students participated in activities outside the home on >or=1 occasion, resulting in an average of 3.7 out-of-home activities for each student. In our survey, activities outside the home were commonly reported by students affected by school closure, the effect on families was substantial, and parental opinion regarding school closures as a means to mitigate the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was divided.

  4. Dialysis for acute kidney injury associated with influenza a (H1N1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Vallejos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a novel influenza A, S-OIV (H1N1, pandemic. We observed 44 consecutive patients during the "first wave" of the pandemic. 70.5% of them showed co-morbidities (hypertension, obesity, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, pregnancy. Serious cases were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU, particularly those with severe acute respiratory failure. Some of them developed acute kidney injury (AKI and required renal replacement therapy (RRT. The average time between admission to the ICU and initiation of RRT was 3.16 ± 2.6 days. At initiation of RRT, most patients required mechanical ventilation. No relationship was found with creatinine-kinase levels. Seventy-five percent of the cases were observed during a 3-week period and mortality, related to respiratory failure, doubling of alanine amino transferase and use of inotropics was 81.8%. In conclusion, the H1N1-infected patients who developed RRT-requiring AKI, in the context of multi-organ failure, showed a high mortality rate. Thus, it is mandatory that elaborate strategies aimed at anticipating potential renal complications associated to future pandemics are implemented.

  5. Dialysis for acute kidney injury associated with influenza a (H1N1) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Augusto; Arias, Marcelo; Cusumano, Ana; Coste, Eduardo; Simon, Miguel; Martinez, Ricardo; Mendez, Sandra; Raño, Miguel; Sintado, Luis; Lococo, Bruno; Blanco, Carlos; Cestari, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a novel influenza A, S-OIV (H1N1), pandemic. We observed 44 consecutive patients during the "first wave" of the pandemic. 70.5% of them showed co-morbidities (hypertension, obesity, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic renal disease, diabetes, pregnancy). Serious cases were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), particularly those with severe acute respiratory failure. Some of them developed acute kidney injury (AKI) and required renal replacement therapy (RRT). The average time between admission to the ICU and initiation of RRT was 3.16 ± 2.6 days. At initiation of RRT, most patients required mechanical ventilation. No relationship was found with creatinine-kinase levels. Seventy-five percent of the cases were observed during a 3-week period and mortality, related to respiratory failure, doubling of alanine amino transferase and use of inotropics was 81.8%. In conclusion, the H1N1-infected patients who developed RRT-requiring AKI, in the context of multi-organ failure, showed a high mortality rate. Thus, it is mandatory that elaborate strategies aimed at anticipating potential renal complications associated to future pandemics are implemented.

  6. The pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza virus is resistant to mannose-binding lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushirogawa Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is an important component of innate immunity because it promotes bacterial clearance and neutralization of human influenza A viruses. Since a majority of humans have no neutralizing antibody against the pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza (pandemic 2009 virus, innate immunity may be crucial and MBL susceptibility may therefore influence viral pathogenesis. Results We examined MBL susceptibility of influenza A viruses and observed that the pandemic 2009 virus was resistant to MBL, whereas all seasonal influenza A viruses tested were susceptible. The mortality of mice infected with a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus was evidently enhanced on transient blockage of MBL activity by simultaneous inoculation of mannan, whereas mannan inoculation had no effect on mice infected with a pandemic 2009 virus. This indicates that MBL protects mice against infection with the seasonal virus but not against that with the pandemic 2009 virus. Conclusions These results indicate that the pandemic 2009 virus is not susceptible to MBL, an important component of innate immunity.

  7. The economic impact of H1N1 on Mexico's tourist and pork sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassy, Dunia; Smith, Richard D

    2013-07-01

    By examining tourist arrivals and pork output and trade statistics, this analysis estimates the economic impact to the Mexican tourism and pork sectors because of the H1N1 influenza pandemic. It also assesses the role of the international response in the context of this economic impact. For tourism, losing almost a million overseas visitors translated into losses of around $US2.8bn, which extended over a five-month period, mostly because of the slow return of European travellers. For the pork industry, temporal decreases in output were observed in most of the country and related to H1N1 incidence (p = 0.048, r = 0.37). By the end of 2009, Mexico had a pork trade deficit of $US27m. The losses derived from this pandemic were clearly influenced by the risk perception created in tourist-supplying and pork trade partners. Results suggest that the wider economic implications of health-related emergencies can be significant and need to be considered in preparedness planning. For instance, more effective surveillance and data gathering would enable policy to target emergency funding to the sectors and regions hardest hit. These results also stress the importance of being familiar with trade networks so as to be able to anticipate the international response and respond accordingly.

