WorldWideScience

Sample records for classical single injection

  1. A Single Classical Quark

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, V D

    1997-01-01

    The spherically symmetric solution in classical SU(3) Yang - Mills theory is found. It is supposed that such solution describes a classical quark. It is regular in origin and hence the interaction between two quarks is small on the small distance. The obtained solution has the singularity on infinity. It is possible that is the reason why the free quark cannot exist. Evidently, nonlocality of this object leads to the fact that in quantum chromodynamic the difficulties arise connected with investigation of quarks interaction on large distance.

  2. Single gate optimization for plastic injection mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-quan; LI De-qun; GUO Zhi-ying; LV Hai-yuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with a methodology for single gate location optimization for plastic injection mold. The objective of the gate optimization is to minimize the warpage of injection molded parts, because warpage is a crucial quality issue for most injection molded parts while it is influenced greatly by the gate location. Feature warpage is defined as the ratio of maximum displacement on the feature surface to the projected length of the feature surface to describe part warpage. The optimization is combined with the numerical simulation technology to find the optimal gate location, in which the simulated annealing algorithm is used to search for the optimum. Finally, an example is discussed in the paper and it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective.

  3. Secure authentication of classical messages with single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a scheme for secure authentication of classical messages with single photons and a hashed function. The security analysis of this scheme is also given, which shows that anyone cannot forge valid message authentication codes (MACs). In addition, the lengths of the authentication key and the MACs are invariable and shorter, in comparison with those presented authentication schemes. Moreover, quantum data storage and entanglement are not required in this scheme. Therefore, this scheme is more efficient and economical. (general)

  4. Reassessment of a classical single injection 51Cr-EDTA clearance method for determination of renal function in children and adults. Part I: Analytically correct relationship between total and one-pool clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Brøchner-Mortensen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    and adults. Material and methods. Cl was determined in 149 subjects (M/F/children: 71/46/32) from a complete plasma concentration curve followed for 4-5 h after injection of 51Cr-EDTA (range of clearance: 8-183 mL/min/1.73 m²). Plasma volume, PV and the "missing" area under the plasma fraction curve......Background. Total plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, Cl, is widely used as a measure of GFR. Commonly, only the final part of the plasma concentration curve is measured, and a one-pool clearance (slope-intercept clearance), Cl1, is computed. Empirically determined second-order polynomials of the......, a (minutes), not used for determination of Cl1, were measured. Results. The true relationship between Cl and Cl1 is given by Cl = Cl1/(1+f·Cl1), where f = a/PV. For men, women and children alike, the equation f = 0.0032·BSA-1.3 was applicable (BSA = body surface area in m²). Estimation errors on...

  5. Secure authentication of classical messages with single photons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tian-Yin; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for secure authentication of classical messages with single photons and a hashed function.The security analysis of this scheme is also given,which shows that anyone cannot forge valid message authentication codes (MACs).In addition,the lengths of the authentication key and the MACs are invariable and shorter,in comparison with those presented authentication schemes.Moreover,quantum data storage and entanglement are not required in this scheme.Therefore,this scheme is more efficient and economical.

  6. Impact of charge carrier injection on single-chain photophysics of conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Felix J; Lupton, John M

    2016-01-01

    Charges in conjugated polymer materials have a strong impact on the photophysics and their interaction with the primary excited state species has to be taken into account in understanding device properties. Here, we employ single-molecule spectroscopy to unravel the influence of charges on several photoluminescence (PL) observables. The charges are injected either stochastically by a photochemical process, or deterministically in a hole-injection sandwich device configuration. We find that upon charge injection, besides a blue-shift of the PL emission and a shortening of the PL lifetime due to quenching and blocking of the lowest-energy chromophores, the non-classical photon arrival time distribution of the multichromophoric chain is modified towards a more classical distribution. Surprisingly, the fidelity of photon antibunching deteriorates upon charging, whereas one would actually expect the number of chromophores to be reduced. A qualitative model is presented to explain the observed PL changes. The resul...

  7. An Injection-seeded Narrow Linewidth Singly Resonant ZGP OPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Barnes, Norman P.; Lee, Hyung R.; Bai, Yingxin

    2006-01-01

    Injection seeding of a singly resonant ZnGeP2 (ZGP) mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) using a continuous wave 3.39 micrometers laser and a tunable near-infrared laser has been demonstrated. This ZGP OPO utilizes a bow-tie shape cavity with a partially reflective mirror for injection seeding at the signal wavelength. It produces high energy pulses in the mid-IR range from 4-10 micrometers. The injection seeded OPO provides a narrow idler wavelength linewidth of approximately 1 nm, limited by the measurement resolution of the monochromator.

  8. Effects of Atomic Coherence and Injected Classical Field on Chaotic Dynamics of Non-degenerate Cascade Two-Photon Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the cascade two-photon laser dynamic equation derived with the technique of quantum Langevin operators with the considerations of coherently prepared three-level atoms and the classical field injected into the cavity, we numerically study the effects of atomic coherence and classical field on the chaotic dynamics of a two-photon laser. Lyapunov exponent and bifurcation diagram calculations show that the Lorenz chaos and hyperchaos can be induced or inhibited by the atomic coherence and the classical field via crisis or Hopf bifurcations.

  9. Impact of charge carrier injection on single-chain photophysics of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Felix J.; Vogelsang, Jan; Lupton, John M.

    2016-06-01

    Charges in conjugated polymer materials have a strong impact on the photophysics and their interaction with the primary excited state species has to be taken into account in understanding device properties. Here, we employ single-molecule spectroscopy to unravel the influence of charges on several photoluminescence (PL) observables. The charges are injected either stochastically by a photochemical process or deterministically in a hole-injection sandwich device configuration. We find that upon charge injection, besides a blue-shift of the PL emission and a shortening of the PL lifetime due to quenching and blocking of the lowest-energy chromophores, the non-classical photon arrival time distribution of the multichromophoric chain is modified towards a more classical distribution. Surprisingly, the fidelity of photon antibunching deteriorates upon charging, whereas one would actually expect the opposite: the number of chromophores to be reduced. A qualitative model is presented to explain the observed PL changes. The results are of interest to developing a microscopic understanding of the intrinsic charge-exciton quenching interaction in devices.

  10. Comparison of single injection and three monthly injections of intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Y

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuka Ito, Yoshitsugu Saishin, Osamu Sawada, Masashi Kakinoki, Taichiro Miyake, Tomoko Sawada, Hajime Kawamura, Masahito Ohji Department of Ophthalmology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan Purpose: Our aim was to compare the 1 year efficacy and safety results of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB in two prospective, consecutive groups of patients with macular edema (ME following branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.Patients and methods: Twenty-five eyes with ME after BRVO received one IVB injection (single-injection group and 27 eyes received three monthly IVB injections (three-injection group. Both groups were followed monthly for 12 months. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and the central foveal thickness (CFT on optical coherence tomography were evaluated before and after treatment. Patients were eligible to receive an IVB injection if the mean CFT increased 100 µm or more or the BCVA decreased 0.1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR unit or more compared with values measured on the last visit.Results: The mean logMAR BCVA and CFT, respectively, improved from 0.56 to 0.33 and from 598 µm to 348 µm in the single-injection group (P<0.001 and from 0.55 to 0.26 and from 514 µm to 293 µm in the three-injection group (P<0.001. During the study period, the mean total number of injections was significantly smaller in the single-injection group than in the three-injection group (2.1 and 4.3, respectively, P<0.001. No serious complications related to the IVB injections developed in either group.Conclusion: The single-injection group achieved similar visual outcomes for ME secondary to BRVO with fewer injections compared with the three-injection group. Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, bevacizumab, single intravitreal injection, three monthly intravitreal injections

  11. Cubic Single Crystal Representations in Classical and Size-dependent Couple Stress Elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad J; Hadjesfandiari, Ali R

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with Cosserat theory in the early 20th century, there have been several different formulations for size-dependent elastic response. In this paper, we concentrate on the application of classical Cauchy theory and the recent parsimonious consistent couple stress theory to model a homogeneous linear elastic solid, exemplified by a pure single crystal with cubic structure. The focus is on an examination of elastodynamic response based upon wave velocities from ultrasonic excitation and phonon dispersion curves, along with adiabatic bulk moduli measurements. In particular, we consider in detail elastic parameter estimation within classical elasticity and consistent couple stress theory for four different cubic single crystals (NaCl, KCl, Cu, CuZn). The classical theory requires the estimation of three independent material parameters, while only one additional parameter relating skew-symmetric mean curvature to skew-symmetric couple-stress is needed for the size-dependent consistent couple stress theory. ...

  12. Indian single pellet injection system for plasma fuelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single barrel hydrogen pellet injection system is developed at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India. The injector is able to produce 1.6 mm length × 1.8 mm diameter pellets. The achieved velocity of pellet is in the range of 700 to 900 m/s and is controlled by regulating the propellant pressure. The size and speed of pellet are decided by considering the neutral gas shielding model (NGS) based calculations. The injector is an in-situ pipe gun type injector, in which, a solid hydrogen pellet is formed at the freezing zone maintained at a temperature < 10 K and is accelerated to high speed using high pressure propellant gas. A GM cycle based cryocooler is used to maintain temperature at freezing zone. Proper care has been taken to minimize heat load on freezing zon using MLI. Pellet formed at the freezing zone is dislodged and accelerated to higher speed by using high pressure helium propellant gas through a fast opening valve of (opening duration < 2 millisecond). A three-stage differential pumping system is employed to remove propellant gas from injection line. Appropriate diagnostics is used to measure pellet parameters. Speed of pellet is measured by time of flight measurement using light gate diagnostic system. Pellet quality and its size, and also speed are measured using fast camera based imaging system. A Labview based GUI is used to communicate between control system and Pellet injector. The reliability of pellet formation and injection in present experimental system is greater than 95 %. (author)

  13. Efficacy of a single ultrasound-guided injection for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Atchia, Ismaël

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular injection is effective for osteoarthritis, but the best single injection strategy is not known, nor are there established predictors of response. The objectives of this study were to assess and predict response to a single ultrasound-guided injection in moderate to severe hip osteoarthritis.

  14. Quantum theory of single events: Localized de Broglie-wavelets, Schroedinger waves and classical trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an arbitrary potential V with classical trajectories x-vector=g-vector(t) we construct localized oscillating three-dimensional wave lumps ψ(x-vector,t,g-vector) representing a single quantum particle. The crest of the envelope of the ripple follows the classical orbit g-vector(t) slightly modified due to potential V and ψ(x-vector,t;g-vector) satisfies the Schroedinger equation. The field energy, momentum and angular momentum calculated as integrals over all space are equal to particle energy, momentum and angular momentum. The relation to coherent states and to Schroedinger waves are also discussed. (author). 6 refs

  15. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  16. Time-resolved energy dynamics after single electron injection into an interacting helical liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Calzona, Alessio; Acciai, Matteo; Carrega, Matteo; Cavaliere, Fabio; Sassetti, Maura

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to inject a single electron into ballistic conductors is at the basis of the new field of electron quantum optics. Here, we consider a single electron injection into the helical edge channels of a topological insulator. Their counterpropagating nature and the unavoidable presence of electron-electron interactions dramatically affect the time evolution of the single wavepacket. Modeling the injection process from a mesoscopic capacitor in presence of non-local tunneling, we foc...

  17. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  18. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  19. Non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons from a mechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Ralf; Hong, Sungkun; Norte, Richard A.; Slater, Joshua A.; Shang, Juying; Krause, Alexander G.; Anant, Vikas; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Gröblacher, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Interfacing a single photon with another quantum system is a key capability in modern quantum information science. It allows quantum states of matter, such as spin states of atoms, atomic ensembles or solids, to be prepared and manipulated by photon counting and, in particular, to be distributed over long distances. Such light-matter interfaces have become crucial to fundamental tests of quantum physics and realizations of quantum networks. Here we report non-classical correlations between single photons and phonons—the quanta of mechanical motion—from a nanomechanical resonator. We implement a full quantum protocol involving initialization of the resonator in its quantum ground state of motion and subsequent generation and read-out of correlated photon-phonon pairs. The observed violation of a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is clear evidence for the non-classical nature of the mechanical state generated. Our results demonstrate the availability of on-chip solid-state mechanical resonators as light-matter quantum interfaces. The performance we achieved will enable studies of macroscopic quantum phenomena as well as applications in quantum communication, as quantum memories and as quantum transducers.

  20. Dynamical Properties of a Single-Mode Laser with Both Colored Noise and Injected Signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Feng; LUO Xiao-Qin; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2001-01-01

    The colored noise in a single-mode laser with injected signal is investigated by the method of two-dimensional unified colored noise approximation. The normalized correlation function λ2(0), the intensity correlation time Tc and effective eigenvalue λeff are calculated. The effects of the injected signal Io, colored noise strength P' and the noise

  1. Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Single Element Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate the feasibility in a single element of a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection, ME-LDI, Combustion concept. The concept will have the...

  2. Classical nuclear dynamics on a single time-dependent potential in electronic non-adiabatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Min, Seung Kyu; Maitra, Neepa T.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2015-03-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation allows to visualize the coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in molecular systems as a set of nuclei moving on a single potential energy surface representing the effect of the electrons in a given eigenstate. Many interesting phenomena, however, such as vision or charge separation in organic photovoltaic materials, take place in conditions beyond its range of validity. Nevertheless, the basic construct of the adiabatic treatment, the BO potential energy surfaces, is employed to describe non-adiabatic processes and the full problem is represented in terms of adiabatic states and transitions among them in regions of strong non-adiabatic coupling. But the concept of single potential energy is lost. The alternative point of view arising in the framework of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function will be presented. A single, time-dependent, potential energy provides the force driving the nuclear motion and is adopted as starting point for the development of quantum-classical approximations to the full quantum mechanical problem.

  3. Electro-mechanical engineering of non-classical photon emissions from single quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indistinguishable photons and entangled photon pairs are the key elements for quantum information applications, for example, building a quantum repeater. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for the creation of such non-classical photon emissions, and offer the possibility to be integrated into solid state devices. However, due to the random nature of the self-assembled growth process, post-growth treatments are required to engineer the exciton state in the QDs (e.g. energies, exciton lifetimes, and fine structure splittings). In this work, we study the electro-mechanical engineering of the exciton lifetime, emission energy in the QDs, with the aim to produce single photons with higher indistinguishability. Also we present a recent experimental study on the statistical properties of fine structure splittings in the QD ensemble, in order to gain a deeper understanding of how to generate entangled photon pairs using semiconductor QDs.

  4. Development of single dilution immunoassay to detect E2 protein specific classical swine fever virus antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Barman, Nagendra N; Khatoon, Elina; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-04-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in swine. The disease is endemic in different parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect pigs from CSFV infection. The virus surface protein E2 is the major immunogenic protein eliciting protective immunity against CSFV infection in swine. The whole virus antigen cannot differentiate CSFV from other pestiviruses as it cross reacts with border disease and bovine viral diarrhoea viruses. Commercial available ELISA is based on the whole CSFV particle and can lead to false positive results. Moreover, the available commercial ELISA is not cost effective. In the present study, a recombinant E2 protein based single serum dilution ELISA was developed which showed enhanced sensitivity, specificity and accuracy as compared to commercial CSFV detection ELISA. The recombinant E2 protein based ELISA could be an alternate to existing diagnostics against CSFV infection in pigs. PMID:27032503

  5. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection effects on contrast sensitivity in macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rony Carlos Preti; Lisa Mariel Vasquez Ramirez; Sergio Luis Gianotti Pimentel; Augusto Alves Lopes Motta; Cleide Guimarães Machado; Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro; Walter Yukihiko Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness in eyes with macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with macular edema from unilateral branch retinal vein occlusion were treated with a single bevacizumab injection. Patients were submitted to a complete evaluation including best corrected visual acuity, contr...

  6. Quantum discord and classical correlation signatures of mobility edges in one-dimensional aperiodic single-electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate numerically the quantum discord and the classical correlation in a one-dimensional slowly varying potential model and a one-dimensional Soukoulis–Economou ones, respectively. There are well-defined mobility edges in the slowly varying potential model, while there are discrepancies on mobility edges in the Soukoulis–Economou ones. In the slowly varying potential model, we find that extended and localized states can be distinguished by both the quantum discord and the classical correlation. There are sharp transitions in the quantum discord and the classical correlation at mobility edges. Based on these, we study “mobility edges” in the Soukoulis–Economou model using the quantum discord and the classical correlation, which gives another perspectives for these “mobility edges”. All these provide us good quantities, i.e., the quantum discord and the classical correlation, to reflect mobility edges in these one-dimensional aperiodic single-electron systems. Moreover, our studies propose a consistent interpretation of the discrepancies between previous numerical results about the Soukoulis–Economou model. -- Highlights: ► Quantum discord and classical correlation can signal mobility edges in two models. ► An interpretation for mobility edges in the Soukoulis–Economou model is proposed. ► Quantum discord and classical correlation can reflect well localization properties.

  7. Radiation characteristics of multiple and single sound hole vihuelas and a classical guitar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Two recently built vihuelas, quasi-replicas of the Spanish Renaissance guitar, one with a small body and one sound hole and one with a large body with five sound holes, together with a classical guitar are investigated. Frequency dependent radiation strengths are measured using a 128 microphone array, back-propagating the frequency dependent sound field upon the body surface. All three instruments have a strong sound hole radiation within the low frequency range. Here the five tone holes vihuela has a much wider frequency region of strong sound hole radiation up to about 500 Hz, whereas the single hole instruments only have strong sound hole radiations up to about 300 Hz due to the enlarged radiation area of the sound holes. The strong broadband radiation of the five sound hole vihuela up to about 500 Hz is also caused by the sound hole phases, showing very consistent in-phase relations up to this frequency range. Also the radiation strength of the sound holes placed nearer to the center of the sound box are much stronger than those near the ribs, pointing to a strong position dependency of sound hole to radiation strength. The Helmholtz resonance frequency of the five sound hole vihuela is influenced by this difference in radiation strength but not by the rosettas, which only have a slight effect on the Helmholtz frequency. PMID:22280704

  8. Non-Fourier heat conduction in a single-walled carbon nanotube: Classical molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonstationary heat conduction in a single-walled carbon nanotube was investigated by applying a local heat pulse with duration of subpicoseconds. The investigation was based on classical molecular dynamics simulations, where the heat pulse was generated as coherent fluctuations by connecting a thermostat to the local cell for a short duration. The heat conduction through the nanotube was observed in terms of spatiotemporal temperature profiles. Results of the simulations exhibit non-Fourier heat conduction where a distinct amount of heat is transported in a wavelike form. The geometry of carbon nanotubes allows us to observe such a phenomenon in the actual scale of the material. The resulting spatiotemporal profile was compared with the available macroscopic equations, the so-called non-Fourier heat conduction equations, in order to investigate the applicability of the phenomenological models to a quasi-one-dimensional system. The conventional hyperbolic diffusion equation fails to predict the heat conduction due to the lack of local diffusion. It is shown that this can be remedied by adopting a model with dual relaxation time. Further modal analyses using wavelet transformations reveal a significant contribution of the optical phonon modes to the observed wavelike heat conduction. The result suggests that, in carbon nanotubes with finite length where the long-wavelength acoustic phonons behave ballistically, even optical phonons can play a major role in the non-Fourier heat conduction

  9. Fat injection to correct contour deformities of the reconstructed breast: a single surgeon experience

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef Tahiri; Jonathan Kanevsky; Joshua Vorstenbosch; James Lee; Karl Schwarz

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Autologous fat grafting has gained acceptance as a technique to improve aesthetic outcomes in breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to share our clinical experience using autologous fat injection to correct contour deformities during breast reconstruction. Methods: A single surgeon, prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent autologous fat injection during breast reconstruction from January 2008 to November 2013 at McGill University Health Center was revie...

  10. Comparison of Corneal Endothelial Changes After a Single-Dose Injection of Bevacizumab or Ranibizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Horozoğlu; Tansu Gönen; Mustafa Yaşar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the corneal endothelial changes after injection of a single-dose intravitreal bevacizumab or intravitreal ranibizumab. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 27 eyes of 27 patients with either diabetic macular edema or senile macular degeneration, who underwent 1.25 mg/0.05 ml intravitreal bevacizumab or 0.5 mg/0.05 ml ranibizumab injection. None of the patients had corneal pathology. Fourteen eyes of 14 patients received intravitreal ra...

  11. Ticarcillin concentrations in serum, muscle, and fat after a single intravenous injection.

    OpenAIRE

    Daschner, F D; Thoma, G; Langmaack, H; Dalhoff, A.

    1980-01-01

    Ticarcillin concentrations in serum, muscle, and fat were determined simultaneously in 23 patients after the intravenous injection of a single dose of 5 g. The mean concentrations of ticarcillin in serum, muscle, and fat were, respectively, 185 microgram/ml, 18 microgram/g, and 32 microgram/g at 1.0 to 1.5 h after the injections, declining to levels of 11 microgram/ml, 2 microgram/g at 6 to 7 h after the injections. There was no significant difference between the serum tissue ratios at these ...

  12. Single Cell Transfection through Precise Microinjection with Quantitatively Controlled Injection Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yu Ting; Chen, Shuxun; Wang, Ran; Liu, Chichi; Kong, Chi-Wing; Li, Ronald A.; Cheng, Shuk Han; Sun, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Cell transfection is a technique wherein foreign genetic molecules are delivered into cells. To elucidate distinct responses during cell genetic modification, methods to achieve transfection at the single-cell level are of great value. Herein, we developed an automated micropipette-based quantitative microinjection technology that can deliver precise amounts of materials into cells. The developed microinjection system achieved precise single-cell microinjection by pre-patterning cells in an array and controlling the amount of substance delivered based on injection pressure and time. The precision of the proposed injection technique was examined by comparing the fluorescence intensities of fluorescent dye droplets with a standard concentration and water droplets with a known injection amount of the dye in oil. Injection of synthetic modified mRNA (modRNA) encoding green fluorescence proteins or a cocktail of plasmids encoding green and red fluorescence proteins into human foreskin fibroblast cells demonstrated that the resulting green fluorescence intensity or green/red fluorescence intensity ratio were well correlated with the amount of genetic material injected into the cells. Single-cell transfection via the developed microinjection technique will be of particular use in cases where cell transfection is challenging and genetically modified of selected cells are desired.

  13. Time-resolved energy dynamics after single electron injection into an interacting helical liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzona, Alessio; Acciai, Matteo; Carrega, Matteo; Cavaliere, Fabio; Sassetti, Maura

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of injecting a single electron into ballistic conductors is at the basis of the new field of electron quantum optics. Here, we consider a single electron injection into the helical edge channels of a topological insulator. Their counterpropagating nature and the unavoidable presence of electron-electron interactions dramatically affect the time evolution of the single wave packet. Modeling the injection process from a mesoscopic capacitor in the presence of nonlocal tunneling, we focus on the time-resolved charge and energy packet dynamics. Both quantities split up into counterpropagating contributions whose profiles are strongly affected by the interaction strength. In addition, stronger signatures are found for the injected energy, which is also affected by the finite width of the tunneling region, in contrast to what happens for the charge. Indeed, the energy flow can be controlled by tuning the injection parameters, and we demonstrate that, in the presence of nonlocal tunneling, it is possible to achieve a situation in which charge and energy flow in opposite directions.

  14. Ultrasound-guided single-penetration dual-injection block for leg and foot surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Johansen, Karina; Christensen, Karen Margrethe;

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new approach to blocking the sciatic and saphenous nerves in the proximal thigh (level of the lesser trochanter or immediately below) using a single-penetration dual-injection (SPEDI) technique. The popliteal-sciatic approach necessitates repositioning of the leg exposing the poplit...... popliteal fossa and an extra injection for the saphenous nerve (SAN) block at the midthigh level. We introduce an alternative, effective, and possibly faster method.......We describe a new approach to blocking the sciatic and saphenous nerves in the proximal thigh (level of the lesser trochanter or immediately below) using a single-penetration dual-injection (SPEDI) technique. The popliteal-sciatic approach necessitates repositioning of the leg exposing the...

  15. Design comparison of single-anode and double-anode 300-MW magnetron injection gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, W.; Specht, V. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Analytic tradeoff equations based on adiabatic assumptions are used to explore feasible design regions for single-anode Magnetron Injection Guns (MIG's). Particle simulations are then used to optimize a single-anode and a double-anode design for a 1-[mu]s, 500-kV, 600-A MIG which is required for a second-harmonic gyroklystron. The advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are critically examined.

  16. All-in-polymer injection molded device for single cell capture using multilevel silicon master fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, S.; Larsen, S.T.; Matteucci, M.; Taboryski, R.

    This work demonstrates a novel all-in-polymer device for single cell capture applicable for biological recordings. The chip is injection molded and comprises a "cornered" (non planar) aperture. It has been demonstrated how cornered apertures are straightforward to mold in PDMS [1,2]. In this stud...

  17. Orbital free DFT versus single density equation: a perspective through quantum domain behavior of a classically chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debdutta; Kar, Susmita; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2015-12-21

    The orbital free density functional theory and the single density equation approach are formally equivalent. An orbital free density based quantum dynamical strategy is used to study the quantum-classical correspondence in both weakly and strongly coupled van der Pol and Duffing oscillators in the presence of an external electric field in one dimension. The resulting quantum hydrodynamic equations of motion are solved through an implicit Euler type real space method involving a moving weighted least square technique. The Lagrangian framework used here allows the numerical grid points to follow the wave packet trajectory. The associated classical equations of motion are solved using a sixth order Runge-Kutta method and the Ehrenfest dynamics is followed through the solution of the time dependent Schrodinger equation using a time dependent Fourier Grid Hamiltonian technique. Various diagnostics reveal a close parallelism between classical regular as well as chaotic dynamics and that obtained from the Bohmian mechanics. PMID:26033095

  18. All-in-polymer injection molded device for single cell capture using multilevel silicon master fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, S.; Larsen, S.T.; Matteucci, M.;

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates a novel all-in-polymer device for single cell capture applicable for biological recordings. The chip is injection molded and comprises a "cornered" (non planar) aperture. It has been demonstrated how cornered apertures are straightforward to mold in PDMS [1,2]. In this study...... we demonstrate cornered apertures made in a thermoplastic polymer. One of the advantages of cornered apertures is the ease of microscopy under a standard inverted optical microscope, when using transparent materials. After the part is injection molded, the sealing of the chip is performed by thermal...

  19. "Single-use" needles and syringes for the prevention of HIV infection among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, D C

    1998-01-01

    Providing single-use injection equipment to persons who inject illicit drugs would appear to be an effective method for reducing HIV transmission. However, interviews with manufacturers, syringe exchange program staff, and drug users revealed numerous difficulties with such a technologic solution. All designs for such equipment can be defeated and should probably be called difficult-to-reuse equipment. There are problems with consumer acceptance of difficult-to-reuse equipment and with safe disposal of large amounts of biohazardous waste. Despite these problems, it would be useful to conduct additional research, particularly on the potential for placing difficult-to-reuse equipment into shooting galleries. PMID:9663624

  20. Retention and distribution of 226Ra in beagles: a comparison between multiple and single injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal uptake, retention, and distribution of 226Ra were studied in 330 beagles administered eight semi-monthly i.v. injections of radium starting at 2, 4, and 14 months of age. Skeletal uptake, the ratio of body burden at 35 days post-injection (A35) to the total injected dose (A0) was 71.7 percent, 78.1 percent and 38.5 percent, for a dose of 10 μCi/kg body weight administered starting at 2, 4, and 14 months of age, respectively. Skeletal retention of radium 350 days post-injection (A350/A0) was 67.2 percent, 73.3 percent, and 27.7 percent. Comparison of 226Ra retention from single and multiple injections of radium shows that at dose level 6.064 μCi/kg the retention functions for periods 35 days after injection are identical; for dose level 10 μCi/kg, a larger retention is observed for multiple-injection groups. Comparison of 226Ra retention in man with that in beagles shows that within a period between 35 days and 6000 days post--injection, the body burden in dog decreases by about 6 times in contrast with 43 times in man. Regional distribution of 226Ra in bone matrix at proximal, midshaft, and distal humeri from 21 beagles shows the highest concentration of the radionuclide at proximal regions. Radium distribution on autoradiograms shows a uniform distribution in 4-month-old beagles in contrast to ''hot spots'' superimposed on a diffuse background for the 14-month age group. Radium in the latter group is located mostly on periosteum and endosteum surfaces

  1. Semi-classical theory and experimental research for polarization flipping in a single frequency laser with feedback effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wen-Xue; Zhang Shu-Lian; Zhang Peng; Zeng Zhao-Li

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a semi-classical theory to successfully explain the polarization flipping in a single frequency laser. An experimental setup is built to verify this theory. The observed experimental phenomena are consistent with the theoretical analysis.We perform phase retardation measurements of birefringent components using this experimental system.The results show that the measurement repeatability is 0.12° and the measurement accuracy is 0.22°.

  2. Semi-classical theory and experimental research for polarization flipping in a single frequency laser with feedback effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a semi-classical theory to successfully explain the polarization flipping in a single frequency laser. An experimental setup is built to verify this theory. The observed experimental phenomena are consistent with the theoretical analysis. We perform phase retardation measurements of birefringent components using this experimental system. The results show that the measurement repeatability is 0.12° and the measurement accuracy is 0.22°

  3. Detection of non-classical space-time correlations with a novel type of single-photon camera

    CERN Document Server

    Just, Felix; Cavanna, Andrea; Michel, Thilo; Gleixner, Thomas; Taheri, Michael; Vallerga, John; Campbell, Michael; Tick, Timo; Anton, Gisela; Chekhova, Maria V; Leuchs, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, multi-pixel detectors have been developed capable of registering single photons. The newly developed Hybrid Photon Detector camera has a remarkable property that it has not only spatial but also temporal resolution. In this work, we use this device for the detection of non-classical light from spontaneous parametric down-conversion and use two-photon correlations for the absolute calibration of its quantum efficiency.

  4. Discriminating Intercalative Effects of Threading Intercalator Nogalamycin, from Classical Intercalator Daunomycin, Using Single Molecule Atomic Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Banerjee, S; Sett, S; Ghosh, S; Rakshit, T; Mukhopadhyay, R

    2016-01-01

    DNA threading intercalators are a unique class of intercalating agents, albeit little biophysical information is available on their intercalative actions. Herein, the intercalative effects of nogalamycin, which is a naturally-occurring DNA threading intercalator, have been investigated by high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy (AFS). The results have been compared with those of the well-known chemotherapeutic drug daunomycin, which is a non-threading classical intercalator bearing structural similarity to nogalamycin. A comparative AFM assessment revealed a greater increase in DNA contour length over the entire incubation period of 48 h for nogalamycin treatment, whereas the contour length increase manifested faster in case of daunomycin. The elastic response of single DNA molecules to an externally applied force was investigated by the single molecule AFS approach. Characteristic mechanical fingerprints in the overstretching behaviour clearly distinguished the nogalamycin/daunomycin-treated dsDNA from untreated dsDNA-the former appearing less elastic than the latter, and the nogalamycin-treated DNA distinguished from the daunomycin-treated DNA-the classically intercalated dsDNA appearing the least elastic. A single molecule AFS-based discrimination of threading intercalation from the classical type is being reported for the first time. PMID:27183010

  5. Querying a quasi-classical Oracle: One-bit function identification problem implemented in a single atom transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresch, B.; Verduijn, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rogge, S.; Remacle, F.

    2012-07-01

    We show that a single atom transistor (SAT) addressed by a pulsed gate voltage is a physical realization of an Oracle that can calculate the four one-bit Boolean functions, the logical output being encoded in a measurable current. The algorithm relies on the quasi-classical parallelism that arises from the linearity of the kinetic scheme used to describe incoherent electron transport through two levels of the SAT. We demonstrate that one of the four one-bit Boolean functions can be identified by a single current measurement. The generalization of the algorithm to n bit functions is also discussed.

  6. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of medroxyprogesterone acetate after single and multiple injection of Cyclofem in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X F; Shao, Q X; Han, X J; Weng, L J; Sang, G W

    1998-06-01

    To provide pharmacokinetic data for safety evaluation on prolonged treatment with Cyclofem, which contains 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg estradiol cypionate in 0.5 mL microcrystalline aqueous suspension, the pharmacokinetic profiles of MPA after single and multiple administration of this monthly injectable contraceptive were investigated in Chinese women. Nine healthy fertile women received Cyclofem based on a once-a-month regiment for up to 1 year. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to drug administration and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after injection. After the 1st, 6th, and 12th injection, the maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) of MPA were observed on days 3.4 +/- 0.9, 4.3 +/- 2.2, and 3.7 +/- 2.6, respectively. Cmax of serum MPA during the 1st, 6th, and 12th treatment cycles were 3.75 +/- 1.27, 5.54 +/- 1.79, and 5.55 +/- 1.80 nmol/L, whereas the areas under the curve (AUC0-28 days) were 55.84 +/- 28.15, 95.45 +/- 26.56, and 98.81 +/- 21.84 nmol/L.day, respectively. There was significant interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of MPA after intramuscular injection of Cyclofem. No significant change was demonstrated in mean residence time (MRT) of MPA after single and multiple injection. There was a tendency of increase in Cmax and AUC0-28 days of MPA during the first 6 months of treatment, whereas no further enhancement was found between the 6th and 12th injection (p > 0.05). Peak levels of estradiol (E2) observed in Cyclofem users were within the normal range of the preovulatory phase. Results of this long-term study suggest that no drug accumulation occurred after repeated administration of Cyclofem in the Chinese women. PMID:9693401

  8. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection effects on contrast sensitivity in macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Carlos Preti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness in eyes with macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with macular edema from unilateral branch retinal vein occlusion were treated with a single bevacizumab injection. Patients were submitted to a complete evaluation including best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography measurements before treatment and one and three months after injection. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography measurements were compared to baseline values. RESULTS: Mean visual acuity measurement improved from 0.77 logMAR at baseline to 0.613 logMAR one month after injection (P=0.0001 but worsened to 0.75 logMAR after three months. Contrast sensitivity test demonstrated significant improvement at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles/degree one month after injection and at the spatial frequency of 12 cycles/degree three months after treatment. Mean ± standard deviation baseline central macular thickness (552 ± 150 µm reduced significantly one month (322 ± 127 µm, P=0.0001 and three months (439 ± 179 µm, P=0.01 after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab injection improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity and reduces central macular thickness one month after treatment. Visual acuity returns to baseline levels at the 3-month follow-up, but some beneficial effect of the treatment is still present at that time, as evidenced by optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness and contrast sensitivity measurements.

  9. Non-classical austenite-martensite interfaces observed in single crystals of Cu-Al-Ni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 11 (2009), s. 793-807. ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200100627; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloys * martensitic microstructure * non-classical interfaces * crossing twins Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2009 http://www.informaworld.com

  10. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . Those advanced features can be provided by next-generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In the light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. The RPI...... is demonstrated on a 3 kW single-phase PV system by simulations. The other three RPI strategies are verified experimentally on a 1 kW singe-phase system in LVRT operation mode. Those results show the effectiveness and feasibilities of the proposed strategies with reactive power control during LVRT...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries...

  11. Single-dose Intramuscular Injection Toxicology of Danggui Pharmacopuncture (DGP) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    SeungHo Sun; JongJin Jeong; Sunju Park; KwangHo Lee; JunSang Yu; HyungSik Seo; KiRok Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess both the approximate lethal dose and the single dose intramuscular injection toxicity of Danggui (Angelica gigantis radix) pharmacopuncture (DGP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The experiments were conducted at the good laboratory practice (GLP) laboratory, Biotoxtech Co., which is a laboratory approved by the ministry of food and drug safety (MFDS). The study was performed according to the GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidel...

  12. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, JunSang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, KwangHo; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in...

