Confining properties of the classical SU(3) Yang - Mills theory
Dzhunushaliev, V D
1996-01-01
The spherically and cylindrically symmetric solutions of the $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory are obtained. The corresponding gauge potential has the confining properties. It is supposed that: a) the spherically symmetric solution is a field distribution of the classical ``quark'' and in this sense it is similar to the Coulomb potential; b) the cylindrically symmetric solution describes a classical field ``string'' (flux tube) between two ``quarks''. It is noticed that these solutions are typically for the classical $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory in contradiction to monopole that is an exceptional solution. This allows to conclude that the confining properties of the classical $SU(3)$ Yang - Mills theory are general properties of this theory.
Unconstrained SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills classical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A systematic study of contraints in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills classical mechanics is performed. Expect for the SU(2) case with spatial angular momenta they turn out to be nonholonomic. The complete elimination of the unphysical gauge and rotatinal degrees of freedom is achieved using Dirac's constraint formalism. We present an effective unconstrained formulation of the general SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics as well as for SU(3) in the subspace of vanishing spatial angular momenta that is well suited for further explicit dynamical investigations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work uses FORM software aspects for obtaining a series of formal results in the non-Abelian gauge theory, with SU(3) group. The work also studies field transformation, Lagrangian density invariance, field equations, energy distribution and the theory reparametrization in terms of fields associated to particles which are possible to be detected in accelerators
Mean field analysis of SU(3) lattice Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phase diagram of the SU(3) four-dimensional space-time lattice Yang-Mills field theory at finite temperature is analysed by the extended mean-field technique. With this technique, finite temperature effects are present already at the saddle point approximation. A reasonable quantitative agreement with Monte Carlo numerical simulations is obtained. (author)
Discriminating between two reformulations of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory on a lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shibata, Akihiro [Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kato, Seikou [Fukui National College of Technology, Sabae 916-8507 (Japan)
2016-01-22
In order to investigate quark confinement, we give a new reformulation of the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory on a lattice and present the results of the numerical simulations of the SU (3) Yang-Mills theory on a lattice. The numerical simulations include the derivation of the linear potential for static interquark potential, i.e., non-vanishing string tension, in which the “Abelian” dominance and magnetic monopole dominance are established, confirmation of the dual Meissner effect by measuring the chromoelectric flux tube between quark-antiquark pair, the induced magnetic-monopole current, and the type of dual superconductivity, etc.
Magnetic monopole and confinement/deconfinement phase transition in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory
Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
2015-01-01
We have proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory for the mechanism of quark confinement,and we presented the numerical evidences in preceding lattice conferences by using the proposed gauge link decomposition to extract magnetic monopole in the gauge invariant way. In this talk, we focus on the dual Meissner effects in view of the magnetic monopole in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. We measure the chromoelectric and chromomagnetic flux due to a pair of quark and antiquark source at finite temperature. Then, we measure the correlation function of Polyakov loops and Polyakov loop average at various temperatures, and investigate chromomagnetic monopole current induced by chromo-magnetic flux in both confinement and deconfinement phase. We will discuss the role of the chromoelectric monopole in confinement/deconfinement phase transition.
Functional Approach to Classical Yang-Mills Theories
Carta, P
2002-01-01
Sometime ago it was shown that the operatorial approach to classical mechanics, pioneered in the 30's by Koopman and von Neumann, can have a functional version. In this talk we will extend this functional approach to the case of classical field theories and in particular to the Yang-Mills ones. We shall show that the issues of gauge-fixing and Faddeev-Popov determinant arise also in this classical formalism.
Exact solutions to D=2 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Quantum Mechanics with SU(3) gauge group
Korcyl, Piotr
2009-01-01
In this article we present the cut Fock space approach to the D=d+1=2, Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Quantum Mechanics (SYMQM). We start by briefly introducing the main features of the framework. We concentrate on those properties of the method which make it a convenient set up not only for numerical calculations but also for analytic computations. In the main part of the article a sample of results are discussed, namely, analytic and numerical analysis of the D=2, SYMQM systems with SU(2) and SU(3) gauge symmetry.
A precise determination of the running coupling in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A non-perturbative finite-size scaling technique is used to study the evolution of the running coupling (in a certain adapted scheme) in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. At low energies contact is made with the fundamental dynamical scales, such as the string tension K, while at larger energies the coupling is shown to evolve according to perturbation theory. In that regime the coupling in the anti M anti S scheme of dimensional regularization is obtained with an estimated total error of a few percent. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reinterpretation of the BRS equations of Quantum Field Theory as the Maurer Cartan equation of a classical principal fiber bundle leads to a simple gauge invariant classification of the anomalies in Yang Mills theory and gravity
Stiefel-Skyrem-Higgs models, their classical static solutions and Yang-Mills-Higgs monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new series of models is introduced by adding Higgs fields to the earlier proposed euclidean four-dimensional Skyrme-like models with Yang-Mills composite fields constructed from Stiefel manifold-valued fields. The classical static versions of these models are discussed. The connection with the monopole solutions of the Yang-Mills-Higgs models in the Prasad-Sommerfield limit is pointed out and the BPS monopole is reobtained as an example. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper concludes our efforts in describing SU(3)-Yang-Mills theories at different couplings/temperatures in terms of effective Polyakov-loop models. The associated effective couplings are determined through an inverse Monte Carlo procedure based on novel Schwinger-Dyson equations that employ the symmetries of the Haar measure. Because of the first-order nature of the phase transition we encounter a fine-tuning problem in reproducing the correct behavior of the Polyakov-loop from the effective models. The problem remains under control as long as the number of effective couplings is sufficiently small
Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
2014-01-01
The dual superconductivity is a promising mechanism for quark confinement. We proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, and demonstrated the restricted field dominance (called conventionally "Abelian" dominance), and non-Abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension. In the last conference, we have demonstrated by measuring the chromoelectric flux that the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect exists and determined that the dual superconductivity for SU(3) case is of type I, which is in sharp contrast to the SU(2) case: the border of type I and type II. In this talk, we focus on the confinement/deconfinemen phase transition and the non-Abelian dual superconductivity at finite temperature: We measure the chromoelectric flux between a pair of static quark and antiquark at finite temperature, and investigate its relevance to the phase transition and the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect.
Silva, P J
2016-01-01
The correlations between the modulus of the Polyakov loop, its phase $\\theta$ and the Landau gauge gluon propagator at finite temperature are investigated in connection with the center symmetry for pure Yang-Mills SU(3) theory. In the deconfined phase, where the center symmetry is spontaneously broken, the phase of the Polyakov loop per configuration is close to $\\theta = 0$, $\\pm \\, 2 \\pi /3$. We find that the gluon propagator form factors associated with $\\theta \\approx 0$ differs quantitatively and qualitatively from those associated to $\\theta \\approx \\pm \\, 2 \\pi /3$. This difference between the form factors is a property of the deconfined phase and a sign of the spontaneous breaking of the center symmetry. Furthermore, given that this difference vanishes in the confined phase, it can be used as an order parameter associated to the deconfinement transition. For simulations near the critical temperature $T_c$, the difference between the propagators associated to $\\theta \\approx 0$ and $\\theta \\approx \\pm ...
Classical Yang-Mills Mechanics: Instant vs. Light-cone Form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two different forms of relativistic dynamics, the instant and the light-cone form, for the pure SU(2) Yang-Mills field theory in 4-dimensional Minkowski space are examined under the supposition that the gauge fields depend on the time evolution parameter only. The obtained under that restriction of gauge potential space homogeneity mechanical matrix model, sometimes called Yang-Mills classical mechanics, is systematically studied in its instant and light-cone form of dynamics using the Dirac's generalized Hamiltonian approach. In the both cases the constraint content of the obtained mechanical systems is found. In contrast to its well-known instant-time counterpart the light-cone version of SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics has in addition to the constraints generating the SU(2) gauge transformations the new first and second class constraints also. On account of all of these constraints a complete reduction in number of the degrees of freedom is performed. In the instant form of dynamics it is shown that after elimination of the gauge degrees of freedom from the classical SU(2) Yang-Mills mechanics the resulting unconstrained system represents the ID3 Euler-Calogero-Moser model with a certain external fourth-order potential, whereas in the light-cone form it is argued that the classical evolution of the unconstrained degrees of freedom is equivalent to a free one-dimensional particle dynamics.
Effective lattice Polyakov loop theory vs. full SU(3) Yang-Mills at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergner, G. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt,Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Langelage, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Philipsen, O. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt,Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2014-03-06
A three-dimensional effective theory of Polyakov loops has recently been derived from Wilson’s Yang-Mills lattice action by means of a strong coupling expansion. It is valid in the confined phase up to the deconfinement phase transition, for which it predicts the correct order and gives quantitative estimates for the critical coupling. In this work we study its predictive power for further observables like correlation functions and the equation of state. We find that the effective theory correctly reproduces qualitative features and symmetries of the full theory as the continuum is approached. Regarding quantitative predictions, we identify two classes of observables by numerical comparison as well as analytic calculations: correlation functions and their associated mass scales cannot be described accurately from a truncated effective theory, due to its inherently non-local nature involving long-range couplings. On the other hand, phase transitions and bulk thermodynamic quantities are accurately reproduced by the leading local part of the effective theory. In particular, the effective theory description is numerically superior when computing the equation of state at low temperatures or the properties of the phase transition.
Two-loop study of the deconfinement transition in Yang-Mills theories: SU(3) and beyond
Reinosa, U.; Serreau, J.; Tissier, M.; Wschebor, N.
2016-05-01
We study the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature using a simple massive extension of standard background field methods. We generalize our recent next-to-leading-order perturbative calculation of the Polyakov loop and of the related background field effective potential for the SU(2) theory to any compact and connex Lie group with a simple Lie algebra. We discuss in detail the SU(3) theory, where the two-loop corrections yield improved values for the first-order transition temperature as compared to the one-loop result. We also show that certain one-loop artifacts of thermodynamical observables disappear at two-loop order, as was already the case for the SU(2) theory. In particular, the entropy and the pressure are positive for all temperatures. Finally, we discuss the groups SU(4) and Sp(2) which shed interesting light, respectively, on the relation between the (de)confinement of static matter sources in the various representations of the gauge group and on the use of the background field itself as an order parameter for confinement. In both cases, we obtain first-order transitions, in agreement with lattice simulations and other continuum approaches.
A two-loop study of the deconfinement transition in Yang-Mills theories: SU(3) and beyond
Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Wschebor, N
2015-01-01
We study the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature within a simple massive extension of standard background field methods. We generalize our recent next-to-leading-order perturbative calculation of the Polyakov loop and the related background field effective potential for the SU(2) theory to any compact and connex Lie group with a simple Lie algebra. We discuss in detail the SU(3) theory, where the two-loop corrections yield improved values for the first order transition temperature as compared to the one-loop result. We show that certain one-loop artifacts of thermodynamical observables disappear at two-loop order, as was already the case for the SU(2) theory. In particular, the entropy and the pressure are positive for all temperatures. We also discuss the groups SU(4) and Sp(2) which shed interesting light, respectively, on the relation between the (de)confinement of static matter sources in the various representations of the gauge group and on the use...
Silva, P. J.; Oliveira, O.
2016-06-01
The correlations between the modulus of the Polyakov loop, its phase θ , and the Landau gauge gluon propagator at finite temperature are investigated in connection with the center symmetry for pure Yang-Mills SU(3) theory. In the deconfined phase, where the center symmetry is spontaneously broken, the phase of the Polyakov loop per configuration is close to θ =0 , ±2 π /3 . We find that the gluon propagator form factors associated with θ ≈0 differ quantitatively and qualitatively from those associated to θ ≈±2 π /3 . This difference between the form factors is a property of the deconfined phase and a sign of the spontaneous breaking of the center symmetry. Furthermore, given that this difference vanishes in the confined phase, it can be used as an order parameter associated to the deconfinement transition. For simulations near the critical temperature Tc, the difference between the propagators associated to θ ≈0 and θ ≈±2 π /3 allows one to classify the configurations as belonging to the confined or deconfined phase. This establishes a selection procedure which has a measurable impact on the gluon form factors. Our results also show that the absence of the selection procedure can be erroneously interpreted as lattice artifacts.
Navarro-Lerida, Francisco
2014-01-01
We study spherically symmetric finite energy solutions of two Higgs-Chern-Simons--Yang-Mills-Higgs (HCS-YMH) models in $3+1$ dimensions, one with gauge group $SO(5)$ and the other with $SU(3)$. The Chern-Simons (CS) densities are defined in terms of both the Yang-Mills (YM) and Higgs fields and the choice of the two gauge groups is made so they do not vanish. The solutions of the $SO(5)$ model carry only electric charge and zero magnetic charge, while the solutions of the $SU(3)$ model are dyons carrying both electric and magnetic charges like the Julia-Zee (JZ) dyon. Unlike the latter however, the electric charge in both models receives an important contribution from the CS dynamics. We pay special attention to the relation between the energies and charges of these solutions. In contrast with the electrically charged JZ dyon of the Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) system, whose mass is larger than that of the electrically neutral (magnetic monopole) solutions, the masses of the electrically charged solutions of our HC...
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary. (orig.)
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
Ruiz Ruiz, F.
2016-02-01
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary.
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with classical double as gauge algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz Ruiz, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)
2016-02-15
Perturbative quantization of Yang-Mills theory with a gauge algebra given by the classical double of a semisimple Lie algebra is considered. The classical double of a real Lie algebra is a nonsemisimple real Lie algebra that admits a nonpositive definite invariant metric, the indefiniteness of the metric suggesting an apparent lack of unitarity. It is shown that the theory is UV divergent at one loop and that there are no radiative corrections at higher loops. One-loop UV divergences are removed through renormalization of the coupling constant, thus introducing a renormalization scale. The terms in the classical action that would spoil unitarity are proved to be cohomologically trivial with respect to the Slavnov-Taylor operator that controls gauge invariance for the quantum theory. Hence they do not contribute gauge invariant radiative corrections to the quantum effective action and the theory is unitary. (orig.)
What can we learn from the classical theory of Yang-Mills and Dirac fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minimally coupled classical Yang-Mills and Dirac fields in the Minkowski space-time and in spatially bounded domains are investigated. The extended phase space, defined as the space of the Cauchy data admitting solutions of the evolution equations, is identified. The structure of the gauge symmetry group, defined as the group of all gauge transformations acting in the extended phase space is analysed. In the Minkowski space-time the Lie algebra of infinitesimal gauge symmetries has an ideal giving rise to the constraints. The quotient algebra, isomorphic to the structure algebra, labels the conserved colour charges. In the case of spatially bounded domains, each set of the boundary data gives rise to an extended phase space in which the evolution is Hamiltonian. The problem of a physical interpretation of the boundary data is discussed. (author)
Fukushima, Kimichika
2014-01-01
This article reports an explicit function of confining classical Yang-Mills vector potentials as well as quantum fluctuations around the classical field. The classical vector potential, which is composed of a confining localized function and an unlocalized function, satisfies the classical Yang-Mills equation. The confining localized function contributes to the Wilson loop, while the unlocalized function has no contribution to this loop. The confining linear potential between a pair of a heavy fermion particle and an antiparticle is due to the Lie algebra and the form of the confining localized function, which have opposite signs at positions of the particle and antiparticles along the Wilson loop in the time direction. Some classical confining parts of vector potentials also have the opposite sign for the inversion of coordinate of the axis perpendicular to the axis between two particles. The localized functions of vector potentials are squeezed around the axis connecting two particles, and the string tensio...
Parametric Instability of Classical Yang-Mills Fields under Color Magnetic Background
Tsutsui, Shoichiro; Kunihiro, Teiji; Ohnishi, Akira
2014-01-01
We investigate instabilities of classical Yang-Mills fields in a time-dependent spatially homogeneous color magnetic background field in a non-expanding geometry for elucidating the earliest stage dynamics of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The background gauge field configuration considered in this article is spatially homogeneous and temporally periodic, and is alluded by Berges-Scheffler-Schlichting-Sexty (BSSS). We discuss the whole structure of instability bands of fluctuations around the BSSS background gauge field on the basis of Floquet theory, which enables us to discuss the stability in a systematic way. We find various instability bands on the $(p_z, p_T)$-plane. These instability bands are caused by parametric resonance despite the fact that the momentum dependence of the growth rate for $|\\mathbf{p}| \\leq \\sqrt{B}$ is similar to a Nielsen-Olesen instability. Moreover, some of instability bands are found to emerge not only in the low momentum but also in the high momentum region; typicall...
Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
2014-01-01
The dual superconductivity is a promising mechanism for quark confinement. We have proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, and showed the restricted field dominance (called conventionally Abelian dominance), and non-Abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension. We have further demonstrated by measuring the chromoelectric flux that the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect exists and determined that the dual superconductivity for SU(3) case is of type I, which is in sharp contrast to the SU(2) case: the border of type I and type II. In this talk, we focus on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the non-Abelian dual superconductivity at a finite temperature: We measure the Polyakov loop average and correlator and investigate the restricted field dominance in the Polyakov loop. Then, we measure the chromoelectric flux between a pair of static quark and antiquark created by a pair of Polyakov loops, and investigate the non-Abelian dual Meissner ef...
Duarte, Anthony G; Silva, Paulo J
2016-01-01
The dependence of the Landau gauge two point gluon and ghost correlation functions on the lattice spacing and on the physical volume are investigated for pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions using lattice simulations. We present data from very large lattices up to $128^4$ and for two lattice spacings $0.10$ fm and $0.06$ fm corresponding to volumes of $\\sim$ (13 fm)$^4$ and $\\sim$ (8 fm)$^4$, respectively. Our results show that, for sufficiently large physical volumes, both propagators have a mild dependence on the lattice volume. On the other hand, the gluon and ghost propagators change with the lattice spacing $a$ in the infrared region, with the gluon propagator having a stronger dependence on $a$ compared to the ghost propagator. In what concerns the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s (p^2)$, as defined from gluon and ghost two point functions, the simulations show a sizeable dependence on the lattice spacing for the infrared region and for momenta up to $\\sim 1$ GeV.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article presents a project of the capacitor in the Yang-Mills theory. Model capacitor represents the equipotential surfaces separated by a space. To describe the mechanism of condensation chromodynamics field used numerical models developed based on an average of the Yang-Mills theory. In the present study, we used eight-scalar component model that in the linear case is divided into two groups containing three or five fields respectively. In contrast to classical electrodynamics, a static model of the Yang-Mills is not divided into independent equations because of the nonlinearity of the model itself. However, in the case of a linear theory separation is possible. It is shown that in this particular case, the Yang-Mills theory is reduced to Poisson theory, which describes the electrostatic and magnetostatic phenomena. In the present work it is shown that in a certain region of the parameters of the capacitor of the Yang-Mills theory on the functional properties of the charge accumulation and retention of the field is similar to the capacitor of the electrostatic field or a magnet in magnetostatics. This means that in nature there are two types of charges, which are sources of macroscopic Yang-Mills field, which are similar to the properties of electric and magnetic charges in the Poisson theory. It is shown that in Yang-Mills only one type of charge may be associated with the distribution density of the substance, while another type of charge depends on the charge distribution of the first type. This allows us to provide an explanation for the lack of symmetry between electric and magnetic charges
N=4 super-Yang-Mills in LHC superspace. Part I: Classical and quantum theory
Chicherin, Dmitry
2016-01-01
We present a formulation of the maximally supersymmetric N=4 gauge theory in Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace. It is closely related to the twistor formulation of the theory but employs the simpler notion of Lorentz harmonic variables. They parametrize a two-sphere and allow us to handle efficiently infinite towers of higher-spin auxiliary fields defined on ordinary space-time. In this approach the chiral half of N=4 supersymmetry is manifest. The other half is realized non-linearly and the algebra closes on shell. We give a straightforward derivation of the Feynman rules in coordinate space. We show that the LHC formulation of the N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory is remarkably similar to the harmonic superspace formulation of the N=2 gauge and hypermultiplet matter theories. In the twin paper \\cite{twin} we apply the LHC formalism to the study of the non-chiral multipoint correlation functions of the N=4 stress-tensor supermultiplet.
Entropy production in quantum Yang-Mills mechanics in semi-classical approximation
Tsukiji, Hidekazu; Kunihiro, Teiji; Ohnishi, Akira; Takahashi, Toru T
2015-01-01
We discuss thermalization of isolated quantum systems by using the Husimi-Wehrl entropy evaluated in the semiclassical treatment. The Husimi-Wehrl entropy is the Wehrl entropy obtained by using the Husimi function for the phase space distribution. The time evolution of the Husimi function is given by smearing the Wigner function, whose time evolution is obtained in the semiclassical approximation. We show the efficiency and usefullness of this semiclassical treatment in describing entropy production of a couple of quantum mechanical systems, whose classical counter systems are known to be chaotic. We propose two methods to evaluate the time evolution of the Husimi-Wehrl entropy, the test-particle method and the two-step Monte-Carlo method. We demonstrate the characteristics of the two methods by numerical calculations, and show that the simultaneous application of the two methods ensures the reliability of the results of the Husimi-Wehrl entropy at a given time.
On Landau gauge Yang-Mills correlation functions
Cyrol, Anton K; Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M; Strodthoff, Nils
2016-01-01
We investigate Landau gauge $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theory in a systematic vertex expansion scheme for the effective action with the functional renormalisation group. Particular focus is put on the dynamical creation of the gluon mass gap at non-perturbative momenta and the consistent treatment of quadratic divergences. The non-perturbative ghost and transverse gluon propagators as well as the momentum-dependent ghost-gluon, three-gluon and four-gluon vertices are calculated self-consistently with the classical action as only input. The apparent convergence of the expansion scheme is discussed and within the errors, our numerical results are in quantitative agreement with available lattice results.
Lin, C -J David; Ramos, Alberto
2015-01-01
We perform the step-scaling investigation of the running coupling constant, using the gradient-flow scheme, in SU(3) gauge theory with twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation. The Wilson plaquette gauge action and massless unimproved staggered fermions are used in the simulations. Our lattice data are prepared at high accuracy, such that the statistical error for the renormalised coupling, g_GF, is at the subpercentage level. To investigate the reliability of the continuum extrapolation, we employ two different lattice discretisations to obtain g_GF. For our simulation setting, the corresponding gauge-field averaging radius in the gradient flow has to be almost half of the lattice size, in order to have this extrapolation under control. We can determine the renormalisation group evolution of the coupling up to g^2_GF ~ 6, before the onset of the bulk phase structure. In this infrared regime, the running of the coupling is significantly slower than the two-loop perturbative prediction, altho...
SIMULATION OF NONLINEAR COLOR OSCILLATIONS IN YANG-MILLS THEORY
Trunev A. P.
2015-01-01
The article presents the simulation of non-linear spatial-temporal color oscillations in Yang-Mills theory in the case of SU (2) and SU (3) symmetry. We examined three systems of equations derived from the Yang-Mills theory, which describes the transition to chaotic behaviour. These transitions are caused by nonlinear vibrations of colour, depending on the model parameters - the coupling constants and the initial wave amplitude. Such transitions to chaotic behaviour by increasing the paramete...
Lin, C.-J. David; Ogawa, Kenji; Ramos, Alberto
2015-12-01
We perform the step-scaling investigation of the running coupling constant, using the gradient-flow scheme, in SU(3) gauge theory with twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation. The Wilson plaquette gauge action and massless unimproved staggered fermions are used in the simulations. Our lattice data are prepared at high accuracy, such that the statistical error for the renormalised coupling, g GF , is at the subpercentage level. To investigate the reliability of the continuum extrapolation, we employ two different lattice discretisations to obtain g GF . For our simulation setting, the corresponding gauge-field averaging radius in the gradient flow has to be almost half of the lattice size, in order to have this extrapolation under control. We can determine the renormalisation group evolution of the coupling up to g GF 2 ˜ 6, before the onset of the bulk phase structure. In this infrared regime, the running of the coupling is significantly slower than the two-loop perturbative prediction, although we cannot draw definite conclusion regarding possible infrared conformality of this theory. Furthermore, we comment on the issue regarding the continuum extrapolation near an infrared fixed point. In addition to adopting the fit ansätz a' la Symanzik for performing this task, we discuss a possible alternative procedure inspired by properties derived from low-energy scale invariance at strong coupling. Based on this procedure, we propose a finite-size scaling method for the renormalised coupling as a means to search for infrared fixed point. Using this method, it can be shown that the behaviour of the theory around g GF 2 ˜ 6 is still not governed by possible infrared conformality.
A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2011-01-01
Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework, gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the electroweak theory. By gauging $T(4) \\times [SU(3)]_{color} $ in flat space-time, we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field, which couples universally to all gluons, quarks and anti-quarks. The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the same `effective Riemann metric tensors' in the geometric-optics (or classical) limit. The emergence of effective metric tensors in the classical limit is essential for the unified model to agree with experiments. The unified model suggests that all gravitational, strong and electroweak interactions appear to be dictated by gauge symmetries in the generalized Yang-Mills framework.
A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HSU Jong-Ping
2012-01-01
Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework,gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the clectroweak theory.By gauging T(4) × [SU(3)]color in fiat space-time,we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field,which couples universally to all gluons,quarks and anti-quarks.The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the same ‘effective Riemann metric tensors' in the geometric-optics (or classical) limit.The emergence of effective metric tensors in the classical limit is essential for the unified model to agree with experiments.The unified model suggests that all gravitational,strong and electroweak interactions appear to be dictated by gauge symmetries in the generalized Yang-Mills framework.
Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya
2015-01-01
We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the $SU(2)$ theory and then generalise to $SU(N)$ for all $N$, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theorie...
Marateck, Samuel
2011-01-01
In their 1954 paper, Yang and Mills invented the non-Abelian field strength to satisfy certain criteria but didn't explain how it could be derived. In the penultimate section we show how the Yang-Mills field strength derives from Yang's gauge transformation. The preceding sections place Yang-Mills theory in historical perspective and cover material relating to the field strength. The final section shows how Yang-Mills theory was combined with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone theorem and subsequent work to contribute to the Standard Model of particle physics.
Gauss' law and nonlinear plane waves for Yang-Mills theory
Tsapalis, A.; Politis, E. P.; Maintas, X. N.; Diakonos, F. K.
2016-04-01
We investigate nonlinear plane-wave solutions of the classical Minkowskian Yang-Mills (YM) equations of motion. By imposing a suitable ansatz which solves Gauss' law for the SU(3) theory, we derive solutions which consist of Jacobi elliptic functions depending on an enumerable set of elliptic modulus values. The solutions represent periodic anharmonic plane waves which possess arbitrary nonzero mass and are exact extrema of the nonlinear YM action. Among them, a unique harmonic plane wave with a nontrivial pattern in phase, spin, and color is identified. Similar solutions are present in the SU(4) case, while they are absent from the SU(2) theory.
Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes
Nandan, Dhritiman; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao
2016-01-01
We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.
Bagchi, Arjun; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya
2015-01-01
We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the $SU(2)$ theory and then generalise to $SU(N)$ for all $N$, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in $D=4$. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in $D>2$.
Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya
2016-04-01
We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU( N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D = 4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D > 2.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The article presents a project of the Yang-Mills amplifier. Amplifier model is a multilayer spherical shell with increasing density towards the center. In the center of the amplifier is the core of high-density material. It is shown that in such a system, the amplitude of the Yang-Mills waves rises from the periphery to the center of several orders of magnitude. The role of the Yang-Mills field in the processes occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, stars and planets is discussed. The data modeling to strengthen the Yang-Mills field in the bowels of the planet, with an atomic explosion, and in some special devices such as the voltaic pile. To describe the mechanism of amplification chromodynamics field used as accurate results in Yang-Mills theory and numerical models developed based on an average and the exact equations as well. Among the exact solutions of the special role played by the centralsymmetric metric describing the contribution of the Yang-Mills field in the speed of recession of galaxies. Among the approximate numerical models can be noted the eight-scalar model we have developed for the simulation of non-linear color oscillations and chaos in the Yang-Mills theory. Earlier models were investigated spatio-temporal oscillations of the YangMills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three by five colors or vice versa. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. In the present study, we found that amplification chromodynamic field leads to a sharp increase in the amplitude of the suppressed color, which can lead to an increase in entropy, excitation of nuclear
SIMULATION OF NONLINEAR COLOR OSCILLATIONS IN YANG-MILLS THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents the simulation of non-linear spatial-temporal color oscillations in Yang-Mills theory in the case of SU (2 and SU (3 symmetry. We examined three systems of equations derived from the Yang-Mills theory, which describes the transition to chaotic behaviour. These transitions are caused by nonlinear vibrations of colour, depending on the model parameters - the coupling constants and the initial wave amplitude. Such transitions to chaotic behaviour by increasing the parameters are characteristic of hydrodynamic turbulence. A model of spatial-temporal oscillations of the Yang-Mills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three of five colors or vice versa - the first three five other colors. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. Note that the general property of physical systems described by nonlinear equations in the Yang-Mills theory and hydrodynamics is particularly strong in the formation of quark-gluon plasma and hadrons jets, when the Yang-Mills is involved in the formation of hydrodynamic flow. Note that there is a relationship between the Einstein and Yang-Mills theory, on the one hand, Einstein's equations and hydrodynamics - on the other. All of this points to the existence in the nature of a general mechanism of formation of a special type of turbulence - geometric turbulence
On deformations of Yang-Mills algebras
Movshev, M.
2005-01-01
This is a next paper from a sequel devoted to algebraic aspects of Yang-Mills theory. We undertake a study of deformation theory of Yang-Mills algebra YM - a ``universal solution'' of Yang-Mills equation. We compute (cyclic) (co)homology of YM.
Effective gluon potential and Yang-Mills thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasaki, Chihiro [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Redlich, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, PL-50204 Wroclaw (Poland)
2013-07-01
We show that the Polyakov-loop potential can be derived, using a field theoretical methods, directly from the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. A class of the Polyakov-loop effective potentials used so far in literature appears as limiting cases of our potential. We deduce the correspondence of U(L) to the strong-coupling expansion, of which the relevant coefficients of the gluon energy distribution are specified solely by characters of the SU(3) group. At high temperatures the derived gluon potential exhibits the correct asymptotic behavior, whereas at low temperatures, it disfavors gluons as appropriate dynamical degrees of freedom. To quantify the Yang-Mills thermodynamics in a confined phase, we propose a hybrid approach which matches the effective gluon potential to the one of glueballs constrained by the QCD trace anomaly in the context of dilaton fields.
Polyakov Loop and Gluon Quasiparticles in Yang-Mills Thermodynamics
Ruggieri, M.; Alba, P.; P. Castorina(INFN Sezione di Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita' di Catania, Italy); Plumari, S.; Ratti, C.; Greco, V.
2012-01-01
We study the interpretation of Lattice data about the thermodynamics of the deconfinement phase of SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, in terms of gluon quasiparticles propagating in a background of a Polyakov loop. A potential for the Polyakov loop, inspired by the strong coupling expansion of the QCD action, is introduced; the Polyakov loop is coupled to tranverse gluon quasiparticles by means of a gas-like effective potential. This study is useful to identify the effective degrees of freedom propagat...
SU(2) Yang-Mills Theory: Waves, Particles, and Quantum Thermodynamics
Hofmann, Ralf
2016-01-01
We elucidate how Quantum Thermodynamics at temperature $T$ emerges from pure and classical SU(2) Yang-Mills theory on a four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime slice $S_1\\times {\\bf R}^3$. The concept of a (deconfining) thermal ground state, composed of certain solutions to the fundamental, classical Yang-Mills equation, allows for a unified addressation of both (classical) wave- and (quantum) particle-like excitations thereof.
Lai, Sheng-Hong; Tsai, I-Hsun
2016-01-01
The SL(2,C) Yang-Mills instanton solutions constructed recently by the biquaternion method were shown to satisfy the complex version of the ADHM equations and the Monad construction. Moreover, we discover that, in addition to the holomorphic vector bundles on CP^3 similar to the case of SU(2) ADHM construction, the SL(2,C) instanton solutions can be used to explicitly construct instanton sheaves on CP^3. Presumably, the existence of these instanton sheaves is related to the jumping lines of the SL(2,C) instantons on S^4 which do not exist for SU(2) instantons.
Gauss' Law and Non-Linear Plane Waves for Yang-Mills Theory
Tsapalis, A; Maintas, X N; Diakonos, F K
2016-01-01
We investigate Non-Linear Plane-Wave solutions of the classical Minkowskian Yang-Mills (YM) equations of motion. By imposing a suitable ansatz which solves Gauss' law for the $SU(3)$ theory, we derive solutions which consist of Jacobi elliptic functions depending on an enumerable set of elliptic modulus values. The solutions represent periodic anharmonic plane waves which possess arbitrary non-zero mass and are exact extrema of the non-linear YM action. Among them, a unique harmonic plane wave with a non-trivial pattern in phase, spin and color is identified. Similar solutions are present in the $SU(4)$ case while are absent from the $SU(2)$ theory.
Interface Yang-Mills, supersymmetry, and Janus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider theories consisting of a planar interface with N=4 super-Yang-Mills on either side and varying gauge coupling across the interface. The interface does not carry any independent degrees of freedom, but is allowed to support local gauge invariant operators, included with independent interface couplings. In general, both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry will be broken, but for special arrangements of the interface couplings, these symmetries may be restored. We provide a systematic classification of all allowed interface supersymmetries. We find new theories preserving eight and four Poincare supersymmetries, which get extended to sixteen and eight supersymmetries in the conformal limit, respectively with SU(2)xSU(2), SO(2)xSU(2) internal symmetry. The Lagrangians for these theories are explicitly constructed. We also recover the theory with two Poincare supersymmetries and SU(3) internal symmetry proposed earlier as a candidate CFT dual to super-Janus. Since our new interface theories have only operators from the supergravity multiplet turned on, dual supergravity solutions are expected to exist. We speculate on the possible relation between the interface theory with maximal supersymmetry and the near-horizon limit of the D3-D5 system
Form Invariance, Topological Fluctuations and Mass Gap of Yang-Mills Theory
Qian, Yachao
2016-01-01
In order to have a new perspective on the long-standing problem of the mass gap in Yang-Mills theory, we study the quantum Yang-Mills theory in the presence of topologically nontrivial backgrounds in this paper. The topologically stable gauge fields are constrained by the form invariance condition and the topological properties. Obeying these constraints, the known classical solutions to the Yang-Mills equation in the 3- and 4-dimensional Euclidean spaces are recovered, and the other allowed configurations form the nontrivial topological fluctuations at quantum level. Together, they constitute the background configurations, upon which the quantum Yang-Mills theory can be constructed. We demonstrate that the theory mimics the Higgs mechanism in a certain limit and develops a mass gap at semi-classical level on a flat space with finite size or on a sphere.
Towards the fundamental spectrum of the Quantum Yang-Mills Theory
Liegener, Klaus
2016-01-01
In this work we focus on the quantum Einstein-Yang-Mills sector quantised by the methods of Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). We point out the improved UV behaviour of the coupled system as compared to pure quantum Yang-Mills theory on a fixed, classical background spacetime as was considered in a seminal work by Kogut and Susskind. Furthermore, we develop a calculational scheme by which the fundamental spectrum of the quantum Yang-Mills Hamiltonian can be computed in principle and by which one can make contact to the Wilsonian renormalization group, possibly purely within the Hamiltonian framework. Finally, we comment on the relation of the fundamental spectrum to that of pure Yang-Mills theory on a (flat) classical spacetime.
Implementation of chromomagnetic gluons in Yang-Mills thermodynamics
Sasaki, Chihiro; Redlich, Krzysztof
2013-01-01
Motivated by the recent high-precision lattice data on Yang-Mills equations of state, we propose an effective theory of SU(3) gluonic matter. The theory is constructed based on the center and scale symmetries and their dynamical breaking, so that the interplay between color-electric and color-magnetic gluons is included coherently. We suggest, that the magnetic gluon condensate changes its thermal behavior qualitatively above the critical temperature, as a consequence of the matching to dimensionally-reduced magnetic theories. We consider thermodynamics in the mean field approximation and discuss the properties and interpretation of the trace anomaly.
Glueball Spectra from a Matrix Model of Pure Yang-Mills Theory
Acharyya, Nirmalendu; Sanyal, Sambuddha; Vaidya, Sachindeo
2016-01-01
We present the numerical results of a simple matrix model that approximates $SU(N)$ pure Yang-Mills theory. The low-lying physical spectrum of the Hamiltonian is estimated by variational techniques of $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$. In both these cases, we find an excellent agreement with lattice simulations. However, in the matrix model, the computation is much simpler and faster.
On the classification of Yang Mills fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A scheme of Classification for Yang Mills fields analogous to the Petrov Classification in general relativity is discussed. It is also shown how such a classification is used to obtain explicit solutions of the equations of motion. (author)
Fiber spaces, connections and Yang-Mills fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From the point of view of a differential geometer, Yang-Mills Fields are connections on principal fiber bundles whose curvature satisfies certain first-order differential equations. These lectures notes assume a knowledge of the formalism of calculus on manifolds, i.e., the theory of differential forms and vector fields, and are based on the theory of connections in fiber spaces, developed primarily by E. Cartan and C. Ehresmann in the period 1920-1955. To make the material more readily accessible to someone familiar with classical physics, the emphasis will be on Maxwell electromagnetic theory, considered as a Yang-Mills with an abelian structure group. Some of the material is from Interdisciplinary Mathematics, some is new. (orig.)
Introduction to instantons in Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Yang-Mills theory is outlined; the classical formalism is discussed first, and then the difficulties related to gauge invariance in the canonical quantization of the theory are taken up. Next, the task of finding and studying Euclidean gauge field configurations of finite action as solutions to the equation of motion is addressed. It is found that configurations which contribute the most in the semi-classical approximation are those which minimize the action. The question of a lower bound for the Euclidean action is considered. Properties of topological charge and the behavior of topological charge under gauge transformation are discussed. Then instanton solutions to the field equations are produced. Finally, the physical interpretation of the instanton is considered. It is found that the instanton, the Euclidean gauge field configuration which minimizes the action, induces tunneling among the infinitely degenerate vacua of the Yang-Mills theory by lifting the degeneracy and creating new distinct inequivalent (invariant under topologically nontrivial gauge transformations) vacua labelled by a superselection index theta. The angle theta is shown not to be a gauge artifact. In conclusion, the tunneling Hamiltonian and effective Lagrangian for the Yang-Mills theory are discussed
Higgs potential and confinement in Yang-Mills theory on exotic R^4
Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten
2013-01-01
We show that pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory formulated on certain exotic R^4 from the radial family shows confinement. The condensation of magnetic monopoles and the qualitative form of the Higgs potential are derived from the exotic R^4, e. A relation between the Higgs potential and inflation is discussed. Then we obtain a formula for the Higgs mass and discuss a particular smoothness structure so that the Higgs mass agrees with the experimental value. The singularity in the effective dual U(1) potential has its cause by the exotic 4-geometry and agrees with the singularity in the maximal abelian gauge scenario. We will describe the Yang-Mills theory on e in some limit as the abelian-projected effective gauge theory on the standard R^4. Similar results can be derived for SU(3) Yang-Mills theory on an exotic R^4 provided dual diagonal effective gauge bosons propagate in the exotic 4-geometry.
Linear growth of the trace anomaly in Yang-Mills thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the lattice work by Miller and in the work by Zwanziger a linear growth of the trace anomaly for high temperatures was found in pure SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theories. While future numerical work is needed to confirm or to rule out the linear growth, the aforementioned results point to the remarkable property that the corresponding systems are strongly interacting even at high temperatures. We show that within an analytical approach to Yang-Mills thermodynamics this linear rise is obtained and is directly connected to the presence of a temperature-dependent ground state, which describes (part of) the nonperturbative nature of the Yang-Mills system. Our predictions are in approximate agreement with Miller and Zwanziger
Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simic, Dusan; Unsal, Mithat; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2011-08-12
We introduce field theory techniques through which the deconfinement transition of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory can be moved to a semi-classical domain where it becomes calculable using two-dimensional field theory. We achieve this through a double-trace deformation of toroidally compactified Yang-Mills theory on R{sup 2} x S{sub L}{sup 1} x S{sub {beta}}{sup 1}. At large N, fixed-L, and arbitrary {beta}, the thermodynamics of the deformed theory is equivalent to that of ordinary Yang-Mills theory at leading order in the large N expansion. At fixed-N, small L and a range of {beta}, the deformed theory maps to a two-dimensional theory with electric and magnetic (order and disorder) perturbations, analogs of which appear in planar spin-systems and statistical physics. We show that in this regime the deconfinement transition is driven by the competition between electric and magnetic perturbations in this two-dimensional theory. This appears to support the scenario proposed by Liao and Shuryak regarding the magnetic component of the quark-gluon plasma at RHIC.