  8. Research Preparedness Paves the Way to Respond to Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B French

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The international community has been preparing for an influenza pandemic because of the threat posed by H5N1 avian influenza. Over the past several years, Canada has dedicated funding to boost capacity for research, and public health and health care system readiness and response in the event of a pandemic. The current H1N1/09 influenza pandemic is now testing our readiness. From a research perspective, the present commentary discusses how have we prepared, along with the research gaps. We conclude that: sources of pandemics are not always predictable; investment in the past few years has paid off in a rapid response to pandemic H1N1/09 virus in Canada; and research to meet the challenges of infectious diseases has to be done on an ongoing long-term basis, and its funding has to be flexible, available and predictable to maintain capacity and expertise. In addition, new vaccine technologies are needed to develop and produce vaccines for public health emergencies in a timely fashion.

  9. Heterogeneous virulence of pandemic 2009 influenza H1N1 virus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Amber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathogenesis of influenza infection is a key factor leading to the prevention and control of future outbreaks. Pandemic 2009 Influenza H1N1 infection, although frequently mild, led to a severe and fatal form of disease in certain cases that make its virulence nature debatable. Much effort has been made toward explaining the determinants of disease severity; however, no absolute reason has been established. Results This study presents the heterogeneous virulence of clinically similar strains of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells and mice. The viruses were obtained from patients who were admitted in a local hospital in China with a similar course of infection and recovered. The A/Nanchang/8002/2009 and A/Nanchang/8011/2009 viruses showed efficient replication and high lethality in mice while infection with A/Nanchang/8008/2009 was not lethal with impaired viral replication, minimal pathology and modest proinflammatory activity in lungs. Sequence analysis displayed prominent differences between polymerase subunits (PB2 and PA of viral genomes that might correlate with their different phenotypic behavior. Conclusions The study confirms that biological heterogeneity, linked with the extent of viral replication, exists among pandemic H1N1 strains that may serve as a benchmark for future investigations on influenza pathogenesis.

  10. The knowledge of the importance on the influenza virus a (H1N1: experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaine Kareny da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although infection rates by influenza A H1N1, present reduction since 2010 through immunization, it is still notorious some cases and outbreaks of the disease in the country. To minimize such cases it is important, among other measures, the qualification of the health worker. In this sense, the objective was to describe the level of awareness of nursing professionals in a hospital Bahia interior, on the transmission of the H1N1 virus, symptoms and what PPE is needed in assisting patients with suspected or diagnostic confirmation. Methods: This is an experience report experienced by nursing students at the State University of Bahia, who developed curricular component activities Caring Process: Rationale and practice in a public hospital in Bahia. The report data is from the collection conducted with the nurses, addressing aspects of symptoms, transmission and personal protective equipment. Each professional nursing spontaneously answered the questions and the end was discussed each item aiming answer questions by promoting thus an educational activity based on the knowledge of professionals. Results: Although most participants recognize the personal protective equipment and the symptoms of the viral disease, some are still unaware of the transmission routes. Most received no training on the subject. Conclusion: It is necessary to implement a Center for Continuing Education to answer questions about this and other topics, but are not limited to specific actions and seeking partnerships with higher education institutions. KEYWORDS: Education, Continuing. Education, Nursing. Disease Transmission, Infectious. Communicable Disease Control

  11. High rate of A(H1N1pdm09 infections among rural Thai villagers, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjawan Khuntirat

    Full Text Available Pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 emerged in Thailand in 2009. A prospective longitudinal adult cohort and household transmission study of influenza-like illness (ILI was ongoing in rural Thailand at the time of emergence. Symptomatic and subclinical A(H1N1pdm09 infection rates in the cohort and among household members were evaluated.A cohort of 800 Thai adults underwent active community-based surveillance for ILI from 2008-2010. Acute respiratory samples from ILI episodes were tested for A(H1N1pdm09 by qRT-PCR; acute and 60-day convalescent blood samples were tested by A(H1N1pdm09 hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI. Enrollment, 12-month and 24-month follow-up blood samples were tested for A(H1N1pdm09 seroconversion by HI. Household members of influenza A-infected cohort subjects with ILI were enrolled in household transmission investigations in which day 0 and 60 blood samples and acute respiratory samples were tested by either qRT-PCR or HI for A(H1N1pdm09. Seroconversion between annual blood samples without A(H1N1pdm09-positive ILI was considered as subclinical infection.The 2-yr cumulative incidence of A(H1N1pdm09 infection in the cohort in 2009/2010 was 10.8% (84/781 with an annual incidence of 1.2% in 2009 and 9.7% in 2010; 83.3% of infections were subclinical (50% in 2009 and 85.9% in 2010. The 2-yr cumulative incidence was lowest (5% in adults born ≤ 1957. The A(H1N1pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts was 47.2% (17/36; 47.1% of these infections were subclinical. The highest A(H1N1pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts (70.6%, 12/17 occurred among children born between 1990 and 2003.Subclinical A(H1N1pdm09 infections in Thai adults occurred frequently and accounted for a greater proportion of all A(H1N1pdm09 infections than previously estimated. The role of subclinical infections in A(H1N1pdm09 transmission has important implications in formulating strategies to predict and prevent the spread of A(H1N1pdm