  13. The dynamics simulation of Ne atom injected into single-wall carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamical processes of Ne atom injected into single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are modeled with molecular dynamics simulations. The threshold energies to encapsulate rare-gas atoms in SWCNT are presented. The range of tube radius for stable oscillation is revealed, which is independent of the type of carbon nanotubes. And the oscillatory frequency is sensitive to the change in the diameter, the length and chirality of the tube

  14. Computer simulation of rare-gas atoms injection into single-wall carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of rare-gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar) injected into single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) was modeled with molecular-dynamics simulations. The site dependence of the threshold energy of rare-gas atoms forming endohedral complexes was investigated, and the formation mechanism of some defects was revealed. The hole on the sidewall of the SWNT induced by incident rare-gas atoms can be healed by annealing at a certain temperature

  15. Pain Management for Total Knee Arthroplasty: Single-Injection Femoral Nerve Block versus Local Infiltration Analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Moghtadaei, Mehdi; Farahini, Hossein; Faiz, Seyed Hamid-Reza; Mokarami, Farzam; Safari, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain is one of the major concerns of patients underwent Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA); appropriate pain management is a key factor in patient's early physical fitness to move, physiotherapy, and most importantly, patient satisfaction. Objectives: In this study the analgesic effect of single injection femoral nerve block (SFNB) was compared with local infiltration analgesia (LIA). Patients and Methods: Forty patients who underwent TKA under spinal anesthesia were randomized to rece...

  16. Experimental analysis of multi-lambda injection locking in single mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakarmi, Bikash; Zhang, Xuping; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose multi-lambda injection locking in a single mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode and experimentally analyze its effect on various characteristics of Fabry-Pérot laser diode. We consider mode of the injected beam, number of input injected beams, wavelength detuning, and injected power as important parameters in the analysis of suppression of the dominant mode and hysteresis width. The power required for injection locking is proportional to wavelength detuning, which is one of the important parameters for implementing latching device, switching device, and various other optical devices using single mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode. In multi-lambda injection locking, the amount of power required for the injected beam with and without suppression of self-injected mode plays an important role, and hence, is taken into account in our experiment. The spectrum domain output of three- and four-input NAND gate is shown to verify the concept of multi-lambda injection locking. We observe ON/OFF contrast ratio of more than 40 dB when all beams are injection locked, whereas about 1.5 dB ON/OFF contrast ratio in all other combinations of input beam injection. The analysis of multi-lambda injection locking can be used for multi-input optical devices such as multi-input logic gates, latches, and switches.

  17. Classical Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previous...

  18. Determination of glomerular filtration rate by single-plasma sampling technique following injection of radioiodinated diatrizoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on the radioactivity concentration in a single-plasma sample obtained after the injection of radioiodinated diatrizoate (DTZ) has been described. Simultaneous determinations of GFR by use of DTZ based on multiple-sample plasma disappearance curves and inulin correlate highly. Certain theoretical volumes of distribution (injection dose counts divided by plasma concentration expressed as counts per liter of plasma) correlate highly with GFR determined by the multiple-sample plasma disappearance curves. For patients with relatively high GFR (greater than 100 ml/min) best correlations were obtained at 120 min; for patients with GFR 60-100 ml/min, best correlations were obtained at sampling times of 150 min after injection and for patients with GFR less than 60 ml/min, the ideal sampling time was 230 min after injection. For general use the 180-min sampling time may suffice. Since the formulae were found to produce nearly identical GFR values for data obtained from the use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and DTZ, the former radiopharmaceutical can probably be substituted for diatrizoate using these formulae and sampling times as long as absence of plasma protein binding of the labeled chelate can be demonstrated

  19. Single Performance Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding for the Highest Green Strength by Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.I Ibrahim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro metal injection molding is drawing attention recently as one the most cost effective processes in powder metallurgy to produce small-scale intricate part and competitive cost for mass production of micro components where it is greatly influenced by injection parameter. Thus, this paper investigated the optimization of highest green strength which plays an important characteristic in determining the successful of micro MIM. Stainless steel SS 316L was used with composite binder, which consists of PEG and PMMA while SA works as a surfactant. Feedstock with 61.5% with several injection parameters were optimized which highly significant through screening experiment such as injection pressure(A, injection temperature(B, mold temperature(C, injection time(D and holding time(E. Besides that, interaction effects between injection pressure, injection temperature and mold temperature were also considered to optimize in the Taguchi’s orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N-larger is better for green strength was also presented in this paper. Result shows that interaction between injection temperature and mold temperature (BxC give highest significant factor followed by interaction between injection pressure and injection temperature (AxB. Single factor that also contributes to significant optimization are mold temperature(C, injection time (D and injection pressure (A. Overall, this study shows that Taguchi method would be among the best method to solve the problem with minimum number of trials.

  20. Histological Study of Toxic Effects of Cisplatin Single Dose Injection on Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cisplatin, as an antineoplastic drug widely used for treatment of solid tumors, induces renal toxicity by free radical formation. Objectives The aim of the present study was to identify the histological changes of renal parenchyma after a single dose injection of cisplatin in rat, as an experimental model. Patients and Methods Twenty adult male Sprague Dawley rats, weighting about 210 ± 30 g, were randomly divided into experimental (10 and control (10 groups. The experimental group received a single dose injection of cisplatin intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg. One week after the injection, rats of both groups received deep anesthesia and were scarified. The tissue samples were removed and the prepared sections were stained by H&E and periodic acid–Schiff (PAS methods. The slides were used for both histopathological and morphometric studies. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS. Results Statistical analysis by Mann-Whitney test showed that there was a significant difference in the height of epithelium between the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT and the distal convoluted tubule (DCT of the experimental and control groups (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference in the urinary space diameter between the experimental and control groups. Focal tubular necrosis and vacuolar and eosinophilic degenerations were more prominent in the experimental group. Conclusions It seems that cisplatin can induce many quantitative and qualitative changes in proximal and distal convoluted tubules of nephron in rats.

  1. Opto-injection into single living cells by femtosecond near-infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng

    This dissertation presents a novel technique to deliver membrane impermeable molecules into single living cells with the assistance of femtosecond (fs) near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. This approach merges ultrafast laser technology with key biological, biomedical, and medical applications, such as gene transfection, gene therapy and drug delivery. This technique promises several major advantages, namely, very high transfection efficiency, high cell survival rate (≈100%) and fully preserved cell viabilities. It is also a promising method to deliver molecules into cells that are difficult or even completely resistant to established physical methods, such as microinjection by glass pipettes, electroporation, and biolistics. In this work, the system for fs NIR opto-injection was designed and built. Successful fs NIR opto-injection has been performed on several cell systems including single mammalian cells (bovine aortic endothelial cells), marine animal eggs (Spisula solidissima oocytes), and human cancer cells (fibrosarcoma HT1080) cultured in a tissue-like environment. The connections between laser parameters and cell responses were explored through further experiments and in-depth analyses, especially the relationship between dye uptake rate and incident laser intensity, and the relationship between pore size created on cell membranes and incident laser intensity. Dye uptake rate of the target cells was observed to depend on incident laser intensity. Pore size was found dependent on incident laser intensity. The conclusion was made that laser-induced breakdown and plasma-induced ablation in cell membrane are the physical principles that govern the process of fs NIR opto-injection.

  2. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma as a novel treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Alexander Malahias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have confirmed that platelet-rich plasma has therapeutic effects on many neuropathies, but its effects on carpal tunnel syndrome remain poorly understood. We aimed to investigate whether single injection of platelet-rich plasma can improve the clinical symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fourteen patients presenting with median nerve injury who had suffered from mild carpal tunnel syndrome for over 3 months were included in this study. Under ultrasound guidance, 1-2 mL of platelet-rich plasma was injected into the region around the median nerve at the proximal edge of the carpal tunnel. At 1 month after single injection of platelet-rich plasma, Visual Analogue Scale results showed that pain almost disappeared in eight patients and it was obviously alleviated in three patients. Simultaneously, the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire showed that upper limb function was obviously improved. In addition, no ultrasonographic manifestation of the carpal tunnel syndrome was found in five patients during ultrasonographic measurement of the width of the median nerve. During 3-month follow-up, the pain was not greatly alleviated in three patients. These findings show very encouraging mid-term outcomes regarding use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  3. Recent progress towards acoustically mediated carrier injection into individual nanostructures for single photon generation

    CERN Document Server

    Völk, Stefan; Knall, Florian; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J; Laucht, Arne; Finley, Jonathan J; Riikonen, Juha; Mattila, Marco; Sopanen, Markku; Lipsanen, Harri; He, Jun; Truong, Tuan A; Kim, Hyochul; Petroff, Pierre M; 10.1117/12.842511

    2010-01-01

    We report on recent progress towards single photon sources based on quantum dot and quantum post nanostructures which are manipulated using surface acoustic waves. For this concept acoustic charge conveyance in a quantum well is used to spatially separate electron and hole pairs and transport these in the plane of the quantum well. When conveyed to the location of a quantum dot or quantum post these carriers are sequentially captured into the confined levels. Their radiative decays gives rise to the emission of a train of single photons. Three different approaches using (i) strain- induced and (ii) self-assembled quantum dots, and (iii) self-assembled quantum posts are discussed and their application potential is discussed. First devices and initial experiments towards the realization of such an acoustically driven single photon source are presented and remote acoustically triggered injection into few individual emitters is demonstrated.

  4. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  5. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    .g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this...... RPI strategies are demonstrated firstly by simulations and also tested experimentally on a 1 kW singe-phase grid-connected system in LVRT operation mode. Those results show the effectiveness and feasibilities of the proposed strategies with reactive power control during LVRT operation. The design and...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries, e...

  6. A single intravenous AAV9 injection mediates bilateral gene transfer to the adult mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans

    Full Text Available Widespread gene delivery to the retina is an important challenge for the treatment of retinal diseases, such as retinal dystrophies. We and others have recently shown that the intravenous injection of a self-complementary (sc AAV9 vector can direct efficient cell transduction in the central nervous system, in both neonatal and adult animals. We show here that the intravenous injection of scAAV9 encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP resulted in gene transfer to all layers of the retina in adult mice, despite the presence of a mature blood-eye barrier. Cell morphology studies and double-labeling with retinal cell-specific markers showed that GFP was expressed in retinal pigment epithelium cells, photoreceptors, bipolar cells, Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. The cells on the inner side of the retina, including retinal ganglion cells in particular, were transduced with the highest efficiency. Quantification of the cell population co-expressing GFP and Brn-3a showed that 45% of the retinal ganglion cells were efficiently transduced after intravenous scAAV9-GFP injection in adult mice. This study provides the first demonstration that a single intravenous scAAV9 injection can deliver transgenes to the retinas of both eyes in adult mice, suggesting that this vector serotype is able to cross mature blood-eye barriers. This intravascular gene transfer approach, by eliminating the potential invasiveness of ocular surgery, could constitute an alternative when fragility of the retina precludes subretinal or intravitreal injections of viral vectors, opening up new possibilities for gene therapy for retinal diseases.

  7. Fat injection to correct contour deformities of the reconstructed breast: a single surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Tahiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Autologous fat grafting has gained acceptance as a technique to improve aesthetic outcomes in breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to share our clinical experience using autologous fat injection to correct contour deformities during breast reconstruction. Methods: A single surgeon, prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent autologous fat injection during breast reconstruction from January 2008 to November 2013 at McGill University Health Center was reviewed. Patient characteristics, breast history, type of breast reconstruction, volume of fat injected, and complications were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients benefited from autologous fat injection from January 2008 to November 2013, for a total of 187 treated breasts. The patients were on average 49.3 years old (΁ 8.9 years. Fat was harvested from the medial thighs (20.5%, flanks (39.1%, medial thighs and flanks (2.9%, trochanters (13.3%, medial knees (2.7%, and abdomen (21.9%. An average of 49.25 mL of fat was injected into each reconstructed breast. A total of 187 breasts in 124 patients were lipo-infiltrated during the second stage of breast reconstruction. Thirteen breasts (in 12 separate patients were injected several years after having undergone lumpectomy and radiotherapy. Of the 187 treated breasts, 118 were reconstructed with expanders to implants, 45 with deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps, 9 with latissimus dorsi flaps with implants, 4 with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, and 13 had previously undergone lumpectomy and radiotherapy. Six complications were noted in the entire series, for a rate of 3.2%. All were in previously radiated breasts. Average follow-up time was 12 months (range: 2-36 months. Conclusion: Fat injection continues to grow in popularity as an adjunct to breast reconstruction. Our experience demonstrates a low complication rate as compared to most surgical interventions of the breast

  8. Intra-articular Duration of Durolane™ after Single Injection into the Rabbit Knee

    OpenAIRE

    Edsman, Katarina; Hjelm, Roland; Lärkner, Helena; Nord, Lars I.; Karlsson, Anders; Wiebensjö, Åsa; Höglund, A. Urban; Kenne, Anne Helander; Näsström, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the intra-articular duration of Durolane™ in a rabbit model to allow comparison between Durolane™ residence time and data reported for other hyaluronic acid products as well as native hyaluronic acid. Design: 14C-labeled Durolane™ was manufactured by labeling the cross-linker used for stabilization. A single injection of approximately 0.3 mL 14C-labeled Durolane™ was administered intra-articularly in both knee joints of male New Zeala...

  9. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  10. Ultrafast electrical injection of spin-polarized electrons in single self-organized InGaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis deals with the electrical injection of spin-polarized electrons in single InGaAs quantum dots in the nanosecond or even in the subnanosecond time range. Two different concepts with fundamentally different injection mechanisms were studied, namely the injection in a spin LED structure as well as the injection through a tunnel barrier in a pin diode with specially matched band structure. The readout of the spin information pursued via measurements of the electro- respectively photoluminescence emitted by the quantum dot.

  11. Photon-statistics-based classical ghost imaging with one single detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Simone; Hartmann, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate a novel ghost imaging (GI) scheme based on one single-photon-counting detector with subsequent photon statistics analysis. The key idea is that instead of measuring correlations between the object and reference beams such as in standard GI schemes, the light of the two beams is superimposed. The photon statistics analysis of this mixed light allows us to determine the photon number distribution as well as to calculate the central second-order correlation coefficient. The image information is obtained as a function of the spatial resolution of the reference beam. The performance of this photon-statistics-based GI system with one single detector (PS-GI) is investigated in terms of visibility and resolution. Finally, the knowledge of the complete photon statistics allows easy access to higher correlation coefficients such that we are able to perform here third- and fourth-order GI. The PS-GI concept can be seen as a complement to already existing GI technologies thus enabling a broader dissemination of GI as a superior metrology technique, paving the road for new applications in particular with advanced photon counting detectors. PMID:27304308

  12. Classical entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Danforth, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    Classical systems can be entangled. Entanglement is defined by coincidence correlations. Quantum entanglement experiments can be mimicked by a mechanical system with a single conserved variable and 77.8% conditional efficiency. Experiments are replicated for four particle entanglement swapping and GHZ entanglement.

  13. New Bounds for Old Algorithms: On the Average-Case Behavior of Classic Single-Source Shortest-Paths Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ulrich; Negoescu, Andrei; Weichert, Volker

    Despite disillusioning worst-case behavior, classic algorithms for single-source shortest-paths (SSSP) like Bellman-Ford are still being used in practice, especially due to their simple data structures. However, surprisingly little is known about the average-case complexity of these approaches. We provide new theoretical and experimental results for the performance of classic label-correcting SSSP algorithms on graph classes with non-negative random edge weights. In particular, we prove a tight lower bound of Ω(n 2) for the running times of Bellman-Ford on a class of sparse graphs with O(n) nodes and edges; the best previous bound was Ω(n 4/3 - ɛ ). The same improvements are shown for Pallottino's algorithm. We also lift a lower bound for the approximate bucket implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm from Ω(n logn / loglogn) to Ω(n 1.2 - ɛ ). Furthermore, we provide an experimental evaluation of our new graph classes in comparison with previously used test inputs.

  14. Classical Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2003-01-01

    Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previously given rules support all of these cases. Key Words: brain states, conscious observer, detector, measurement, probability current, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.

  15. Molecules at the Quantum-Classical Nanoparticle Interface: Giant Mn70 Single-Molecule Magnets of ∼4 nm Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinslava, Alina; Tasiopoulos, Anastasios J; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2016-04-01

    Two Mn70 torus-like molecules have been obtained from the alcoholysis in EtOH and 2-ClC2H4OH of [Mn12O12(O2CMe)16(H2O)4]·4H2O·2MeCO2H (1) in the presence of NBu(n)4MnO4 and an excess of MeCO2H. The reaction in EtOH afforded [Mn70O60(O2CMe)70(OEt)20(EtOH)16(H2O)22] (2), whereas the reaction in ClC2H4OH gave [Mn70O60(O2CMe)70(OC2H4Cl)20(ClC2H4OH)18(H2O)22] (3). The complexes are nearly isostructural, each possessing a Mn70 torus structure consisting of alternating near-linear [Mn3(μ3-O)4] and cubic [Mn4(μ3-O)2(μ3-OR)2] (R = OEt, 2; R = OC2H4Cl, 3) subunits, linked together via syn,syn-μ-bridging MeCO2(-) and μ3-bridging O(2-) groups. 2 and 3 have an overall diameter of ∼4 nm and crystallize as highly ordered supramolecular nanotubes. Alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements, performed on microcrystalline samples in the 1.8-10 K range and a 3.5 G ac field with oscillation frequencies in the 5-1500 Hz range, revealed frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals below ∼2.4 K for both molecules indicative of the slow magnetization relaxation of single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Single-crystal, magnetization vs field studies on both complexes revealed hysteresis loops below 1.5 K, thus confirming 2 and 3 to be new SMMs. The hysteresis loops do not show the steps that are characteristic of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). However, low-temperature studies revealed temperature-independent relaxation rates below ∼0.2 K for both compounds, the signature of ground state QTM. Fitting of relaxation data to the Arrhenius equation gave effective barriers for magnetization reversal (Ueff) of 23 and 18 K for 2 and 3, respectively. Because the Mn70 molecule is close to the classical limit, it was also studied using a method based on the Néel-Brown model of thermally activated magnetization reversal in a classical single-domain magnetic nanoparticle. The field and sweep-rate dependence of the coercive field was investigated and yielded the energy

  16. Critical firing and misfiring boundary in a spark ignition methanol engine during cold start based on single cycle fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the mass of methanol injected per cycle, ambient temperature, injection and ignition timing, preheating methods, and supplying additional liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) injection into the intake manifold on the critical firing and misfiring boundary of an electronically injection controlled spark ignition (SI) methanol engine during cold start were investigated experimentally based on a single cycle fuel injection with cycle-by-cycle control strategy. The critical firing and misfiring boundary was restricted by all parameters. For ambient temperatures below 16 °C, methanol engines must use auxiliary start-aids during cold start. Optimal control of the methanol injection and ignition timing can realize ideal next cycle firing combustion after injection. Resistance wire and glow plug preheating can provide critical firing down to ambient temperatures of 5 °C and 0 °C, respectively. Using an additional LPG injection into the intake manifold can provide critical firing down to an ambient temperature of −13 °C during cold start. As the ambient temperature decreases, the optimal angle difference between methanol injection timing and LPG injection timing for critical firing of a methanol engine increases rapidly during cold start. - Highlights: • A single cycle fuel injection and cycle-by-cycle control strategy are used to study. • In-cylinder pressure and instantaneous speed were used to determine firing boundary. • For the ambient temperatures below 16 °C, an auxiliary start-aids must be used. • A preheating and additional LPG were used to expand critical firing boundary. • Additional LPG can result in critical firing down to ambient temperature of −13 °C

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND MODELING OF A FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DI DIESEL ENGINE UNDER VARIOUS INJECTION TIMINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. GAVASKAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted on a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine to determine the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics under different injection timings. The different injection angles chosen were 16°, 18° and 21° and the fuel chosen was standard diesel. The experimental results showed that brake thermal efficiency for the advanced as well as the retarded injection timing was lesser than that for the normal injection timing (18° BTDC. In terms of BSFC, retarded andadvanced injection timings compared to the original injection timing gave negative results for all engine loads. When compared to the results of original injection timing (18° BTDC, NOx and CO2 emissions decreased, and unburned HC and CO emissions increased for the retarded injection timings (16° BTDC at the all test conditions. On the other hand, with the advanced injection timings (21° BTDC, HC and CO emissions decreased, and NOx and CO2 emissions increased. A prediction of the combustion process was generated under the operating conditions in CFD. The CFD modeling results are generated to predict the combustion characteristic of maximum cylinder pressure. These results are then compared with the experimental results and validated. The CFD results show that there is a good correlation with the experimental results.

  18. Comparison of Corneal Endothelial Changes After a Single-Dose Injection of Bevacizumab or Ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Horozoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the corneal endothelial changes after injection of a single-dose intravitreal bevacizumab or intravitreal ranibizumab. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 27 eyes of 27 patients with either diabetic macular edema or senile macular degeneration, who underwent 1.25 mg/0.05 ml intravitreal bevacizumab or 0.5 mg/0.05 ml ranibizumab injection. None of the patients had corneal pathology. Fourteen eyes of 14 patients received intravitreal ranibizumab, other 13 eyes of 13 patients received intravitreal bevacizumab. We evaluated preoperative and postoperative 1st week and 1st month visual acuity, corneal endothelial count at mm2, intraocular pressure, and pachymetry results. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used. Results: Mean age of the patients was 69.3±12.5 (44-85 year. Average corneal endothelial cell count for bevacizumab and ranibizumab was preoperatively 2358.1±487 and 2348.9±598, postoperative 1. week 2360.8±474.1 and 2398.3±585.6, postoperative 1. month 2315.1±465 and 2407.4±585.6, respectively. Preoperative and postoperative corneal endothelial cell counts were not statistically significantly different in both groups (respectively, 1. week p=0.953 and p=0.59; 1. month p=0.26 and p=0.555. Average central macular thickness for bevacizumab and ranibizumab was preoperatively 527.3±36.9 and 544.1±55.5 µm, postoperative 1. week 529.2±49.9 and 543.5±51.8 µm, postoperative 1. month 530.3±55 and 543.9±46.6 µm, respectively. Preoperative and postoperative central macular thickness values for both groups were not statistically significantly different (respectively, 1. week P=0.515 and P=0.838; 1. month P=0.678 and P=0.444. Discussion: Injection of a single dose of 1.25 mg/0.05 ml bevacizumab or 0.5 mg/0.05 ml ranibizumab does not affect the corneal endothelial cell count at 1. week and 1. month. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 391-4

  19. Persistence, Localization, and External Control of Transgene Expression After Single Injection of Adeno-Associated Virus into Injured Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hannah H.; O'Malley, Michael J.; Friel, Nicole A.; Payne, Karin A.; Qiao, Chunping; Xiao, Xiao(Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP) and Physics Department, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY, 10027 U.S.A.); Chu, Constance R.

    2013-01-01

    A single intra-articular injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) results in stable and controllable transgene expression in normal rat knees. Because undamaged joints are unlikely to require treatment, the study of AAV delivery in joint injury models is crucial to potential therapeutic applications. This study tests the hypotheses that persistent and controllable AAV-transgene expression are (1) highly localized to the cartilage when AAV is injected postinjury and (2) localized to the intra...

  20. Controlling outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish using a single injection of common household vinegar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström-Einarsson, Lisa; Rivera-Posada, Jairo

    2016-03-01

    Outbreaks of the destructive coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, present a considerable threat to coral reefs worldwide, and mitigating their impact has proven challenging. The most effective methods to control A. planci require injecting individual starfish with lethal chemicals. While some of these are highly effective, their administration often requires permits, training and access to specialised equipment. We aimed to identify a widely available and highly efficient alternative. We discovered that common household vinegar is lethal to A. planci individuals when injected at the base of one their arms. A single injection of 25 ml vinegar induced functional mortality in reefs.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of single co-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells after intracardial injection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish co-labeling of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for the detection of single MSC in-vivo by MRI and histological validation. Materials and Methods: Mouse MSC were co-labeled with fluorescent iron oxide micro-particles and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The cellular iron content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cell proliferation and expression of characteristic surface markers were determined by flow cytometry. The chondrogenic differentiation capacity was assessed. Different amounts of cells (n1 = 5000, n2 = 15 000, n3 = 50 000) were injected into the left heart ventricle of 12 mice. The animals underwent sequential MRI on a clinical 3.0T scanner (Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). For histological validation cryosections were examined by fluorescent microscopy. Results: Magnetic and fluorescent labeling of MSC was established (mean cellular iron content 23.6 ± 3 pg). Flow cytometry showed similar cell proliferation and receptor expression of labeled and unlabeled MSC. Chondrogenic differentiation of labeled MSC was verified. After cell injection MRI revealed multiple signal voids in the brain and fewer signal voids in the kidneys. In the brain, an average of 4.6 ± 1.2 (n1), 9.0 ± 3.6 (n2) and 25.0 ± 1.0 (n3) signal voids were detected per MRI slice. An average of 8.7 ± 3.1 (n1), 22.0 ± 6.1 (n2) and 89.8 ± 6.5 (n3) labeled cells per corresponding stack of adjacent cryosections could be detected in the brain. Statistical correlation of the numbers of MRI signal voids in the brain and single MSC found by histology revealed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. Conclusion: The study demonstrates efficient magnetic and fluorescent co-labeling of MSC and their detection on a single cell level in mice by in-vivo MRI and histology. The described techniques may broaden the methods for in-vivo tracking of MSC. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of single co-labeled mesenchymal stromal cells after intracardial injection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, J.; Adam, G.; Peldschus, K. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Wicklein, D.; Schumacher, U. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. of Anatomy II: Experimental Morphology; Didie, M. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Pharmacology; Lange, C. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Bone Marrow Transplantation

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish co-labeling of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for the detection of single MSC in-vivo by MRI and histological validation. Materials and Methods: Mouse MSC were co-labeled with fluorescent iron oxide micro-particles and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The cellular iron content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cell proliferation and expression of characteristic surface markers were determined by flow cytometry. The chondrogenic differentiation capacity was assessed. Different amounts of cells (n1 = 5000, n2 = 15 000, n3 = 50 000) were injected into the left heart ventricle of 12 mice. The animals underwent sequential MRI on a clinical 3.0T scanner (Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands). For histological validation cryosections were examined by fluorescent microscopy. Results: Magnetic and fluorescent labeling of MSC was established (mean cellular iron content 23.6 ± 3 pg). Flow cytometry showed similar cell proliferation and receptor expression of labeled and unlabeled MSC. Chondrogenic differentiation of labeled MSC was verified. After cell injection MRI revealed multiple signal voids in the brain and fewer signal voids in the kidneys. In the brain, an average of 4.6 ± 1.2 (n1), 9.0 ± 3.6 (n2) and 25.0 ± 1.0 (n3) signal voids were detected per MRI slice. An average of 8.7 ± 3.1 (n1), 22.0 ± 6.1 (n2) and 89.8 ± 6.5 (n3) labeled cells per corresponding stack of adjacent cryosections could be detected in the brain. Statistical correlation of the numbers of MRI signal voids in the brain and single MSC found by histology revealed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.91. Conclusion: The study demonstrates efficient magnetic and fluorescent co-labeling of MSC and their detection on a single cell level in mice by in-vivo MRI and histology. The described techniques may broaden the methods for in-vivo tracking of MSC. (orig.)

  3. Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In animal species and humans, artesunate (AS undergoes extensive and complex biotransformation to an active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA. The bioequivalence of two intravenous AS pharmaceutical products with 5% NaHCO3 (China Formulation or 0.3 M PBS (WRAIR Formulation was determined in rats in a two-formulation, two-period, and two-sequence crossover experimental design. Following single and multiple intravenous administrations, a series of blood samples was collected by using an automated blood sampler and drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The 90% CI of the difference between the two intravenous formulations was contained within 80–125% of the geometric mean of pharmacokinetic parameters for AS and DHA in all animals dosed. Hematological effects were studied on days 1 and 3 after the final dosing, and a rapidly reversible hematological toxicity (significant reductions in reticulocyte levels was seen in the peripheral blood of the rats treated with each formulation. The results showed that bioequivalence with the parent compound and active metabolite was fulfilled in the 82.3–117.7% ranges of all parameters (AUC0–t, Cmax, concentration average and degree of fluctuation in the two-period and two-sequence crossover studies following single and repeated intravenous injections. For the metabolite, the equivalence was satisfied in most pharmacokinetic parameters tested due to the variability in the hydrolysis rate of AS to DHA. The WRAIR formulation of AS was considered to be bioequivalent to the Chinese formulation at steady-state according to the total drug exposure, in terms of both parent drug and active metabolite, rapidly reversal in reticulocyte decline, and extension of single and multiple administrations. Therefore, the parent drug and active metabolites should play similar important roles in the determination of efficacy and safety of the drug.

  4. A single injection of anti-HIV-1 antibodies protects against repeated SHIV challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Rajeev; Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Pegu, Amarendra; Nason, Martha C; Klein, Florian; Gazumyan, Anna; Golijanin, Jovana; Buckler-White, Alicia; Sadjadpour, Reza; Wang, Keyun; Mankoff, Zachary; Schmidt, Stephen D; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Mascola, John R; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Martin, Malcolm A

    2016-05-01

    Despite the success of potent anti-retroviral drugs in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, little progress has been made in generating an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Although passive transfer of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies can protect mice or macaques against a single high-dose challenge with HIV or simian/human (SIV/HIV) chimaeric viruses (SHIVs) respectively, the long-term efficacy of a passive antibody transfer approach for HIV-1 has not been examined. Here we show, on the basis of the relatively long-term protection conferred by hepatitis A immune globulin, the efficacy of a single injection (20 mg kg(-1)) of four anti-HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (VRC01, VRC01-LS, 3BNC117, and 10-1074 (refs 9 - 12)) in blocking repeated weekly low-dose virus challenges of the clade B SHIVAD8. Compared with control animals, which required two to six challenges (median = 3) for infection, a single broadly neutralizing antibody infusion prevented virus acquisition for up to 23 weekly challenges. This effect depended on antibody potency and half-life. The highest levels of plasma-neutralizing activity and, correspondingly, the longest protection were found in monkeys administered the more potent antibodies 3BNC117 and 10-1074 (median = 13 and 12.5 weeks, respectively). VRC01, which showed lower plasma-neutralizing activity, protected for a shorter time (median = 8 weeks). The introduction of a mutation that extends antibody half-life into the crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain of VRC01 increased median protection from 8 to 14.5 weeks. If administered to populations at high risk of HIV-1 transmission, such an immunoprophylaxis regimen could have a major impact on virus transmission. PMID:27120156

  5. A supercharged heavy-duty diesel single-cylinder research engine for high-pressure direct injection of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart-Cowan, G.P.; Bushe, W.K.; Hill, P.G. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Munshi, S.R. [Westport Innovations Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-12-01

    A single cylinder of a heavy-duty diesel engine has been commissioned for research on the use of pilot diesel ignited natural gas which is directly injected into the cylinder. The cylinder is supercharged and equipped for exhaust gas recirculation. Performance and emissions measurements have been made over a range of loads, speeds, timings and equivalence ratios to indicate the potential for emissions reduction of high-pressure direct injection of natural gas. With independent control of boost pressure and engine backpressure, an examination has been made of the similarities and differences in performance of the single-cylinder engine and its multi-cylinder counterpart. (author)

  6. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to different time scales

  7. Single well injection withdrawal tests (SWIW) in fractured rock. Some aspects on interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neretnieks, Ivars [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Single-Well-Injection-Withdrawal, SWIW, tests are used to try to extract information on fracture apertures, sorption and diffusion properties and dispersion information in individual fractures. It is done by injecting a given amount of traced water into an isolated fracture. After a waiting period water is withdrawn from the fracture and the tracer concentration is measured. The concentration time curve is fitted to a model and the parameter values quantifying the different interaction mechanisms are determined. A number of different mechanisms influence the recovery of the tracer. One or more of the following mechanisms are considered. They include: dispersion due to velocity differences, sorption on fracture surface and on infill, diffusion in rock fragments in the fracture, diffusion between 'streamlines', diffusion into rock matrix and other stagnant water volumes, sorption kinetics and slow drift of the plume caused by the natural gradient. Many of the interaction mechanisms can influence the recovery curve in a similar way. For example, diffusion into rock matrix water and into stagnant water in the fracture adjacent to the flowing channels cannot be distinguished if only one tracer is used. Tracers with different properties can in principle be used but they will encounter different parts of the fracture, the sorbing tracer will move out less from the injection point than a nonsorbing tracer will. Diffusion and sorption in small particles in the flowpath can influence the recovery curve in a similar way as rock matrix diffusion does. Dispersion caused by diffusion between 'streamlines', Taylor dispersion, can give very different results in channels of different shapes. Such dispersion effects can be difficult to distinguish from matrix diffusion effects. Dispersion coefficients obtained in a SWIW test may have little relation to dispersion of a tracer moving from A to B. This is partly due to the different mechanisms and partly due to

  8. [Pharmacokinetics of 6beta-naltrexol after single and multiple intramuscular injections in Beagle dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling-Di; Liu, Jun; Dong, Hua-Jin; Cui, Meng-Xun; Yao, Xia-Jun; Liu, Yong-Shao; Gong, Zheng-Hua; Gong, Ze-Hui

    2009-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 6beta-naltrexol (6beta-NOL) following single intramuscular administration and multiple intramuscular injection once per day for seven days was studied in 4 Beagle dogs. Plasma concentration of 6beta-NOL in dogs was analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical detection with naloxone (NLX) as internal standard. After single intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg x kg(-1) 6beta-NOL, the plasma concentration-time curve of the drug was found to fit to a two compartment model with first-order absorption. The main parameters of single dosing were as follows: t1/2alpha was (0.26 +/- 0.23) h, t1/2beta was (4.77 +/- 1.65) h, C(max) was (81.65 +/- 5.61) ng x mL(-1), t(peak) was (0.27 +/- 0.07) h, CL(s) was (1.20 +/- 0.06) L x kg(-1) x h(-1), V/F(c) was (1.94 +/- 0.15) L x kg(-1), and AUC(0-t) was (166.82 +/- 7.68) ng x h x mL(-1), separately. After multiple intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg x kg(-1) 6beta-NOL once per day for seven days, the plasma concentration-time curve of the drug fitted to a two compartment model with first-order absorption too. The main parameters of the last dosing were as follows: t1/2alpha was (0.19 +/- 0.18) h, t1/2beta was (5.79 +/- 1.50) h, C(max) was (79.82 +/- 10.5) ng x mL(-1), t(peak) was (0.18 +/- 0.08) h, CL(s) was (1.12 +/- 0.07) L x kg(-1) x h(-1), V/F(c) was (2.10 +/- 0.27) L x kg(-1), and AUC(0-t) was (173.23 +/- 9.49) ng x h x mL(-1), separately. The difference of the parameters between the first and the last dosing was not significant, showing that the plasma kinetics of 6beta-naltrexol was not changed after multiple administrations. In the course of multiple administration, the peak and valley concentration of plasma 6beta-naltrexol were (79.03 +/- 10.3) and (1.50 +/- 0.93) ng x mL(-1), respectively. No clear adverse events were noted during this study. These results showed that plasma 6beta-naltrexol fits to a two compartment model with first-order absorption in

  9. Large (and Small) Energy Fluctuations in a Single Classical Degree of Freedom and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy fluctuations in a single classical degree of freedom above the ground state at thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T are typically of average magnitude ∼kBT. However, we show that the average magnitude of such fluctuations can be much larger (or much smaller) than kBT, indeed, that at least in principle it can be infinite (or arbitrarily close to 0). Nevertheless, the average energy fluctuation magnitude being untypically large (or untypically small) does not violate the second law of thermodynamics. For, if the average magnitude of energy fluctuations is much larger than kBT, then particle motion along the degree of freedom must manifest extreme spatial delocalization. The cost of locating the fluctuating particle along its degree of freedom equals or exceeds the large energy gain obtained upon finding it with an energy of much more than kBT above its ground state. The particle loses as much or more ability to do work via its spatial delocalization than it gains via the energy fluctuation. Similarly, if the average magnitude of energy fluctuations is much smaller than kBT, then the small energy yield obtainable upon locating the particle is compensated for by the small cost of locating it.