Representations of Super Yang-Mills Algebras
Herscovich, Estanislao
2013-06-01
We study in this article the representation theory of a family of super algebras, called the super Yang-Mills algebras, by exploiting the Kirillov orbit method à la Dixmier for nilpotent super Lie algebras. These super algebras are an extension of the so-called Yang-Mills algebras, introduced by A. Connes and M. Dubois-Violette in (Lett Math Phys 61(2):149-158, 2002), and in fact they appear as a "background independent" formulation of supersymmetric gauge theory considered in physics, in a similar way as Yang-Mills algebras do the same for the usual gauge theory. Our main result states that, under certain hypotheses, all Clifford-Weyl super algebras {{Cliff}q(k) ⊗ Ap(k)}, for p ≥ 3, or p = 2 and q ≥ 2, appear as a quotient of all super Yang-Mills algebras, for n ≥ 3 and s ≥ 1. This provides thus a family of representations of the super Yang-Mills algebras.
A gluon cluster solution of effective Yang-Mills theory
Pavlovsky, O V
2001-01-01
A classical solution of the effective Yang-Mills (YM) theory with a finite energy and nonstandard Lagrangian was obtained. Influence of vacuum polarization on gluon cluster formation was discussed. Appearance of cluster solutions in the theory of non-Abelian fields can take place only if the result goes beyond the framework of pure YM theory. It is shown that account of quantum effects of polarized vacuum in the presence of a classical gluon field can also result in formation of the solutions. Solutions with the finite intrinsic energy are provided. Besides, fields of colour groups SU(2) were studied
Entropy Production and Equilibration in Yang-Mills Quantum Mechanics
Tsai, Hung-Ming
Entropy production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important physical quantity for studying the equilibration and thermalization of hot matters of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). To formulate a nontrivial definition of entropy for an isolated quantum system, a certain kind of coarse graining may be applied so that the entropy for this isolated quantum system depends on time explicitly. The Husimi distribution, which is a coarse grained distribution in the phase space, is a suitable candidate for this approach. We proposed a general and systematic method of solving the equation of motion of the Husimi distribution for an isolated quantum system. The Husimi distribution is positive (semi-)definite all over the phase space. In this method, we assume the Husimi distribution is composed of a large number of Gaussian test functions. The equation of motion of the Husimi distribution, formulated as a partial differential equation, can be transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations for the centers and the widths of these Gaussian test functions. We numerically solve the system of ordinary differential equations for the centers and the widths of these test functions to obtain the Husimi distribution as a function of time. To ensure the numerical solutions of the trajectories of the test particles preserve physical conservation laws, we obtain a constant of motion for the quantum system. We constructed a coarse grained Hamiltonian whose expectation value is exactly conserved. The conservation of the coarse grained energy confirms the validity of this method. Moreover, we calculated the time evolution of the coarse grained entropy for a model system (Yang-Mills quantum mechanics). Yang-Mills quantum mechanics is a quantum system whose classical correspondence possesses chaotic behaviors. The numerical results revealed that the coarse grained entropy for Yang-Mills quantum mechanics saturates to a value that coincides with the microcanonical entropy
Confinement--deconfinement phase transition and gauge-invariant gluonic mass in Yang-Mills theory
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2015-01-01
We give an analytical derivation of the confinement/deconfinement phase transition at finite temperature in the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory in the $D$-dimensional space time for $D>2$. We elucidate what is the mechanism for quark confinement and deconfinement at finite temperature and why the phase transition occurs at a certain temperature. For this purpose, we use a novel reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory which allows the gauge-invariant gluonic mass term and calculate analytically the effective potential of the Polyakov loop average concretely for the $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theories by including the gauge-invariant dynamical gluonic mass. For $D=4$, we give an estimate on the transition temperature $T_d$ as the ratio to the gauge-invariant gluonic mass $M$ which has been measured on the lattice at zero temperature and is measurable also at finite temperature. We show that the order of the phase transition at $T_d$ is the second order for $SU(2)$ and (weakly) first order for $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills th...
Note about Yang Mills, QCD and their supersymmetric counterparts
Jora, Renata
2011-01-01
We analyze in an effective Lagrangian framework the connection between Super QCD (Super Yang Mills) and QCD (Yang Mills) by highlighting the crucial role that the zero modes play in the process of decoupling gluinos and squarks.
QUANTUM GRAVITY AND YANG-MILLS THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider Einstein's theory of gravitation in connection with Yang-Mills theory. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. The mechanism of generation of baryonic matter of dark energy is discussed
Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baecklund Transformations (BT) and the derivation of local conservation laws are first reviewed in the classic case of the Sine-Gordon equation. The BT, conservation laws (local and nonlocal), and the inverse-scattering formulation are discussed for the chiral and the self-dual Yang-Mills fields. Their possible applications to the loop formulation for the Yang-Mills fields are mentioned. 55 references, 1 figure
Topological susceptibility in lattice Yang-Mills theory with open boundary condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chowdhury, Abhishek; Harindranath, A. [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Maiti, Jyotirmoy [Department of Physics, Barasat Government College,10 KNC Road, Barasat, Kolkata 700124 (India); Majumdar, Pushan [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science,Kolkata 700032 (India)
2014-02-11
We find that using open boundary condition in the temporal direction can yield the expected value of the topological susceptibility in lattice SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. As a further check, we show that the result agrees with numerical simulations employing the periodic boundary condition. Our results support the preferability of the open boundary condition over the periodic boundary condition as the former allows for computation at smaller lattice spacings needed for continuum extrapolation at a lower computational cost.
Analytic Representations of Yang-Mills Amplitudes
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Damgaard, Poul H; Feng, Bo
2016-01-01
Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space---fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Mobius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.
Real-time dynamics of a hot Yang-Mills theory: a numerical analysis
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Krasnitz, A.
2002-03-01
We discuss recent results obtained from simulations of high temperature, classical, real time dynamics of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory at temperatures of the order of the electroweak scale. Measurements of gauge covariant and gauge invariant autocorrelations of the fields indicate that the ASY-Bödecker scenario is irrelevant at these temperatures.
Superstring limit of Yang-Mills theories
Lechtenfeld, Olaf
2016-01-01
It was pointed out by Shifman and Yung that the critical superstring on $X^{10}={\\mathbb R}^4\\times Y^6$, where $Y^6$ is the resolved conifold, appears as an effective theory for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system with four fundamental Higgs scalars defined on $\\Sigma_2\\times{\\mathbb R}^2$, where $\\Sigma_2$ is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. Their Yang-Mills model supports semilocal vortices on ${\\mathbb R}^2\\subset\\Sigma_2\\times{\\mathbb R}^2$ with a moduli space $X^{10}$. When the moduli of slowly moving thin vortices depend on the coordinates of $\\Sigma_2$, the vortex strings can be identified with critical fundamental strings. We show that similar results can be obtained for the low-energy limit of pure Yang-Mills theory on $\\Sigma_2\\times T^2_p$, where $T^2_p$ is a two-dimensional torus with a puncture $p$. The solitonic vortices of Shifman and Yung then get replaced by flat connections. Various ten-dimensional superstring target spaces can be obtained as moduli spaces of flat connections on $T^2_p$, d...
Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan
2004-01-01
The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah
2004-01-01
The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.
Dark Matter from a Classically Scale-Invariant $SU(3)_X$
Karam, Alexandros; Tamvakis, Kyriakos
2016-01-01
In this work we study a classically scale-invariant extension of the Standard Model in which the dark matter and electroweak scales are generated through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. The extra $SU(3)_X$ gauge factor gets completely broken by the vevs of two scalar triplets. Out of the eight resulting massive vector bosons the three lightest are stable due to an intrinsic $Z_2\\times Z_2'$ discrete symmetry and can constitute dark matter candidates. We analyze the phenomenological viability ...
Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge; Yang-Mills-theorie in Coulombeichung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feuchter, C.
2006-07-01
In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)
Yang-Mills instantons over Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exact solutions to the self-dual Yang-Mills equations over Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus are constructed. They are characterized by the conformal class of the Riemann surface. They correspond to U(1) instantonic solutions for an Abelian-Higgs system. A functional action of a genus g Riemann surface is constructed, with minimal points being the two-dimensional self-dual connections. The exact solutions may be interpreted as connecting initial and final nontrivial vacuum states of a conformal theory, in the sense of Segal, with a Feynman functor constructed from the functional integral of the action. (orig.)
YANG-MILLS FIELDS AND THE LATTICE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CREUTZ,M.
2004-05-18
The Yang-Mills theory lies at the heart of our understanding of elementary particle interactions. For the strong nuclear forces, we must understand this theory in the strong coupling regime. The primary technique for this is the lattice. While basically an ultraviolet regulator, the lattice avoids the use of a perturbative expansion. I discuss some of the historical circumstances that drove us to this approach, which has had immense success, convincingly demonstrating quark confinement and obtaining crucial properties of the strong interactions from first principles.
Observables in Topological Yang-Mills Theories
Boldo, J L; Gieres, François; Lefrançois, M; Piguet, O; Boldo, Jose Luis; Constantinidis, Clisthenis P.; Gieres, Francois; Lefrancois, Matthieu; Piguet, Olivier
2003-01-01
Using topological Yang-Mills theory as example, we discuss the definition and determination of observables in topological field theories (of Witten-type) within the superspace formulation proposed by Horne. This approach to the equivariant cohomology leads to a set of bi-descent equations involving the BRST and supersymmetry operators as well as the exterior derivative. This allows us to determine superspace expressions for all observables, and thereby to recover the Donaldson-Witten polynomials when choosing a Wess-Zumino-type gauge.
Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E.
1997-02-01
These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.
Solvable Relativistic Hydrogenlike System in Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caron-Huot, Simon; Henn, Johannes M.
2014-01-01
he classical Kepler problem, as well as its quantum mechanical version, the hydrogen atom, enjoys a well-known hidden symmetry, the conservation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector, which makes these problems superintegrable. Is there a relativistic quantum field theory extension that preserves this...... symmetry? In this Letter we show that the answer is positive: in the nonrelativistic limit, we identify the dual conformal symmetry of planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with the well-known symmetries of the hydrogen atom. We point out that the dual conformal symmetry offers a novel way to compute the...... spectrum of bound states of massive W bosons in the theory. We perform nontrivial tests of this setup at weak and strong coupling and comment on the possible extension to arbitrary values of the coupling....
Chaotic behavior of the lattice Yang-Mills on CUDA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Forster Richárd
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Yang-Mills fields plays important role in the strong interaction, which describes the quark gluon plasma. The non-Abelian gauge theory provides the theoretical background understanding of this topic. The real time evolution of the classical fields is derived by the Hamiltonian for SU(2 gauge field tensor. The microcanonical equations of motion is solved on 3 dimensional lattice and chaotic dynamics was searched by the monodromy matrix. The entropy-energy relation was presented by Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. We used block Hessenberg reduction to compute the eigenvalues of the current matrix. While the purely CPU based algorithm can handle effectively only a small amount of values, the GPUs provide enough performance to give more computing power to solve the problem.
Function group approach to unconstrained Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from the temporal gauge Hamiltonian for classical pure Yang-Mills theory with the gauge group SU(2) a canonical transformation is initiated by parametrizing the Gauss law generators with three new canonical variables. The construction of the remaining variables of the new set proceeds through a number of intermediate variables in several steps, which are suggested by the Poisson bracket relations and the gauge transformation properties of these variables. The unconstrained Hamiltonian is obtained from the original one by expressing it in the new variables and then setting the Gauss law generators to zero. This Hamiltonian turns out to be local and it decomposes into a finite Laurent series in powers of the coupling constant
Quantum Yang--Mills Dark Energy
Pasechnik, Roman
2016-01-01
In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein--Yang--Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang--Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann--Lema\\'itre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua co...
Yang-Mills connections valued on the octonionic algebra
Restuccia, A.; Veiro, J. P.
2016-05-01
We consider a formulation of Yang-Mills theory where the gauge field is valued on an octonionic algebra and the gauge transformation is the group of automorphisms of it. We show, under mild assumptions, that the only possible gauge formulations are the usual su(2) or u(1) Yang-Mills theories.
On the bag models based on the singular solution of Yang-Mills equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The report is devoted to the problem of constructing the model of quark bag on the basis of singular solutions of the classical Yang-Mills (YM) equations. The basic assumption is that quarks in the zero approximation move in a certain effective YM potential that is a solution to classical YM equations with singularity on the sphere. The obtained result is in agreement with experimental data with accuracy 3-7% for all hadron masses except those of light pseudoscalar mesons
Quark Confinement, New Cosmic Expansion and General Yang-Mills Symmetry
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2016-01-01
We discuss a unified model of quark confinement and new cosmic expansion with linear potentials based on a general $(SU_3)_{color} \\times (U_1)_{baryon}$ symmetry. The phase functions in the usual gauge transformations are generalized to new `action integrals'. The general Yang-Mills transformations have group properties and reduce to usual gauge transformations in special cases. Both quarks and `gauge bosons' are permanently confined by linear potentials. In this unified model of particle-cosmology, physics in the largest cosmos and that in the smallest quark system appear to both be dictated by the general Yang-Mills symmetry and characterized by a universal length. The basic force between two baryons is independent of distance. However, the cosmic repulsive force exerted on a baryonic supernova by a uniform sphere of galaxies is proportional to the distance from the center of the sphere. The new general Yang-Mills field may give a field-theoretic explanation of the accelerated cosmic expansion. The predict...
Bogolyubov, N N; Taneri, U; Prykarpatsky, Y A
2009-01-01
Symplectic structures associated to connection forms on certain types of principal fiber bundles are constructed via analysis of reduced geometric structures on fibered manifolds invariant under naturally related symmetry groups. This approach is then applied to nonstandard Hamiltonian analysis of of dynamical systems of Maxwell and Yang-Mills type. A symplectic reduction theory of the classical Maxwell equations is formulated so as to naturally include the Lorentz condition (ensuring the existence of electromagnetic waves), thereby solving the well known Dirac -Fock - Podolsky problem. Symplectically reduced Poissonian structures and the related classical minimal interaction principle for the Yang-Mills equations are also considered. 1.
Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schleifenbaum, Wolfgang
2008-07-01
The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from
Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from
The classically perfect fixed point action for SU(3) gauge theory
DeGrand, T; Hasenfratz, A.; Hasenfratz, P.; Niedermayer, F.
1995-01-01
In this paper (the first of a series) we describe the construction of fixed point actions for lattice $SU(3)$ pure gauge theory. Fixed point actions have scale invariant instanton solutions and the spectrum of their quadratic part is exact (they are classical perfect actions). We argue that the fixed point action is even 1--loop quantum perfect, i.e. in its physical predictions there are no $g^2 a^n$ cut--off effects for any $n$. We discuss the construction of fixed point operators and presen...
Convergent Yang-Mills matrix theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the partition function and correlation functions in the bosonic and supersymmetric Yang-Mills matrix models with compact semi-simple gauge group. In the supersymmetric case, we show that the partition function converges when D=4, 6 and 10, and that correlation functions of degree kc=2(D-3) are convergent independently of the group. In the bosonic case we show that the partition function is convergent when D≥Dc, and that correlation functions of degree kc are convergent, and calculate Dc and kc for each group, thus extending our previous results for SU(N). As a special case these results establish that the partition function and a set of correlation functions in the IKKT IIB string matrix model are convergent. (author)
Yang-Mills for historians and philosophers
Crease, R. P.
2016-01-01
The phrase “Yang-Mills” can be used (1) to refer to the specific theory proposed by Yang and Mills in 1954; or (2) as shorthand for any non-Abelian gauge theory. The 1954 version, physically speaking, had a famous show-stopping defect in the form of what might be called the “Pauli snag,” or the requirement that, in the Lagrangian for non-Abelian gauge theory the mass term for the gauge field has to be zero. How, then, was it possible for (1) to turn into (2)? What unfolding sequence of events made this transition possible, and what does this evolution say about the nature of theories in physics? The transition between (1) and (2) illustrates what historians and philosophers a century from now might still find instructive and stimulating about the development of Yang-Mills theory.
A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2011-01-01
Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework, gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the electroweak theory. By gauging $T(4) \\times [SU(3)]_{color} $ in flat space-time, we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field, which couples universally to all gluons, quarks and anti-quarks. The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with t...
Vacuum structure and string tension in Yang-Mills dimeron ensembles
Zimmermann, Falk; Muller-Preussker, Michael
2012-01-01
We numerically simulate ensembles of SU(2) Yang-Mills dimeron solutions with a statistical weight determined by the classical action and perform a comprehensive analysis of their properties. In particular, we examine the extent to which these ensembles capture topological and confinement properties of the Yang-Mills vacuum. This further allows us to test the classic picture of meron-induced quark confinement as triggered by dimeron dissociation. At small bare couplings, spacial, topological-charge and color correlations among the dimerons generate a short-range order which screens topological charges. With increasing coupling this order weakens rapidly, however, in part because the dimerons gradually dissociate into their meron constituents. Monitoring confinement properties by evaluating Wilson-loop expectation values, we find the growing disorder due to these progressively liberated merons to generate a finite and (with the coupling) increasing string tension. The short-distance behavior of the static quark...
Four dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics with three colors
Ambrozinski, Zbigniew
2014-01-01
The $D=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics with $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$ gauge symmetry groups is studied. A numerical method to find finite matrix representation of the Hamiltonian is presented in detail. It is used to find spectrum of the theory. In the $SU(2)$ case there are bound states in all channels with definite total number of fermions and angular momentum. For 2,3,4 fermions continuous and discrete spectra coexist in the same range of energies. These results are confirmation of earlier studies. With $SU(3)$ gauge group, the continuous spectrum is moved to sectors with more fermions. Supersymmetry generators are used to identify supermultiplets and determine the level of restoration of supersymmetry for a finite cutoff. For both theories, with $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$ symmetry, wavefunctions are studied and different behavior of bound and scattering states is observed.
Yang-Mills theory on noncommutative space: does it exist?
Hanada, Masanori
2016-01-01
I revisit a basic question about the noncommutative Yang-Mills theory: if it exists or not, or more precisely, whether a nonperturbative formulation exists. As the most promising approach, I consider a formulation based on matrix models. It is explained that the existence of the noncommutative Yang-Mills theory is closely related to the Eguchi-Kawai equivalence. I argue that supersymmetric noncommutative Yang-Mills theory can be defined straightforwardly. Non-supersymmetric theories, such as QCD and pure bosonic theories, can presumably be defined, by modifying the ultraviolet and infrared behaviors appropriately.
The Parisi-Sourlas Mechanism in Yang-Mills Theory?
Magpantay, J A
2000-01-01
The Parisi-Sourlas mechanism is exhibited in pure Yang-Mills theory. Using the new scalar degrees of freedom derived from the non-linear gauge condition, we show that the non-perturbative sector of Yang-Mills theory is equivalent to a 4D O(1,3) sigma model in a random field. We then show that the leading term of this equivalent theory is invariant under supersymmetry transformations where (x^{2}+\\thetabar\\theta) is unchanged. This leads to dimensional reduction proving the equivalence of the non-perturbative sector of Yang-Mills theory to a 2D O(1,3) sigma model.
Particle motion in a Yang-Mills field Wong's equations and spin one-half analogues
Van Holten, J W
1995-01-01
A complete, straightforward and natural Lagrangian description is given for the classical non-relativistic dynamics of a particle with colour or internal symmetry degrees of freedom moving in a background Yang-Mills field. This provides a new simple Lagrangian formalism for Wong's equations for spinless particles, and presents also their generalisation, in gauge covariant form, for spin-\\frack particles, within a complete Lagrangian formalism.
Cosmological coevolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the coevolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids in Bianchi type I universes. We investigate numerically the evolution of the universe and the Yang-Mills fields during the radiation and dust eras of a universe that is almost isotropic. The Yang-Mills field undergoes small amplitude chaotic oscillations, as do the three expansion scale factors which are also displayed by the expansion scale factors of the universe. The results of the numerical simulations are interpreted analytically and compared with past studies of the cosmological evolution of magnetic fields in radiation and dust universes. We find that, whereas magnetic universes are strongly constrained by the microwave background anisotropy, Yang-Mills universes are principally constrained by primordial nucleosynthesis but the bound is comparatively weak with ΩYMrad
Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills?
Borsten, L
2016-01-01
In these lectures we review how the symmetries of gravitational theories may be regarded as originating from those of "Yang-Mills squared". We begin by motivating the idea that certain aspects of gravitational theories can be captured by the product, in some sense, of two distinct Yang-Mills theories, particularly in the context of scattering amplitudes. We then introduce a concrete dictionary for the covariant fields of (super)gravity in terms of the product of two (super) Yang-Mills theories. The dictionary implies that the symmetries of each (super) Yang-Mills factor generate the symmetries of the corresponding (super)gravity theory: general covariance, $p$-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance, local supersymmetry, R-symmetry and U-duality.
Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills?
Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.
2015-10-01
In these lectures we review how symmetries of gravitational theories may be regarded as originating from those of ‘Yang-Mills squared’. We begin by motivating the idea that certain aspects of gravitational theories can be captured by the product, in some sense, of two distinct Yang-Mills theories, particularly in the context of scattering amplitudes. We then introduce a concrete dictionary for the covariant fields of (super)gravity in terms of the product of two (super) Yang-Mills theories. The dictionary implies that the symmetries of each (super) Yang-Mills factor generate the symmetries of the corresponding (super)gravity theory: general covariance, p-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance, local supersymmetry, R-symmetry and U-duality. Lecture delivered by M. J. Duff.
Yangian symmetry of smooth Wilson loops in super Yang-Mills theory
Müller, Dennis; Münkler, Hagen; Plefka, Jan; Pollok, Jonas; Zarembo, Konstantin
2013-11-01
We show that appropriately supersymmetrized smooth Maldacena-Wilson loop operators in super Yang-Mills theory are invariant under a Yangian symmetry Y [(2, 2|4)] built upon the manifest superconformal symmetry algebra of the theory. The existence of this hidden symmetry is demonstrated at the one-loop order in the weak coupling limit as well as at leading order in the strong coupling limit employing the classical integrability of the dual AdS5 × S 5 string description. The hidden symmetry generators consist of a canonical non-local second order variational derivative piece acting on the superpath, along with a novel local path dependent contribution. We match the functional form of these Yangian symmetry generators at weak and strong coupling and find evidence for an interpolating function. Our findings represent the smooth counterpart to the Yangian invariance of scattering superamplitudes dual to light-like polygonal super Wilson loops in the super Yang-Mills theory.
Chiral expansion and Macdonald deformation of two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory
Kokenyesi, Zoltan; Szabo, Richard J
2016-01-01
We derive the analog of the large $N$ Gross-Taylor holomorphic string expansion for the refinement of $q$-deformed $U(N)$ Yang-Mills theory on a compact oriented Riemann surface. The derivation combines Schur-Weyl duality for quantum groups with the Etingof-Kirillov theory of generalized quantum characters which are related to Macdonald polynomials. In the unrefined limit we reproduce the chiral expansion of $q$-deformed Yang-Mills theory derived by de Haro, Ramgoolam and Torrielli. In the classical limit $q=1$, the expansion defines a new $\\beta$-deformation of Hurwitz theory wherein the refined partition function is a generating function for certain parameterized Euler characters, which reduce in the unrefined limit $\\beta=1$ to the orbifold Euler characteristics of Hurwitz spaces of holomorphic maps. We discuss the geometrical meaning of our expansions in relation to quantum spectral curves and $\\beta$-ensembles of matrix models arising in refined topological string theory.
Interacting fields of arbitrary spin and N > 4 supersymmetric self-dual Yang-Mills equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the self-dual Yang-Mills equations afford supersymmetrization to systems of equations invariant under global N-extended super-Poincare transformations for arbitrary values of N, without the limitation (N ≤ 4) applicable to standard non-self-dual Yang-Mills theories. These systems of equations provide novel classically consistent interactions for vector supermultiplets containing fields of spin up to N-2/2. The equations of motion of the component fields of spin greater than 1/2 are interacting variants of the first-order Dirac-Fierz equations for zero rest-mass fields of arbitrary spin. The interactions are governed by conserved currents which are constructed by an iterative procedure. In (arbitrarily extended) chiral superspace, the equations of motion for the (arbitrarily large) self-dual supermultiplet are shown to be completely equivalent to the set of algebraic supercurvature defining the self-dual superconnection. (author). 25 refs
Massive Yang-Mills Fields in Interaction with Gravity
Grigore, D. R.; Scharf, G.
2008-01-01
We determine the most general form of the interaction between the gravitational field and an arbitrary Yang-Mills system of fields (massless and massive). We work in the perturbative quantum framework of the causal approach (of Epstein and Glaser) and use a cohomological definition of gauge invariance for both gauge fields. We also consider the case of massive gravity. We discuss the question whether gravity couples to the unphysical degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills fields.
Quantum metamorphosis of conformal symmetry in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In gauge theories, not all rigid symmetries of the classical action can be maintained manifestly in the quantization procedure, even in the absence of anomalies. If this occurs for an anomaly-free symmetry, the effective action is invariant under a transformation that differs from its classical counterpart by quantum corrections. As shown by Fradkin and Palchik years ago, such a phenomenon occurs for conformal symmetry in quantum Yang-Mills theories with vanishing beta function, such as the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. More recently, Jevicki et al. demonstrated that the quantum metamorphosis of conformal symmetry sheds light on the nature of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In this paper, we derive the conformal Ward identity for the bosonic sector of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory using the background field method. We then compute the leading quantum modification of the conformal transformation for a specific Abelian background which is of interest in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In the case of scalar fields, our final result agrees with that of Jevicki et al. The resulting vector and scalar transformations coincide with those which are characteristic of a D3-brane embedded in AdS5xS5. (author)
Dark Matter from a Classically Scale-Invariant $SU(3)_X$
Karam, Alexandros
2016-01-01
In this work we study a classically scale-invariant extension of the Standard Model in which the dark matter and electroweak scales are generated through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. The extra $SU(3)_X$ gauge factor gets completely broken by the vevs of two scalar triplets. Out of the eight resulting massive vector bosons the three lightest are stable due to an intrinsic $Z_2\\times Z_2'$ discrete symmetry and can constitute dark matter candidates. We analyze the phenomenological viability of the predicted multi-Higgs sector imposing theoretical and experimental constraints. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the dark matter predictions of the model solving numerically the set of coupled Boltzmann equations involving all relevant dark matter processes and explore the direct detection prospects of the dark matter candidates.
Generalisation of the Yang-Mills Theory
Savvidy, George
2015-01-01
We suggest an extension of the gauge principle which includes tensor gauge fields. In this extension of the Yang-Mills theory the vector gauge boson becomes a member of a bigger family of gauge bosons of arbitrary large integer spins. The proposed extension is essentially based on the extension of the Poincar\\'e algebra and the existence of an appropriate transversal representations. The invariant Lagrangian is expressed in terms of new higher-rank field strength tensors. It does not contain higher derivatives of tensor gauge fields and all interactions take place through three- and four-particle exchanges with a dimensionless coupling constant. We calculated the scattering amplitudes of non-Abelian tensor gauge bosons at tree level, as well as their one-loop contribution into the Callan-Symanzik beta function. This contribution is negative and corresponds to the asymptotically free theory. Considering the contribution of tensorgluons of all spins into the beta function we found that it is leading to the theo...
Curving Yang-Mills-Higgs Gauge Theories
Kotov, Alexei
2015-01-01
Established fundamental physics can be described by fields, which are maps. The source of such a map is space-time, which can be curved due to gravity. The map itself needs to be curved in its gauge field part so as to describe interaction forces like those mediated by photons and gluons. In the present article, we permit non-zero curvature also on the internal space, the target of the field map. The action functional and the symmetries are constructed in such a way that they reduce to those of standard Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) gauge theories precisely when the curvature on the target of the fields is turned off. For curved targets one obtains a new theory, a curved YMH gauge theory. It realizes in a mathematically consistent manner an old wish in the community: replacing structures constants by functions depending on the scalars of the theory. In addition, we provide a simple 4d toy model, where the gauge symmetry is abelian, but turning off the gauge fields, no rigid symmetry remains---another possible manife...
Vacuum of the quantum Yang-Mills theory and magnetostatics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is argued that since in asymptotically free Yang-Mills theories the quantum ground state is not controlled by perturbation theory, there is no a priori reason to believe that individual orbits corresponding to minima of the classical action dominate the Euclidean functional integral. To examine and classify the vacua of the quantum gauge theory, the authors propose an effective action in which the gauge field coupling constant g is replaced by the effective coupling g(mean)(t), t = ln (Fsup(a)sub(μγ)2/μ4). The vacua of this model correspond to paramagnetism and perfect paramagnetism, for which the gauge field is Fsup(a)sub(μγ) = 0, and ferromagnetism, for which Fsup(a)sub(μγ)2 = lambda2, i.e. spontaneous magnetization of the vacuum occurs. It is shown that there are no instanton solutions to the quantum effective action. The equations for a point classical source of color spin are solved, and it is shown that the field infrared energy becomes linearly divergent in the limit of spontaneous magnetization. This implies bag formation, and an electric Meissner effect confining the bag contents. (Auth.)
A tree-level 3-point function in the su(3)-sector of planar N=4 SYM
Foda, Omar; Kostov, Ivan; Serban, Didina
2013-01-01
We classify the 3-point functions of local gauge-invariant single-trace operators in the scalar sector of planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills involving at least one su(3) operator. In the case of two su(3) and one su(2) operators, the tree-level 3-point function can be expressed in terms of scalar products of su(3) Bethe vectors. Moreover, if the second level Bethe roots of one of the su(3) operators is trivial (set to infinity), this 3-point function can be written in a determinant form. Using the determinant representation, we evaluate the structure constant in the semi-classical limit, when the number of roots goes to infinity.
Dzhunushaliev, V D
1997-01-01
The spherically symmetric solution in classical SU(3) Yang - Mills theory is found. It is supposed that such solution describes a classical quark. It is regular in origin and hence the interaction between two quarks is small on the small distance. The obtained solution has the singularity on infinity. It is possible that is the reason why the free quark cannot exist. Evidently, nonlocality of this object leads to the fact that in quantum chromodynamic the difficulties arise connected with investigation of quarks interaction on large distance.
Covariant variational approach to Yang-Mills Theory: effective potential of the Polyakov loop
Quandt, Markus
2016-01-01
We compute the effective action of the Polyakov loop in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theory using a previously developed covariant variational approach. The formalism is extended to background gauge and it is shown how to relate the low order Green's functions to the ones in Landau gauge studied earlier. The renormalization procedure is discussed. The self-consistent effective action is derived and evaluated using the numerical solution of the gap equation. We find a clear signal for a deconfinement phase transition at finite temperatures, which is second order for SU(2) and first order for SU(3). The critical temperatures obtained are in reasonable agreement with high precision lattice data.
On the Formulation of Yang-Mills Theory with the Gauge Field Valued on the Octonionic Algebra
Restuccia, A
2014-01-01
We consider a formulation of Yang-Mills theory where the gauge field is valued on a non-associative algebra and the gauge transformation is the group of automorphisms of it. We show, under mild assumptions, that the only possible gauge formulation for the octonionic non-associative algebra are the usual $\\mathfrak{su}(2)$ or $\\mathfrak{u}(1)$ Yang-Mills theories. We also discuss the particular cases where the gauge transformations are the subalgebras $\\mathfrak{su}(3)$, $\\mathfrak{su}(2)$, or $\\mathfrak{u}(1)$ of the algebra $\\mathfrak{g}_2$, related to the corresponding subgroups of $G_2$, the group of automorphisms of the octonions.
Quantum Yang-Mills theory: an overview of a programme
Milsted, Ashley
2016-01-01
We present an overview of a programme to understand the low-energy physics of quantum Yang-Mills theory from a quantum-information perspective. Our setting is that of the hamiltonian formulation of pure Yang-Mills theory in the temporal gauge on the lattice. Firstly, inspired by recent constructions for $\\mathbb{Z}/2\\mathbb{Z}$ lattice gauge theory, in particular, Kitaev's toric code, we describe the gauge-invariant sector of hilbert space by introducing a primitive quantum gate: the quantum parallel transporter. We then develop a nonabelian generalisation of laplace interpolation to present an ansatz for the ground state of pure Yang-Mills theory which interpolates between the weak- and strong-coupling RG fixed points. The resulting state acquires the structure of a tensor network, namely, a multiscale entanglement renormalisation ansatz, and allows for the efficient computation of local observables and Wilson loops. Various refinements of the tensor network are discussed leading to several generalisations. ...
Yang-Mills theory and fermionic path integrals
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2016-01-01
The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In this brief review I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this review are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.
New perspectives on Yang-Mills theories with sixteen supersymmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe various approaches that give matrix descriptions of compactified NS five-branes. As a result, we obtain matrix models for Yang-Mills theories with sixteen supersymmetries in dimensions 2,3,4 and 5. The equivalence of the various approaches relates the Coulomb branch of certain gauge theories to the moduli space of instantons on T4. We also obtain an equivalence between certain six-dimensional string theories. Further, we discuss how various perturbative and non-perturbative features of these Yang-Mills theories appear in their matrix formulations. The matrix model for four-dimensional Yang-Mills is manifestly S-dual. In this case, we describe how electric fluxes, magnetic fluxes and the interaction between vector particles are realized in the matrix model. (author)
New Perspectives on Yang-Mills Theories With Sixteen Supersymmetries
Ganor, O J; Ganor, Ori J.; Sethi, Savdeep
1998-01-01
We describe various approaches that give matrix descriptions of compactified NS five-branes. As a result, we obtain matrix models for Yang-Mills theories with sixteen supersymmetries in dimensions $2,3,4$ and $5$. The equivalence of the various approaches relates the Coulomb branch of certain gauge theories to the moduli space of instantons on $T^4$. We also obtain an equivalence between certain six-dimensional string theories. Further, we discuss how various perturbative and non-perturbative features of these Yang-Mills theories appear in their matrix formulations. The matrix model for four-dimensional Yang-Mills is manifestly S-dual. In this case, we describe how electric fluxes, magnetic fluxes and the interaction between vector particles are realized in the matrix model.
Supertwistor space for 6D maximal super Yang-Mills
Dennen, Tristan; Siegel, Warren
2009-01-01
6D maximal super Yang-Mills on-shell amplitudes are formulated in superspace using 6 dimensional twistors. The 3,4,5-point tree amplitudes are obtained by supersymmetrizing their bosonic counterparts and confirmed through the BCFW construction. In contrast to 4D this superspace is non-chiral, reflecting the fact that one cannot differentiate MHV from $\\bar{{\\rm MHV}}$ in 6D. Combined with unitarity methods, this superspace should be useful for the study of multi-loop D dimensional maximal super Yang-Mills and gravity amplitudes. Furthermore, the non-chiral nature gives a natural framework for an off-shell construction. We show this by matching our result with off-shell D=4 N=4 super Yang-Mills amplitudes, expressed in projective superspace.
Gauging quantum groups: Yang-Baxter joining Yang-Mills
Wu, Yong-Shi
2016-02-01
This review is an expansion of my talk at the conference on Sixty Years of Yang-Mills Theory. I review and explain the line of thoughts that lead to a recent joint work with Hu and Geer [Hu et al., arXiv:1502.03433] on the construction, exact solutions and ubiquitous properties of a class of quantum group gauge models on a honey-comb lattice. Conceptually the construction achieves a synthesis of the ideas of Yang-Baxter equations with those of Yang-Mills theory. Physically the models describe topological anyonic states in 2D systems.
Super Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity
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Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity are analyzed by using the tangent bundle to a supergroup manifold as geometrical framework. The factorization condition imposed on these theories is considered from this point of view. The so-called H-gauge transformation for both, the super Yang-Mills and supergravity one-forms gauge fields are obtained as a consequence of a change of trivialization in the corresponding coset manifold. The authors point out the existence of factorized solutions not diffeomorphically equivalent for the set of pseudo-connections one-forms or gauge fields
Gauge covariance approach to massive Yang-Mills fields
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By observation of the gauge structure introduced in the SU(2) Higgs-Kibble model on the basis of a massless Yang-Mills field theory with gauge covariance, another possible formalism of a massive Yang-Mills field theory with gauge covariance is presented. The formalism exhibits a close analogy to the case of massive abelian-gauge fields. In contrast with the case of the Higgs-Kibble model, no dipole-ghost field is introduced in the formalism. Supplementary conditions for physical states are given in a consistent way. (author)
Testing the Witten-Veneziano mechanism with the Yang-Mills gradient flow on the lattice
Cè, Marco; Engel, Georg P; Giusti, Leonardo
2014-01-01
We present a precise computation of the topological charge distribution in the $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theory. It is carried out on the lattice with high statistics Monte Carlo simulations by employing the clover discretization of the field strength tensor combined with the Yang-Mills gradient flow. The flow equations are integrated numerically by a fourth-order structure-preserving Runge-Kutta method. We have performed simulations at four lattice spacings and several lattice sizes to remove with confidence the systematic errors in the second (topological susceptibility $\\chi_t^\\text{YM}$) and the fourth cumulant of the distribution. In the continuum we obtain the preliminary results $t_0^2\\chi_t^\\text{YM}=6.53(8)\\times 10^{-4}$ and the ratio between the fourth and the second cumulant $R=0.233(45)$. Our results disfavour the $\\theta$-behaviour of the vacuum energy predicted by dilute instanton models, while they are compatible with the expectation from the large-$N_c$ expansion.
Yang-Mills solutions and Spin(7)-instantons on cylinders over coset spaces with $G_2$-structure
Haupt, Alexander S
2015-01-01
We study $\\mathfrak{g}$-valued Yang-Mills fields on cylinders $Z(G/H)=\\mathbb{R} \\times G/H$, where G/H is a compact seven-dimensional coset space with $G_2$-structure, $\\mathfrak{g}$ is the Lie algebra of G, and Z(G/H) inherits a Spin(7)-structure. After imposing a general G-invariance condition, Yang-Mills theory with torsion on Z(G/H) reduces to Newtonian mechanics of a point particle moving in $\\mathbb{R}^n$ under the influence of some quartic potential and possibly additional constraints. The kinematics and dynamics depends on the chosen coset space. We consider in detail three coset spaces with nearly parallel $G_2$-structure and four coset spaces with SU(3)-structure. For each case, we analyze the critical points of the potential and present a range of finite-energy solutions. We also study a higher-dimensional analog of the instanton equation. Its solutions yield G-invariant Spin(7)-instanton configurations on Z(G/H), which are special cases of Yang-Mills configurations with torsion.
A new quantum representation for canonical gravity and SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from Rovelli-Smolin's infinite-dimensional graded Poisson-bracket algebra of loop variables, we propose a new way of constructing a corresponding quantum representation. After eliminating certain quadratic constraints, we 'integrate' an infinite-dimensional subalgebra of loop variables, using a formal group law expansion. With the help of techniques from the representation theory of semidirect-product groups, we find an exact quantum representation of the full classical Poisson-bracket algebra of loop variables, without any higher-order correction terms. This opens new ways of tackling the quantum dynamics for both canonical gravity and Yang-Mills theory. (orig.)
Yang-Mills theory as bimetrical gravity: Polarization effects and finite-energy gluon clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pavlovsky, Oleg V
2002-01-01
In this report a gravity representation of Yang-Mills theory is given. Using this approach, one obtains new information on solutions of classical YM theory. Singular solutions (black-hole-like solutions) of the YM equations are discussed in connection with bimetrical gravity. The behaviour of these solutions in a theory with a 'cosmological' Lambda-part is also investigated. A physical interpretation of such solutions is given. Using an effective field theory approach we try to show that quantum fluctuations and vacuum polarization effects lead to the generation of finite-energy objects in QCD.