  12. 甲型H1N1流感医院感染预防和控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家琳

    2009-01-01

    甲型H1N1流感是由甲型H1N1流感病毒引起急性呼吸道传染病,潜伏期短,具有高度传染性和传播快特点,常引起暴发,甚至世界性大流行.作为医疗卫生单位,提高对甲型H1N1流感认识,及时发现甲型H1N1流感病人.切断传播途径,防止院内感染,有效地防控甲型H1N1流感起着至关重要作用.

  13. 生物技术能应对甲型H1N1流感吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2009-01-01

    截至4月27目,随着甲型H1N1流感感染者的日益增多.甲型H1N1流感在人群中的传播引起全球媒体高度关注的同时.大家也在翘盼应对甲型H1N1流感病毒的药物出现。对此,美国马里兰州的Novavax生物技术公司称,他们有快速研发甲型H1N1流感疫苗的技术并正在加紧开发甲型H1N1流感疫苗。

  14. 防控甲型H1N1流感戳记(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    宣传戳:辽宁沈阳预防甲型H1N1流感疫情(2009.5):黑龙江黑河防控甲型H1N1流感(2009.7);江苏苏州A(H1N1)型流感(2009.5),江阴群防群控甲型H1N1流感(2009.5——6);浙江德清防控甲型H1N1流感(6.20-7.20),

  15. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham J.

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, the nucleotides 47 to 427, including the IRES region of the wt CSFV strain Paderborn, were amplified...

  16. Reconstructing the highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus strain Koslov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Nielsen, Jens

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) may be highly virulent in pigs with a mortality rate close to 100%. The CSFV “Koslov strain” is known to be one of the most virulent CSFV, but so far a functional cloned cDNA of this strain has not been described. We suggest that this may be due to the error...

  17. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, cDNAs corresponding to the wild type (wt) or mutant forms of the IRES of CSFV strain Paderborn were...

  18. Interaction of classical swine fever virus with dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrasco, C.P.; Rigden, R.C.; Vincent, I.E.; Balmelli, C.; Ceppi, M.; Bauhofer, O.; Tache, V.; Hjertner, B.; McNeilly, F.; Gennip, van H.G.P.; McCullough, K.C.; Summerfield, A.

    2004-01-01

    Functional disruption of dendritic cells (DCs) is an important strategy for viral pathogens to evade host defences. Monocytotropic viruses such as classical swine fever virus (CSFV) could employ such a mechanism, since the virus can suppress immune responses and induce apoptosis without infecting ly

  19. Assessment of classical swine fever diagnostics and vaccine performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is of the utmost importance in the control of epizootic diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), and efficacious vaccination can be used as a supporting tool. While most of the recently developed CSF vaccines and diagnostic kits are mostly validated according to Wor

  20. Associations between health communication behaviors, neighborhood social capital, vaccine knowledge, and parents' H1N1 vaccination of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, K

    2013-10-01

    During the H1N1 pandemic in 2009-10, the vaccination behavior of parents played a critical role in preventing and containing the spread of the disease and the subsequent health outcomes among children. Several studies have examined the relationship between parents' health communication behaviors and vaccinations for children in general. Little is known, however, about the link between parents' health communication behaviors and the vaccination of their children against the H1N1 virus, and their level of vaccine-related knowledge. We drew on a national survey among parents with at least one child less than 18 years of age (n=639) to investigate Parents' H1N1-related health communication behaviors including sources of information, media exposure, information-seeking behaviors, H1N1-related knowledge, and neighborhood social capital, as well as the H1N1 vaccination rates of their children. Findings showed that there is a significant association between the degree at which parents obtained H1N1 vaccination for their children and health communication variables: watching the national television news and actively seeking H1N1 information. And this association was moderated by the extent of the parents' H1N1-related knowledge. In addition, the parents' degree of neighborhood social capital mediated the association between H1N1 knowledge of the parents and H1N1 vaccination acceptance for their children. We found, compared to those with a low-level of neighborhood social capital, parents who have a high-level of neighborhood social capital are more likely to vaccinate their children. These findings suggest that it is necessary to design a strategic health communication campaign segmented by parent health communication behaviors.