  10. Persistence, localization, and external control of transgene expression after single injection of adeno-associated virus into injured joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah H; O'Malley, Michael J; Friel, Nicole A; Payne, Karin A; Qiao, Chunping; Xiao, Xiao; Chu, Constance R

    2013-04-01

    A single intra-articular injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) results in stable and controllable transgene expression in normal rat knees. Because undamaged joints are unlikely to require treatment, the study of AAV delivery in joint injury models is crucial to potential therapeutic applications. This study tests the hypotheses that persistent and controllable AAV-transgene expression are (1) highly localized to the cartilage when AAV is injected postinjury and (2) localized to the intra-articular soft tissues when AAV is injected preinjury. Two AAV injection time points, postinjury and preinjury, were investigated in osteochondral defect and anterior cruciate ligament transection models of joint injury. Rats injected with AAV tetracycline response element (TRE)-luciferase received oral doxycycline for 7 days. Luciferase expression was evaluated longitudinally for 6 months. Transgene expression was persistent and controllable with oral doxycycline for 6 months in all groups. However, the location of transgene expression was different: postinjury AAV-injected knees had luciferase expression highly localized to the cartilage, while preinjury AAV-injected knees had more widespread signal from intra-articular soft tissues. The differential transgene localization between preinjury and postinjury injection can be used to optimize treatment strategies. Highly localized postinjury injection appears advantageous for treatments targeting repair cells. The more generalized and controllable reservoir of transgene expression following AAV injection before anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) suggests an intriguing concept for prophylactic delivery of joint protective factors to individuals at high risk for early osteoarthritis (OA). Successful external control of intra-articular transgene expression provides an added margin of safety for these potential clinical applications. PMID:23496155

  11. The effect of the hole injection layer on the performance of single layer organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjin, Zeng; Ran, Bi; Hongmei, Zhang, E-mail: iamhmzhang@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: iamwhuang@njupt.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210023 (China); Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210023 (China); Wei, Huang, E-mail: iamhmzhang@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: iamwhuang@njupt.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-12-14

    Efficient single-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were reported based on a green fluorescent dye 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7–tetramethyl-1H,5H,11H-(1) benzopyropyrano (6,7-8-I,j)quinolizin-11-one (C545T). Herein, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) were, respectively, applied as the injection layer for comparison. The hole transport properties of the emission layer with different hole injection materials are well investigated via current-voltage measurement. It was clearly found that the hole injection layers (HILs) play an important role in the adjustment of the electron/hole injection to attain transport balance of charge carriers in the single emission layer of OLEDs with electron-transporting host. The layer of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum played a dual role of host and electron-transporting materials within the emission layer. Therefore, appropriate selection of hole injection layer is a key factor to achieve high efficiency OLEDs with single emission layer.

  12. Single-shot epidural injections in the management of radicular pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Zarghooni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural injections are commonly used in the treatment of chronic low back pain due to symptomatic lumbar spinal disorders. The aim of the present investigation was to study their therapeutic value for different age subgroups. A consecutive series of 356 patients were treated with at least one injection, and assessed before and after injection. Significant pain reduction was observed in all age groups following a series of injections with the greatest reduction after the first one. Especially in patients younger than 50 years, pain medication could be reduced substantially. Surgery was performed in 19.4% of patients (n=69 following a series of SSPDA injections. In the current study, interlaminar steroid injections for treatment of chronic low back and radicular pain caused sufficient improvement and significant reduction of medication especially in younger patients.

  13. Feasibility study of a Single Well Injection Withdrawal (SWIW) experiment with synthetic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the performance and results of a feasibility study regarding SWIW (Single Well Injection Withdrawal) tests with synthetic groundwater. The objectives of the study were to investigate the possibility to perform, analyse and evaluate SWIW tests with synthetic groundwater. SWIW tests with synthetic groundwater imply that water similar to the natural groundwater is produced but without one or several compounds that naturally occurs in the groundwater. The synthetic groundwater is injected into the rock formation and later pumped back. The increase of the naturally occurring compounds may be analysed and provide information about diffusion processes in the rock formation. Simulations of SWIW tests with synthetic groundwater shows that a combination of tests with and without a waiting period may provide good opportunities to distinguish between fast and slow diffusion processes, i.e. diffusion from stagnant zones and rock matrix. Furthermore, the simulations show that it is important to use many tracers with different characteristics regarding diffusion and sorption in order to facilitate the evaluation. If additional boreholes exist in the vicinity that may be used as observation holes for tracer breakthrough, it would be a great benefit for the evaluation of the tests. This study shows that it is possible to produce a synthetic groundwater of sufficient amount and purity to a reasonable cost at CLAB (Baslab). The starting point for the study was to use the test site TRUE Block Scale in the Aespoe tunnel. The study shows that the well characterized structures no 19 and 20 probably had been suitable for SWIW tests. However, during the feasibility study a project started that will result in a new tunnel in the vicinity of TRUE Block Scale. This implies that the site will not be accessible for experiments until 2009 at the earliest. The new tunnel may also change the hydraulic characteristics at the site so that it is no longer suitable for SWIW tests

  14. Generation of mutant mice by pronuclear injection of circular plasmid expressing Cas9 and single guided RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Mashiko; Yoshitaka Fujihara; Yuhkoh Satouh; Haruhiko Miyata; Ayako Isotani; Masahito Ikawa

    2013-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas mediated genome editing has been successfully demonstrated in mammalian cells and further applications for generating mutant mice were reported by injecting humanized Cas9 (hCas) mRNA and single guide RNA into fertilized eggs. Here we inject the circular plasmids expressing hCas9 and sgRNA into mouse zygotes and obtained mutant mice within a month. When we targeted the Cetn1 locus, 58.8% (10/17) of the pups carried the mutations and six of them were homozygously mutated. Co-injecti...

  15. Microfluidics-based single-step preparation of injection-ready polymeric nanosystems for medical imaging and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kegang; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xueya; Gonçalves, Daniel; Zhang, Bei; Hierlemann, Andreas; Hunziker, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Translation of therapeutic polymeric nanosystems to patients and industry requires simplified, reproducible and scalable methods for assembly and loading. A single-step in-line process based on nanocoprecipitation of oxazoline-siloxane block copolymers in flow-focusing poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidics was designed to manufacture injection-ready nanosystems. Nanosystem characteristics could be controlled by copolymer concentration, block length and chemistry, microchannel geometry, flow rate, aqueous/organic flow rate ratio and payload concentration. The well-tolerated nanosystems exhibited differential cell binding and payload delivery and could confer sensitivity to photodynamic therapy to HeLa cancer cells. Such injection-ready nanosystems carrying drugs, diagnostic or functional materials may facilitate translation to clinical application.Translation of therapeutic polymeric nanosystems to patients and industry requires simplified, reproducible and scalable methods for assembly and loading. A single-step in-line process based on nanocoprecipitation of oxazoline-siloxane block copolymers in flow-focusing poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidics was designed to manufacture injection-ready nanosystems. Nanosystem characteristics could be controlled by copolymer concentration, block length and chemistry, microchannel geometry, flow rate, aqueous/organic flow rate ratio and payload concentration. The well-tolerated nanosystems exhibited differential cell binding and payload delivery and could confer sensitivity to photodynamic therapy to HeLa cancer cells. Such injection-ready nanosystems carrying drugs, diagnostic or functional materials may facilitate translation to clinical application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03543k

  16. Study of Single-dose Toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go Glucose Intramuscular Injection in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Su-jeong; Kim Sung-chul; Kim Yu-jong; Kim Kap-sung; Lee Seung-deok

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to analyze single-dose intramuscular toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose pharmacopuncture. Methods: Eighty six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two large groups of forty rats; Guseonwangdo-go glucose 5% and Guseonwangdo-go glucose 20% groups. Each group was sub-divided into four smaller groups of five males and five females, with the following dosages of pharmacopuncture being administered by intramuscular (IM) injection in each group: gro...

  17. Optimizing CT angiography in patients with Fontan physiology: single-center experience of dual-site power injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To identify adult patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease and Fontan procedure palliation who have been misdiagnosed with or incompletely evaluated for pulmonary embolism. Additionally, this study was designed to demonstrate that simultaneous, dual-injection of contrast medium into an upper and lower extremity vein is superior to single-injection protocols for CT angiography (CTA) of the chest in this population. Materials and methods: Patients included in the study were retrospectively selected from the Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) database. Search criteria included history of Fontan palliation and available chest CT examination. Patients were evaluated for (1) type of congenital heart disease and prior operations;(2) indication for initial CT evaluation;(3) route of contrast medium administration for the initial CT examination and resulting diagnosis;(4) whether or not anticoagulation therapy was initiated; and (5) final diagnosis and treatment plan. Results: The query of the ACHD database resulted in 28 individuals or patients with Fontan palliation (superior and inferior venae cavae anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries). Of these, 19 patients with Fontan physiology underwent CTA of the pulmonary circulation, and 17 had suboptimal imaging studies. Unfortunately, seven of these 17 patients (41%) were started on anticoagulation therapy due to a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism that was later excluded. Conclusion: Patients with single-ventricle/Fontan physiology are at risk of thromboembolic disease. Therefore, studies evaluating their complex anatomy must be performed with the optimal imaging protocol to ensure diagnostic accuracy, which is best achieved with dual-injection of an upper and lower extremity central vein. - Highlights: • The adult congenital heart disease population is growing. • Many of these patients have single ventricle/Fontan physiology. • Patients with Fontan physiology are at increased risk for

  18. Lifetime correction of genetic deficiency in mice with a single injection of helper-dependent adenoviral vector

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, In-Hoo; Józkowicz, Alicja; Piedra, Pedro A.; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Ideally, somatic gene therapy should result in lifetime reversal of genetic deficiencies. However, to date, phenotypic correction of monogenic hyperlipidemia in mouse models by in vivo gene therapy has been short-lived and associated with substantial toxicity. We have developed a helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HD-Ad) containing the apolipoprotein (apo) E gene. A single i.v. injection of this vector completely and stably corrected the hypercholesterolemia in apoE-deficient mice, an effect...

  19. Injection molded polymer chip for electrochemical and electrophysiological recordings from single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanzi, Simone; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    We present a novel method to fabricate an all in polymer injection molded chip for electrochemical cell recordings and lateral cell trapping. The complete device is molded in thermoplastic polymer and it results from assembling two halves. We tested spin-coated conductive polymer poly(3...

  20. Metabolism and transfer pattern of tritium in mice after single injection of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism and transfer pattern of tritium from pregnant mice into fetuses after intra peritoneal injection of tritiated water was investigated. The pregnant mice were divided into three experimental groups: group 1 was injected with tritiated water on the first day of gestation to obtain the transfer coefficient of tritium from pregnant mice into fetuses through placenta; group 2 was injected with tritiated water on the first day of parturition to study the transfer coefficient of tritium from pregnant mice into their babies through milk: group 3 was injected with tritiated water in different periods of gestation. The results show that in group 1, tritiated water was almost uniformly distributed in the whole body, including placenta, foetal membrane and amniotic fluid; placenta did not affect tritium transfer from pregnant mouse into foetus. In groups 2 and 3, concentrations of tritium in the baby's tissues were evidently higher than those in the pregnant mouse, and the transfer coefficients in groups 2 and 3 were higher than that in group 1

  1. Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

  2. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  3. Pharmacokinetics of isepamicin following a single administration by intravenous infusion or intramuscular injections.

    OpenAIRE

    Radwanski, E; Batra, V; Cayen, M; Korduba, C; Cutler, D; Affrime, M; Nomeir, A.; Lin, C. C.

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of isepamicin following administration of a 1-g dose were evaluated for 18 healthy male volunteers between the ages of 26 and 38. In a randomized crossover fashion, each volunteer received doses of isepamicin by a 30-min intravenous infusion and as an intramuscular injection. Blood samples were collected at specified times after dosing and assayed for isepamicin by a validated radioimmunoassay method. The individual plasma concentration-time curves were analyzed by noncom...

  4. Injection molded polymer chip for electrochemical and electrophysiological recordings from single cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi, Simone; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Rafael J. Taboryski

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method to fabricate an all in polymer injection molded chip for electrochemical cell recordings and lateral cell trapping. The complete device is molded in thermoplastic polymer and it results from assembling two halves. We tested spin-coated conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene) and showed that it can be used as an electrode material for detecting neurotransmitters electrochemically in biosensors.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL TARGET INJECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND SINGLE SHOT TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 Hz. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy ± 150 (micro)m for indirect drive and ± 20 (micro)m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been constructed at General Atomics. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feedback to the target designers. Helium gas propels the targets down an 8 m gun barrel up to 400 m/s. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time will be predicted in real time based on early target position measurements. The system installation will be described. System testing to overcome excessive projectile wear and debris in the gun barrel is presented

  6. An optical pulse width modulation generator based on the injection-locking property of single mode FP-LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc Hoai; Nakarmi, Bikash; Won, Yong Hyub

    2013-03-01

    A novel simple optical pulse width modulation generator (OPWMG) based on injection-locking property of a single mode FP-LD (SMFP-LD) has been proposed and experimentally verified. The OPWMG consists of a SMFP-LD (which acts as comparator), an optical sinusoidal wave source (analog input), and a continuous optical beam (control signal). The power required for fully injection-locking the SMFP-LD acts as the referent power whereas the combination power of continuous optical beam and analog optical sinusoidal signals work as control signals for changing the duty cycle of the proposed OPWMG. The presence of only continuous optical beam is not sufficient to suppress the dominant mode of SMFP-LD with high ON/OFF contrast ratio; however, the application of additional sinusoidal wave of constant amplitude and frequency, the dominant mode of SMFP-LD can be suppressed for the certain time window. Since, injection-locking power is dependent with the combined power of input injected continuous beam and sinusoidal optical wave, the time window of injection-locking can be varied by changing input beam power which provides different duty cycle of 13% to 68% at the output. Current available schemes for generating PWM signals are in electrical domain, hence, they need to convert electrical signals into optical domain by using expensive O/E converters for application in optical control and signal processing. The proposed OPWMG scheme has several advantages, such as low cost, low power consumption (~0.5 mW) which can be used for various applications where the effect of EMI/EMR is considered as an important factor such as control circuit for high voltage converters in power plant and electrical vehicles.

  7. Simulation of planar channeling-radiation spectra of relativistic electrons and positrons channeled in a diamond-structure or tungsten single crystal (classical approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadegan, B.; Wagner, W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a Mathematica package for simulation of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation of relativistic electrons and positrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure or tungsten single crystal. The program is based on the classical theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling of light charged particles at energies higher than 100 MeV. Continuous potentials for different planes of diamond, Si, Ge and W single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the classical one-dimensional equation of motion. The code is designed to calculate the trajectories, velocities and accelerations of electrons (positrons) channeled by the planar continuous potential. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, these data allow realistic simulations of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation. Since the generated output is quantitative, the results of calculation may be useful, e.g., for setup configuration and crystal alignment in channeling experiments, for the study of the dependence of channeling radiation on the input parameters of particle beams with respect to the crystal orientation, but also for the simulation of positron production by means of pair creation what is mandatory for the design of efficient positron sources necessary in high-energy and collider physics. Although the classical theory of channeling is well established for long time, there is no adequate library program for simulation of channeling radiation up to now, which is commonly available, sufficiently simple and effective to employ and, therefore, of benefit as for special investigations as for a quick overview of basic features of this type of radiation.

  8. Classical antiparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Simulation study on radius dependence in rare-gas atoms injection into single-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a model was established to investigate the radius dependence of rare-gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar) injection into the sidewall of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The probabilities of the formation of endohedral X at SWNT complexes as a function of incident energies were carefully observed for the SWNTs with different radii. We have compared the maximal probabilities of different rare-gas atoms and different radii of SWNTs. It seems more difficult to form endohedral complexes for larger SWNTs, especially when the incident atom is bigger

  10. Estimation of effective renal plasma flow in children by use of a single plasma sample after injection of orthoiodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in adults have been greatly simplified by the use of recently developed regression equations based on a single plasma concentration of radioiodinated orthoiodohippurate (OIH) obtained 44 min after a single intravenous injection of the material. The paper reports similar equations for the prediction of ERPF in children. Studies were made in 30 children of both sexes, aged 4 to 16 years, with a wide variety of renal diseases. A single intravenous injection of labelled OIH was made and plasma was sampled at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after injection. Plasma concentration curves were analysed by the conventional two-compartment analysis technique (Sapirstein, Matthews) and ERPF was computed from them. In addition to ERPF calculations, sizes of the two volumes of distribution (V1 and V2), intercompartmental flow rates and fractional rate constants were also calculated. Surface area (SA) was calculated from the DuBois height-weight regression formula. Reciprocals of the OIH plasma concentration in terms of per cent injected dose per litre were calculated at each sampling time; this reciprocal is designated x. These values at each sampling time were plotted against ERPF and regression equations and residual error (Sy.x) were calculated. The optimal sampling time was found to occur at 53 min and the corresponding linear regression equation was 19.33 + 3.87x with a Sy.x value of 36 ml. This compares with an optimal sampling time in adults of 44 min. The mean initial volume of distribution (V1) was found to be 5.3 litres and the mean V2 was found to be 6.8 litres. In contrast to findings in the previous study in adults these volumes were found to correlate well with SA. A mean intercompartmental flow rate of 276 ml/min was found. No correlation between this value and clinical diagnosis was found. The relationship of the concentration reciprocal and plasma flow was a linear one instead of the polynomial one found in

  11. Single Cell Transfection through Precise Microinjection with Quantitatively Controlled Injection Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Ting Chow; Shuxun Chen; Ran Wang; Chichi Liu; Chi-wing Kong; Li, Ronald A.; Shuk Han Cheng; Dong Sun

    2016-01-01

    Cell transfection is a technique wherein foreign genetic molecules are delivered into cells. To elucidate distinct responses during cell genetic modification, methods to achieve transfection at the single-cell level are of great value. Herein, we developed an automated micropipette-based quantitative microinjection technology that can deliver precise amounts of materials into cells. The developed microinjection system achieved precise single-cell microinjection by pre-patterning cells in an a...

  12. CFD Studies of Combustion in Direct Injection Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Non-Premixed Combustion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gavudhama Karunanidhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the simulation process of non-premixed combustion in a direct injection single cylinder diesel engine has been described. Direct injection diesel engines are used both in heavy duty vehicles and light duty vehicles. The fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The fuel mixes with the high pressure air in the combustion chamber and combustion occurs. Due to the non-premixed nature of the combustion occurring in such engines, non-premixed combustion model of ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 can be used to simulate the combustion process. A 4-stroke diesel engine corresponds to one fuel injector hole without considering valves was modeled and combustion simulation process was studied. Here two types of combustion chambers were compared. Combustion studies of both chambers:- shallow depth and hemispherical combustion chambers were carried out. Emission characteristics of both combustion chambers had also been carried out. The obtained results are compared. It has been found that hemispherical combustion chamber is more efficient as it produces higher pressure and temperature compared to that of shallow depth combustion chamber. As the temperature increases the formation of NOx emissions and soot formation also get increased.

  13. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups

  14. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A., E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Li, Yuhang [Institute of Solid Mechanics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tomic, Bojan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Huang, Jiyuan [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burns, Branden [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Song, Jizhou [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Soft Matter Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Huang, Yonggang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  15. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  16. Safety, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies of Batifiban Injection Following Single- and Multiple-Dose Administration to Healthy Chinese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui CHEN; Jian QIAO; Qian LI; Jungang DENG; Zhirong TAN; Tao GUO; Weiyong LI

    2009-01-01

    Batifiban,a synthetic cyclic peptide,is a potent platelet glycoprotein GPⅡb/Ⅲa an-tagonist which may be useful in the treatment and prevention of acute coronary syndromes. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodymanic (inhibition of platelet aggregation) effects,and tolerability of batifiban were investigated in healthy subjects following single bolus injection with doses of 55,110,or 220 μg/kg,or multiple doses of an bolus followed intravenous infusion for 24 h (180 μg/kg of batifiban and areas under the curve were found to be proportional to doses. Batifiban was rapidly eliminated with a half-life of approximately 2.5 h. Significant differences were noted for plasma lev-els of batifiban and areas under the curve between males and females. No significant differences in the terminal half-life were found between males and females. Batifiban reversibly inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner,consistent with its mechanism as a GP Ⅱb/Ⅲa antagonist. Single and multiple intravenous doses of batifiban were found to be safe and well tolerated in healthy subjects. These results support a bolus injection plus intravenous infusion regimen of batifiban for the treatment and prevention of acute coronary syndromes.

  17. Review: study of single-pellet injection experiments and development of pellet injector in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single pellet injector developed for JFT-2M and the improvement of plasma characteristics in the auxiliary-heated discharges by single-pellet injection are reviewed for the period 1982 - 1986. The pellet injector is a pneumatic type and the designed pellet size is 1.65 mmD x 1.65 mmL and 1 mmD x 1 mmL. The hydrogen, deuterium and mixed (H2 + D2) pellets can be produced with good reproducibility. Maximum pellet velocity is about 970 m/s (pellet is deuterium and propellant gas is hydrogen). In the pellet injection experiments into auxiliary-heated (NB, ICRF) divertor or limiter discharges, the plasma confinement time is improved by a factor of 1.4 - 1.7 compared with the confinement time in the Ohmic discharges. The achieved confinement time is longer than that on the high confinement mode (H-mode) in gas fueled discharges, although the phenomena are transient. (author)

  18. Symptomatic hepatic cyst in a child: treatment with single-shot injection of tetracycline hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of hepatic cysts is 0.1% to 0.5% based on autopsy studies, and 2.5% based on US examinations. Percutaneous therapies are a new alternative to surgery. They include simple percutaneous aspiration, catheter drainage alone, and catheter drainage with sclerotherapy. We present an 11-year-old boy admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain. A diagnosis of simple hepatic cyst was made, which was treated with aspiration and tetracycline hydrochloride solution (5%) injection into the cystic cavity. Complete regression was seen on US and MRI examination at 3 months, with total collapse and deflation of the cyst. The cyst regressed totally, leaving a hyperechoic linear scar on US examination at 1 year. On the basis of the clinical and imaging results obtained, percutaneous sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts can be recommended as the treatment of choice and as a valid alternative to laparoscopy in children. (orig.)

  19. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (Pclenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. PMID:25513727

  20. 基于经典风险模型的最优分红和最优注资策略研究%Optimal Dividend and Capital Injection Strategy in Classical Risk Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永茂; 祁晓玉; 贠小青

    2015-01-01

    基于经典风险模型,对有限分红率下公司分红和注资的最优策略进行了深入研究,以便实现公司风险最小化或者股东净收益最大化的目的.首先根据保险公司的盈余过程推导了值函数V(x)的具体表达式,证明了值函数V(x)具有的某些性质,然后建立V(x)满足的HJB方程,通过对方程的研究得到保险公司最优分红和最优注资策略,并给出了最优注资上限和最优注资下限.最后对公司面临破产风险时是否选择注资以及注资量大小进行了探讨.%Based on the classical risk model, the optimal dividend and injection were studied to minimize the risks for the company or maximize the shareholder' s profit when the dividend was restricted.Firstly, the surplus process of insurance company was explored, and the value function V( x) was presented.Sec-ondly, some properties of the value function V( x) were examined, then the HJB equations were estab-lished.And the optimal dividend and capital injection strategies were found.At the same time, the cap-ital injection boundary was put forward.Finally, whether to inject and the amount of injection were dis-cussed when facing the risk of bankruptcy.

  1. Direct observation of spin-injection in tyrosinate-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, Theodoros; Ampoumogli, Asem; Gournis, Dimitrios; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Jankovic, Lubos; Christoforidis, Konstantinos C.; Deligiannakis, Yiannis; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Froudakis, George E.; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Prato, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report on the interaction of a tyrosinate radical with single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). The tyrosinate radical was formed from tyrosine (ester) by Fenton's reagent and, reacted in situ with carbon nanotubes resulting in novel tyrosinated carbon nanotube derivatives. The covalent

  2. Development of a novel single-step reverse genetics system for the generation of classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Pang, Huining; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Yanwen; Tan, Yiluo; Pan, Zishu

    2016-07-01

    We describe an alternative reverse genetics system for generating classical swine fever virus (CSFV) based on swine RNA polymerase I promoter (pSPI)-mediated vRNA transcription. The recombinant plasmid pSPTI/SM harboring a full-length CSFV Shimen strain cDNA, flanked by a swine RNA polymerase I (pol I) promoter sequence at the 5' end and a murine pol I terminator sequence at the 3' end, was constructed. When the plasmid pSPTI/SM was introduced into PK-15 cells by transfection, an infectious CSFV with termini identical to those of the parental virus was generated directly. CSFV rescued from this reverse genetics system exhibited similar growth kinetics and plaque formation compared with the parental CSFV. When the novel reverse genetics system was used to generate the CSFV vaccine C-strain, infectious virus was detected in the supernatant of PK-15 cells transfected with the recombinant plasmid pSPTI/C. This novel reverse genetics system is a simple and efficient tool for the investigation of the structure and function of the viral genome, for molecular pathogenicity studies, and for the development of genetically engineered vaccines for CSFV. PMID:27068166

  3. Field test of single well DNAPL characterization using alcohol injection/extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils and groundwater beneath an abandoned process sewer line in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) contain elevated levels of volatile organic compounds, specifically trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), two common chlorinated solvents. These compounds have low aqueous solubilities, thus when released to the subsurface in sufficient quantity, tend to exist as immiscible fluids or nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Because chlorinated solvents are also denser than water, they are referred to by the acronym DNAPLs, or dense non-aqueous phase liquids. Technologies targeted at efficient characterization or removal of DNAPL are not currently proven. The authors performed injection/extraction characterization tests in six existing wells in A/M Area. Water concentrations for TCE and/or PCE in these wells ranged from 0% to 100% of solubility. For each test, small amounts of solubilizing solution were used to try to confirm or deny the presence or absence of DNAPL in the immediate vicinity of the well screen

  4. Determining endogenous amino acid losses in poultry using single injection of [3H] leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sets of young hens and broilers received six diet treatments. The diets were on fast (FAS), and force-fed nitrogen-free diet (NFD), NFD + 3.20% enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC), semi-synthesized diets with 5% and 20% crude protein (CP) in which soybean meal was the sole nitrogen source, and semi-synthesized diet with 20% CP in which cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source. After force-fed, 30 μCi[3H]Leu/kgBW was injected subcutaneously, the excreta in the following 48h were totally collected, and venous blood samples were taken at 5 min, 30 min, 4 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h. The study showed that the ratios between specific radioactivity (SR) of endogenous Leucine in excreta (SRe) and SR of free Leucine in plasma (SRp) kept constant, no matter what kinds of diets the birds ate. This made it possible to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAAL) of practical diets when NFD was taken as the reference. (authors)

  5. Low-pressure, single-point grout injection for tank heel sludge mixing and in-situ immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes tests conducted in an approximately 9-ft diameter test tank situated outside the 336 building in Hanford's 300 area. The tests were performed to measure the ability of jets of grout slurry to mobilize and mix simulated tank sludge. The technique is intended for in situ immobilization of tank waste heels. The current approach uses a single, rotated, larger-diameter nozzle driven at lower pressure. Due to the larger diameter, the potential for plugging is reduced and the effective radius around an injection point over which the jet is effective in mobilizing sludge from the tank bottom can be made larger. A total of three grout injection tests were conducted in a 9-ft diameter tank. In each case, a 2-in. layer of kaolin clay paste was placed on a dry tank floor to simulate a sludge heel. The clay was covered with 4 inches of water. The grout slurry, consisting of Portland cement, class F fly ash, and eater, was prepared and delivered by an offsite vendor. In the third test, the sludge in half of the tank was replaced by a layer of 20x50 mesh zeolite, and bentonite clay was added to the grout formulation. After injection, the grout was allowed to set and then the entire grout monolith was manually broken up and excavated using a jack hammer. Intact pieces of clay were visually apparent due to a sharp color contrast between the grout and clay. Remaining clay deposits were collected and weighed and suspended clay pieces within the monolith were photographed. The mobilization performance of the grout jets exceeded expectations

  6. Local cooling, plasma reheating and thermal pinching induced by single aerosol droplets injected into an inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-07-01

    The injection of a single micrometer-sized droplet into an analytical inductively coupled plasma (ICP) perturbs the plasma and involves three sequential effects: local cooling, thermal pinching and plasma reheating. Time-resolved two-dimensional monochromatic imaging of the load-coil region of an ICP was used to monitor this sequence of plasma perturbations. When a microdroplet enters the plasma, it acts as a local heat sink and cools the nearby plasma region. The cooling effect is considered local, although the cooling volume can be large and extends 6 mm from the physical location of the vaporizing droplet. The liberated hydrogen, from decomposition of water, causes a thermal pinch effect by increasing the thermal conductivity of the bulk plasma and accelerating heat loss at the plasma periphery. As a response to the heat loss, the plasma shrinks in size, which increases its power density. Plasma shrinkage starts around the same time when the microdroplet enters the plasma and lasts at least 2 ms after the droplet leaves the load-coil region. Once the vaporizing droplet passes through a particular plasma volume, that volume is reheated to an even higher temperature than under steady-state conditions. Because of the opposing effects of plasma cooling and reheating, the plasma conditions are different upstream (downward) and downstream (upward) from a vaporizing droplet - cooling dominates the downstream region whereas reheating controls in the upstream domain. The boundary between the local cooling and reheating zones is sharp and is only ~ 1 mm thick. The reheating effect persists a relatively long time in the plasma, at least up to 4 ms after the droplet moves out of the load-coil region. The restoration of plasma equilibrium after the perturbation induced by microdroplet injection is slow. Microdroplet injection also induces a momentary change in plasma impedance, and the impedance change was found to correlate qualitatively with the different stages of plasma

  7. Electrical spin injection into InGaAs quantum dots: single dot devices and time-resolved studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetterich, M.; Loeffler, W.; Asshoff, P.; Fluegge, H.; Mueller, J.; Westenfelder, B.; Hu, D.Z.; Schaadt, D.M.; Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik and DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    In the context of a potential future quantum information processing we investigate the concurrent initialization of electronic spin states in InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) via electrical injection from ZnMn(S)Se spin aligners. Single dots can be read out optically through metallic apertures on top of our spin-injection light-emitting diodes (spin-LEDs). A reproducible spin polarization degree close to 100% is observed for a subset of the QD ensemble. However, the average polarization degree is lower and drops with increasing QD emission wavelength. Our measurements suggest that spin relaxation processes outside the QDs, related to the energetic position of the electron quasi-Fermi level, as well as defect-related spin scattering at the III-V/II-VI interface should be responsible for this effect, leading us to an improved device design. Finally, we present first time-resolved electroluminescence measurements of the polarization dynamics using nanosecond-pulsed electrical excitation. The latter should enable us to gain a more detailed understanding of the spin relaxation processes in our devices. They are also the first step towards future time-resolved spin manipulation experiments. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease risk of donor tissue: a single institution retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mark D; Qureshi, Amir; Vijapura, Anita; Temple, H Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship of non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Syphilis. In a retrospective review of 986 donor charts recovered from 2009 to 2011 at a single tissue bank, the absence of reported non-injected illicit drug use corresponded with seropositivity in 6.61 %, of recovered donors while reported illicit drug use in the medical and social history corresponded with seropositivity in 11.25 %, representing a 70 % increased risk. There was no significant difference noted for overall seropositivity rates between types on noninjected illicit drugs, although donors that used cocaine had a higher incidence of HIV, while marijuana use was associated with a higher rate of HBV, HCV, and syphilis positivity. Toxicology screening results were not an accurate predictor of seropositivity (PPV = 3.77 %; NPV = 91.56 %). Further, the degree of relationship between the donor and the next of kin had no bearing on the veracity of actual drug use when comparing the response of the medical-social history and the toxicology screen. PMID:26006785

  9. Study of Single-dose Toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go Glucose Intramuscular Injection in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Su-jeong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyze single-dose intramuscular toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose pharmacopuncture. Methods: Eighty six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two large groups of forty rats; Guseonwangdo-go glucose 5% and Guseonwangdo-go glucose 20% groups. Each group was sub-divided into four smaller groups of five males and five females, with the following dosages of pharmacopuncture being administered by intramuscular (IM injection in each group: group 1 (G1, control group: 1.0 mL of normal saline solution, group 2 (G2, low-dose group: 0.1 mL, group 3 (G3, mid-dose group: 0.5 mL, and group 4 (G4, high-dose group: 1.0 mL. Results: No mortalities or clinical signs were observed in any group. Also, no significant changes in body weights or in hematological/biochemical analyses were observed between the control and the experimental groups during necropsy or histopathology. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that the lethal dose of Guseonwangdo-go glucose 5% and 20% pharmacopuncture administered via IM injection is more than 1.0 mL per animal in both male and female rats. Further studies on the repeated-dose toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose should be conducted to yield more concrete data.

  10. Single-well injection-withdrawal tests (SWIW). Investigation of evaluation aspects under heterogeneous crystalline bedrock conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests have been identified by SKB as an investigation method for solute transport properties in the forthcoming site investigations. A previous report presents a literature study as well as scoping calculations for SWIW tests in homogeneous crystalline bedrock environments. The present report comprises further scoping calculations under assumptions of heterogeneous bedrock conditions. Simple but plausible homogeneous evaluation models are tested on simulated SWIW tests in hypothetical heterogeneous two-dimensional fractures. The results from this study indicate that heterogeneity may cause effects of flow irreversibility when background hydraulic gradients are significant and the tested section is located in a dominating flow path. This implies that such conditions make it more difficult to interpret results from SWIW tests of longer duration with sorbing and/or diffusing tracers. Sorption and diffusion processes may be best studied when SWIW tests are conducted in borehole sections with low natural flow rates

  11. Efficacy of a single intramuscular injection of porcine FSH in hyaluronan prior to ovum pick-up in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Netto, A Castro; Guerreiro, B M; Silveira, C R A; Freitas, B G; Bragança, L G M; Marques, K N G; Sá Filho, M F; Bó, G A; Mapletoft, R J; Baruselli, P S

    2016-03-15

    Plasma FSH profiles, in vitro embryo production (IVP) after ovum pickup (OPU), and establishment of pregnancy with IVP embryos were compared in untreated Holstein oocyte donors and those superstimulated with multiple injections or a single intramuscular (IM) injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) in hyaluronan (HA). Plasma FSH profiles were determined in 23 heifers randomly allocated to one of four groups. Controls received no treatment, whereas the F200 group received 200 mg of pFSH in four doses, 12 hours apart. The F200HA and F300HA groups received 200- or 300-mg pFSH in 5 mL or 7.5 mL, respectively of a 0.5% HA solution by a single IM injection. Plasma FSH levels were determined before the first pFSH treatment and every 6 hours over 96 hours. All data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Circulating FSH area under curve (AUC) in pFSH-treated animals was greater than that in the control group (P = 0.02). Although the AUC did not differ among FSH-treated groups (P = 0.56), the total period with elevated plasma FSH was greater in the F200 group than in the HA groups (P FSH (P = 0.17). The IVP was performed in 90 nonlactating Holstein cows randomly allocated to one of the four treatment groups as in the first experiment. A greater proportion of medium-sized (6-10 mm) follicles was observed in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group (P oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (P = 0.01) and matured (P = 0.02), cleavage rates (P = 0.002), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) were greater in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group. Cows in the F200HA group had a greater recovery rate (P = 0.009), number of COCs cultured (P = 0.04), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) than cows in the F300HA group. Similar pregnancy rates were observed 50 to 60 days after transferring IVP embryos from donors in the different treatment groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, a single IM injection of pFSH combined in 0.5% HA resulted in similar

  12. Classical integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  13. Single-well injection-withdrawal tests (SWIW). Literature review and scoping calculations for homogeneous crystalline bedrock conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a literature review and scoping calculations carried out in order to test the feasibility of using SWIW (Single Well Injection Withdrawal) tracer experiments for expected hydraulic conditions in Swedish bedrock. The motivation for using SWIW tests in the site investigation programme is that extensive cross-hole tracer tests may not be possible and that such SWIW tests are more or less the only available single-hole tracer test method. The scoping calculations are aimed at establishing conditions under which SWIW tests should be feasible, by studying experimental attributes such as expected bedrock properties (transmissivity, porosity, etc), ambient hydraulic gradients, duration of various experimental phases, hydraulic injection pressure and parameter identification possibilities. Particular emphasis has been placed on the use of the dilution probe as an experimental device for SWIW, although the scoping results also should be considered applicable to any experimental equipment approach. The results from the scoping calculations indicate that SWIW tests using the dilution probe are feasible under the required experimental and site requirements for the forthcoming site investigations programme. The characteristic flow reversibility feature inherent in SWIW tests causes some differences compared with cross-hole tracer tests. Advective parameters (i.e. mobile porosity, dispersivity) are generally more difficult to identify/estimate and the same may also be said about equilibrium sorption. Time-dependent processes, on the other hand, generally benefit from the flow reversibility, in principle even in the presence of heterogeneity. However, it may not always be possible to identify time-dependent processes, such as matrix diffusion, for expected conditions in Swedish bedrock. Experimental aims may be allowed to vary depending on the specific conditions (transmissivity, hydraulic gradient, etc.) in the tested borehole section

  14. Boson sampling with displaced single-photon Fock states versus single-photon-added coherent states: The quantum-classical divide and computational-complexity transitions in linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Olson, Jonathan P.; Motes, Keith R.; Rohde, Peter P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2015-02-01

    Boson sampling is a specific quantum computation, which is likely hard to implement efficiently on a classical computer. The task is to sample the output photon-number distribution of a linear-optical interferometric network, which is fed with single-photon Fock-state inputs. A question that has been asked is if the sampling problems associated with any other input quantum states of light (other than the Fock states) to a linear-optical network and suitable output detection strategies are also of similar computational complexity as boson sampling. We consider the states that differ from the Fock states by a displacement operation, namely the displaced Fock states and the photon-added coherent states. It is easy to show that the sampling problem associated with displaced single-photon Fock states and a displaced photon-number detection scheme is in the same complexity class as boson sampling for all values of displacement. On the other hand, we show that the sampling problem associated with single-photon-added coherent states and the same displaced photon-number detection scheme demonstrates a computational-complexity transition. It transitions from being just as hard as boson sampling when the input coherent amplitudes are sufficiently small to a classically simulatable problem in the limit of large coherent amplitudes.