Yang-Mills theory as bimetrical gravity: Polarization effects and finite-energy gluon clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this report a gravity representation of Yang-Mills theory is given. Using this approach, one obtains new information on solutions of classical YM theory. Singular solutions (black-hole-like solutions) of the YM equations are discussed in connection with bimetrical gravity. The behaviour of these solutions in a theory with a 'cosmological' Lambda-part is also investigated. A physical interpretation of such solutions is given. Using an effective field theory approach we try to show that quantum fluctuations and vacuum polarization effects lead to the generation of finite-energy objects in QCD
A nonperturbative method for the Yang Mills Lagrangian
Jora, Renata
2014-01-01
Using the properties of the partition function for a Yang Mills theory we compute simple relations among the renormalization constants. In the particular case of the background gauge field method we obtain that the all orders beta function for the gauge coupling constant contains only the first two orders coefficients different than zero and thus corresponds to the 't Hooft scheme.
Wilson loop in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory
Förste, S.; Ghoshal, D.; Theisen, S.
2000-01-01
The Wilson loop in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory admits a dual description as a macroscopic string configuration in the adS/CFT correspondence. We discuss the correction to the quark anti-quark potential arising from the fluctuations of the superstring.
Path integral quantization of Yang-Mills theory
Muslih, Sami I.
2000-01-01
Path integral formulation based on the canonical method is discussed. Path integral for Yang-Mills theory is obtained by this procedure. It is shown that gauge fixing which is essential procedure to quantize singular systems by Faddeev's and Popov's method is not necessary if the canonical path integral formulation is used.
On the infrared behaviour of Yang-Mills Greens functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Making certain assumptions (valid to any finite order of perturbation theory), it is shown that non-perturbatively pure Yang-Mills Greens functions are power behaved in the momenta in a limit related to the infrared limit. It is also shown that the fundamental vertices have a more singular behaviour than indicated by perturbation theory. (Auth.)
Quantum theory of massive Yang-Mills fields, 2
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By generalization of a basic formulation presented in a preceding part of the same series, a massive Yang-Mills field theory with gauge covariance is formulated within one-parameter invariant gauge families. It is consequently concluded that all cases of different gauges belonging to the same gauge family are equivalent to one another in a rigorous field-theoretical sense. (author)
Spontaneously Broken Yang-Mills-Einstein Supergravities as Double Copies
Chiodaroli, Marco; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu
2015-01-01
Color/kinematics duality and the double-copy construction have proved to be systematic tools for gaining new insight into gravitational theories. Extending our earlier work, in this paper we introduce new double-copy constructions for large classes of spontaneously-broken Yang-Mills-Einstein theories with adjoint Higgs fields. One gauge-theory copy entering the construction is a spontaneously-broken (super-)Yang-Mills theory, while the other copy is a bosonic Yang-Mills-scalar theory with trilinear scalar interactions that display an explicitly-broken global symmetry. We show that the kinematic numerators of these gauge theories can be made to obey color/kinematics duality by exhibiting particular additional Lie-algebraic relations. We discuss in detail explicit examples with N=2 supersymmetry, focusing on Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories belonging to the generic Jordan family in four and five dimensions, and identify the map between the supergravity and double-copy fields and parameters. We also bri...
Einstein-Yang-Mills theory : I. Asymptotic symmetries
Barnich, Glenn
2013-01-01
Asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner. In agreement with a recent conjecture, one finds a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra not only in three dimensions but also in the four dimensional asymptotically flat case.
Numerical investigations of supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics with 4 supercharges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambrozinski, Zbigniew [Krakow Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Korcyl, Piotr [Krakow Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2014-12-15
We report on our non-perturbative investigations of supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics with 4 supercharges. We employ two independent numerical methods. First of them is the cut Fock space method whose numerical implementation was recently generalized to include the SU(N) gauge group. It allowed us to calculate for the first time the spectrum of the model with SU(3) symmetry in all fermionic sectors. Independently, we implemented the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm and reproduced the accessible part of the low-energy spectrum of the model with SU(2) gauge symmetry. We argue that by simulating at imaginary chemical potential one can get access to observables defined in sectors of Hilbert space with a given quark number.
Exact momentum fluctuations of an accelerated quark in N=4 super Yang-Mills
Fiol, Bartomeu; Torrents, Genis
2013-01-01
In this work we consider a heavy quark moving with constant proper acceleration in the vacuum of any four dimensional conformal field theory. We argue that the two-point function of its momentum fluctuations is exactly captured by the Bremsstrahlung function that gives the total radiated power. For the particular case of N=4 SU(N) SYM this function is exactly known, so in this case we obtain an explicit expression for the momentum diffusion coefficient, and check that various limits of this result are reproduced by probe computations in AdS_5. Finally, we evaluate this transport coefficient for a heavy quark accelerated in the vacuum of N=4 SU(3) SYM, and comment on possible lessons of our results for the study of heavy quarks traversing the super Yang-Mills plasma.
A perturbative description of the deconfinement transition in Yang-Mills theories
Serreau, Julien
2015-01-01
We investigate the deconfinement transition of static quarks in SU(N) Yang-Mills theories using a perturbative approach based on a massive extension of the Landau-DeWitt gauge-fixed action, where the gluon mass term is related to the issue of Gribov ambiguities. A leading-order, one-loop calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop produces a deconfinement transition of second order for the SU(2) theory and of first order for SU(3) with transition temperatures in qualitative agreement with known values. We also report on the results of a two-loop calculation of the critical temperature and of thermodynamical quantities in the SU(2) case.
Energy-momentum tensor on the lattice: non-perturbative renormalization in Yang--Mills theory
Giusti, Leonardo
2015-01-01
We construct an energy-momentum tensor on the lattice which satisfies the appropriate Ward Identities (WIs) and has the right trace anomaly in the continuum limit. It is defined by imposing suitable WIs associated to the Poincare` invariance of the continuum theory. These relations come forth when the length of the box in the temporal direction is finite, and they take a particularly simple form if the coordinate and the periodicity axes are not aligned. We implement the method for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory discretized with the standard Wilson action in presence of shifted boundary conditions in the (short) temporal direction. By carrying out extensive numerical simulations, the renormalization constants of the traceless components of the tensor are determined with a precision of roughly half a percent for values of the bare coupling constant in the range 0<= g^2_0<=1.
Monopole dynamics and BPS dyons in N=2 super-Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We determine the low-energy dynamics of monopoles in pure N=2 Yang-Mills theories for points in the vacuum moduli space where the two Higgs fields are not aligned. The dynamics is governed by a supersymmetric quantum mechanics with potential terms and four real supercharges. The corresponding superalgebra contains a central charge but nevertheless supersymmetric states preserve all four supercharges. The central charge depends on the sign of the electric charges and consequently so does the BPS spectrum. We focus on the SU(3) case where certain BPS states are realized as zero modes of a Dirac operator on Taub-NUT space twisted by the triholomorphic Killing vector field. We show that the BPS spectrum includes hypermultiplets that are consistent with the strong- and weak-coupling behavior of Seiberg-Witten theory. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
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Based on analysis of reduced geometric structures on fibered manifolds, invariant under action of a certain symmetry group, we construct the symplectic structures associated with connection forms on suitable principal fiber bundles. The application to the non-standard Hamiltonian analysis of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills type dynamical systems is presented. A symplectic reduction theory of the classical Maxwell electromagnetic field equations is formulated, the important Lorentz condition, ensuring the existence of electromagnetic waves, is naturally included into the Hamiltonian picture, thereby solving the well known Dirac, Fock and Podolsky problem. The symplectically reduced Poissonian structures and the related classical minimal interaction principle, concerning the Yang-Mills type equations, are considered. (author)
Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Schenke, Bjoern; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju
2012-01-01
Anisotropic flow coefficients v_1-v_5 in heavy ion collisions are computed by combining a classical Yang-Mills description of the early time glasma flow with the subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution of matter through the quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas phases. The glasma dynamics, as realized in the IP-Glasma model, takes into account event-by-event geometric fluctuations in nucleon positions and intrinsic sub-nucleon scale color charge fluctuations; the pre-equilibrium fl...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The self-dual Yang-Mills equations play a central role in the study of integrable systems. In this paper we develop a formalism for deriving a four dimensional integrable hierarchy of commuting nonlinear flows containing the self-dual Yang-Mills flow as the first member. We show that upon appropriate reduction and suitable choice of gauge group it produces virtually all well known hierarchies of soliton equations in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions and can be considered as a ''universal'' integrable hierarchy. Prototypical examples of reductions to classical soliton equations are presented and related issues such as recursion operators, symmetries, and conservation laws are discussed. (orig.)
Properties of non-BPS SU(3) monopoles
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This paper is concerned with magnetic monopole solutions of SU(3) Yang-Mills-Higgs system beyond the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield limit. The different SU(2) embeddings, which correspond to the fundamental monopoles, as well the embedding along composite root are studied. The interaction of two different fundamental monopoles is considered. Dissolution of a single fundamental non-BPS SU(3) monopole in the limit of the minimal symmetry breaking is analyzed. (author)
(Super)Yang-Mills at Finite Heavy-Quark Density
Faedo, Anton F; Mateos, David; Tarrio, Javier
2014-01-01
We study the gravitational duals of $d$-dimensional Yang-Mills theories with $d\\leq 6$ in the presence of an ${\\cal O} (N^2)$ density of heavy quarks, with $N$ the number of colors. For concreteness we focus on maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills, but our results apply to a larger class of theories with or without supersymmetry. The gravitational solutions describe renormalization group flows towards infrared scaling geometries characterized by fixed dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents. The special case $d=5$ yields an $AdS_3 \\times \\mathbb{R}^4 \\times S^4$ geometry upon uplifting to M-theory. We discuss the multitude of physical scales that separate different dynamical regimes along the flows, as well as the validity of the supergravity description. We also present exact black brane solutions that encode the low-temperature thermodynamics.
Yang-Mills fields which are not self-dual
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The purpose of this paper is to prove the existence of a new family of non-self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of 'equivariant geometry': Attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry, for which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists among them; and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by studying the symmetry properties of the linearized-self-duality equations. The same technique yields a new family of non-self-dual solutions on the complex projective plane. (orig.)
Non self-dual Yang-Mills fields
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The purpose of the thesis is to prove the existence of a new family of non self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of equivalent geometry: attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists for among them, and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by showing that the self-duality equations, linearized at a symmetric self-dual solution, cannot possess the required symmetry
Emergent Yang-Mills Theories from Universal Extra Dimensions
Chkareuli, J L
2016-01-01
We study emergent Yang-Mills theories which could origin from universal extra dimensions. Particularly, some vector field potential terms or polynomial vector field constraints introduced into five-dimensional non-Abelian gauge theory is shown to lead to spontaneous violation of an underlying spacetime symmetry and generate vector pseudo-Goldstone modes as conventional 4D gauge boson candidates. As a special signature, apart from conventional gauge couplings, there appear an infinite number of the properly suppressed direct multi-boson (multi-photon in particular) interaction couplings in emergent Yang-Mills theories whose observation could shed light on their high-dimensional nature. Moreover, in these theories an internal symmetry is also appeared spontaneously broken to its diagonal subgroups. This breaking origins from the extra vector field components playing a role of some adjoint scalar field multiplet in the 4D spacetime. So, one naturally has the Higgs effect without a specially introduced scalar fie...
Saddle point solutions in Yang-Mills-dilaton theory
Bizón, P
1993-01-01
The coupling of a dilaton to the $SU(2)$-Yang-Mills field leads to interesting non-perturbative static spherically symmetric solutions which are studied by mixed analitical and numerical methods. In the abelian sector of the theory there are finite-energy magnetic and electric monopole solutions which saturate the Bogomol'nyi bound. In the nonabelian sector there exist a countable family of globally regular solutions which are purely magnetic but have zero Yang-Mills magnetic charge. Their discrete spectrum of energies is bounded from above by the energy of the abelian magnetic monopole with unit magnetic charge. The stability analysis demonstrates that the solutions are saddle points of the energy functional with increasing number of unstable modes. The existence and instability of these solutions are "explained" by the Morse-theory argument recently proposed by Sudarsky and Wald.
Intrinsic moment of inertia of membranes as bounds for the mass gap of Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We obtain the precise condition on the potentials of Yang-Mills theories in 0+1 dimensions and D0-brane quantum mechanics ensuring the discreteness of the spectrum. It is given in terms of a moment of inertia of the membrane. From it we obtain a bound for the mass gap of any D+1 Yang-Mills theory in the slow-mode regime. In particular we analyze the physical case D=3. The quantum mechanical behavior of the theories, concerning its spectrum, is determined by harmonic oscillators with frequencies given by the inertial tensor of the membrane. We find a class of quantum mechanic potential polynomials of any degree, with classical instabilities that at quantum level have purely discrete spectrum
Background field dependence from the Slavnov-Taylor identity in (non-perturbative) Yang-Mills theory
Quadri, Andrea
2011-01-01
We show that in Yang-Mills theory the Slavnov-Taylor (ST) identity, extended in the presence of a background gauge connection, allows to fix in a unique way the dependence of the vertex functional on the background, once the 1-PI amplitudes at zero background are known. The reconstruction of the background dependence is carried out by purely algebraic techniques and therefore can be applied in a non-perturbative scheme (e.g. on the lattice or in the Schwinger-Dyson approach), provided that the latter preserves the ST identity. The field-antifield redefinition, which replaces the classical background-quantum splitting when quantum corrections are taken into account, is considered on the example of an instanton background in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.
Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes
Rinne, O.
2014-01-01
We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordstrom black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black...
Towards a unification of gravity and Yang-Mills theory
Chakraborty, Subenoy; Peldan, Peter
1994-01-01
We introduce a gauge and diffeomorphism invariant theory on Yang-Mills phase space. The theory is well defined for an arbitrary gauge group with an invariant bilinear form, it contains only first class constraints, and the spacetime metric has a simple form in terms of the phase space variables. With gauge group $SO(3,C)$, the theory equals the Ashtekar formulation of gravity with a cosmological constant. For Lorentzian signature, the theory is complex, and we have not found any good reality ...
Local BRST cohomology in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse in detail the local BRST cohomology in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory using the antifield formalism. We do not restrict the Lagrangian to be the sum of the standard Hilbert and Yang-Mills Lagrangians, but allow for more general diffeomorphism and gauge invariant (normal) actions. The analysis is carried out in spacetimes with IRn topology, for all spacetime dimensions strictly larger than 2 and for all ghost numbers. This covers the classification of all candidate anomalies, of all consistent deformations of the action, as well as the computation of the (equivariant) characteristic cohomology, i.e. the cohomology of the spacetime exterior derivative in the space of (gauge invariant) local differential forms modulo forms that vanish on-shell. We show in particular that for a semi-simple Yang-Mills gauge group the antifield dependence can be entirely removed both from the consistent deformations of the Lagrangian and from the candidate anomalies. Thus, the allowed deformations of the action necessarily preserve the gauge structure, while the only candidate anomalies are those provided by previous works not dealing with antifields, and by ''topological'' candidate anomalies related to the non-triviality of the manifold of the gravitational variables. This result no longer holds in presence of abelian factors where new candidate anomalies and deformations of the action can be constructed out of the conserved Noether currents (if any). The Noether currents themselves are shown to be covariantizable, i.e. they can be chosen to be invariant under local Lorentz and Yang-Mills transformations and covariant under diffeomorphisms, with a few exceptions discussed as well. (orig.)
Equivalence of twistor prescriptions for super Yang-Mills
Gukov, S; Neitzke, A; Gukov, Sergei; Motl, Lubos; Neitzke, Andrew
2004-01-01
There is evidence that one can compute tree level super Yang-Mills amplitudes using either connected or completely disconnected curves in twistor space. We argue that the two computations are equivalent, by showing that they can both be reduced to the same integral over a moduli space of singular curves, if the integration contours are chosen in a specific way. We also formulate a class of new "intermediate" prescriptions to calculate the same amplitudes.
Equivalence of twistor prescriptions for super Yang-Mills
Gukov , Sergei; Motl, Lubos; Neitzke, Andrew
2007-01-01
There is evidence that one can compute tree-level super Yang-Mills amplitudes using either connected or completely disconnected curves in twistor space. We give a partial explanation of the equivalence between the two computations, by showing that they could both be reduced to the same integral over a moduli space of singular curves, subject to some assumptions about the choices of integration contours. We also formulate a class of new “intermediate” prescriptions to calculate the same amplit...
Induced mass in N=2 super Yang-Mills theories
Araújo-Diniz, S; Diniz, Sortelano A.; Piguet, Olivier
2003-01-01
The masses of the matter fields of N=2 Super-Yang-Mills theories can be defined as parameters of deformed supersymmetry transformations. The formulation used involves central charges for the matter fields. The explicit form of the deformed supersymmetry transformations and of the invariant Lagrangian in presence of the gauge supermultiplet are constructed. This works generalizes a former one, due to the same authors, which presented the free matter case.
Three dimensional lattice gravity as supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
Catterall, Simon
2010-01-01
We argue that a certain twisted supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in three dimensions with gauge group SU(2) possesses a set of topological observables whose expectation values can be computed in a related Chern Simons theory. This Chern Simons theory has been proposed as a definition of three dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity. Since the YM theory admits a discretization which preserves the values of topological observables we conjecture that it can be used as a non-perturbative definition...
String theory as a generalised Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We summarise the result of a recent investigation which shows that the standard theory of interacting open bosonic strings can be reformulated as a generalised Yang-Mills theory in which (i) the string co-ordinates themselves function as the internal gauge degrees of freedom, and (ii) parallel transport is based on the nonabelian conformal group in place of the usual space-time translation groups. (author)
Supersymmetry algebra in super Yang-Mills theories
Yokoyama, Shuichi
2015-01-01
We compute supersymmetry algebra (superalgebra) in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories (SYM) consisting of a vector multiplet including fermionic contribution in six dimensions. We show that the contribution of fermion is given by boundary terms. From six dimensional results we determine superalgebras of five and four dimensional SYM by dimensional reduction. In five dimensional superalgebra the Kaluza-Klein momentum and the instanton particle charge are not the same but algebraically indistin...
Dirac equations for generalised Yang-Mills systems
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We present Dirac equations in 4p dimensions for the generalised Yang-Mills (GYM) theories introduced earlier. These Dirac equations are related to the self-duality equations of the GYM and are checked to be elliptic in a ''BPST'' background. In this background these Dirac equations are integrated exactly. The possibility of imposing supersymmetry in the GYM-Dirac system is investigated, with negative results. (orig.)
Dirac equations for generalised Yang-Mills systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present Dirac equations in 4p dimensions for the generalised Yang-Mills (GYM) theories introduced earlier. These Dirac equations are related to the self-duality equations of the GYM and are checked to be elliptic in a 'BPST' background. In this background these Dirac equations are integrated exactly. The possibility of imposing supersymmetry in the GYM-Dirac system is investigated, with negative results. (orig.)
Matrix Strings in Two-dimensional Yang-Mills Theory
Kogan, Ian I; Szabo, Richard J.
1997-01-01
We describe the structure of string vacuum states in the supersymmetric matrix model for M theory compactified on a circle in the large-N limit. We show that the theory admits topological instanton field configurations which at short-distance scales reduce to ordinary Yang-Mills instantons that interpolate between degenerate vacua of the theory. We show that there exists further classes of hadronic strings associated with the D-string super-fields. We discuss the relationships between these n...
Monopoles and Strings in Yang-Mills Theories
Langfeld, K.; Reinhardt, H.; Quandt, M.
1996-01-01
Yang-Mills theory is studied in a variant of 't Hooft's maximal Abelian gauge. In this gauge magnetic monopoles arise in the Abelian magnetic field. We show, however, that the full (non-Abelian) magnetic field does not possess any monopoles, but rather strings of magnetic fluxes. We argue that these strings are the relevant infrared degrees of freedom. The properties of the magnetic strings which arise from a dilute instanton gas are investigated for the gauge group SU(2).
Slavnov determinants, Yang-Mills structure constants, and discrete KP
Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.
2012-01-01
Using Slavnov's scalar product of a Bethe eigenstate and a generic state in closed XXZ spin-1/2 chains, with possibly twisted boundary conditions, we obtain determinant expressions for tree-level structure constants in 1-loop conformally-invariant sectors in various planar (super) Yang-Mills theories. When certain rapidity variables are allowed to be free rather than satisfy Bethe equations, these determinants become discrete KP tau-functions.
Quantum theory of massive Yang-Mills fields, 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The renormalizable structure of a massive Yang-Mills field theory proposed previously is revealed in view of nonpolynomial Lagrangian theories. Analytic properties of several relevant superpropagators are elucidated in the sense of distributions. It is shown that these superpropagators exhibit a strong infinity-suppression mechanism making the theory renormalizable. There appears a divergence-free model as a subcase of the present theory. (authors)
Biquaternion Construction of SL(2,C) Yang-Mills Instantons
Lee, Jen-Chi
2015-01-01
We use biquaternion to construct SL(2,C) ADHM Yang-Mills instantons. The solutions contain 16k-6 moduli parameters for the kth homotopy class, and include as a subset the SL(2,C) (M,N) instanton solutions constructed previously. In constrast to the SU(2) instantons, the SL(2,C) instantons inhereit jumping lines or singulariries which are not gauge artifacts and can not be gauged away.
Local BRST cohomology in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnich, G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences; Brandt, F. [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Inst. voor Theoretische Fysica; Henneaux, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences
1995-11-20
We analyse in detail the local BRST cohomology in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory using the antifield formalism. We do not restrict the Lagrangian to be the sum of the standard Hilbert and Yang-Mills Lagrangians, but allow for more general diffeomorphism and gauge invariant (normal) actions. The analysis is carried out in spacetimes with IR{sup n} topology, for all spacetime dimensions strictly larger than 2 and for all ghost numbers. This covers the classification of all candidate anomalies, of all consistent deformations of the action, as well as the computation of the (equivariant) characteristic cohomology, i.e. the cohomology of the spacetime exterior derivative in the space of (gauge invariant) local differential forms modulo forms that vanish on-shell. We show in particular that for a semi-simple Yang-Mills gauge group the antifield dependence can be entirely removed both from the consistent deformations of the Lagrangian and from the candidate anomalies. Thus, the allowed deformations of the action necessarily preserve the gauge structure, while the only candidate anomalies are those provided by previous works not dealing with antifields, and by ``topological`` candidate anomalies related to the non-triviality of the manifold of the gravitational variables. This result no longer holds in presence of abelian factors where new candidate anomalies and deformations of the action can be constructed out of the conserved Noether currents (if any). The Noether currents themselves are shown to be covariantizable, i.e. they can be chosen to be invariant under local Lorentz and Yang-Mills transformations and covariant under diffeomorphisms, with a few exceptions discussed as well. (orig.).
Yang-Mills Theories as Deformations of Massive Integrable Models
Cubero, Axel Cortés
2014-01-01
Yang Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions can be expressed as an array of coupled (1+1)-dimensional principal chiral sigma models. The $SU(N)\\times SU(N)$ principal chiral sigma model in 1+1 dimensions is integrable, asymptotically free and has massive excitations. We calculate all the form factors and two-point correlation functions of the Noether current and energy-momentum tensor, in 't~Hooft's large-$N$ limit (some form factors can be found even at finite $N$). We use these new form factors to calculate physical quantities in (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, generalizing previous $SU(2)$ results from Orland to $SU(N)$. The anisotropic gauge theory is related to standard isotropic one by a Wilsonian renormalization group with ellipsoidal cutoffs in momentum. We calculate quantum corrections to the effective action of QED and QCD, as the theory flows from isotropic to anisotropic. The exact principal chiral sigma model S-matrix is also used to examine the spectrum of (1+1)-dimensional massive Yang Mills theor...
New Relations for Einstein-Yang-Mills Amplitudes
Stieberger, Stephan
2016-01-01
We obtain new relations between Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus a single graviton and pure Yang-Mills amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus one additional vector boson inserted in a way typical for a gauge boson of a "spectator" group commuting with the group associated to original N gauge bosons. We show that such EYM amplitudes satisfy U(1) decoupling relations similar to Kleiss-Kuijf relations for Yang-Mills amplitudes. We consider a D-brane embedding of EYM amplitudes in the framework of disk amplitudes involving open and closed strings. A new set of monodromy relations is derived for mixed open-closed amplitudes with one closed string inserted on the disk world-sheet and a number of open strings at the boundary. These relations allow expressing the latter in terms of pure open string amplitudes and, in the field-theory limit, they yield the U(1) decoupling relations for EYM amplitudes.
Quantum Chromodynamics -- The Perfect Yang-Mills Gauge Field Theory
Gross, David
David Gross: My talk today is about the most beautiful of all Yang-Mills Theories (non-Abelian gauge theories), the theory of the strong nuclear interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD. We are celebrating 60 years of the publication of a remarkable paper which introduced the concept of non-Abelian local gauge symmetries, now called the Yang-Mills theory, to physics. In the introduction to this paper it is noted that the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is not consistent with the concept of localized fields. This sentence has drawn attention over the years because the usual principle of isotopic spin symmetry is consistent, it is just not satisfactory. The authors, Yang and Mills, introduced a more satisfactory notion of local symmetry which did not require one to rotate (in isotopic spin space) the whole universe at once to achieve the symmetry transformation. Global symmetries are thus are similar to `action at a distance', whereas Yang-Mills theory is manifestly local...
Conrady, F
2006-01-01
In this series of three papers, we generalize the derivation of photons and monopoles by Polyakov and Banks, Myerson and Kogut, to obtain gluon-monpole representations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory. The papers take three different representations as their starting points: the representation as a BF Yang-Mills theory, the spin foam representation and the plaquette representation. The subsequent derivations are based on semiclassical expansions. In this first article, we cast d-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory in the form of a lattice BF Yang-Mills theory. In several steps, the expectation value of a Wilson loop is transformed into a path integral over a gluon field and monopole-like degrees of freedom. The action contains the tree-level Coulomb interaction and a nonlinear coupling between gluons, monopoles and current. At the end, we compare the results from all three papers.
Griguolo, L; Szabó, R J; Tanzini, A; Griguolo, Luca; Seminara, Domenico; Szabo, Richard J.; Tanzini, Alessandro
2006-01-01
We study the relationship between instanton counting in N=4 Yang-Mills theory on a generic four-dimensional toric orbifold and the semi-classical expansion of q-deformed Yang-Mills theory on the blowups of the minimal resolution of the orbifold singularity, with an eye to clarifying the recent proposal of using two-dimensional gauge theories to count microstates of black holes in four dimensions. We describe explicitly the instanton contributions to the counting of D-brane bound states which are captured by the two-dimensional gauge theory. We derive an intimate relationship between the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory and Chern-Simons theory on generic Lens spaces, and use it to show that the correct instanton counting is only reproduced when the Chern-Simons contributions are treated as non-dynamical boundary conditions in the D4-brane gauge theory. We also use this correspondence to discuss the counting of instantons on higher genus ruled Riemann surfaces.
Path integral measure factorization in path integrals for diffusion of Yang--Mills fields
Storchak, S. N.
2007-01-01
Factorization of the (formal) path integral measure in a Wiener path integrals for Yang--Mills diffusion is studied. Using the nonlinear filtering stochastic differential equation, we perform the transformation of the path integral defined on a total space of the Yang--Mills principal fiber bundle and come to the reduced path integral on a Coulomb gauge surface. Integral relation between the path integral representing the "quantum" evolution given on the original manifold of Yang--Mills field...
Quantum cosmological Friedman models with a massive Yang-Mills field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We prove the existence of a spectral resolution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation when the matter field is provided by a massive Yang-Mills field. The resolution is achieved by first solving the free eigenvalue problem for the gravitational field and then the constrained eigenvalue problem for the Yang-Mills field. In the latter case, the mass of the Yang-Mills field assumes the role of the eigenvalue.
Relations for Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes from the CHY representation
de la Cruz, Leonardo; Weinzierl, Stefan
2016-01-01
We show that a recently discovered relation, which expresses tree-level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with one graviton and $(n-1)$ gauge bosons as a linear combination of pure Yang-Mills tree amplitudes with $n$ gauge bosons, can be derived from the CHY representation. In addition we show that there is a generalisation, which expresses tree-level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with $r$ gravitons and $(n-r)$ gauge bosons as a linear combination of pure Yang-Mills tree amplitudes with $n$ gauge bosons. We present a general formula for this case.
Yang-Mills Theory In, Beyond, and Behind Observed Reality
Wilczek, Frank
2004-01-01
The character of jets is dominated by the influence of intrinsically nonabelian gauge dynamics. These proven insights into fundamental physics ramify in many directions, and are far from being exhausted. I will discuss three rewarding explorations from my own experience, whose point of departure is the hard Yang-Mills interaction, and whose end is not yet in sight. Given an insight so profound and fruitful as Yang and Mills brought us, it is in order to try to consider its broadest implications, which I attempt at the end.
Yang-Mills theories at high energy accelerators
Sterman, George
2016-03-01
I will begin with a brief review of the triumph of Yang-Mills theory at particle accelerators, a development that began some years after their historic paper. This story reached a culmination, or at least local extremum, with the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like scalar boson in 2012. The talk then proceeds to a slightly more technical level, discussing how we derive predictions from the gauge field theories of the Standard Model and its extensions for use at high energy accelerators.
Yang-Mills Spectrum with an Arbitrary Simple Gauge Algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mass spectrum of pure Yang-Mills theory in 3 + 1 dimensions is discussed for an arbitrary simple gauge algebra within a quasi gluon picture. The general structure of the low-lying gluelump and glueball spectrum is shown to be common to all algebras, excepted the lightest C = - glueballs that only exist when the gauge algebra is Ar≥2. The shape of the static energy between adjoint sources is also discussed assuming the Casimir scaling hypothesis and finally, the obtained results are shown to be consistent with existing lattice data in the large-N limit of an su(N) gauge algebra. (author)
N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piemonte, Stefano
2015-04-08
Supersymmetry (SUSY) relates two classes of particles of our universe, bosons and fermions. SUSY is considered nowadays a fundamental development to explain many open questions about high energy physics. The N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is a SUSY model that describes the interaction between gluons and their fermion superpartners called ''gluinos''. Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice are a powerful tool to explore the non-perturbative dynamics of this theory and to understand how supersymmetry emerges at low energy. This thesis presents new results and new simulations about the properties of N=1 SYM, in particular about the phase diagram at finite temperature.
The thermal β-function in Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous calculations of the thermal β function in a hot Yang-Mills gas at the one-loop level have exposed problems with the gauge dependence and with the sign, which is opposite to what one would expect for asymptotic freedom. It is shown that inclusion of higher-loop effects through a static Braaten-Pisarski resummation is necessary to consistently obtain the leading term, but alters the results only quantitatively. The sign, in particular, remains the same. It is also explored, by a crude parametrization, the effects a (non-perturbative) magnetic mass may have on these results. (author). 30 refs., 2 figs
On the Holography of Free Yang-Mills
Bae, Jin-Beom; Lal, Shailesh
2016-01-01
We study the AdS$_5$/CFT$_4$ duality where the boundary CFT is free Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(N). At the planar level we use the spectrum and correlation functions of the boundary theory to explicate features of the bulk theory. Further, by computing the one-loop partition function of the bulk theory using the methods of arXiv:1603.05387, we argue that the bulk coupling constant should be shifted to $N^2$ from $N^2-1$. Similar conclusions are reached by studying the dualities in thermal AdS$_5$ with $S^1\\times S^3$ boundary.
Supersymmetry Algebra in Super Yang-Mills Theories
Yokoyama, Shuichi
2015-01-01
We compute supersymmetry algebra (superalgebra) in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories (SYM) consisting of a vector multiplet including fermionic contribution in six dimensions. We show that the contribution of fermion is given by boundary terms. From six dimensional results we determine superalgebras of five and four dimensional SYM by dimensional reduction. In five dimensional superalgebra the Kaluza-Klein momentum and the instanton particle charge are not the same but algebraically indistinguishable. We also extend this calculation including a hyper multiplet and for maximally SYM. We derive extended supersymmetry algebras in those four dimensional SYM with the holomorphic coupling constant given in hep-th/9408099.
Branes from Moyal Deformation Quantization of Generalized Yang Mills Theories
Castro, C
1999-01-01
It is shown that a Moyal deformation quantization of the SO(4k) Generalized Yang-Mills (GYM) theory action in D=4k dimensions, for spacetime independent field configurations, in the $\\hbar \\to 0$ limit, yields the Dolan-Tchrakian p-brane action after fixing the conformal and world volume reparametrization invariance, associated with the p-brane world volume dimension p+1=4k, embedded in a D=4k target spacetime background. The gauge fields/target spacetime coordinates correspondence is required but no large N limit is necessary.
Permeability of the interacting Yang-Mills instanton gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The permeability μ of the interacting Yang-Mills instanton gas from the partition function, treating the dipole-like interaction by a functional method is calculated. The approach is based on the semiclassical approximation. Following Callan, Dashen, Gross the expression for μ to the discussion of the bag-vacuum phase transition and to the interpolation of the β-function from weak to strong coupling is applied. The results presented in different renormalization schemes confirm the existence of the first order transition
Yang-Mills Theories at High-Energy Accelerators
Sterman, George
2016-01-01
I'll begin with a brief review of the triumph of Yang-Mills theory at particle accelerators, a development that began some years after their historic paper. This story reached a culmination, or at least local extremum, with the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like scalar boson in 2012. The talk then proceeds to a slightly more technical level, discussing how we derive predictions from the gauge field theories of the Standard Model and its extensions for use at high energy ac...
Yang-Mills Theories at High-Energy Accelerators
Sterman, George
2016-01-01
I'll begin with a brief review of the triumph of Yang-Mills theory at particle accelerators, a development that began some years after their historic paper. This story reached a culmination, or at least local extremum, with the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like scalar boson in 2012. The talk then proceeds to a slightly more technical level, discussing how we derive predictions from the gauge field theories of the Standard Model and its extensions for use at high energy accelerators.
N=1 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The N=1 Super Yang-Mills theory is the supersymmetric extension of the pure gauge sector of QCD. The theory describes the strong interactions between gluons and gluinos, the gauge bosons and their fermion superpartners respectively. Effective models have been proposed to describe the bound spectrum of the theory. The expectation value of many observables can be computed exactly, providing important predictions that can be eventually extended to QCD. Lattice investigations can provide a closer insight to these results, but unfortunately a finite lattice spacing breaks SUSY explicitly. Recent results demonstrate the restoration of SUSY in the continuum limit and will be presented during the talk.
Extremal curves in 2+1-dimensional Yang-Mills theory
Orland, P; Orland, Peter; Semenoff, Gordon W.
2000-01-01
We examine the structure of the potential energy of 2+1-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on a torus with gauge group SU(2). We use a standard definition of distance on the space of gauge orbits. The curves of extremal potential energy in orbit space satisfy a certain partial differential equation. We argue that the energy spectrum is gapped because the extremal curves are of finite length. Though classical gluon waves satisfy our differential equation, they are not extremal curves. We construct examples of extremal curves and find how the length of these curves depends on the dimensions of the torus. The intersections with the Gribov horizon are determined explicitly. The results are discussed in the context of Feynman's ideas about the origin of the mass gap.
Higher spin gravitational couplings: Ghosts in the Yang-Mills detour complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravitational interactions of higher spin fields are generically plagued by inconsistencies. There exists however, a simple framework that couples higher spins to a broad class of gravitational backgrounds (including Ricci flat and Einstein) consistently at the classical level. The model is the simplest example of a Yang-Mills detour complex and has broad mathematical applications, especially to conformal geometry. Even the simplest version of the theory, which couples gravitons, vectors and scalar fields in a flat background is rather rich, providing an explicit setting for detailed analysis of ghost excitations. Its asymptotic scattering states consist of a physical massless graviton, scalar, and massive vector along with a degenerate pair of zero norm photon excitations. Coherent states of the unstable sector do have positive norms, but their evolution is no longer unitary and amplitudes grow with time. The class of models proposed is extremely general and of considerable interest for ghost condensation and invariant theory
Impressions on the algebraic renormalization of the N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the ultraviolet behavior of a class of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills field theories which are built up in terms of N=1 superfields. Our results are obtained within the framework of the so-called algebraic renormalization technique of Becchi, Rouet, and Stora. Thanks to the algebraic renormalization setup, we have been able to write down the most general local counterterm functional which is compatible with all the classical symmetries of the model in the N=1 superspace. As a consequence of having parametrized both physical and unphysical renormalizations of the theory, we have also been able to present its corresponding Callan-Symanzik equation. In particular, due to the existence of a pair of linearly broken Ward identities, the nonrenormalization property of the gauge ghosts' wave functions is also proven to occur in this broad class of N=2 supersymmetric gauge field models
Wilson loop, Regge trajectory and hadron masses in a Yang-Mills theory from semiclassical strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compute the one-loop string corrections to the Wilson loop, glueball Regge trajectory and stringy hadron masses in the Witten model of non supersymmetric, large-N Yang-Mills theory. The classical string configurations corresponding to the above field theory objects are respectively: open straight strings, folded closed spinning strings, and strings orbiting in the internal part of the supergravity background. For the rectangular Wilson loop we show that besides the standard Luscher term, string corrections provide a rescaling of the field theory string tension. The one-loop corrections to the linear glueball Regge trajectories render them nonlinear with a positive intercept, as in the experimental soft Pomeron trajectory. Strings orbiting in the internal space predict a spectrum of hadronic-like states charged under global flavor symmetries which falls in the same universality class of other confining models. (author)
Notes on Theta Dependence in Holographic Yang-Mills
Bigazzi, Francesco; Sisca, Roberto
2015-01-01
Effects of the $\\theta$ parameter are studied in Witten's model of holographic 4d Yang-Mills, where $\\theta$ is the coefficient of the CP-breaking topological term. First, the gravity background, including the full backreaction of the RR form dual to the $\\theta$ parameter, is revisited. Then, a number of observables are computed holographically: the ground-state energy density, the string tension, the 't Hooft loop, the light scalar glueball mass, the baryon mass scale, the critical temperature for deconfinement - and thus the whole $(T,\\theta)$ phase diagram - and the entanglement entropy. A simple rule is provided to derive the $\\theta$ corrections to (at least) all the CP-neutral observables of the model. Some of the observables we consider can and have been in fact studied in pure 4d Yang-Mills on the lattice. In that framework the results, obtained in the small $\\theta$ regime, are given up to very few powers of $\\theta^2$. The corresponding holographic results agree qualitatively with available lattice...
Yang-Mills correlators across the deconfinement phase transition
Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Tresmontant, A
2016-01-01
We compute the finite temperature ghost and gluon propagators of Yang-Mills theory in the Landau-DeWitt gauge. The background field that enters the definition of the latter is intimately related with the (gauge-invariant) Polyakov loop and serves as an equivalent order parameter for the deconfinement transition. We use an effective gauge-fixed description where the nonperturbative infrared dynamics of the theory is parametrized by a gluon mass which, as argued elsewhere, may originate from the Gribov ambiguity. In this scheme, one can perform consistent perturbative calculations down to infrared momenta, which have been shown to correctly describe the phase diagram of Yang-Mills theories in four dimensions as well as the zero-temperature correlators computed in lattice simulations. In this article, we provide the one-loop expressions of the finite temperature Landau-DeWitt ghost and gluon propagators for a large class of gauge groups and present explicit results for the SU(2) case. These are substantially dif...
Fermion actions extracted from lattice super Yang-Mills theories
Misumi, Tatsuhiro
2013-12-01
We revisit 2D = (2, 2) super Yang-Mills lattice formulation (Sugino model) to investigate its fermion action with two (Majorana) fermion flavors and exact chiral-U(1) R symmetry. We show that the reconcilement of chiral symmetry and absence of further species-doubling originates in the 4D clifford algebra structure of the action, where 2D two flavors are spuriously treated as a single 4D four-spinor with four 4D gamma matrices introduced into kinetic and Wilson terms. This fermion construction based on the higher-dimensional clifford algebra is extended to four dimensions in two manners: (1) pseudo-8D sixteen-spinor treatment of 4D four flavors with eight 8D gamma matrices, (2) pseudo-6D eight-spinor treatment of 4D two flavors with five out of six 6D gamma matrices. We obtain 4D four-species and two-species lattice fermions with unbroken subgroup of chiral symmetry and other essential properties. We discuss their relations to staggered and Wilson twisted-mass fermions. We also discuss their potential feedback to 4D super Yang-Mills lattice formulations.