  1. 一起家庭甲型H1N1流行性感冒暴发疫情流行病学调查%Epidemiological Survey on a Household Outbreak of Influenza A (H1N1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊毅

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查分析一起家庭甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情的原因和特征,为今后预防控制工作提供科学依据.方法 对流感暴发家庭进行现场流行病学调查,采集患者咽拭子,采用荧光定量PCR方法检测甲型H1N1流感病毒核酸,根据调查结果分析甲型H1N1流感家庭暴发疫情特征,讨论甲型H1N1流感的发病规律和流行因素.结果 本起甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情为一起家庭甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情,4名家庭成员3人发病,其中1例死亡.结论 本起甲型H1N1流感暴发疫情主要是因家庭近距离密切接触传播引起,甲流H1N1病毒对某些患有基础性疾病的个体有较强的致病性,易感人群以青壮年为主,传染来源为社区感染后引入家庭,首发患者没有及时隔离治疗是造成家庭内暴发的主要原因.尽早发现与报告传染源,严格执行甲型H1N1流感患者居家隔离治疗措施,对于控制甲型H1N1流感传染源、切断传播途径,积极主动地预防控制疫情暴发流行,都是非常关键有效的防控措施.%Objective To investigate and analyze the causes and characteristics of a household outbreak of influenza A (H1N1), so as to provide a scientific basis for future prevention and control. Methods Field epidemiological investigations were conducted on a family with an influenza A (H1N1) outbreak. Throat swabs were collected from the patients and nucleic acid of H1N1 influenza virus was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Characteristics of the household outbreak of influenza A (H1N1) were analyzed and its occurrence regularity and epidemic factors were explored. Results This influenza A (H1N1) epidemic was a household outbreak. Three out of four household members were diseased and one died. Conclusions The household outbreak of influenza A (H1N1) is mainly caused by close contact with household members. Influenza A (H1N1) virus is more pathogenic to individuals with underlying diseases. Susceptible populations

  2. 344例甲型H1N1流感轻症的临床特征分析%Epidemiological and clinical features of 344 influenza A (H1N1)cases with light symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李际强; 卢传坚; 罗翌; 温泽淮; 李晓彦; 郑丹文; 邓庆平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of 344 influenza A (H1N1)case with light symptoms. Methods The clinical data of 344 influenza A (H1N1)cases confirmed by pathogenic diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed including clinical features,results of physical examination and laboratory tests and compared with those negative for influenza A virus (H1N1). Results Compared with those negative for influenza A virus (H1N1)the symptoms of cough and with phlegm was obviously observed in influenza A (H1N1)patients,showing significant differences (P<0.01). The percentage of throat congestion and antiadoncus was significantly higher in the influenza A(H1N1)cases than that of those negative for influenza A virus (H1N1)(P<0.01 ). The WBC count,neutrophil count and lymphocyte count in patients positive for influenza A virus cnucleic acid were significantly lower than those of the negative group (P<0.01 and P<0.05). There 72.09% of the confirmed influenza A (H1N1)cases wer in the age group of 18-30 years. Conclusion Most of the influenza A (H1N1 )cases were those at their prime of life and clinical manifestations/signs and hematological test results were the basis for early diagnosis of the disease.%目的 探讨甲型H1N1流感轻症患者流行病学和临床特征.方法对病原学诊断为甲型H1N1流感的患者344例的临床资料进行回顾性分析,对其主要临床表现、体格检查、血细胞计数等项目与甲型H1N1流感病毒检测阴性的患者进行比较.结果 临床表现方面,病原学诊断为甲型H1N1流感的患者与甲型H1N1流感病毒检测阴性的患者相比,咳嗽与咯痰症状比较突出(P<0.01);咽部充血与扁桃体肿大所占比例亦高于阴性组(P<0.01);甲型H1N1病毒核酸阳性组的白细胞计数、中性粒细胞计数明显低于阴性病人(P<0.01),淋巴细胞计数亦低于阴性组(P<0.05).确诊甲型H1N1流感患者中,发病年龄以18~30岁所占比例最大,共248

  3. Changes in the viral distribution pattern after the appearance of the novel influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1 virus in influenza-like illness patients in Peru.