  15. Effect of a single injection of high-dose FK506 on lung transplantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Y; Maruyama, S; Aoe, M; Date, H; Shimizu, N

    1996-01-01

    Orthotopic left lung grafts from Brown Norway (BN) donors were transplanted to Lewis (LEW) rat recipients which had been treated with a single dose of FK506 10mg/kg body weight intramuscularly on postoperative day 3. Although the lungs were rejected with a median survival time of 7 days, with a range of 6-8 days in the untreated controls, maximum survival was prolonged to 60 days. The major adverse effects of this therapy were reduction of feeding, loss of body weight, and diarrhea. One of the 7 rats died on the 21st postoperative day due to anorexia. The effects of this therapy were investigated by histopathological examination and flow cytometric analysis using monoclonal antibodies against rat lymphocytes: OX-39 (anti-interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R)) and OX-6 (anti-class II MHC). Histopathologically, the lung allografts showed mild perivascular and peribronchiolar cuffs of mononuclear cells, while marked reduction of the thymic medulla with FK506 treatment was also observed. Flow cytometric analysis of the transplanted lung showed no significant changes. Regarding the thymus, the percentages of positive cells labeled with OX-39 and OX-6 were significantly suppressed after this treatment. In the spleen, the number of OX-6-positive cells significantly decreased. The results using this therapy thus suggest that the suppression of IL-2R and MHC class II expression was systemically maintained for a long time. PMID:9017963

  16. Combination of repeated single-session percutaneous ethanol injection and transarterial chemoembolisation compared to repeated single-session percutaneous ethanol injection in patients with non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne Dettmer; Susanne Krusche; Sonja Merkesdal; Michael Galanski; Michael P Manns; Joerg S Bleck; Timm D Kirchhoff; Michael Gebel; Lars Zender; Nisar P Malek; Bernhard Panning; Ajay Chavan; Herbert Rosenthal; Stefan Kubicka

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the treatment effect of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for patients with advanced,non-resectable HCC compared with combination of transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and repeated single-session PEI, repeated single-session PEI alone,repeated TACE alone, or best supportive care.METHODS: All patients who received PEI treatment during the study period were included and stratified to one of the following treatment modalities according to physical status and tumor extent: combination of TACE and repeated single-session PEI, repeated single-session PEI alone, repeated TACE alone, or best supportive care. Prognostic value of clinical parameters including Okuda-classification, presence of portal vein thrombosis,presence of ascites, number of tumors, maximum tumor diameter, and serum cholinesterase (CHE), as well as Child-Pugh stage, α-fetoprotein (AFP), fever, incidence of complications were assessed and compared between the groups. Survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate regression analyses.RESULTS: The 1- and 3-year survival of all patients was 73% and 47%. In the subgroup analyses, the combination of TACE and PEI (1) was associated with a longer survival (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 90%, 52%,and 43%) compared to PEI treatment alone (2) (1-, 3-,5-year survival:65%, 50%, and 37%). Secondary PEI after initial stratification to TACE (3) yielded comparable results (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 91%, 40%, and 30%)while PEI after stratification to best supportive care (4)was associated with decreased survival (1-, 3-, 5-year survival: 50%, 23%, 12%). Apart from the chosen treatment modalities, predictors for better survival were tumor number (n<5), tumor size (<5cm), no ascites before PEI, and stable serum cholinesterase after PEI (P<0.05). The mortality within 2 wk after PEI was 2.8%(n=3). There were 24 (8.9%) major complications after PEI including segmental liver infarction, focal liver necrosis, and liver abscess. All

  17. Performance, Emission, Combustion, Compression Ratio, Injection Timing and Injection Pressure on a Single Cylinder CI engine Operated with Mahua Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SenthilKumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The automobiles play an important role in the transport system. With an increase in population and living standard, the transport vehicles as well as car population is increasing day by day. In addition to this there is steep increase in the number of two wheelers during the last two decades. All these are increasing exhaust pollution and particularly in metros as density of these vehicles in metros are very high. Injection diesel engine fueled with diesel and Mahua methyl ester blend. The main pollutants contributed by I.C. engines are CO, NOX unburned (HC and other particulate emissions. Other sources such as Electric power stations industrial and domestic fuel consumers also add pollution like NOX, SO2 and particulate matters. In addition to this, all fuel burning systems emit CO2 in large quantities and this is more concerned with the Green House Effect which is going to decide the health of earth. Comparison of performance was done for different values of compression ratio, injection pressure and injection timing to find best possible combination for operating engine with MOME. It is found that the combined compression ratio of 16.1, 17.2,18.4, 19.5,20.7 and 21.6 injection pressure of 170, 190, 210, 230, 250 and 270bar and injection timing of 19, 21, 23 25, 27, 29°bTDC increases the brake thermal efficiency.

  18. Production and Utilization of Renewable Liquid Fuel in a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. YALIWAL,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of biofuels in CI engine proves more relevant because of energy security, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings and socio-economic issues. The physico-chemical properties of vegetable oil affect the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, vegetable oil properties have to be modified to diesel likefuel. In the present work, some efforts were made towards fuel processing technology using pressure reactor, characterization of Honge oil and experimental investigations have been conducted on a single cylinder, fourstroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge oil and its methyl /ethyl ester without any engine modification. This paper presents the findings on fundamental engine performance and emission characteristics. In view of this, comprehensive research work on utilization of this renewable liquid non- edible oil has been undertaken in CI engines and the results are compared with neat dieseloperation. The experimental investigation suggests that the fuel processing with pressure reactor is advantageous in terms of shorter reaction time and low consumption of resources but requires considerable temperature and pressure. Ethyl ester of Honge oil (HOEE provides slightly better engine performance and improved emission characteristics than methyl ester of Honge oil (HOME.

  19. Tracer Tests in a Fractured Dolomite: 3. Analysis of Mass Transfer in Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, R.; Fleming, S.W.; Meigs, L.C.; McKenna, S.A.

    1999-03-04

    We investigated multiple-rate diffusion as a possible explanation for observed behavior in a suite of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tests conducted in a fractured dolomite. We first investigated the ability of a conventional double-porosity model and a multirate diffusion model to explain the data. This revealed that the multirate diffusion hypothesis/model is most consistent with all available data, and is the only model to date that is capable of matching each of the recovery curves entirely. Second, we studied the sensitivity of the SWIW recovery curves to the distribution of diffusion rate coefficients and other parameters. We concluded that the SWIW test is very sensitive to the distribution of rate coefficients, but is relatively insensitive to other flow and transport parameters such as advective porosity and dispersivity. Third, we examined the significance of the constant double-log late-time slopes ({minus}2. 1 to {minus}2.8), which are present in several data sets. The observed late-time slopes are significantly different than would be predicted by either conventional double-porosity or single-porosity media, and are found to be a distinctive feature of multirate diffusion under SWIW test conditions. Fourth, we found that the estimated distributions of diffusion rate coefficients are very broad, with the distributions spanning a range of at least 3.6 to 5.7 orders of magnitude.

  20. Development of desolvation system for single-cell analysis using droplet injection inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to enhance the sensitivity of analytical instruments used in the measurement of trace elements contained in a single cell, we have now equipped the previously reported micro-droplet injection system (M-DIS) with a desolvation system. This modified M-DIS was coupled to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and evaluated for its ability to measure trace elements. A flow rate of 100 mL/min for the additional gas and a measurement point –7.5 mm above the load coil (ALC) have been determined to be the optimal parameters for recording the emission intensity of the Ca(II) spectral lines. To evaluate the influence of the desolvation system, we recorded the emission intensities of the Ca(I), Ca(II), and H-β spectral lines with and without inclusion of the desolvation system. The emission intensity of the H-β spectral line reduces and the magnitude of the Ca(II)/Ca(I) emission intensity ratio increases four-fold with inclusion of the desolvation system. Finally, the elements Ca, Mg, and Fe present in a single cell of Pseudococcomyxa simplex are simultaneously determined by coupling the M-DIS equipped with the desolvation system to ICP-AES. (author)

  1. Classical Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, A G; Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission coefficient.

  2. Classical Tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Arthur; Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission...

  3. The effects of a single intravenous injection of novel activin A/BMP-2 (AB204) on toxicity and the respiratory and central nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup; Na, Kyuheum; Ahn, Chihoon; Cho, Jongho; Ahn, Hyun Chan; Choi, Jungyoun; Oh, Hyosun; Kim, Byong Moon; Choe, Senyon

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single intravenous injection of a novel osteoinductive material, activin A/BMP-2 (AB204), to rodents on toxicity and their respiratory functions and central nervous system (CNS). A single intravenous injection of AB204 was given to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in doses of 0, 0.625, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg to observe the mortality rate, the general symptoms for 14 days. The experimental groups were also given 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively, and the respiration rate, the tidal volume and the minute volume were measured for 240 min. The experimental groups of imprinting control region (ICR) mice were given a single intravenous injection of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively. Their body temperature was taken and general behaviors were observed to evaluate the effect of AB204 on the CNS for 240 min. The study on toxicity of a single intravenous injection found no death or abnormal symptoms, abnormal findings from autopsy, or abnormal body weight gain or loss in all the experimental groups. No abnormal variation associated with the test substance was observed in the respiration rate, the tidal volume, the minute volume, body temperature or the general behaviors. On the basis of these results, the approximate lethal dose of AB204 for a single intravenous injection exceeds 10 mg/kg for SD rats and a single intravenous injection of ≤0.8 mg/kg AB204 has no effect on their respiratory system for SD rat and no effect on their CNS for ICR mice. PMID:26446865

  4. Reduction of waveform distortion in grid-injection current from single-phase utility interactive PV-inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A reduction scheme for harmonics from utility interactive PV-inverter is proposed. • Single-phase conditioner with 3-phase expandability structure is used. • The single-phase conditioner in 3-phase structure work independently. • The scheme works effectively within overall operation range of the PV-inverter. • Conditioner in the scheme also improves the PV-inverter and plant’s utility factor. - Abstract: As the natural behavior of energy source and design characteristic, the current generated by a grid-interactive PV-inverter may contain harmonics. This distortion component will be carried on from the PV-inverter during injection power into the grid. Excessive harmonics in a grid will lead to a variety of power quality problems. This paper presents a distortion reduction scheme, utilizing a fed forward single-phase, generation-side power conditioner with a structure that can be expanded for use in a three-phase system and can work independently under imbalanced condition. Conditioner is placed in parallel with the photovoltaic plant and it functions to compensate the plant’s output current distortion, so that the total current flow to the grid is sinusoidal. This method also includes the implementation of a simpler control system for the conditioner, which consists of a combination of distortion current extraction, synchronization and a current control system, and realized through a TMS320F28335: a 150 MHz floating point DSP controller. Testing of the conditioner prototype, which was conducted on a real operation of a PV plant, showed that the scheme worked effectively within the overall operation range of the PV plant. This paper also discusses the potential of utility factor improvement of the PV-inverter and plant due to implementation of conditioner in the scheme

  5. Insight from simulations of single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests on simple and complex fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.-F.; Doughty, C.

    2009-08-06

    The single-well injection withdrawal (SWIW) test, a tracer test utilizing only one well, is proposed as a useful contribution to site characterization of fractured rock, as well as providing parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. The usual conceptual model of flow and solute transport through fractured rock with low matrix permeability involves solute advection and dispersion through a fracture network coupled with diffusion and sorption into the surrounding rock matrix. Unlike two-well tracer tests, results of SWIW tests are ideally independent of advective heterogeneity, channeling and flow dimension, and, instead, focus on diffusive and sorptive characteristics of tracer (solute) transport. Thus, they can be used specifically to study such characteristics and evaluate the diffusive parameters associated with tracer transport through fractured media. We conduct simulations of SWIW tests on simple and complex fracture models, the latter being defined as having two subfractures with altered rock blocks in between and gouge material in their apertures. Using parameters from the Aspo site in Sweden, we calculate and study SWIW tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) from a test involving four days of injection and then withdrawal. By examining the peak concentration C{sub pk} of the SWIW BTCs for a variety of parameters, we confirm that C{sub pk} is largely insensitive to the fracture advective flow properties, in particular to permeability heterogeneity over the fracture plane or to subdividing the flow into two subfractures in the third dimension orthogonal to the fracture plane. The peak arrival time t{sub pk} is not a function of fracture or rock properties, but is controlled by the time schedule of the SWIW test. The study shows that the SWIW test is useful for the study of tracer diffusion-sorption processes, including the effect of the so-called flow-wetted surface (FWS) of the fracture. Calculations with schematic models with different FWS values are

  6. Performance, Emission, Combustion, Compression Ratio, Injection Timing and Injection Pressure on a Single Cylinder CI engine Operated with Mahua Methyl Ester

    OpenAIRE

    R Senthilkumar

    2014-01-01

    The automobiles play an important role in the transport system. With an increase in population and living standard, the transport vehicles as well as car population is increasing day by day. In addition to this there is steep increase in the number of two wheelers during the last two decades. All these are increasing exhaust pollution and particularly in metros as density of these vehicles in metros are very high. Injection diesel engine fueled with diesel and Mahua methyl est...

  7. A single-injection, two-sample method for measuring renal 99mTc-MAG3 clearance in both children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method for estimating 99mTc-MAG3 clearance from both a single injection and two blood samples that is valid for both adults and children. It was obtained by fitting a scaled two-compartment model (having only two adjustable parameters) to adult and pediatric data from multiple centers

  8. Arterio-venous concentration difference of [51Cr]EDTA after a single injection in man. Significance of renal function and local blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Hyldstrup, L; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in order to study (1) the difference in arterial (Ca) and venous (Cv) concentration of [51Cr]EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) after a single intravenous injection, (2) the impact of different physiological variables on this difference, and (3) the error...

  9. Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    This is the English version of a friendly graduate course on Classical Mechanics, containing about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. For the Spanish version, see physics/9906066

  10. Analytical Evaluation of the Ratio Between Injection and Space-Charge Limited Currents in Single Carrier Organic Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Angel Luis; Arredondo, Belen; Romero, Beatriz; Quintana Arregui, Patxi Xabier; Gutierrez Llorente, Araceli; Mallavia, Ricardo; Otón Sánchez, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An analytical, complete framework to describe the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic diodes without the use of previous approaches, such as injection or bulk-limited conduction is proposed. Analytical expressions to quantify the ratio between injection and space-charge-limited current from experimental I-V characteristics in organic diodes have been derived. These are used to propose a numerical model in which both bulk transport and injection mechanisms are considered simultane...

  11. Experimental study of unsteady heat release in an unstable single element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Varun S.

    In an effort to curb emissions from gas turbine engines, many low emission engine concepts have been developed. Among the most promising of these is the LDI (Lean Direct Injection). These systems operate at relatively low equivalence ratios close to blowout and are prone to instabilities. Combustion instabilities can reduce the life of the combustor by causing large pressure fluctuations and enhanced heat release to the walls of the combustor and reduce the efficiency of the engines. The understanding of combustion instabilities is vital to the implementation of such systems. Combustion instabilities are studied in an self-excited single element gas turbine combustor that uses an LDI element for fuel injection at elevetaed chamber pressures. The LDI combustor uses a swirler to ensure mixing of the air and the fuel and expansion of the swirl through a pressure swirl venturi to create a swirl stabilized flame. This project aims to study the heat release modes that occur in the combustor through measurement of light emissions from the flame using photodiodes that are sensitive to wavelengths of light produced by the flame. These are used along with high frequency pressure transducers. The focus is on the flame behavior in the diverging section of the venturi where the swirl is expanded and the flame starts since optic access cannot be obtained in this section. The use of photodiodes also facilitates the study of hydrodynamic modes that occur in the combustor alongside the thermoacoustics. A section which could accommodate the photodiodes was designed and installed on the LDI test rig in the Gas Turbine Cell at Maurice J Zucrow Propulsion Labs at Purdue University. The combustor was tested with this section and dynamic data was obtained from the pressure transducers and the photodiodes for a range of inlet air temperatures and range of equivalence ratios for each inlet air temperature. The dominant instability modes in both sets of data were analyzed and are presented

  12. Nuclear motion is classical

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.

  13. The structure of the hydrated electron. Part 2. A mixed quantum classical molecular dynamics - embedded cluster density functional theory: single-excitation configuration interaction study

    CERN Document Server

    Shkrob, I A; Larsen, R E; Schwartz, B J; Glover, William J.; Larsen, Ross E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Shkrob, Ilya A.

    2006-01-01

    Adiabatic mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate snapshots of the hydrated electron (e-) in liquid water at 300 K. Water cluster anions that include two complete solvation shells centered on the e- were extracted from these simulations and embedded in a matrix of fractional point charges designed to represent the rest of the solvent. Density functional theory and single-excitation configuration interaction methods were then applied to these embedded clusters. The salient feature of these hybrid calculations is significant transfer (ca. 0.18) of the excess electron's charge density into the O 2p orbitals in OH groups forming the solvation cavity. We used the results of these calculations to examine the structure of the molecular orbitals, the density of states, the absorption spectra in the visible and ultraviolet, the hyperfine coupling (hfc) tensors, and the IR and Raman spectra of the e-. The calculated hfc tensors were used to compute the EPR and ESEEM spectra for the ...

  14. The mechanism of the transient depression of the erythropoietic rate induced in the rat by a single injection of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of assessing the effect of uranyl nitrate (UN) on the rate of erythropoiesis, 1 mg/kg of the compound was injected iv to adult female Wistar rats. The dosing vehicle was injected into control animals. A single injection of UN induced a transient depression of the rate of red cell volume 59Fe uptake, which reached its lowest value (68% depression) by the seventh postinjection day. By 14 days, 59Fe incorporation had returned to normal. The amount of iron going to erythroid tissue per hour, reticulocyte count, and immunoreactive erythropoietin concentration in both plasma and kidney extracts were also significantly depressed in UN-treated rats in relation to these values in vehicle-injected rats by the seventh postinjection day. Dose-response curves for exogenous erythropoietin (Epo) performed in polycythemic intact and UN-treated rats 7 days after drug injection revealed a significant depression of the response in UN-injected animals. Moreover, bone marrow cells obtained from rats pretreated with UN formed a reduced number of erythroid colonies in vitro in response to Epo. Therefore, possible mechanisms for the observed transient depression in the rate of erythropoiesis associated with acute UN treatment include decreased Epo production and direct or indirect damage of erythroid progenitor cells

  15. Single-frequency, Q -switched Er:YAG at room temperature injection-seeded by an Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a diode-pumped, injection-seeded Q-switched Er:YAG laser operating at room temperature. The diode-pumped single-frequency Er:YAG monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) was used as the seed laser emitting at 1645.22 nm with a maximum output power of 550 mW. Single-frequency, Q-switched operation of the Er:YAG laser was achieved by injection seeding. The output energy of the single-frequency Q-switched pulse was 3.5 mJ, with a pulse width of 195 ns at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. (paper)

  16. Treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules at a single institution. Radioiodine therapy, surgery, and ethanol injection therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of radioiodine (RI) therapy in Japanese patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). We performed a retrospective analysis to assess the management of AFTN patients. Thyroid lobectomy was performed to treat toxic adenoma (TA) patients, and total thyroidectomy to treat toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) patients. RI therapy was administered in the form of a single dose (500 MBq) of isotope in the outpatient clinic. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) was performed under ultrasound guidance. Of the total 205 patients, consisting of 159 TA and 46 TMNG patients, 99 underwent surgery, 50 received RI therapy, and 56 received PEIT. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in all of the patients who were treated surgically. Hypothyroidism was documented in six of the 72 patients who were treated surgically other than by total thyroidectomy. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was observed in 43 of the 50 patients who were treated by RI therapy. Nine TA patients developed hypothyroidism during the follow-up period after RI therapy. Several PEIT sessions were required to achieve a remission of thyrotoxicosis. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in 29 of the 56 patients treated by PEIT, and thyrotoxicosis recurred in 17 these 56 patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice for large nodules and nodules that are resistant to other treatments, because it allows prompt control of thyrotoxicosis. RI therapy is a safe and effective means of controlling thyrotoxicosis in AFTN patients. We conclude that RI therapy is the treatment of choice for definitive treatment of AFTN patients who do not have local compression symptoms. (author)

  17. Injectable formulations for an intravitreal sustained-release application of a novel single-chain VEGF antibody fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Lutz R; Grimshaw, John P A; Richle, Philipp; Eicher, Barbara; Urech, David M; Gurny, Robert; Möller, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Sustained-release formulations of a single-chain anti-VEGF-A antibody fragment were investigated in vitro toward their potential use for intravitreal applications. The hydrophobic polyester hexylsubstituted poly(lactic acid) (hexPLA) was selected as the sustained-release excipient for its biodegradability and semi-solid aggregate state, allowing an easy and mild formulation procedure. The lyophilized antibody fragment ESBA903 was micronized and incorporated into the liquid polymer matrix by cryo-milling, forming homogeneous and injectable suspensions. The protein showed excellent compatibility with the hexPLA polymer and storage stability at 4°C for 10 weeks. Additionally, hexPLA shielded the incorporated active substance from the surrounding medium, resulting in a better stability of ESBA903 inside the polymer than after its release in the buffer solution. Formulations of ESBA903 with hexPLA having drug loadings between 1.25% and 5.0% and polymer molecular weights of 1500 g/mol, 2500 g/mol, 3500 g/mol and 5000 g/mol were investigated regarding their in vitro release. All formulations except with the highest molecular weight formed spherical depots in aqueous buffer solutions and released the antibody fragment for at least 6-14 weeks. The polymer viscosity derived from the molecular weight strongly influenced the release rate, while the drug loading had minor influence, allowing customization of the release profile and the daily drug release. Size exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE revealed that the antibody fragment structure was kept intact during incorporation and release from the liquid matrix. Furthermore, the released protein monomer maintained its high affinity to human VEGF-A, as measured by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Formulations of ESBA903 in hexPLA meet the basic needs to be used for intravitreal sustained-release applications in age-related macular degeneration treatment. PMID:25779352

  18. Coherent Communication of Classical Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.

    2003-01-01

    We define "coherent communication" in terms of a simple primitive, show it is equivalent to the ability to send a classical message with a unitary or isometric operation, and use it to relate other resources in quantum information theory. Using coherent communication, we are able to generalize super-dense coding to prepare arbitrary quantum states instead of only classical messages. We also derive single-letter formulae for the classical and quantum capacities of a bipartite unitary gate assi...

  19. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunju Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge. The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

  20. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45 degree to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence

  1. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3H-Leu

  2. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, Kamil; Altan, Feray; Aboubakr, Mohammed; Cetin, Gul; Dik, Burak

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after single IV and IM injections in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). ANIMALS 8 healthy red-eared slider turtles. PROCEDURES Turtles received 1 dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) IV or IM (4 turtles/route), a 30-day washout period was provided, and then turtles received the same dose by the opposite route. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for measurement of plasma meloxicam concentration. Pharmacokinetic values for each administration route were determined with a 2-compartment open model approach. RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD values of major pharmacokinetic variables were 1.02 ± 0.41 hours for distribution half-life, 9.78 ± 2.23 hours for elimination half-life, 215 ± 32 mL/kg for volume of distribution at steady state, 11.27 ± 1.44 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 18.00 ± 2.32 mL/h/kg for total body clearance. For IM administration, mean values were 0.35 ± 0.06 hours for absorption half-life, 0.72 ± 0.06 μg/mL for peak plasma concentration, 1.5 ± 0.0 hours for time to peak concentration, 3.73 ± 2.41 hours for distribution half-life, 13.53 ± 1.95 hours for elimination half-life, 11.33 ± 0.92 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 101 ± 6% for bioavailability. No adverse reactions were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Long half-life, high bioavailability, and lack of immediate adverse reactions of meloxicam administered IM at 0.2 mg/kg suggested the possibility of safe and effective clinical use in turtles. Additional studies are needed to establish appropriate administration frequency and clinical efficacy. PMID:27111010

  3. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sunju Park; Seung-Ho Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) after approval of the Institutional Animal Care...

  4. Continuous epidural infusion of morphine versus single epidural injection of extended-release morphine for postoperative pain control after arthroplasty: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Vanterpool; Randall Coombs; Karamarie Fecho

    2010-01-01

    Stephanie Vanterpool, Randall Coombs, Karamarie FechoDepartment of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: This study retrospectively compared the continuous epidural infusion of morphine with a single epidural injection of extended-release morphine for postoperative pain control after arthroplasty.Methods: Medical records were reviewed for subjects who had total knee or hip arthroplasty (THA) under spinal anesthesia and...

  5. Continuous-Wave Single-Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking Using Feedback from a Fiber Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Single-frequency operation of uncoated Fabry-Perot laser diodes is demonstrated by phase- locking the laser oscillations through self-injection seeding with feedback from a fiber Bragg grating. By precisely tuning the laser temperature so that an axial-mode coincides with the short-wavelength band edge of the grating, the phase of the feedback is made conjugate to that of the axial mode, locking the phase of the laser oscillations to that mode.

  6. A single injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus into the lumbar cistern delivers transgene expression throughout the whole spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yansu; Wang, Dan; Qiao, Tao; Yang, Chunxing; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Xu, Zuoshang

    2015-01-01

    The lack of methods to deliver transgene expression in spinal cord has hampered investigation of gene function and therapeutic targets for spinal cord diseases. Here we report that a single intrathecal injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus rhesus-10 (rAAVrh10) into the lumbar cistern led to transgene expression in sixty to ninety percent of the cells in the spinal cord. The transgene was expressed in all cell types, including neurons, glia, ependymal cells and endothelial cells. Add...

  7. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh; Masomeh Khoshtarkib; Saeed Hajizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Single minute exchange of dies (SMED) is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this st...

  8. External and intraparticle diffusion of coumarin 102 with surfactant in the ODS-silica gel/water system by single microparticle injection and confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius squared, indicating that the rate-determining step is the external diffusion between the microparticle and the water phase. (author)

  9. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author)

  10. Single well field injection test of humate to enhance attenuation of uranium and other radionuclides in an acidic plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This report documents the impact of the injected humate on targeted contaminants over a period of 4 months and suggests it is a viable attenuation-based remedy for uranium, potentially for I-129, but not for Sr-90. Future activities will focus on issues pertinent to scaling the technology to full deployment.

  11. Dynamics of 1.55 μm Wavelength Single-Mode Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Output under External Optical Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Hon Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the temporal dynamics of the laser output spectrum and polarization state of 1.55 μm wavelength single-mode (SM vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs induced by external optical beam injection. Injection of an external continuous-wave laser beam to a gain-switched SM VCSEL near the resonance wavelength corresponding to its main polarization-mode output was critical for improvement of its laser pulse generation characteristics, such as pulse timing-jitter reduction, linewidth narrowing, pulse amplitude enhancement, and pulse width shortening. Pulse injection of pulse width shorter than the cavity photon lifetime into the SM VCSEL in the orthogonal polarization direction with respect to its main polarization mode caused temporal delay of the polarization recovery after polarization switching (PS, and its delay was found to be the minimum at an optimized bias current. Polarization-mode bistability was observed even in the laser output of an SM VCSEL of a standard circularly cylindrical shape and used for all-optical flip-flop operations with set and reset injection pulses of very low pulse energy of order of the 3.5~4.5 fJ.

  12. High-power actively Q-switched single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 ring laser, injection-locked by a cw single-frequency microchip laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we report on the realization of a single-mode Q-switched Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342 nm. Unidirectional and single-mode operation of the ring laser is achieved by injection-locking with a continuous wave Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, emitting a single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser provides a single-mode power of 13.9 W at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency with a pulse duration of 18.2 ns and an excellent beam quality (M2 laser, a power of 8.7 W at 671 nm with a pulse duration of 14.8 ns and a beam propagation factor of M2 < 1.1 is obtained. The 671 nm radiation features a long-term spectral width of 75 MHz. PMID:26698762

  13. Trapping of Intact, Singly-Charged, Bovine Serum Albumin Ions Injected from the Atmosphere with a 10-cm Diameter, Frequency-Adjusted Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution real-time particle mass measurements have not been achievable because the enormous amount of kinetic energy imparted to the particles upon expansion into vacuum competes with and overwhelms the forces applied to the charged particles within the mass spectrometer. It is possible to reduce the kinetic energy of a collimated particulate ion beam through collisions with a buffer gas while radially constraining their motion using a quadrupole guide or trap over a limited mass range. Controlling the pressure drop of the final expansion into a quadrupole trap permits a much broader mass range at the cost of sacrificing collimation. To achieve high-resolution mass analysis of massive particulate ions, an efficient trap with a large tolerance for radial divergence of the injected ions was developed that permits trapping a large range of ions for on-demand injection into an awaiting mass analyzer. The design specifications required that frequency of the trapping potential be adjustable to cover a large mass range and the trap radius be increased to increase the tolerance to divergent ion injection. The large-radius linear quadrupole ion trap was demonstrated by trapping singly-charged bovine serum albumin ions for on-demand injection into a mass analyzer. Additionally, this work demonstrates the ability to measure an electrophoretic mobility cross section (or ion mobility) of singly-charged intact proteins in the low-pressure regime. This work represents a large step toward the goal of high-resolution analysis of intact proteins, RNA, DNA, and viruses

  14. Single-injection method for evaluation of renal function with 14C-inulin and 3H-tetraethylammonium bromide in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double-isotope single-injection method without urine collection for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in dogs and cats was evaluated. The GFR was determined, using 14C-inulin and ERPF was determined, using [3H]tetraethylammonium bromide. Using a modified single exponential, 1-compartment mathematical model, the renal clearance of these solutes was estimated with a plasma radioactivity disappearance curve constructed from samples collected over a 150-minute time period. In 25 dogs, GFR, ERPF, and filtration fraction were 3.55 +/- 0.14 ml/kg/min, 10.51 +/- 0.72 ml/kg/min, and 0.34 +/- 0.02, respectively. In 25 cats, GFR, ERPF, and filtration fraction were 3.24 +/- 0.14 ml/kg/min, 8.14 +/- 0.53 ml/kg/min, and 0.39 +/- 0.02, respectively. This time-efficient and reliable method, using beta-emitting isotopes, yielded renal functional values well within the normal ranges reported by a variety of other isotopic and nonisotopic procedures. The advantages of the present procedure over previous double-isotope single-injection methods include the use of less costly, lower energy-using, and less penetrating beta emittors, as well as a shortened blood sampling schedule

  15. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  16. Fluid flow separation in a reactor pressure vessel during an ECC injection. Single phase flow and two phase flow (air-water) experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of the nuclear power plant lifetime issue, the assessment of the French 900 MWe (3-loops) series reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity has been performed. A simplified analysis has shown that the most severe loading conditions are given by the small break loss of coolant accidents due to the pressurized injection of cold water (9 deg. C) into the cold leg and down comer of the RPV. During these transient scenarios, single or two-phase (uncovered cold leg) flows have been shown in the cold leg, depending on the crack size and RPV model (900 MWe or 1300 MWe). An experimental study has been carried out, on the one hand, to consolidate the numerical results obtained with CFD home code (Code-Saturne) which mainly showed the stratified flow in the cold leg and the fluid flow separation and its oscillations in the down comer during a single phase scenario. These physical phenomena are important for the thermal RPV loading assessment. On the other hand, the absence of experimental two-phase data necessitated to carry out an experimental study around the mixing area behavior (free surface, stratified flow) during an ECC injection with an uncovered cold leg. The new EDF R and D mock up, called HYBISCUS, is a facility which is made out of Plexiglas (atmosphere pressure) and represents a half scale CP0 geometry with one cold leg and part of the down comer. The mock up modularity allows us to insert representative ECC nozzles and a thermal shield. In reference to the reactor scenarios, the experimental operating conditions are derived from the conservation of the density effects (Froude number). For that, a heated salted water flow is used to represent the ECC injection whereas water represents the cold leg fluid. This mock up has been defined in order to represent single phase flow (cold leg and down comer full of water) or two-phase flow (uncovered cold leg) ECC scenarios. This paper reports experimental results

  17. Squeezing properties of a two-transverse-mode degenerate optical parametric oscillator with an injected signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the classical and quantum properties of a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO) tuned to the first family of transverse modes at the down-converted frequency, under the injection of a resonant TEM10 mode. Unlike the usual single-mode DOPO with injected signal, large levels of squeezing are predicted even for relatively large injections. We interpret these results in connection with the spontaneous symmetry breaking predicted for this system in the absence of injection and with the existence of a bifurcation giving rise to the switching on of the (noninjected) TEM01 mode.

  18. Determination of Phenol and Chlorophenols at Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode Using Flow Injection Amperometry

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie Negash; Hailemichael Alemu; Merid Tessema

    2014-01-01

    Phenol and chlorophenols were investigated using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (SWCNT/PEDOT/GCE) as a detector in flow injection system. Optimization of experimental variables such as the detection potential, flow rate, and pH of the carrier solution (0.1 M sodium acetate) for the determination of phenol (P), 4-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), and pentachloro...

  19. A mobile incoherent Mie-Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar with a single frequency and tunable operation of an injection Nd︰YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Zhishen; (刘智深); WU; Dong; (吴; 东); ZHANG; Kailin; (张凯临); LIU; Jintao; (刘金涛); Johnathan; W.; Hair; Chiao-Yao; She

    2003-01-01

    A mobile incoherent Doppler lidar system has been experimentally demonstrated to be able to transmit reliable single frequency operation laser pulse, even after truck transit and in very high vibration environments. The linewidth of the injection-seeded pulse Nd:YAG laser can be measured by means of an I2 molecular filter. And, lidar validation experiments demonstrated the feasibility and capability of measuring wind field by the Mie-Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. The uncertainty of measured wind speed is 0.985m/s in the altitude range from 2 to 4 km.

  20. Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection at Night Considering Mission Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The widespread adoption of mixed renewables urgently require reactive power exchange at various feed-in points of the utility grid. Photovoltaic (PV) inverters are able to provide reactive power in a decentralized manner at the grid-connection points even outside active power feed-in operation......, especially at night when there is no solar irradiance. This serves as a motivation for utilizing the PV inverters at night for reactive power compensation. Thus, an analysis on the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance and the reliability has...