Should $E_8$ SUSY Yang-Mills be Reconsidered as a Family Unification Model?
Adler, Stephen L.
2002-01-01
We review earlier proposals for $E_8$ family unification, and discuss why recent work of Kovner and Shifman on condensates in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories suggests the reconsideration of $E_8$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills as a family unification theory.
A Static Solution of Yang-Mills Equation on Anti-de Sitter Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Li; REN Xin-An
2009-01-01
Since product metric on AdS space has played a very important role in Lorentz version of AdS/CFT correspondence, the Yang-Mills equation on AdS space with this metric is considered and a static solution is obtained in this paper, which helps to understand the AdS/CFT correspondence of Yang-Mills fields.
Local BRST cohomology and Seiberg-Witten maps in noncommutative Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnich, Glenn E-mail: gbarnich@ulb.ac.be; Brandt, Friedemann; Grigoriev, Maxim
2004-01-26
We analyze in detail the recursive construction of the Seiberg-Witten map and give an exhaustive description of its ambiguities. The local BRST cohomology for noncommutative Yang-Mills theory is investigated in the framework of the effective commutative Yang-Mills type theory. In particular, we show how some of the conformal symmetries get obstructed by the noncommutative deformation.
Della Morte, Michele
2011-01-01
We make use of the global symmetries of the Yang-Mills theory on the lattice to design a new computational strategy for extracting glueball masses and matrix elements which achieves an exponential reduction of the statistical error with respect to standard techniques. By generalizing our previous work on the parity symmetry, the partition function of the theory is decomposed into a sum of path integrals each giving the contribution from multiplets of states with fixed quantum numbers associated to parity, charge conjugation, translations, rotations and central conjugations Z_N^3. Ratios of path integrals and correlation functions can then be computed with a multi-level Monte Carlo integration scheme whose numerical cost, at a fixed statistical precision and at asymptotically large times, increases power-like with the time extent of the lattice. The strategy is implemented for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory, and a full-fledged computation of the mass and multiplicity of the lightest glueball with vacuum quantum ...
Phase transition in D=3 Yang-Mills Chern-Simons gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SU(N) Yang-Mills theory in three dimensions, with a Chern-Simons term of level k (an integer) added, has two-dimensionful coupling constants g2k and g2N; its possible phases depend on the size of k relative to N. For k>N, this theory approaches topological Chern-Simons theory with no Yang-Mills term, and expectation values of multiple Wilson loops yield Jones polynomials, as Witten has shown; it can be treated semiclassically. For k=0, the theory is badly infrared singular in perturbation theory, a nonperturbative mass and subsequent quantum solitons are generated, and Wilson loops show an area law. We argue that there is a phase transition between these two behaviors at a critical value of k, called kc, with kc/N≅2±0.7. Three lines of evidence are given. First, a gauge-invariant one-loop calculation shows that the perturbative theory has tachyonic problems if k≤29N/12. The theory becomes sensible only if there is an additional dynamic source of gauge-boson mass, just as in the k=0 case. Second, we study in a rough approximation the free energy and show that for k≤kc there is a nontrivial vacuum condensate driven by soliton entropy and driving a gauge-boson dynamical mass M, while both the condensate and M vanish for k≥kc. Third, we study possible quantum solitons stemming from an effective action having both a Chern-Simons mass m and a (gauge-invariant) dynamical mass M. We show that if M approx-gt 0.5m, there are finite-action quantum sphalerons, while none survive in the classical limit M=0, as shown earlier by D'Hoker and Vinet. There are also quantum topological vortices smoothly vanishing as M→0. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The framework is weak interactions, interpreted as residual (hypercolor) interactions among composite q,l,Wsup(+-) and Z. An effective Lagrangian Lsub(eff) for ''low energies'' (E 0), 2. local U(1)sub(em)xSU(3)sub(c) gauge invariance and 3. vector boson dominance in the operator form of current-field identities. The result is a massive Yang-Mills Lagrangian with respect to the global group G. Lsub(eff) for q,l,W,Z interactions, basing on G = SU(2)sub(WI) of global weak isospin, turns out to be identical (in its dimension 0 (e.g. G = SU(2)sub(WI)xSU(4)sub(Pati-Salam)) is proposed. This implies the existence of new colored (and uncolored) composite vector bosons and vector dominance in the gluon sector. Lsub(eff) then determines the interactions of these new bosons with quarks and leptons in terms of a few free parameters. Interesting consequences for panti p collider and HERA experiments as well as for precision experiments at low energies emerge. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we express the velocity-dependent, spin-dependent heavy quark potential Vqbarq in QCD in terms of a Wilson loop W(Γ) determined by pure Yang-Mills theory. We use an effective dual theory of long-distance Yang-Mills theory to calculate W(Γ) for large loops, i.e., for loops of size R approx-gt RFT. [RFT is the flux tube radius, fixed by the value of the Higgs (monopole) mass of the dual theory, which is a concrete realization of the Mandelstam-close-quote t Hooft dual superconductor mechanism of confinement.] We replace W(Γ) by Weff(Γ), given by a functional integral over the dual variables, which for R approx-gt RFT can be evaluated by a semiclassical expansion, since the dual theory is weakly coupled at these distances. The classical approximation gives the leading contribution to Weff(Γ) and yields a velocity-dependent heavy quark potential that for large R becomes linear in R, and that for small R approaches lowest-order perturbative QCD. This latter fact means that these results should remain applicable down to distances where radiative corrections giving rise to a running coupling constant become important. The spin dependence of the potential at long range as well as at short range reflects the vector coupling of quarks in QCD combined with the dual treatment of long-distance Yang-Mills theory. The methods developed here should be applicable to any realization of the dual superconductor mechanism. They give an expression determining Weff(Γ) independent of the classical approximation, but semiclassical corrections due to fluctuations of the flux tube are not worked out in this paper. Taking these into account should lead to an effective string theory free from the conformal anomaly. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Dual superconductivity and vacuum properties in Yang--Mills theories
D'Alessandro, A; Tagliacozzo, L
2006-01-01
We address, within the dual superconductivity model for color confinement, the question whether the Yang-Mills vacuum behaves as a superconductor of type I or type II. In order to do that we compare, for the theory with gauge group SU(2), the determination of the field penetration depth $\\lambda$ with that of the superconductor correlation length $\\xi$. The latter is obtained by measuring the temporal correlator of a disorder parameter developed by the Pisa group to detect dual superconductivity. The comparison places the vacuum close to the border between type I and type II and marginally on the type II side. We also check our results against the study of directly measurable effects such as the interaction between two parallel flux tubes, obtaining consistent indications for a weak repulsive behaviour. Future strategies to improve our investigation are discussed.
Dual superconductivity and vacuum properties in Yang Mills theories
D'Alessandro, A.; D'Elia, M.; Tagliacozzo, L.
2007-07-01
We address, within the dual superconductivity model for color confinement, the question whether the Yang-Mills vacuum behaves as a superconductor of type I or type II. In order to do that we compare, for the theory with gauge group SU(2), the determination of the field penetration depth λ with that of the superconductor correlation length ξ. The latter is obtained by measuring the temporal correlator of a disorder parameter developed by the Pisa group to detect dual superconductivity. The comparison places the vacuum close to the border between type I and type II and marginally on the type II side. We also check our results against the study of directly measurable effects such as the interaction between two parallel flux tubes, obtaining consistent indications for a weak repulsive behaviour. Future strategies to improve our investigation are discussed.
The leading term of the Yang-Mills free energy
Chatterjee, Sourav
2016-01-01
The construction of quantum Yang-Mills theories is a central open question in mathematical physics, famously posed as one of the millennium prize problems by the Clay Institute. Although huge strides were made in the Eighties, the problem has remained unsolved in dimensions three and four. This article makes a new contribution to this quest, by explicitly calculating the leading term of the free energy of three dimensional $U(N)$ lattice gauge theory for any $N$, as the lattice spacing tends to zero. This is a small step towards the complete solution of the above problem, since the main question can be rephrased as the problem of determining of the full asymptotics of the free energy, rather than only the leading term. The proof is based on a novel technique that avoids phase cell renormalization. The technique also yields a similar formula for the four dimensional theory, but only in the weak coupling limit.
Lifting the Gribov ambiguity in Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a new one-parameter family of Landau gauges for Yang-Mills theories which can be formulated by means of functional integral methods and are thus well suited for analytic calculations, but which are free of Gribov ambiguities and avoid the Neuberger zero problem of the standard Faddeev-Popov construction. The resulting gauge-fixed theory is perturbatively renormalizable in four dimensions and, for what concerns the calculation of ghost and gauge field correlators, it reduces to a massive extension of the Faddeev-Popov action. We study the renormalization group flow of this theory at one-loop and show that it has no Landau pole in the infrared for some - including physically relevant - range of values of the renormalized parameters.
Yang-Mills Theory and the ABC Conjecture
He, Yang-Hui; Probst, Malte; Read, James
2016-01-01
We establish a precise correspondence between the ABC Conjecture and N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This is achieved by combining three ingredients: (i) Elkies' method of mapping ABC-triples to elliptic curves in his demonstration that ABC implies Mordell/Faltings; (ii) an explicit pair of elliptic curve and associated Belyi map given by Khadjavi-Scharaschkin; and (iii) the fact that the bipartite brane-tiling/dimer model for a gauge theory with toric moduli space is a particular dessin d'enfant in the sense of Grothendieck. We explore this correspondence for the highest quality ABC-triples as well as large samples of random triples. The Conjecture itself is mapped to a statement about the fundamental domain of the toroidal compactification of the string realization of N=4 SYM.
Hamiltonian reduction of SU(2) Dirac---Yang-Mills mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The SU(2) gauge invariant Dirac---Yang-Mills mechanics of a spatially homogeneous isospinor and gauge fields is considered in the framework of the generalized Hamiltonian approach. The unconstrained Hamiltonian system equivalent to the model is obtained using the gaugeless method of Hamiltonian reduction. The latter includes the Abelianization of the first class constraints, putting the second class constraints into the canonical form and performing a canonical transformation to a set of adapted coordinates such that a subset of the new canonical pairs coincides with the second class constraints and part of the new momenta is equal to the Abelian constraints. In the adapter basis the pure gauge degrees of freedom automatically drop out from the consideration after projection of the model into the constraint shell. Apart from the elimination of these ignorable degrees of freedom a further Hamiltonian reduction is achieved due to the three-dimensional group of rigid symmetry possessed by the system
Closed strings from SO(8) Yang-Mills instantons
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When eight-dimensional instantons, satisfying F and F=±*8(F and F), shrink to zero size, we find stringy objects in higher order ten-dimensional Yang-Mills (viewed as a low-energy limit of open string theory). The associated F4 action is a combination of two independent parts having a single-trace and a double-trace structure. As a result we get a D-string from the single-trace term and a fundamental string from the double-trace. The latter has (8,0) supersymmetry on the world-sheet and couplings to the background gauge fields of a heterotic string. A correlation between the conformal factor of the instanton and the tachyon field is conjectured
N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform Monte Carlo investigations of the N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on the lattice with dynamical gluinos. The motivation is the determination of the mass spectrum of the low-lying bound states of the theory. These states are expected to form two supermultiplets consisting of gluionballs, glueballs and gluino-glueballs. We adopt the Wilson discretization of the action, which explicitly breaks SUSY and chirality at finite lattice spacing. At gauge coupling β=2.3, we analyzed 163.32 lattices at three values of the gluino mass (κ=0.1955,0.196,0.1965). The critical gluino mass, where the restoration of chiral symmetry and the supersymmetry is expected in the continuum limit, is estimated to be κcr≅0.1969. The two-step multi-bosonic (TSMB) Monte Carlo algorithm is used for the dynamical gluino. Some features of a novel Polynomial-Hybrid-Monte-Carlo (PHMC) implementation are also discussed
Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with unquenched flavor
Faedo, Anton F; Tarrio, Javier
2015-01-01
We construct analytically the gravity duals of three-dimensional, super Yang-Mills-type theories with $\\mathcal N=1$ supersymmetry coupled to $N_f$ quark flavors. The backreaction of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of $N_f$ D6-branes on the background of $N$ D2-branes. The D6-branes are smeared over the compact part of the geometry, which must be a six-dimensional nearly K\\"ahler manifold in order to preserve supersymmetry. For massless quarks, the solutions flow in the IR to an $AdS_4$ fixed point dual to a Chern-Simons-matter theory. For light quarks the theories exhibit quasi-conformal dynamics (walking) at energy scales $m_q \\ll E \\ll \\lambda N_f / N$, with $\\lambda = g_{\\text{YM}}^2 N$ the 't Hooft coupling.
Yang-Mills theory at non-vanishing temperature
Fister, Leonard
2011-01-01
We compute ghost and gluon propagators of Yang-Mills theory in the Landau gauge at non-vanishing temperature within a functional renormalisation group setting. We construct purely thermal flows, that project onto thermal fluctuations only. For temperatures and momenta above the confinement-deconfinement temperature Tc the electric propagator shows a thermal suppression due to Debye screening. The magnetic gluon propagator shows a thermal scaling and tends towards the three-dimensional one. In this region both propagators match the lattice propagators. The thermal scaling is also reflected in the infrared suppression of the ghost-gluon vertex. For temperatures below Tc the electric propagator shows an enhancement which is in qualitative agreement with the lattice behaviour.
Cylindrically symmetric solitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
Galtsov, D V; Davydov, Evgeny A.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.
2006-01-01
Recently new Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) soliton solutions were presented which describe superconducting strings with Kasner asymptotic (hep-th/0610183). Here we study the static cylindrically symmetric SU(2) EYM system in more detail. The ansatz for the gauge field corresponds to superposition of the azimuthal $B_\\phi$ and the longitudinal $B_z$ components of the color magnetic field. We derive sum rules relating data on the symmetry axis to asymptotic data and show that generic asymptotic structure of regular solutions is Kasner. Solutions starting with vacuum data on the axis generically are divergent. Regular solutions correspond to some bifurcation manifold in the space of parameters which has the low-energy limiting point corresponding to string solutions in flat space (with the divergent total energy) and the high-curvature point where gravity is crucial. Some analytical results are presented for the low energy limit, and numerical bifurcation curves are constructed in the gravitating case. Depending on ...
Minding the Gap in N=4 Super-Yang-Mills
DeWolfe, Oliver; Rosen, Christopher
2013-01-01
We analyze fermionic response in the geometry holographically dual to zero-temperature N=4 Super-Yang-Mills theory with two equal nonvanishing chemical potentials, which is characterized by a singular horizon and zero ground state entropy. We show that fermionic fluctuations are completely stable within a gap in energy around a Fermi surface singularity, beyond which non-Fermi liquid behavior returns. This gap disappears abruptly once the final charge is turned on, and is associated to a discontinuity in the corresponding chemical potential. We also show that the singular near-horizon geometry lifts to a smooth AdS_3 x R^3, and interpret the gap as a region where the quasiparticle momentum is spacelike in six dimensions due to the momentum component in the Kaluza-Klein direction, corresponding to the final charge.
Superconformal Yang-Mills quantum mechanics and Calogero model with OSp(N|2,R) symmetry
Copland, Neil B; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2012-01-01
In spacetime dimension two, pure Yang-Mills possesses no physical degrees of freedom, and consequently it admits a supersymmetric extension to couple to an arbitrary number, N say, of Majorana-Weyl gauginos. This results in (N,0) super Yang-Mills. Further, its dimensional reduction to mechanics doubles the number of supersymmetries, from N to N+N, to include conformal supercharges, and leads to a superconformal Yang-Mills quantum mechanics with symmetry group OSp(N|2,R). We comment on its connection to AdS_2 \\times S^{N-1} and reduction to a supersymmetric Calogero model.
PP-wave string interactions from perturbative Yang-Mills theory
Constable, Neil R.; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Headrick, Matthew; Minwalla, Shiraz; Motl, Lubos; Postnikov, Alexander; Skiba, Witold
2002-01-01
Recently, Berenstein et al. have proposed a duality between a sector of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory with large R-charge J, and string theory in a pp-wave background. In the limit considered, the effective 't Hooft coupling has been argued to be lambda'=g_{YM}^2 N/J^2=1/(mu p^+ alpha')^2. We study Yang-Mills theory at small lambda' (large mu) with a view to reproducing string interactions. We demonstrate that the effective genus counting parameter of the Yang-Mills theory is g_2^2=J^4/N^2=(4 p...
Supercurrent interactions in noncommutative Yang-Mills and IIB matrix model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is known that noncommutative Yang-Mills is equivalent to IIB matrix model with a noncommutative background, which is interpreted as a twisted reduced model. In noncommutative Yang-Mills, long range interactions can be seen in nonplanar diagrams after integrating high momentum modes. These interactions can be understood as block-block interactions in the matrix model. Using this relation, we consider long range interactions in noncommutative Yang-Mills associated with fermionic backgrounds. Exchanges of gravitinos, which couple to a supersymmetry current, are examined
Gußmann, Alexander
2016-01-01
The existence of classical solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations describing black holes inside 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopoles implies that not all stationary magnetically charged black holes can be uniquely described by their asymptotic characteristics. In fact, in a certain domain of parameters, there exist different spherically-symmetric, non-rotating and asymptotically-flat classical black hole solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations which have the same ADM mass and the same magnetic charge but significantly different geometries in the near-horizon regions. (These are black hole solutions which are described by a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om metric on the one hand and the "magnetic monopole black hole solutions" which can be interpreted as black holes inside 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopoles described by a metric which is not of Reissner-Nordstr\\"om form on the other hand.) One can experimentally distinguish such black holes with same asymptotic characteristics but different ne...
Study of entropy production in Yang-Mills theory with use of Husimi function
Tsukiji, Hidekazu; Kunihiro, Teiji; Ohnishi, Akira; Takahashi, Toru T
2015-01-01
Understanding the thermalization process in a pure quantum system is a challenge in theoretical physics. In this work, we explore possible thermalization mechanism in Yang-Mills(YM) theory by using a positive semi-definite quantum distribution function called a Husimi function which is given by a coarse graining of the Wigner function within the minimum uncertainty. Then entropy is defined in terms of the Husimi function, which is called the Husimi-Wehrl(HW) entropy. We propose two numerical methods to calculate the HW entropy. We find that it is feasible to apply the semi-classical approximation with the use of classical YM equation. It should be noted that the semi-classical approximation is valid in the systems of physical interest including the early stage of heavy-ion collisions. Using a product ansatz for the Husimi function, which is confirmed to reproduce the HW entropy within 20% error (overestimate) for a few-body quantum system, we succeed in a numerical evaluation of HW entropy of YM fields and sh...
Cosmological Co-evolution of Yang-Mills Fields and Perfect Fluids
Barrow, J D; Maeda, K; Barrow, John D.; Jin, Yoshida; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2005-01-01
We study the co-evolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids in Bianchi type I universes. We investigate numerically the evolution of the universe and the Yang-Mills fields during the radiation and dust eras of a universe that is almost isotropic. The Yang-Mills field undergoes small amplitude chaotic oscillations, as do the three expansion scale factors which are also displayed by the expansion scale factors of the universe. The results of the numerical simulations are interpreted analytically and compared with past studies of the cosmological evolution of magnetic fields in radiation and dust universes. We find that, whereas magnetic universes are strongly constrained by the microwave background anisotropy, Yang-Mills universes are principally constrained by primordial nucleosynthesis and the bound is comparatively weak, and Omega_YM < 0.105 Omega_rad.
A Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills Gauge Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we attempt at constructing a comprehensive four-dimensional unified field theory of gravity, electromagnetism, and the non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and material spin fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects of the space-time manifold S4 via the connection, with the general- ized non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field appearing in particular as a sub-field of the geometrized electromagnetic interaction.
Effective potential for the order parameter of the SU(2) Yang-Mills deconfinement transition
Engelhardt, Michael; Reinhardt, Hugo
1997-01-01
The Polyakov loop variable serves as an order parameter to characterize the confined and deconfined phases of Yang-Mills theory. By integrating out the vector fields in the SU(2) Yang-Mills partition function in one-loop approximation, an effective action is obtained for the Polyakov loop to second order in a derivative expansion. The resulting effective potential for the Polyakov loop is capable of describing a second-order deconfinement transition as a function of temperature.
Kinetic energy for the nuclear Yang-Mills collective model
Rosensteel, George; Sparks, Nick
2015-10-01
The Bohr-Mottelson-Frankfurt model of nuclear rotations and quadrupole vibrations is a foundational model in nuclear structure physics. The model, also called the geometrical collective model or simply GCM, has two hidden mathematical structures, one Lie group theoretic and the other differential geometric. Although the group structure has been understood for some time, the geometric structure is a new unexplored feature that shares the same mathematical origin as Yang-Mills, viz., a vector bundle with a non-abelian structure group and a connection. Using the de Rham Laplacian ▵ = * d * d from differential geometry for the kinetic energy extends significantly the physical scope of the GCM model. This Laplacian contains a ``magnetic'' term due to the coupling between base manifold rotational and fiber vorticity degrees of freedom. When the connection specializes to irrotational flow, the Laplacian reduces to the Bohr-Mottelson kinetic energy operator. More generally, the connection yields a moment of inertia that is intermediate between the extremes of irrotational flow and rigid body motion.
N=1 supersymmetric yang-mills theory in Ito Calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The stochastic quantization method is applied to N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, in particular in 4 and 10 dimensions. In the 4 dimensional case, based on Ito calculus, the Langevin equation is formulated in terms of the superfield formalism. The stochastic process manifestly preserves both the global N = 1 supersymmetry and the local gauge symmetry. The expectation values of the local gauge invariant observables in SYM4 are reproduced in the equilibrium limit. In the superfield formalism, it is impossible in SQM to choose the so-called Wess-Zumino gauge in such a way to gauge away the auxiliary component fields in the vector multiplet, while it is shown that the time development of the auxiliary component fields is determined by the Langevin equations for the physical component fields of the vector multiplet in an ''almost Wess-Zumino gauge''. The physical component expressions of the superfield Langevin equation are naturally extended to the 10 dimensional case, where the spinor field is Majorana-Weyl. By taking a naive zero volume limit of the SYM10, the IIB matrix model is studied in this context. (author)
Matrix models for 5d super Yang-Mills
Minahan, Joseph A
2016-01-01
In this contribution to the review on localization in gauge theories we investigate the matrix models derived from localizing N=1 super Yang-Mills on S^5. We consider the large-N limit and attempt to solve the matrix model by a saddle-point approximation. In general it is not possible to find an analytic solution, but at the weak and the strong limits of the 't Hooft coupling there are dramatic simplifications that allows us to extract most of the interesting information. At weak coupling we show that the matrix model is close to the Gaussian matrix model and that the free-energy scales as N^2. At strong coupling we show that if the theory contains one adjoint hypermultiplet then the free-energy scales as N^3. We also find the expectation value of a supersymmetric Wilson loop that wraps the equator. We demonstrate how to extract the effective couplings and reproduce results of Seiberg. Finally, we compare to results for the six-dimensional (2,0) theory derived using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We show that by...
Wilson loops in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
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Perturbative computations of the expectation value of the Wilson loop in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are reported. For the two special cases of a circular loop and a pair of antiparallel lines, it is shown that the sum of an infinite class of ladder-like planar diagrams, when extrapolated to strong coupling, produces an expectation value characteristic of the results of the AdS/CFT correspondence, ∼exp((constant)√g2N). For the case of the circular loop, the sum is obtained analytically for all values of the coupling. In this case, the constant factor in front of √g2N also agrees with the supergravity results. We speculate that the sum of diagrams without internal vertices is exact for the circular loop and support this conjecture by showing that the leading corrections to the ladder diagrams cancel identically in four dimensions. We also show that, for arbitrary smooth loops, the ultraviolet divergences cancel to order g4N2
Color flux and Yang-Mills structure - a dynamical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In view of the basic difficulties of QCD to bring the confinement hypothesis to a calculational level, a field-theoretic flux tube model with local color gauge invariance is set up which exhibits triality confinement ab initio. This is achieved by an appropriate formulation of Gauss' law using the tube operator as canonical degree of freedom. Along the tube there are vectorlike gauge-invariant color excitations related to splitting and to the short-distance behavior. They receive their degrees of freedom from the tube oscillations and thus are a realization of Polyakov's program. The quarkless system averaged over the directions of the flux tubes passing through a given world point reproduces the pure Yang-Mills equations. The guide to the model is the loop-space formulation of the confining Gauss law of the abelian confinement theory. Basically we generalize to a nonabelian gauge structure not a local abelian field theory but directly the loop-space formulation of the abelian confinement theory. (orig.)
Isotropy theorem for cosmological Yang-Mills theories
Cembranos, J A R; Jareño, S J Núñez
2012-01-01
We consider homogeneous non-abelian vector fields with general potential terms in an expanding universe. We find a mechanical analogy with a system of N interacting particles (with N the dimension of the gauge group) moving in three dimensions under the action of a central potential. In the case of bounded and rapid evolution compared to the rate of expansion, we show by making use of a generalization of the virial theorem that for arbitrary potential and polarization pattern, the average energy-momentum tensor is always diagonal and isotropic despite the intrinsic anisotropic evolution of the vector field. We consider also the case in which a gauge-fixing term is introduced in the action and show that the average equation of state does not depend on such a term. Finally, we extend the results to arbitrary background geometries and show that the average energy-momentum tensor of a rapidly evolving Yang-Mills fields is always isotropic and has the perfect fluid form for any locally inertial observer.
Gravitational and Yang-Mills instantons in holographic RG flows
Gava, Edi; Narain, K S
2011-01-01
We study various holographic RG flow solutions involving warped asymptotically locally Euclidean (ALE) spaces of $A_{N-1}$ type. A two-dimensional RG flow from a UV (2,0) CFT to a (4,0) CFT in the IR is found in the context of (1,0) six dimensional supergravity, interpolating between $AdS_3\\times S^3/\\mathbb{Z}_N$ and $AdS_3\\times S^3$ geometries. We also find solutions involving non trivial gauge fields in the form of SU(2) Yang-Mills instantons on ALE spaces. Both flows are of vev type, driven by the vacuum expectation value of a (not exactly) marginal operator. RG flows in four dimensional field theories are studied in the type IIB and type I$'$ context. In type IIB theory, the flow interpolates between $AdS_5\\times S^5/\\mathbb{Z}_N$ and $AdS_5\\times S^5$ geometries. The field theory interpretation is that of an N=2 $SU(n)^N$ quiver gauge theory flowing to N=4 SU(n) gauge theory. In type I$'$ theory the solution describes an RG flow from N=2 quiver gauge theory with a product gauge group to N=2 gauge theor...
Two dimensional RG flows and Yang-Mills instantons
Gava, Edi; Narain, K S
2010-01-01
We study RG flow solutions in (1,0) six dimensional supergravity coupled to an anti-symmetric tensor and Yang-Mills multiplets corresponding to a semisimple group $G$. We turn on $G$ instanton gauge fields, with instanton number $N$, in the conformally flat part of the 6D metric. The solution interpolates between two (4,0) supersymmetric $AdS_3\\times S^3$ backgrounds with two different values of $AdS_3$ and $S^3$ radii and describes an RG flow in the dual 2D SCFT. For the single instanton case and $G=SU(2)$, there exist a consistent reduction ansatz to three dimensions, and the solution in this case can be interpreted as an uplifted 3D solution. Correspondingly, we present the solution in the framework of N=4 $(SU(2)\\ltimes \\mathbf{R}^3)^2$ three dimensional gauged supergravity. The flows studied here are of v.e.v. type, driven by a vacuum expectation value of a (not exactly) marginal operator of dimension two in the UV. We give an interpretation of the supergravity solution in terms of the D1/D5 system in ty...
Spatial volume dependence for 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory
Pérez, Margarita García; González-Arroyo, Antonio; Okawa, Masanori
2013-09-01
We study the 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a finite two-torus with twisted boundary conditions. Our goal is to study the interplay between the rank of the group N , the length of the torus L and the Z N magnetic flux. After presenting the classical and quantum formalism, we analyze the spectrum of the theory using perturbation theory to one-loop and using Monte Carlo techniques on the lattice. In perturbation theory, results to all orders depend on the combination x = λ N L and an angle defined in terms of the magnetic flux (λ is `t Hooft coupling). Thus, fixing the angle, the system exhibits a form of volume independence ( N L dependence). The numerical results interpolate between our perturbative calculations and the confinement regime. They are consistent with x-scaling and provide interesting information about the k-string spectrum and effective string theories. The occurrence of tachyonic instabilities is also analysed. They seem to be avoidable in the large N limit with a suitable scaling of the magnetic flux.
Spatial volume dependence for 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory
Pérez, Margarita García; Okawa, Masanori
2013-01-01
We study the 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a finite two-torus with twisted boundary conditions. Our goal is to study the interplay between the rank of the group N, the length of the torus L and the Z_N magnetic flux. After presenting the classical and quantum formalism, we analyze the spectrum of the theory using perturbation theory to one-loop and using Monte Carlo techniques on the lattice. In perturbation theory, results to all orders depend on the combination x=\\lambda NL and an angle defined in terms of the magnetic flux (\\lambda\\ is 't Hooft coupling). Thus, fixing the angle, the system exhibits a form of volume independence (NL dependence). The numerical results interpolate between our perturbative calculations and the confinement regime. They are consistent with x-scaling and provide interesting information about the k-string spectrum and effective string theories. The occurrence of tachyonic instabilities is also analysed. They seem to be avoidable in the large N limit with a suitable sc...
Entropy production from chaoticity in Yang-Mills field theory with use of the Husimi function
Tsukiji, Hidekazu; Kunihiro, Teiji; Ohnishi, Akira; Takahashi, Toru T
2016-01-01
We investigate possible entropy production in Yang-Mills (YM) field theory by using a quantum distribution function called Husimi function $f_{\\rm H}(A, E, t)$ for YM field, which is given by a coarse graining of Wigner function and non-negative. We calculate the Husimi-Wehrl (HW) entropy $S_{\\rm HW}(t)=-{\\rm Tr}f_H \\log f_H$ defined as an integral over the phase-space, for which two adaptations of the test-particle method are used combined with Monte-Carlo method. We utilize the semiclassical approximation to obtain the time evolution of the distribution functions of the YM field, which is known to show a chaotic behavior in the classical limit. We also make a simplification of the multi-dimensional phase-space integrals by making a product ansatz for the Husimi function, which is found to give a 10-20 per cent over estimate of the HW entropy for a quantum system with a few degrees of freedom. We show that the quantum YM theory does exhibit the entropy production, and that the entropy production rate agrees ...
Gauge-covariant decomposition and magnetic monopole for G (2 ) Yang-Mills field
Matsudo, Ryutaro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2016-08-01
We provide a gauge-covariant decomposition of the Yang-Mills field with the exceptional gauge group G (2 ), which extends the field decomposition proposed by Cho, Duan-Ge, and Faddeev-Niemi for the S U (N ) Yang-Mills field. As an application of the decomposition, we derive a new expression of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of G (2 ). The resulting new form is used to define gauge-invariant magnetic monopoles in the G (2 ) Yang-Mills theory. Moreover, we obtain the quantization condition to be satisfied by the resulting magnetic charge. The method given in this paper is general enough to be applicable to any semisimple Lie group other than S U (N ) and G (2 ).
Gauge-covariant decomposition and magnetic monopole for G(2) Yang-Mills field
Matsudo, Ryutaro
2016-01-01
We give a gauge-covariant decomposition of the Yang-Mills field with an exceptional gauge group $G(2)$, which extends the field decomposition invented by Cho, Duan-Ge, and Faddeev-Niemi for the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills field. As an application of the decomposition, we derive a new expression of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of $G(2)$. The resulting new form is used to define gauge-invariant magnetic monopoles in the $G(2)$ Yang-Mills theory. Moreover, we obtain the quantization condition to be satisfied by the resulting magnetic charge. The method given in this paper is general enough to be applicable to any semi-simple Lie group other than $SU(N)$ and $G(2)$.
Radiating black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exact nonstatic spherically symmetric black-hole solutions of the higher dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills equations for a null dust with Yang-Mills gauge charge are obtained by employing Wu-Yang ansatz, namely, HD-EYM Vaidya solution. It is interesting to note that gravitational contribution of Yang-Mills (YM) gauge charge for this ansatz is indeed opposite (attractive rather than repulsive) that of Maxwell charge. It turns out that the gravitational collapse of null dust with YM gauge charge admits strong curvature shell focusing naked singularities violating cosmic censorship. However, there is significant shrinkage of the initial data space for a naked singularity of the HD-Vaidya collapse due to presence of YM gauge charge. The effect of YM gauge charge on structure and location of the apparent and event horizons is also discussed.
A BRST gauge-fixing procedure for Yang-Mills theory on sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A gauge-fixing procedure for the Yang-Mills theory on an n-dimensional sphere (or a hypersphere) is discussed in a systematic manner. We claim that Adler's gauge-fixing condition used in massless Euclidean QED on a hypersphere is not conventional because of the presence of an extra free index, and hence is unfavorable for the gauge-fixing procedure based on the BRST invariance principle (or simply BRST gauge-fixing procedure). Choosing a suitable gauge condition, which is proved to be equivalent to a generalization of Adler's condition, we apply the BRST gauge-fixing procedure to the Yang-Mills theory on a hypersphere to obtain consistent results. Field equations for the Yang-Mills field and associated fields are derived in manifestly O(n+1) covariant or invariant forms. In the large radius limit, these equations reproduce the corresponding field equations defined on the n-dimensional flat space
Superspace Gauge Fixing in Yang-Mills Matter Coupled Conformal Supergravity
Kugo, Taichiro; Yoshioka, Koichi
2016-01-01
In $D=4$, $\\cal{N}=1$ conformal superspace, the Yang-Mills matter coupled supergravity system is constructed where the Yang-Mills gauge interaction is introduced by extending the superconformal group to include the K\\"ahler isometry group of chiral matter fields. There are two gauge-fixing procedures to get to the component Poincar\\'e supergravity: one via the superconformal component formalism and the other via the Poincar\\'e superspace formalism. These two types of superconformal gauge-fixing conditions are analyzed in detail and their correspondence is clarified.
Dark Energy and Dark Matter from Yang-Mills Condensate and the Peccei-Quinn mechanism
Addazi, Andrea; Donà, Pietro; Marcianò, Antonino
2016-01-01
The idea that Dark Energy originates from a Yang-Mills condensate has been so far instantiated relying on the asymptotically-free perturbative expansion of SU(N) gauge-theories. This procedure is more appropriate in the ultra-violet regime than in the infrared limit, since SU(N) Yang-Mills theories generically show confinement. We approach the problem from the point of view of the functional renormalization group, and ground our study on the properties of the effective Lagrangian, to be deter...
Quantum Metamorphosis of a Conformal Transformation in D3-Brane Yang-Mills Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how the linear special conformal transformation in four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory is metamorphosed into the nonlinear and field-dependent transformation for the collective coordinates of Dirichlet 3-branes, which agrees with the transformation law for the space-time coordinates in the anti - de Sitter (AdS) space-time. Our result provides a new and strong support for the conjectured relation between AdS5x S5 supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theory (SYM). Furthermore, our work sheds elucidating light on the nature of the AdS/SYM correspondence. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Quantum Metamorphosis of Conformal Transformation in D3-Brane Yang-Mills Theory
Jevicki, A; Yoneya, T
1998-01-01
We show how the linear special conformal transformation in four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills theory is metamorphosed into the nonlinear and field-dependent transformation for the collective coordinates of Dirichlet 3-branes, which agrees with the transformation law for the space-time coordinates in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. Our result provides a new and strong support for the conjectured relation between AdS supergravity and super conformal Yang-Mills theory (SYM). Furthermore, our work sheds elucidating light on the nature of the AdS/SYM correspondence.
Electric-Magnetic Duality in Infrared SU(2) Yang-Mills Theory
Faddeev, L D; Faddeev, Ludvig; Niemi, Antti J.
2002-01-01
We explicitly realize the dual structure between the electric and magnetic variables in the long-distance SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The electric variables correspond to an abelian scalar multiplet with two complex scalar fields, while the dual magnetic variables yield a relativistic version of the Heisenberg model. This leads to a selfdual picture, where the same effective action describes both the electric and the magnetic phase of the theory. Our results are consistent with the proposal that the physical spectrum of the long-distance Yang-Mills theory involves confining strings which are tied into stable knotted solitons.
On the invariant measure for the Yang-Mills configuration space in (3+1) dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a gauge-invariant Hamiltonian analysis for Yang-Mills theories in three spatial dimensions. The gauge potentials are parametrized in terms of a matrix variable which facilitates the elimination of the gauge degrees of freedom. We develop an approximate calculation of the volume element on the gauge-invariant configuration space. We also make a rough estimate of the ratio of 0++ glueball mass and the square root of string tension by comparison with (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory
Gauge field spectrum in massive Yang-Mills theory with Lorentz violation
Santos, T R S; Tomaz, A A
2016-01-01
The spectrum of the massive CPT-odd Yang-Mills propagator with Lorentz violation is performed at tree-level. The modification is due to mass terms generated by the exigence of multiplicative renormalizability of Yang-Mills theory with Lorentz violation. The causality analysis is performed from group and front velocities for both, spacelike and timelike background tensors. It is show that, by demanding causality, it is always possible to define a physical sector for the gauge propagator. Hence, it is expected that the model is also unitary, if one takes the Faddeev-Popov ghost into account.
BPS Domain Walls in super Yang-Mills and Landau-Ginzburg models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study domain walls in two different extensions of super Yang-Mills characterized by the absence of a logarithmic term in their effective superpotential. The models, defined by the usual gaugino condensate and an extra field Y, give different patterns of domain walls despite both leading to the same effective limit for heavy Y, i.e. the Veneziano-Yankielowicz effective Lagrangian of super Yang-Mills. We explain the origin of those differences and also give a physical motivation for introducing the field Y. (author)
Integrable amplitude deformations for N =4 super Yang-Mills and ABJM theory
Bargheer, Till; Huang, Yu-Tin; Loebbert, Florian; Yamazaki, Masahito
2015-01-01
We study Yangian-invariant deformations of scattering amplitudes in 4d N =4 super Yang-Mills theory and 3d N =6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory. In particular, we obtain the deformed Graßmannian integral for 4d N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, both in momentum and momentum-twistor space. For 3d ABJM theory, we initiate the study of deformed scattering amplitudes. We investigate general deformations of on-shell diagrams, and find the deformed Graßmannian integral for this theory. We furthermore introduce the algebraic R-matrix construction of deformed Yangian invariants for ABJM theory.
Super Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity; Tangent bundle to a supergroup manifold approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foussats, A.; Zandron, O. (Instituto de Fisica Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenieria, U.N.R., Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (AR))
1988-01-01
Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity are analyzed by using the tangent bundle to a supergroup manifold as geometrical framework. The factorization condition imposed on these theories is considered from this point of view. The so-called H-gauge transformation for both, the super Yang-Mills and supergravity one-forms gauge fields are obtained as a consequence of a change of trivialization in the corresponding coset manifold. The authors point out the existence of factorized solutions not diffeomorphically equivalent for the set of pseudo-connections one-forms or gauge fields.
Generalized 2D Yang-Mills theories: Large-N limit and Phase Structure
Alimohammadi, Masoud
2000-01-01
After review the 2D Yang--Mills theories (YM2) and its large--N behaviour, the Generalized 2D Yang--Mills theories (gYM2) and their partition functions on a general two--dimensional Riemann surface are discussed.The large--N behaviour of these models is studied in weak regime, and in strong regime, we restrict ourselves to f4 gYM2. We show that this model has a third order phase transition, similar to ordinary YM2 theory.
Light Dilaton at Fixed Points and Ultra Light Scale Super Yang Mills
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco
spectrum near this point. We demonstrate that this theory naturally features a light scalar degree of freedom to be identified with the dilaton and elucidate its physical properties. We compute the spectrum and demonstrate that at low energy the nonperturbative part of the spectrum of the theory is the one...... of pure supersymmetric Yang-Mills. We can therefore determine the exact nonperturbative fermion condensate and deduce relevant properties of the nonperturbative spectrum of the theory. We also show that the intrinsic scale of super Yang-Mills is exponentially smaller than the scale associated to the...