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    Victor Alberto Laguna-Torres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe the temporal variation in viral agents detected in influenza like illness (ILI patients before and after the appearance of the ongoing pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 in Peru between 4-January and 13-July 2009. METHODS: At the health centers, one oropharyngeal swab was obtained for viral isolation. From epidemiological week (EW 1 to 18, at the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD in Lima, the specimens were inoculated into four cell lines for virus isolation. In addition, from EW 19 to 28, the specimens were also analyzed by real time-polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR. RESULTS: We enrolled 2,872 patients: 1,422 cases before the appearance of the pH1N1 virus, and 1,450 during the pandemic. Non-pH1N1 influenza A virus was the predominant viral strain circulating in Peru through (EW 18, representing 57.8% of the confirmed cases; however, this predominance shifted to pH1N1 (51.5% from EW 19-28. During this study period, most of pH1N1 cases were diagnosed in the capital city (Lima followed by other cities including Cusco and Trujillo. In contrast, novel influenza cases were essentially absent in the tropical rain forest (jungle cities during our study period. The city of Iquitos (Jungle had the highest number of influenza B cases and only one pH1N1 case. CONCLUSIONS: The viral distribution in Peru changed upon the introduction of the pH1N1 virus compared to previous months. Although influenza A viruses continue to be the predominant viral pathogen, the pH1N1 virus predominated over the other influenza A viruses.

  4. Assessment of epicutaneous testing of a monovalent Influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine in egg allergic patients

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    Pitt Tracy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H1N1 is responsible for the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. In the fall of 2009, an H1N1 vaccine became available in Canada with the hopes of reducing the overall effect of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of administering 2 different doses of a monovalent split virus 2009 H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients. Methods Patients were skin tested to the H1N1 vaccine in the outpatient paediatric and adult allergy and immunology clinics of the Health Sciences Centre and Children's Hospital of Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada. Individuals Results A total of 61 patients with egg allergy (history of an allergic reaction to egg with either positive skin test &/or specific IgE to egg >0.35 Ku/L were referred to our allergy clinics for skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine. 2 patients were excluded, one did not have a skin prick test to the H1N1 vaccine (only vaccine administration and the other passed an egg challenge during the study period. Ages ranged from 1 to 27 years (mean 5.6 years. There were 41(69.5% males and 18(30.5% females. All but one patient with a history of egg allergy, positive skin test to egg and/or elevated specific IgE level to egg had negative skin tests to the H1N1 vaccine. The 58 patients with negative skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine were administered the vaccine and observed for 30 minutes post vaccination with no adverse results. The patient with the positive skin test to the H1N1 vaccine was also administered the vaccine intramuscularly with no adverse results. Conclusions Despite concern regarding possible anaphylaxis to the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients, in our case series 1/59(1.7% patients with sensitization to egg were also sensitized to the H1N1 vaccine. Administration of the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients with negative H1N1 skin tests and observation is safe. Administering the vaccine in a 1 or 2 dose protocol without skin testing is a reasonable alternative

  5. 江阴市2009年甲型H1N1流感疫情分析%Epidemic features and influential factors of influenza A(H1N1)in Jiangyin in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马焰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨江阴市甲型H1N1流感流行特征并提出防治措施.方法 对江阴市2009年甲型H1N1流感疫情资料进行分析.结果 2009年累计确诊甲型H1N1流感病人22例,其中重症病例3例、危重2例、死亡1例,发病率为1.25/10万.发生2起暴发疫情,均发生在学校.检测流感样病人咽拭子标本124份,甲型H1N1流感核酸阳性率为11.29%.结论江阴市采取的一系列甲型H1N1流感防控措施整体上显著有效,2009年江阴市甲型H1N1流感疫情处于低流行水平.%Aim To survey the epidemic features of influenza A (H1N1 ) in Jiang yin City. Methods Epidemic data of influenza A(H1N1 ) in Jiangyin of Jiangsu Province in 2009 were analyzed. Results In 2009, a total of 22 influenza A (H1N1) cases were confirmed,among them there were 5 severe cases,1 deaths.The morbidity rate was 1.25/100000 population. There were 2 outbreaks all in schools. 124 nasopharyngeal swab samples of Influenza-like patients were tested.The positive rate of nucleic acid influenza A (H1N1) was 11.29%. Conclusion The control measuers in combot against influenza A(H1N1 ) in Jiangyin is effective and the epidemic of influenza A(H1N1 ) in Jiangyin is at a low level n 2009.

  6. Analysis of Epidemic Characteristics on Influenza A (H1N1)%国内外甲型H1N1流感流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊怀文; 黄吉城; 夏文英

    2009-01-01

    根据WHO和卫生部公布的甲型H1N1流感病例的最新数据及文献报道的最新研究进展,总结分析到目前为止国内外甲型H1N1流感的流行特征、发展趋势及防控措施,为今后更好地防控甲型H1N1流感疫情提供参考.