  1. Atom-atom entanglement dynamics enhancement via classically driven atoms coupled to a non-resonance single mode cavity field filled with nonlinear Kerr media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateto, M. S.

    2015-08-01

    Entanglement dynamics of two identical non-interacting atoms (qubits) coupled individually with simultaneous classical and quantum fields are studied. The cavity field is filled with a nonlinear Kerr medium and initially prepared in a coherent state. The atoms are initially set up as a Bell-like pure state (BS). We present an approach for diagonalization of time-dependent nonlinear Hamiltonian of the system exactly. Connection between the change in the degree of entanglement and tomography of field state in phase space are also illustrated and interpreted. We demonstrate the possibility of atom-atom (qubit-qubit) entanglement optimization by suitably choosing initial interaction settings. Overall, we show that both classical driving amplitude and detuning as well as Kerr media and initial atomic states acts as the control parameters for the qubit-qubit entanglement. By adjusting of these parameters, accurately, entanglement can be enhanced noticeably and high degree of steady periodical entanglement can be generated. Moreover, starting with initial atomic BSs in presence of classical driving suppresses coherences randomness and considerably accompanied with (for specific values of detuning) slight decrease in their amplitudes. Furthermore, the addition of cross Kerr term suppresses degree of entanglement noticeably, where entanglement creation and enhancement could just be possible if cross Kerr effect is moved out from interaction. Our present approach promises the great advantage of being suitable for large quantum systems of various kinds of nonlinearities.

  2. Effect of Pilot Injection Timings on the Combustion Temperature Distribution in a Single-Cylinder CI Engine Fueled with DME and ULSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of DiMethyl Ether (DME as an alternative fuel in Compression-Ignition (CI engines have been performed. Although diverse DME engine research has been conducted, the investigation of combustion behavior and temperature distribution in the combustion engine has not progressed due to the fact that there is no sooting flame in DME combustion. In order to investigate the combustion characteristics in this study, the KIVA-3 V code was implemented to research various pilot injection strategies on a single-cylinder CI engines with DME and Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel (ULSD fuels. The combustion distribution results obtained from the numerical investigation were validated when compared with the measurement of flame temperature behaviors in the experimental approach. This study showed that long intervals between two injection timings enhanced pilot combustion by increasing the ambient pressure and temperature before the start of the main combustion. Different atomization properties between DME and ULSD fuels contributed to the formation of a fuel-air mixture at the nozzle tip and piston lip regions, separately, which strongly affected the temperature distribution of the two fuels. In addition, the pilot injection timing played a vital role in regard to ignition delay and peak combustion temperatures. Exhaust emissions, such as NOx and soot, are related to the local equivalence ratio and temperature in the combustion chamber, also illustrated by the contrary result on a Φ (equivalence ratio – T (temperature map.

  3. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  4. Effect of injection of inert gases in interelectrode gap of a single-cell TFE on its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental investigation carried out in the TFE (thermionic fuel element) of the thermionic power plant (TPP) ''TOPAZ-2'' showed that in the single-cell TEC with a nonuniform heat release and extended electrodes the addition of inert gases into the interelectrode gap (IEG) resulted in a considerable (up to 40 % and more) increase in its electrical power and in some cases in its efficiency increase. Report represents the result of these experiments and their discussion

  5. A Pulse Width Modulation Scheme With Zero-sequence Voltage Injection for Single Phase Three-level NPC Rectifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A single phase three-level converter (shown in Fig. 1) has been widely applied in high-speed railway electrical traction drive systems. But the main technical drawback of the three-level converter is DC-link neutral point voltage drift. In order to solve this problem, it is important to understand the cause of DC-link neutral point voltage drift.

  6. Efficacy and safety of alcohol sclerotherapy involving single-session multiple injections to treat simple renal cysts:a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-zhong; LI Ming-xing; WANG Tao; YANG Li-chuan; FENG Ping; GOU Zhong-ping; YUAN Jia-ying

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol has been used for treating simple renal cysts since 1981.Since then,various observational studies have examined the technique,but they differ significantly in the details of the procedures and efficacy measures used.This has made it difficult to assess the safety and efficacy of this technique.We carried out a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided alcohol sclerotherapy involving single-session multiple injections to treat simple renal cysts.Methods A total of 144 patients with simple renal cysts were randomly allocated to either the treatment group (ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage and alcohol sclerotherapy with single-session multiple injections) or control group (ultrasound-guided simple percutaneous drainage).Follow-up CT scans of ablated cysts were collected 3 and 6 months after the procedure.The outcome was considered successful if cyst volume between baseline and 6 months decreased by at least 87.5%.Results Intention-to-treat analysis revealed an average volume reduction of 94.2% in the treatment group and 50.8% in the control group (P <0.0001).The percentage of patients achieving successful outcomes was 88.9% (95% CI 77.0%-100.0%) in the treatment group and 22.2% (95% CI 6.54%-37.9%) in the control group (P <0.0001).The corresponding results in the per-protocol analysis were an average volume reduction of 96.4% in the treatment group and 50.8% in the control group (P <0.0001).The percentage of patients achieving a successful outcome was 94.3% (95% CI 85.6%-100.0%) in the treatment group and 22.2% (95% CI 6.54%-37.9%) in the control group (P <0.0001).Conclusion Alcohol sclerotherapy involving single-session multiple injections is safe and efficacious in the treatment of renal cysts.(ChiCTR-TRC-10001114,http://www.chictr.org)

  7. Growth responses following a single intra-muscular hGH plasmid administration compared to daily injections of hGH in dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuti, Eliza; Cecchi, Claudia R; Oliveira, Nelio A J; Vieira, Daniel P; Jensen, Thomas G; Jorge, Alexander A L; Bartolini, Paolo; Peroni, Cibele N

    2012-12-01

    In previous work, sustained levels of circulating human growth hormone (hGH) and a highly significant weight increase were observed after electrotransfer of naked plasmid DNA (hGH-DNA) into the muscle of immunodeficient dwarf mice (lit/scid). In the present study, the efficacy of this in vivo gene therapy strategy is compared to daily injections (5 μg/twice a day) of recombinant hGH (r-hGH) protein, as assessed on the basis of several growth parameters. The slopes of the two growth curves were found to be similar (P > 0.05): 0.095 g/mouse/d for protein and 0.094 g/mouse/d for DNA injection. In contrast, the weight increases averaged 35.5% (P DNA administration, respectively, a difference possibly related to the electroporation methodology. The nose-to-tail linear growth increases were 15% and 9.6% for the protein and DNA treatments, respectively, but mouse insulin-like growth factor I (mIGF-I) showed a greater increase over the control with DNA (5- to 7-fold) than with protein (3- to 4-fold) administration. The weight increases of several organs and tissues (kidneys, spleen, liver, heart, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles) were 1.3- to 4.6-fold greater for protein than for DNA administration, which gave a generally more proportional growth. Glucose levels were apparently unaffected, suggesting the absence of effects on glucose tolerance. A gene transfer strategy based on a single hGH-DNA administration thus appears to be comparable to repeated hormone injections for promoting growth and may represent a feasible alternative for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. PMID:22974419

  8. Spray and atomization of diesel fuel and its alternatives from a single-hole injector using a common rail fuel injection system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, PinChia

    2013-01-01

    Fuel spray and atomization characteristics play an important role in the performance of internal combustion engines. As the reserves of petroleum fuel are expected to be depleted within a few decades, finding alternative fuels that are economically viable and sustainable to replace the petroleum fuel has attracted much research attention. In this work, the spray and atomization characteristics were investigated for commercial No. 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil (B100), 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20), renewable diesel fuel produced in house, and civil aircraft jet fuel (Jet-A). Droplet diameters and particle size distributions were measured by a laser diffraction particle analyzing system and the spray tip penetrations and cone angles were acquired using a high speed imaging technique. All experiments were conducted by employing a common-rail high-pressure fuel injection system with a single-hole nozzle under room temperature and pressure. The experimental results showed that biodiesel and jet fuel had different features compared with diesel. Longer spray tip penetration and larger droplet diameters were observed for B100. The smaller droplet size of the Jet-A were believed to be caused by its relatively lower viscosity and surface tension. B20 showed similar characteristics to diesel but with slightly larger droplet sizes and shorter tip penetration. Renewable diesel fuel showed closer droplet size and spray penetration to Jet-A with both smaller than diesel. As a result, optimizing the trade-off between spray volume and droplet size for different fuels remains a great challenge. However, high-pressure injection helps to optimize the trade-off of spray volume and droplet sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that the smallest droplets were within a region near the injector nozzle tip and grew larger along the axial and radial direction. The variation of droplet diameters became smaller with increasing injection pressure.

  9. Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A terahertz quantum cascade laser design that combines a wide gain bandwidth, large photon-driven transport and good high-temperature characteristics is presented. It relies on a diagonal transition between a bound state and doublet of states tunnel coupled to the upper state of a phonon extraction stage. The high optical efficiency of this design enables the observation of photon-driven transport over a wide current density range. The relative tolerance of the design to small variations in the barrier thicknesses made it suitable for testing different growth techniques and materials. In particular, we compared the performances of devices grown using molecular-beam epitaxy with those achieved using organometallic chemical vapor deposition. The low-threshold current density and the high slope efficiency makes this device an attractive active region for the development of single-mode quantum cascade lasers based on third-order-distributed feedback structures. Single-mode, high power was achieved with good continuous and pulsed wave operation.

  10. Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanti, Maria I; Scalari, Giacomo; Terazzi, Romain; Fischer, Milan; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome [Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Rudra, Alok; Gallo, Pascal; Kapon, Eli [Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland)], E-mail: jerome.faist@phys.ethz.ch

    2009-12-15

    A terahertz quantum cascade laser design that combines a wide gain bandwidth, large photon-driven transport and good high-temperature characteristics is presented. It relies on a diagonal transition between a bound state and doublet of states tunnel coupled to the upper state of a phonon extraction stage. The high optical efficiency of this design enables the observation of photon-driven transport over a wide current density range. The relative tolerance of the design to small variations in the barrier thicknesses made it suitable for testing different growth techniques and materials. In particular, we compared the performances of devices grown using molecular-beam epitaxy with those achieved using organometallic chemical vapor deposition. The low-threshold current density and the high slope efficiency makes this device an attractive active region for the development of single-mode quantum cascade lasers based on third-order-distributed feedback structures. Single-mode, high power was achieved with good continuous and pulsed wave operation.

  11. Detection of active alveolar bone destruction in human periodontal disease by analysis of radiopharmaceutical uptake after a single injection of 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that, following a single injection of 99m-Tc-MDP, measurement of bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake can detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in beagle dogs, as determined by radiographs taken at the time of, and several months after, the nuclear medicine procedure. The efficacy of this diagnostic test, however, had not been assessed in human periodontal disease. The ability of a single boneseeking radiopharmaceutical uptake examination to detect ''active'' alveolar bone loss due to periodontal disease in human patients was assessed by comparing a single uptake measurement to the rate of bone loss determined from serial radiographs taken over a 6-month period. Uptake was expressed as a ratio of the cpm from the alveolar bone divided by the cpm from the non-tooth supporting bone of the nuchal crest. High uptake ratios were associated with ''active'' loss and low uptake ratios were associated with little if any change in alveolar bone height (p<0.001). The nuclear medicine examination was an accurate detector of periodontal disease activity in nearly 80% of the individual teeth studied. These data indicate that high bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake ratios may be pathognomonic of active bone loss in human periodontal disease. (author)

  12. Role of light in the mediation of acute effects of a single afternoon melatonin injection on steroidogenic activity of testis in the rat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saumen K Maitra; Arun K Ray

    2000-09-01

    Young adult male rats, maintained either in an LD 12 : 12 or in continuous illumination (LL) for one week, were given a single injection of 25 g melatonin/100 g body wt or ethanolic-saline (control) at 17.00 h. Animals from each group were sacrificed at 11.00 h on the following day. The activity of two important steroidogenic enzymes, 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-HSD) and Δ5-3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Δ5-3-HSD), and serum concentrations of testosterone, were measured following highly specific and sensitive spectrophotometric techniques and RIA, respectively. A significant decrease in the activity of both the steroidogenic enzymes was noted in the testes of melatonin-treated rats maintained under normal light-dark schedules, but this response was found to be lacking in the LL rats. However, no significant changes in the level of serum testosterone were noted in either group of melatonin-treated rats from the values in respective groups of ethanolic saline-administered LD and LL rats. Exposure of ethanolic saline-injected rats to continuous light also did not cause any change in the steroidogenic activity of the testis from those in LD rats. The study indicates that continuous light as such does not affect the endocrine function of testis but abolishes suppressive effects of melatonin on the steroidogenic activity of the testis in rat.

  13. Immersed single-drop microextraction interfaced with sequential injection analysis for determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-drop microextraction (SDME) and sequential injection analysis have been hyphenated for ultratrace metal determination by Electrothermal-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS). The novel method was targeted on extraction of the Cr(VI)-APDC chelate and encompasses the potential of SDME as a miniaturized and virtually solvent-free preconcentration technique, the ability of sequential injection analysis to handle samples and the versatility of furnace autosamplers for introducing microliter samples in ETAAS. The variables influencing the microextraction of Cr(VI) onto an organic solvent drop, i.e., type of organic solvent, microextraction time, stirring rate of the sample solution, drop volume, immersion depth of the drop, salting-out effect, temperature of the sample, concentration of the complexing agent and pH of the sample solution were fully investigated. For a 5 and 20 min microextraction time, the preconcentration factors were 20 and 70, respectively. The detection limit was 0.02 μg/L of Cr(VI) and the repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation was 7%. The SDME-SIA-ETAAS technique was validated against BCR CRM 544 (lyophilized solution) and applied to ultrasensitive determination of Cr(VI) in natural waters

  14. Arterio-venous concentration difference of [51Cr]EDTA after a single injection in man. Significance of renal function and local blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Hyldstrup, Lars; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in order to study (1) the difference in arterial (Ca) and venous (Cv) concentration of [51Cr]EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) after a single intravenous injection, (2) the impact of different physiological variables on this difference, and (3) the error...... 180-300 min post-injection (p.i.) Cv was 5.9% higher than Ca (range 0.5-13.9%, P less than 0.001). The more reduced renal function, the smaller was the concentration difference. The areas under the arterial and the venous plasma concentration curves did not differ significantly at either 0-infinity or...... 0-300 min p.i. whereas the venous area 0-100 min p.i. underestimated the arterial area in the same period by 4.1% (P less than 0.05). In a computer simulation model, variation in the forearm capillary permeability-surface area product did not have any significant influence on the Cv-Ca difference...

  15. Development of on-line single-drop micro-extraction sequential injection system for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel automatic sequential injection (SI) single-drop micro-extraction (SDME) system is proposed as versatile approach for on-line metal preconcentration and/or separation. Coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) the potentials of this SI scheme are demonstrated for trace cadmium determination in water samples. A non-charged complex of cadmium with ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA) was produced and extracted on-line into a 60 μL micro-drop of di-isobutyl ketone (DIBK). The extraction procedure was performed into a newly designed flow-through extraction cell coupled on a sequential injection manifold. As the complex Cd(II)-DDPA flowed continuously around the micro-droplet, the analyte was extracting into the solvent micro-drop. All the critical parameters were optimized and offered good performance characteristics and high preconcentration ratios. For 600 s micro-extraction time, the enhancement factor was 10 and the sampling frequency was 6 h-1. The detection limit was 0.01 μg L-1 and the precision (RSD at 0.1 μg L-1 of cadmium) was 3.9%. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material

  16. Experiences of using a single post-contrast CT scan of the urinary tract after triphasic contrast injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Carl Pretorius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I was alerted to an article in Radiology Vol. 255 No. 2 (May 20101 by a colleague. The article, entitled ‘Kidney and urinary tract imaging: Triple-bolus multidetector CT urography as a one-stop shop – Protocol design, opacification, and image quality analysis’, clearly describes the technique, while the quotation below, from the article, summarises the findings: ‘We have shown that triple-bolus multidetector CT urography allowed visualization of renal parenchymal, excretory, and vascular contrast-enhancement phases in a single dose-efficient acquisition and provided sufficient opacification of the UUT, with simultaneous and adequate image quality of renal parenchyma and vascular anatomy.’ The main emphasis on this technique is to reduce the number of unnecessary CT scans when assessing the urinary tract. Our previous protocol for scanning the urinary tract for pathology included four phases: a pre-contrast, corticomedullary, nephrographic and delay excretory phase.

  17. Computed tomography angiography of carotid and coronary artery via a single-bolus injection protocol: a feasibility study using 320-row multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the feasibility of using a single-dose injection protocol in CT angiography (CTA) of the carotid and coronary artery with 320-row multidetector CT. A total of 82 consecutive patients with suspected carotid artery disease underwent an original CTA protocol aiming at capturing the extra-cranial carotid arteries and coronary arteries simultaneously using 320-row MDCT. The image quality, attenuation, and CNRs of the carotid and coronary arteries were assessed. The lag time (between two separated volumetric acquisitions) was compared between patients with and without cardiac venous opacification (CVO). The contrast medium volume and radiation dose were recorded. The image quality was 99.4 % diagnostic in carotid and 86.9 % in coronary artery segments. The mean attenuation of carotid and coronary arteries ranged from 462.2 Hu to 533.7 Hu, 415.9 Hu to 454.7 Hu respectively. The mean CNR of the carotid and coronary artery ranged from 15.8 to 18.9 and 17.7 to 20.4 respectively. The lag time in patients with and without CVO was 5.75 ± 1.64 s vs. 4.21 ± 1.14 s (p < 0.05). The mean radiation dose was 6.6 ± 4.1 mSv.The mean contrast media volume was 71.9 ± 9.1 ml. The carotid and coronary artery can be imaged simultaneously via our original single-dose injection CTA protocol using 320-row CT with adequate image quality. (orig.)

  18. Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, φ(t;Θ). (author)

  19. Oxacillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxacillin injection is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called ... It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  20. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Influence of a Single Frequency Electromagnetic Wave on Energy Spectrum of Nonpolariton System in a Kerr Nonlinear Blackbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi-Jun; Cheng, Ze

    2010-06-01

    In a Kerr nonlinear blackbody, bare photons with opposite wave vectors and helicities are bound into pairs and unpaired photons are transformed into a different kind of quasiparticle, the nonpolariton. The present paper investigates the influence of a single frequency electromagnetic wave on the energy spectrum of the nonpolariton system. We find that the wave can lead to an energy shift of nonpolaritons. Moreover, we calculate the first-order energy shift on certain conditions.

  1. What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum and signifies a break with the Copenhagen interpretation-for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shine some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum-classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classical...

  2. Single intra-articular dexamethasone injection immediately post-surgery in a rabbit model mitigates early inflammatory responses and post-traumatic osteoarthritis-like alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Bryan J; Barton, Kristen I; Chung, May; Achari, Yamini; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A

    2015-12-01

    Despite surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament, a significant number of patients will still develop post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Our objective was to determine if mitigating aspects of the acute phase of inflammation following a defined knee surgery with a single administration of a glucocorticoid could prevent the development of PTOA-like changes within an established rabbit model of surgically induced PTOA. An early and late post-surgical time-point was investigated in this study (48 h and 9 weeks post-surgery) in which the following groups were repeated (each n=6, for a total of 24 rabbits per time-point, and 48 rabbits used in the study): control (age/sex matched), sham (arthrotomy), drill injury (arthrotomy+two drill holes to a non-cartilaginous area of the femoral notch), and drill injury+single intra-articular (IA) injection of dexamethasone (DEX). At 48 h post-surgery, DEX treatment significantly lowered the mRNA levels for a subset of pro-inflammatory mediators, and significantly lowered the histological grade. Nine weeks post surgery, DEX treatment significantly lowered the histological scores (presented as effect size) for synovium (3.8), lateral femoral condyle (3.9), and lateral tibial cartilage (5.1) samples. Thus, DEX likely acts to prevent injury induced inflammation that could contribute to subsequent joint damage. PMID:26135713

  3. Revised protocol for whole-body CT for multi-trauma patients applying triphasic injection followed by a single-pass scan on a 64-MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate a revised protocol for whole-body computed tomography (CT) for multi-trauma patients in an emergency department and compare it to conventional protocols. Materials and methods: Forty-two of 82 multi-trauma patients underwent unenhanced CT examinations of the head, cervical spine, and upper abdomen, followed by an arterial-phase contrast-enhanced CT examination of the thorax and a porto-venous scan of the abdomen and pelvis (conventional protocol). The other 40 patients underwent unenhanced CT examinations of the head, cervical spine, and upper abdomen, followed by a one-step acquisition of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis using a 64-section multidetector CT (MDCT) system following a triphasic injection (revised protocol). Contrast enhancement was measured in the ascending, descending, and abdominal aorta, common iliac arteries, inferior vena cava (IVC), liver, spleen, and kidneys. Image count, radiation dose, total acquisition time, mediastinal artefacts, and image quality of each area were reviewed. Results: Mean enhancement values in the ascending and descending aorta were significantly greater with the conventional protocol. Enhancement of the abdominal aorta, iliac arteries, IVC, liver, spleen, and kidneys was significantly greater with the revised protocol. Mediastinal streak artefacts were present in all conventional protocol images and absent in all revised protocol images. Image quality using the revised protocol was significantly better (p < 0.002). The mean effective radiation dose was significantly lower (p = 0.005), and image number reduced (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The revised triphasic injection single-pass whole-body imaging protocol was superior to the conventional protocol using 64-MDCT. It enabled better vascular and abdominal parenchymal imaging with reduction in radiation dose and image overload

  4. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  5. The use of injectable alphaxalone as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Posner, Lysa P; Stoskopf, Michael

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of the injectable anesthetic, alphaxalone, as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea. Between two and four animals were evaluated for each anesthetic protocol, and two unanesthetized animals were evaluated for comparative purposes. Anesthetic duration, depth, and quality were assessed by scoring responses to tactile and trichobothria stimulation, muscle tone, purposeful movement, righting response, and heart rate throughout each anesthetic event. Alphaxalone administered into the dorsal opisthosoma in the location of the heart at 200 mg/kg produced moderate anesthetic effect with a median duration of 28 min (n = 3; range 25-50). A combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of ketamine induced a deep anesthetic state with a median anesthetic duration of 27 min (n = 4; range 16-42). The combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of xylazine produced deep anesthesia with a median duration of 70 min (n = 4; range 37-207). Morphine administered at 5 mg/kg 30 min prior to injection with 200 mg/kg alphaxalone had anesthetic durations of 9 and 30 min (n = 2). Heartbeats could not be detected for periods of 7-27 min following anesthetic induction for the majority of animals receiving the alphaxalone/ketamine and alphaxalone/xylazine anesthetic combinations. No mortality was associated with any of the anesthetic protocols used; however, ambient temperature and ecdysis were identified as important factors that may alter response to anesthetics in these animals. PMID:25632665

  6. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum-Interference States for a Collection of Trapped Ions Via a Single Geometric Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Hua

    2010-05-01

    We describe a scheme for the generation of macroscopic quantum-interference states for a collection of trapped ions by a single geometric phase operation. In the scheme the vibrational mode is displaced along a circle with the radius proportional to the number of ions in a certain ground electronic state. For a given interaction time, the vibrational mode returns to the original state, and the ionic system acquires a geometric phase proportional to the area of the circle, evolving from a coherent state to a superposition of two coherent states. The ions undergo no electronic transitions during the operation. Taking advantage of the inherent fault-tolerant feature of the geometric operation, our scheme is robust against decoherence.

  7. Single Event Analysis and Fault Injection Techniques Targeting Complex Designs Implemented in Xilinx-Virtex Family Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth; Kim, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An informative session regarding SRAM FPGA basics. Presenting a framework for fault injection techniques applied to Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Introduce an overlooked time component that illustrates fault injection is impractical for most real designs as a stand-alone characterization tool. Demonstrate procedures that benefit from fault injection error analysis.

  8. Distribution of trichloroacetic acid precipitated radioactivity in rabbits after intravenous injection of 125I-labelled single-chain human recombinant urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study tissue distribution profiles of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitated radioactivity in rabbits following intravenous injection of 125I-labelled single-chain human recombinant urokinase-type plasminogen activator (125I-rh-sc-uPA). Methods: 125I-rh-su-uPA was prepared by Iodogen method and was purified by Saphacryl HR S-200. The radio-chemical purity was measured by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Biological activity of labelled protein was measured by thrombolytic activity on fibrin plate. Results: The identification of 125I-rh-sc-uPA revealed that it was a 94.4% radio-chemically purified thrombolytic active protein. The AUC of radioactivity gradients in tissues and other specimens were as follows: kidney>urine>plasma>liver>spleen>adrenal gland>bone marrow>heart>urinary bladder>lungs>gonad>small intestinal wall>fat>lymph node>gall bladder>thymus gland>intestinal content>muscle>brain>feces in colon. Conclusion: The highest TCA precipitated radioactivity was found in plasma following I.V. of 125I-rh-u-PA, which might be favorable for the drug action. The main excretion route was urinary system

  9. Combined magnetic resonance imaging of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary arteries after a single injection of a blood pool contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansch, Andreas; Neumann, Steffi; Baltzer, Pascal; Waginger, Matthias; Kaiser, Werner A.; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Betge, Stefan; Poehlmann, Gunther [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Internal Medicine I, Jena (Germany); Pfeil, Alexander; Wolf, Gunter [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany); Boettcher, Joachim [SRH Klinikum Gera, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Gera (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Agreement rate between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Doppler ultrasound (DUS) for the detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities was attempted by using the intravascular MRI contrast agent gadofosveset trisodium. The potential of this method to detect pulmonary embolism (PE) was also evaluated. Forty-three consecutive inpatients with ultrasound-confirmed DVT but no clinical signs of PE were prospectively enrolled in this feasibility study. MRI was performed after a single injection of gadofosveset trisodium. The pulmonary arteries were imaged using a 3D Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) gradient recalled echo sequence. Additionally, pulmonary arteries, abdominal veins, pelvic and leg veins were imaged using a fat-suppressed 3D gradient echo Volume Interpolated Breath-hold Examination (VIBE FS). Gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced MRI detected more thrombi in the pelvic region, upper leg and lower leg than the initial DUS. In addition, PE was detected in 16 of the 43 DVT patients (37%). This study shows the feasibility of a combined protocol for the MRI diagnosis of DVT and PE using gadofosveset trisodium. This procedure is not only more sensitive in detecting DVT compared to standard DUS, but is also able to detect PE in asymptomatic patients. (orig.)

  10. 241Am distribution and retention in pregnant mice, in their offspring and in non-pregnant mice: comparison between continuous Am administration and single injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant BALB/c mice and age and sex matched nulliparous controls were contaminated with 241Am (13 kBq per mouse). Five days after the termination of contamination, 241Am incorporation was measured in the tissues of adults and in the liver an the femur of newborn and one-month-old mice. Pregnancy resulted in higher 241Am concentrations in bone but lower concentrations in the liver of the mothers. Protracted administration of 241Am compared to a single injection resulted in a lower concentration of 241Am in the livers of pregnant mice, their nulliparous controls and from newborn mice. The higher 241Am concentration in the femur at birth after protected exposure before 14 days of gestation compared to protracted exposure after 14 days of gestation could reflect the increased placental transfer of 241Am with advancing gestational age. Radiation doses to the femur were estimated between 4 and 20 mGy. Haemopoietic changes were noticed at these dose levels in all groups until at least 6 months after birth. (author)

  11. Patient-rated suitability of a novel electronic device for self-injection of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in relapsing multiple sclerosis: an international, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IIIb study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdun di Cantogno Elisabetta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS currently requires long-term treatment with disease-modifying drugs, administered parenterally up to once daily. The need for regular self-injection can be a barrier to treatment for many patients. Autoinjectors can help patients overcome problems or concerns with self-injection and could, therefore, improve treatment adherence. This study was performed to assess the suitability of a new electronic device for the subcutaneous (sc administration of interferon (IFN beta-1a, 44 mcg three times weekly, for relapsing MS. Methods In this Phase IIIb, multicentre, single-arm study, patients with relapsing MS who had been consistently self-injecting sc IFN beta-1a using an autoinjector for at least 6 weeks were taught to use the new device and self-administered treatment for 12 weeks thereafter. Patient-rated suitability of the device was assessed at the end of Week 12 using the Patient User Trial Questionnaire. Patient satisfaction with, and evaluation of, the injection process was assessed using the MS Treatment Concern Questionnaire. Trainers evaluated the device using the Trainer User Trial Questionnaire. Results At Week 12, 71.6% (73/102 of patients considered the device 'very suitable' or 'suitable' for self-injection; 92.2% (94/102 reported some degree of suitability and only 7.8% (8/102 found the device 'not at all suitable'. At Weeks 4, 8 and 12, most patients reported that injection preparation and clean-up, performing injections and ease of device use in the previous 4 weeks compared favourably with, or was equivalent to, their previous experience of self-injection. Injection-related pain, injection reactions and 'flu-like' symptoms remained stable over the 12 weeks. Each device feature was rated 'very useful' or 'useful' by at least 80% of patients. All trainers and 95.2% (99/104 of patients found device functions 'very easy' or 'easy' to use. Overall convenience was considered the most important

  12. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teduglutide injection is used to treat short bowel syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levofloxacin injection is used to treat infections such as pneumonia; chronic bronchitis; and sinus, urinary tract, kidney, prostate (a male reproductive gland), and skin infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a ...

  14. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  15. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Ziprasidone is in a class of medications called ... alcoholic beverages while you are receiving ziprasidone injection. Alcohol can make the side effects from ziprasidone injection ...

  16. Leucovorin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall; cancer chemotherapy medication) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Leucovorin injection is used to treat people who ...

  17. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or ... has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used ...

  18. Denosumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called RANK ligand inhibitors. It works by decreasing bone breakdown ... months. When denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures from cancer that has spread to the ...

  19. Sumatriptan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain, and blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause pain, nausea, and other symptoms ... or upper arm. Do not inject sumatriptan through clothing. Never inject sumatriptan into a vein or muscle. ...

  20. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexamethasone injection is used to treat severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain ... tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. Dexamethasone ...

  1. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ferumoxytol injection, ...

  2. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appears damaged, and do not use an auto-injection device if the security seal is broken. Look through the viewing window on the prefilled syringe or auto-injection device. The liquid inside should be clear and ...

  3. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only ...

  4. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  5. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    at the injection site was influenced by the needle length and the injected volume. Several imaging analysis tools were optimized for the characterization, and these tools were implemented also on subcutaneous injections in rats, visualized by low dose μCT, and used for characterization of the morphology in mouse...

  6. On Gorenstein projective, injective and flat dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Winther; Frankild, Anders Juel; Holm, Henrik Granau

    2006-01-01

    Gorenstein homological dimensions are refinements of the classical homological dimensions, and finiteness singles out modules with amenable properties reflecting those of modules over Gorenstein rings. As opposed to their classical counterparts, these dimensions do not immediately come with pract...

  7. Continuous epidural infusion of morphine versus single epidural injection of extended-release morphine for postoperative pain control after arthroplasty: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Vanterpool

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Vanterpool, Randall Coombs, Karamarie FechoDepartment of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USABackground: This study retrospectively compared the continuous epidural infusion of morphine with a single epidural injection of extended-release morphine for postoperative pain control after arthroplasty.Methods: Medical records were reviewed for subjects who had total knee or hip arthroplasty (THA under spinal anesthesia and received either a continuous epidural infusion of morphine (Group EPID; n = 101 or an extended-release epidural morphine (Group EREM; n = 109 for postoperative pain. Data were collected for three postoperative days (POD on: pain scores; supplemental opioids; medications for respiratory depression, nausea, and pruritus, and distance ambulated during physical therapy.Results: Pain scores were similar until subjects were transitioned to another analgesic approach on POD 2; after that time, pain scores increased in Group EPID, although they decreased in Group EREM. Supplemental opioids were used more on POD1 in Group EREM than in Group EPID, although time to first opioid and total daily morphine equivalents were similar. Naloxone and antiemetics, not antipruritics, were used more in Group EREM. Distance ambulated after THA was greater in Group EREM than in Group EPID.Conclusions: These results suggest that EREM is associated with better postoperative ambulation and analgesia during the transition to oral or intravenous analgesics, although a higher incidence of side-effects was evident.Keywords: continuous epidural morphine infusion, extended-release epidural morphine, lower extremity arthroplasty, ambulation, postoperative pain, side-effects

  8. 3H-radioactivity measurement in the rat kidney after single injection of folic acid and continuous infusion of 3H-Thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single i.v. injection of folic acid. Immediately afterwards, continuous intravenous infusion of 3H-Thymidine has been started. The animals have been sacrified after 0.5 up to 10.0 days for determination of the vital weight of the kidneys, of the wet weight of kidney sections (thickness 20 μ) after removal of the paraffine coat, and of the radioactivity per dry weight unit of the kidney in the 20 μ kidney section after residue-free incineration of tissue. The radioactivity per total kidney and the percentage of 3H-Thymidine radioactivity utilized by the whole kidney in relation to the infused 3H-Thymidine radioactivity have been calculated. The various data have been compared with results obtained by autoradiographic investigations on the same model under fully identical conditions. Excellent agreement has been found between the autoradiographically obtained curves of the 3H-Thymidine labelling indices in the epithelium and in the mesenchyma of the kidney on the one hand and the curves of the 3H-Radioactivity per dry weight unit of the kidney on the other. The method of sample preparation applied largely excludes unwanted 'radioactive contamination', so that the 3H-Thymidine radioactivity measurements in agreement with the autoradiographic data can be assumed to show an incorporation of 3H-Thymidine into newly developed DNA. The percentages of 3H-Thymidine radioactivity utilized by the kidney in relation to the quantity of infused 3H-Thymidine radioactivity are almost constant during folic acid induced proliferation. The strong decline in radioactivity per dry weight unit between 3.0 and 3.5 days coincides with the occurrence of blackened, desquamated tubulus epithelia in the tubular lumen which became necrotic, and with the simultaneous occurrence of radioactively labelled, monocytic cells in the blood. These phenomena are related to the cell loss. (orig./MG)

  9. Bidirectional coherent classical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.

    2005-01-01

    A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...

  10. Entanglement in Classical Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Partha; Mukherjee, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate betw...

  11. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  12. Teleportation via classical entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    We present a classical counterpart to quantum teleportation that uses classical entanglement instead of quantum entanglement. In our implementation we take advantage of classical entanglement among three parties: orbital angular momentum (OAM), polarization, and the radial degrees of freedom of a beam of light. We demonstrate the teleportation of arbitrary OAM states, in the subspace spanned by any two OAM states, to the polarization of the same beam. Our letter presents the first classical demonstration of a commonly-perceived--quantum phenomenon that requires entanglement among more than two parties.

  13. Measurement-Based Classical Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Anwar, Hussain; Usher, Naïri; Raussendorf, Robert; Browne, Dan E.

    2014-04-01

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a model of quantum computation, in which computation proceeds via adaptive single qubit measurements on a multiqubit quantum state. It is computationally equivalent to the circuit model. Unlike the circuit model, however, its classical analog is little studied. Here we present a classical analog of MBQC whose computational complexity presents a rich structure. To do so, we identify uniform families of quantum computations [refining the circuits introduced by Bremner et al. Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 459 (2010)] whose output is likely hard to exactly simulate (sample) classically. We demonstrate that these circuit families can be efficiently implemented in the MBQC model without adaptive measurement and, thus, can be achieved in a classical analog of MBQC whose resource state is a probability distribution which has been created quantum mechanically. Such states (by definition) violate no Bell inequality, but, if widely held beliefs about computational complexity are true, they, nevertheless, exhibit nonclassicality when used as a computational resource—an imprint of their quantum origin.