Dual Conformal Properties of Six-Dimensional Maximal Super Yang-Mills Amplitudes
Dennen, Tristan
2010-01-01
We demonstrate that the tree-level amplitudes of maximal super-Yang-Mills theory in six dimensions, when stripped of their overall momentum and supermomentum delta functions, are covariant with respect to the six-dimensional dual conformal group. Using the generalized unitarity method, we demonstrate that this property is also present for loop amplitudes. Since the six-dimensional amplitudes can be interpreted as massive four-dimensional ones, this implies that the six-dimensional symmetry is also present in the massively regulated four-dimensional maximal super-Yang-Mills amplitudes.
Stability of magnetic condensation and mass generation for confinement in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2013-01-01
In the framework of the functional renormalization group, we reexamine the stability of the Yang-Mills vacuum with a chromomagnetic condensation. We show that the Nielsen-Olesen instability of the Savvidy vacuum with a homogeneous chromomagnetic condensation disappears in the $SU(2)$ Yang-Mills theory. As a physical mechanism for maintaining the stability even for the small infrared cutoff, we argue that dynamical gluon mass generation occurs due to a BRST-invariant vacuum condensate of mass dimension-two, which is related to two-gluon bound states identified with glueballs. These results support the dual superconductor picture for quark confinement.
Orbifold singularities, Lie algebras of the third kind (LATKes), and pure Yang-Mills with matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discover the unique, simple Lie algebra of the third kind, or LATKe, that stems from codimension 6 orbifold singularities and gives rise to a new kind of Yang-Mills theory which simultaneously is pure and contains matter. The root space of the LATKe is one-dimensional and its Dynkin diagram consists of one point. The uniqueness of the LATKe is a vacuum selection mechanism. The World in a Point?; Blow-up ofC3/Z3| Dynkin diagram of the LATKe; ·; Pure Yang-Mills with matter
Lectures on strings in flat space and plane waves from N = 4 super Yang Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In these lecture notes we explain how the string spectrum in flat space and plane waves arises from the large N limit of U(N) N = 4 super Yang Mills. We reproduce the spectrum by summing a subset of the planar Feynman diagrams. We also describe some other aspects of string propagation on plane wave backgrounds. (author)
Two-point functions of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The functional approach to Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory is considered within the standard, second order, formalism. The Dyson-Schwinger equations and Slavnov-Taylor identities concerning the two-point functions are derived explicitly and one-loop perturbative results are presented
Slavnov-Taylor identities in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Watson, P
2008-01-01
The Slavnov-Taylor identities of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory are derived from the (standard, second order) functional formalism. It is shown how these identities form closed sets from which one can in principle fully determine the Green's functions involving the temporal component of the gauge field without approximation, given appropriate input.
The string solution in SU(2) Yang-Mills - Higgs theory
Dzhunushaliev, V D; Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Fomin, Alexej
1996-01-01
The tube solutions in Yang - Mills - Higgs theory are received, in which the Higgs field has the negative energy density. This solutions make up the discrete spectrum numered by two integer and have the finite linear energy density. Ignoring its transverse size, such field configuration is the rest infinity straight string.
Localization of four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theories compactified on Riemann surface
Nagasaki, Koichi
2016-01-01
We consider the partition function of super Yang-Mills theories defined on $T^2 \\times \\Sigma_g$. This path integral can be computed by the localization. The one-loop determinant is evaluated by the elliptic genus. This elliptic genus gives trivial result in our calculation. As a result, we obtain a theory defined on the Riemann surface.
Cosmological Implication of Yang-Mills Field and its Chaotic Behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Studying Yang-Mills field and gravitational field in class A Bianchi spacetimes, we find that chaotic behavior appears in the late phase (the asymptotic future). At the same time, in the initial phase (near the initial singularity), we find a Mixmaster-like behavior in Bianchi I spacetime. Although this result may provide a counterexample to the BKL (Belinskii, Khalatnikov and Lifshitz) conjecture, we show that the BKL conjecture is still valid in Bianchi IX spacetime. We also analyze a multiplicative effect of two types of chaos, that is, chaos with the Yang-Mills field and that in vacuum Bianchi IX spacetime. In order to consider influence of such chaotic system upon cosmology, we also study the co-evolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids in Bianchi type I spacetime. We find that, whereas magnetic universes are strongly constrained by the microwave background anisotropy, Yang-Mills universes are principally constrained by primordial nucleosynthesis and the bound is comparatively weak, and ΩYM rad
Covariant Hamiltonian formalism for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a canonical covariant Hamiltonian formalism on a group manifold, for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity. We find the set of primary constraints and the equations of motion for the coupled system in the covariant Hamiltonian approach. Also, the supercurrent is defined and analysed in the framework of the canonical covariant formalism. (author)
Covariant Hamiltonian formalism for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foussats, A.; Zandron, O.
1988-09-01
We develop a canonical covariant Hamiltonian formalism on a group manifold, for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity. We find the set of primary constraints and the equations of motion for the coupled system in the covariant Hamiltonian approach. Also, the supercurrent is defined and analysed in the framework of the canonical covariant formalism.
Stationary quantum states in yang-mills theory as the unitary representations of homotopy group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An attempt is made to consider the stationary quantum states of Yang-Mills fields as the representation of the homotopy group. It is shown that the usual quantization method leads to a nonunitary representation of the homotopy group. A way of constructing the unitary representation is proposed, which allows one to solve the infrared problem like in the microscopic theory of superfluidity
Conformal properties of the BPST instantons of the generalised Yang-Mills system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A manifestly O(4p+1) invariant formulation of generalised Yang-Mills (GYM) theory on S4p{rvertical stroker.r=1} is contained in R4p+1 is given, and the corresponding BPST instantons and anti-instantons are shown to be solutions of the equations of motion. (orig.)
On the finiteness of BF-Yang-Mills theory in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the BF-Yang-Mills theory in 3 dimensions is finite. The main ingredient in the proof of this property is the validity of a trace identify that plays the role of a local form for the Callan-Symanzik equation to all orders in perturbation theory. (author)
Heterotic massive Einstein-Yang-Mills-type symmetry and Ward identity
Lee, Jen-Chi
2005-01-01
We show that there exist spontaneously broken symmetries for massive modes with transformation parameters containing both Einstein and E8xE8 (or SO(32)) Yang-Mills indices in the 10D Heterotic string. The corresponding on-shell Ward identities are also constructed.
Scattering amplitudes in N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity
Chiodaroli, Marco; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu
2015-01-01
We expose a double-copy structure in the scattering amplitudes of the generic Jordan family of N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories in four and five dimensions. The Maxwell-Einstein supergravity amplitudes are obtained through the color/kinematics duality as a product of two gauge-theory factors; one originating from pure N=2 super-Yang-Mills theory and the other from the dimensional reduction of a bosonic higher-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory. We identify a specific symplectic frame in four dimensions for which the on-shell fields and amplitudes from the double-copy construction can be identified with the ones obtained from the supergravity Lagrangian and Feynman-rule computations. The Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories are obtained by gauging a compact subgroup of the isometry group of their Maxwell-Einstein counterparts. For the generic Jordan family this process is identified with the introduction of cubic scalar couplings on the bosonic gauge-theory side, which th...
Comments on Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory on a Noncommutative Torus
Li, Miao
1998-01-01
D0-brane theory on a torus with a nonvanishing B field is embedded into a string theory in the weak coupling limit. It is shown that the usual supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a noncommutative torus can not be the whole story. The Born-Infeld action survives the noncommutative torus limit.
E-strings and N=4 topological Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study certain properties of six-dimensional tensionless E-strings (arising from zero size E8 instantons). In particular we show that n E-strings form a bound string which carries an E8 level-n current algebra as well as a left-over conformal system with c=12n-4-(248n/n+30), whose characters can be computed. Moreover we show that the characters of the n-string bound state are captured by N=4 U(n) topological Yang-Mills theory on 1/2K3. This relation not only illuminates certain aspects of E-strings but can also be used to shed light on the properties of N=4 topological Yang-Mills theories on manifolds with b2+=1. In particular the E-string partition functions, which can be computed using local mirror symmetry on a Calabi-Yau three-fold, give the Euler characteristics of the Yang-Mills instanton moduli space on 1/2K3. Moreover, the partition functions are determined by a gap condition combined with a simple recurrence relation which has its origins in a holomorphic anomaly that has been conjectured to exist for N=4 topological Yang-Mills on manifolds with b2+=1 and is also related to the holomorphic anomaly for higher genus topological strings on Calabi-Yau threefolds. (orig.)
Affine Lie-Poisson reduction, Yang-Mills magnetohydrodynamics, and superfluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper develops the theory of affine Lie-Poisson reduction and applies this process to Yang-Mills and Hall magnetohydrodynamics for fluids and superfluids. As a consequence of this approach, the associated Poisson brackets are obtained by reduction of a canonical cotangent bundle. A Kelvin-Noether circulation theorem is presented and is applied to these examples
Monte Carlo simulation of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with light gluinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a numerical Monte Carlo simulation of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with light dynamical gluinos the low energy features of the dynamics as confinement and bound state mass spectrum are investigated. The motivation is supersymmetry at vanishing gluino mass. The performance of the applied two-step multi-bosonic dynamical fermion algorithm is discussed. (orig.)
The Yang-Mills vacuum wave functional thirty-five years later
Olejnik, Stefan
2015-01-01
The first paper attempting direct calculation of the Yang-Mills vacuum wave functional was published by Greensite in 1979. I review some recent results of the determination of the vacuum wave functional in Monte Carlo simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory.
Three-loop octagons and n-gons in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caron Huot, Simon; He, Song
2013-01-01
We study the S-matrix of planar = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory when external momenta are restricted to a two-dimensional subspace of Minkowski space. We find significant simplifications and new, interesting structures for tree and loop amplitudes in two-dimensional kinematics, in particular...
Affine Lie-Poisson Reduction, Yang-Mills magnetohydrodynamics, and superfluids
Gay-Balmaz, Francois; Ratiu, Tudor S.
2009-01-01
This paper develops the theory of affine Lie-Poisson reduction and applies this process to Yang-Mills and Hall magnetohydrodynamics for fluids and superfluids. As a consequence of this approach, the associated Poisson brackets are obtained by reduction of a canonical cotangent bundle. A Kelvin-Noether circulation theorem is presented and is applied to these examples.
The N=2(4) string is self-dual N=4 Yang-Mills
Siegel, Warren
1992-01-01
N=2 string amplitudes, when required to have the Lorentz covariance of the equivalent N=4 string, describe a self-dual form of N=4 super Yang-Mills in 2+2 dimensions. Spin-independent couplings and the ghost nature of SO(2,2) spacetime make it a topological-like theory with vanishing loop corrections.
Duality between Noncommutative Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons and Non-Abelian Self-Dual Models
Cantcheff, M B; Minces, Pablo
2003-01-01
By introducing an appropriate parent action and considering a perturbative approach, we establish, up to fourth order terms in the field and for the full range of the coupling constant, the equivalence between the noncommutative Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory and the noncommutative, non-Abelian Self-Dual model.
Center-stabilized Yang-Mills Theory:Confinement and Large N Volume Independence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Yaffe, Laurence G.; /Washington U., Seattle
2008-03-21
We examine a double trace deformation of SU(N) Yang-Mills theory which, for large N and large volume, is equivalent to unmodified Yang-Mills theory up to O(1/N{sup 2}) corrections. In contrast to the unmodified theory, large N volume independence is valid in the deformed theory down to arbitrarily small volumes. The double trace deformation prevents the spontaneous breaking of center symmetry which would otherwise disrupt large N volume independence in small volumes. For small values of N, if the theory is formulated on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1} with a sufficiently small compactification size L, then an analytic treatment of the non-perturbative dynamics of the deformed theory is possible. In this regime, we show that the deformed Yang-Mills theory has a mass gap and exhibits linear confinement. Increasing the circumference L or number of colors N decreases the separation of scales on which the analytic treatment relies. However, there are no order parameters which distinguish the small and large radius regimes. Consequently, for small N the deformed theory provides a novel example of a locally four-dimensional pure gauge theory in which one has analytic control over confinement, while for large N it provides a simple fully reduced model for Yang-Mills theory. The construction is easily generalized to QCD and other QCD-like theories.
Lagrangian and Covariant Field Equations for Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory in 12D
Nishino, H
1998-01-01
We present a lagrangian formulation for recently-proposed supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in twelve dimensions. The field content of our multiplet has an additional auxiliary vector field in the adjoint representation. The usual Yang-Mills field strength is modified by a Chern-Simons form containing this auxiliary vector field. This formulation needs no constraint imposed on the component field from outside, and a constraint on the Yang-Mills field is generated as the field equation of the auxiliary vector field. The invariance check of the action is also performed without any reference to constraints by hand. Even though the total lagrangian takes a simple form, it has several highly non-trivial extra symmetries. We couple this twelve-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills background to Green-Schwarz superstring, and confirm fermionic kappa-invariance. As another improvement of this theory, we present a set of fully Lorentz-covariant and supercovariant field equations with no use of null-vectors. This system...
Numerical study of the SU(2) Yang-Mills vacuum state: Much ado about nothing?
Greensite, Jeff
2013-01-01
Numerical results for relative weights of test gauge-field configurations in the vacuum of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory in (3+1) dimensions are compared with expectations following from various proposals for the Yang-Mills vacuum wave functional that interpolate between the free-field limit and the dimensional-reduction form.
Thermodynamics and reference scale of SU(3) gauge theory from gradient flow on fine lattices
Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Iritani, Takumi; Itou, Etsuko; Suzuki, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
We study the parametrization of lattice spacing and thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory on the basis of the Yang-Mills gradient flow on fine lattices. The lattice spacing of the Wilson gauge action is determined over a wide range $6.3\\le\\beta\\le7.5$ with high accuracy. The measurements of the flow time and lattice spacing dependences of the expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are performed on fine lattices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Integrable properties, i.e., existence of linear systems, infinite number of conservation laws, Reimann-Hilbert transforms, affine Lie algebra of Kac-Moody, and Bianchi-Baecklund transformation, are discussed for the constraint equations of the supersymmetric Yang-Mills fields. For N greater than or equal to 3 these constraint equations give equations of motion of the fields. These equations of motion reduce to the ordinary Yang-Mills equations as the spinor and scalar fields are eliminated. These understandings provide a possible method to solve the full Yang-Mills equations. Connections with other non-linear systems are also discussed. 53 references
Modular Symmetry and Fractional Charges in N=2 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills and the Quantum Hall Effect
Dolan, Brian P.
2006-01-01
The parallel roles of modular symmetry in ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills and in the quantum Hall effect are reviewed. In supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories modular symmetry emerges as a version of Dirac's electric -- magnetic duality. It has significant consequences for the vacuum structure of these theories, leading to a fractal vacuum which has an infinite hierarchy of related phases. In the case of ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills in 3+1 dimensions, scaling functions can be d...
Differential formalism aspects of the gauge classical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical aspects of the gauge theories are shown using differential geometry as fundamental tool. Somme comments are done about Maxwell Electro-dynamics, classical Yang-Mills and gravitation theories. (L.C.)
Radiating black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory and cosmic censorship
Ghosh, Sushant G
2010-01-01
Exact nonstatic spherically symmetric black-hole solution of the higher dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills equations for a null dust with Yang-Mills gauge charge are obtained by employing Wu-Yang \\textit{ansatz}, namely, HD-EYM Vaidya solution. It is interesting to note that gravitational contribution of YM gauge charge for this ansatz is indeed opposite (attractive rather than repulsive) that of Maxwell charge. It turns out that the gravitational collapse of null dust with YM gauge charge admit strong curvature shell focusing naked singularities violating cosmic censorship. However, there is significant shrinkage of the initial data space for a naked singularity of the HD-Vaidya collapse due to presence of YM gauge charge. The effect of YM gauge charge on structure and location of the apparent and event horizons is also discussed.
Hedgehogs in Wilson loops and phase transition in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
Belavin, V A; Kozlov, I E
2006-01-01
We suggest that the gauge-invariant hedgehogs-like structures in the Wilson loops are physically interesting degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills theory. The trajectories of these hedgehogs are closed curves which correspond to center-valued (untraced) Wilson loops and are characterized by the center charge and by the winding number. We show numerically in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory that the density of the hedgehogs in the thermal Wilson-Polyakov line is very sensitive to the finite temperature phase transition. The (additively normalized) hedgehog density behaves as an order parameter: the density is almost independent of the temperature in the confinement phase and changes substantially as the system gets into the deconfinement phase. Our results suggest in particular that the (static) hedgehogs may be relevant degrees of freedom around the deconfinement transition, and thus affect evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy ion collisions.
Light dilaton at fixed points and ultra light scale super-Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the infrared dynamics of a nonsupersymmetric SU(X) gauge theory featuring an adjoint fermion, Nf Dirac flavors and a Higgs-like complex Nf×Nf scalar which is a gauge singlet. We first establish the existence of an infrared stable perturbative fixed point and then investigate the spectrum near this point. We demonstrate that this theory features a light scalar degree of freedom to be identified with the dilaton and elucidate its physical properties. We compute the spectrum and demonstrate that at low energy the nonperturbative part of the spectrum of the theory is the one of pure supersymmetric Yang-Mills. We can therefore determine the exact nonperturbative fermion condensate and deduce relevant properties of the nonperturbative spectrum of the theory. We also show that the intrinsic scale of super-Yang-Mills is exponentially smaller than the scale associated to the breaking of conformal and chiral symmetry of the theory.
Large N limit of 2D Yang-Mills Theory and Instanton Counting
Matsuo, T; Ohta, K; Matsuo, Toshihiro; Matsuura, So; Ohta, Kazutoshi
2005-01-01
We examine the two-dimensional U(N) Yang-Mills theory by using the technique of random partitions. We show that the large N limit of the partition function of the 2D Yang-Mills theory on S^2 reproduces the instanton counting of 4D N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories introduced by Nekrasov. We also discuss that we can take the ``double scaling limit'' by fixing the product of the N and cell size in Young diagrams, and the effective action given by Douglas and Kazakov is naturally obtained by taking this limit. We give an interpretation for our result from the view point of the superstring theory by considering a brane configuration that realizes 4D N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories.
Dual-color decompositions at one-loop level in Yang-Mills theory
Du, Yi-Jian; Fu, Chih-Hao
2014-01-01
In this work, we extend the construction of dual color decomposition in Yang-Mills theory to one-loop level, i.e., we show how to write one-loop integrands in Yang-Mills theory to the dual DDM-form and the dual trace-form. In dual forms, integrands are decomposed in terms of color-ordered one-loop integrands for color scalar theory with proper dual color coefficients.In dual DDM decomposition, The dual color coefficients can be obtained directly from BCJ-form by applying Jacobi-like identities for kinematic factors. In dual trace decomposition, the dual trace factors can be obtained by imposing one-loop KK relations, reflection relation and their relation with the kinematic factors in dual DDM-form.
Correspondence between Einstein-Yang-Mills-Lorentz systems and dynamical torsion models
Cembranos, Jose A R
2016-01-01
In the framework of Einstein-Yang-Mills theories, we study the gauge Lorentz group and establish a particular equivalence between this case and a certain class of theories with torsion within Riemann-Cartan space-times. This relation is specially useful in order to simplify the problem of finding exact solutions to the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations. Solutions for non-vanishing torsion with rotation and reflection symmetries are presented by the explicit use of this correspondence. Although these solutions were found in previous literature by a different approach, our method provides an alternative way to obtain them and it may be used in future research to find other exact solutions within this theory.
Amplitude relations in heterotic string theory and Einstein-Yang-Mills
Schlotterer, Oliver
2016-01-01
We present all-multiplicity evidence that the tree-level S-matrix of gluons and gravitons in heterotic string theory can be reduced to color-ordered single-trace amplitudes of the gauge multiplet. Explicit amplitude relations are derived for up to three gravitons, up to two color traces and an arbitrary number of gluons in each case. The results are valid to all orders in the inverse string tension alpha' and generalize to the ten-dimensional superamplitudes which preserve 16 supercharges. Their field-theory limit results in an alternative proof of the recently discovered relations between Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes and those of pure Yang-Mills theory. Similarities and differences between the integrands of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae and the heterotic string are investigated.
Component structure of the N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theory in the harmonic superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Specific features of massless and massive N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theories are studied. The superstrength and the free Lagrangian of the Abelian vector multiplet are obtained in the component form in the harmonic superspace formalism without a gauge fixing. Beginning from the Abelian superstrength, the authors find the non-Abelian superstrength in the first order in the coupling constant g without gauge fixing. Using the approach analogous to the Stueckelberg method, they obtain the Lagrangian of the massive Yang-Mills theory in the component form in the first order in the coupling constant g. The excitation mechanisms of additional degrees of freedom and open-quotes switching onclose quotes of new interactions in the massive vector multiplet are investigated. 6 refs
Component structure of the N=2 super-Yang-Mills theory in the harmonic superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The specific features of massless and massive N=2 super-Yang-Mills theories are studied. In the frame of the harmonic superspace formalism, the component from of the superstrength and free Lagrangian of the vector multiplet will be found without fixing a concrete supergauge for the Abelian case. Starting with the Abelian superstrength, find the form of the non-Abelian superstrength in the first order of the coupling constant g, not fixing the supergauge. Abelian superstrength in the first order of the coupling constant g, not fixing the supergauge. In conclusion the approach analogous to the Stueckelberg method, to obtain the component Lagrangian of the massive N=2 Yang-Mills theory in the first order of the couplig constant g. 7 refs
N=4 Super-Yang-Mills on Conic Space as Hologram of STU Topological Black Hole
Huang, Xing
2014-01-01
We construct four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theories on a conic sphere with various background R-symmetry gauge fields. We study free energy and supersymmetric Renyi entropy using heat kernel method as well as localization technique. We find that the universal contribution to the partition function in the free field limit is the same as that in the strong coupling limit, which implies that it may be protected by supersymmetry. Based on the fact that, the conic sphere can be conformally mapped to $S^1\\times H^3$ and the R-symmetry background fields can be supported by the R-charges of black hole, we propose that the holographic dual of these theories are five-dimensional, supersymmetric STU topological black holes. We demonstrate perfect agreement between N=4 super-Yang-Mills theories in the planar limit and the STU topological black holes.
Structure constants of planar N =4 Yang Mills at one loop
Alday, L F; Gava, E; Narain, K S; Alday, Luis F.; David, Justin R.; Gava, Edi
2005-01-01
We study structure constants of gauge invariant operators in planar N=4 Yang-Mills at one loop with the motivation of determining features of the string dual of weak coupling Yang-Mills. We derive a simple renormalization group invariant formula characterizing the corrections to structure constants of any primary operator in the planar limit. Applying this to the scalar SO(6) sector we find that the one loop corrections to structure constants of gauge invariant operators is determined by the one loop anomalous dimension Hamiltonian in this sector. We then evaluate the one loop corrections to structure constants for scalars with arbitrary number of derivatives in a given holomorphic direction. We find that the corrections can be characterized by suitable derivatives on the four point tree function of a massless scalar with quartic coupling. We show that individual diagrams violating conformal invariance can be combined together to restore it using a linear inhomogeneous partial differential equation satisfied ...
BRST cohomology of N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanzini, A.; Ventura, O.S. [CBPF, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Departamento de Campos e Particulas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Urca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vilar, L.C.Q.; Sorella, S.P. [UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2000-08-01
The BRST cohomology of the N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions is discussed by making use of the twisted version of the N = 2 algebra. By the introduction of a set of suitable constant ghosts associated with the generators of N = 2, the quantization of the model can be done by taking into account both gauge invariance and supersymmetry. In particular, we show how the twisted N = 2 algebra can be used to obtain in a straightforward way the relevant cohomology classes. Moreover, we shall be able to establish a very useful relationship between the local gauge-invariant polynomial tr {phi}{sup 2} and the complete N = 2 Yang-Mills action. This important relation can be considered as the first step towards a fully algebraic proof of the one-loop exactness of the N = 2 {beta}-function.
BRST cohomology of N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The BRST cohomology of the N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions is discussed by making use of the twisted version of the N = 2 algebra. By the introduction of a set of suitable constant ghosts associated with the generators of N = 2, the quantization of the model can be done by taking into account both gauge invariance and supersymmetry. In particular, we show how the twisted N = 2 algebra can be used to obtain in a straightforward way the relevant cohomology classes. Moreover, we shall be able to establish a very useful relationship between the local gauge-invariant polynomial tr φ2 and the complete N = 2 Yang-Mills action. This important relation can be considered as the first step towards a fully algebraic proof of the one-loop exactness of the N = 2 β-function.
Supersymmetric Yang Mills Fields and Black Holes ; In Ten Dimensional Unified Field Theory
Patwardhan, Ajay
2007-01-01
The Ten dimensional Unified field theory has a 4 dimensional Riemannian spacetime and six dimensional Calabi Yau space structure. The supersymmetric Yang Mills fields and black holes are solutions in these theories. The formation of primordial black holes in early universe, the collapse to singularity of stellar black holes, the Hawking evaporation of microscopic black holes in LHC are topics of observational and theoretical interest. The observation of gamma ray bursts and creation of spectr...
Center-symmetric dimensional reduction of hot Yang-Mills theory
Kurkela, A.
2008-01-01
It is expected that incorporating the center symmetry in the conventional dimensionally reduced effective theory for high-temperature SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, EQCD, will considerably extend its applicability towards the deconfinement transition. The construction of such a center-symmetric effective theory for the case of two colors is reviewed and lattice simulation results are presented. The simulations demonstrate that unlike EQCD, the new center-symmetric theory undergoes a second order co...
On the infrared behavior of the shear spectral function in hot Yang-Mills theory
Vuorinen, Aleksi
2015-01-01
We revisit the determination of the two-loop spectral function in the shear channel of hot Yang-Mills theory. Correcting a technical error in an earlier computation and extending the result with a leading order Hard Thermal Loop resummation is seen to improve the infrared behavior of the quantity significantly. This makes it possible to straightforwardly use the result in the corresponding imaginary time correlator and the shear sum rule.
A note on the Dirac canonical quantization of massive Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Various implications of the Lorentz constraint are investigated within the Dirac-brackets quantization of massive Yang-Mills theory. If follows that matrix elements of arbitrary products of the divergence operators δμAaμ between physical states should vanish. Then, after adding certain functionals to the Hamiltonian, the effect on the physical states of the evolution operator remains unaltered. Arguments are put forward for modified expressions for the formal path integral representation of the evolution operator. (author). 11 refs
The Infrared Behaviour of the Pure Yang-Mills Green Functions
Boucaud, Ph; Yaouanc, A Le; Micheli, J; Péne, O; Rodríguez-Quintero, J
2011-01-01
We review the infrared properties of the pure Yang-Mills correlators and discuss recent results concerning the two classes of low-momentum solutions for them reported in literature; i.e. decoupling and scaling solutions. We will mainly focuss on the Landau gauge and pay special attention to the results inferred from the analysis of the Dyson-Schwinger equations of the theory and from "{\\it quenched}" lattice QCD. The results obtained from properly interplaying both approaches are strongly emphasized.
The Infrared Behaviour of the Pure Yang-Mills Green Functions
Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J.P.; Yaouanc, A. Le; Micheli, J; Péne, O.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.
2011-01-01
We review the infrared properties of the pure Yang-Mills correlators and discuss recent results concerning the two classes of low-momentum solutions for them reported in literature; i.e. decoupling and scaling solutions. We will mainly focuss on the Landau gauge and pay special attention to the results inferred from the analysis of the Dyson-Schwinger equations of the theory and from "{\\it quenched}" lattice QCD. The results obtained from properly interplaying both approaches are strongly emp...
Darboux transformation and solitons of Yang-Mills-Higgs equations in R2,1
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谷超豪
2002-01-01
The Darboux transformations for soliton equations are applied to the Yang-Mills-Higgs equations.New solutions can be obtained from a known one via universal and purely algebraic formulas. SU(N) soliton solutions are constructed with explicit formulas. The interaction of solitons is described by the splitting theorem:each p-soliton is splitting into p single solitons asymptotically as t →±∞.
Super-Renormalizablity of Yang-Mills Models in the Third Order of Perturbation Theory
Grigore, Dan-Radu
2013-01-01
We continue the investigation from a previous paper concerning the super-renormalizablity of gauge models going to the third order of the perturbation theory. Here we consider only the Yang-Mills case and we prove that this property is true iff some supplementary restrictions are imposed on the constants appearing in the interaction Lagrangian. The usual standard model does not verify these restrictions, but there is hope that such models do exist and they are in agreement with the phenomenol...
Schwinger-Dyson and Large $N_{c}$ Loop Equation for Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory
Itoyama, H.; Takashino, H.
1996-01-01
We derive an infinite sequence of Schwinger-Dyson equations for $N=1$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The fundamental and the only variable employed is the Wilson-loop geometrically represented in $N=1$ superspace: it organizes an infinite number of supersymmetrizing insertions into the ordinary Wilson-loop as a single entity. In the large $N_{c}$ limit, our equation becomes a closed loop equation for the one-point function of the Wilson-loop average.
A pedagogical introduction to the Slavnov formulation of quantum Yang-Mills theory
Ghorbani, Hossein
2010-01-01
Over the last few years, Slavnov has proposed a formulation of quantum Yang-Mills theory in the Coulomb gauge which preserves simultaneously manifest Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance of the ghost field Lagrangian. This paper presents in detail some of the necessary calculations, i.e. those dealing with the functional integral for the S-matrix and its invariance under shifted gauge transformations. The extension of this formalism to quantum gravity in the Prentki gauge deserves consideration.
Unified N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills-Einstein Supergravity Theories in Four Dimensions
M Gunaydin; McReynolds, S.; Zagermann, M.
2005-01-01
We study unified N=2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories (MESGTs) and unified Yang-Mills Einstein supergravity theories (YMESGTs) in four dimensions. As their defining property, these theories admit the action of a global or local symmetry group that is (i) simple, and (ii) acts irreducibly on all the vector fields of the theory, including the ``graviphoton''. Restricting ourselves to the theories that originate from five dimensions via dimensional reduction, we find that the generic Jorda...
Group approach to quantization of Yang-Mills theories: a cohomological origin of mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
New clues for the best understanding of the nature of the symmetry-breaking mechanism are revealed in this paper. A revision of the standard gauge transformation properties of Yang-Mills fields, according to a group approach to the quantization scheme, enables the gauge group coordinates to acquire dynamical content outside the null mass shell. The corresponding extra (internal) field degrees of freedom are transferred to the vector potentials to conform massive vector bosons. (author)
Self-Dual Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory Generates Witten's Topological Field Theory
Nishino, H.
1993-01-01
{}~~~We show that the recently constructed $~N=4$~ supersymmetric self-dual Yang-Mills theory as the consistent background of \\hbox{$~N=2$} open superstring will generate Witten's topological field theory in two-dimensions as a descendant theory after appropriate twisted dimensional reduction/truncations. We also show that this topological field theory further generates supersymmetric Korteweg de Vries equations, $~SL(n)\\-$Toda theory and $~W_\\infty\\-$gravity in the $~n\\rightarrow\\infty$~ lim...
5D maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills in 4D superspace. Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGarrie, Moritz
2013-03-15
We reformulate 5D maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills in 4D Superspace, for a manifold with boundaries. We emphasise certain features and conventions necessary to allow for supersymmetric model building applications. Finally we apply the holographic interpretation of a slice of AdS and show how to generate Dirac soft masses between external source fields, as well as kinetic mixing, as a boundary effective action.
Equivariant Symplectic Geometry of Gauge Fixing in Yang-Mills Theory
Akant, Levent
2007-01-01
The Faddeev-Popov gauge fixing in Yang-Mills theory is interpreted as equivariant localization. It is shown that the Faddeev-Popov procedure amounts to a construction of a symplectic manifold with a Hamiltonian group action. The BRST cohomology is shown to be equivalent to the equivariant cohomology based on this symplectic manifold with Hamiltonian group action. The ghost operator is interpreted as a (pre)symplectic form and the gauge condition as the moment map corresponding to the Hamilton...
Slavnov-Taylor Identities in Coulomb Gauge Yang-Mills Theory
Watson, P
2008-01-01
Two aspects of the color charge in Coulomb gauge continuum Yang-Mills theory are discussed. The first aspect is the existence of a conserved and vanishing total charge exhibited within the first order functional formalism. The second aspect is the closure of the set of Slavnov-Taylor identities in the second order functional formalism, such that the exact solution for temporal Green's functions is in principle possible and thereby preserving the color charge.
Topologically massive Yang-Mills: A Hamilton-Jacobi constraint analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertin, M. C., E-mail: mcbertin@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia. Campus Universitário de Ondina, CEP 40210-340, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Pimentel, B. M., E-mail: pimentel@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - São Paulo State University. Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Valcárcel, C. E., E-mail: carlos.valcarcel@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC. Rua Santa Adélia, 166, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Zambrano, G. E. R., E-mail: gramos@udenar.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Nariño. Calle 18 Cra 50, San Juan de Pasto, Nariño (Colombia)
2014-04-15
We analyse the constraint structure of the topologically massive Yang-Mills theory in instant-form and null-plane dynamics via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The complete set of hamiltonians that generates the dynamics of the system is obtained from the Frobenius’ integrability conditions, as well as its characteristic equations. As generators of canonical transformations, the hamiltonians are naturally linked to the generator of Lagrangian gauge transformations.
A Unified Gravity-Electroweak Model Based on a Generalized Yang-Mills Framework
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2011-01-01
Gravitational and electroweak interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the Weinberg-Salam theory. The Yang-Mills framework is generalized to include space-time translational group T(4), whose generators $T_{\\mu}(=\\p/\\p x^{\\mu})$ do not have constant matrix representations. By gauging $T(4) \\times SU(2) \\times U(1)$ in flat space-time, we have a new tensor field $\\phi_{\\mu\
Gaussian and Mean Field Approximations for Reduced 4D Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Integral
Sugino, Fumihiko
2001-01-01
In this paper, we consider a reduced supersymmetric Yang-Mills integral with four supercharges by using a Gaussian approximation scheme and its improved version. We calculate the free energy and the expectation values of Polyakov loop and Wilson loop operators by extending the method employed in the bosonic case in the previous paper. Our results nicely match to the exact and the numerical results obtained before. The loop amplitudes exhibit good scaling behaviors similarly as in the bosonic ...
Gaussian and Mean Field Approximations for Reduced Yang-Mills Integrals
Oda, Satsuki; Sugino, Fumihiko
2000-01-01
In this paper, we consider bosonic reduced Yang-Mills integrals by using some approximation schemes, which are a kind of mean field approximation called Gaussian approximation and its improved version. We calculate the free energy and the expectation values of various operators including Polyakov loop and Wilson loop. Our results nicely match to the exact and the numerical results obtained before. Quite good scaling behaviors of the Polyakov loop and of the Wilson loop can be seen under the '...
A novel supersymmetry in 2-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find a novel supersymmetry in 2-dimensional Maxwell and Yang-Mills theories. Using this supersymmetry, it is shown that the 2-dimensional Euclidean pure gauge theory on a closed Riemann surface Σ can be reduced to a topological field theory which is the 3-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theory in the special space-time topology Σ x R. Related problems are also discussed. (author)
Algebra of constraints for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The second-order canonical vierbein formalism for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity is constructed. This is done by starting from the first-order canonical-covariant formalism on a group manifold previously developed. The set of first-class constraints, which verify the constraint algebra, are explicitly computed and the extended Hamiltonian which generates the time evolution of the system is written
Algebra of constraints for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foussats, A.; Zandron, O. (Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad de Rosario Av., Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario, Argentina (AR))
1991-03-15
The second-order canonical vierbein formalism for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity is constructed. This is done by starting from the first-order canonical-covariant formalism on a group manifold previously developed. The set of first-class constraints, which verify the constraint algebra, are explicitly computed and the extended Hamiltonian which generates the time evolution of the system is written.
Picard-Fuchs Ordinary Differential Systems in N=2 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theories
Ohta, Yuji
1998-01-01
In general, Picard-Fuchs systems in N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories are realized as a set of simultaneous partial differential equations. However, if the QCD scale parameter is used as unique independent variable instead of moduli, the resulting Picard-Fuchs systems are represented by a single ordinary differential equation (ODE) whose order coincides with the total number of independent periods. This paper discusses some properties of these Picard-Fuchs ODEs. In contrast with the usua...
Picard-Fuchs Equations and Prepotential in N=2 Supersymmetric G_{2} Yang-Mills Theory
Ito, Katsushi
1997-01-01
We study the low-energy effective theory of N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with the exceptional gauge group $G_{2}$. We obtain the Picard-Fuchs equations for the $G_{2}$ spectral curve and compute multi-instanton contribution to the prepotential. We find that the spectral curve is consistent with the microscopic supersymmetric instanton calculus. It is also shown that $G_{2}$ hyperelliptic curve does not reproduce the microscopic result.
Quantum cosmological Friedman models with a Yang-Mills field and positive energy levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We prove the existence of a spectral resolution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation when the matter field is provided by a Yang-Mills field, with or without mass term, if the spatial geometry of the underlying spacetime is homothetic to R3. The energy levels of the resulting quantum model, i.e. the eigenvalues of the corresponding self-adjoint Hamiltonian with a pure point spectrum, are strictly positive.
Emergence of Yang Mills theory from the Non-Abelian Nambu Model
Escobar, C A
2016-01-01
The equivalence between the Non-Abelian Nambu model (NANM) and Yang Mills theory is proved, after demanding the Gauss laws at some initial time to the first one. Thereby, the Lorentz violation encoded into the constraint that defines the NANM is physically unobservable. As result, the Goldstone bosons in the NANM arising from the spontaneous symmetry breaking can be identified as the standard gauge fields.
Topological string models for the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss some aspects of the large N expansions of the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM2), and especially, clarify the geometrical meanings of the higher Casimirs. Based on these results we attempt to extend the Cordes-Moore-Ramgoolam topological string model describing the ordinary YM2 to those describing gYM2. The concept of 'deformed gravitational descendants' will be introduced for this purpose. (author)
On the string actions for the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories
Sugawara, Y
1996-01-01
We study the structures of partition functions of the large N generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM_2) by recasting the higher Casimirs. We clarify the appropriate interpretations of them and try to extend the Cordes-Moore-Ramgoolam's topological string model describing the ordinary YM_2 \\cite{CMR} to those describing gYM_2. The concept of ''deformed gravitational descendants'' will be introduced for this purpose.
Ward-Takahashi identity for Yang-Mills theory in the Exact Renormalization Group
Igarashi, Yuji; Itoh, Katsumi; Sonoda, Hidenori
2008-01-01
We give a functional derivation of the Ward-Takahashi identity for Yang-Mills theory in the framework of the exact renormalization group. The identity realizes non-abelian gauge symmetry nontrivially despite the presence of a momentum cutoff. The cutoff deforms the gauge transformation by introducing composite operators. In our functional method, which is an extension of the method used in our previous work on QED, these composite operators are expressed in terms of the Wilson action that dep...
The Infrared Behaviour of the Pure Yang-Mills Green Functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the infrared properties of the pure Yang-Mills correlators and discuss recent results concerning the two classes of low-momentum solutions for them reported in literature, i. e. decoupling and scaling solutions. We will mainly focus on the Landau gauge and pay special attention to the results inferred from the analysis of the Dyson-Schwinger equations of the theory and from 'quenched' lattice QCD. The results obtained from properly interplaying both approaches are strongly emphasized. (author)
A solution to the non-linear equations of D=10 super Yang-Mills theory
Mafra, Carlos R
2015-01-01
In this letter, we present a formal solution to the non-linear field equations of ten-dimensional super Yang--Mills theory. It is assembled from products of linearized superfields which have been introduced as multiparticle superfields in the context of superstring perturbation theory. Their explicit form follows recursively from the conformal field theory description of the gluon multiplet in the pure spinor superstring. Furthermore, superfields of higher mass dimensions are defined and their equations of motion spelled out.