  7. Persistence of pandemic influenza H1N1 virus in young patients after oseltamivir therapy in the 2009-2010 season: a comparison with seasonal H1N1 with or without H275Y mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Naoki; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Iwaki, Norio; Kondou, Kunio; Hirotsu, Nobuo; Kawashima, Takashi; Maeda, Tetsunari; Tanaka, Osame; Doniwa, Ken-ichi; Iwakuni, Osamu; Egashira, Keisuke; Yamaji, Kouzaburo; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2012-04-01

    Comparison of the viral persistence of pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and seasonal H1N1 with or without H275Y mutation after oseltamivir therapy has not been adequately done. Virus was isolated before and on days 4-6 from the start of oseltamivir treatment for 158 cases of seasonal (2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons) or pandemic (2009-2010 season) H1N1 influenza. Sequence analysis was done for each season and NA inhibition assay (IC(50)) was done in the 2009-2010 season. H275Y mutation before therapy was 0% in the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 seasons, but 100% in the 2008-2009 season. Fever and other symptoms were noticeably prolonged after oseltamivir therapy for children with H275Y mutated seasonal H1N1 (2008-2009 season), but not in patients with seasonal H1N1 without mutation (2007-2008) or H1N1pdm (2009-2010). The viral persistence rate was significantly higher for patients 15 years or younger than for those 16 years and older with H275Y mutated seasonal H1N1 (46.2% and 10.5%, respectively) or with H1N1pdm (43.3% and 11.5%, respectively). The H275Y mutation emerged after oseltamivir treatment in 2.4% (2/82) of all patients with H1N1pdm. In two children, the H275Y mutation emerged after therapy and the IC(50) increased more than 200 fold; however, the prolongation of fever was not so prominent. In conclusion, oseltamivir was effective for fever and other clinical symptoms; however, the virus persisted longer than expected after treatment in H1N1pdm influenza-infected children in the 2009-2010 season, similar to seasonal H1N1 with H275Y mutation in the 2008-2009 season.

  8. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  9. Investigation of Hospitalized Patients with New Influenza A(H1N1) in Hangzhou%杭州新型甲型H1N1流感住院病例调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊; 王先开; 周逸丹

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究杭州地区新型甲型H1N1流感的临床表现和流行病学特点.[方法]用统计指标和图表来描述杭州地区104例新型甲型H1N1流感住院病例的临床表现和血液化验数据,比较各年龄组和不同时间段组的新型甲型H1N1流感的临床表现.[结果]在104例病例中20岁及20岁以下的人群占57.7%.20岁及20岁以下与20岁以上的新型甲型H1N1流感病人的病程长短和白细胞计数的差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05),不同时期发病的新型甲型H1N1流感病人的病程长短和白细胞计数的差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05).[结论]杭州地区的新型甲型H1N1流感青少年、学生较多,65岁以上老年人较少;重症和死亡病人较少,咳嗽是新型甲型H1N1流感的主要症状,各年龄层次新型甲型H1N1流感的临床表现差异不大.%[Objective] To study the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of new influenza A(H1N1 ). [Methods] We described the clinical manifestation and the data of blood test of 104 patients who have caught New Influenza A(H1N1) with statistical indexes, tables and charts. And we contrasted the clinical manifestation of New Influenza A(H1N1) of the groups with different age and period. [Results] Of the 104 patients,57. 7% were 20 years of age or younger,and nobody was 65 years of age or older. The differences of the duration and the leucocyte count of new influenza A(H 1N1) between the age of 20 years or under it and 20 years older were not statistically significant(P>0. 05) ; The differences of the duration and the leucocyte count of new infuenza A(H1N1) between two periods of morbidity were not statistically significant(P>0. 05). [Conclusion] The majority of the patients catching new influenza A(H1N1) recently were adolescent or students;the minor were 65 years of age older;few patients were serious or died.Cough was the major symptom of new influenza A(H1N1). The differences of the clinical manifestation about new

  10. Influenza A (H1N1 Pneumonia. Three cases in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Efrén Uriarte Méndez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is made a report of three cases of pneumonia due to Influenza A (H1N1 with satisfactory evolution, assisted in the Intensive Care Unit of the Cienfuegos’s Pediatric Hospital Paquito González Cueto, and whose diagnosis were confirmed for the test Reaction in Chain of the Reverse "Polimerase-Transcriptase" (RCP-TR in nasopharyngeal samples. The X-rays and the laboratory exams are shown. The films reveal alveolar multifocal infiltrates, different from the interstitial pattern that commonly appears in viral pneumonias. It was significant the trombocitopenia proved in one of the patients, a fact that has been rarely reported. This work try to contribute to the best knowledge of the disease in children.