  14. Depression of the interlayer Josephson coupling in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystals by spin-polarized current injection along the c-axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of spin-injection on tunneling conduction properties of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) formed in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystals. Properties of an identical stack (10 x 5 x 0.030 μm3) of IJJs were compared for the bias current injection through Au and Co electrodes. Clear quasiparticle branches in tunneling current-voltage (I-V) curves from the IJJs in the stack were observed for an unpolarized bias current through the Au electrode. Spin-injection through the Co electrode caused pair breaking in the CuO2 double layers, which led to reduction of the Josephson critical current and the superconducting gap revealed in the tunneling I-V curves

  15. Lectures on Classical Integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the lectures consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schroedinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  16. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  17. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  18. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliperidone extended-release injections (Invega® Sustenna, Invega® Trinza) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Paliperidone extended-release injection (Invega® Sustenna) is also used ...

  19. Grassmannians of classical buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Pankov, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are combinatorial constructions successfully exploited to study groups of various types. The vertex set of a building can be naturally decomposed into subsets called Grassmannians. The book contains both classical and more recent results on Grassmannians of buildings of classical types. It gives a modern interpretation of some classical results from the geometry of linear groups. The presented methods are applied to some geometric constructions non-related to buildings - Grassmannians of infinite-dimensional vector spaces and the sets of conjugate linear involutions. The book is self

  20. Davidson and classical pragmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rossi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003 and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914 and William James (1842-1910. I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect briefly on the relevance –often unrecognized- of classical pragmatist ideas in the context of contemporary philosophi-cal discussions.

  1. Performance Characteristics and Analysis of 4-Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Blend With 50% of Honne Oil at Various Fuel Injection Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskar Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In future demand for fossil fuels and environmental effects, a number of renewable sources of energy have been studied in worldwide. An attempt is made to apt of vegetable oil for diesel engine operation, without any change in its old construction. One of the important factors which influence the performance and emission characteristics of D.I diesel engine is fuel injection pressure. In this project honne oil has to be investigated in a constant speed, on D.I diesel engine with different fuel injection pressures. The scope of the project is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on a blend of 50% honne oil with 50% diesel and compare with pure diesel on performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. Two tested fuels were used during experiments like 100 % diesel and a blend of 50% honne oil mixing in the diesel. The performance tests were conducted at constant speed with variable loads. From experiment results it was found that with honne oil- diesel blend the performance of the engine is better compared with diesel. The break thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiencies were found to be maximum at 200 bar injection pressure with both honne oil- diesel blend, compared with 180 bar and 220 bar. The brake specific fuel consumption was to be minimum at 220bar compared with 180 bar and 200 bar. Hydro carbon emissions of honne oil-diesel operation were less than the diesel fuel mode at all fuel injection pressures.

  2. Physics of classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    The classical electromagnetism described by the Maxwell equations constitutes a fundamental law in contemporary physics. Even with the advent of sophisticated new materials, the principles of classical electromagnetism are still active in various applied areas in today’s advanced communication techniques. Physics of Classical Electromagnetism, by Minoru Fujimoto, is written with concise introductory arguments emphasizing the original field concept, with an aim at understanding objectives in modern information technology. Following basic discussions of electromagnetism with a modernized approach, this book will provide readers with an overview of current problems in high-frequency physics. To further the reader’s understanding of the concepts and applications discussed, each illustration within the book shows the location of all active charges, and the author has provided many worked-out examples throughout the book. Physics of Classical Electromagnetism is intended for students in physics and engineering ...

  3. Injuries in classical ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, R

    1984-11-01

    The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832

  4. Classical and Quantum Intertwine

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Ph.; Jadczyk, A.

    1993-01-01

    Model interactions between classical and quantum systems are briefly discussed. These include: general measurement-like couplings, Stern-Gerlach experiment, model of a counter, quantum Zeno effect, SQUID-tank model.

  5. Classical confined particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward

    1993-01-01

    An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.

  6. Davidson and classical pragmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Rossi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003) and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) and William James (1842-1910). I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect brie...

  7. Efficacy and safety of cross-linked hyaluronic acid single injection on osteoarthritis of the knee: a post-marketing phase IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashaireh K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Khaldoon Bashaireh,1 Ziad Naser,2 Khaled Al Hawadya,2 Sorour Sorour,2 Rami Nabeel Al-Khateeb3 1Department of Orthopedics Surgery, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Private Clinic, 3Elaf Medical Supplies Company, Amman, Jordan Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and duration of action of viscosupplementation with Crespine® Gel over a 9-month period.Materials and methods: The study was a post-marketing phase IV study. A total of 109 participants with osteoarthritis of the knee (grades 1–4 in the tibio–femoral compartment were recruited in Jordan. Data were collected from each participant during the baseline visit. Each participant received Crespine® Gel injection, and follow-up visits took place at 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months post-injection.Main outcome measure(s: An assessment of participants by phone was conducted at 1 month, 2 months, 4 months, 5 months, 7 months, and 8 months post-injection. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index questionnaires were completed during each visit. A 72-hour visit questionnaire was used to assess the safety of the injection. Statistical analysis included a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between pain scores across visits, and the percent change from baseline was calculated.Main results: The full analysis included 84 participants who gave their informed consent and finished the necessary baseline and follow-up visits needed to assess efficacy and safety. Peak improvement was noted at 5 months post-injection, when pain and physical performance scores had decreased to 2.60 and 9.90, respectively, and the stiffness score was 0.33. The peak improvement in stiffness was noted at 8 months post-injection, when the stiffness score had decreased to 0.32. Significant improvements were still apparent at 9 months post-injection, when the pain score was 3

  8. Quantum to Classical Randomness Extractors

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, Mario; Wehner, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Even though randomness is an essential resource for many information processing tasks, it is not easily found in nature. The goal of randomness extraction is to distill (almost) perfect randomness from a weak source of randomness. When the source yields a classical string X, many extractor constructions are known. Yet, when considering a physical randomness source, X is itself ultimately the result of a measurement on an underlying quantum system. When characterizing the power of a source to supply randomness it is hence a natural question to ask, how much classical randomness we can extract from a quantum state. To tackle this question we here take on the study of quantum-to-classical randomness extractors (QC-extractors). We provide constructions of QC-extractors based on measurements in a full set of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs), and certain single qubit measurements. As the first application, we show that any QC-extractor gives rise to entropic uncertainty relations with respect to quantum side informat...

  9. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure, seizures, difficulty swallowing, a high level of fats (cholesterol and triglycerides) in your blood, or a medical condition that may affect you receiving an injection in your arm or buttocks. Tell your doctor ...

  10. Nafcillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  11. Oxacillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  12. Ampicillin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  13. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... this medication affects you.you should know that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this ...

  14. Aripiprazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Aripiprazole injection (Abilify) is used to treat episodes ... street drugs or have overused prescription medication or alcohol or has or has ever had diabetes, obsessive ...

  15. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... this medication affects you.you should know that alcohol can add to the drowsiness caused by this ...

  16. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testosterone cypionate (Depo-Testosterone), testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl), testosterone undecanoate (Aveed), and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a ...

  17. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ketorolac by intravenous (into a vein) or intramuscular (into a muscle) injection in a hospital or ... aspirin) such as ketorolac may have a higher risk of having a heart attack or a stroke ...

  18. Busulfan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... marrow and cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. Busulfan is in a class of medications called ... days (for a total of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with ...

  19. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also sometimes used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; cancer that begins in a type of white ... this medication. You should not plan to have children while receiving fludarabine injection or for at least ...

  20. Gemcitabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  1. Ixekizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ixekizumab solution before injecting it. Check that the expiration date has not passed and that the liquid ... fever, sweats, or chills, muscle aches, shortness of breath, warm, red, or painful skin or sores on ...

  2. Tesamorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is colored, cloudy, contains particles, or if the expiration date on the bottle has passed.Never reuse ... swelling of the face or throat shortness of breath difficulty breathing fast heartbeat dizziness fainting Tesamorelin injection ...

  3. Secukinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secukinumab solution before injecting it. Check that the expiration date has not passed and that the liquid ... fever, sweats, or chills, muscle aches, shortness of breath, warm, red, or painful skin or sores on ...

  4. Basiliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used with other medications to prevent immediate transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who are receiving kidney transplants. Basiliximab injection is in a class of medications ...

  5. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used along with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the transplant recipient's immune system) in people who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only ...

  6. Belatacept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other medications to prevent rejection (attack of a transplanted organ by the immune system of a person receiving the organ) of kidney transplants. Belatacept injection is in a class of medications ...

  7. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... described in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using ciprofloxacin injection and call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical help: rash hives itching peeling or blistering of the skin ...

  8. Aflibercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes that can lead to vision loss), and diabetic retinopathy (damage to the eyes caused by diabetes). Aflibercept ... your doctor about how long you should continue treatment with aflibercept injection.

  9. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before receiving tacrolimus injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to tacrolimus, any other ...

  10. Basiliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about basiliximab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of ...

  11. Dynamics of Non-Classical Interval Exchanges

    CERN Document Server

    Gadre, Vaibhav S

    2009-01-01

    Train tracks with a single vertex are a generalization of interval exchange maps. Here, we consider non-classical interval exchanges: complete train tracks with a single vertex. These can be studied as a dynamical system by considering Rauzy induction in this context. This gives a refinement process on the parameter space similar to Kerckhoff's simplicial systems. We show that the refinement process gives an expansion that has a key dynamical property called uniform distortion. We use uniform distortion to prove normality of the expansion. Consequently we prove an analog of Keane's conjecture: almost every non-classical interval exchange is uniquely ergodic.

  12. 5.7  W cw single-frequency laser at 671  nm by single-pass second harmonic generation of a 17.2  W injection-locked 1342  nm Nd : YVO4 ring laser using periodically poled MgO : LiNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Ruebel, Felix; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-20

    We demonstrate a continuous wave single-frequency laser at 671.1 nm based on a high-power 888 nm pumped Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342.2 nm. Unidirectional operation of the fundamental ring laser is achieved with the injection-locking technique. A Nd:YVO4 microchip laser serves as the injecting seed source, providing a tunable single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser emits a single-frequency power of 17.2 W with a Gaussian beam profile and a beam propagation factor of M2beam profile and a beam propagation factor of M2lasers. This work opens possibilities in cold atoms experiments with lithium, allowing the use of larger ensembles in magneto-optical traps or higher diffraction orders in atomic beam interferometers. PMID:26836563

  13. Classically-Controlled Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Perdrix, Simon; Jorrand, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Quantum computations usually take place under the control of the classical world. We introduce a Classically-controlled Quantum Turing Machine (CQTM) which is a Turing Machine (TM) with a quantum tape for acting on quantum data, and a classical transition function for a formalized classical control. In CQTM, unitary transformations and measurements are allowed. We show that any classical TM is simulated by a CQTM without loss of efficiency. The gap between classical and quantum computations, ...

  14. Classical Ising chain in transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spin 12 Ising chain in transverse field is considered the prototypical system for quantum phase transitions. However, very little is apparently known in literature about its classical counterpart, not to be confused with the standard classical Ising model: while the latter is constructed from classical discrete variables, the model we consider is a chain of classical vectors of modulus 1, interacting via an Ising-like Hamiltonian. When an uniform field is applied perpendicular to the exchange interaction, both the quantum model and its classical counterpart get to be characterized by a critical field separating a ferromagnetically ordered state of minimal energy from a paramagnetic one. The properties of the classical model, and especially the behaviour of the correlation length, are investigated at low temperature around the critical field and compared with those of the quantum model, in order to single out the role played by quantum and classical fluctuations at finite temperature; the possibility to experimentally observe peculiar quantum critical effects in Ising spin chains is discussed

  15. Thermal Performance and Reliability Analysis of Single-Phase PV Inverters with Reactive Power Injection Outside Feed-In Operating Hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anurag, Anup; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    there is no solar irradiance. However, reactive power injection causes additional power losses in the switching components leading to a temperature rise in the devices. Thus, this paper analyses the impact of reactive power injection by PV inverters outside feed-in operation on the thermal performance......Reactive power support by photovoltaic (PV) systems is of increasingly interest, when compared to the conventional reactive power compensation devices. PV inverters can exchange reactive power with the utility grid in a decentralized manner even outside feed-in operation, especially at nights when...... of their power switching components. A thermal analysis based on the mission profile (i.e., solar irradiance and ambient temperature) has been incorporated, so as to determine the additional temperature rise in the components induced by the operation outside feed-in hours. An analytical lifetime...

  16. Robustness of superconducting quantum modes against direct quasiparticle injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, U.; Nsanzineza, I.; Vavilov, M. G.; Plourde, B. L. T.; McDermott, R.

    Classical Josephson digital logic based on Single Flux Quantum (SFQ) pulses offers a path to high-fidelity coherent control of large-scale superconducting quantum machines. However, an SFQ pulse driver generates nonequilibrium quasiparticles that contribute to qubit relaxation, and steps must be taken to protect the qubit from this decoherence channel. Here we describe experiments to characterize the robustness of high-Q superconducting linear resonators and qubits against direct quasiparticle injection. We use NIS junctions and SFQ elements to controllably inject quasiparticles into the groundplane of superconducting resonator and qubit chips, and we characterize the quasiparticle contribution to dissipation. We examine the effectiveness of groundplane cuts, normal metal quasiparticle traps, and spatially-varying superconducting gaps at protecting the quantum modes against quasiparticle loss. Finally, we discuss strategies for the integration of multiqubit circuits with on-chip SFQ control elements.

  17. Experimental investigations of a four-stroke single cylinder direct injection diesel engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas as inducted fuel and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) as injected fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E Society' s College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka (India)

    2008-09-15

    In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel oil substitute for internal combustion engines. Vegetable oils present a very promising alternative to diesel oil since they are renewable and have similar properties. Vegetable oils offer almost the same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency when used in diesel engine [Srivastava A, Prasad R. Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2000;4:111-33.; Vellguth G. Performance of vegetable oils and their monoesters as fuels for diesel engines. SAE 831358, 1983.; Demirbas A. Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Int J Prog Energy Combust Sci 2005;31:466-87.; Jajoo BN, Keoti RS. Evaluation of vegetable oils as supplementary fuels for diesel engines. In: Proceedings of the XV national conference on IC engines and combustion, Anna University Chennai, 1997.; Altin R, Cetinkaya S, Yucesu HS. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines. Int J Energy Convers Manage 2000;42:529-38, 248.; Gajendra Babu MK, Chandan Kumar Das LM. Experimental investigations on a Karanja oil methyl ester fuelled DI diesel engine. SAE 2006-01-0238, 2006.; Agarwal D, Kumar Agarwal A. Performance and emission characteristics of a Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Int J Appl Therm Eng 2007;27:2314-23. ]. Research in this direction with edible oils have yielded encouraging results, but their use as fuel for diesel engine has limited applications due to higher domestic requirement [Scholl Kyle W, Sorenson Spencer C. Combustion Analysis of soyabean oil methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. SAE 930934, 1993.; Nwafor OMI. Effect of advanced injection timing on the performance of rapeseed oil in

  18. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel;

    2010-01-01

    theca interna thickness in atretic antral follicles. Adult estradiol-injected rats also had malformed vaginal openings and lacked corpora lutea, confirming anovulation. Estradiol markedly reduced parametrial adipose tissue mass. Adipocyte size was unchanged, suggesting reduced adipocyte number...... expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased...

  19. Measurement of density and affinity for dopamine D2 receptors by a single positron emission tomography scan with multiple injections of [11C]raclopride

    OpenAIRE

    Ikoma, Yoko; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Miyake, Yoshinori; Teramoto, Noboru; Minato, Kotaro; Iida, Hidehiro

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride has been used to investigate the density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) of dopamine D2 receptors related to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, in assessing the Bmax and Kd, multiple PET scans are necessary under variable specific activities of administered [11C]raclopride, resulting in a long study period and unexpected physiological variations. In this paper, we have developed a method of multiple-injection graphical ana...

  20. Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome with lidocaine injection and physical therapy, alone or in combination: a single blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo, Luz Helena; García, Hector Ivan; Rogers, Heather L.; Plata, Jesús Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the shoulder girdle and cervical region is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Physical therapy (PT) and lidocaine injections (LI) are two treatments with demonstrated effectiveness compared to a control group, however little is known about their combined value. The objective of this study was to determine whether LI into trigger points combined with a PT program would be more effective than each separate treatment ...

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis B vaccine (Shanvac-B) using a novel pre-filled single use injection device uniject in Indian subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi N; Kumar A; Raghu M.; Bhave S; Arulprakash R; Bhusari P; Rao Raman

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a major public health problem, which has now been controlled to some extent by vaccination especially with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, which has been proven to be safe and efficacious since its introduction in the 1990s. But problems of unsafe injection practices still persist. Now newer delivery devices like uniject are available for making vaccination very safe. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the Hepatitis-B (Shanvac-B) vaccine in...

  2. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  3. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  4. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  5. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  6. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  7. The classical nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab

  8. Strong Coupling and Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2016-01-01

    Classicalization is a phenomenon in which a theory prevents itself from entering into a strong-coupling regime, by redistributing the energy among many weakly-interacting soft quanta. In this way, the scattering process of some initial hard quanta splits into a large number of soft elementary processes. In short, the theory trades the strong coupling for a high-multiplicity of quanta. At very high energies, the outcome of such a scattering experiment is a production of soft states of high occupation number that are approximately classical. It is evident that black hole creation in particle collision at super-Planckian energies is a result of classicalization, but there is no a priory reason why this phenomenon must be limited to gravity. If the hierarchy problem is solved by classicalization, the LHC has a chance of detecting a tower of new resonances. The lowest-lying resonances must appear right at the strong coupling scale in form of short-lived elementary particles. The heavier members of the tower must b...

  9. Classical Iterative Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2013 - (Björm, E.), s. 205-224 ISBN 978-3-540-70528-4 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : classical iterative methods * applied computational mathematics * encyclopedia Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.springerreference.com/docs/ navigation .do?m=Encyclopedia+of+Applied+and+Computational+Mathematics+%28Mathematics+and+Statistics%29-book224

  10. Classical and quantum satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    de Araújo, Anderson; 10.4204/EPTCS.81.6

    2012-01-01

    We present the linear algebraic definition of QSAT and propose a direct logical characterization of such a definition. We then prove that this logical version of QSAT is not an extension of classical satisfiability problem (SAT). This shows that QSAT does not allow a direct comparison between the complexity classes NP and QMA, for which SAT and QSAT are respectively complete.

  11. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  12. Classics in What Sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camic, Charles

    2008-01-01

    They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008--each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…

  13. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosu, H. C.

    1999-01-01

    First Internet graduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  14. Classical galactosaemia revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Bosch

    2006-01-01

    Classical galactosaemia (McKusick 230400) is an: autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.712). Most patients present in the neonatal period, after ingestion of galactose, with jaundice, hepatospl

  15. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  16. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  17. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C

    1999-01-01

    First Internet undergraduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  18. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  19. The Classical Cake Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)

  20. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  1. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding. If you become pregnant while using alirocumab injection, call your doctor. ... Eat a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Be sure to follow all exercise and dietary ... at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/chol/chol_tlc.pdf.

  2. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection when you are a teenager or young adult. Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has osteoporosis; if you have or have ever had any other bone disease or anorexia nervosa (an eating disorder); or if you drink a ...

  3. Botox Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Shopping Cart American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Home Meetings & Courses Find a Surgeon Physicians’ Buyers ... Portal Botox Injections The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery recommends persons considering Botox® treatment to: Check the ...

  4. Ibritumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have received ibritumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... cells) and myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  5. Tositumomab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have received tositumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... blood cells), myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  6. Oxytocin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  7. Infliximab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is also sometimes used to treat Behcet's syndrome (ulcers in the mouth and on the genitals and inflammation of various ... runny nose back pain white patches in the mouth vaginal itching, burning, and pain, or other signs of a yeast ...

  8. Arbitrated quantum signature of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Ping; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2014-01-01

    This paper points out design confusion existing in all the arbitrated quantum signatures (AQS) that require public discussions over authenticated classical channels. Instead, an AQS scheme of classical messages without using authenticated classical channels is proposed here. A cryptographic hash function is used in combine with quantum mechanics to check the existence of an eavesdropping or to verify a signature. In addition, by using only single photons, this scheme provides higher efficiency both in quantum transmissions and generations. The proposed AQS scheme is shown to be immune to several well-known attacks, i.e., the Trojan-horse attacks and the existential forgery attack.

  9. Safety and Potential Effect of a Single Intracavernous Injection of Autologous Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Martha Kirstine; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and radical prostatectomy (RP) often results in erectile dysfunction (ED) and a substantially reduced quality of life. The efficacy of current interventions, principal treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors, is not satisfactory and this condi......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and radical prostatectomy (RP) often results in erectile dysfunction (ED) and a substantially reduced quality of life. The efficacy of current interventions, principal treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors, is not satisfactory...... for the presence of stem cell surface markers, viability and ability to differentiate. Primary endpoint was the safety and tolerance of the cell therapy while the secondary outcome was improvement of erectile function. Any adverse events were reported and erectile function was assessed by IIEF-5 scores. The study...... is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02240823. FINDINGS: Intracavernous injection of ADRCs was well-tolerated and only minor events related to the liposuction and cell injections were reported at the one-month evaluation, but none at later time points. Overall during the study period, 8 of 17 men recovered...

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis B vaccine (Shanvac-B using a novel pre-filled single use injection device uniject in Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi N

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a major public health problem, which has now been controlled to some extent by vaccination especially with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, which has been proven to be safe and efficacious since its introduction in the 1990s. But problems of unsafe injection practices still persist. Now newer delivery devices like uniject are available for making vaccination very safe. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the Hepatitis-B (Shanvac-B vaccine in Uniject pre-filled device administered to healthy adults and infants at 0, 1, 2 months schedule. METHODS: A total of 122 healthy subjects (62 adults and 60 infants were administered three doses of the recombinant Hepatitis-B vaccine using Uniject pre-filled device. Blood samples for antibody titer estimation were taken before vaccination and 4-6 weeks after third dose. Subjects, parents or guardians were given diary cards to record any adverse reactions. RESULTS: Protective immune responses to the vaccine were seen in 96.4% of adults and 100% of infants who completed the study. The Geometric Mean Titers (GMT in adults and infants were 518.5 and 385.41 mIU/ml respectively. Mild fever, itching, and swelling at injection site were the most common side effects observed. CONCLUSION: The safety and immunogenicity of the Hepatitis B Vaccine in the novel pre-filled device Uniject was effectively demonstrated in the present study.

  11. Quantum emulation of classical dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Margolus, Norman

    2011-01-01

    In statistical mechanics, it is well known that finite-state classical lattice models can be recast as quantum models, with distinct classical configurations identified with orthogonal basis states. This mapping makes classical statistical mechanics on a lattice a special case of quantum statistical mechanics, and classical combinatorial entropy a special case of quantum entropy. In a similar manner, finite-state classical dynamics can be recast as finite-energy quantum dynamics. This mapping...

  12. Randomness: quantum versus classical

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g., quantum random generators. This development stimulates a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of quantum state. Closely related problem is clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. The second part of this review is devoted to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) in the spirit of Zeilinger and Brukner (and QBism of Fuchs et al.) and physics in general (e.g., Wheeler's "it from bit") as well as digital philosophy of Chaitin (with historical coupling to ideas of Leibnitz). Finally, w...

  13. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  14. Computation in Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that physics majors need to learn computational skills, but many departments are still devoid of computation in their physics curriculum. Some departments may lack the resources or commitment to create a dedicated course or program in computational physics. One way around this difficulty is to include computation in a standard upper-level physics course. An intermediate classical mechanics course is particularly well suited for including computation. We discuss the ways we have used computation in our classical mechanics courses, focusing on how computational work can improve students' understanding of physics as well as their computational skills. We present examples of computational problems that serve these two purposes. In addition, we provide information about resources for instructors who would like to include computation in their courses.

  15. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  16. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  17. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  18. Are superparamagnetic spins classical?

    OpenAIRE

    Garanin, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Effective giant spins of magnetic nanoparticles are considered classically in the conventional theory of superparamagnetism based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Langevin equation. However, microscopic calculations for a large spin with uniaxial anisotropy, coupled to the lattice via the simplest generic mechanism, show that the results of the conventional theory are not reproduced in the limit S ->\\infty. In particular, the prefactor Gamma_0 in the Arrhenius escape rate over the barrier Gamma =Gamma_...

  19. Injuries in classical ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães; Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external ...

  20. A Classic's New Charm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ North Korea's Phibada Opera Troupe arrived in Beijing on May3,bringing with it a Korean opera adapted from China's classic novel A Dream of Red Mansions written by Cao Xueqin(around 1715-63),a great novelist of the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911).The troupe,invited by the Chinese Ministry of Culture,is one of the largest performing groups having visited China in recent years.

  1. Computation in Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Timberlake, Todd; Hasbun, Javier E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that physics majors need to learn computational skills, but many departments are still devoid of computation in their physics curriculum. Some departments may lack the resources or commitment to create a dedicated course or program in computational physics. One way around this difficulty is to include computation in a standard upper-level physics course. An intermediate classical mechanics course is particularly well suited for including computation. We discuss th...

  2. Sociology and Classical Liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    KLEIN, Daniel; Stern, Lotta

    2005-01-01

    We advocate the development of a classical-liberal character within professional sociology. The American Sociological Association (ASA) is taken as representative of professional sociology in the United States. We review the ASA’s activities and organizational statements, to show the association’s leftist character. Internal criticism is often very uneasy about leftist domination of the field. We present survey results establishing that, in voting and in policy views, the ASA membership is mo...

  3. Revisiting a Classic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…

  4. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    2004-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  5. Diffusion of Classical Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, J.; Zakrzewski, W.

    1998-01-01

    We study the diffusion and deformation of classical solitons coupled to thermal noise. The diffusion coefficient for kinks in the $\\phi^4$ theory is predicted up to the second order in $kT$. The prediction is verified by numerical simulations. Multiskyrmions in the vector O(3) sigma model are studied within the same formalism. Thermal noise results in a diffusion on the multisoliton collective coordinate space (moduli space). There are entropic forces which tend, for example, to bind pairs of...

  6. Peculiarities of Forming Single-Frequency Generation in a Monopulse YAG:Nd-Laser with Transverse Diode Pumping and Injection of Narrow-Band Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, M. V.; Kalinov, V. S.; Kostik, O. E.; Lantsov, K. I.; Lepchenkov, K. V.; Mashko, V. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Teplyashin, L. L.

    2016-05-01

    The features of forming output radiation in a powerful monopulse single-frequency side diode-pumped laser operating in external narrow-band signal seeding mode were investigated. The monopulse single-frequency laser was fabricated of a YAG:Nd active element excited by three laser diode matrices. A compact continuous-wave YAG:Nd-laser with longitudinal diode pumping served as the seeding laser. It was shown experimentally that the transition of the monopulse laser from multimode to single-frequency lasing with a spectral line width of about 54 MHz (0.2 pm) occurs at seeding-laser radiation power P th ≈ 0.14 mW (radiation intensity of 1.8·10-2 W/cm2). Increasing the seeding-laser power over P th does not lead to a noticeable change of the output characteristics of the monopulse laser for a given pump level (above the threshold). If the pump power varies from 1.5 to 3.0 kW, the P th value is not changed but the energy of the output pulses of single-frequency monopulse generation increases to 40 MJ. The low level of the external narrow-band seeding signal allows us to consider the single-frequency low-power semiconductor laser as a promising source of the seeding signal.

  7. What was classical genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, C Kenneth

    2004-12-01

    I present an account of classical genetics to challenge theory-biased approaches in the philosophy of science. Philosophers typically assume that scientific knowledge is ultimately structured by explanatory reasoning and that research programs in well-established sciences are organized around efforts to fill out a central theory and extend its explanatory range. In the case of classical genetics, philosophers assume that the knowledge was structured by T. H. Morgan's theory of transmission and that research throughout the later 1920s, 30s, and 40s was organized around efforts to further validate, develop, and extend this theory, I show that classical genetics was structured by an integration of explanatory reasoning (associated with the transmission theory) and investigative strategies (such as the 'genetic approach'). The investigative strategies, which have been overlooked in historical and philosophical accounts, were as important as the so-called laws of Mendelian genetics. By the later 1920s, geneticists of the Morgan school were no longer organizing research around the goal of explaining inheritance patterns; rather, they were using genetics to investigate a range of biological phenomena that extended well beyond the explanatory domain of transmission theories. Theory-biased approaches in history and philosophy of science fail to reveal the overall structure of scientific knowledge and obscure the way it functions. PMID:15682554

  8. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  9. The efficacy of preventive parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on intubation time, blood gas parameters, narcotic requirement, and pain relief after open heart surgery: A randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Saeidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postsurgical pain usually results in some complications in the patients. This study has tried to investigate the effects of parasternal single injection of bupivacaine on postoperative pulmonary and pain consequences in patients after open heart surgery. Methods: : In a prospective double blind clinical study, 100 consenting patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were randomized into two groups. In case group, bupivacaine was injected at both sides of sternum, immediately before sternal closure. In the control group, no intervention was performed. Then, the patients were investigated regarding intubation period, length of ICU stay, arterial blood gas (ABG parameters, morphine requirement, and their severity of postoperative pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Results: No differences were found between the two groups regarding to age, sex, pump time, operation time, and body mass index and preoperative cardiac ejection fraction. Mean intubation length in case group was much shorter than that in control group. Mean PaO 2 in case group was lower in different checking times in postoperative period. The patients in the case group needed less morphine compared to those in the control group during the 24-hour observation period in the ICU. Finally, mean VAS scores of pain in case group were significantly lower than those in control group at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Conclusions: Patients′ pain relief by parasternal single injection of bupivacaine in early postoperative period can facilitate earlier ventilator weaning and tracheal extubation after open heart surgery as well as achieving lower pain scores and narcotic requirements.

  10. Validation of single-fluid and two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic models of the helicity injected torus spheromak experiment with the NIMROD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comparison study of 3-D pressureless resistive MHD (rMHD) and 3-D presureless two-fluid MHD models of the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI). HIT-SI is a current drive experiment that uses two geometrically asymmetric helicity injectors to generate and sustain toroidal plasmas. The comparable size of the collisionless ion skin depth di to the resistive skin depth predicates the importance of the Hall term for HIT-SI. The simulations are run with NIMROD, an initial-value, 3-D extended MHD code. The modeled plasma density and temperature are assumed uniform and constant. The helicity injectors are modeled as oscillating normal magnetic and parallel electric field boundary conditions. The simulations use parameters that closely match those of the experiment. The simulation output is compared to the formation time, plasma current, and internal and surface magnetic fields. Results of the study indicate 2fl-MHD shows quantitative agreement with the experiment while rMHD only captures the qualitative features. The validity of each model is assessed based on how accurately it reproduces the global quantities as well as the temporal and spatial dependence of the measured magnetic fields. 2fl-MHD produces the current amplification (Itor/Iinj) and formation time τf demonstrated by HIT-SI with similar internal magnetic fields. rMHD underestimates (Itor/Iinj) and exhibits much a longer τf. Biorthogonal decomposition (BD), a powerful mathematical tool for reducing large data sets, is employed to quantify how well the simulations reproduce the measured surface magnetic fields without resorting to a probe-by-probe comparison. BD shows that 2fl-MHD captures the dominant surface magnetic structures and the temporal behavior of these features better than rMHD

  11. Mechanics classical and quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mechanics: Classical and Quantum explains the principles of quantum mechanics via the medium of analytical mechanics. The book describes Schrodinger's formulation, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the Lagrangian formulation. The author discusses the Harmonic Oscillator, the generalized coordinates, velocities, as well as the application of the Lagrangian formulation to systems that are partially or entirely electromagnetic in character under certain conditions. The book examines waves on a string under tension, the isothermal cavity radiation, and the Rayleigh-Jeans result pertaining to the e

  12. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  13. The Role of Classical Music in the Construction of Nationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of classical music in the construction of nationalism in the twentieth century. It takes its point of departure in the Danish composer Carl Nielsen and analyses competing interpretations and receptions of his works. The paper seeks to move beyond the single case study...... classical music and nationalism....

  14. Thermal Stability of Neodymium Aluminates High-k Dielectric Deposited by Liquid Injection MOCVD Using Single-Source Hetero metallic Alkoxide Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of neodymium aluminate (NdAlOx) have been deposited by liquid injection metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using the bimetallic alkoxide precursor [Nd Al(OPri)6(PriOH)]2. The effects of high-temperature post deposition annealing on NdAlOx thin films are reported. The as-deposited thin films are amorphous in nature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) show, respectively, no crystallization or interdiffusion of metal ions into the substrate after annealing at 950 degree C. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the thin films exhibited good electrical integrity following annealing. The dielectric permittivity (k) of the annealed NdAlOx was 12, and a density of interface states at flat band (Dit) of 4.01x1011 cm-2 eV-1 was measured. The deposited NdAlOx thin films are shown to be able to endure high-temperature stress and capable of maintaining excellent dielectric properties.

  15. Thermal Stability of Neodymium Aluminates High-κ Dielectric Deposited by Liquid Injection MOCVD Using Single-Source Heterometallic Alkoxide Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Taechakumput

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of neodymium aluminate (NdAlOx have been deposited by liquid injection metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD using the bimetallic alkoxide precursor [NdAl(OPri6(PriOH]2. The effects of high-temperature postdeposition annealing on NdAlOx thin films are reported. The as-deposited thin films are amorphous in nature. X-ray diffraction (XRD and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS show, respectively, no crystallization or interdiffusion of metal ions into the substrate after annealing at 950°C. The capacitance-voltage (C-V and current-voltage (I-V characteristics of the thin films exhibited good electrical integrity following annealing. The dielectric permittivity (κ of the annealed NdAlOx was 12, and a density of interface states at flatband (Dit of 4.01×1011  cm−2 eV−1 was measured. The deposited NdAlOx thin films are shown to be able to endure high-temperature stress and capable of maintaining excellent dielectric properties.

  16. Single injection of naked plasmid encoding α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone protects against thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the propagation of acute liver injury. The aim of our study was to investigate whether gene transfer of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), a potent anti-inflammatory peptide, could prevent fulminant hepatic failure in mice. Acute liver damage was induced by intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide. Hydrodynamics-based gene transfection with α-MSH expression plasmid via rapid tail vein injection was initiated 1 day prior to intoxication. The mortality in the α-MSH-treated mice was significantly lower compared to the vehicle group 3 days after injury. Liver histology significantly improved and TUNEL-positive hepatocytes decreased in the treated mice. The degradation of IκBα, endogenous inhibitor of nuclear factor κB, and upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels were prevented in the α-MSH-treated group, indicating decreased oxidative stress and inflammation. These results suggest α-MSH gene therapy might protect against acute hepatic necroinflammatory damage with further potential applications

  17. Are There Enough Injective Sets?

    CERN Document Server

    Aczel, Peter; Granstroem, Johan; Schuster, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The axiom of choice ensures precisely that, in ZFC, every set is projective: that is, a projective object in the category of sets. In constructive ZF (CZF) the existence of enough projective sets has been discussed as an additional axiom taken from the interpretation of CZF in Martin-Loef's intuitionistic type theory. On the other hand, every non-empty set is injective in classical ZF, which argument fails to work in CZF. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the problem whether there are (enough) injective sets in CZF. We show that no two element set is injective unless the law of excluded middle is admitted for negated formulas, and that the axiom of power set is required for proving that there are strongly enough injective sets. The latter notion is abstracted from the singleton embedding into the power set, which ensures enough injectives both in every topos and in IZF. We further show that it is consistent with CZF to assume that the only injective sets are the singletons. In particular, assumin...

  18. Numerical calculation of classical and non-classical electrostatic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, D; Neyenhuis, B; Christensen, Dan; Durfee, Dallin S.; Neyenhuis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    We present a numerical exercise in which classical and non-classical electrostatic potentials were calculated. The non-classical fields take into account effects due to a possible non-zero photon rest mass. We show that in the limit of small photon rest mass, both the classical and non-classical potential can be found by solving Poisson's equation twice, using the first calculation as a source term in the second calculation. Our results support the assumptions in a recent proposal to use ion interferometry to search for a non-zero photon rest mass.