Relating Gribov-Zwanziger theory and Yang-Mills theory in Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism
Upadhyay, Sudhaker
2011-01-01
We consider the BRST invariant Gribov-Zwanziger theory with appropriate horizon term in Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. The usual infinitesimal BRST transformation is generalized by considering the parameter finite and field dependent. We show that such finite field dependent BRST transformation with suitable choice of finite parameter relates the generating functional of Gribov-Zwanziger theory to that of the Yang-Mills theory.
Asymptotically flat, stable black hole solutions in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory.
Brihaye, Yves; Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D H
2011-02-18
We construct finite mass, asymptotically flat black hole solutions in d=5 Einstein-Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. Our results indicate the existence of a second order phase transition between Reissner-Nordström solutions and the non-Abelian black holes which generically are thermodynamically preferred. Some of the non-Abelian configurations are also stable under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations. PMID:21405506
Phase transitions of an anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma via holography
Banks, Elliot
2016-01-01
Black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity were previously found that are dual to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with an anisotropic spatial deformation. In the zero temperature limit, these black holes approach a Liftshitz like scaling solution in the IR. It was recently shown that these black holes are unstable, and at low temperatures there is a new class of black hole solutions that are thermodynamically preferred. We extend this analysis, by considering consistent truncations of...
Simplifying amplitudes in Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravities
Chiodaroli, Marco
2016-01-01
This article reviews recent progress in formulating double-copy constructions for scattering amplitudes in supergravity theories with N=2 supersymmetry in five and four spacetime dimensions. Particular attention is devoted to infinite families of Maxwell-Einstein theories with symmetric and homogeneous target spaces and to Yang-Mills-Einstein theories with compact gauge groups. Extension of the construction to theories with spontaneously-broken gauge symmetry is also discussed.
Evidence for fractional topological charge in SU(2) pure Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the spectral flows of the hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator in the fundamental and adjoint representations on two ensembles of pure SU(2) gauge field configurations at the same physical volume. We find several background gauge field configurations where the index of the hermitian Wilson-Dirac operator in the adjoint representation is not four times the index in the fundamental representation. This could imply a topological basis for the existence of degenerate vacua in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories
PP-wave string interactions from perturbative Yang-Mills theory
Constable, N R; Headrick, M; Minwalla, S; Motl, L; Postnikov, A; Skiba, W; Constable, Neil R.; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Headrick, Matthew; Minwalla, Shiraz; Motl, Lubos; Postnikov, Alexander; Skiba, Witold
2002-01-01
Recently, Berenstein et al. have proposed a duality between a sector of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory with large R-charge J, and string theory in a pp-wave background. In the limit considered, the effective 't Hooft coupling has been argued to be lambda'=g_{YM}^2 N/J^2=1/(mu p^+ alpha')^2. We study Yang-Mills theory at small lambda' (large mu) with a view to reproducing string interactions. We demonstrate that the effective genus counting parameter of the Yang-Mills theory is g_2^2=J^4/N^2=(4 pi g_s)^2 (mu p^+ alpha')^4, the effective two-dimensional Newton constant for strings propagating on the pp-wave background. We identify g_2 sqrt{lambda'} as the effective coupling between a wide class of excited string states on the pp-wave background. We compute the anomalous dimensions of BMN operators at first order in g_2^2 and lambda' and interpret our result as the genus one mass renormalization of the corresponding string state. We postulate a relation between the three-string vertex function and the gauge theory ...
Effective metrics in the non-minimal Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We formulate a self-consistent non-minimal five-parameter Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs (EYMH) model and analyse it in terms of effective (associated, color and color-acoustic) metrics. We use a formalism of constitutive tensors in order to reformulate master equations for the gauge, scalar and gravitational fields and reconstruct in the algebraic manner the so-called associated metrics for the Yang-Mills field. Using WKB-approximation we find color metrics for the Yang-Mills field and color-acoustic metric for the Higgs field in the framework of five-parameter EYMH model. Based on explicit representation of these effective metrics for the EYMH system with uniaxial symmetry, we consider cosmological applications for Bianchi-I, FLRW and de Sitter models. We focus on the analysis of the obtained expressions for velocities of propagation of longitudinal and transversal color and color-acoustic waves in a (quasi)vacuum interacting with curvature; we show that curvature coupling results in time variations of these velocities. We show, that the effective metrics can be regular or can possess singularities depending on the choice of the parameters of non-minimal coupling in the cosmological models under discussion. We consider a physical interpretation of such singularities in terms of phase velocities of color and color-acoustic waves, using the terms 'wave stopping' and 'trapped surface'
Supercurrent and the Adler-Bardeen theorem in coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By the Adler-Bardeen theorem, only one-loop Feynman diagrams contribute to the anomalous divergences of quantum axial currents. The anomalous nature of scale transformations is manifested by an anomalous trace of the energy-momentum tensor, T/sup μ//sub μ/. Renormalization group arguments show that the quantum T/sup μ//sub μ/ must be proportional to the β-function. Since the β-function receives contributions at all loop levels, the Adler-Bardeen theorem appears to conflict with supersymmetry. Recently Grisaru, Milewski and Zanon constructed a supersymmetric axial current for pure supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory which satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem to two-loops. They used supersymmetric background field theory and regularization by dimensional reduction to maintain manifest supersymmetry and gauge invariance. In this thesis, their construction is extended to supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to chiral matter fields. The Adler-Bardeen theorem is then proven to all orders in perturbation theory for both the pure and coupled theories. The extension to coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills supports the general validity of these techniques, and adds considerable insight into the structure of the anomalies. The all orders proof demonstrates that there is no conflict between supersymmetry and the Adler-Bardeen theorem
Singular solutions of Yang-Mills equations and bag model
Lunev, F. A.; Pavlovsky, O. V.
1996-01-01
A model of quark confinement based on a singular solution of classical YM equation is proposed. Within the framework of this model we have calculated hadron masses that correspond to ground state configurations of quarks. Our results are in agreement with the experiment data with accuracy 3-7 percents for all hadronic masses except those of light pseudoscalar mesons.
Singular solutions of Yang-Mills equations and bag model
Lunev, F A
1996-01-01
A model of quark confinement based on a singular solution of classical YM equation is proposed. Within the framework of this model we have calculated hadron masses that correspond to ground state configurations of a quark. Our results are in agreement with the experiment data with accuracy 3-7 percents for all hadronic masses except those of light pseudoscalar mesons.
Pitts, J Brian
2016-01-01
Classical and quantum field theory provide not only realistic examples of extant notions of empirical equivalence, but also new notions of empirical equivalence, both modal and occurrent. A simple but modern gravitational case goes back to the 1890s, but there has been apparently total neglect of the simplest relativistic analog, with the result that an erroneous claim has taken root that Special Relativity could not have accommodated gravity even if there were no bending of light. The fairly recent acceptance of nonzero neutrino masses shows that widely neglected possibilities for nonzero particle masses have sometimes been vindicated. In the electromagnetic case, there is permanent underdetermination at the classical and quantum levels between Maxwell's theory and the one-parameter family of Proca's electromagnetisms with massive photons, which approximate Maxwell's theory in the limit of zero photon mass. While Yang-Mills theories display similar approximate equivalence classically, quantization typically ...
Structure constants of β deformed super Yang-Mills
David, Justin R.; Sadhukhan, Abhishake
2013-10-01
We study the structure constants of the beta deformed theory perturbatively and at strong coupling. We show that the planar one loop corrections to the structure constants of single trace gauge invariant operators in the scalar sector is determined by the anomalous dimension Hamiltonian. This result implies that 3 point functions of the chiral primaries of the theory do not receive corrections at one loop. We then studythe structure constants at strong coupling using the Lunin-Maldacena geometry. We explicitly construct the supergravity mode dual to the chiral primary with three equal U(1) R-charges in the Lunin-Maldacena geometry. We show that the 3 point function of this supergravity mode with semi-classical states representing two other similar chiral primary states but with large U(1) charges to be independent of the beta deformation and identical to that found in the AdS 5 × S 5 geometry. This together with the one-loop result indicate that these structure constants are protected by a non-renormalization theorem. We also show that three point function of U(1) R-currents with classical massive strings is proportional to the R-charge carried by the string solution. This is in accordance with the prediction of the R-symmetry Ward identity.
The Confinement Mechanism in Yang-Mills Theory?
Magpantay, J A
1999-01-01
Using the recently proposed non-linear gauge condition, we show the area law behavior of the Wilson loop and the linear dependence of the instantaneous gluon propagator. The field configurations responsible for confinement are those in the non-linear sector of the gauge-fixing condition (the linear sector being the Coulomb gauge). The non-linear sector is actually composed of "Gribov horizons" on the surfaces parallel to the Coulomb surface. In this sector, the gauge field can be expressed in terms of a scalar field and a new vector field. The effective dynamics of the scalar field suggests non-perturbative effects. This was confirmed by showing that all spherically symmetric (in 4-D Euclidean) scalar fields are classical solutions and averaging these solutions using a qaussian distribution (thereby treating these fields as random) lead to confinement. In essence the confinement mechanism is not quantum mechanical in nature but simply a statistical treatment of classical spherically symmetric fields on the "h...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Romano-Aportela
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Se analizan las interacciones electromagnéticas y nucleares débiles utilizando el principio fundamental de simetría en espacios abstractos denominados teoría de campos de Yang-Mills, también conocidos como campos de norma (gauge fields y el mecanismo de Higgs. Los campos de norma actúan como mediadores de las interacciones, cuyo alcance está determinado de manera directa por la masa. Por este motivo los campos de norma se unen al mecanismo de Higgs que genera masa a los portadores de las interacciones, manteniendo la teoría invariante bajo una transformación de norma. Esto se logra a través de un rompimiento espontaneo de simetría para finalmente aplicar esta metodología con la finalidad de unificar las teorías de las interacciones considerando el modelo estándar de Weinberg-Salam.The electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions are analyzed using the fundamental principle of symmetry in abstract spaces named theory of Yang-Mills fields, also known as gauge fields, and Higgs's mechanism. Gauge fields are mediators of interactions, whose scope is determined directly by the mass. For this reason, gauge fields are joined with the Higgs mechanism that generates mass to the interaction carriers, maintaining the invariant theory under a gauge transformation. This is achieved through spontaneous symmetry breaking to finally applying this methodology in order to unify the theories of interactions considering the Weinberg-Salam standard model.
Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju
2013-01-01
Anisotropic flow coefficients v1-v5 in heavy ion collisions are computed by combining a classical Yang-Mills description of the early time Glasma flow with the subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution of matter through the quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas phases. The Glasma dynamics, as realized in the impact parameter dependent Glasma (IP-Glasma) model, takes into account event-by-event geometric fluctuations in nucleon positions and intrinsic subnucleon scale color charge fluctuations; the preequilibrium flow of matter is then matched to the music algorithm describing viscous hydrodynamic flow and particle production at freeze-out. The IP-Glasma+MUSIC model describes well both transverse momentum dependent and integrated vn data measured at the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The model also reproduces the event-by-event distributions of v2, v3 and v4 measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. The implications of our results for better understanding of the dynamics of the Glasma and for the extraction of transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma are outlined.
Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju
2012-01-01
Anisotropic flow coefficients v_1-v_5 in heavy ion collisions are computed by combining a classical Yang-Mills description of the early time glasma flow with the subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution of matter through the quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas phases. The glasma dynamics, as realized in the IP-Glasma model, takes into account event-by-event geometric fluctuations in nucleon positions and intrinsic sub-nucleon scale color charge fluctuations; the pre-equilibrium flow of matter is then matched to the MUSIC algorithm describing viscous hydrodynamic flow and particle production at freeze-out. The IP-Glasma+MUSIC model describes well both transverse momentum dependent and integrated v_n data measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The model also reproduces the event-by-event distributions of v_2, v_3 and v_4 measured by the ATLAS collaboration. The implications of our results for better understanding of the dynamics of the glasma as w...
Reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kato, Seikou [Fukui National College of Technology, Sabae 916-8507 (Japan); Shibata, Akihiro [Computing Research Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)
2016-01-22
We propose the reformulations of the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap. In fact, we have given a new framework for reformulating the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory using new field variables. This includes the preceding works given by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi, as a special case called the maximal option in our reformulations. The advantage of our reformulations is that the original non-Abelian gauge field variables can be changed into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. Our reformulations can be combined with the SU (N) extension of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator to give a gauge-invariant definition for the magnetic monopole in the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory without the scalar field. In the so-called minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole with the stability group U (N− 1). This suggests the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement. This should be compared with the maximal option: the restricted field is Abelian and involves only the Abelian magnetic monopoles with the stability group U(1){sup N−1}, just like the Abelian projection. We give some applications of this reformulation, e.g., the stability for the homogeneous chromomagnetic condensation of the Savvidy type, the large N treatment for deriving the dimensional transmutation and understanding the mass gap, and also the numerical simulations on a lattice which are given by Dr. Shibata in a subsequent talk.
Reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2016-01-01
We propose the reformulations of the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap. In fact, we have given a new framework for reformulating the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory using new field variables. This includes the preceding works given by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi, as a special case called the maximal option in our reformulations. The advantage of our reformulations is that the original non-Abelian gauge field variables can be changed into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. Our reformulations can be combined with the SU (N) extension of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator to give a gauge-invariant definition for the magnetic monopole in the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory without the scalar field. In the so-called minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole with the stability group U (N- 1). This suggests the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement. This should be compared with the maximal option: the restricted field is Abelian and involves only the Abelian magnetic monopoles with the stability group U(1)N-1, just like the Abelian projection. We give some applications of this reformulation, e.g., the stability for the homogeneous chromomagnetic condensation of the Savvidy type, the large N treatment for deriving the dimensional transmutation and understanding the mass gap, and also the numerical simulations on a lattice which are given by Dr. Shibata in a subsequent talk.
Reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose the reformulations of the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory toward quark confinement and mass gap. In fact, we have given a new framework for reformulating the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory using new field variables. This includes the preceding works given by Cho, Faddeev and Niemi, as a special case called the maximal option in our reformulations. The advantage of our reformulations is that the original non-Abelian gauge field variables can be changed into the new field variables such that one of them called the restricted field gives the dominant contribution to quark confinement in the gauge-independent way. Our reformulations can be combined with the SU (N) extension of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator to give a gauge-invariant definition for the magnetic monopole in the SU (N) Yang-Mills theory without the scalar field. In the so-called minimal option, especially, the restricted field is non-Abelian and involves the non-Abelian magnetic monopole with the stability group U (N− 1). This suggests the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement. This should be compared with the maximal option: the restricted field is Abelian and involves only the Abelian magnetic monopoles with the stability group U(1)N−1, just like the Abelian projection. We give some applications of this reformulation, e.g., the stability for the homogeneous chromomagnetic condensation of the Savvidy type, the large N treatment for deriving the dimensional transmutation and understanding the mass gap, and also the numerical simulations on a lattice which are given by Dr. Shibata in a subsequent talk
Instanton Calculus, Topological Field Theories and N=2 Super Yang-Mills Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results obtained by Seiberg and Witten for the low-energy Wilsonian effective actions of N=2 supersymmetric theories with gauge group SU(2) are in agreement with instanton computations carried out for winding numbers one and two. This suggests that the instanton saddle point saturates the non-perturbative contribution to the functional integral. A natural framework in which corrections to this approximation are absent is given by the topological field theory built out of the N=2 Super Yang-Mills theory. After extending the standard construction of the Topological Yang-Mills theory to encompass the case of a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value for the scalar field, a BRST transformation is defined (as a supersymmetry plus a gauge variation), which on the instanton moduli space is the exterior derivative. The topological field theory approach makes the so-called constrained instanton'' configurations and the instanton measure arise in a natural way. As a consequence, instanton-dominated Green's functions in N=2 Super Yang-Mills can be equivalently computed either using the constrained instanton method or making reference to the topological twisted version of the theory. We explicitly compute the instanton measure and the contribution to u=2> for winding numbers one and two. We then show that each non-perturbative contribution to the N=2 low-energy effective action can be written as the integral of a total derivative of a function of the instanton moduli. Only instanton configurations of zero conformal size contribute to this result. Finally, the 8k-dimensional instanton moduli space is built using the hyperkahler quotient procedure, which clarifies the geometrical meaning of our approach. (author)
Fifty years of Yang-Mills Theories: a phenomenological point of view
De Rújula, Alvaro
2005-01-01
On the occasion of the celebration of the first half-century of Yang--Mills theories, I am contributing a personal recollection of how the subject, in its early times, confronted physical reality, that is, its "phenomenology". There is nothing original in this work, except, perhaps, my own points of view. But I hope that the older practitioners of the field will find here grounds for nostalgia, or good reasons to disagree with me. Younger addicts may learn that history does not resemble at all what is reflected in current textbooks: it was orders of magnitude more fascinating.
Loop lessons from Wilson loops in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
Anastasiou, Charalampos(Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, 8093, Switzerland); Banfi, Andrea
2011-01-01
N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory exhibits a rather surprising duality of Wilson-loop vacuum expectation values and scattering amplitudes. In this paper, we investigate this correspondence at the diagram level. We find that one-loop triangles, one-loop boxes, and two-loop diagonal boxes can be cast as simple one- and two- parametric integrals over a single propagator in configuration space. We observe that the two-loop Wilson-loop "hard-diagram" corresponds to a four-loop hexagon Feynman d...
Two-Loop Iteration of Five-Point ${\\cal N}=4$ Super-Yang-Mills Amplitudes
Bern, Z.; Czakon, M.; Kosower, David,; Roiban, R.; Smirnov, V.A.
2006-01-01
URL: http://www-spht.cea.fr/articles/T06/032 http://fr.arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0604074 International audience We confirm by explicit computation the conjectured all-orders iteration of planar maximally supersymmetric ${\\cal N}=4$ Yang-Mills theory in the nontrivial case of five-point two-loop amplitudes. We compute the required unitarity cuts of the integrand and evaluate the resulting integrals numerically using a Mellin--Barnes representation and the automated package of M.~Czakon (hep-p...
Extension of Self-Dual Yang-Mills equations across the 8th dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors introduce a class of elliptic generalized Einstein equations adapting the Self-Dual and Anti-Self-Dual Yang-Mills equations to oriented Riemannian 8-manifolds (X8, gij) with the virtual dimension of the Moduli space of solutions given by [written equation]. The authors construct on S8 a 9-dimensional moduli space M(S8) congruent B9 of soliton-like solutions given as the translates of the Levi-Civita connection by arbitrary conformal transformations. Existence is shown on any Einstein manifold. Proposed extension to all even dimensions is sketched
Screening in strongly coupled N=2* supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma
Hoyos, Carlos; Yaffe, Laurence G
2011-01-01
Using gauge-gravity duality, we extend thermodynamic studies and present results for thermal screening masses in strongly coupled N=2* supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This non-conformal theory is a mass deformation of maximally supersymmetric N=4 gauge theory. Results are obtained for the entropy density, pressure, specific heat, equation of state, and screening masses, down to previously unexplored low temperatures. The temperature dependence of screening masses in various symmetry channels, which characterize the longest length scales over which thermal fluctuations in the non-Abelian plasma are correlated, is examined and found to be asymptotically linear in the low temperature regime.
The Hamiltonian analysis for Yang-Mills theory on RxS2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pure Yang-Mills theory on RxS2 is analyzed in a gauge-invariant Hamiltonian formalism. Using a suitable coordinatization for the sphere and a gauge-invariant matrix parametrization for the gauge potentials, we develop the Hamiltonian formalism in a manner that closely parallels previous analysis on R3. The volume measure on the physical configuration space of the gauge theory, the nonperturbative mass-gap and the leading term of the vacuum wave functional are discussed using a point-splitting regularization. All the results carry over smoothly to known results on R3 in the limit in which the sphere is de-compactified to a plane.
Gauge invariant variables and the Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Hamiltonian analysis of Yang-Mills (YM) theory in (2+1) dimensions with a level k Chern-Simons term is carried out using a gauge invariant matrix parametrization of the potentials. The gauge boson states are constructed and the contribution of the dynamical mass gap to the gauge boson mass is obtained. Long distance properties of vacuum expectation values are related to a Euclidean two-dimensional YM theory coupled to k flavors of Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation. We also discuss the expectation value of the Wilson loop operator and give a comparison with previous results
Large N universality of the two-dimensional Yang-Mills string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We exhibit the gauge-group independence (''universality'') of all normalized non-intersecting Wilson loop expectation values in the large N limit of two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. This universality is most easily understood via the string theory reformulation of these gauge theories. By constructing an isomorphism between the string maps contributing to normalized Wilson loop expectation values in the different theories, we prove the large N universality of these observables on any surface. The string calculation of the Wilson loop expectation value on the sphere also leads to an indication of the large N phase transition separating strong- and weak-coupling phases. (orig.)
Non-Abelian Meissner Effect in Yang--Mills Theories at Weak Coupling
Gorsky, A.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A
2004-01-01
We present a weak-coupling Yang--Mills model supporting non-Abelian magnetic flux tubes and non-Abelian confined magnetic monopoles. In the dual description the magnetic flux tubes are prototypes of the QCD strings. Dualizing the confined magnetic monopoles we get gluelumps which convert a "QCD string" in the excited state to that in the ground state. Introducing a mass parameter m we discover a phase transition between the Abelian and non-Abelian confinement at a critical value m=m_* of orde...
Resolving temporal Gribov copies in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory
Reinhardt, Hugo
2008-01-01
The continuum Yang-Mills functional integral within the first order formalism and in Coulomb gauge is studied. In particular, the temporal zero-modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator are explicitly accounted for. It is shown that the treatment of these zero-modes results in the constraint that the total color charge of the system vanishes at all times. Further, it is argued that the functional integral is effectively fully gauge-fixed once Gauss' law has been resolved in Coulomb gauge.
The (confinement) structure of Yang-Mills-theories within a Bose-BCS-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is the purpose of this talk to report on a first attempt to apply (non-perturbative) techniques of many-body theory to a field-theory of the Yang-Mills-type. The procedure is in principle analogous to lattice calculations: In order to make the field-theoretical hamiltonian a well-behaved operator in the Fock-space, a phasespace-cutoff is assumed for the definition of the field operators. The coupling constant g then becomes a function of this cutoff which is fixed by some physical property like a glue-ball mass. (orig./HSI)
(2,0)-Super-Yang-Mills coupled to non-linear σ-model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Considering a class of (2,0)-super yang-Mills multiplets that accommodate a pair of independent gauge potentials in connection with a single symmetry group, we present here their coupling to ordinary matter to non-linear σ-models in (2,0)-superspace. The dynamics and the coupling of the gauge potentials are discussed and the interesting feature that comes out is a sort of chirality for one of the gauge potentials are discussed and the interesting feature that comes out is a sort of chirality for one of the gauge potentials once light-cone coordinates are chosen. (author)
On the existence of dyons and dyonic black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
Nolan, Brien C.; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)
2012-01-01
We study dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the ${\\mathfrak {su}}(2)$ Einstein-Yang-Mills equations in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We prove the existence of non-trivial dyonic soliton and black hole solutions in a neighbourhood of the trivial solution. For these solutions the magnetic gauge field function has no zeros and we conjecture that at least some of these non-trivial solutions will be stable. The global existence proof uses local existence results and a non-linear per...
Towards the large N limit of pure Nu = 1 super Yang-Mills theory.
Maldacena, J; Nuñez, C
2001-01-22
We find the gravity solution corresponding to a large number of Neveu-Schwarz or D5-branes wrapped on a two sphere so that we have pure Nu = 1 super Yang-Mills in the IR. The supergravity solution is smooth, it shows confinement, and it breaks the U(1)(R) chiral symmetry in the appropriate way. When the gravity approximation is valid the masses of glueballs are comparable to the masses of Kaluza-Klein (KK) states on the 5-brane, but if we could quantize strings on this background it looks like we should be able to decouple the KK states. PMID:11177888
Unified theory of gravitation, electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recent modification and extension of Einstein's nonsymmetric unified field theory for gravitation and electromagnetism is generalized to include the Yang-Mills field theory. The generalization consists in assuming that the components of the linear connection and of the fundamental tensor are not ordinary c numbers but are matrices related to some unitary symmetry. As an example we consider the SU(2) case. The theory is applied to the gauge-covariant formulation of electrically and isotopically charged spin-1/2 field theories
The state equation of Yang-Mills field dark energy models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we study the possibility of building Yang-Mills (YM) field dark energy models with equation of state (EoS) crossing -1, and find that it cannot be realized by the single YM field models, no matter what kind of Lagrangian or initial condition. But the states of -1 -1 to <-1, and it will go to the critical state of ω = -1 with the expansion of the universe, which character is the same as the single YM field models, and the big rip is naturally avoided
Cut-and-join operators and N=4 super Yang-Mills
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, T.W. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2010-02-15
We show which multi-trace structures are compatible with the symmetrisation of local operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills when they are organised into representations of the global symmetry group. Cut-and-join operators give the non-planar expansion of correlation functions of these operators in the free theory. Using these techniques we find the 1/N corrections to the quarter-BPS operators which remain protected at weak coupling. We also present a new way of counting these chiral ring operators using the Weyl group S{sub N}. (orig.)
On the String Actions for the Generalized Two-dimensional Yang-Mills Theories
Sugawara, Yuji
1996-01-01
We study the structures of partition functions of the large $N$ generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories ($gYM_2$) by recasting the higher Casimirs. We clarify the appropriate interpretations of them and try to extend the Cordes-Moore-Ramgoolam's topological string model describing the ordinary $YM_2$ \\cite{CMR} to those describing $gYM_2$. We present the expressions of the appropriate operators to reproduce the higher Casimir terms in $gYM_2$. The concept of ''deformed gravitational d...
Cut-and-join operators and N=4 super Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show which multi-trace structures are compatible with the symmetrisation of local operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills when they are organised into representations of the global symmetry group. Cut-and-join operators give the non-planar expansion of correlation functions of these operators in the free theory. Using these techniques we find the 1/N corrections to the quarter-BPS operators which remain protected at weak coupling. We also present a new way of counting these chiral ring operators using the Weyl group SN. (orig.)
An algebraic proof on the finiteness of Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in D = 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A rigorous algebraic proof of the full finiteness in all orders of perturbation theory is given for the Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in a general three-dimensional Riemannian manifold. We show the validity of a trace identify, playing the role of a local form of the Callan-Symanzik equation, in all loop orders, which yields the vanishing of the β-functions associated to the topological mass and gauge coupling constant as well as the anomalous dimensions of the fields. (author)
From decay to complete breaking: pulling the strings in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.
Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J
2009-05-15
We study {2Q+1} strings connecting two static charges Q in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. While the fundamental {2} string between two charges Q=1/2 is unbreakable, the adjoint {3} string connecting two charges Q=1 can break. When a {4} string is stretched beyond a critical length, it decays into a {2} string by gluon pair creation. When a {5} string is stretched, it first decays into a {3} string, which eventually breaks completely. The energy of the screened charges at the ends of a string is well described by a phenomenological constituent gluon model. PMID:19518940
4D N = 1 SUPERSYMMETRIC YANG-MILLS THEORIES ON KAHLER-RICCI SOLITON
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bobby Eka Gunara
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this study we consider four dimensional N = 1 supersymmetric gauge Yang-Mills theory whose complex scalar manifold is Kahler and deforms with respect to a real parameter. The deformation of the geometry is governed by Kahler-Ricci flow equation. This setup implies that some couplings such as shifting quantities, momentum maps and the scalar potential turn out to be evolved with respect to the flow parameter. We also discuss deformation of vacuum structures of the theory in the context of Morse theory.
Yang-Mills configurations from 3D Riemann-Cartan geometry
Mielke, E W; Hehl, F W
1994-01-01
Recently, the {\\it spacelike} part of the SU(2) Yang--Mills equations has been identified with geometrical objects of a three--dimensional space of constant Riemann--Cartan curvature. We give a concise derivation of this Ashtekar type (``inverse Kaluza--Klein") {\\it mapping} by employing a (3+1)--decomposition of {\\it Clifford algebra}--valued torsion and curvature two--forms. In the subcase of a mapping to purely axial 3D torsion, the corresponding Lagrangian consists of the translational and Lorentz {\\it Chern--Simons term} plus cosmological term and is therefore of purely topological origin.
A Curious truncation of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The coupling constant dependence of correlation functions of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield operators in the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be expressed in terms of integrated correlation functions. We approximate these integrated correlators by using a truncated operator product expansion. This leads to differential equations for the coupling dependence. When applied to a particular 16 point correlator, the coupling dependence we find agrees with the corresponding amplitude computed via the gauge theory/string theory correspondence. We conjecture that this truncation becomes exact in the large N and large 't Hooft coupling limit
A BRST gauge-fixing procedure for Yang-Mills theory on sphere
Banerjee, Rabin; Deguchi, Shinichi
2005-01-01
A gauge-fixing procedure for the Yang-Mills theory on an n-dimensional sphere (or a hypersphere) is discussed in a systematic manner. We claim that Adler's gauge-fixing condition used in massless Euclidean QED on a hypersphere is not conventional because of the presence of an extra free index, and hence is unfavorable for the gauge-fixing procedure based on the BRST invariance principle (or simply BRST gauge-fixing procedure). Choosing a suitable gauge condition, which is proved to be equival...
Adler-Bardeen theorem in coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports on the supercurrent and a supersymmetric current which satisfies the Adler-Bardeen (A-B) theorem in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to non-self interacting chiral matter. Preserving supersymmetry and gauge invariance explicitly, the authors verify the finiteness of the supercurrent to one loop, and A-B theorem to two loops by explicit calculations in the minimal-subtraction scheme. The authors demonstrate the subtraction-scheme independence of the one-loop anomaly and prove the existence of a subtraction scheme in which A-B theorem is satisfied to all orders in perturbation theory
Supersymmetric Adler-Bardeen anomaly in N=1 super-Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We provide a study of the supersymmetric Adler-Bardeen anomaly in the N=1, d=4,6,10 super-Yang-Mills theories. We work in the component formalism that includes shadow fields, for which Slavnov-Taylor identities can be independently set for both gauge invariance and supersymmetry. We find a method with improved descent equations for getting the solutions of the consistency conditions of both Slavnov-Taylor identities and finding the local field polynomials for the standard Adler-Bardeen anomaly and its supersymmetric counterpart. We give the explicit solution for the ten-dimensional case
BPS Equations in Omega-deformed N=4 Super Yang-Mills Theory
Ito, Katsushi; Nakajima, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Shin
2015-01-01
We study supersymmetry of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions deformed in the Omega-background. We take the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the background so that two-dimensional super Poincare symmetry is recovered. We compute the deformed central charge of the superalgebra and study the 1/2 and 1/4 BPS states. We obtain the Omega-deformed 1/2 and 1/4 BPS dyon equations from the deformed supersymmetry transformation and the Bogomol'nyi completion of the energy.
Generic multiloop methods and application to N=4 super-Yang-Mills
Carrasco, John Joseph M
2011-01-01
We review some recent additions to the tool-chest of techniques for finding compact integrand representations of multiloop gauge-theory amplitudes - including non-planar contributions - applicable for N=4 super-Yang-Mills in four and higher dimensions, as well as for theories with less supersymmetry. We discuss a general organization of amplitudes in terms of purely cubic graphs, review the method of maximal cuts, as well as some special D-dimensional recursive cuts, and conclude by describing the efficient organization of amplitudes resulting from the conjectured duality between color and kinematic structures on constituent graphs.
Local integrands for two-loop all-plus Yang-Mills amplitudes
Badger, Simon; Peraro, Tiziano
2016-01-01
We express the planar five- and six-gluon two-loop Yang-Mills amplitudes with all positive helicities in compact analytic form using D-dimensional local integrands that are free of spurious singularities. The integrand is fixed from on-shell tree amplitudes in six dimensions using D-dimensional generalised unitarity cuts. The resulting expressions are shown to have manifest infrared behaviour at the integrand level. We also find simple representations of the rational terms obtained after integration in 4-2epsilon dimensions.
$ \\mathcal{N} $ = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS 3
Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Gabriele Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli(School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley W.A. 6009, Australia)
2014-01-01
For all types of $ \\mathcal{N} $ = 4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly $ \\mathcal{N} $ = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The $ \\mathcal{N} $ = 4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS sup...
Infrared behavior of three-point functions in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analytic solutions for the three-gluon and ghost-gluon vertices in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory at low momenta are presented in terms of hypergeometric series. They do not only show the expected scaling behavior but also additional kinematic divergences when only one momentum goes to zero. These singularities, which have also been proposed previously, induce a strong dependence on the kinematics in many dressing functions. The results are generalized to two and three dimensions and a range of values for the ghost propagator's infrared exponent κ. (orig.)
Wilson punctured network defects in 2D q-deformed Yang-Mills theory
Watanabe, Noriaki
2016-01-01
In the context of class S theories and 4D/2D duality relations there, we discuss the skein relations of general topological defects on the 2D side which are expected to be counterparts of composite surface-line operators in 4D class S theory. Such defects are geometrically interpreted as networks in a three dimensional space. We also propose a conjectural computational procedure for such defects in two dimensional SU(N) topological q-deformed Yang-Mills theory by interpreting it as a statistical mechanical system associated with ideal triangulations.
Notes on the Hamiltonian formulation of 3D Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory is investigated in the Hamiltonian formalism based on the Karabali-Nair variable. A new algorithm is developed to obtain the renormalized Hamiltonian by identifying local counterterms in Lagrangian with the use of fictitious holomorphic symmetry existing in the framework with the KN variable. Our algorithm is totally algebraic and enables one to calculate the ground state wave functional recursively in gauge potentials. In particular, the Gaussian part thus calculated is shown to coincide with that obtained by Leigh et al. Higher-order corrections to the Gaussian part are also discussed
Notes on the Hamiltonian formulation of 3D Yang-Mills theory
Fukuma, Masafumi; Suyama, Takao
2008-01-01
Three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory is investigated in the Hamiltonian formalism based on the Karabali-Nair variable. A new algorithm is developed to obtain the renormalized Hamiltonian by identifying local counterterms in Lagrangian with the use of fictitious holomorphic symmetry existing in the framework with the KN variable. Our algorithm is totally algebraic and enables one to calculate the ground state wave functional recursively in gauge potentials. In particular, the Gaussian part thus calculated is shown to coincide with that obtained by Leigh et al. Higher-order corrections to the Gaussian part are also discussed.
Twisted N=4 Super Yang-Mills Theory in Omega-background
Ito, Katsushi; Sasaki, Shin
2013-01-01
We study the twisted N=4 super Yang-Mills theories in the Omega-background with the constant R-symmetry Wilson line gauge field. Based on the classification of topological twists of N=4 supersymmetry (the half, the Vafa-Witten and the Marcus twists), we construct the deformed off-shell supersymmetry associated with the scalar supercharges for these twists. We find that the Omega-deformed action is written in the exact form with respect to the scalar supercharges as in the undeformed case.
Hermiticity and the cohomology condition in topological Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demers, J.G. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States))
1994-08-01
The symmetries of the topological Yang-Mills theory are studied in the Hamiltonian formalism and the generators of the twisted N=2 super Poincare algebra are explicitly constructed. Noting that the twisted Lorentz generators do not generate the Lorentz symmetry of the theory, the author relates the two by extracting from the latter the twisted version of the internal SU(2) generator. The hermiticity properties of the various generators are also considered throughout, and the booster generators are found to be non-hermitian. The author then recovers the BRST cohomology condition on physical states from representation theory arguments. 21 refs.
Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges
Pereira, A D; Sorella, S P
2016-01-01
In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a Refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in \\cite{Capri:2015ixa}. Finally, we give attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions.
Cut-and-join operators and N=4 super Yang-Mills
Brown, T W
2010-01-01
We show which multi-trace structures are compatible with the symmetrisation of local operators in \\cN=4 super Yang-Mills when they are organised into representations of the global symmetry group. Cut-and-join operators give the non-planar expansion of correlation functions of these operators in the free theory. Using these techniques we find the 1/N corrections to the quarter-BPS operators which remain protected at weak coupling. We also present a new way of counting these chiral ring operators using the Weyl group S_N.
The Five-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills Theory
Bern, Z; Johansson, H; Roiban, R
2012-01-01
Using the method of maximal cuts, we construct the complete D-dimensional integrand of the five-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including nonplanar contributions. In the critical dimension where this amplitude becomes ultraviolet divergent, we present a compact explicit expression for the nonvanishing ultraviolet divergence in terms of three vacuum integrals. This construction provides a crucial step towards obtaining the corresponding amplitude of N = 8 supergravity required to resolve the general ultraviolet behavior of supergravity theories.
Covariant Quantization of BFNC Super Yang-Mills Theories and Supergauge Invariance
Wang, Xu-Dong
2016-01-01
To construct renormalizable gauge model in Bosonic-Fermionic noncommutative (BFNC) superspace, we replace the ordinary products of super Yang-Mills model by BFNC star products. To study the renormalization property of the deformed action, we obtain the one-loop 1PI effective action by using background field method at the first order of BFNC parameters. We also verify the BFNC supergauge invariance of the effective action. Because there are new terms in effective action, the deformed action is not renormalizable. This imply that additional terms should be added to the deformed action.
Non-local 2D Generalized Yang-Mills theories on arbitrary surfaces with boundary
Saaidi, Khaled
2005-01-01
The non-local generalized two dimensional Yang Mills theories on an arbitrary orientable and non-orientable surfaces with boundaries is studied. We obtain the effective action of these theories for the case which the gauge group is near the identity, $U\\simeq I$. Furthermore, by obtaining the effective action at the large-N limit, it is shown that the phase structure of these theories is the same as that obtain for these theories on orientable and non-orientable surface without boundaries. It...
Kallen, Johan; Zabzine, Maxim
2012-01-01
Based on the construction by Hosomichi, Seong and Terashima we consider N=1 supersymmetric 5D Yang-Mills theory with matter on a five-sphere with radius r. This theory can be thought of as a deformation of the theory in flat space with deformation parameter r and this deformation preserves 8 supercharges. We calculate the full perturbative partition function as a function of r/g^2, where g is the Yang-Mills coupling, and the answer is given in terms of a matrix model. We perform the calculation using localization techniques. We also argue that in the large N-limit of this deformed 5D Yang-Mills theory this matrix model provides the leading contribution to the partition function and the rest is exponentially suppressed.
Dark Energy and Dark Matter from Yang-Mills Condensate and the Peccei-Quinn mechanism
Addazi, Andrea; Marcianò, Antonino
2016-01-01
The idea that Dark Energy originates from a Yang-Mills condensate has been so far instantiated relying on the asymptotically-free perturbative expansion of SU(N) gauge-theories. This procedure is more appropriate in the ultra-violet regime than in the infrared limit, since SU(N) Yang-Mills theories generically show confinement. We approach the problem from the point of view of the functional renormalization group, and ground our study on the properties of the effective Lagrangian, to be determined non-perturbatively. Under very mild assumptions, some of us \\cite{Dona:2015xia} have shown that if the effective Lagrangian has a minimum in the order parameter, YMC with equation of state $w_{\\rm YMC} =-1$ actually originates in the infrared limit. At large redshift, the YMC Dark Energy has an evolution governed by a radiation-like equation of state parameter, i.e. $w_{\\rm YMC} \\rightarrow 1/3$, while at most recent redshift, the universe evolves asymptotically towards an accelerated de Sitter phase. In the contest...
Canonical Yang-Mills field theory with invariant gauge-families
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A canonical Yang-Mills field theory with indefinite metric is presented on the basis of a covariant gauge formalism for quantum electrodynamics. As the first step of the formulation, a many-gauge-field problem, in which many massless Abelian-gauge fields coexist, is treated from a new standpoint. It is shown that only a single pair of a gaugeon field and its associated one can govern the gauge structure of the whole system. The result obtained is further extended to cases of non-Abelian gauge theories. Gauge parameters for respective components of the Yang-Mills fields are introduced as a group vector. There exists a q-number local gauge transformation which connects relevant fields belonging to the same invariant gauge family with one another in a manifestly covariant way. In canonical quantization, the Faddeev-Popov ghosts are introduced in order to guarantee the existence of a desirable physical subspace with positive semi-definite metric. As to treatment of the Faddeev-Popov ghosts, Kugo and Ojima's approach is adopted. Three supplementary conditions which are consistent with one another constrain the physical subspace. (author)
Some Evolution Hierarchies Derived from Self-dual Yang-Mills Equations
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We develop in this paper a new method to construct two explicit Lie algebras E and F. By using a loop algebra Ē of the Lie algebra E and the reduced self-dual Yang-Mills equations, we obtain an expanding integrable model of the Giachetti-Johnson (GJ) hierarchy whose Hamiltonian structure can also be derived by using the trace identity. This provides a much simpler construction method in comparing with the tedious variational identity approach. Furthermore, the nonlinear integrable coupling of the GJ hierarchy is readily obtained by introducing the Lie algebra gN. As an application, we apply the loop algebra E-tilde of the Lie algebra E to obtain a kind of expanding integrable model of the Kaup-Newell (KN) hierarchy which, consisting of two arbitrary parameters α and β, can be reduced to two nonlinear evolution equations. In addition, we use a loop algebra F of the Lie algebra F to obtain an expanding integrable model of the BT hierarchy whose Hamiltonian structure is the same as using the trace identity. Finally, we deduce five integrable systems in R3 based on the self-dual Yang-Mills equations, which include Poisson structures, irregular lines, and the reduced equations. (general)
The Yang-Mills heat semigroup on three-manifolds with boundary
Charalambous, Nelia
2010-01-01
Long time existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Yang-Mills heat equation is proven over a compact 3-manifold with smooth boundary. The initial data is taken to be a Lie algebra valued connection form in the Sobolev space $H_1$. Three kinds of boundary conditions are explored, Dirichlet type, Neumann type and Marini boundary conditions. The last is a nonlinear boundary condition, specified by setting the normal component of the curvature to zero on the boundary. The Yang-Mills heat equation is a weakly parabolic non-linear equation. We use a technique of Donaldson and Sadun to convert it to a parabolic equation and then gauge transform the solution of the parabolic equation back to a solution of the original equation. Apriori estimates are developed by first establishing a gauge invariant version of the Gaffney-Friedrichs inequality. A gauge invariant regularization procedure for solutions is also established. Uniqueness holds upon imposition of boundary conditions on only two of the three components of...
Instanton Calculus, Topological Field Theories and N = 2 Super Yang-Mills Theories
Bellisai, D; Tanzini, A; Travaglini, G; Bellisai, Diego; Fucito, Francesco; Tanzini, Alessandro; Travaglini, Gabriele
2000-01-01
The results obtained by Seiberg and Witten for the low-energy Wilsonian effective actions of N=2 supersymmetric theories with gauge group SU(2) are in agreement with instanton computations carried out for winding numbers one and two. This suggests that the instanton saddle point saturates the non-perturbative contribution to the functional integral. A natural framework in which corrections to this approximation are absent is given by the topological field theory built out of the N=2 Super Yang-Mills theory. After extending the standard construction of the Topological Yang-Mills theory to encompass the case of a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value for the scalar field, a BRST transformation is defined (as a supersymmetry plus a gauge variation), which on the instanton moduli space is the exterior derivative. The topological field theory approach makes the so-called "constrained instanton" configurations and the instanton measure arise in a natural way. As a consequence, instanton-dominated Green's functions...
Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with compressible quark matter
Faedo, Antón F.; Kundu, Arnab; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier
2016-03-01
We construct the gravity dual of three-dimensional, SU(N c) super Yang-Mills theory with N f flavors of dynamical quarks in the presence of a non-zero quark density N q. The supergravity solutions include the backreaction of N c color D2-branes and N f flavor D6-branes with N q units of electric flux on their worldvolume. For massless quarks, the solutions depend non-trivially only on the dimensionless combination ρ = N c 2 N q/ λ 2 N f 4 , with λ = g YM 2 N c the 't Hooft coupling, and describe renormalization group flows between the super Yang-Mills theory in the ultraviolet and a non-relativistic theory in the infrared. The latter is dual to a hyperscaling-violating, Lifshitz-like geometry with dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents z = 5 and θ = 1, respectively. If ρ ≪ 1 then at intermediate energies there is also an approximate AdS4 region, dual to a conformal Chern-Simons-Matter theory, in which the flow exhibits quasi-conformal dynamics. At zero temperature we compute the chemical potential and the equation of state and extract the speed of sound. At low temperature we compute the entropy density and extract the number of low-energy degrees of freedom. For quarks of non-zero mass M q the physics depends non-trivially on ρ and M q N c /λ N f.
Thermodynamics of SU(2) quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies
Hofmann, Ralf
2013-01-01
A brief review of effective SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field $\\phi$, based on non-propagating (anti)selfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We explain why the screening physics of an SU(2) photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2) photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planc...
Yangian symmetry of scattering amplitudes in Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory
Drummond, James; Henn, Johannes; Plefka, Jan
2009-05-01
Tree-level scattering amplitudes in Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory have recently been shown to transform covariantly with respect to a `dual' superconformal symmetry algebra, thus extending the conventional superconformal symmetry algebra psu(2,2|4) of the theory. In this paper we derive the action of the dual superconformal generators in on-shell superspace and extend the dual generators suitably to leave scattering amplitudes invariant. We then study the algebra of standard and dual symmetry generators and show that the inclusion of the dual superconformal generators lifts the psu(2,2|4) symmetry algebra to a Yangian. The non-local Yangian generators acting on amplitudes turn out to be cyclically invariant due to special properties of psu(2,2|4). The representation of the Yangian generators takes the same form as in the case of local operators, suggesting that the Yangian symmetry is an intrinsic property of planar Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills, at least at tree level.
Color/kinematics duality for general abelian orbifolds of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory
Chiodaroli, Marco; Roiban, Radu
2013-01-01
To explore color/kinematics duality for general representations of the gauge group we formulate the duality for general abelian orbifolds of the SU(N), N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions, which have fields in the bi-fundamental representation, and use it to construct explicitly complete four-vector and four-scalar amplitudes at one loop. For fixed number of supercharges, graph-organized L-loop n-point integrands of all orbifold theories are given in terms of a fixed set of polynomials labeled by L representations of the orbifold group. In contrast to the standard duality-satisfying presentation of amplitudes of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, each graph may appear several times with different internal states. The color and R-charge flow provide a way to deform the amplitudes of orbifold theories to those of more general quiver gauge theories which do not necessarily exhibit color/kinematics duality on their own. Based on the organization of amplitudes required by the duality between color and kin...
A unified field theory II: Gravity interacting with a Yang-Mills and Higgs field
Gerhardt, Claus
2016-01-01
We quantize the interaction of gravity with a Yang-Mills and Higgs field using canonical quantization. Similar to the approach in a previous paper we discard the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and express the Hamilton constraint by the evolution equation of the mean curvature of the hypersurfaces in the foliation defined by the Hamiltonian setting. Expressing the time derivative of the mean curvature with the help of the Poisson brackets the canonical quantization of this equation leads to a wave equation in $Q=(0,\\infty)\\times \\cal{S}_o$, where $\\cal{S}_o$ is one of the Cauchy hypersurfaces in the Hamiltonian setting. The wave equation describes the interaction of an arbitrary Riemannian metric in $\\cal{S}_o$ and a given Yang-Mills and Higgs field. If the metric is complete $Q$ is globally hyperbolic. In case $\\cal{S}_o$ is compact we also prove a spectral resolution of the wave equation and establish sufficient conditions guaranteeing a mass gap.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct the Clifford-space tensorial-gauge fields generalizations of Yang-Mills theories and the Standard Model that allows to predict the existence of new particles (bosons, fermions) and tensor-gauge fields of higher-spins in the 10 Tev regime. We proceed with a detailed discussion of the unique D 4 - D 5 - E 6 - E 7 - E 8 model of Smith based on the underlying Clifford algebraic structures in D = 8, and which furnishes all the properties of the Standard Model and Gravity in four-dimensions, at low energies. A generalization and extension of Smith's model to the full Clifford-space is presented when we write explicitly all the terms of the extended Clifford-space Lagrangian. We conclude by explaining the relevance of multiple-foldings of D = 8 dimensions related to the modulo 8 periodicity of the real Cliford algebras and display the interplay among Clifford, Division, Jordan, and Exceptional algebras, within the context of D = 26, 27, 28 dimensions, corresponding to bosonic string, M and F theory, respectively, advanced earlier by Smith. To finalize we describe explicitly how the E 8 x E 8 Yang-Mills theory can be obtained from a Gauge Theory based on the Clifford (16) group
Decoupling limits of N = 4 super Yang-Mills on R x S3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find new decoupling limits of N = 4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) on R x S3 with gauge group SU(N). These decoupling limits lead to decoupled theories that are much simpler than the full N = 4 SYM but still contain many of its interesting features. The decoupling limits correspond to being in a near-critical region, near a point with zero temperature and critical chemical potentials. The new decoupling limits are found by generalizing the limits of hep-th/0605234 to include not only the chemical potentials for the SU(4) R-symmetry of N = 4 SYM but also the chemical potentials corresponding to the SO(4) symmetry. In the decoupled theories it is possible to take a strong coupling limit in a controllable manner since the full effective Hamiltonian is known. For planar N = 4 SYM on R x S3 all the decoupled theories correspond to fully integrable spin chains. We study the thermodynamics of the decoupled theories and find the Hagedorn temperature for small and large values of the effective coupling. We find an alternative formulation of the decoupling limits in the microcanonical ensemble. This leads to a characterization of certain regimes of weakly coupled N = 4 SYM in which there are string-like states. Finally, we find a similar decoupling limit for pure Yang-Mills theory, which for the planar limit leads to a fully integrable decoupled theory
Manifestations of magnetic vortices in the equation of state of a Yang-Mills plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The vacuum of Yang-Mills theory contains singular stringlike objects identified with center (magnetic) vortices. Percolation of magnetic vortices is known to be responsible for the color confinement in the low-temperature phase of the theory. In our work, we study properties of the vortices at finite temperature using lattice simulations of SU(2) gauge theory. We show that magnetic vortices provide a numerically large contribution to thermodynamic quantities of the gluon plasma in Yang-Mills theory. In particular, we observe that in the deconfinement phase at temperatures Tcc the magnetic component of the gluon plasma produces a negative (ghostlike) contribution to the anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor. In the confinement phase, the vortex contribution is positive. The thermodynamical significance of the magnetic objects allows us to suggest that the quark-gluon plasma may contain a developed network of magnetic flux tubes. The existence of the vortex network may lead to observable effects in the quark-gluon plasma because the chromomagnetic field of the vortices should scatter and drag quarks.
Three-dimensional super Yang-Mills with compressible quark matter
Faedo, Antón F; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier
2015-01-01
We construct the gravity dual of three-dimensional, $SU(N_{\\textrm{c}})$ super Yang-Mills theory with $N_{\\textrm{f}}$ flavors of dynamical quarks in the presence of a non-zero quark density $N_{\\textrm{q}}$. The supergravity solutions include the backreaction of $N_{\\textrm{c}}$ color D2-branes and $N_{\\textrm{f}}$ flavor D6-branes with $N_{\\textrm{q}}$ units of electric flux on their worldvolume. For massless quarks, the solutions depend non-trivially only on the dimensionless combination $\\rho=N_{\\textrm{c}}^2 N_{\\textrm{q}} / \\lambda^2 N_{\\textrm{f}}^4$, with $\\lambda=g_{\\textrm{YM}}^2 N_{\\textrm{c}}$ the 't Hooft coupling, and describe renormalization group flows between the super Yang-Mills theory in the ultraviolet and a non-relativistic theory in the infrared. The latter is dual to a hyperscaling-violating, Lifshitz-like geometry with dynamical and hyperscaling-violating exponents $z=5$ and $\\theta=1$, respectively. If $\\rho \\ll 1$ then at intermediate energies there is also an approximate AdS$_4$ reg...
Color/kinematics duality for general abelian orbifolds of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To explore color/kinematics duality for general representations of the gauge group we formulate the duality for general abelian orbifolds of the SU(N), N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions, which have fields in the bi-fundamental representation, and use it to construct explicitly complete four-vector and four-scalar amplitudes at one loop. For fixed number of supercharges, graph-organized L-loop n-point integrands of all orbifold theories are given in terms of a fixed set of polynomials labeled by L representations of the orbifold group. In contrast to the standard duality-satisfying presentation of amplitudes of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory, each graph may appear several times with different internal states. The color and R-charge flow provide a way to deform the amplitudes of orbifold theories to those of more general quiver gauge theories which do not necessarily exhibit color/kinematics duality on their own. Based on the organization of amplitudes required by the duality between color and kinematics in orbifold theories we show how the amplitudes of certain non-factorized matter-coupled supergravity theories can be found through a double-copy construction. We also carry out a comprehensive search for theories with fields solely in the adjoint representation of the gauge group and amplitudes exhibiting color/kinematics duality for all external states and find an interesting relation between supersymmetry and existence of the duality
D = 5 maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory diverges at six loops
Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J; Douglas, Michael R; von Hippel, Matt; Johansson, Henrik
2013-01-01
The connection of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory to the (2,0) theory in six dimensions has raised the possibility that it might be perturbatively ultraviolet finite in five dimensions. We test this hypothesis by computing the coefficient of the first potential ultraviolet divergence of planar (large $N_c$) maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in D = 5, which occurs at six loops. We show that the coefficient is nonvanishing. Furthermore, the numerical value of the divergence falls very close to an approximate exponential formula based on the coefficients of the divergences through five loops. This formula predicts the approximate values of the ultraviolet divergence at loop orders L > 6 in the critical dimension D = 4 + 6/L. To obtain the six-loop divergence we first construct the planar six-loop four-point amplitude integrand using generalized unitarity. The ultraviolet divergence follows from a set of vacuum integrals, which are obtained by expanding the integrand in the external momenta. T...
Zhu, Yan
2013-01-01
In this PhD thesis, I will review recent progress in perturbative studies of energy momentum tensor correlators in high-temperature Yang-Mills theory. After briefly introducing the necessary tools and physical motivation, I proceed to discuss the machinery developed for the extraction of next-to-leading order Operator Product Expansions and thermal spectral functions and to introduce the results obtained in the bulk and shear channels of Yang-Mills theory. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison of the results with recent lattice and gauge/gravity calculations, as well as on discussing their use in extracting the corresponding transport coefficients from Euclidean lattice data.
Yang-Mills gauge fields conserving the symmetry algebra of the Dirac equation in a homogeneous space
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We consider the Dirac equation with an external Yang-Mills gauge field in a homogeneous space with an invariant metric. The Yang-Mills fields for which the motion group of the space serves as the symmetry group for the Dirac equation are found by comparison of the Dirac equation with an invariant matrix differential operator of the first order. General constructions are illustrated by the example of de Sitter space. The eigenfunctions and the corresponding eigenvalues for the Dirac equation are obtained in the space R2 × S2 by a noncommutative integration method
Implementing the Gribov-Zwanziger framework in N = 1 Super-Yang-Mills in the Landau gauge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capri, M.A.L.; Granado, D.R.; Guimaraes, M.S.; Justo, I.F.; Palhares, L.F.; Sorella, S.P.; Vercauteren, D. [UERJ-Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2014-07-15
The Gribov-Zwanziger framework accounting for the existence of Gribov copies is extended to N = 1 Super-Yang-Mills theories quantized in the Landau gauge. We show that the restriction of the domain of integration in the Euclidean functional integral to the first Gribov horizon can be implemented in a way to recover non-perturbative features of N = 1 Super-Yang-Mills theories, namely the existence of the gluino condensate as well as the vanishing of the vacuum energy. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present new exact spherically symmetric solutions of the Wu-Yang-t'Hooft monopole and Julia-Zee dyon type of the SO(3)-Yang-Mills-(Higgs-)fields coupled to gravitation through a particular quadratic Poincare gauge field theory. The space-time metrics are of the Reissner-Nordstroem, DeSitter, and AntiDeSitter form with non-vanishing torsion always being present. Due to a free function occurring, the solutions given admit arbitrary vector torsion. We conclude that the local Cauchy-Kowalevski problem is not well posed even in the limit of vanishing Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use AdS/QCD duality to compute the finite temperature Green's function G(ω,k;T) of the shear operator T12 for all ω, k in hot Yang-Mills theory in the strongly coupled domain. The goal is to assess how the existence of scales like the transition temperature and glueball masses affect the correlator computed in the scalefree conformal N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We observe sizeable effects for T close to Tc which rapidly disappear with increasing T. Quantitative agreement of these predictions with future lattice Monte Carlo data would suggest that QCD matter in this temperature range is strongly interacting.
Early and late-time cosmic acceleration in non-minimal Yang-Mills-f(G) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we show that power-law inflation can be realized in non-minimal gravitational coupling of Yang-Mills field with a general function of the Gauss-Bonnet invariant in the framework of Einstein gravity. Such a non-minimal coupling may appear due to quantum corrections. We also discuss the non-minimal Yang-Mills-f(G) gravity in the framework of modified Gauss-Bonnet action which is widely studied recently. It is shown that both inflation and late-time cosmic acceleration are possible in such a theory. (orig.)
Analytic Result for the Two-loop Six-point NMHV Amplitude in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2012-02-15
We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behavior, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. This information reduces the ansatz to a small number of relatively simple functions. In order to fix these parameters uniquely, we utilize an explicit representation of the amplitude in terms of loop integrals that can be evaluated analytically in various kinematic limits. The final compact analytic result is expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms, whose arguments are rational functions of the dual conformal cross-ratios, plus precisely two functions that are not of this type. One of the functions, the loop integral {Omega}{sup (2)}, also plays a key role in a new representation of the remainder function R{sub 6}{sup (2)} in the maximally helicity violating sector. Another interesting feature at two loops is the appearance of a new (parity odd) x (parity odd) sector of the amplitude, which is absent at one loop, and which is uniquely determined in a natural way in terms of the more familiar (parity even) x (parity even) part. The second non-polylogarithmic function, the loop integral {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)}, characterizes this sector. Both {Omega}{sup (2)} and {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)} can be expressed as one-dimensional integrals over classical polylogarithms with rational arguments.
Thermodynamics of SU(2) quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies
Hofmann, Ralf
2014-04-01
A brief review of effective SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (anti)selfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2) photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anti)calorons of scale parameter ρ ˜ |φ|-1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anti)caloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anti)caloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2) photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2) vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck) which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center-vortex loops in
Thermodynamics of SU(2 quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hofmann Ralf
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A brief review of effective SU(2 Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (antiselfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2 photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anticalorons of scale parameter ρ ∼ |φ|−1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anticaloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anticaloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2 Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2 photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2 vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center
Yablon, Jay R.
2013-10-01
Evidence is summarized from four recent papers that baryons including protons and neutrons are magnetic monopoles of non-commuting Yang-Mills gauge theories: 1) Protons and neutrons are ``resonant cavities'' with binding energies determined strictly by the masses of the quarks they contain. This is proven true at parts-per million accuracy for each of the 2H, 3H,3He, 4He binding energies and the neutron minus proton mass difference. 2) Respectively, each free proton and neutron contains 7.64 MeV and 9.81 MeV of mass/energy used to confine its quarks. When these nucleons bind, some, never all, of this energy is released and the mass deficit goes into binding. The balance continues to confine quarks. 56Fe releases 99.8429% of this energy for binding, more than any other nuclide. 3) Once we consider the Fermi vev one also finds an entirely theoretical explanation of proton and neutron masses, which also connects within experimental errors to the CKM quark mixing angles. 4) A related GUT explains fermion generation replication based on generator loss during symmetry breaking, and answers Rabi's question ``who ordered this?'' 5) Nuclear physics is governed by combining Maxwell's two classical equations into one equation using non-commuting gauge fields in view of Dirac theory and Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion. 6) Atoms themselves are core magnetic charges (nucleons) paired with orbital electric charges (electrons and elusive neutrinos), with the periodic table itself revealing an electric/magnetic symmetry of Maxwell's equations often pondered but heretofore unrecognized for a century and a half.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using gauge/gravity duality, we study the creation and evolution of boost-invariant anisotropic, strongly-coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. In the dual gravitational description, this corresponds to horizon formation in a geometry driven to be anisotropic by a time-dependent change in boundary conditions.
A Yang-Mills Type Gauge Theory of Gravity and the Dark Matter and Dark Energy Problems
Yang, Yi
2012-01-01
A Yang-Mills type gauge theory of gravity is shown to have a richer structure than the Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. This new structure can give an explanation of the form of the galactic rotation curves, of the amount of intergalactic gravitational lensing, and of the accelerating expansion of the Universe.
Krishnaswami, G.S.
2008-01-01
We consider large-N multi-matrix models whose action closely mimics that of Yang-Mills theory, including gauge-fixing and ghost terms. We show that the factorized Schwinger-Dyson loop equations, expressed in terms of the generating series of gluon and ghost correlations G( ), are quadratic equations
Shear Viscosity to Entropy Density for a Black Brane in 5-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills Gravity
Sadeghi, Mehdi
2014-01-01
We calculate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density for a black brane of $5$-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills Gravity. There is a well- known conjecture that this ratio should be larger than $\\frac{1}{4\\pi}$ and we show that this bound preserves in this black brane.
Periodic electromagnetic vacuum in the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with the Chern-Simons mass
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The periodic vacuum structure formed from magnetic and electric fields is derived in the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with the Chern-Simons term. It is shown that both the magnetic flux quantization in the fundamental sell and conductivity quantization inherent to the vacuum. Hence, the quantum Hall effect gets its natural explanation. (author). 10 refs
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress in understanding quark confinement. The emphasis of this review is placed on how to obtain a manifestly gauge-independent picture for quark confinement supporting the dual superconductivity in the Yang-Mills theory, which should be compared with the Abelian projection proposed by 't Hooft. The basic tools are reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory based on change of variables extending the decomposition of the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills field due to Cho, Duan-Ge and Faddeev-Niemi, together with the combined use of extended versions of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the $SU(N)$ Wilson loop operator. Moreover, we give the lattice gauge theoretical versions of the new reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory which enables us to perform the numerical simulations on the lattice. In fact, we present some numerical evidences for supporting the (non-Abelian) dual superconductivity for quark confinement. The numerical simulations incl...
Khorrami, M.; Alimohammadi, M.
1996-01-01
Using the path integral method, we calculate the partition function and the generating functional (of the field strengths) of the generalized 2D Yang-Mills theories in the Schwinger--Fock gauge. Our calculation is done for arbitrary 2D orientable, and also nonorientable surfaces.
Kotanski, Jan
2006-01-01
Supersymmetric Yang-Mills quantum mechanics (SYMQM) in four dimensions for SU(2) gauge group is considered. In this work a two-fermionic sector with the angular momentum j=0 in discussed. Energy levels from discrete and continuous spectra are calculated. To distinguish localized states from non-localized ones the virial theorem is applied.
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A nonperturbative calculation of the spectrum of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory based on a Hamiltonian formulation is described. The approach exploits gauge invariant variables similar to those used in nuclear physics to describe collective motion in nuclei. (authors). 13 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian P. Dolan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The parallel rôles of modular symmetry in N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills and in the quantum Hall effect are reviewed. In supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories modular symmetry emerges as a version of Dirac's electric - magnetic duality. It has significant consequences for the vacuum structure of these theories, leading to a fractal vacuum which has an infinite hierarchy of related phases. In the case of N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills in 3+1 dimensions, scaling functions can be defined which are modular forms of a subgroup of the full modular group and which interpolate between vacua. Infra-red fixed points at strong coupling correspond to θ-vacua with θ a rational number that, in the case of pure SUSY Yang-Mills, has odd denominator. There is a mass gap for electrically charged particles which can carry fractional electric charge. A similar structure applies to the 2+1 dimensional quantum Hall effect where the hierarchy of Hall plateaux can be understood in terms of an action of the modular group and the stability of Hall plateaux is due to the fact that odd denominator Hall conductivities are attractive infra-red fixed points. There is a mass gap for electrically charged excitations which, in the case of the fractional quantum Hall effect, carry fractional electric charge.
On the infrared behavior of Green's functions in Yang-Mills theory
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Non-perturbative properties of QCD, such as color confinement, are encoded in the infrared behavior of correlation functions, e.g. propagators and vertices. Various analytic predictions have been suggested for these quantities in various gauges. Here we numerically test these predictions using lattice gauge theory. In particular, we present results for the 2- and 3-point functions for SU(2) Landau-gauge Yang-Mills theory in three and in four dimensions. Special attention is paid to systematic finite-volume effects. The gluon and ghost propagators are also evaluated in the so-called interpolating gauge (between the Landau and the Coulomb gauge), in order to study their gauge-dependence. Finally, we consider these propagators in Landau gauge at finite temperature, with the aim of understanding the effect of the deconfinement phase transition on their infrared behavior. All our results are compatible with the so-called Gribov-Zwanziger confinement scenario. (author)
Wilson Loop Area Law for 2D Yang-Mills in Generalized Axial Gauge
Nguyen, Timothy
2016-01-01
We prove that Wilson loop expectation values for arbitrary simple closed contours obey an area law up to second order in perturbative two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. Our analysis occurs within a general family of axial-like gauges, which include and interpolate between holomorphic gauge and the Wu-Mandelstam-Liebrandt light cone gauge. Our methods make use of the homotopy invariance properties of iterated integrals of closed one-forms, which allows us to evaluate the nontrivial integrals occurring at second order. We close with a discussion on complex gauge-fixing and deformation of integration cycles for holomorphic path integrals to shed light on some of the quantum field-theoretic underpinnings of our results.
Stochastic Feynman Rules for Yang-Mills Theory on the Plane
Nguyen, Timothy
2016-01-01
We analyze quantum Yang-Mills theory on $\\mathbb{R}^2$ using a novel discretization method based on an algebraic analogue of stochastic calculus. Such an analogue involves working with "Gaussian" free fields whose covariance matrix is indefinite rather than positive definite. Specifically, we work with Lie-algebra valued fields on a lattice and exploit an approximate gauge-invariance that is restored when taking the continuum limit. This analysis is applied to show the equivalence between Wilson loop expectations computed using partial axial-gauge, complete axial-gauge, and the Migdal-Witten lattice formulation. As a consequence, we obtain intriguing Lie-theoretic identities involving heat kernels and iterated integrals.
Phase transitions of an anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma via holography
Banks, Elliot
2016-01-01
Black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity were previously found that are dual to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with an anisotropic spatial deformation. In the zero temperature limit, these black holes approach a Liftshitz like scaling solution in the IR. It was recently shown that these black holes are unstable, and at low temperatures there is a new class of black hole solutions that are thermodynamically preferred. We extend this analysis, by considering consistent truncations of the Kaluza-Klein reduction of IIB supergravity on a five-sphere that preserves multiple scalar and $U(1)$ gauge fields. We show that the previously constructed black holes become unstable at low temperatures, and construct new classes of exotic black hole solutions. We study the DC thermo-electric conductivity of these $U(1)$ charged black holes, and find a diverging DC conductivity at zero temperature due to the divergence of the gauge field coupling.
Unified Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills-Einstein Supergravity Theories in Five Dimensions
Günaydin, M
2003-01-01
Unified N=2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories (MESGTs) are supergravity theories in which all the vector fields, including the graviphoton, transform in an irreducible representation of a simple global symmetry group of the Lagrangian. As was established long time ago, in five dimensions there exist only four unified Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories whose target manifolds are symmetric spaces. These theories are defined by the four simple Euclidean Jordan algebras of degree three. In this paper, we show that, in addition to these four unified MESGTs with symmetric target spaces, there exist three infinite families of unified MESGTs as well as another exceptional one. These novel unified MESGTs are defined by non-compact (Minkowskian) Jordan algebras, and their target spaces are in general neither symmetric nor homogeneous. The members of one of these three infinite families can be gauged in such a way as to obtain an infinite family of unified N=2 Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories, in which...
Topological Model for Domain Walls in (Super-)Yang-Mills Theories
Dierigl, Markus
2014-01-01
We derive a topological action that describes the confining phase of (Super-)Yang-Mills theories with gauge group $SU(N)$, similar to the work recently carried out by Seiberg and collaborators. It encodes all the Aharonov-Bohm phases of the possible non-local operators and phases generated by the intersection of flux tubes. Within this topological framework we show that the worldvolume theory of domain walls contains a Chern-Simons term at level $N$ also seen in string theory constructions. The discussion can also illuminate dynamical differences of domain walls in the supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric framework. Two further analogies, to string theory and the fractional quantum Hall effect might lead to additional possibilities to investigate the dynamics.
Correlation functions of three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory from Dyson-Schwinger equations
Huber, Markus Q.
2016-04-01
The two- and three-point functions and the four-gluon vertex of three-dimensional Yang-Mills theory are calculated from their Dyson-Schwinger equations and the three-particle irreducible effective action. Within a self-contained truncation, various effects of truncating Dyson-Schwinger equations are studied. Estimates for the errors induced by truncations are derived from comparisons between results from different equations, comparisons with lattice results, and varying higher Green functions. The results indicate that the two-loop diagrams are important in the gluon propagator, where they are explicitly calculated, but not for the vertices. Furthermore, the influence of the four-gluon vertex on lower Green functions is found to be small.
Equivariant Symplectic Geometry of Gauge Fixing in Yang-Mills Theory
Akant, L
2007-01-01
The Faddeev-Popov gauge fixing in Yang-Mills theory is interpreted as equivariant localization. It is shown that the Faddeev-Popov procedure amounts to a construction of a symplectic manifold with a Hamiltonian group action. The BRST cohomology is shown to be equivalent to the equivariant cohomology based on this symplectic manifold with Hamiltonian group action. The ghost operator is interpreted as a (pre)symplectic form and the gauge condition as the moment map corresponding to the Hamiltonian group action. This results in the identification of the gauge fixing action as a closed equivariant form, the sum of an equivariant symplectic form and a certain closed equivariant 4-form which ensures convergence. An almost complex structure compatible with the symplectic form is constructed. The equivariant localization principle is used to localize the path integrals onto the gauge slice. The Gribov problem is also discussed in the context of equivariant localization principle. As a simple illustration of the metho...
Ground state of Yang-Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions
Frasca, Marco
2014-01-01
Yang-Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions showed to be a research area yielding firm results in theoretical physics when compared to lattice computations. Recent analysis displayed astonishing agreement for the value of the string tension and excellent comparison for the spectrum. This successful approach can be put at test with a different theoretical framework that we devised in our preceding work for the scalar field theory in the strong coupling limit. The confirmations we get are really striking supporting it in full. As a by-product we are also able to show how AdS/CFT approach, with a description using flux tubes, is supported exactly as expected in the Isgur-Paton model with a dimensionless correction factor for the ground state of the theory already determined in lattice computations.
Higher-dimensional thin-shell wormholes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
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We present thin-shell wormhole solutions in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet (EYMGB) theory in higher dimensions d ≥ 5. Exact black hole solutions are employed for this purpose where the radius of the thin shell lies outside the event horizon. For some reasons the cases d = 5 and d > 5 are treated separately. The surface energy-momentum of the thin shell creates surface pressures to resist against collapse and rendering stable wormholes possible. We test the stability of the wormholes against spherical perturbations through a linear energy-pressure relation and plot stability regions. Apart from this restricted stability we investigate the possibility of normal (i.e. non-exotic) matter which satisfies the energy conditions. For negative values of the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) parameter we obtain such physical wormholes.
Higher-dimensional thin-shell wormholes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
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Mazharimousavi, S Habib; Halilsoy, M; Amirabi, Z, E-mail: habib.mazhari@emu.edu.tr, E-mail: mustafa.halilsoy@emu.edu.tr, E-mail: zahra.amirabi@emu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Eastern Mediterranean University, G. Magusa, North Cyprus, Mersin 10 (Turkey)
2011-01-21
We present thin-shell wormhole solutions in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet (EYMGB) theory in higher dimensions d {>=} 5. Exact black hole solutions are employed for this purpose where the radius of the thin shell lies outside the event horizon. For some reasons the cases d = 5 and d > 5 are treated separately. The surface energy-momentum of the thin shell creates surface pressures to resist against collapse and rendering stable wormholes possible. We test the stability of the wormholes against spherical perturbations through a linear energy-pressure relation and plot stability regions. Apart from this restricted stability we investigate the possibility of normal (i.e. non-exotic) matter which satisfies the energy conditions. For negative values of the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) parameter we obtain such physical wormholes.
On the Effective Action of Dressed Mean Fields for N = 4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory
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Gorazd Cvetic
2006-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the general considerations such as R-operation and Slavnov-Taylor identity we show that the effective action, being understood as Legendre transform of the logarithm of the path integral, possesses particular structure in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for kernels of the effective action expressed in terms of the dressed effective fields. These dressed effective fields have been introduced in our previous papers as actual variables of the effective action. The concept of dressed effective fields naturally appears in the framework of solution to Slavnov-Taylor identity. The particularity of the structure is independence of these kernels on the ultraviolet regularization scale Λ. These kernels are functions of mutual spacetime distances and of the gauge coupling. The fact that β function in this theory vanishes is used significantly.
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We present a lattice theory with an exact fermionic symmetry, which mixes the link and the fermionic variables. The staggered fermionic variables may be reconstructed into a Majorana fermion in the continuum limit. The gauge action has a novel structure. Though it is the ordinary plaquette action, two different couplings are assigned in the 'Ichimatsu pattern' or the checkered pattern. In the naive continuum limit, the fermionic symmetry survives as a continuum (or an O(a0)) symmetry. The transformation of the fermion is proportional to the field strength multiplied by the difference of the two gauge couplings in this limit. This work is an extension of our recently proposed cell model toward the realization of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on lattice. (author)
Spectral parameters for scattering amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory
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Planar N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory appears to be a quantum integrable four-dimensional conformal theory. This has been used to find equations believed to describe its exact spectrum of anomalous dimensions. Integrability seemingly also extends to the planar space-time scattering amplitudes of the N=4 model, which show strong signs of Yangian invariance. However, in contradistinction to the spectral problem, this has not yet led to equations determining the exact amplitudes. We propose that the missing element is the spectral parameter, ubiquitous in integrable models. We show that it may indeed be included into recent on-shell approaches to scattering amplitude integrands, providing a natural deformation of the latter. Under some constraints, Yangian symmetry is preserved. Finally we speculate that the spectral parameter might also be the regulator of choice for controlling the infrared divergences appearing when integrating the integrands in exactly four dimensions
Thermodynamics of large-N super Yang-Mills theory AdS/CFT correspondence
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The thermodynamics of d=4, N=4 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills theory is studied with particular attention paid to the perturbative expansion in the weak 't Hooft coupling regime and to the interpolation to the strong coupling regime thereof. The non-ideal gas effect to the free energy is calculated and found that leading- and next-to-leading-order corrections contribute with relative opposite signs. The Pade approximant method is adopted to improve fixed-order perturbative series and is found to decrease the free energy monotonically as the 't Hooft coupling parameter is increased. This may be regarded as an indication of a smooth interpolation of the thermodynamics between the weak and strong 't Hooft coupling regimes, as suggested by Maldacena's AdS/CFT correspondence
Green's functions of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory and the radius/energy relation
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We study counterterms of one- and two-point Green's functions of some special operators in N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory from their supergravity (SUGRA) duals from the consideration of AdS conformal field theory or gauge-gravity correspondence. We consider both the Maldacena-Nunez solution and the Klebanov-Strassler-Tseytlin solution which are proposed as SUGRA duals of N=1 SYM theory. We obtain a radius/energy relation for each solution by comparing the SUGRA calculations with the field theory results. Using these relations we evaluate the β function of N=1 SYM theory. We find that the leading order term can be accurately obtained for both solutions and the higher order terms exhibit some ambiguities. We discuss the origin of these ambiguities and conclude that more studies are needed to check whether these SUGRA solutions are exactly dual to N=1 SYM theory
Arithmetic gravity and Yang-Mills theory: An approach to adelic physics via algebraic spaces
Schmidt, Rene
2008-01-01
This work is a dissertation thesis written at the WWU Muenster (Germany), supervised by Prof. Dr. Raimar Wulkenhaar. We present an approach to adelic physics based on the language of algebraic spaces. Relative algebraic spaces X over a base S are considered as fundamental objects which describe space-time. This yields a formulation of general relativity which is covariant with respect to changes of the chosen domain of numbers S. With regard to adelic physics the choice of S as an excellent Dedekind scheme is of interest (because this way also the finite prime spots, i.e. the p-adic degrees of freedom are taken into account). In this arithmetic case, it turns out that X is a Neron model. This enables us to make concrete statements concerning the structure of the space-time described by X. Furthermore, some solutions of the arithmetic Einstein equations are presented. In a next step, Yang-Mills gauge fields are incorporated.
Spherically symmetric selfdual Yang-Mills instantons on curved backgrounds in all even dimensions
Radu, Eugen; Yang Yi Song
2007-01-01
We present several different classes of selfdual Yang-Mills instantons in all even d backgrounds with Euclidean signature. In d=4p+2 the only solutions we found are on constant curvature dS and AdS backgrounds, and are evaluated in closed form. In d=4p an interesting class of instantons are given on black hole backgrounds. One class of solutions are (Euclidean) time-independent and spherically symmetric in d-1 dimensions, and the other class are spherically symmetric in all d dimensions. Some of the solutions in the former class are evaluated numerically, all the rest being given in closed form. Analytic proofs of existence covering all numerically evaluated solutions are given. All instantons studied have finite action and vanishing energy momentum tensor and do not disturb the geometry.
Ultraviolet behavior of 6D supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories and harmonic superspace
Bossard, Guillaume; Smilga, Andrei
2015-01-01
We revisit the issue of higher-dimensional counterterms for the N=(1,1) supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory in six dimensions using the off-shell N=(1,0) and on-shell N=(1,1) harmonic superspace approaches. The second approach is developed in full generality and used to solve, for the first time, the N=(1,1) SYM constraints in terms of N=(1,0) superfields. This provides a convenient tool to write explicit expressions for the candidate counterterms and other N=(1,1) invariants and may be conducive to proving non-renormalization theorems needed to explain the absence of certain logarithmic divergences in higher-loop contributions to scattering amplitudes in N=(1,1) SYM.
A study of the Gribov copies in linear covariant gauges in euclidean Yang-Mills theories
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The Gribov copies and their consequences on the infrared behavior of the gluon propagator are investigated in euclidean Yang-Mills theories quantized in linear covariant gauges. Considering small values of the gauge parameter, it turns out that the transverse component of the gluon propagator is suppressed, while its longitudinal part is left unchanged. A Green function, Gtr(k), which displays infrared enhancement and which reduces to the ghost propagator in the Landau gauge is identified. The inclusion of the dimension two gluon condensate (Aμ2) is also considered. In this case, the transverse component of the gluon propagator and the Green function Gtr(k) remain suppressed and enhanced, respectively. Moreover, the longitudinal part of the gluon propagator becomes suppressed. A comparison with the results obtained from the studies of the Schwinger-Dyson equations and from lattice simulations is provided
Quantum Phases of Yang-Mills Matrix Model Coupled to Fundamental Fermions
Pandey, Mahul
2016-01-01
By investigating the $SU(2)$ Yang-Mills matrix model coupled to fundamental fermions in the adiabatic limit, we demonstrate quantum critical behaviour at special corners of the gauge field configuration space. The quantum scalar potential for the gauge field induced by the fermions diverges at the corners, and is intimately related to points of enhanced degeneracy of the fermionic Hamiltonian. This in turn leads to superselection sectors in the Hilbert space of the gauge field, the ground states in different sectors being orthogonal to each other. As a consequence of our analysis, we show that 2-color QCD coupled to two Weyl fermions has three quantum phases. When coupled to a massless Dirac fermion, the number of quantum phases is four. One of these phases is the color-spin locked phase.
The anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma and its instabilities
Mateos, David
2011-01-01
We present a IIB supergravity solution dual to a spatially anisotropic finite-temperature N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma. The solution is static, possesses an anisotropic horizon, and is completely regular. The full geometry can be viewed as a renormalization group flow from an AdS geometry in the ultraviolet to a Lifshitz-like geometry in the infrared. The anisotropy can be equivalently understood as resulting from a position-dependent theta-term or from a non-zero number density of dissolved D7-branes. The holographic stress tensor is conserved and anisotropic. The presence of a conformal anomaly plays an important role in the thermodynamics of the system. We construct the phase diagram, which exhibits homogeneous and inhomogeneous (i.e. mixed) phases, and comment on similarities with QCD at finite baryon density. At low densities the homogeneous phase displays several instabilities reminiscent of instabilities of weakly coupled plasmas.
Geometrodynamics of gauge fields on the geometry of Yang-Mills and gravitational gauge theories
Mielke, Eckehard W
2016-01-01
This monograph aims to provide a unified, geometrical foundation of gauge theories of elementary particle physics. The underlying geometrical structure is unfolded in a coordinate-free manner via the modern mathematical notions of fibre bundles and exterior forms. Topics such as the dynamics of Yang-Mills theories, instanton solutions and topological invariants are included. By transferring these concepts to local space-time symmetries, generalizations of Einstein's theory of gravity arise in a Riemann-Cartan space with curvature and torsion. It provides the framework in which the (broken) Poincaré gauge theory, the Rainich geometrization of the Einstein-Maxwell system, and higher-dimensional, non-abelian Kaluza-Klein theories are developed. Since the discovery of the Higgs boson, concepts of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gravity have come again into focus, and, in this revised edition, these will be exposed in geometric terms. Quantizing gravity remains an open issue: formulating it as a de Sitter t...
Constant curvature f(R) gravity minimally coupled with Yang-Mills field
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Habib Mazharimousavi, S.; Halilsoy, M.; Tahamtan, T. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Mersin 10 (Turkey)
2012-03-15
We consider the particular class of f(R) gravities minimally coupled with Yang-Mills (YM) field in which the Ricci scalar =R{sub 0}=constant in all dimensions d{>=}4. Even in this restricted class the spacetime has unlimited scopes determined by an equation of state of the form P{sub eff}={omega}{rho}. Depending on the distance from the origin (or horizon of a black hole) the state function {omega}(r) takes different values. It is observed that {omega}{yields}(1)/(3) (the ultra relativistic case in 4 dimensions) and {omega}{yields}-1 (the cosmological constant) are the limiting values of our state function {omega}(r) in a spacetime centered by a black hole. This suggests that having a constant {omega} throughout spacetime around a charged black hole in f(R) gravity with constant scalar curvature is a myth. (orig.)
Dryson equations, Ward identities, and the infrared behavior of Yang-Mills theories
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It was shown using the Schwinger-Dyson equations and the Slavnov-Taylor identities of Yang-Mills theory that no inconsistency arises if the gluon propagator behaves like (1/p2)2 for small p2. To see whether the theory actually contains such singular long range behavior, a nonperturbative closed set of equations was formulated by neglecting the transverse parts of GAMMA and GAMMA4 in the Schwinger-Dyson equations. This simplification preserves all the symmetries of the theory and allows the possibility for a singular low-momentum behavior of the gluon propagator. The justification for neglecting GAMMA/sup (T)/ and GAMMA4/sup (T)/ is not evident but it is expected that the present study of the resulting equations will elucidate this simplification, which leads to a closed set of equations
Running coupling from the four-gluon vertex in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory
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We consider the running coupling from the four-gluon vertex in Landau gauge, SU(Nc) Yang-Mills theory as given by a combination of dressing functions of the vertex and the gluon propagator. We determine these functions numerically from a coupled set of Dyson-Schwinger equations. We reproduce asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet momentum region and find a coupling of order one at mid-momenta. In the infrared we find a nontrivial (i.e. nonzero) fixed point which is 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding fixed point in the coupling of the ghost-gluon vertex. This result explains why the Dyson-Schwinger and the functional renormalization group equations for the two point functions can agree in the infrared, although their structure is quite different. Our findings also support Zwanziger's notion of an infrared effective theory driven by the Faddeev-Popov determinant.
Interactions of Domain Walls of SUSY Yang-Mills as D-Branes
Armoni, A; Armoni, Adi; Hollowood, Timothy J.
2006-01-01
Domain walls in supersymmetric Yang-Mills are BPS configurations which preserve two supercharges of the parent theory and so their tensions are known exactly. On the other hand, they have been described as D-branes for the confining string. This leads to a description of their collective dynamics in terms of a 2+1 -dimensional gauge theory with two supersymmetries and a Chern-Simons term. We show that this open string description can capture the qualitative behaviour of the forces between the domain walls for an arbitrary configuration of n walls at leading order in 1/N, extending earlier calculations for two walls. The potential admits a supersymmetric bound state when the n walls are all coincident and asymptotes to a constant at large separation with an n dependence which agrees perfectly with the exact tension formula.
Supercurrent and the Adler-Bardeen theorem in coupled supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories
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We construct the supercurrent and a supersymmetric current which satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to non-self-interacting chiral matter. Using the formulation recently developed by Grisaru, Milewski, and Zanon, supersymmetry and gauge invariance are maintained with supersymmetric background-field theory and regularization by dimensional reduction. We verify the finiteness of the supercurrent to one loop, and the Adler-Bardeen theorem to two loops by explicit calculations in the minimal-subtraction scheme. We then demonstrate the subtraction-scheme independence of the one-loop Adler-Bardeen anomaly and prove the existence of a subtraction scheme in which the Adler-Bardeen theorem is satisfied to all orders in perturbation theory
Order parameter reconciling Abelian and center dominance in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
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We analyze previously proposed order parameters for the confinement-deconfinement transition in lattice SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, defined as vacuum expectation value (VEV) of monopole fields in Abelian projection gauges. We show that they exhibit some inconsistency in the treatment of small scales, due to a violation of Dirac quantization condition for fluxes. We propose a new order parameter avoiding this inconsistency. It can be interpreted as the VEV of the field of a regular monopole in any Abelian projection gauge, but it is independent of the choice of the Abelian projection. Furthermore, being constructed in terms of surfaces of center vortices, it has also a natural interpretation in the approach of center dominance
Center-symmetric effective theory for high-temperature SU(2) Yang-Mills theory
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We construct and study a dimensionally reduced effective theory for high-temperature SU(2) Yang-Mills theory that respects all the symmetries of the underlying theory. Our main motivation is to study whether the correct treatment of the center symmetry can help extend the applicability of the dimensional reduction procedure towards the confinement transition. After performing perturbative matching to the full theory at asymptotically high temperatures, we map the phase diagram of the effective theory using nonperturbative lattice simulations. We find that at lower temperature the theory undergoes a second-order confining phase transition, in complete analogy with the full theory, which is a direct consequence of having incorporated the center symmetry
On super form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills
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We compute form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills dual to massive Kaluza-Klein modes in supergravity. These are appropriate supersymmetrisations Tk of the scalar operators Tr (ϕk) for any k, which for k = 2 give the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet operator. Using harmonic superspace, we derive simple Ward identities for these form factors, which we then compute perturbatively at tree level and one loop. We propose a novel on-shell recursion relation which links form factors with different numbers of fields. Using this, we conjecture a general formula for the n-point MHV form factors of Tk for arbitrary k and n. Finally, we use supersymmetric generalised unitarity to derive compact expressions for all one-loop MHV form factors of Tk in terms of one-loop triangles and finite two-mass easy box functions
Yang-Mills Field from Quaternion Space Geometry, and its Klein-Gordon Representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yefremov A.
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Analysis of covariant derivatives of vectors in quaternion (Q- spaces performed using Q-unit spinor-splitting technique and use of SL(2C-invariance of quaternion multiplication reveals close connexion of Q-geometry objects and Yang-Mills (YM field principle characteristics. In particular, it is shown that Q-connexion (with quaternion non-metricity and related curvature of 4 dimensional (4D space-times with 3D Q-space sections are formally equivalent to respectively YM-field potential and strength, traditionally emerging from the minimal action assumption. Plausible links between YM field equation and Klein-Gordon equation, in particular via its known isomorphism with Duffin-Kemmer equation, are also discussed.
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The connection between renormalization schemes (RS's) and the renormalization group (RG) functions for a massive Yang--Mills theory is investigated. The RS's are defined in a manner independent of the regularization procedure. The RS transformations are defined in such a way that it is clear that they form a group. It is shown that to a given set of RG functions corresponds an infinite number of RS's. The subgroup of RS transformations which leave invariant the (mass-shell) MS-RG functions is carefully described. Gauge invariance, regularity of the theory when m→0 and mass decoupling are imposed and the corresponding indeterminations of RS's are given. It is seen that a RS which fulfills simultaneously the above conditions does not exist
Wilson line correlators in two-dimensional noncommutative Yang-Mills theory
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We study the correlator of two parallel Wilson lines in two-dimensional non-commutative Yang-Mills theory, following two different approaches. We first consider a perturbative expansion in the large-N limit and resum all planar diagrams. The second approach is non perturbative: we exploit the Morita equivalence, mapping the two open lines on the non-commutative torus (which eventually gets decompacted) in two closed Wilson loops winding around the dual commutative torus. Planarity allows us to single out a suitable region of the variables involved, where a saddle-point approximation of the general Morita expression for the correlator can be performed. In this region the correlator nicely compares with the perturbative result, exhibiting an exponential increase with respect to the momentum p. (author)
Interactions of domain walls of SUSY Yang-Mills as D-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domain walls in supersymmetric Yang-Mills are BPS configurations which preserve two supercharges of the parent theory and so their tensions are known exactly. On the other hand, they have been described as D-branes for the confining string. This leads to a description of their collective dynamics in terms of a 2+1-dimensional gauge theory with two supersymmetries and a Chern-Simons term. We show that this open string description can capture the qualitative behaviour of the forces between the domain walls for an arbitrary configuration of n walls at leading order in 1/N, extending earlier calculations for two walls. The potential admits a supersymmetric bound state when the n walls are all coincident and asymptotes to a constant at large separation with an n dependence which agrees perfectly with the exact tension formula
The non-local 2D generalized Yang-Mills theories on arbitrary surfaces with boundaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saaidi, Kh [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Avenue, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Azad University, Pasdaran Avenue, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ksaaidi@uok.ac.ir
2008-07-15
The non-local generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories on arbitrary orientable and non-orientable surfaces with boundaries is studied. We obtain the effective action of these theories for the case when the holonomy of the gauge field around the boundary components is near the identity, U{approx_equal}I. Furthermore, by obtaining the effective action at the large-N limit, it is shown that the phase structure of these theories is the same as that obtained for these theories on orientable and non-orientable surfaces without boundaries. It is seen that the {phi}{sup 2} model of these theories on arbitrary orientable and non-orientable surfaces with boundaries have third-order phase transition only on g=0 and r=1 surfaces, with modified area A-tilde+A/2 for orientable and A-bar+A for non-orientable surfaces, respectively.
Kinematic numerators and a double-copy formula for N=4 super-Yang-Mills residues
Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James
2014-07-01
Recent work by Cachazo et al.arXiv:1309.0885 shows that connected prescription residues obey the global identities of N=4 super-Yang-Mills amplitudes. In particular, they obey the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) amplitude identities. Here we offer a new way of interpreting this result via objects that we call residue numerators. These objects behave like the kinematic numerators introduced by BCJ except that they are associated with individual residues. In particular, these new objects satisfy a double-copy formula relating them to the residues appearing in recently discovered analogs of the connected prescription integrals for N=8 supergravity. Along the way, we show that the BCJ amplitude identities are equivalent to the consistency condition that allows kinematic numerators to be expressed as amplitudes using a generalized inverse.
Hydrodynamics of the Polyakov Line in SU$(N_c)$ Yang-Mills
Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail
2015-01-01
We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Polyakov line at large but finite $N_c$ for Yang-Mills theory in even and odd space-time dimensions. The hydro-static solutions for the eigenvalue densities are shown to interpolate between a uniform distribution in the confined phase and a localized distribution in the de-confined phase. The resulting critical temperatures are in overall agreement with those measured on the lattice over a broad range of $N_c$, and are consistent with the string model results at $N_c=\\infty$. The stochastic relaxation of the eigenvalues of the Polyakov line out of equilibrium is captured by a hydrodynamical instanton. An estimate of the probability of formation of a Z(N$_c)$ bubble using a piece-wise sound wave is suggested.
Quark and gluon confinement from an effective model of Yang-Mills theory
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2011-01-01
We derive a gauge-invariant low-energy effective model of the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. We find that the effective gluon propagator belongs to the Gribov-Stingl type, irrespective of the gauge choice. In the maximally Abelian gauge, especially, we demonstrate that the model exhibits both quark confinement and gluon confinement: the Wilson loop average has area law and the Schwinger function violates reflection positivity. Moreover, we give a formula for the string tension calculable from the gluon propagator of the gauge-invariant field strength and gives a good estimate for the string tension. We discuss if quark confinement and gluon confinement are of the same origin attributed to the gluon propagator in the deep infrared momentum region.
Color-Kinematics Duality for Pure Yang-Mills and Gravity at One and Two Loops
Bern, Zvi; Dennen, Tristan; Huang, Yu-tin; Nohle, Josh
2013-01-01
We provide evidence in favor of the conjectured duality between color and kinematics for the case of nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitudes by constructing a form of the one-loop four-point amplitude of this theory that makes the duality manifest. Our construction is valid in any dimension. We also describe a duality-satisfying representation for the two-loop four-point amplitude with identical four-dimensional external helicities. We use these results to obtain corresponding gravity integrands for a theory containing a graviton, dilaton, and antisymmetric tensor, simply by replacing color factors with specified diagram numerators. Using this, we give explicit forms of ultraviolet divergences at one loop in four, six, and eight dimensions, and at two loops in four dimensions.
Non-Chiral S-Matrix of N=4 Super Yang-Mills
Huang, Yu-tin
2011-01-01
We discuss the construction of non-chiral S-matrix of four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills using a non-chiral superspace. This construction utilizes the non-chiral representation of dual superconformal symmetry, which is the natural representation from the point of view of the six-dimensional parent theory. The superspace in discussion is projective superspace constructed by Hatsuda and Siegel, and is based on a half coset U(2,2|4)/U(1,1|2)^2_+. We obtain the non-chiral representation of the five-point and general n-point MHV and anti-MHV amplitude. The non-chiral formulation can be straightforwardly lifted to six dimensions, which is equivalent to massive amplitudes in four dimensions.
Gauge symmetry breaking in ten-dimensional Yang-Mills theory dynamically compactified on S6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study fluctuation modes in ten-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with a higher derivative term for the gauge field. We consider the ten-dimensional space-time to be a product of a four-dimensional space-time and six-dimensional sphere which exhibits dynamical compactification. Because of the isometry on S6, there are flat directions corresponding to the Nambu-Goldstone zero modes in the effective theory on the solution. The zero modes are absorbed into gauge fields and form massive vector fields as a consequence of the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. The mass of the vector fields is proportional to the inverse of the radius of the sphere and larger than the mass scale set by the radius because of the higher derivative term.
A local and BRST-invariant Yang-Mills theory within the Gribov horizon
Capri, M A L; Fiorentini, D; Guimaraes, M S; Justo, I F; Pereira, A D; Mintz, B W; Palhares, L F; Sobreiro, R F; Sorella, S P
2016-01-01
We present a local setup for the recently introduced BRST-invariant formulation of Yang-Mills theories for linear covariant gauges that takes into account the existence of gauge copies \\`a la Gribov and Zwanziger. Through the convenient use of auxiliary fields, including one of the Stueckelberg type, it is shown that both the action and the associated nilpotent BRST operator can be put in local form. Direct consequences of this fully local and BRST-symmetric framework are drawn from its Ward identities: (i) an exact prediction for the longitudinal part of the gluon propagator in linear covariant gauges that is compatible with recent lattice results and (ii) a proof of the gauge-parameter independence of all correlation functions of local BRST-invariant operators.
2+1 dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory: Quark confinement and dual representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report some progress on the quark confinement problem in 2+1 dim. pure Yang-Mills theory, using Euclidean instanton methods. The instantons are regularized Wu-Yang 'monopoles', whose long range Coulomb field is screened by collective effects. Such configurations are stable to small perturbations unlike the case of singular, undressed monopoles. Using exact non-perturbative results for the 3-dim. Coulomb gas, where Debye screening holds for arbitrarily low temperatures, we show in a self-consistent way that a mass gap is dynamically generated in the gauge theory. The mass gap also determines the size of the monopoles. We also identify the disorder operator of the model in terms of the sine-Gordon field of the Coulomb gas and hence obtain a dual representation whose symmetry is the centre of SU(2). (orig.)
About the Gribov problem in N=1 Super Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The BRST symmetry is a fundamental tool in order to prove the renormalizability of the theory, identify the physical subspace whose states have positive norm and guarantee that the restriction to the physical subspace of the scattering operator S is unitary. All this applies to the perturbative regime and to non-confining gauge theories for which the asymptotic fields and their corresponding elementary particles can be safely introduced. Things become much more complicated when the theory under investigation is a confining theory, such as Yang-Mills theories. Due to the nonperturbative phenomenon of color confinement, gluons are not part of the spectrum. In our case, the contact with the physical spectrum of the theory is encoded in the correlation functions of suitable composite colorless operators built out from the elementary gluon field. The Gribov-Zwanziger framework enables to take into account the nonperturbative effect of the Gribov copies by restricting the domain of integration in the functional integral to the first Gribov horizon. This restriction can be implemented within an Euclidean field theory framework. The corresponding action, known as the Gribov-Zwanziger action, enjoys the property of being local and renormalizable. As a consequence of the restriction of the domain of integration to the Gribov horizon, the gluon two-point correlation function gets deeply modified in the infrared region, displaying complex poles, so that it cannot describe a physical particle, being suitable for a confining phase. This work is a study of the N=1 four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory in the light of the Gribov-Zwanziger framework, which enable to see, as already mentioned, the modified two-point correlation function of the gluon in the infrared region. But as we are studying a supersymmetric theory, this framework enable to study as well the modified two-point correlation function of the gluon super partner, the gluino. (author)
Lattice simulation of a center symmetric three dimensional effective theory for SU(2) Yang-Mills
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Dominik
2010-11-17
We present lattice simulations of a center symmetric dimensionally reduced effective field theory for SU(2) Yang Mills which employ thermal Wilson lines and three-dimensional magnetic fields as fundamental degrees of freedom. The action is composed of a gauge invariant kinetic term, spatial gauge fields and a potential for theWilson line which includes a ''fuzzy'' bag term to generate non-perturbative fluctuations between Z(2) degenerate ground states. The model is studied in the limit where the gauge fields are set to zero as well as the full model with gauge fields. We confirm that, at moderately weak coupling, the ''fuzzy'' bag term leads to eigenvalue repulsion in a finite region above the deconfining phase transition which shrinks in the extreme weak-coupling limit. A non-trivial Z(N) symmetric vacuum arises in the confined phase. The effective potential for the Polyakov loop in the theory with gauge fields is extracted from the simulations including all modes of the loop as well as for cooled configurations where the hard modes have been averaged out. The former is found to exhibit a non-analytic contribution while the latter can be described by a mean-field like ansatz with quadratic and quartic terms, plus a Vandermonde potential which depends upon the location within the phase diagram. Other results include the exact location of the phase boundary in the plane spanned by the coupling parameters, correlation lengths of several operators in the magnetic and electric sectors and the spatial string tension. We also present results from simulations of the full 4D Yang-Mills theory and attempt to make a qualitative comparison to the 3D effective theory. (orig.)
N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in AdS{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley W.A. 6009 (Australia)
2014-05-06
For all types of N=4 anti-de Sitter (AdS) supersymmetry in three dimensions, we construct manifestly supersymmetric actions for Abelian vector multiplets and explain how to extend the construction to the non-Abelian case. Manifestly N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) actions are explicitly given in the cases of (2,2) and critical (4,0) AdS supersymmetries. The N=4 vector multiplets and the corresponding actions are then reduced to (2,0) AdS superspace, in which only N=2 supersymmetry is manifest. Using the off-shell structure of the N=4 vector multiplets, we provide complete N=4 SYM actions in (2,0) AdS superspace for all types of N=4 AdS supersymmetry. In the case of (4,0) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the resulting N=2 action contains a Chern-Simons term proportional to q/r, where r is the radius of AdS{sub 3} and q is the R-charge of a chiral scalar superfield. The R-charge is a linear inhomogeneous function of X, an expectation value of the N=4 Cotton superfield. Thus our results explain the mysterious structure of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories on S{sup 3} discovered in arXiv:1401.7952. In the case of (3,1) AdS supersymmetry, which has no Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action contains both a Chern-Simons term and a chiral mass-like term. In the case of (2,2) AdS supersymmetry, which admits a Euclidean counterpart, the SYM action has no Chern-Simons and chiral mass-like terms.
Gravity duals for the Coulomb branch of marginally deformed Script N = 4 Yang-Mills
Hernández, Rafael; Sfetsos, Konstadinos; Zoakos, Dimitrios
2006-03-01
Supergravity backgrounds dual to a class of exactly marginal deformations of Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills can be constructed through an SL(2,Bbb R) sequence of T-dualities and coordinate shifts. We apply this transformation to multicenter solutions and derive supergravity backgrounds describing the Coulomb branch of Script N = 1 theories at strong 't Hooft coupling as marginal deformations of Script N = 4 Yang-Mills. For concreteness we concentrate to cases with an SO(4) × SO(2) symmetry preserved by continuous distributions of D3-branes on a disc and on a three-dimensional spherical shell. We compute the expectation value of the Wilson loop operator and confirm the Coulombic behaviour of the heavy quark-antiquark potential in the conformal case. When the vev is turned on we find situations where a complete screening of the potential arises, as well as a confining regime where a linear or a logarithmic potential prevails depending on the ratio of the quark-antiquark separation to the typical vev scale. The spectra of massless excitations on these backgrounds are analyzed by turning the associated differential equations into Schrödinger problems. We find explicit solutions taking into account the entire tower of states related to the reduction of type-IIB supergravity to five dimensions, and hence we go beyond the s-wave approximation that has been considered before for the undeformed case. Arbitrary values of the deformation parameter give rise to the Heun differential equation and the related Inozemtsev integrable system, via a non-standard trigonometric limit as we explicitly demonstrate.
Lattice simulation of a center symmetric three dimensional effective theory for SU(2) Yang-Mills
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present lattice simulations of a center symmetric dimensionally reduced effective field theory for SU(2) Yang Mills which employ thermal Wilson lines and three-dimensional magnetic fields as fundamental degrees of freedom. The action is composed of a gauge invariant kinetic term, spatial gauge fields and a potential for theWilson line which includes a ''fuzzy'' bag term to generate non-perturbative fluctuations between Z(2) degenerate ground states. The model is studied in the limit where the gauge fields are set to zero as well as the full model with gauge fields. We confirm that, at moderately weak coupling, the ''fuzzy'' bag term leads to eigenvalue repulsion in a finite region above the deconfining phase transition which shrinks in the extreme weak-coupling limit. A non-trivial Z(N) symmetric vacuum arises in the confined phase. The effective potential for the Polyakov loop in the theory with gauge fields is extracted from the simulations including all modes of the loop as well as for cooled configurations where the hard modes have been averaged out. The former is found to exhibit a non-analytic contribution while the latter can be described by a mean-field like ansatz with quadratic and quartic terms, plus a Vandermonde potential which depends upon the location within the phase diagram. Other results include the exact location of the phase boundary in the plane spanned by the coupling parameters, correlation lengths of several operators in the magnetic and electric sectors and the spatial string tension. We also present results from simulations of the full 4D Yang-Mills theory and attempt to make a qualitative comparison to the 3D effective theory. (orig.)
Broken SU(3) x SU(3) x SU(3) x SU(3) Symmetry
Freund, P. G. O.; Nambu, Y.
1964-10-01
We argue that the "Eight-fold Way" version of the SU(3) symmetry should be extended to a product of up to four separate and badly broken SU(3) groups, including the gamma{sub 5} type SU(3) symmetry. A hierarchy of subgroups (or subalgebras) are considered within this framework, and two candidates are found to be interesting in view of experimental evidence. Main features of the theory are: 1) the baryons belong to a nonet; 2) there is an octet of axial vector gauge mesons in addition to one or two octets of vector mesons; 3) pseudoscalar and scalar mesons exist as "incomplete" multiplets arising from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry.
On the field/string theory approach to theta dependence in large N Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theta dependence of the vacuum energy in large N Yang-Mills theory has been studied some time ago by Witten using a duality of large N gauge theories with the string theory compactified on a certain space-time. We show that within the field theory context vacuum fluctuations of the topological charge give rise to the vacuum energy consistent with the string theory computation. Furthermore, we calculate 1/N suppressed corrections to the string theory result. The reconciliation of the string and field theory approaches is based on the fact that the gauge theory instantons carry zerobrane charge in the corresponding D-brane construction of Yang-Mills theory. Given the formula for the vacuum energy we study certain aspects of stability of the false vacua of the model for different realizations of the initial conditions. The vacuum structure appears to be different depending on whether N is infinite or, alternatively, large but finite
Dyon of a non-Abelian Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions
Navarro-Lerida, Francisco
2013-01-01
Dyons of an SO(5) Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions are presented. These solitons carry both magnetic and electric global charges. The SO(3)xSO(2) solutions are constructed numerically. These are Chern-Simons dyons, differing radically from Julia-Zee dyons. The Chern-Simons densities employed are defined in 3+1 dimensions, and they are the first two of the 'new' Chern-Simons densities introduced recently. They are defined in terms of both Yang-Mills fields and a 5-component isomultiplet Higgs. When two or more of these Chern-Simons densities are present in the Lagrangian, solutions with vanishing electric charge but nonvanishing electrostatic potential may exist.
Lattice formulation for 2d N=(2,2), (4,4) super Yang-Mills theories without admissibility conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a lattice formulation for two-dimensional N=(2,2) and (4,4) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories that resolves vacuum degeneracy for gauge fields without imposing admissibility conditions. Cases of U(N) and SU(N) gauge groups are considered, gauge fields are expressed by unitary link variables, and one or two supercharges are preserved on the two-dimensional square lattice. There does not appear fermion doubler, and no fine-tuning is required to obtain the desired continuum theories in a perturbative argument. This formulation is expected to serve as a more convenient basis for numerical simulations. The same approach will also be useful to other two-dimensional supersymmetric lattice gauge theories with unitary link variables constructed so far — for example, N=(8,8) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and N=(2,2) supersymmetric QCD
Balakin, Alexander B; Zayats, Alexei E
2016-01-01
Alternative theories of gravity and their solutions are of considerable importance as at some fundamental level the world can reveal new features. Indeed, it is suspected that the gravitational field might be nonminimally coupled to the other fields at scales not yet probed, bringing into the forefront nonminimally coupled theories. In this mode, we consider a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a cosmological constant. Imposing spherical symmetry and staticity for the spacetime and a magnetic Wu-Yang ansatz for the Yang-Mills field, we find expressions for the solutions of the theory. Further imposing constraints on the nonminimal parameters we find a family of exact solutions of the theory depending on five parameters, namely, two nonminimal parameters, the cosmological constant, the magnetic charge, and the mass. These solutions represent magnetic monopoles and black holes in magnetic monopoles with de Sitter, Minkowskian, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics, depending on the sign and value of the cosmol...
D = 4 Yang-Mills correlators from NSR strings on AdS5 x S5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In our previous work (hep-th/9812044) we have proposed the sigma-model action, conjectured to be the NSR analogue of superstring theory on AdS5 x S5 . This sigma-model is the NSR superstring action with potential term corresponding to the exotic 5-form vertex operator (branelike state). This 5-form potential plays the role of cosmological term, effectively curving the flat space-time geometry to that of AdS5 x S5. In this paper we study this ansatz in more detail and provide the derivation of the correlators of the four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory from the above mentioned sigma-model. In particular, we show that the correlation function of two dilaton vertex operators in such a model reproduces the well-known result for the two-point function in N = 4 four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we attempt at constructing a comprehensive four-dimensional unified field theory of gravity, electromagnetism, and the non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and material spin fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects of the space-time manifold $S_4$ via the connection, with the generalized non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field appearing in particular as a sub-field of the geometrized electromagnetic interaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider particles carrying both the electric and magnetic charges in the Yang-Mills theory. The Hamiltonian formultion for the system has been carried out in the Coulomb gauge. The zero mode problem associated with the Coulomb gauge has been taken care of by introducing generalized Green's functions and imposing the restrictions of orthogonality of source terms and zero modes. It has been shown that the orthogonality imposes restrictions on the physical states of the system. 9 refs. (author)
Vertex Operators for Super Yang-Mills and Multi D-Branes in Green-Schwarz Superstring
Hamada, K
1996-01-01
We study vertex operators for super Yang-Mills and multi D-branes in covariant form using Green-Schwarz formalism. We introduce the contact terms naturally and prove space-time supersymmetry and gauge invariance. The nonlinear realization of broken supersymmetry in the presence of D-branes is also discussed. The shift of fermionic coordinate \\delta^{(-)}\\Psi =\\eta becomes exact symmetry of D-brane in the static gauge, where $\\eta$ is a constant spinor in U(1) direction.
Solitons in a six-dimensional super Yang-Mills-tensor system and non-critical strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this letter we study a coupled system of six-dimensional N = 1 tensor and super Yang-Mills multiplets. We identify some of the solitonic states of this system which exhibit stringy behaviour in six dimensions. A discussion of the supercharges and energy for the tensor multiples as well as zero modes is also given. We speculate about the possible relationship between our solution and what is known as tensionless strings. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narita, Makoto [Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)
2006-12-21
We discuss the strong cosmic censorship conjecture for cosmological spacetimes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton system. Locally rotational symmetric Bianchi I spacetimes are considered. We show local and global existence theorems for the system. Asymptotic behaviour for the spacetimes is also investigated. The curvature invariant is blowup at the initial singularities and the spacetimes are future geodesic complete. Thus, the strong cosmic censorship conjecture for the spacetimes holds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the strong cosmic censorship conjecture for cosmological spacetimes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton system. Locally rotational symmetric Bianchi I spacetimes are considered. We show local and global existence theorems for the system. Asymptotic behaviour for the spacetimes is also investigated. The curvature invariant is blowup at the initial singularities and the spacetimes are future geodesic complete. Thus, the strong cosmic censorship conjecture for the spacetimes holds
Della Morte, Michele; Giusti, Leonardo
2010-01-01
We make use of the global symmetries of the Yang-Mills theory on the lattice to design a new computational strategy for extracting glueball masses and matrix elements which achieves an exponential reduction of the statistical error with respect to standard techniques. By generalizing our previous work on the parity symmetry, the partition function of the theory is decomposed into a sum of path integrals each giving the contribution from multiplets of states with fixed quantum numbers associat...
Martin, Carmelo P; You, Jiangyang
2016-01-01
We compute the one-loop 1PI contributions to all the propagators of the noncommutative N=1, 2, 4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) U(1) theories defined by the means of the theta-exact Seiberg-Witten (SW) map in the Wess-Zumino gauge. Then we extract the UV divergent contributions and the noncommutative IR divergences. We show that all the quadratic noncommutative IR divergences add up to zero in each propagator.
Massive Yang-Mills for vector and axial-vector spectral functions at finite temperature
Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf
2016-05-01
The hadronic mechanism which leads to chiral symmetry restoration is explored in the context of the ρπa1 system using Massive Yang-Mills, a hadronic effective theory which governs their microscopic interactions. In this approach, vector and axial-vector mesons are implemented as gauge bosons of a local chiral gauge group. We have previously shown that this model can describe the experimentally measured vector and axial-vector spectral functions in vacuum. Here, we carry the analysis to finite temperatures by evaluating medium effects in a pion gas and calculating thermal spectral functions. We find that the spectral peaks in both channels broaden along with a noticeable downward mass shift in the a1 spectral peak and negligible movement of the ρ peak. The approach toward spectral function degeneracy is accompanied by a reduction of chiral order parameters, i.e., the pion decay constant and scalar condensate. Our findings suggest a mechanism where the chiral mass splitting induced in vacuum is burned off. We explore this mechanism and identify future investigations which can further test it.
Gauge Coupling Field, Currents, Anomalies and N=1 Super-Yang-Mills Effective Actions
Ambrosetti, Nicola; Derendinger, Jean-Pierre; Hartog, Jelle
2016-01-01
Working with a gauge coupling field in a linear superfield, we construct effective Lagrangians for N=1 super-Yang-Mills theory fully compatible with the expected all-order behaviour or physical quantities. Using the one-loop dependence on its ultraviolet cutoff and anomaly matching or cancellation of R and dilatation anomalies, we obtain the Wilsonian effective Lagrangian. With similar anomaly matching or cancellation methods, we derive the effective action for gaugino condensates, as a function of the real coupling field. Both effective actions lead to a derivation of the NSVZ beta function from algebraic arguments only. The extension of results to N=2 theories or to matter systems is briefly considered. The main tool for the discussion of anomalies is a generic supercurrent structure with 16_B+16_F operators (the S multiplet), which we derive using superspace identities and field equations for a fully general gauge theory Lagrangian with the linear gauge coupling superfield, and with various U(1)_R currents...
Unified N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills-Einstein Supergravity Theories in Four Dimensions
Günaydin, M; Zagermann, M
2005-01-01
We study unified N=2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories (MESGTs) and unified Yang-Mills Einstein supergravity theories (YMESGTs) in four dimensions. As their defining property, these theories admit the action of a global or local symmetry group that is (i) simple, and (ii) acts irreducibly on all the vector fields of the theory, including the ``graviphoton''. Restricting ourselves to the theories that originate from five dimensions via dimensional reduction, we find that the generic Jordan family of MESGTs with the scalar manifolds [SU(1,1)/U(1)] X [SO(2,n)/SO(2)X SO(n)] are all unified in four dimensions with the unifying global symmetry group SO(2,n). Of these theories only one can be gauged so as to obtain a unified YMESGT with the gauge group SO(2,1). Three of the four magical supergravity theories defined by simple Euclidean Jordan algebras of degree 3 are unified MESGTs in four dimensions. Two of these can furthermore be gauged so as to obtain 4D unified YMESGTs with gauge groups SO(3,2) and SO(6,2)...
Yang-Mills theory for semidirect products G x g{sup *} and its instantons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz Ruiz, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)
2015-07-15
Yang-Mills theory with a symmetry algebra that is the semidirect product h x h* defined by the coadjoint action of a Lie algebra h on its dual h* is studied. The gauge group is the semidirect product G{sub h} x h*, a noncompact group given by the coadjoint action on h* of the Lie group G{sub h} of h* For h simple, a method to construct the self-antiself dual instantons of the theory and their gauge nonequivalent deformations is presented. Every G{sub h} x h* instanton has an embedded G{sub h} instanton with the same instanton charge, in terms of which the construction is realized. As an example, h = su(2) and instanton charge one is considered. The gauge group is in this case SU(2) x R{sup 3}. Explicit expressions for the selfdual connection, the zero modes and the metric and complex structures of the moduli space are given. (orig.)
Unconstrained SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with topological term in the long-wavelength approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Hamiltonian reduction of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory for arbitrary θ-angle to an unconstrained nonlocal theory of a self-interacting second-rank symmetric tensor field is performed. It is shown that, after exact projection to reduced phase space, the Pontryagin topological term in the action remains a pure divergence, proving the θ-independence of the obtained unconstrained theory. Expansion of the nonlocal kinetic part of the Hamiltonian in powers of inverse coupling constant and truncation to lowest order, however, leads to violation of the θ-independence of the theory. In order to maintain this property on the level of the local approximate theory, a modified expansion in inverse coupling constant is suggested, which for vanishing θ-angle coincides with the original expansion. The corresponding approximate Lagrangian up to second order in derivatives is derived and the explicit form of the unconstrained analog of the Chern-Simons current linear in derivatives is given. Finally, expanding the truncated Hamiltonian around the minimum of the potential, a nonlinear σ-model type effective theory is obtained, with the Pontryagin topological term reducing to the Hopf invariant of the mapping from the 3-sphere S3 to the unit 2-sphere S2 in the Whitehead form
Screening masses in quenched (2+1)d Yang-Mills theory: universality from dynamics?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frigori, Rafael B. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: We have computed the spectrum of gluonic screening-masses in the scalar channel of quenched 3d Yang - Mills theory near the phase - transition. Our finite-temperature lattice simulations have been performed at the scaling region, using state-of- the-art techniques for thermalization and spectroscopy, which allows for thorough data extrapolations to thermodynamic limit. In addition no discretization effects were observed for the employed lattice sizes, which indicates that these results are still valid when taking the continuum limit of the theory. Ratios among mass-excitations with the same quantum numbers on the gauge theory, the 2d Ising model and the Lambda-phi-4 theory on the lattice are compared, resulting in a nice agreement with predictions from universality hypothesis. We have also compared the obtained mass ratios with predictions from a dynamical 'gauge-to-scalar mapping', recently proposed by M. Frasca to fit QCD Greens functions at deep IR in (3+1)d, to whom our data shows a nice universal agreement even in (2+1)d. (author)
Equivariant symplectic geometry of gauge fixing in Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Faddeev-Popov gauge fixing in Yang-Mills theory is interpreted as equivariant localization. It is shown that the Faddeev-Popov procedure amounts to a construction of a symplectic manifold with a Hamiltonian group action. The BRST cohomology is shown to be equivalent to the equivariant cohomology based on this symplectic manifold with Hamiltonian group action. The ghost operator is interpreted as a (pre)symplectic form and the gauge condition as the moment map corresponding to the Hamiltonian group action. This results in the identification of the gauge fixing action as a closed equivariant form, the sum of an equivariant symplectic form, and a certain closed equivariant 4-form, which ensures convergence. An almost complex structure compatible with the symplectic form is constructed. The equivariant localization principle is used to localize the path integrals onto the gauge slice. The Gribov problem is also discussed in the context of equivariant localization principle. As a simple illustration of the methods developed in the paper, the partition function of N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics is calculated by equivariant localization
Two- and three-point functions in Landau gauge Yang-Mills-Higgs theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang-Mills-Higgs theory offers a rich set of physics. In particular, in some region of its parameter space it has QCD-like behavior, while in some other range it is Higgs-like. Furthermore, for the choice of the gauge group SU(2) and an SU(2) Higgs flavor symmetry it is the Higgs sector of the standard model. Therefore, it is possible to study a plethora of phenomena within a single theory. Here the standard-model version is studied using lattice gauge theory. Choosing non-aligned minimal Landau gauge, its propagators and three-point vertices will be determined in both the QCD-like and Higgs-like domains. This permits to test various proposals for how confinement works, as well as how confinement and the Higgs effect differ. The correlations functions are found to exhibit a different behavior, depending on whether the lowest mass scalar flavor singlet is lighter than the vector triplet, heavier and stable, or unstable against decay into two vector triplets
On string solutions of Bethe equations in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bethe equations, arising in description of the spectrum of the dilatation operator for the su(2) sector of the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, are considered in the anti-ferromagnetic regime. These equations are deformation of those for the Heisenberg XXX magnet. It is proven that in the thermodynamic limit roots of the deformed equations group into strings. It is proven that the corresponding Yang's action is convex, which implies uniqueness of solution for centers of the strings. The state formed of strings of length (2n+1) is considered and the density of their distribution is found. It is shown that the energy of such a state decreases as n grows. It is observed that non-analyticity of the left hand side of the Bethe equations leads to an additional contribution to the density and energy of strings of even length. Whence it is concluded that the structure of the anti-ferromagnetic vacuum is determined by the behaviour of exponential corrections to string solutions in the thermodynamic limit and possibly involves strings of length 2. (orig.)
A Tree-level Unitary Noncompact Weyl-Einstein-Yang-Mills Model
Dengiz, Suat
2016-01-01
We construct and study perturbative unitarity (i.e., ghost and tachyon analysis) of a $3+1$-dimensional noncompact Weyl-Einstein-Yang-Mills model. The model describes a local noncompact Weyl's scale plus $SU(N)$ phase invariant Higgs-like field, conformally coupled to a generic Weyl-invariant dynamical background. Here, the Higgs-like sector generates the Weyl's conformal invariance of system. The action does not admit any dimensionful parameter and genuine presence of de Sitter vacuum spontaneously breaks the noncompact gauge symmetry in an analogous manner to the Standard Model Higgs mechanism. As to flat spacetime, the dimensionful parameter is generated within the dimensional transmutation in quantum field theories, and thus the symmetry is radiatively broken through the one-loop Effective Coleman-Weinberg potential. We show that the mere expectation of reducing to Einstein's gravity in the broken phases forbids anti-de Sitter space to be its stable constant curvature vacuum. The model is unitary in de Si...