  11. Influenza A (H(1)N(1)) Antiviral and Cytotoxic Agents from Ferula assa-foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Cheng, Li-Hung; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Abd El-Razek, Mohamed H; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2009-09-01

    Two new sesquiterpene coumarins, designated 5'-acetoxy-8'-hydroxyumbelliprenin (1) and 10'R-acetoxy-11'-hydroxyumbelliprenin (2), and a new diterpene, 15-hydroxy-6-en-dehydroabietic acid (3), along with 27 known compounds, were isolated from a CHCl(3)-soluble extract of Ferula assa-foetida through bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of the new metabolites 1-3 were identified by spectroscopic data interpretation and by the Mosher ester method. Compounds 4 and 6-13 showed greater potency against influenza A virus (H(1)N(1)) (IC(50) 0.26-0.86 microg/mL) than amantadine (IC(50) 0.92 microg/mL), and 11 exhibited the best potency (IC(50) 0.51, 2.6, and 3.4 microg/mL) of these compounds against the HepG2, Hep3B, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, respectively.

  12. Possible computational filter to detect proteins associated to influenza A subtype H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Samaniego, José Lino

    2014-01-01

    The design of drugs with bioinformatics methods to identify proteins and peptides with a specific toxic action is increasingly recurrent. Here, we identify toxic proteins towards the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 located at the UniProt database. Our quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach is based on the analysis of the linear peptide sequence with the so-called Polarity Index Method that shows an efficiency of 90% for proteins from the Uniprot Database. This method was exhaustively verified with the APD2, CPPsite, Uniprot, and AmyPDB databases as well as with the set of antibacterial peptides studied by del Rio et al. and Oldfield et al.

  13. Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many schools were temporarily closed in response to outbreaks of the recently emerged pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus. The effectiveness of closing schools to reduce transmission depends largely on student/family behavior during the closure. We sought to improve our understanding of these behaviors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To characterize this behavior, we surveyed students in grades 9-12 and parents of students in grades 5-8 about student activities during a week long closure of a school during the first months after the disease emerged. We found significant interaction with the community and other students-though less interaction with other students than during school-with the level of interaction increasing with grade. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are useful for the future design of social distancing policies and to improving the ability of modeling studies to accurately predict their impact.

  14. The epidemic wave of influenza A (H1N1) in Brazil, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Cordeiro, Josiane da Silva; Lima, Arthur Weiss da Silva; Colpo, Rodrigo Amarante; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Coelho, Flavio Codeço; Luz, Paula Mendes; Struchiner, Claudio José; Barros, Fernando Ribeiro de

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the main features of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Brazil during 2009. Brazil is a large country that extends roughly from latitudes 5ºN to 34ºS. Brazil has tropical and sub-tropical climates, a heterogeneous population distribution, and intense urbanization in the southern portions of the country and along its Atlantic coast. Our analysis points to a wide variation in infection rates throughout the country, and includes both latitudinal effects and strong variations in detection rates. Two states (out of a total of 23) were responsible for 73% of all cases reported. Real time reproduction numbers demonstrate that influenza transmission was sustained in the country, beginning in May of 2009. Finally, this study discusses the challenges in understanding the infection dynamics of influenza and the adequacy of Brazil's influenza monitoring system.

  15. Carbohydrate Determinants in Ferret Conjunctiva are Affected by Infection with Influenza H1N1 Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril J M; Aasted, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    virus to ferrets has an effect on the conjunctival cells and change their expression of glycans. Synthesized glycans are an integral part of the tear film and the present study contributes to reveal the changes that occur in the surface epithelium in the eyelid and thereby to elucidate......Abstract Background: Carbohydrates often accomplish as cell-surface receptors for microorganisms and influenza virus preferentially binds to sialic acid through the viral haemagglutinin. The virus may attach not only to the epithelium in the airways, but also to the surface ocular epithelium....... Purpose: To decide if ferrets can be used to study virus induced conjunctivitis and to evaluate changes in the conjunctival glycosylation pattern during an influenza attack. Methods: Ferrets were infected with H1N1 influenza virus via nasal inoculation. The in situ carbohydrate expressions in eyelid...