  19. Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the…

  20. Impact of intracoronary injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells in acute myocardial infarction on left ventricular perfusion and function: a 6-month follow-up gated {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI single-photon emission computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipiec, Piotr [Medical University of Lodz, 2nd Department of Cardiology, Lodz (Poland); Medical University of Lodz, 2nd Department of Cardiology, Bieganski Hospital, Lodz (Poland); Krzeminska-Pakula, Maria; Plewka, Michal; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw D. [Medical University of Lodz, 2nd Department of Cardiology, Lodz (Poland); Kusmierek, Jacek; Plachcinska, Anna; Szuminski, Remigiusz [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Robak, Tadeusz; Korycka, Anna [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Hematology, Lodz (Poland)

    2009-04-15

    We investigated the impact of intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells (BMC) in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular volumes, global and regional systolic function and myocardial perfusion. The study included 39 patients with first anterior STEMI treated successfully with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group or the control group in a 2:1 ratio. The patients underwent baseline gated single-photon emission computed tomography (G-SPECT) 3-10 days after STEMI with quantitative and qualitative analysis of left ventricular perfusion and systolic function. On the following day, patients from the BMC treatment group were subjected to bone marrow aspiration, mononuclear BMC isolation and intracoronary injection. No placebo procedure was performed in the control group. G-SPECT was repeated 6 months after STEMI. Baseline and follow-up G-SPECT studies were available for 36 patients. At 6 months in the BMC group we observed a significantly enhanced improvement in the mean extent of the perfusion defect, the left ventricular perfusion score index, the infarct area perfusion score and the infarct area wall motion score index compared to the control group (p=0.01-0.04). However, the changes in left ventricular volume, ejection fraction and the left ventricular wall motion score index as well as the relative changes in the infarct area wall motion score index did not differ significantly between the groups. Intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear BMC in patients with STEMI improves myocardial perfusion at 6 months. The benefit in infarct area systolic function is less pronounced and there is no apparent improvement of global left ventricular systolic function. (orig.)

  1. Private Circuits II versus Fault Injection Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotomalala, Henitsoa; Ngo, Xuan Thuy; Najm, Zakaria; Danger, Jean-Luc; Guilley, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    —Cryptographic implementations are subject to physical attacks. Private circuits II is a proven protection against a strong attacker, able to read and write on a finite number of chosen internal nodes. In practice, side-channel analyses and fault injections are less accurate: typically, classical injection techniques (clock and power glitches, electromagnetic pulses, etc.) can be reproducible, but they do not allow to choose the targeted nodes (the situation is different for software dual-rai...

  2. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  3. Grassmannization of classical models

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V; Svistunov, Boris V

    2016-01-01

    Applying Feynman diagrammatics to non-fermionic strongly correlated models with local constraints might seem generically impossible for two separate reasons: (i) the necessity to have a Gaussian (non-interacting) limit on top of which the perturbative diagrammatic expansion is generated by Wick's theorem, and (ii) the Dyson's collapse argument implying that the expansion in powers of coupling constant is divergent. We show that for arbitrary classical lattice models both problems can be solved/circumvented by reformulating the high-temperature expansion (more generally, any discrete representation of the model) in terms of Grassmann integrals. Discrete variables residing on either links, plaquettes, or sites of the lattice are associated with the Grassmann variables in such a way that the partition function (and correlations) of the original system and its Grassmann-field counterpart are identical. The expansion of the latter around its Gaussian point generates Feynman diagrams. A proof-of-principle implement...

  4. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  5. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain ( B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David;

    2003-01-01

    significantly in the peptide-binding alpha(1) domain. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences from chickens of diverse origins show few alleles, which differ in only four nucleotides and one amino acid. In contrast, significant restriction fragment length polymorphism is detected by Southern blot analysis of genomic...... DNA, suggesting considerable diversity around the gene. Analysis of a large back-cross family indicates that the class II alpha chain locus ( B-LA) is located roughly 5.6 cM from the MHC locus, which encodes the classical class II beta chains. Thus the chicken class II alpha chain gene is like the...

  6. Multi-bunch injection for SSRF storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bocheng; Wang, Baoliang; Zhang, Manzhou; Yin, Chongxian; Yan, Yingbing; Tian, Shunqiang; Wang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The multi-bunch injection has been adopt at SSRF which greatly increases the injection rate and reduces injection time compared to the single bunch injection. The multi-bunch injection will massively reduce the beam failure time during users operation and prolong pulsed injection hardware lifetime. In this paper, the scheme to produce multi bunches for the RF electron gun is described. The refilling result and the beam orbit stability for top up operation is discussed.

  7. Initial and delayed stress phase imaging in a single-injection double-acquisition SPECT. The potential value of early 99mTc-MIBI redistribution in assessment of myocardial perfusion reversibility in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some studies reported that 99mTc-MIBI may redistribute in ischaemic myocardium and this phenomenon may have potential role for better assessment of viability by delayed 99mTc-MIBI imaging. Some studies also suggested that infusion of low dose dobutamine during delayed imaging may enhance the value of 99mTc-MIBI imaging for evaluation of viability. The aim of this study is to determine whether the observed changes of perfusion defects on delayed images are caused by early radiotracer redistribution or as a result of reversal partial volume effect secondary to inotropic stimulation. Patients, methods: 89 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial study. In all cases, gated-SPECT images were obtained 60 minutes after stress with dipyridamole injection. Subsequently the patients were randomly allocated in two groups and the second imaging was performed at 120th minute during low dose dobutamine (dobutamine group; 45 cases) or placebo infusion (placebo group; 44 cases). Difference between summed stress score of the first (SSS1) and second (SSS2) stress images (ΔSSS) was considered as a marker of reversibility in single-injection double-acquisition (SIDA) protocol. Also summed difference score (SDS) was recorded as a marker of reversibility in standard stress/rest, double-injection double-acquisition (DIDA) protocol. ΔSSS of the two studied groups were compared. Also the correlation and agreement between ΔSSS and SDS were analyzed. Results: A significant difference was found between SSS1 (median 15, range 0-48) and SSS2 (median 11, range 0-42) in total patients (p 99mTc-MIBI injection in the stress phase imaging. These changes correlate well and are in agreement with perfusion improvement on the rest images. This phenomenon may be independent of improvement in myocardial function, in more delayed imaging or following inotropic augmentation, and thus is likely due to 99mTc-MIBI redistribution

  8. Classical Dynamics of Free Electromagnetic Laser Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, S; Tucker, R. W.; Walton, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum source-free Maxwell field equations as models for multi- and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged test particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content based on their influence on particular charge configurations in space. Such solutions offer a computationally efficient parameterization of compact laser pulses used in laser-matter simulations and provide a poten...

  9. Religious ecstasy in classical Sufism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Ogén

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to shed some light on the phenomenon of religious ecstasy as met within Islamic mysticism and there particularly during its classical period. In this case, the expression "classical Sufism" refers to the period of Sufi history from about 850 A.D. until circa 1100 A.D. In the Sufi vocabulary there is even a rather differentiated terminology concerning these ecstatic experiences or states; whether different descriptions of one and the same experience are involved or whether the terms actually describe different experiences is a question that we must set aside for the present. There are, however, Sufis expressing the opinion that these different states of mind are based on one single experience in spite of the difference in terms. A generic term for these experiences or states is not to be found in the Sufi terminology however, so the problem of which of these phenomena must be present in order for ecstasy to be evidenced—or which of them would be sufficient— does not therefore arise for the Sufis. So instead of speaking of religious ecstasy in general, they either refer to the single specific terms in question or else use the plural of one of the words employed to designate one of the terms we include in "religious ecstasy". They thus speak of "ecstasies", mawagid from the singular form wagd—if one should at all attempt a translation of this plural. This plural is a genuine Sufi construction and does not otherwise seem to occur in the Arabic language, except as a later borrowing. Psalmody based on the Koranic vocabulary remains the main procedure for putting oneself in ecstasy. If we add 'and listening to psalmody', we then obtain a fairly satisfactory picture of the external conditions for the Sufis' ecstasy until the eleventh century, when various innovations begin to appear. As far as the darwiš-dance is concerned, it is not until the thirteenth century with Rumi that it becomes transformed from an expression

  10. Classicalization of quantum variables and quantum–classical hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of classical degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics is studied in the stochastic variational method. By using this classicalization, a hybrid model constructed from quantum and classical variables (quantum–classical hybrids) is derived. In this procedure, conservation laws such as energy are maintained, and Ehrenfest's theorem is still satisfied with modification. The criterion for the applicability of quantum–classical hybrids is also discussed. - Highlights: • The new derivation of a quantum–classical hybrid (QCH) model is discussed based on a variational principle. • Any conserved quantities are automatically defined as the invariant transforms of a stochastic action. • The quantitative criterion to determine the validity of QCH is proposed. • Ehrenfest's theorem is satisfied in a modified way

  11. Study on a Single-Dose Toxicity Test of D-Amino Acid Oxidase (DAAO Extracts Injected into the Tail Vein of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jungue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to analyze the single-dose toxicity of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO extracts. Methods: All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of DAAO extracts, 0.1 to 0.3 cc, were administered to the experimental group, and the same doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: In all 4 groups, no deaths occurred, and the LD50 of DAAO extracts administered by IV was over 0.3 ml/kg. No significant changes in the weight between the control group and the experimental group were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ, the results showed no significant differences in any organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with D-amino acid oxidase extracts is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

  12. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, a novel mutated butyrylcholinesterase treatment for cocaine addiction, after single and multiple intramuscular injections in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Wildeman, Jacqueline; van de Wetering, Jeroen; Hettinga, Judith; Schuilenga-Hut, Petra; Gross, Aviva; Clark, Shane; Bassan, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2015-05-01

    Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to cocaine metabolism and has been considered for use in treating cocaine addiction and cocaine overdose. TV-1380 is a recombinant protein composed of the mature form of human serum albumin fused at its amino terminus to the carboxy-terminus of a truncated and mutated BChE. In preclinical studies, TV-1380 has been shown to rapidly eliminate cocaine in the plasma thus forestalling entry of cocaine into the brain and heart. Two randomized, blinded phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, following single and multiple administration in healthy subjects. TV-1380 was found to be safe and well tolerated with a long half-life (43-77 hours) and showed a dose-proportional increase in systemic exposure. Consistent with preclinical results, the ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis, TV-1380 activity clearly increased upon treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, there was a direct relationship between ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis (kel ) and TV-1380 serum concentrations. There was no evidence that TV-1380 affected heart rate, the uncorrected QT interval, or the heart-rate-corrected QTcF interval. TV-1380, therefore, offers a safe once-weekly therapy to increase cocaine hydrolysis. PMID:25524052

  13. Some classical Diophantine equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Bokarev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to find common solutions complete some Diophantine equations of the second degree with three variables, traced some patterns, suggest a common approach, which being elementary, however, lead to a solution of such equations. Using arithmetic functions allowed to write down the solutions in a single formula with no restrictions on the parameters used.

  14. Semi-quantification of endolymphatic size on MR imaging after intravenous injection of single-dose gadodiamide. Comparison between two types of processing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many inner ear disorders, including Meniere's disease, are believed to be based on endolymphatic hydrops. We evaluated a newly proposed method for semi-quantification of endolymphatic size in patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops that uses 2 kinds of processed magnetic resonance (MR) images. Twenty-four consecutive patients underwent heavily T2-weighted (hT2W) MR cisternography (MRC), hT2W 3-dimensional (3D) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) with inversion time of 2250 ms (positive perilymph image, PPI), and hT2W-3D-IR with inversion time of 2050 ms (positive endolymph image, PEI) 4 hours after intravenous administration of single-dose gadolinium-based contrast material (IV-SD-GBCM). Two images were generated using 2 new methods to process PPI, PEI, and MRC. Three radiologists contoured the cochlea and vestibule on MRC, copied regions of interest (ROIs) onto the 2 kinds of generated images, and semi-quantitatively measured the size of the endolymph for the cochlea and vestibule by setting a threshold pixel value. Each observer noted a strong linear correlation between endolymphatic size of both the cochlea and vestibule of the 2 kinds of generated images. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.783, 0.734, and 0.800 in the cochlea and 0.924, 0.930, and 0.933 in the vestibule (P<0.001, for all). In both the cochlea and vestibule, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no statistically significant difference between observers. Use of the 2 kinds of generated images generated from MR images obtained 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM might enable semi-quantification of endolymphatic size with little observer dependency. (author)

  15. Observable signatures of a classical transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Lin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Eternal inflation arising from a potential landscape predicts that our universe is one realization of many possible cosmological histories. One way to access different cosmological histories is via the nucleation of bubble universes from a metastable false vacuum. Another way to sample different cosmological histories is via classical transitions, the creation of pocket universes through the collision between bubbles. Using relativistic numerical simulations, we examine the possibility of observationally determining if our observable universe resulted from a classical transition. We find that classical transitions produce spatially infinite, approximately open Friedman-Robertson-Walker universes. The leading set of observables in the aftermath of a classical transition are negative spatial curvature and a contribution to the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature quadrupole. The level of curvature and magnitude of the quadrupole are dependent on the position of the observer, and we determine the possible range of observables for two classes of single-scalar field models. For the first class, where the inflationary phase has a lower energy than the vacuum preceding the classical transition, the magnitude of the observed quadrupole generally falls to zero with distance from the collision while the spatial curvature grows to a constant. For the second class, where the inflationary phase has a higher energy than the vacuum preceding the classical transition, the magnitude of the observed quadrupole generically falls to zero with distance from the collision while the spatial curvature grows without bound. We find that the magnitude of the quadrupole and curvature grow with increasing centre of mass energy of the collision, and explore variations of the parameters in the scalar field lagrangian.

  16. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  17. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  18. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  19. Classical and quantum effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the Closed Time Path (CTP) scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions which describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their CTP extension is briefly discussed and few qualitative examples are mentioned.

  20. Population in the classic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-01-01

    Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In ad...

  1. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989

  2. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  3. Simultaneous multi-component quantitation of Chinese herbal injection Yin-zhi-huang in rat plasma by using a single-tube extraction procedure for mass spectrometry-based pharmacokinetic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Le; Wang, Meiling; Yuan, Yu; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Meiling; Ding, Li; Chen, Bo

    2014-09-15

    Ying-zhi-huang injection (YZH-I) is an injectable multi-herbal prescription derived from the ancient Chinese remedy "Yin-chen-hao-tang", which is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases. To date, little information is available on the pharmacokinetic properties of this poly-herbal formulation. Herein, we reported a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of eight major ingredients of YZH-I (including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, geniposide, geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) in rat plasma. A fast single-tube multi-impurity precipitation extraction ("SMIPE") procedure was introduced for straightforward plasma preparation, based on one-pot deproteinization precipitation with acidified methanol extraction and in-situ multifunction impurity removal by a solid sorbent mixture (anh. magnesium sulfate plus octadecylsilane). Particularly, the addition of ascorbic acid in methanol (10 mg/mL) was found to exhibit a pronounced protective effect and significantly increase extraction effectiveness of the herbal phenolic components. Some pretreatment variables (protein precipitating solvent, acidifying agent and sorbent) were optimized with acceptable matrix effect (-18 to 7.7%), extraction recovery (65-88%) and process efficiency (62-91%) for the SMIPE-based LC-MRM multi-analyte quantitation using matrix-matched calibration (5-1000 ng/mL) without using internal standard. Mean accuracies were obtained in the range of 83-114% at three different fortification levels, with intra- and inter-day variations within 13%. This validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous measurement and pharmacokinetic investigation of the chemical constituents in rats following an intravenous administration of YZH-I. PMID:25129410

  4. Usefulness of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with a single bolus injection of contrast material for the examination of intracranial and cervical arteries in cerebrovascular disease screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) has been gaining wide acceptance as a clinically useful tool in the field of neurosurgery. The great diagnostic value of 3D-CTA for cerebral aneurysm or other cerebrovascular diseases has been well established. However, images of the intracranial and cervical arteries have not been obtained simultaneously because of the limitation of the scanning area and the need for contrast material. In order to use 3D-CTA to screen for cerebrovascular disease, we used a helical CT scan with an intravenous single bolus injection of contrast material to perform 3D-CTA of the intracranial and cervical arteries simultaneously. A spiral computed tomographic scan was performed with a Hispeed Advantage RP (General Electric). After injection of 150 ml of nonionized contrast material at a rate of 3 mm/sec in an antecubital vein, an axial computed tomographic scan (120 kV, 200 mA) of the cranial region was performed with a delay of 20-25 seconds after starting the injection. Section thickness was 1 mm with table increments of 1 mm per rotation. The scan volume included 20-30 mm above and below the sella turcica. An axial computed tomographic scan (120 kV, 190 mA) of the cervical region was performed with a delay of 30 seconds after completion of cranial CTA. Section thickness was 3 mm with table increments of 3 mm per rotation. Image reconstruction was carried out through surface rendering and maximum intensity projection processing. From November 1995 to August 1998, we used this technique to screen 218 consecutive outpatients for cerebrovascular disease. Unruptured cerebral aneurysms were found in 20 cases (9.2%). Atherosclerotic diseases of the cervical carotid artery were found in 58 cases (26.6%), as follows: carotid artery occlusion in 2 cases, carotid bifurcation stenosis in 22 cases, and intramural calcification of the internal carotid artery in 50 cases. Atherosclerotic diseases of the intracranial artery were found in 99 cases (45

  5. Usefulness of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with a single bolus injection of contrast material for the examination of intracranial and cervical arteries in cerebrovascular disease screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Yukio [Sapporo National Hospital (Japan); Tanooka, Atsushi; Morimoto, Shigefumi

    2001-05-01

    Three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) has been gaining wide acceptance as a clinically useful tool in the field of neurosurgery. The great diagnostic value of 3D-CTA for cerebral aneurysm or other cerebrovascular diseases has been well established. However, images of the intracranial and cervical arteries have not been obtained simultaneously because of the limitation of the scanning area and the need for contrast material. In order to use 3D-CTA to screen for cerebrovascular disease, we used a helical CT scan with an intravenous single bolus injection of contrast material to perform 3D-CTA of the intracranial and cervical arteries simultaneously. A spiral computed tomographic scan was performed with a Hispeed Advantage RP (General Electric). After injection of 150 ml of nonionized contrast material at a rate of 3 mm/sec in an antecubital vein, an axial computed tomographic scan (120 kV, 200 mA) of the cranial region was performed with a delay of 20-25 seconds after starting the injection. Section thickness was 1 mm with table increments of 1 mm per rotation. The scan volume included 20-30 mm above and below the sella turcica. An axial computed tomographic scan (120 kV, 190 mA) of the cervical region was performed with a delay of 30 seconds after completion of cranial CTA. Section thickness was 3 mm with table increments of 3 mm per rotation. Image reconstruction was carried out through surface rendering and maximum intensity projection processing. From November 1995 to August 1998, we used this technique to screen 218 consecutive outpatients for cerebrovascular disease. Unruptured cerebral aneurysms were found in 20 cases (9.2%). Atherosclerotic diseases of the cervical carotid artery were found in 58 cases (26.6%), as follows: carotid artery occlusion in 2 cases, carotid bifurcation stenosis in 22 cases, and intramural calcification of the internal carotid artery in 50 cases. Atherosclerotic diseases of the intracranial artery were found in 99 cases (45

  6. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039

  7. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039

  8. An electrically injected photon-pair source at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Boitier, Fabien; Autebert, Claire; Lemaître, Aristide; Galopin, Elisabeth; Manquest, Christophe; Sirtori, Carlo; Favero, Ivan; Leo, Giuseppe; Ducci, Sara

    2013-01-01

    One of the main challenges for future quantum information technologies is miniaturization and integration of high performance components in a single chip. In this context, electrically driven sources of non-classical states of light have a clear advantage over optically driven ones. Here we demonstrate the first electrically driven semiconductor source of photon pairs working at room temperature and telecom wavelength. The device is based on type-II intracavity Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion in an AlGaAs laser diode and generates pairs at 1.57 $\\mu$m. Time-correlation measurements of the emitted pairs give an internal generation efficiency of $7 \\times 10^{-11}$ pairs/injected electron. The capability of our platform to support generation, manipulation and detection of photons opens the way to the demonstration of massively parallel systems for complex quantum operations.

  9. Classical Music Fan Chen Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The heyday of Beijing’s classical music beganin 1993, when top-quality sound equipment andrecords were imported. Also in that year, BeijingMusic Radio presented a classical music programtitled "Fan’s Club" and founded the "Music and

  10. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  11. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  12. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAFFUL, CLAUDIA; WAGNER, KARLA D.; WERB, DAN; GONZÁLEZ-ZÚÑIGA, PATRICIA E.; VERDUGO, SILVIA; RANGEL, GUDELIA; STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Design and Methods Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Results Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27–3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52–4.53 respectively]. Discussion and Conclusions Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance (‘hit doctors’) may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25867795

  13. Quantized Excitation Spectrum of the Classical Harmonic Oscillator in Zero-Point Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wayne Cheng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    We report that upon excitation by a single pulse, the classical harmonic oscillator immersed in classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, as described by random electrodynamics, exhibits a quantized excitation spectrum in agreement to that of the quantum harmonic oscillator. This numerical result is interesting in view of the generally accepted idea that classical theories do not support quantized energy spectra.

  14. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  15. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  16. Initial and delayed stress phase imaging in a single-injection double-acquisition SPECT. The potential value of early {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI redistribution in assessment of myocardial perfusion reversibility in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiki, D. [Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran); Dept. of Nuclear Pharmacy, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran); Fallahi, B.; Fard-Esfahani, A.; Eftekhari, M. [Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran); Mohseni, Z.; Khalaj, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Pharmacy, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-07-01

    Some studies reported that {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI may redistribute in ischaemic myocardium and this phenomenon may have potential role for better assessment of viability by delayed {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI imaging. Some studies also suggested that infusion of low dose dobutamine during delayed imaging may enhance the value of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI imaging for evaluation of viability. The aim of this study is to determine whether the observed changes of perfusion defects on delayed images are caused by early radiotracer redistribution or as a result of reversal partial volume effect secondary to inotropic stimulation. Patients, methods: 89 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial study. In all cases, gated-SPECT images were obtained 60 minutes after stress with dipyridamole injection. Subsequently the patients were randomly allocated in two groups and the second imaging was performed at 120{sup th} minute during low dose dobutamine (dobutamine group; 45 cases) or placebo infusion (placebo group; 44 cases). Difference between summed stress score of the first (SSS{sub 1}) and second (SSS{sub 2}) stress images ({delta}SSS) was considered as a marker of reversibility in single-injection double-acquisition (SIDA) protocol. Also summed difference score (SDS) was recorded as a marker of reversibility in standard stress/rest, double-injection double-acquisition (DIDA) protocol. {delta}SSS of the two studied groups were compared. Also the correlation and agreement between {delta}SSS and SDS were analyzed. Results: A significant difference was found between SSS{sub 1} (median 15, range 0-48) and SSS{sub 2} (median 11, range 0-42) in total patients (p < 0.0001). A significant correlation was noted between {delta}SSS and SDS in dobutamine group (r = 0.58, p = 0.002) as well as in placebo group (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001). Considering DIDA protocol as a standard reference method, the influence of dobutamine infusion was not

  17. Quantum experiments without classical counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present a generalized and exhaustive method of finding the directions of the quantization axes of the measured eigenstates within experiments which have no classical counterparts. The method relies on a constructive and exhaustive definition of sets of such directions (which we call Kochen-Specker vectors) in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. Kochen-Specker vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in n-dim Hilbert space, Hn, n > 2 to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such Kochen-Specker vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in Rn, on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic to 0-1 states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all 4-dim KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all 3-dim vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found. (author)

  18. Entanglement assisted classical communication simulates "classical communication" without causal order

    OpenAIRE

    Akibue, Seiseki; Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Murao, Mio

    2016-01-01

    Phenomena induced by the existence of entanglement, such as nonlocal correlations, exhibit characteristic properties of quantum mechanics distinguishing from classical theories. When entanglement is accompanied by classical communication, it enhances the power of quantum operations jointly performed by two spatially separated parties. Such a power has been analyzed by the gap between the performances of joint quantum operations implementable by local operations at each party connected by clas...

  19. On Classical Ideal Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, Jacques; Philippe, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    The air density on earth decays as a function of altitude $z$ approximately according to an $\\exp(-w\\,z/\\theta)$-law, where $w$ denotes the weight of a nitrogen molecule and $\\theta=\\kB T$ where $k_B$ is a constant and $T$ is the thermodynamic temperature. To derive this law one usually invokes the Boltzmann factor, itself derived from statistical considerations. We show that this (barometric) law may be derived solely from the democritian concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum. We employ a principle of simplicity, namely that this law is \\emph{independent} of the law of corpuscle motion. This view-point puts aside restrictive assumptions that are source of confusion. Similar observations apply to the ideal-gas law. In the absence of gravity, when a cylinder terminated by a piston, containing a single corpuscle and with height $h$ has temperature $\\theta$, the average force that the corpuscle exerts on the piston is: $\\ave{F}=\\theta/h$. This law is valid at any temperature, except at very low temperatures whe...

  20. A classical approach to higher-derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two classical routes towards higher-derivative gravity theory are described. The first one is a geometrical route, starting from first principles. The second route is a formal one, and is based on a recent theorem by Castagnino et.al. [J. Math. Phys. 28 (1987) 1854]. A cosmological solution of the higher-derivative field equations is exhibited which in a classical framework singles out this gravitation theory. (author)

  1. Absolute Relativity in Classical Electromagnetism: the Quantisation of Light

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, J. G.; Leary, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    A rigorous introduction of the underlying nature of space and time forces qualitatively new kinds of solutions in the classical theory of electromagnetism. A class of relativistic wave-functions are derived which are solutions to the first-order, free-space Maxwell equations. These describe all photons from radio to gamma waves and are governed by a single parameter: the exchange frequency. Though the theory remains that of classical, continuous electromagnetism, allowed travellin...

  2. The private classical capacity of a partially degradable quantum channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a partially degradable (PD) channel, the channel output state can be used to simulate the degraded environment state. The quantum capacity of a PD channel has been proven to be additive. Here, we show that the private classical capacity of arbitrary dimensional PD channels is equal to the quantum capacity of the channel, and it also single-letterizes. We prove that higher rates of private classical communication can be achieved over a PD channel in comparison to standard degradable channels. (paper)

  3. Quantum localization of Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Batalin, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  4. Quantum localization of classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  5. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)

  6. Injection System design for a hadron therapy Synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    A synchrotron is designed for tumour therapy with C6+ ions or proton.Its injector is a cyclotron, which delivers C5+or H+2 ions to the synchrotron.After comparing the methods of the single-turn injection, the multi-turn injection and the stripping injection,this paper chooses the stripping injection method.In addition,the concept design of the injection system is presented,in which the synchrotron lattice is optimized.

  7. Classical and stochastic Laplacian growth

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Björn; Vasil’ev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This monograph covers a multitude of concepts, results, and research topics originating from a classical moving-boundary problem in two dimensions (idealized Hele-Shaw flows, or classical Laplacian growth), which has strong connections to many exciting modern developments in mathematics and theoretical physics. Of particular interest are the relations between Laplacian growth and the infinite-size limit of ensembles of random matrices with complex eigenvalues; integrable hierarchies of differential equations and their spectral curves; classical and stochastic Löwner evolution and critical phenomena in two-dimensional statistical models; weak solutions of hyperbolic partial differential equations of singular-perturbation type; and resolution of singularities for compact Riemann surfaces with anti-holomorphic involution. The book also provides an abundance of exact classical solutions, many explicit examples of dynamics by conformal mapping as well as a solid foundation of potential theory. An extensive biblio...

  8. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  9. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  10. Fano interference in classical oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the splitting of normal-mode frequencies of a coupled oscillator. Using this analogy, we simulate and experimentally demonstrate Fano interference and the associated phenomena in three-level atoms in a coupled electrical resonator circuit. This work aims to highlight analogies between classical and quantum systems for students at the postgraduate and graduate levels. Also, the reported technique can be easily realized in undergraduate laboratories. (paper)

  11. Elementary charges in classical electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    KAPU'{S}CIK, Edward

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of classical electrodynamics elementary particles are treated as capacitors. The electrostatic potentials satisfy equations of the Schrödinger type. An interesting "quantization condition" for elementary charges is derived.

  12. Probabilities for classically forbidden transitions using classical and classical path methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limits are established for the applicability of purely classical methods for calculating nonreactive, inelastic transition probabilities in collinear collisions of a structureless atom and a harmonic oscillator. These limits, obtained by comparison with previous exact quantum mechanical results, indicate that such methods are inappropriate not only for ''classically forbidden'' but for many ''classically allowed'' transitions (in spite of the fact that they are widely used to calculate probabilities for such processes). A classical path method in the context of infinite-order time-dependent perturbation theory is described which yields extremely accurate transition probabilities even for the most classically forbidden transitions in the collinear atom--harmonic oscillator system. The essential features of this method are: (1) the use of the expectation value of the total interaction potential in determining the atom--oscillator (central force) trajectory, and (2) the use of the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocities of relative motion in the (elastic) central force trajectory. This choice of interaction potential allows the relative motion to be coupled to changes in the internal state of the oscillator. The present classical method is further applied to three-dimensional atom-breathing sphere collisions, and exact quantum mechanical calculations are also carried out. Comparison of the classical path and exact quantum results shows excellent agreement both in the specific inelastic cross section and in the individual partial-wave contributions

  13. Classical and quantum anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Selke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study classical and quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with exchange anisotropy of XXZ-type and crystal field single-ion terms of quadratic and quartic form in a field. The magnets display a variety of phases, including the spin-flop (or, in the quantum case, spin-liquid and biconical (corresponding, in the quantum lattice gas description, to supersolid phases. Applying ground-state considerations, Monte Carlo and density matrix renormalization group methods, the impact of quantum effects and lattice dimension is analysed. Interesting critical and multicritical behaviour may occur at quantum and thermal phase transitions.

  14. On the Galilean covariance of classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single interacting particle is described. In this scheme constitutive relations defining forces are rejected and acting forces are determined by some fundamental differential equations. It is shown that total energy of the interacting particle transforms under Galilean transformations differently from the kinetic energy. The statement is illustrated on the exactly solvable examples of the harmonic oscillator and the case of constant forces and also, in the suitable version of the perturbation theory, for the anharmonic oscillator. (author)

  15. Classical Dynamics of Free Electromagnetic Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, S; Walton, T J

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a class of exact finite energy solutions to the vacuum source-free Maxwell field equations as models for multi- and single cycle laser pulses in classical interaction with relativistic charged test particles. These solutions are classified in terms of their chiral content based on their influence on particular charge configurations in space. Such solutions offer a computationally efficient parameterization of compact laser pulses used in laser-matter simulations and provide a potential means for experimentally bounding the fundamental length scale in the generalized electrodynamics of Bopp, Lande and Podolsky.

  16. Anderson localization from classical trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We show that Anderson localization in quasi-one dimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively descri...

  17. Gaussian Dynamics is Classical Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Salman

    2004-01-01

    A direct comparison of quantum and classical dynamical systems can be accomplished through the use of distribution functions. This is useful for both fundamental investigations such as the nature of the quantum-classical transition as well as for applications such as quantum feedback control. By affording a clear separation between kinematical and dynamical quantum effects, the Wigner distribution is particularly valuable in this regard. Here we discuss some consequences of the fact that when...

  18. Quantum systems as classical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cassa, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    A characteristical property of a classical physical theory is that the observables are real functions taking an exact outcome on every (pure) state; in a quantum theory, at the contrary, a given observable on a given state can take several values with only a predictable probability. However, even in the classical case, when an observer is intrinsically unable to distinguish between some distinct states he can convince himself that the measure of its ''observables'' can have several values in ...

  19. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  20. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  1. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  2. Acetaminophen injection: a review of clinical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia M

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen injection is an antipyretic and analgesic agent recently marketed in the United States as Ofirmev. Five published trials directly compare acetaminophen injection to drugs available in the United States. For management of pain in adults, acetaminophen injection was at least as effective as morphine injection in renal colic, oral ibuprofen after cesarean delivery, and oral acetaminophen after coronary artery bypass surgery. In children (3 to 16 years old), single-dose acetaminophen injection was similar to meperidine intramuscular (i.m.) for pain after tonsillectomy; readiness for discharge from the recovery room was shorter with acetaminophen injection (median 15 minutes) compared with meperidine i.m. (median 25 minutes), P = .005. In children (2 to 5 years old) postoperative adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, the time to rescue analgesia was superior with high-dose acetaminophen rectal suppository (median 10 hours) compared with acetaminophen injection (median 7 hours), P = .01. One published trial demonstrated acetaminophen injection is noninferior to propacetamol injection for fever related to infection in pediatric patients. Dosing adjustments are not required when switching between oral and injectable acetaminophen formulations in adult and adolescent patients. Acetaminophen injection represents another agent for multimodal pain management. PMID:21936636

  3. Testing Distributed ABS System with Fault Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawczyński, Dawid; Sosnowski, Janusz; Gawkowski, Piotr

    The paper deals with the problem of adapting software implemented fault injection technique (SWIFI) to evaluate dependability of reactive microcontroller systems. We present an original methodology of disturbing controller operation and analyzing fault effects taking into account reactions of the controlled object and the impact of the system environment. Faults can be injected randomly (in space and time) or targeted at the most sensitive elements of the controller to check it at high stresses. This approach allows identifying rarely encountered problems, usually missed in classical approaches. The developed methodology has been used successfully to verify dependability of ABS system. Experimental results are commented in the paper.

  4. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  5. No Return to Classical Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Jennings, David

    2015-01-01

    At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of Nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurement-uncertainty, measurement-disturbance, complementarity, noncommutativity, interference, the no-cloning theorem, and the collapse of the wave-packet) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understandi...

  6. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  7. Classical isodual theory of antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    1997-01-01

    An inspection of the contemporary physics literature reveals that, while matter is treated at all levels of study, from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory, antimatter is solely treated at the level of second quantization. For the purpose of initiating the restoration of full equivalence in the treatments of matter and antimatter in due time, in this paper we present a classical representation of antimatter which begins at the primitive Newtonian level with expected images at all subsequent levels. By recalling that charge conjugation of particles into antiparticles is anti-automorphic, the proposed theory of antimatter is based on a new map, called isoduality, which is also anti-automorphic, yet it is applicable beginning at the classical level and then persists at the quantum level. As part of our study, we present novel anti-isomorphic isodual images of the Galilean, special and general relativities and show the compatibility of their representation of antimatter with all available classical experi...

  8. Casimir Effect The Classical Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Feinberg, J; Revzen, M

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the high temperature limit of the Casimir effect. A simple physical argument suggests that the Casimir energy (as opposed to the Casimir free energy) should vanish in the classical limit. We check the validity of this argument for massless scalar field confined in a cavity with boundaries of arbitrary shape, using path integral formalism. We are able to verify this suggestion only when the boundaries consist of disjoint pieces. Moreover, we find in these cases that the contribution to the Casimir entropy by field modes that depend on that separation, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the cavity. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary in the classical limit is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the arbitrary geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations i...

  9. Population in the classic economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In addition to population made it established. The aim of this study is analyzing the mental relationship between Malthus whose name has been identified with relation between population-growth and Smith who discussed this subject first time but put it off on process of theorisation.

  10. Improving Zero-Error Classical Communication with Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, Toby S.; Leung, Debbie; Matthews, William; Winter, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Given one or more uses of a classical channel, only a certain number of messages can be transmitted with zero probability of error. The study of this number and its asymptotic behavior constitutes the field of classical zero-error information theory. We show that, given a single use of certain classical channels, entangled states of a system shared by the sender and receiver can be used to increase the number of (classical) messages which can be sent without error. In particular, we show how to construct such a channel based on any proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem. We investigate the connection to pseudotelepathy games. The use of generalized nonsignaling correlations to assist in this task is also considered. In this case, an elegant theory results and, remarkably, it is sometimes possible to transmit information with zero error using a channel with no unassisted zero-error capacity.

  11. Comparing classical and quantum equilibration

    CERN Document Server

    Malabarba, Artur S L; Short, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    By using a physically-relevant and theory independent definition of measurement-based equilibration, we show quantitatively that equilibration is easier for quantum systems than for classical systems, in the situation where the initial state of the system is completely known (pure state). This shows that quantum equilibration is a fundamental, nigh unavoidable, aspect of physical systems, while classical equilibration relies on experimental ignorance. When the state is not completely known, a mixed state, this framework also shows quantum equilibration requires weaker conditions.