  16. 甲型H1N1流感患者的护理现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉华; 杨桂红

    2009-01-01

    要目的:为了提高甲型H1N1流感患者的护理水平,有效控制甲型H1N1流感的传播。方法:根据近期甲型H1N1流感相关信息进行了收集和分析,在此理论基础上提出了甲型H1N1流感患者护理的相关理论和经验。结果:甲型H1N1流感是可防、可控的。结论:提高甲型H1N1流感患者的护理水平,能有效控制甲型H1N1流感的传播。

  17. 中西医结合防控甲型H1N1流感疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐卡毅

    2009-01-01

    1976年美国发生的“新泽西事件”中大约500人感染甲型H1N1病毒,该病毒与当时从猪体内分离的病毒相同。2009年3月墨西哥及美国部分地区暴发了人感染甲型H1N1疫情。WHO指出墨西哥和美国感染的病原体是属于甲型H1N1病毒的1个毒株。甲型H1N1是甲型(A型)流感病毒引起的一种急性呼吸道传染性疾病。这是一种新型甲型H1N1病毒。根据目前所掌握的资料,本次发生的甲型H1N1流感是由变异后的新型甲型H1N1流感病毒所引起的急性呼吸道传染病。

  18. Influenza virus H1N1 activates platelets through FcγRIIA signaling and thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boilard, Eric; Paré, Guillaume; Rousseau, Matthieu; Cloutier, Nathalie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Lévesque, Tania; Borgeat, Pierre; Flamand, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Platelets play crucial functions in hemostasis and the prevention of bleeding. During H1N1 influenza A virus infection, platelets display activation markers. The platelet activation triggers during H1N1 infection remain elusive. We observed that H1N1 induces surface receptor activation, lipid mediator synthesis, and release of microparticles from platelets. These activation processes require the presence of serum/plasma, pointing to the contribution of soluble factor(s). Considering that immune complexes in the H1N1 pandemic were reported to play a pathogenic role, we assessed their contribution in H1N1-induced platelet activation. In influenza-immunized subjects, we observed that the virus scaffolds with immunoglobulin G (IgG) to form immune complexes that promote platelet activation. Mechanistically, this activation occurs through stimulation of low-affinity type 2 receptor for Fc portion of IgG (FcγRIIA), a receptor for immune complexes, independently of thrombin. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we found that the antibodies from H3N2-immunized mice activate transgenic mouse platelets that express FcγRIIA when put in the presence of H1N1, suggesting that cross-reacting influenza antibodies suffice. Alternatively, H1N1 can activate platelets via thrombin formation, independently of complement and FcγRIIA. These observations identify both the adaptive immune response and the innate response against pathogens as 2 intertwined processes that activate platelets during influenza infections.

  19. Willingness to accept H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine: A cross-sectional study of Hong Kong community nurses

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    Wong Carmen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1 infection has alerted many governments to make preparedness plan to control the spread of influenza A (H1N1 infection. Vaccination for influenza is one of the most important primary preventative measures to reduce the disease burden. Our study aims to assess the willingness of nurses who work for the community nursing service (CNS in Hong Kong on their acceptance of influenza A (H1N1 influenza vaccination. Methods 401 questionnaires were posted from June 24, 2009 to June 30, 2009 to community nurses with 67% response rate. Results of the 267 respondents on their willingness to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccine were analyzed. Results Twenty-seven percent of respondents were willing to accept influenza vaccination if vaccines were available. Having been vaccinated for seasonable influenza in the previous 12 months were significantly independently associated with their willingness to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccination (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 2.03-7.98. Conclusions Similar to previous findings conducted in hospital healthcare workers and nurses, we confirmed that the willingness of community nurses to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccination is low. Future studies that evaluate interventions to address nurses' specific concerns or interventions that aim to raise the awareness among nurses on the importance of influenza A (H1N1 vaccination to protect vulnerable patient populations is needed.

  20. Clinical profile of the first 1000 fatalities for influenza A (H1N1 in Mexico

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    Germ and aacute;n Fajardo-Dolci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza is an acute respiratory disease responsible for several episodes of high mortality throughout human history. In 2009, Mexico experienced an atypical influenza outbreak caused by a mutant strain of the influenza A (H1N1 subtype, which generated significant mortality. The aim of this paper was to analyze the clinical and sociodemographic conditions of the first 1000 fatalities recorded during this outbreak. Methods: We conducted a study based on an analysis of the clinical files of patients positive for influenza A (H1N1 using Real-Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR to conduct an analysis of deaths compared to deaths in the general population. Results: The majority of deaths occurred in patients aged 35-84 years (65.8%. Average time between symptom onset and death was 13.8 days, with an average of 7.8 days from time of hospitalization until death. Ca. 25% of deaths occurred in residents from Mexico City and from the nearby State of Mexico. In the majority of cases, we found that patients who died had a low educational and socioeconomic status along with co-morbidities such as metabolic syndrome and its individual components, as well as respiratory illnesses. In 80% of cases, patients received mechanical ventilation, and a similar percentage received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, zanamivir. Conclusions: The primary-care level was not utilized by patients who died from influenza. The higher prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases among deaths compared with the general population indicates that these groups of patients should be considered and prioritized in the event of future outbreaks. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3008-3014