  12. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important for...... generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate the...

  13. Classical analogy of Fano resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analogy of Fano resonances in quantum interference to classical resonances in the harmonic oscillator system. It has a manifestation as a coupled behaviour of two effective oscillators associated with propagating and evanescent waves. We illustrate this point by considering a classical system of two coupled oscillators and interfering electron waves in a quasi-one-dimensional narrow constriction with a quantum dot. Our approach provides a novel insight into Fano resonance physics and provides a helpful view in teaching Fano resonances

  14. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  15. Study of the Transition from Non-Injection to Injection in Heroin Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yarmohammadi Vasel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: The goal of our study was to elucidate the time and factors influencing the transition from non-injection to injection among male heroin users.Materials & Methods: In this retrospective cohort study conducted in Iran from April to August 2007, the data was obtained from the subjects who had never injected heroin at study entry. The total population included 7743 (402 women and 7341 men substance dependents in Iran. In this study we enrolled 1641 non-injecting male heroin users. The data was collected through Inventory Rapid Situation Assessment (RSA.Results: The results revealed that among the 1641 never injectors, 591 had initiated injection (The incidence of initiation into injection was 36% after 6.5 years. Independent predictors of transition into injection among non-injecting heroin users were being single, unemployment, attending injecting friends’ gatherings , age at first heroin use(early adolescent drug use. Conclusion: The study suggests that several factors increase the risk of injecting drugs among heroin users. Interventions to prevent injecting should identify risk factors associated with the transition from heroin sniffing to heroin injection.

  16. The RHIC injection kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t·m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a open-quotes Cclose quotes cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ω characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding ∼ 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ω terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the open-quotes Sextant Testclose quotes are reported

  17. Breakdown of the classical description of a local system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Nielsen, Bo Melholt; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Polzik, Eugene Simon; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    We provide a straightforward demonstration of a fundamental difference between classical and quantum mechanics for a single local system: namely, the absence of a joint probability distribution of the position x and momentum p. Elaborating on a recently reported criterion by Bednorz and Belzig...... breakdown of a classical description of the underlying state. Most importantly, the criterion used does not rely on quantum mechanics and can thus be used to demonstrate nonclassicality of systems not immediately apparent to exhibit quantum behavior. The criterion is directly applicable to any system...... [ Phys. Rev. A 83 052113 (2011)] we derive a simple criterion that must be fulfilled for any joint probability distribution in classical physics. We demonstrate the violation of this criterion using the homodyne measurement of a single photon state, thus proving a straightforward signature of the...

  18. CLASSIC APPROACH TO BUSINESS COACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present business coaching in a classical way. An overview of coaching definitions will be provided. Attention will be drawn to coaching components and varieties. Moreover, a brief description of coach competences and tools supporting their work will be offered. Joanna Żukowska

  19. Identity from classical invariant theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple derivation is given of a well-known relation involving the so-called Cayley Operator of classical invariant theory. The proof is induction-free and independent of Capelli's identity; it makes use only of a known-theorem in the theory of determinants and some elementary combinatorics

  20. On classical and quantum liftings

    OpenAIRE

    Accardi, L.; Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej; Matsuoka, T.; Ohya, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the procedure of lifting in classical stochastic and quantum systems. It enables one to `lift' a state of a system into a state of `system+reservoir'. This procedure is important both in quantum information theory and the theory of open systems. We illustrate the general theory of liftings by a particular class related to so called circulant states.

  1. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chaiho

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  2. Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…

  3. Classical Music as Enforced Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…

  4. Invariants in Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Izquierdo, Alberto; González León, Miguel Ángel; Mateos Guilarte, Juan

    2000-01-01

    [EN] The bosonic second invariant of SuperLiouville models in supersymmetric classical mechanics is described. [ES] El segundo campo cuántico de bosones invariante del modelo SuperLiouville es descrito en la mecanica clasica supersimétrica.

  5. Quantum Proofs for Classical Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, A.; Wolf,

    2009-01-01

    Alongside the development of quantum algorithms and quantum complexity theory in recent years, quantum techniques have also proved instrumental in obtaining results in classical (non-quantum) areas. In this paper we survey these results and the quantum toolbox they use.

  6. Functional Techniques in Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gozzi, E

    2001-01-01

    In 1931 Koopman and von Neumann extended previous work of Liouville and provided an operatorial version of Classical Mechanics (CM). In this talk we will review a path-integral formulation of this operatorial version of CM. In particular we will study the geometrical nature of the many auxiliary variables present and of the unexpected universal symmetries generated by the functional technique.

  7. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  8. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  9. On Classical and Quantum Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Volovich; Volovich, Ya. I.

    2001-01-01

    Lectures on classical and quantum cryptography. Contents: Private key cryptosystems. Elements of number theory. Public key cryptography and RSA cryptosystem. Shannon`s entropy and mutual information. Entropic uncertainty relations. The no cloning theorem. The BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. Security proofs. Bell`s theorem. The EPRBE quantum cryptographic protocol.

  10. Classical theory of atomic collisions - The first hundred years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujić, Petar V.

    2012-05-01

    Classical calculations of the atomic processes started in 1911 with famous Rutherford's evaluation of the differential cross section for α particles scattered on foil atoms [1]. The success of these calculations was soon overshadowed by the rise of Quantum Mechanics in 1925 and its triumphal success in describing processes at the atomic and subatomic levels. It was generally recognized that the classical approach should be inadequate and it was neglected until 1953, when the famous paper by Gregory Wannier appeared, in which the threshold law for the single ionization cross section behaviour by electron impact was derived. All later calculations and experimental studies confirmed the law derived by purely classical theory. The next step was taken by Ian Percival and collaborators in 60s, who developed a general classical three-body computer code, which was used by many researchers in evaluating various atomic processes like ionization, excitation, detachment, dissociation, etc. Another approach was pursued by Michal Gryzinski from Warsaw, who started a far reaching programme for treating atomic particles and processes as purely classical objects [2]. Though often criticized for overestimating the domain of the classical theory, results of his group were able to match many experimental data. Belgrade group was pursuing the classical approach using both analytical and numerical calculations, studying a number of atomic collisions, in particular near-threshold processes. Riga group, lead by Modris Gailitis [3], contributed considerably to the field, as it was done by Valentin Ostrovsky and coworkers from Sanct Petersbourg, who developed powerful analytical methods within purely classical mechanics [4]. We shall make an overview of these approaches and show some of the remarkable results, which were subsequently confirmed by semiclassical and quantum mechanical calculations, as well as by the experimental evidence. Finally we discuss the theoretical and

  11. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck ... is injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of ...

  12. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (rim a bott' you lye num bee)RimabotulinumtoxinB injection may spread from the area of injection and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  14. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience a reaction during the first few days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection. Symptoms ... symptoms may begin during the first 3 days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection and ...

  15. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  16. Beam injection into RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam

  17. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND EMERGENCE PARAMETER OF CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Bose-Einstein and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution can be described by a single equation, which follows from Einstein's equations for systems with central symmetry. Emergence parameter of classical and quantum systems composed by the rays of gravitational waves interacting with gravitational field of the universe has been computed

  18. Separating the classical and quantum information via quantum cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, M.; Sciarrino, F.; Cerf, N. J.; R. Filip; Fiurasek, J.; De Martini, F.

    2005-01-01

    An application of quantum cloning to optimally interface a quantum system with a classical observer is presented, in particular we describe a procedure to perform a minimal disturbance measurement on a single qubit by adopting a 1->2 cloning machine followed by a generalized measurement on a single clone and the anti-clone or on the two clones. Such scheme has been applied to enhance the transmission fidelity over a lossy quantum channel.

  19. Cataracts in patients injected with 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataracts were reported as of June 1984, by 6% (12/218) of patients injected with 224Ra as juveniles and by 5% (32/681) injected as adults. The high incidence among those injected as juveniles is unusual and their subsequent ages, when reporting the cataracts, averaged only 34 years (range 14-46 years). In the juveniles of known dosage receiving more than 28 μCi 224Ra/kg, the cataract incidence was 14% (11/80) compared to only 0.8% (1/131) below 28 μ Ci 224Ra/kg. The cataract incidence increased significantly with dosage in the juveniles and in the adults. The appearance of these cataracts, as viewed by slitlamp biomicroscopy or in histological sections, is described. The appearance did not differ from classical radiation cataract in principle. (orig.)

  20. Electrical stimulation of non-classical photon emission from diamond color centers by means of sub-superficial graphitic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Jacopo; Traina, Paolo; Monticone, Daniele Gatto; Amato, Giampiero; Boarino, Luca; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Enrico, Emanuele; Moreva, Ekaterina; Grilj, Veljko; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko; Genovese, Marco; Olivero, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Focused MeV ion beams with micrometric resolution are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as already demonstrated for different device applications. In this work we apply this fabrication method to the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond, demonstrating the potential of electrical stimulation in diamond-based single-photon sources. Differently from optically-stimulated light emission from color centers in diamond, electroluminescence (EL) requires a high current flowing in the diamond subgap states between the electrodes. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrode pairs, 10 μm spaced, were fabricated in the bulk of a single-crystal diamond sample using a 6 MeV C microbeam. The electrical characterization of the structure showed a significant current injection above an effective voltage threshold of 150 V, which enabled the stimulation of a stable EL emission. The EL imaging allowed to identify the electroluminescent regions and the residual vacancy distribution associated with the fabrication technique. Measurements evidenced isolated electroluminescent spots where non-classical light emission in the 560-700 nm spectral range was observed. The spectral and auto-correlation features of the EL emission were investigated to qualify the non-classical properties of the color centers.

  1. A Logic of Injectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Adamek, J; Souza, L

    2007-01-01

    Injectivity of objects with respect to a set $\\ch$ of morphisms is an important concept of algebra, model theory and homotopy theory. Here we study the logic of injectivity consequences of $\\ch$, by which we understand morphisms $h$ such that injectivity with respect to $\\ch$ implies injectivity with respect to $h$. We formulate three simple deduction rules for the injectivity logic and for its finitary version where \\mor s between finitely ranked objects are considered only, and prove that they are sound in all categories, and complete in all "reasonable" categories.

  2. Ischemia may be the primary cause of the neurologic deficits in classic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyhøj Olsen, T; Friberg, L; Lassen, N A

    1987-01-01

    This study investigates whether the cerebral blood flow reduction occurring in attacks of classic migraine is sufficient to cause neurologic deficits. Regional cerebral blood flow measured with the xenon 133 intracarotid injection technique was analyzed in 11 patients in whom a low-flow area...... ischemia and neurologic deficits. Hence, this study suggests a vascular origin of the prodromal neurologic deficits that may accompany attacks of classic migraine....

  3. Teaching Classical Mechanics using Smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    Chevrier, Joel; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Using a personal computer and a smartphone, iMecaProf is a software that provides a complete teaching environment for practicals associated to a Classical Mechanics course. iMecaProf proposes a visual, real time and interactive representation of data transmitted by a smartphone using the formalism of Classical Mechanics. Using smartphones is more than using a set of sensors. iMecaProf shows students that important concepts of physics they here learn, are necessary to control daily life smartphone operations. This is practical introduction to mechanical microsensors that are nowadays a key technology in advanced trajectory control. First version of iMecaProf can be freely downloaded. It will be tested this academic year in Universit\\'e Joseph Fourier (Grenoble, France)

  4. Classical databases and knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    ) in the design and use of classical databases. An underlying issue is the kind of retrieval system for which one should aim. Warner’s (2010) differentiation between the computer science traditions and an older library-oriented tradition seems important; the former aim to transform queries......This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...... examines this claim and argues for the continued value of Boolean systems, which suggests two further considerations: (1) the important role of human expertise in searching (expert searchers and “information literate” users) and (2) the role of library and information science and knowledge organization (KO...

  5. Classical Concepts in Quantum Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Oemer, B

    2002-01-01

    The rapid progress of computer technology has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of software development, from hardwired components and binary machine code to high level programming languages, which allowed to master the increasing hardware complexity and fully exploit its potential. This paper investigates, how classical concepts like hardware abstraction, hierarchical programs, data types, memory management, flow of control and structured programming can be used in quantum computing. The experimental language QCL will be introduced as an example, how elements like irreversible functions, local variables and conditional branching, which have no direct quantum counterparts, can be implemented, and how non-classical features like the reversibility of unitary transformation or the non-observability of quantum states can be accounted for within the framework of a procedural programming language.

  6. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  7. Classical Probability and Quantum Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Malley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a contact problem between classical probability and quantum outcomes. Thus, a standard result from classical probability on the existence of joint distributions ultimately implies that all quantum observables must commute. An essential task here is a closer identification of this conflict based on deriving commutativity from the weakest possible assumptions, and showing that stronger assumptions in some of the existing no-go proofs are unnecessary. An example of an unnecessary assumption in such proofs is an entangled system involving nonlocal observables. Another example involves the Kochen-Specker hidden variable model, features of which are also not needed to derive commutativity. A diagram is provided by which user-selected projectors can be easily assembled into many new, graphical no-go proofs.

  8. From classical to quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stehle, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Suitable for lay readers as well as students, this absorbing survey explores the twentieth-century transition from classical to quantum physics. Author Philip Stehle traces the shift in the scientific worldview from the work of Galileo, Newton, and Darwin to the modern-day achievements of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, and others of their generation. His insightful overview examines not only the history of quantum physics but also the ways that progress in the discipline changed our understanding of the physical world and forces of nature. This chronicle of the second revolution in the physical sciences conveys the excitement and suspense that new developments produced in the scientific community. The narrative ranges from the classical physics of the seventeenth-century to the emergence of quantum mechanics with the entrance of the electron, the rise of relativity theory, the development of atomic theory, and the recognition of wave-particle duality. Relevant mathematical details...

  9. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper......The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...

  10. Classical Models of Subatomic Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R. B.; Morris, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    We look at the program of modelling a subatomic particle---one having mass, charge, and angular momentum---as an interior solution joined to a classical general-relativistic Kerr-Newman exterior spacetime. We find that the assumption of stationarity upon which the validity of the Kerr-Newman exterior solution depends is in fact violated quantum mechanically for all known subatomic particles. We conclude that the appropriate stationary spacetime matched to any known subatomic particle is flat ...

  11. Classical models of subatomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We look at the program of modelling a subatomic particle - one having mass, charge, and angular momentum - as an interior solution joined to a classical general-relativistic Kerr-Newman exterior spacetime. We find that the assumption of stationarity upon which the validity of the Kerr-Newman exterior solution depends is in fact violated quantum mechanically for all known subatomic particles. We conclude that the appropriate stationary spacetime matched to any known subatomic particle is flat space. (orig.)

  12. Semi-classical signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Sorine, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method called SCSA, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in the SCSA is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schr\\"odinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms.

  13. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas; Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate classic ballet practice and its influence on postural patterns and (a) identify the most frequent postural changes; (b) determine the postural pattern; (c) verify the existence of association of practice time and postural changes. The investigation was carried out in two stages: one, description in which 106 dancers participated; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a) questionnaire; (b) a checkerboard; (c) postural chart; ...

  14. Classical Concepts in Quantum Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Oemer, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    The rapid progress of computer technology has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of software development, from hardwired components and binary machine code to high level programming languages, which allowed to master the increasing hardware complexity and fully exploit its potential. This paper investigates, how classical concepts like hardware abstraction, hierarchical programs, data types, memory management, flow of control and structured programming can be used in quantum comput...

  15. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-09-30

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  16. Gauge Invariance in Classical Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, W

    2005-01-01

    The concept of gauge invariance in classical electrodynamics assumes tacitly that Maxwell's equations have unique solutions. By calculating the electromagnetic field of a moving particle both in Lorenz and in Coulomb gauge and directly from the field equations we obtain, however, contradicting solutions. We conclude that the tacit assumption of uniqueness is not justified. The reason for this failure is traced back to the inhomogeneous wave equations which connect the propagating fields and their sources at the same time.

  17. To Foundations of Classical Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bessonov, E. G.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work foundations of the law of the energy conservation and the introduction of particles in the classical electrodynamics are discussed. We pay attention to a logic error which takes place at an interpretation of the Poynting's theorem as the law of conservation of energy. It was shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum of the system of electromagnetic fields and charged particles does not follow from the equations of electrodynamics and the violation of these...

  18. Applications of classical detonation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.C.

    1994-09-01

    Classical detonation theory is the basis for almost all calculations of explosive systems. One common type of calculation is of the detailed behavior of inert parts driven by explosive, predicting pressures, velocities, positions, densities, energies, etc as functions of time. Another common application of the theory is predicting the detonation state and expansion isentrope of a new explosive or mixtures, perhaps an explosive that has not yet been made. Both types of calculations are discussed.

  19. Rindler particles and classical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the quantum and classical radiation emitted by a uniformly accelerating point source in terms of the elementary processes of absorption and emission of Rindler scalar photons of the Fulling-Davies-Unruh bath observed by a co-accelerating observer. To this end we compute the rate at which a DeWitt detector emits a Minkowski scalar particle with defined transverse momentum per unit of proper time of the source and we show that it corresponds to the induced absorption or spontaneous and induced emission of Rindler particles from the thermal bath. We then take what could be called the inert limit of the DeWitt detector by considering the limit of no energy gap. As suggested by DeWitt, we identify, in this limit, the detector with a classical point source and verify the consistency of our computation with the classical result. Finally, we study the behaviour of the emission rate in D spacetime dimensions in connection with the so-called apparent statistics inversion

  20. Rindler Photons and Classical Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, D E

    2001-01-01

    We describe the quantum and classical radiation by a uniformly accelerating point source in terms of the elementary processes of absorption and emission of Rindler scalar photons of the Fulling-Davies-Unruh bath observed by a co-accelerating observer.To this end we compute the emission rate by a DeWitt detector of a Minkowski scalar field particle with defined transverse momentum per unit of proper time of the source and we show that it corresponds to the induced absorption or spontaneous and induced emission of Rindler photons from the thermal bath. We then take what could be called the inert limit of the DeWitt detector by considering the limit of zero gap energy. As suggested by DeWitt, we identify in this limit the detector with a classical point source and verify the consistency of our computation with the classical result. Finally, we study the behavior of the emission rate in D space-time dimensions in connection with the so called apparent statistics inversion.

  1. Quantum systems as classical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cassa, A

    2001-01-01

    A characteristical property of a classical physical theory is that the observables are real functions taking an exact outcome on every (pure) state; in a quantum theory, at the contrary, a given observable on a given state can take several values with only a predictable probability. However, even in the classical case, when an observer is intrinsically unable to distinguish between some distinct states he can convince himself that the measure of its ''observables'' can have several values in a random way with a statistical character. What kind of statistical theory is obtainable in this way? It is possible, for example, to obtain exactly the statistical previsions of quantum mechanics? Or, in other words, can a physical system showing a classical behaviour appear to be a quantum system to a confusing observer? We show that from a mathematical viewpoint it is not difficult to produce a theory with hidden variables having this property. We don't even try to justify in physical terms the artificial construction ...

  2. A New Perspective on Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal-gas barometric and pressure laws are derived from the Democritian concept of independent corpuscles moving in vacuum, plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian. A single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath in a cylinder and submitted to a constant force (weight is considered. The paper importantly supplements a previously published paper: First, the stability of ideal gases is established. Second, we show that when walls separate the cylinder into parts and are later removed, the entropy is unaffected. We obtain full agreement with Landsberg’s and others’ (1994 classical thermodynamic result for the entropy of a column of gas submitted to gravity.

  3. Monogamy properties of quantum and classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast with entanglement, as measured by concurrence, in general, quantum discord does not possess the property of monogamy; that is, there is no tradeoff between the quantum discord shared by a pair of subsystems and the quantum discord that both of them can share with a third party. Here, we show that, as far as monogamy is considered, quantum discord of pure states is equivalent to the entanglement of formation. This result allows one to analytically prove that none of the pure three-qubit states belonging to the subclass of W states is monogamous. A suitable physical interpretation of the meaning of the correlation information as a quantifier of monogamy for the total information is also given. Finally, we prove that, for rank 2 two-qubit states, discord and classical correlations are bounded from above by single-qubit von Neumann entropies.

  4. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  5. Tissue necrosis following intramuscular diclofenac injection

    OpenAIRE

    Baykan, Halit; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapı, Emin; Çelik, Feyzi

    2010-01-01

    Following intramuscular drug injections, livedoid dermatitis (also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or Nicolau Syndrome), characterized by pain, skin discoloration, and cutaneous necrosis, may rarely be observed. In the present study, we present a 32-year-old male patient who developed Nicolau Syndrome after intramuscular injection of single-dose diclofenac sodium 75 mg due to renal colic pain. The physical examination revealed skin discoloration in his left gluteal region, and a skin nec...

  6. Tissue necrosis following intramuscular diclofenac injection

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzi Çelik; Emin Kapı; Mehmet Bozkurt; Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Halit Baykan

    2010-01-01

    Following intramuscular drug injections, livedoid dermati-tis (also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or NicolauSyndrome), characterized by pain, skin discoloration,and cutaneous necrosis, may rarely be observed. In thepresent study, we present a 32-year-old male patient whodeveloped Nicolau Syndrome after intramuscular injec-tion of single-dose diclofenac sodium 75 mg due to renalcolic pain. The physical examination revealed skin discol-oration in his left gluteal region, and a skin necro...

  7. Statement on injectable contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Injectable hormonal contraception with 2 longacting steroidal preparations--norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)--provides an effective means of fertility regulation and has become an important method of family planning. DMPA and NET-EN have several advantages which make them particularly appropriate for some women and acceptable in family planning programs. A single injection can provide highly effective contraception for 2 or more months, delivery is simple, independent of coitus, and ensures periodic contact with medical or other trained health personnel. Currently, DMPA is registered as a therapeutic agent in nearly all countries and as a contraceptive agent in over 80 developed and developing countries. NET-EN is registered as a contraceptive in 40 countries. Administered by intramuscular injection in an aqueous microcrystalline suspension, DMPA exerts its contraceptive effect primarily by suppression of ovulation, but its effects on the endometrium, the uterine tubes, and the production of cervical mucus may also play a role in reducing fertility. DMPA as a contraceptive agent is generally given at a dosage of 150 mg every 90 days. NET-EN when administered as an intramuscular injection of an oil preparation at a dose of 200 mg inhibits ovulation. It should be administered at 8 weekly intervals for the 1st 6 months of use, then at intervals of 8 or 12 weeks. Longterm animal studies with DMPA have been completed mainly on beagle bitches and rhesus monkeys, and similar studies with NET-EN are nearing completion. None of the findings in beagles is considered applicable to human populations because the beagle responds differently than humans to steroidal hormones. None of the deaths among rhesus monkeys was attributable to effects of the drug. Endometrial carcinoma was found in 2 of the replacement monkeys but the number of animals was too small for statistically significant studies, and it is not possible to conclude

  8. Absolute relativity in classical electromagnetism: the quantisation of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. G.; Leary, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    A rigorous introduction of the underlying nature of space and time, through a sharpening of the principle of relativity, forces qualitatively new kinds of solutions in the classical theory of electromagnetism. A class of relativistic wave-functions are derived which are solutions to the first-order, free-space Maxwell equation, These describe all photons from radio to gamma waves and are governed by a single parameter: the exchange frequency. Though the theory remains that of classical, continuous electromagnetism, allowed travelling-wave solutions are quantised in that they come in "lumps" and their characteristic energy is proportional to frequency.

  9. The classical double copy for Taub-NUT spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, A; O'Connell, D; White, C D

    2015-01-01

    The double copy is a much-studied relationship between gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Recently, this was generalised to an infinite family of classical solutions to Einstein's equations, namely stationary Kerr-Schild geometries. In this paper, we extend this to the Taub-NUT solution in gravity, which has a double Kerr-Schild form. The single copy of this solution is a dyon, whose electric and magnetic charges are related to the mass and NUT charge in the gravity theory. Finally, we find hints that the classical double copy extends to curved background geometries.

  10. Unification of quantum and classical correlations and quantumness measures

    CERN Document Server

    Modi, Kavan

    2011-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to quantum discord. We the discuss the problem of separation of total correlations in a given quantum state into entanglement, dissonance, and classical correlations using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations. This allows us to put all correlations on an equal footing. Entanglement and dissonance, whose definition is introduced here, jointly belong to what is known as quantum discord. Our methods are completely applicable for multipartite systems of arbitrary dimensions. We finally show, using relative entropy, how different notions of quantum correlations are related to each other. This gives a single theory that incorporates all correlations, quantum, classical, etc.

  11. Every transformation is disjoint from almost every non-classical exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Chaika, Jon

    2011-01-01

    A natural generalization of interval exchange maps are linear involutions, first introduced by Danthony and Nogueira. Recurrent train tracks with a single switch which we call non-classical interval exchanges, form a subclass of linear involutions without flips. They are analogs of classical interval exchanges, and are first return maps for non-orientable measured foliations associated to quadratic differentials on Riemann surfaces. We show that every transformation is disjoint from almost every irreducible non-classical interval exchange.

  12. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  13. The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.

  14. Experiment on single well groundwater heat pump systems in different distances between pumping and injection screens%不同抽回间距的单井循环地下水源热泵系统试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 倪龙; 姚杨

    2014-01-01

    As the global energy crises and environmental problems become more and more serious, ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used green HVAC system, with an estimated 1.1 million ground source heat pumps installed worldwide. These systems have become an important energy-saving and environment protection technology for use in residential and commercial buildings in China. These applications included two types of systems: closed-loop (ground-coupled) and open-loop. As one kind of semi-closed-loop systems, single well groundwater heat pump (SWGWHP) systems have become increasingly popular for use because of their economic advantages from lower installation cost, lower operating cost, and improved overall performance in regions with suitable geological conditions. In general, SWGWHP systems included three different variations, i.e. standing column well (SCW) system, pumping & recharging well (PRW) system, and pumping&recharging well filled with gravel (PRWFG) system. Compared with SCW system, the well pipe in PRW system and PRWFG system are divided into three parts by clapboards, i.e. production zone, seals zone and injection zone. In recent decades, considerable research efforts have been spent on SWGWHP systems, especially on SCW system. However, little attention has been focused on the PRW system and PRWFG system. For GSHP systems, sand tank experiment is one of the important methods of laboratory investigation for discussing the performance of geothermal heat exchanger, due to many parameters can be set and adjusted more easily and economically than that in in-situ experiments. In order to provide a framework for discussing the influence on distances between pumping and injection screens (DPI) in SWGWHP systems, a sand tank experiment system was designed and set up in Harbin Institute of Technology, China. In this study, we tested the temperature of outlet and inlet water, the aquifer temperature, and flow rate of outlet water. From the

  15. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  16. Casimir effect: The classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the high temperature (or classical) limit of the Casimir effect. A useful quantity which arises naturally in our discussion is the 'relative Casimir energy', which we define for a configuration of disjoint conducting boundaries of arbitrary shapes, as the difference of Casimir energies between the given configuration and a configuration with the same boundaries infinitely far apart. Using path integration techniques, we show that the relative Casimir energy vanishes exponentially fast in temperature. This is consistent with a simple physical argument based on Kirchhoff's law. As a result the 'relative Casimir entropy', which we define in an obviously analogous manner, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the boundaries. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary, in the classical limit, is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations in temperature from the behavior just described. These logarithmic deviations seem to arise due to our difficulty to separate the Casimir energy (and the other thermodynamical quantities) from the 'electromagnetic' self-energy of each of the connected components of the boundary in a well defined manner. Our approach to the Casimir effect is not to impose sharp boundary conditions on the fluctuating field, but rather take into consideration its interaction with the plasma of 'charge carriers' in the boundary, with the plasma frequency playing the role of a physical UV cutoff. This also allows us to analyze deviations from a perfect conductor behavior

  17. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  18. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  19. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an...... injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  20. Advances In Classical Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalom, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Classical field theory is employed by physicists to describe a wide variety of physical phenomena. These include electromagnetism, fluid dynamics, gravitation and quantum mechanics. The central entity of field theory is the field which is usually a multi component function of space and time. Those multi component functions are usually grouped together as vector fields as in the case in electromagnetic theory and fluid dynamics, in other cases they are grouped as tensors as in theories of gravitation and yet in other cases they are grouped as complex functions as in the case of quantum mechanic

  1. Superadditivity of classical capacity revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilyavets, Oleg V.; Karpov, Evgueni A.; Schäfer, Joachim [QuIC, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP 165, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce new type of superadditivity for classical capacity of quantum channels, which involves the properties of channels’ environment. By imposing different restrictions on the total energy contained in channels’ environment we can consider different types of superadditivity. Using lossy bosonic and additive noise quantum channels as examples, we demonstrate that their capacities can be either additive or superadditive depending on the values of channels parameters. The parameters corresponding to transition between the additive and superadditive cases are related with recently found critical and supercritical parameters for Gaussian channels.

  2. Lectures on classical differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Struik, Dirk J

    1988-01-01

    Elementary, yet authoritative and scholarly, this book offers an excellent brief introduction to the classical theory of differential geometry. It is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students who will find it not only highly readable but replete with illustrations carefully selected to help stimulate the student's visual understanding of geometry. The text features an abundance of problems, most of which are simple enough for class use, and often convey an interesting geometrical fact. A selection of more difficult problems has been included to challenge the ambitious student.Writ

  3. Solar Activity and Classical Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This review of solar physics emphasizes several of the more conspicuous scientific puzzles posed by contemporary observational knowledge of the magnetic activity of the Sun. The puzzles emphasize how much classical physics we have yet to learn from the Sun. The physics of solar activity is based on the principles of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Boltzmann, et. al., along with the principles of radiative transfer. In the large, these principles are expressed by magnetohydrodynamics. A brief derivation of the magnetohydrodynamic induction and momentum equations is provided, with a discussion of popular misconceptions.

  4. The revision of classical stock model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Bai-qing; WANG Hong-li

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of classical stock model, according to th e limitation of the model, the article puts forward the revision of classical mo del and enforces the applicability of the stock model.

  5. Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)

  6. Classical Electron Theory and Conservation Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Kiessling, Michael K. -H.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the traditional conservation laws for total charge, energy, linear and angular momentum, hold jointly in classical electron theory if and only if classical electron spin is included as dynamical degree of freedom.

  7. The revision of classical stock model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶柏青; 王洪利

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of classical stock model, according to the limitation of the model, the article puts forward the revision of classical model and enforces the applicability of the stock model.

  8. Lagrangian formalism and retarded classical electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Xavier; Llosa, Josep; Molina, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    Unlike the 1/c2 approximation, where classical electrodynamics is described by the Darwin Lagrangian, here there is no Lagrangian to describe retarded (resp., advanced) classical electrodynamics up to 1/c3 for two-point charges with different masses.

  9. Technics of classical and digital photography comparsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kvapilová, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor work is aimed at basic principles of taking photos by classical and digital camera. Describes methods for achieving of required photos by digital way and also classical taking photos on cine-film. Compares the technology of classical and digital photography from the beginning, which is getting the camera and accessories. It also describes the construction and control of the camera. Processing of photo compares the quality of digital and classic photo.

  10. Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Classic Coffee Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...

  11. The new-classical contribution to macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    D. LAIDLER

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to assessing New-Classical ideas, and to asking what of lasting importance this school of macroeconomics has contributed since the early 1970s. It deals in turn with the relationship between New-Classical Economics and Monetarism, the relative explanatory power of these two bodies of doctrine over empirical evidence, and the claims of New-Classical Economics to embody a superior analytic method. The author argues that, although the particular ways in which New-Classical M...

  12. Physiological characteristics of classical ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, P G; Astrand, P O

    1984-10-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during professional training sessions ("classes") of classical ballet as well as during rehearsed and performed ballets has been studied by means of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration determinations on professional ballet dancers from the Royal Swedish Ballet in Stockholm. The measured oxygen uptake during six different normal classes at the theatre averaged about 35-45% of the maximal oxygen uptake, and the blood lactate concentration averaged 3 mM (N = 6). During 10 different solo parts of choreographed dance (median length = 1.8 min) representative for moderately to very strenuous dance, an average oxygen uptake (measured during the last minute) of 80% of maximum and blood lactate concentration of 10 mM was measured (N = 10). In addition, heart rate registrations from soloists in different ballets during performance and final rehearsals frequently indicated a high oxygen uptake relative to maximum and an average blood lactate concentration of 11 mM (N = 5). Maximal oxygen uptake, determined in 1971 (N = 11) and 1983 (N = 13) in two different groups of dancers, amounted to on the average 51 and 56 ml X min-1 X kg-1 for the females and males, respectively. In conclusion, classical ballet is a predominantly intermittent type of exercise. In choreographed dance each exercise period usually lasts only a few minutes, but can be very demanding energetically, while during the dancers' basic training sessions, the energy yield is low. PMID:6513765

  13. Classical Black Holes Are Hot

    CERN Document Server

    Curiel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1970s it is was realized that there is a striking formal analogy between the Laws of black-hole mechanics and the Laws of classical thermodynamics. Before the discovery of Hawking radiation, however, it was generally thought that the analogy was only formal, and did not reflect a deep connection between gravitational and thermodynamical phenomena. It is still commonly held that the surface gravity of a stationary black hole can be construed as a true physical temperature and its area as a true entropy only when quantum effects are taken into account; in the context of classical general relativity alone, one cannot cogently construe them so. Does the use of quantum field theory in curved spacetime offer the only hope for taking the analogy seriously? I think the answer is `no'. To attempt to justify that answer, I shall begin by arguing that the standard argument to the contrary is not physically well founded, and in any event begs the question. Looking at the various ways that the ideas of "tempe...

  14. Entanglement-Enhanced Classical Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martí, David A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis will be focused on the classical capacity of quantum channels, one of the first areas treated by quantum information theorists. The problem is fairly solved since some years. Nevertheless, this work will give me a reason to introduce a consistent formalism of the quantum theory, as well as to review fundamental facts about quantum non-locality and how it can be used to enhance communication. Moreover, this reflects my dwelling in the spirit of classical information theory, and it is intended to be a starting point towards a thorough study of how quantum technologies can help to shape the future of telecommunications. Whenever it was possible, heuristic reasonings were introduced instead of rigorous mathematical proofs. This finds an explanation in that I am a self-taught neophyte in the field, and just about every time I came across a new concept, physical arguments were always more compelling to me than just maths. The technical content of the thesis is twofold. On one hand, a quadratic classific...

  15. Collection of problems in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kotkin, G L; ter Haar, D

    1971-01-01

    Collection of Problems in Classical Mechanics presents a set of problems and solutions in physics, particularly those involving mechanics. The coverage of the book includes 13 topics relevant to classical mechanics, such as integration of one-dimensional equations of motion; the Hamiltonian equations of motion; and adiabatic invariants. The book will be of great use to physics students studying classical mechanics.

  16. Classical approximations of relativistic quantum physics

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Glenn Eric

    2016-01-01

    A correspondence of classical to quantum physics studied by Schr\\"{o}\\-dinger and Ehrenfest applies without the necessity of technical conjecture that classical observables are associated with Hermitian Hilbert space operators. This correspondence provides appropriate nonrelativistic classical interpretations to realizations of relativistic quantum physics that are incompatible with the canonical formalism. Using this correspondence, Newtonian mechanics for a $1/r$ potential provides approxim...

  17. Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…

  18. Quantum electrodynamics in a classical approximation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum electrodynamics is formulated in a classical approximation. A quantum mechanical proper-time is employed as a useful parameter, which enables us to elucidate the relationship between quantum electrodynamics and classical electrodynamics. The classical motion of a charged particle is realized as an asymptotic limit of quantum electrodynamics. (author)

  19. Perceptions of injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on interviews with experts in the petroleum and natural gas exploration industry and results of a workshop insight is given into the attitudes, opinions and perceptions on the possibility to store wastes from the exploration activities in the deep underground, e.g. by means of injection. In a separate report a comparison is made on injection and other waste processing options

  20. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.; Andersen, Verner; Nielsen, Arne Nordskov; Sass, Bjarne Ove; Weisberg, Knud-Vilhelm

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocit...