WorldWideScience

Sample records for classical pet nuclides

  1. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical

  2. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  3. 89Zr, a Radiometal Nuclide with High Potential for Molecular Imaging with PET: Chemistry, Applications and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Schirrmacher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging—and especially Positron Emission Tomography (PET—is of increasing importance for the diagnosis of various diseases and thus is experiencing increasing dissemination. Consequently, there is a growing demand for appropriate PET tracers which allow for a specific accumulation in the target structure as well as its visualization and exhibit decay characteristics matching their in vivo pharmacokinetics. To meet this demand, the development of new targeting vectors as well as the use of uncommon radionuclides becomes increasingly important. Uncommon nuclides in this regard enable the utilization of various selectively accumulating bioactive molecules such as peptides, antibodies, their fragments, other proteins and artificial structures for PET imaging in personalized medicine. Among these radionuclides, 89Zr (t1/2 = 3.27 days and mean Eβ+ = 0.389 MeV has attracted increasing attention within the last years due to its favorably long half-life, which enables imaging at late time-points, being especially favorable in case of slowly-accumulating targeting vectors. This review outlines the recent developments in the field of 89Zr-labeled bioactive molecules, their potential and application in PET imaging and beyond, as well as remaining challenges.

  4. Workshop on the production, application and clinical translation of “non-standard” PET nuclides: a meeting report

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, J. S.; Welch, M J; Tang, L.

    2007-01-01

    A one-day satellite workshop was organized to coincide with the 17th International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences held in Aachen, Germany, April 30-May 4, 2007. The workshop, “Production and application of ‘non-standard’ PET nuclides”, was held on Sunday April 29, 2007 at the Eurogress Aachen and was organized by J. Lewis, PhD, L. Tang, and M. Welch, PhD. The workshop was designed for the radiopharmaceutical community discussing the production, use and dissemination of the “non-sta...

  5. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  6. Unconventional Nuclides for Radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason P.; Williamson, Matthew J.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and widespread growth in the use of nuclear medicine for both diagnosis and therapy of disease has been the driving force behind burgeoning research interests in the design of novel radiopharmaceuticals. Until recently, the majority of clinical and basic science research has focused on the development of 11C-, 13N-, 15O-, and 18F-radiopharmaceuticals for use with positron emission tomography (PET) and 99mTc-labeled agents for use with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). With the increased availability of small, low-energy cyclotrons and improvements in both cyclotron targetry and purification chemistries, the use of “nonstandard” radionuclides is becoming more prevalent. This brief review describes the physical characteristics of 60 radionuclides, including β+, β−, γ-ray, and α-particle emitters, which have the potential for use in the design and synthesis of the next generation of diagnostic and/or radiotherapeutic drugs. As the decay processes of many of the radionuclides described herein involve emission of high-energy γ-rays, relevant shielding and radiation safety issues are also considered. In particular, the properties and safety considerations associated with the increasingly prevalent PET nuclides 64Cu, 68Ga, 86Y, 89Zr, and 124I are discussed. PMID:20128994

  7. PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Rasmus Mølgaard; Schmidt, Regin; Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    PET handler om den hemmelige tjenestes arbejde under den kolde krig 1945-1989. Her fortæller Regin Schmidt, Rasmus Mariager og Morten Heiberg om de mest dramatiske og interessante sager fra PET's arkiv. PET er på flere måder en udemokratisk institution, der er sat til at vogte over demokratiet....... Dens virksomhed er skjult for offentligheden, den overvåger borgernes aktiviteter, og den registrerer følsomme personoplysninger. Historien om PET rejser spørgsmålet om, hvad man skal gøre, når befolkningen i et demokrati er kritisk indstillet over for overvågningen af lovlige politiske aktiviteter......, mens myndighederne mener, at det er nødvendigt for at beskytte demokratiet. PET er på en gang en fortælling om konkrete aktioner og begivenheder i PET's arbejde og et stykke Danmarkshistorie. Det handler om overvågning, spioner, politisk ekstremisme og international terrorisme.  ...

  8. WWW chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WWW chart of the nuclides was established on the basis of the latest evaluations of nuclear structure and decay data. By viewing WWW chart of the nuclides, one can retrieve the fundamental data of nuclide such as atomic mass, abundance, spin and parity; the decay mode, branching ratio, half-life and Q-value of radioactive nuclide, energy and intensity of strong γ-ray, etc. The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of WWW chart of the nuclides is: http://myhome.py.gd.cn/chart/index,asp

  9. PET radiopharmaceuticals for neuroreceptor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Routine clinical PET radiopharmaceuticals for the noninvasive imaging of brain receptors, transporters,and enzymes are commonly labeled with positron emitting nuclides such as carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Certain minimal conditions need to be fulfilled for these PET ligands to be used as imaging agents in vivo. Some of these prerequisites are discussed and examples of the most useful clinical PET radiopharmaceuticals that have found application in the central nervous system are reviewed.

  10. Cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After successful installation of the Dresden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (DREAMS) facility, determinations of the lighter radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca are now easily attainable in Germany. Accompanied by data for the heavier radionuclides (i.e. 53Mn and 60Fe) that can be measured at the 14 MV tandem at Munich and stable nuclides such as 21,22Ne and 38Ar from noble gas mass spectrometry at MPI Mainz, complete and unique exposure histories of extraterrestrial material can be reconstructed. For example, recent analyses of the 100th Martian meteorite Ksar Ghilane 002 and four samples from the nickel-rich ataxite Gebel Kamil show interesting features revealing amazing stories.

  11. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  12. Library correlation nuclide identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel nuclide identification algorithm, Library Correlation Nuclide Identification (LibCorNID), is proposed. In addition to the spectrum, LibCorNID requires the standard energy, peak shape and peak efficiency calibrations. Input parameters include tolerances for some expected variations in the calibrations, a minimum relative nuclide peak area threshold, and a correlation threshold. Initially, the measured peak spectrum is obtained as the residual after baseline estimation via peak erosion, removing the continuum. Library nuclides are filtered by examining the possible nuclide peak areas in terms of the measured peak spectrum and applying the specified relative area threshold. Remaining candidates are used to create a set of theoretical peak spectra based on the calibrations and library entries. These candidate spectra are then simultaneously fit to the measured peak spectrum while also optimizing the calibrations within the bounds of the specified tolerances. Each candidate with optimized area still exceeding the area threshold undergoes a correlation test. The normalized Pearson's correlation value is calculated as a comparison of the optimized nuclide peak spectrum to the measured peak spectrum with the other optimized peak spectra subtracted. Those candidates with correlation values that exceed the specified threshold are identified and their optimized activities are output. An evaluation of LibCorNID was conducted to verify identification performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. LibCorNID has been shown to perform well compared to standard peak-based analyses

  13. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  14. 2014 update of the discoveries of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2014 update of the discovery of nuclide project is presented. Only six new nuclides were observed for the first time in 2014 while the assignments of 17 other nuclides were revised. In addition, for another 14 nuclides the laboratories where they were discovered were reassigned. (author)

  15. Nuclide content in reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain corrosion and fission products of importance in reactor waste management cannot be measured by gammaspectrometric techniques. In this study, a method is suggested by which the occurence of such nuclides can be quantitatively related to suitable gamma-emitters of similar origin. The method is tested by statistical analysis on the waste data recorded from two Swedish nuclear power plants. As this method is not applicable for Carbon-14, this nuclide was measured directly in spent ion exchange resins from three Finnish and Swedish power plants. (author)

  16. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered

  17. Nuclides for radiotherapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the emergence of new, biological vehicles of great organ specificity (e.g. steroid hormones, antibodies) the concept of systemic tumor therapy with the aid of radiotherapeutica has gained new momentum. In order to assess the options open for optimal adaptation of the radiation properties to the pharmacocinetics of a vehicle, a search was done to identify potentially useful therapeutic radionuclides. Main criteria for selection were half life, low gamma-yield and stable daughter nuclide. The resulting possibilities fall into 4 categories: 1) alpha-emitters (At-211); 2) beta/sup -/-emitters that can be prepared in a carrierfree fashion (P-32, S-35, As-77, Y-90, Ag-111, Pm-149, Tb-161, Lu-177), 3) beta/sup -/-emitters with carrier added (Pd-109, Pr-142, Gd-159, Er-169, Tm-172, Yb-175, Re-188, Ir-194, Pt-197) and 4) electron capture nuclides, emitting Auger-cascades (Cr-51, Ga-67, Ge-71, Br-77, Ru-97, Sb-119, I-123, Cs-129, Nd-140, Er-165, Ta-177, Hg-197, Tl-201). Among the 4th group some well known, diagnostically used nuclides are found. Their therapeutic use necessitates the precise localisation in or very near the genetic material of the cell to be killed; only there the destructive power of the very short range Auger-electrons can be used. For each of the selected nuclides a summary of decay data, possibilities of preparation and chemical reactivity for labelling of vehicles is given. (author)

  18. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  19. Nuclides and isotopes. Twelfth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This explanatory booklet was designed to be used with the Chart of the Nuclides. It contains a brief history of the atomic theory of matter: ancient speculations, periodic properties of elements (Mendeleev table), radioactivity, early models of atomic structure, the Bohr atom, quantum numbers, nature of isotopes, artificial radioactivity, and neutron fission. Information on the pre-Fermi (natural) nuclear reactor at Oklo and the search for superheavy elements is given. The booklet also discusses information presented on the Chart and its coding: stable nuclides, metastable states, data display and color, isotopic abundances, neutron cross sections, spins and parities, fission yields, half-life variability, radioisotope power and production data, radioactive decay chains, and elements without names. The Periodic Table of the Elements is appended. 3 figures, 3 tables

  20. Alpha-nuclides in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of alpha-nuclides in nuclear power plants is subject of the investigations presented. The source of alpha-nuclides is a contamination with fissile material (so called tramp uranium or tramp fuel) which deposits on fuel rod surfaces and leads to the build-up of transuranium nuclides. The determination of a defect situation with fuel release as well as the quantification of the fissile material contamination background is given for BWR and PWR plants. The quantification of the fuel release and the tramp uranium background can be calculated with different, measurable nuclides in BWR and PWR plants. (orig.)

  1. Nuclide inventory for nuclear fuel waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assist research projects in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Prgram, a compilation has been made of all the nuclides that are likely to be present in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault and that are potentially hazardous to man during the post-closure phase. The compilation includes radiologically toxic and chemically toxic nuclides

  2. 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging in the neoadjuvant setting for stages II-III breast cancer: association of loco‑regional SUVmax with classical prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical prognostic and predictive factors serve to predict outcome and response to neoadjuvant treatment in stage II and III breast cancer. The purpose is to determine the relation between the SUVmax of the locoregional disease with these classical prognostic factors. A prospective study including 43 stage II and III breast cancer patients was performed. In all the patients, two 18F-FDG PET-CT studies were performed before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After this treatment, surgery and adjuvant treatment were carried out. To combine the information of the locoregional disease, the SUVmax of the lesion (tumor or abnormal lymphnodes) with the highest uptake was used. SUVmax and prognostic factors were studied with the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test and with the Mann-Whitney U. A statistically significant association between elevated SUVmax value and absence of estrogen receptors (ER) expression (16 vs.. 10; P<0.019) was found. Locorregional disease with positive HER2 phenotype had a statistically significant SUVmax value greater than Luminal A (estrogen and/or progesterone positive receptors with Ki67<15%) and B (estrogen and/or progesterone positive receptors with Ki67≥to 15%) (13.4 vs. 7.9 and 8.9; P<0.022 and P<0.024, respectively). Triple negative phenotype disease had higher SUVmax than Luminal A and B (15.4; P<0.030 and P<0.038). Positive correlation between the percentage of the Ki67 Proliferation Index and SUVmax (P<0.007) was demonstrated. High grade disease had a higher SUVmax than low grade (P<0.004). Locorregional SUVmax is associated to prognostic and predictive factors and reaffirms the utility of PET-CT as a tool in the common clinical practice

  3. Radioactive nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several radioactive nuclides in the living environment, such as those existing since the creation of the earth, those coming from experimental nuclear explosions, and radiations of the cosmic rays. A lesson on these radioactive nuclides was considered useful for understanding the place of nuclear technology, and have been made on the title of 'Radioactive Nuclides in the Living Environment' in the general course of the Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. When the curriculum of the general course was modified in 1993, the lesson was left in a changed form. Thus, the textbook of the lesson is presented in this report. The contents are natural and artificial radioactive nuclides in the living environment and where they have come from etc. (author)

  4. Cosmogenic Nuclides Study of Large Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, A.; Smith, T.; Rochette, P.; Bourles, D. L.; Leya, I.; Gattacceca, J.

    2014-09-01

    Six large iron meteorites were selected (Saint-Aubin, Mont-Dieu, Caille, Morasko, Agoudal, and Gebel Kamil). We measured stable and radiogenic cosmogenic nuclides, to study pre-atmospheric size, cosmic-ray exposure ages and terrestrial ages.

  5. Alpha nuclides in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a joint research project of VGB and AREVA NP GmbH the behavior of alpha nuclides in nuclear power plants has been investigated since 2005. The main source of alpha nuclides is core contamination with fissile material (so called tramp uranium or tramp fuel) which deposits on fuel rod surfaces and leads to the build-up of transuranium nuclides. Such alpha-nuclides are of special interest for health physics due to their high biological effectiveness. Having very high dose factors they lead to high dose weighting in case of incorporation. At NPC 2008 first results of the joint research project were presented concerning tramp fuel and its impact to alpha nuclides. The present publication will cover the ongoing results of this research project. A special focus is taken to deduce recommendations which allow plant operation personal to recognize situations in advance which can lead to enhanced appearance of alpha nuclides. Depending on the fuel conditions in the core and the activity level of fission products of the reactor coolant a better prediction of the alpha situation at the following outage and maintenance can be deduced. (author)

  6. Existence of the fifth unstable nuclide series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家骅

    1996-01-01

    The production of derived nuclides by the reaction of 238U with constant nuclear reactor neutron flux for long time is theoretically described.The concentration of each derived nuclide is zero at the beginning.then increases gradually and approaches a saturated value at a certain irradiation time.The whole system(including the parent nuclide 238U and all its derived nuclides)will be in a state of equilibrium.Upon the reaction with neutron flux,the whole system decreases its concentration at the same rate as 238U.It constitutes actually a new type of unstable nuclide series which is in owrk only in the presence of reactor neutron flux.It has been found that the amount of materials consumed by neutron flux reaction is almost converted entrely to fission product.This peculiar property is quite different from the well known four radioactive series,so that it is named the fifth unstable nuclide series.

  7. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  8. The MacNuclide nuclear data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advance in technology have produced intriguing tools that can be applied to problems in nuclear science. Information management in nuclear science is an example of how technology is not quickly exploited. The U.S. Department of Energy supports an extensive program to evaluate published nuclear properties and store them in an electronic data base. Much of the evaluation effort has focused on producing the journal Nuclear Data Sheets and the publication Table of Isotopes. Although the electronic data base can itself be a valuable source of information, the software used to access is was designed using decades-old technologies. The authors of this paper have developed a novel data-base management system for nuclear properties. The application is known as MacNuclide. It is a nuclear data-base environment that uses the highly interactive and intuitive windowing environmentsof desk-top computers. The environment is designed around that image of the chart of nuclides. Questions are posed to the data base by placing constraints on properties and defining collections of nuclides to be used in data-base seraches. Results are displayed either as a simple list of nuclides that meet the imposed constraints or as a color chart of nuclides

  9. Nuclide migration analysis in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of PA studies considering heterogeneous fracture characteristics, for the purpose of contributing for the performance assessment of the natural barrier system PA in H12 report (The second progress report on research and development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan). In this study, 3-D discrete fracture network model (DFN) and 1-D multiple pathways model is applied for 100 m scale of rock block. Although nuclide release rate calculated by DFN are widely distributed among the realizations, it is shown that several tens realizations are enough number to understand the stochastic characteristics of the nuclide release. From the data uncertainty analysis, there are no significant effects for the nuclide retardation in fracture geometry parameters such as fracture radius, density and etc. 1-D multiple pathways model is developed with focusing on the heterogeneity of the transmissivity, which has a large effect to the nuclide retardation effects. The nuclide release rate calculated by using 1-D multiple pathways model approximates to the results of DFN. This result also shows that the relatively large fractures/faults that connects disposal tunnel and downstream faults have an important role for performance assessment in natural barrier system. (author)

  10. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1; Nuklidinventariet i SFR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered.

  11. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  12. Pet Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of safety to your life. Before getting a pet, think carefully about which animal is best for your family. What is each family member looking for in a pet? Who will take care of it? Does anyone ...

  13. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  14. Current status and future perspective of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) detecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had, 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3

  15. Pet Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pets can add fun, companionship and a feeling of safety to your life. Before getting a pet, think carefully about which animal is best for ... is each family member looking for in a pet? Who will take care of it? Does anyone ...

  16. Research methods for evaluation absorbing and accumulating nuclides of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviewed the recent studies on plants absorption and accumulation of nuclides and divided the studies to several aspects such as monitoring, mechanism restoration, and stressing based on their purpose. The paper also summarized the methods for selection and treatment of nuclides, plants preparation, nuclides test and evaluation. (authors)

  17. Synthesis and study of heavy neutron-rich nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent progresses made in the synthesis and studies of heavy neutron-rich nuclides are reviewed. The astrophysical implications of the decay properties and nuclear structure of the heavy neutron-rich nuclides are discussed. The production reactions, separation and identification of the nuclides are summarized. (author). 42 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper continues, with respect to the transplutonium nuclides, earlier efforts to collate and evaluate data from the scientific literature on the prompt neutron multiplicity distribution from fission and its first moment = ΣnuPnu. The isotopes considered here for which P/sub nu/ and or data (or both) were found in the literature are of americium (Am), curium (Cm), berkelium (Bk), californium (Cf), einsteinium (Es), fermium (Fm), and nobelium (No)

  19. Prompt neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reponse to a need of the safeguards community, we have begun an evaluation effort to upgrade the values of the prompt neutron emission multiplicity distribution from fission, Psub(upsilon), and its average value . The reported Psub(upsilon) for various transplutonium nuclides have been renormalized via an independent evaluation of . Recommended values and uncertainties are given for the newly evaluated and Psub(upsilon). (author)

  20. Synthesis of final disposal related nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy manages the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants (NPP). When the spent nuclear fuel is removed from the reactor it is stored in the cooling pools at the NPP units for approximately five years. After the first cooling period the spent nuclear fuel is transported to the interim storage (KPA) at the NPP's to cool down in water pools at least for 20-30 years. Generic radionuclide inventory calculations have been made for the spent nuclear fuel with a cooling period of 30 years. These calculations are the basis for Posiva's operational safety, safety case and decay heat power and criticality calculations. Validating the calculated radionuclide inventories with radiochemical analyses is advisable. The most important nuclides, both radioactive and stable, from the radiation and operational safety, long-term safety, decay heat power and criticality calculations point of view are listed. Also the nuclides possible to be assessed by Studsvik are listed. The conclusion is that the nuclides proposed by Studsvik in 2011 are recommended for radiochemical analyses of spent nuclear fuel. (orig.)

  1. Synthesis of final disposal related nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    Posiva Oy manages the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants (NPP). When the spent nuclear fuel is removed from the reactor it is stored in the cooling pools at the NPP units for approximately five years. After the first cooling period the spent nuclear fuel is transported to the interim storage (KPA) at the NPP's to cool down in water pools at least for 20-30 years. Generic radionuclide inventory calculations have been made for the spent nuclear fuel with a cooling period of 30 years. These calculations are the basis for Posiva's operational safety, safety case and decay heat power and criticality calculations. Validating the calculated radionuclide inventories with radiochemical analyses is advisable. The most important nuclides, both radioactive and stable, from the radiation and operational safety, long-term safety, decay heat power and criticality calculations point of view are listed. Also the nuclides possible to be assessed by Studsvik are listed. The conclusion is that the nuclides proposed by Studsvik in 2011 are recommended for radiochemical analyses of spent nuclear fuel. (orig.)

  2. Classical antiparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.

  3. FDG PET or PET/CT in Evaluation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chun-Yi; Chen, Hui-Yi; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Objective Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML. Materials and Methods The study reviews FDG PET and PET/CT images of 21 patients diagnosed with renal AML. The diagnosis is based on the classical appearance of an AML on CT scan with active surveillance for 6 months. The study is focused on the observation of clin...

  4. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging ... A PET scan requires a small amount of tracer. The tracer is given through a vein (IV), usually on ...

  5. Mass Evaluation for Proton Rich Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 730000 Lanzhou (China); CSNSM-IN2P3, Batiment 104,108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3, Batiment 104,108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Xu, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 730000 Lanzhou (China); CSNSM-IN2P3, Batiment 104,108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Pfeiffer, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kondev, F. G. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2011-11-30

    The Atomic mass evaluation (AME) provides the reliable resource for the values related to atomic masses. Since the publication of the latest version of AME in 2003, many developments for atomic mass determination have been done and important results changed significantly our knowledge. A preliminary version of AME was released in April 2011, and an official version is foreseen to be published in early 2013. The general status of AME is presented and some specific features of AME for proton-rich nuclides are discussed.

  6. Mass Evaluation for Proton Rich Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic mass evaluation (AME) provides the reliable resource for the values related to atomic masses. Since the publication of the latest version of AME in 2003, many developments for atomic mass determination have been done and important results changed significantly our knowledge. A preliminary version of AME was released in April 2011, and an official version is foreseen to be published in early 2013. The general status of AME is presented and some specific features of AME for proton-rich nuclides are discussed.

  7. Nuclide-specific monitoring of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of the seventies the Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg ist operating two radioaerosol monitoring stations at the border in the opposite of foreign nuclear power plants. Since the end of the eighties six similar monitoring stations were built up for measuring activity in breathing air in the common environment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A special filtersystem allows measuring the activity concentration of up to 99 nuclides. The measuring system was optimized by advanced PC-technology, a multitasking operating system and a special software for users and gamma-spectroscopy. These increased the average availability of all monitoring stations to 96% in 1996. (orig.)

  8. Prompt neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct determination of the average prompt neutron emission values is reviewed, and a method of comparing different sites of neutron emission multiplicity distribution values is described. Measured and recommended values are tabulated for these nuclides: 241Am, 242Am, 242Cm, 243Cm, 244Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm, 245Cm, 249Bk, 246Cf, 249Cf, 250Cf, 252Cf, 254Cf, 251Cf, 253Es, 254Es, 244Fm, 246Fm, 255Fm, 252No, 254Fm, 256Fm, 257Fm. 59 refs., 24 tabs

  9. Vertical migration of nuclides seeped from an uranium tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 31 year operation of an uranium tailings impoundment, sub-clayey samples beneath its bottom were taken for determining concentration distribution of U, Th and Ra seeped from the impoundment. For fitting nuclide migration, one dimensional convection-dispersion model of nuclide migration in groundwater was applied, and parameters were measured such as particle size of tailings, leaching factor of nuclides from tailings and distribution coefficients of nuclides in sub-clay. Results indicate that fine tailings are the main portion of tailings, and possess higher specific activities and lower leaching factor than coarse tailings. The sub-clay has a strong adsorption ability to nuclides, and distribution coefficients of U, Th and Ra are 62, 1.3 x 103 and 9.8 x 102 mL/g, respectively. The natural and man-made sub-clay layers beneath the impoundment can reduce effectively nuclides seepage and migration. (authors)

  10. NUCLEUS-CHART. Chart of the Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atomic Mass Data Center [Orsy (France)

    1998-05-05

    Nucleus is an interactive PC-based graphical viewer of NUBASE nuclear property data. NUBASE contains experimentally known nuclear properties, together with some values that have been estimated from extrapolation of experimental data for 3010 nuclides. NUBASE also contains data on those isomeric states that have half-lives greater than 1 millisecond; there are 669 such nuclides of which 58 have more than one isomeric state. The latest version of NUCLEUS-CHART has been corrected to include the names and the chemical symbols of the elements 104 to 109 that have been finally adopted by the Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (CNIC) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). They differ from those recommended by the same commission a few years before and that were widely used in the evaluations AME`95 and NUBASE`97. It results in some shuffling of the names and symbols, that may cause confusion in the near future. At AMDC we`ll be as careful as possible to try to avoid such confusion. In advance we apologize if any will occur in the future and recommend the user to always double check these few names.

  11. Deduction of interfering nuclides in radioactive measurement of 87Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of short-lived nuclide 87Kr is interfered by 85mKr and 125Xe when it is measured by internal gas proportional counting. It is difficult to separate interfering nuclides from the gas sample. In this work, a series of data were measured according to the characteristic that different nuclides have different half-life, the radioactivity of 87Kr is obtained by calculating coefficients of linear equations by the least square method. (authors)

  12. Classical integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  13. Diabetic Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health or management, contact your veterinarian. In addition, diabetic pets should be monitored for long-term complications such as cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur ...

  14. Senior Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Future AVMA Meeting Dates Meetings & CE Calendar Symposiums & Summits Pet Health Awareness Events About AVMA Who We ... and small dogs are generally considered “senior” at seven years of age. Larger breed dogs tend to ...

  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs

  16. Classical Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, A G; Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission coefficient.

  17. Classical Tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Arthur; Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission...

  18. Classical Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previous...

  19. Consideration with regard to feasible objective nuclide in next experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of investigation on the superheavy nuclei are analyzed. After 259Db synthesized, the next objective nuclide is determined to be 265Bh, a new isotope of Z=107 element, according to our existing available equipment and conditions. The test result of the MG rotating wheel collection and detection system is described. The α-decay spectra of mother-daughter of the product 252No from 24Mg + 232Th reaction are observed and measured successfully in this test experiment. It is regarded as a preliminary and probatory experiment for synthesis of 265Bh in next stage. The predicted decay properties for next objective nuclide are also given in this paper. And the projectile-target combination and reaction channel to produce this objective nuclide are selected. The production cross section for the objective nuclide is estimated roughly. The observable yields and the feasibility for producing this objective nuclide are calculated and discussed

  20. Model for large scale circulation of nuclides in nature, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1988-12-01

    A model for large scale circulation of nuclides was developed, and a computer code named COCAIN was made which simulates this circulation system-dynamically. The natural environment considered in the present paper consists of 2 atmospheres, 8 geospheres and 2 lithospheres. The biosphere is composed of 4 types of edible plants, 5 cattles and their products, 4 water biota and 16 human organs. The biosphere is assumed to be given nuclides from the natural environment mentioned above. With the use of COCAIN, two numerical case studies were carried out; the one is the study on nuclear pollution in nature by the radioactive nuclides originating from the past nuclear bomb tests, and the other is the study on the response of environment and biota to the pulse injection of nuclides into one compartment. From the former case study it was verified that this model can well explain the observation and properly simulate the large scale circulation of nuclides in nature.

  1. Model for large scale circulation of nuclides in nature, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for large scale circulation of nuclides was developed, and a computer code named COCAIN was made which simulates this circulation system-dynamically. The natural environment considered in the present paper consists of 2 atmospheres, 8 geospheres and 2 lithospheres. The biosphere is composed of 4 types of edible plants, 5 cattles and their products, 4 water biota and 16 human organs. The biosphere is assumed to be given nuclides from the natural environment mentioned above. With the use of COCAIN, two numerical case studies were carried out; the one is the study on nuclear pollution in nature by the radioactive nuclides originating from the past nuclear bomb tests, and the other is the study on the response of environment and biota to the pulse injection of nuclides into one compartment. From the former case study it was verified that this model can well explain the observation and properly simulate the large scale circulation of nuclides in nature. (author)

  2. Classical Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2003-01-01

    Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previously given rules support all of these cases. Key Words: brain states, conscious observer, detector, measurement, probability current, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.

  3. Enrichment of radioactive nuclides in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, precipitations in various parts of Europe carried radioactivity for a short period. This meant necessarily that the water received by sewage treatment plants was also polluted. Measurements in a sewage treatment plant having received sewage water which carried radioactivity showed the following: Active nuclides are removed from the sewage water and are to a high extent enriched in sewage sludge. On comparison of the values for the activity of sludges with the stages of the plant, an increase in specific activity (nCi/kg) is found in parallel to the increase in the share of dry substance. Centrifugation of sludges yields a supernatant of relatively low radioactivity, while the radioactive elements are enriched in the sediment. By far the highest activities are found in the ashes of burnt sludge (2860 nCi/kg) and in dewatered sludges. These results are confirmed by comparison measurements in six other plants. In the period between May 7th, 1986 and June 16th, 1986, activities in digester sludge were measured ranging from 395 to 58.6 nCi/l; in pressed sludge, 1717 to 290.4 nCi/l were measured. (orig./RB)

  4. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  5. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  6. Bremsstrahlung dose of therapeutic beta nuclides in bone and muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunatha, H. C.

    2013-01-01

    In the nuclear medicine, beta nuclides are released during the treatment. This beta interacts with bone and muscle and produces external Bremsstrahlung (EB) radiation. Present work formulated a new method to evaluate the EB spectrum and hence the Bremsstrahlung dose of therapeutic beta nuclides (Lu-177, Sr-90, Sm-153, I-153, Cs-137, Au-201, Dy-165, Mo-99, Sr-89, Fe-59, P-32, Ho-166, Sr-92, Re-188, Y-90, Pr-147, Co-60, K-42) in bone and muscle. The Bremsstrahlung yields of these beta nuclides ...

  7. Classical entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Danforth, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    Classical systems can be entangled. Entanglement is defined by coincidence correlations. Quantum entanglement experiments can be mimicked by a mechanical system with a single conserved variable and 77.8% conditional efficiency. Experiments are replicated for four particle entanglement swapping and GHZ entanglement.

  8. Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    This is the English version of a friendly graduate course on Classical Mechanics, containing about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. For the Spanish version, see physics/9906066

  9. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  10. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  11. Radioactivity Measurement of Short Life Nuclide 89Rb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The radioactivity of short life nuclide 89Rb produced by fast radiochemical separation was measured by the digital coincidence counting (DCC) system. In this experiment, there were a large quantity of impurities

  12. Catalogue of gamma rays from radionuclides ordered by nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalogue of about 28500 gamma-ray energies from 2338 radionuclides is presented. The nuclides are listed in order of increasing (A,Z) of the daughter nuclide. In addition the gamma-ray intensity per 100 decays of the parent (if known) and the decay half-life are given. All data are from a computer processing of a recent ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) file. (authors)

  13. [The fate of nuclides in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented

  14. Pet Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with pet allergy do better with a dog that has short hair or sheds less. Question 2 Pet allergies are triggered by the hair on a pet. True False False: Pet allergies are caused by an allergen found on the pet’s skin (dander), saliva or urine. Question 3 Symptoms of pet allergy ...

  15. The present scope of the field of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of natural radiocarbon produced by cosmic rays in the earth's atmosphere by Libby in the late forties was followed by the discovery of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide 3H in 1951. In the next few years several terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclides were detected. The cosmogenic nuclides found a variety of new applications during 1960-1970 in meteorology, hydrology, glaciology and oceanography. The three long-lived cosmogenic nuclides produced in the atmosphere with half-lives>100 yr, 32Si, 14C, 26Al and 10Be continued to provide invaluable data in the field of oceanography, using the methods developed in the sixties. However, in the late seventies the developement of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique made it possible to measure several long-lived radionuclides with 3-6 orders of magnitude higher sensitivity. This led to an explosion in the eighties in the scope of applications of cosmogenic nuclides in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. This article attempts to convey the sense of the present excitement of cosmogenic nuclides as tools in geosciences, while highlighting the modern development with perspectives of the forties and fifties when the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides 14C, 3H, 10Be and others were discovered. (author). 79 refs., 2 figs., 4 ta bs

  16. Breast PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast positron emission tomography; PET - breast; PET - tumor imaging - breast ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), usually ...

  17. Pet Care: MRSA FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AVMA Meeting Dates Meetings & CE Calendar Symposiums & Summits Pet Health Awareness Events About AVMA Who We Are ... 12 Educators You are here: Home | Public Resources | Pet Care Print Share This! Your Veterinarian Pet Care ...

  18. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海焰

    2007-01-01

    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  19. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of 10C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of 11C), 29P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of 30P) and 38mK (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of 38gK). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, 12N dominates over 15O during the first 8–15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of 12N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, 12N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of 12N PET imaging is discussed. (paper)

  20. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendooven, P.; Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Heeres, P. N.; Biegun, A. K.; Fiedler, F.; van Goethem, M.-J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of 10C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of 11C), 29P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of 30P) and 38mK (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of 38gK). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, 12N dominates over 15O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of 12N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, 12N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of 12N PET imaging is discussed.

  1. Influence of PET/CT-introduction on PET scanning frequency and indications. Results of a multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: to evaluate the influence of the introduction of combined PET/CT scanners into clinical routine. This investigation addresses the quantitative changes between PET/CT and stand alone PET. Methods: the study included all examinations performed on stand alone PET- or PET/CT-scanners within 12 month prior to and after implementation of PET/CT. The final data analysis included five university hospitals and a total number of 15 497 exams. We distinguished exams on stand alone tomographs prior to and after installation of the combined device as well as PET/CT scans particularly with regard to disease entities. Various further parameters were investigated. Results: the overall number of PET scans (PET and PET/CT) rose by 146% while the number of scans performed on stand alone scanners declined by 22%. Only one site registered an increase in stand alone PET. The number of exams for staging in oncology increased by 196% while that of cardiac scans decreased by 35% and the number of scans in neurology rose by 47%. The use of scans for radiotherapy planning increased to 7% of all PET/CT studies. The increase of procedures for so-called classic PET oncology indications was moderate compared to the more common tumors. An even greater increase was observed in some rare entities. Conclusions: the introduction of PET/CT led to more than a doubling of overall PET procedures with a main focus on oncology. Some of the observed changes in scanning frequency may be caused by a rising availability of new radiotracers and advancements of competing imaging methods. Nevertheless the evident increase in the use of PET/CT for the most common tumour types demonstrates its expanding role in cancer staging. The combination of molecular and morphologic imaging has not only found its place but is still gaining greater importance with new developments in technology and radiochemistry. (orig.)

  2. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author)

  3. Predicting the production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production rates of nuclides made by the galactic and solar cosmic rays are important in the interpretations of measurements made with lunar samples, meteorites, and cosmic spherules. Production rates of cosmogenic nuclides have been predicted by a variety of methods that are reviewed in this paper, ranging from systematic studies of one or a group of meteorites to purely theoretical calculations. Production rates can vary with the chemical composition and the preatmospheric depth of the sample and with the size and shape of the object. While the production systematics for cosmogenic nuclides are fairly well known, our ability to predict their production rates can be improved, with a corresponding increase in the scientific return. Additional detailed studies of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial objects are needed, especially for fairly small and very large objects. Nuclides made in simulation experiments and cross sections for many major nuclear reactions should be measured. Such studies are especially needed for the long-lived radionuclides that have only recently become readily measurable by accelerator mass spectrometry. 34 refs., 5 figs

  4. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  5. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'. Pet-parents and child-parents may even become hostage to the treats/food to avoid the ire of the pet/child. Eating addiction in the pet/child also may be brought about by emotional factors such as stress, independent of parental co-dependence. An applicable treatment for child obesity has been trialled using classic addiction withdrawal/abstinence techniques, as well as behavioural addiction methods, with significant results. Both the child and the parent progress through withdrawal from specific 'problem foods', next from snacking (non-specific foods) and finally from excessive portions at meals (gradual reductions). This approach should adapt well for pets and pet-parents. Pet obesity is more 'pure' than child obesity, in that contributing factors and treatment points are essentially under the control of the pet-parent. Pet obesity might thus serve as an ideal test bed for the treatment and prevention of child obesity, with focus primarily on parental behaviours. Sharing information between the fields of pet and child obesity would be mutually beneficial. PMID:27469280

  6. Size effect in nuclide leachability of plastic solidified bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medium to low level radioactive solid wastes from nuclear power plants, the experiment on nuclide leachability has been usually made by solid size of about 100 cm3. The results are taken as the nuclide leachability for the solids of actual size (about 200 liters). It has been studied how the leachability of nuclides varies with the size of solids. Therefore, diffusion coefficient was measured for the plastic solids of different sizes from 5 cm3 to 235 cm3 in order to examine the size effect. In the range of size measured, the effect of solid size upon the diffusion coefficient was little observed; the values were about 10-5 cm2/day in all cases. The thermosetting resin used for plastic solidification was unsaturated polyester plus sodium sulfate (40/60). About 0.2 μCi of 137Cs per 10 g of solid was contained in each plastic solid. (Mori, K.)

  7. Predictions of the mass surface near the doubly magic nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions of the mass surface of nuclei close to the doubly magic nuclide 78Ni are performed in this work. For this purpose two methods for determination of mass values near the doubly closed shell nuclide have been used. The first involves calculations within the framework of multiparticle shell model based on the proper average field potential and effective forces. The second one is based on the concept of magic crosses, which allows to obtain the mass values of odd-odd nuclei near 78Ni by using the similarities in practical orbit sequences and the equality of the proton-neutron interaction energies for some two-quasiparticle multiplets in the vicinities of similar known heavy magic nuclides. The value of the neutron and two-neutron separation energies as well as the β-decay energies of astrophysical interest near 78Ni are presented

  8. Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-temperature dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs

  9. Feasibility of fuel cycle characterization using multiple nuclide signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of identifying spent nuclear fuel arising from an unknown fuel cycle in terms of reactor type and burnup using a database of nuclide composition vectors generated for combinations of these two variables is examined. The database and test cases were generated using ORIGEN-ARP, and the concentrations of 200 nuclides were analyzed for each sample. Nearest neighbors and ridge regression techniques were used to make predictions of the reactor type and burnup of test cases. Various truncated nuclide lists were also tested. An initial examination of the techniques' sensitivity to measurement error was made by perturbing the unknowns' composition vector and examining the effect on each of the technique's predictions. We demonstrate through the results of these experiments that investigation and development of multivariate data analysis methodologies for nuclear forensics applications is warranted. (author)

  10. A Study on Pet Owners' Intention to Purchase Pet Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Chiehwei Hung; Yen-Shan Chuang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of consumers¡¦ characteristics, pet feeding habits, pet spending and insurance conditions of pet owners on the intention to purchase a pet insurance policy. Our results reveal that family income, average monthly spending on pets, and experience of purchasing medical insurance are the significant determinants of a pet owner¡¦s intention to purchase pet insurance. Pet owners who have higher family income, higher pet spending, and who have previously purchased...

  11. PET studies of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET already has been helpful in ischemic stroke disease. It has given us new data on physiological events occurring after a stroke; PET indices of blood flow and metabolism have provided the basis for staging the severity of tissue injury and predicting outcome, and PET has shown alterations in tissue function in response to therapy. Experience with PET in hemorrhagic disease is more limited, but initial results suggest a useful role for PET in the evaluation of nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage as well [Ackerman et al., 1983a]. This brief review discusses general problems in the study of stroke disease using PET and then the contribution of PET to the stroke field

  12. PET in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hans C. Steinert,

    2005-01-01

    Accurate tumor staging is essential for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy inpatients with lung cancer. It has already been shown that FDG-PET is highly accurate inclassifying lung nodules as benign or malignant. Integrated PET-CT enables the exactmatching of focal abnormalities on PET to anatomic structures on CT. PET-CT is superior indiagnostic accuracy for T staging and differentiation between tumor and peritumoral atelectasis.PET has also proved to be a very effective staging mod...

  13. Low energy, photon emitting nuclides: reference spectra library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section presents a reference library consisting of the measured spectral response of the NaI(Tl)-CsI(Tl) detector to individual low energy photon-emitting nuclides in a point source geometry. The reference spectra collection will be limited to radionuclides which emit photons in the energy range below 20 keV

  14. U-Th series nuclides in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of U and Th series nuclides is being conducted on sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Uranium concentrations as a function of depth have been determined, as well as changes in the 234U/238U activity ratio. The geochemical behavior of uranium in shelf sediments is discussed

  15. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  16. Quantifying nuclide contributions to reactor behaviour over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christie, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of adjoint techniques to fuel cycle analysis, in order to provide a more accurate description of the effects of nuclides on reactor behaviour. Transmutation and decay processes change the composition of the fuel. Allowing for these changes makes it possible to c

  17. Measurement of soluble nuclide dissolution rates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaining a better understanding of the potential release behavior of water-soluble radionuclides is the focus of new laboratory spent fuel dissolution studies being planned in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous studies have suggested that maximum release rates for actinide nuclides, which account for most of the long-term radioactivity in spent fuel, should be solubility-limited and should not depend on the characteristics or durability of the spent fuel waste form. Maximum actinide concentrations should be sufficiently low to meet the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) annual release limits. Potential release rates for soluble nuclides such as 99Tc, 135Cs, 14C and 129I, which account for about 1-2% of the activity in spent fuel at 1,000 years, are less certain and may depend on processes such as oxidation of the fuel in the repository air environment. Dissolution rates for several soluble nuclides have been measured from spent fuel specimens using static and semi-static methods. However, such tests do not provide a direct measurement of fuel matrix dissolution rates that may ultimately control soluble-nuclide release rates. Flow-through tests are being developed as a potential supplemental method for determining the matrix component of soluble-nuclide dissolution. Advantages and disadvantages of both semi-static and flow-through methods are discussed. Tests with fuel specimens representing a range of potential fuel states that may occur in the repository, including oxidized fuel, are proposed. Preliminary results from flow-through tests with unirradiated UO2 suggesting that matrix dissolution rates are very sensitive to water composition are also presented

  18. Important fission product nuclides identification method for simplified burnup chain construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of identifying important fission product (FP) nuclides which are included in a simplified burnup chain is proposed. This method utilizes adjoint nuclide number densities and contribution functions which quantify the importance of nuclide number densities to the target nuclear characteristics: number densities of specific nuclides after burnup. Numerical tests with light water reactor (LWR) fuel pin-cell problems reveal that this method successfully identifies important FP nuclides included in a simplified burnup chain, with which number densities of target nuclides after burnup are well reproduced. A simplified burnup chain consisting of 138 FP nuclides is constructed using this method, and its good performance for predictions of number densities of target nuclides and reactivity is demonstrated against LWR pin-cell problems and multi-cell problem including gadolinium-bearing fuel rod. (author)

  19. Shielding and activity estimator for template-based nuclide identification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-04-09

    According to one embodiment, a method for estimating an activity of one or more radio-nuclides includes receiving one or more templates, the one or more templates corresponding to one or more radio-nuclides which contribute to a probable solution, receiving one or more weighting factors, each weighting factor representing a contribution of one radio-nuclide to the probable solution, computing an effective areal density for each of the one more radio-nuclides, computing an effective atomic number (Z) for each of the one more radio-nuclides, computing an effective metric for each of the one or more radio-nuclides, and computing an estimated activity for each of the one or more radio-nuclides. In other embodiments, computer program products, systems, and other methods are presented for estimating an activity of one or more radio-nuclides.

  20. FDG PET or PET/CT in evaluation of renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun Yi [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (China); Chen, Hui Yi [Dept. of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China); Ding, Hueisch Jy [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, E-DA Hospital I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China); Yen, Kuo Yang; Kao, Chia Hung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China)

    2013-04-15

    Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML. The study reviews FDG PET and PET/CT images of 21 patients diagnosed with renal AML. The diagnosis is based on the classical appearance of an AML on CT scan with active surveillance for 6 months. The study is focused on the observation of clinical and radiographic features. Six men and 15 women were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 57.14 ± 9.67 years old. The mean diameter of 21 renal AML on CT scans was 1.76 ± 1.00 cm (Min: 0.6 cm; Max: 4.4 cm). CT scans illustrated renal masses typical of AMLs, and the corresponding FDG PET scans showed minimal FDG activities in the area of the tumors. None of the 21 AMLs showed a maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) greater than 1.98. No statistically significant correlation was present between SUV{sub max} and tumor size. Renal AMLs demonstrate very low to low uptake on FDG PET and PET/CT imaging in this study. When a fat-containing tumor in the kidney is found on a CT scan, it is critical to differentiate an AML from a malignant tumor including an RCC, liposarcoma, and Wilms tumor. This study suggests that FDG PET or PET/CT imaging is useful for differentiating a renal AML from a fat-containing malignant tumor.

  1. FDG PET or PET/CT in evaluation of renal angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML. The study reviews FDG PET and PET/CT images of 21 patients diagnosed with renal AML. The diagnosis is based on the classical appearance of an AML on CT scan with active surveillance for 6 months. The study is focused on the observation of clinical and radiographic features. Six men and 15 women were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 57.14 ± 9.67 years old. The mean diameter of 21 renal AML on CT scans was 1.76 ± 1.00 cm (Min: 0.6 cm; Max: 4.4 cm). CT scans illustrated renal masses typical of AMLs, and the corresponding FDG PET scans showed minimal FDG activities in the area of the tumors. None of the 21 AMLs showed a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) greater than 1.98. No statistically significant correlation was present between SUVmax and tumor size. Renal AMLs demonstrate very low to low uptake on FDG PET and PET/CT imaging in this study. When a fat-containing tumor in the kidney is found on a CT scan, it is critical to differentiate an AML from a malignant tumor including an RCC, liposarcoma, and Wilms tumor. This study suggests that FDG PET or PET/CT imaging is useful for differentiating a renal AML from a fat-containing malignant tumor.

  2. Nuclides.net: A computational environment for nuclear data and applications in radioprotection and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interactive multimedia tool, Nuclides.net, has been developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The Nuclides.net 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclides chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The product is particularly suitable for environmental radioprotection and radioecology. (authors)

  3. Numerical simulation of in situ production of cosmogenic nuclides: Effects of irradiation geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of geomorphic events and processes can be studied with the cosmogenic nuclides accumulated in the exposed materials. Reliable interpretation of the measured in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides requires a good understanding of the involved nuclear processes. The production rates of nuclides depend on many parameters. In this paper, calculations for the production rates of in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides in rocks of various sizes on sloped surfaces are reported and discussed

  4. PET / MRI vs. PET / CT. Indications Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid techniques in Nuclear Medicine is currently a field in full development for diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. With the recent advent of PET / MRI much it speculated about whether or not it is superior to PET / CT especially in oncology. The Conference seeks to clarify this situation by dealing issues such as: State of the art technology PET / MRI; Indications Oncology; Some clinical cases. It concludes by explaining the oncological indications of both the real and current situation of the PET / MRI. (author)

  5. Regular Cosmogenic Nuclide Dosing of Sediment Moving Down Desert Piedmonts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Hooke, R. L.; Eppes, M. C.; Persico, L.; Caffee, M.; Finkel, R.

    2001-12-01

    Low-gradient alluvial piedmonts are common in desert areas throughout the world; however, long-term rates of processes that modify these landscapes are poorly understood. Using cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al, we attempt to quantify the long-term (>103 y) behavior of desert piedmonts in Southern California. We measured the activity of 10Be and 26Al in three samples of drainage basin alluvium and six amalgamated samples from transects spaced at 1-km intervals down a piedmont in Fort Irwin, Mojave Desert, California. Each transect sample consists of sediment from 21 collection sites spaced at 150 m intervals. Such sampling averages the variability of nuclide activity between sub-sample locations and thus gives a long-term dosing history of sediment as it is transported from uplands to the distal piedmont. The piedmont is heavily used during military training exercises during which hundreds of wheeled and tracked vehicles traverse the surface. The piedmont surface is planar, and fan-head incision is minimal at the rangefront decreasing to zero between the first and second transects, 1.5 km from the rangefront. 10Be activity increases steadily from 5.87 X 105 atoms g-1 at the rangefront to 1.02 X 6 atoms g-1 at the piedmont bottom. Nuclide activity and distance are well correlated (r2 = 0.95) suggesting that sediment is dosed uniformly as it is transported down piedmont. We have measured similar increases in nuclide activity in transect samples collected from two other Mojave Desert piedmonts, those fringing the Iron and Granite Mountains (Nichols et al, in press, Geomorphology). These piedmonts have nuclide activities that also correlate well with distance (r2 = 0.98 and 0.96, respectively) from their rangefronts, but nuclides increase at a lower rate down piedmont. Modeled sediment transport speeds for the Iron and Granite Mountain piedmonts are decimeters per year. The regular increase in nuclide activities down three different Mojave Desert piedmonts suggests that

  6. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  7. Clinical PET application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang-Moo; Hong, S. W.; Choi, C. W.; Yang, S. D.; Choi, J. S.; Kweon, O. J. et al. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    PET gives various metabolic images, and is very important, new diagnostic modality in clinical oncology. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, PET is installed as a research tool of long-mid-term atomic research project. For the efficient use of PET for clinical and research projects, income from the patients should be managed to get the raw material, equipment, manpower, and also for the clinical PET research. 1. Support the clinical application of PET in oncology. 2. Budgetary management of income, costs for raw material, equipment, manpower, and the clinical PET research project. In this year, 1,327 cases of PET images were obtained, which resulted total income of 829,770,000won. Increased demand for {sup 18}FDG in and outside KCCH need more than 2 times production of {sup 18} in a day. Manpower should be added for the second PET operation and RI production. 10 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  8. Radio-nuclide mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-09-17

    According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-nuclides includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-nuclides includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.

  9. Simultaneous evaluation of the nuclear data for heavy nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re-evaluation of the nuclear data for 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu compiled in the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library Version 1 (JENDL-1) and evaluation of those for 233U have been performed in the Working Group on Heavy Nuclide Nuclear Data of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee in connection with the preparation of JENDL-2. The re-evaluation is required due to the production of many experimental data on fission cross section since 1975 in which the evaluation work for the JENDL-1 was completed. This re-evaluation work is also needed on account of the imperfection of simultaneous evaluation between the nuclear data of 235U and of the other heavy nuclides in JENDL-1. This paper describes the newly adopted the procedure of simultaneous evaluation, the status of recent fission cross section data measured. (author)

  10. Method of separating useful radioactive nuclide in radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To separate useful radioactive nuclides from radioactive liquid wastes for reducing the amount of radioactive secondary wastes generated upon disposal of radioactive liquid wastes. Method: Nitric acid is added to radioactive liquid wastes containing radioactive metal ions, iron ions, nickel ion, chromium ions and oxidative tetravalent serium ions dissolved therein, to convert tetravalent serium ions into complex ions. The liquid wastes are circulated through an ion exchange resin column. This enables to efficiently recover tetravalent serium ions which are useful oxidative nuclides thereby enabling the reuse of serium. Further, since the oxidative nature of the radioactive liquid wastes is eliminated, there is no requirement of adding a reducing agent and it is possible for drying treatment and solidification processing such as plastic solidification. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. Evaluations of heavy nuclide data for JENDL-3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New evaluations of neutron nuclear data for Uranium, Plutonium, and Thorium isotopes which are essential for applications to nuclear technology were carried out for the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, JENDL-3.3. The objectives of the current release of JENDL were to fix several problems which have been reported for the previous version, to improve the accuracy of the data, and to evaluate covariances for the important nuclides. Quantities in JENDL-3.2 were extensively re-evaluated or replaced by more reliable values. The heavy nuclide data in JENDL-3.3 were validated with several benchmark tests, and it was reported that the current release gave a good prediction of criticalities. (author)

  12. A GoldSim Model for Colloid Facilitated Nuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently several total system performance assessment (TSPA) programs, called 'template' programs, ready for the safety assessment of radioactive waste repository systems which are conceptually modeled have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. It is generally believed that chelating agents (chelators) that could be disposed of together with radioactive wastes in the repository and natural colloids available in the geological media affect on nuclides by enhancing their transport in the geological media. A simple GoldSim module to evaluate such quantitative effects, by which colloid and chelator-facilitated nuclide release cases could be modeled and evaluated is introduced. Effects of the chelators alone are illustrated with the case associated with well pumping scenario in a hypothetical repository system

  13. Investigation on migration behavior of TRU-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration behavior of TRU nuclides in geological formation has been studied by a batch and a column method, considering the influence of humic complexation and colloid formation. The migration test of 237Np and 238Pu is carrying out in natural field, to verify the data and the conventional migration model for the safety evaluation of TRU waste disposal. It was found that the migration of 237Np and 238Pu in the natural field is largely retarded sorption onto soil. (author)

  14. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste hoofdstuk wil ik proberen om op beknopte, ook voor de niet gespecialiseerde lezer, de inhoud en achtergrond van het onderzoek samen te vatten. Aan het eind van de vorige eeuw werd het verschijnsel ra...

  15. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  16. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  17. Simulations of Terrestrial in-situ Cosmogenic-Nuclide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Lal, D.; Arnold, J. R.; Englert, P. A. J.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Targets of silicon and silicon dioxide were irradiated with spallation neutrons to simulate the production of long-lived radionuclides in the surface of the Earth. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to measure Be-7 and Na-22, and accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure Be-10, C-14, and Al-26. The measured ratios of these nuclides are compared with calculated ratios and with ratios from other simulations and agree well with ratios inferred from terrestrial samples.

  18. Release of radioactive nuclides from spent WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the instant fractional release of gaseous or volatile radionuclides from spent WWER fuel is computationally estimated. A common definition for the instant release is adopted, such that the term refers to the fraction of the inventory of radionuclides that are situated in the fuel-to-cladding gap and may be released instantaneously when the cladding fails for example in a fuel handling accident or during fuel transportation. The analysis is mainly based on the newly amended ANS-5.4 standard by American Nuclear Society’s Standards Committee. Both the nuclides with short half-lives (6 h1/21/2 > 1 y) are considered. The relevant nuclides included to the study are krypton, xenon, iodine, caesium and tellurium. In order to quantify the fractional release of relevant fission products in a fuel handling accident, all the rods of two WWER-440 fuel bundles are simulated with a single rod fuel performance code VTT-ENIGMA. The power histories of the two bundles originate from the design calculations of Loviisa NPP’s reactor core loading, and are chosen so that the first bundle has the highest power, and the second one has the highest burnup. In addition, one more simulation with VTT-ENIGMA is conducted with a power history based on a burnup dependent linear power limit determined for the fuel used in the Loviisa NPP. In order to calculate the release fractions with VTT-ENIGMA, the formulation presented in the ANS-5.4 standard has recently been implemented into the code at VTT. In the analysis, the calculated release fractions of all the studied short-lived nuclides among all the simulated rods are less than 0.11%, and for the long-lived nuclides less than 5%. These results are at or below the level of experimental release fractions found in open literature. (authors)

  19. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant.

  20. Comparison of depletion algorithms for large systems of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work five algorithms for solving the system of decay and transmutation equations with constant reaction rates encountered in burnup calculations were compared. These are Chebyshev rational approximation method (CRAM), which is a new matrix exponential method, the matrix exponential power series with instant decay and a secular equilibrium approximations for short-lived nuclides, which is used in ORIGEN, and three different variants of transmutation trajectory analysis (TTA), which is also known as the linear chains method. The common feature of these methods is their ability to deal with thousands of nuclides and reactions. Consequently, there is no need to simplify the system of equations and all nuclides can be accounted for explicitly. The methods were compared in single depletion steps using decay and cross-section data taken from the default ORIGEN libraries. Very accurate reference solutions were obtained from a high precision TTA algorithm. The results from CRAM and TTA were found to be very accurate. While ORIGEN was not as accurate, it should still be sufficient for most purposes. All TTA variants are much slower than the other two, which are so fast that their running time should be negligible in most, if not all, applications. The combination of speed and accuracy makes CRAM the clear winner of the comparison.

  1. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B.F. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.P. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  2. Recent developments in cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of nuclide production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.

  3. Identification of heavy and superheavy nuclides using chemical separator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türler, Andreas

    1999-11-01

    With the recent synthesis of superheavy nuclides produced in the reactions 48Ca+238U and 48Ca+242,244Pu, much longer-lived nuclei than the previously known neutron-deficient isotopes of the heaviest elements have been identified. Half-lives of several hours and up to several years have been predicted for the longest-lived isotopes of these elements. Thus, the sensitivity of radiochemical separation techniques may present a viable alternative to physical separator systems for the discovery of some of the predicted longer-lived heavy and superheavy nuclides. The advantages of chemical separator systems in comparison to kinematic separators lie in the possibility of using thick targets, high beam intensities spread over larger target areas and in providing access to nuclides emitted under large angles and low velocities. Thus, chemical separator systems are ideally suited to study also transfer and (HI, αxn) reaction products. In the following, a study of (HI, αxn) reactions will be presented and prospects to chemically identify heavy and superheavy elements discussed.

  4. Transient nuclide release through the bentonite barrier -SKB 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of near-field radionuclide migration is presented. The study has been performed in the context of the SKB91 study which is a comprehensive performance assessment of disposal of spent fuel. The objective of the present study has been to enable the assessment of which nuclides can be screened out because they decay to insignificant levels already in the near-field of the repository. A numerical model has been used which describes the transient transport of radionuclides through a small hole in a HLW canister imbedded in bentonite clay into a fracture in the rock outside the bentonite. Calculations for more than twenty nuclides, nuclides with both high and low solubility have been made. The effect of sorption in the bentonite backfill is included. The size of the penetration hole was assumed to be constant up to time when the calculations were terminated, 500000 year after the deposition. The mass transport rate is controlled by diffusion. The model is three dimensional. The report describes the geometry of the modelled system, the assumptions concerning the transport resistances at the boundary conditions, the handling of the source term and obtained release curves. (au)

  5. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object's size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object's bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  6. Comparison of national PET radiopharmaceutical regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    there is a ''Standard of Compounds Labeled with Positron Nuclides Approved as Established Techniques for Medical Use, 2001 Revision'' written by the Subcommittee on Medical Application of Cyclotron-Produced Radionuclides. These are guidelines for PET RaPh produced in medical institutes for diagnosis. These Guidelines have been prepared by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, Committee on PET Nuclear Medicine, and the Japan Radioisotope Association and Medical Science and Pharmaceutical Committees. The manufacturing environment is outlined, and the area where the FDG is produced must be of high cleanliness, but the air-quality is not defined by Class. The synthesis of the FDG using a closed system mandates use of a hot cell having>Class 10,000 air quality. Operations requiring aseptic manipulation with open systems (such as preparation of reagents) should be carried out in an environment of > Class 100. Any Automatic synthesis (currently only FDG) apparatus used must be approved by Japanese Pharmaceutical Law. There are Standards for PET RaPh including F-18 FDG and 0-15 labeled Oxygen, Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide gases. The QC tests required are essentially the same as US specifications. In the future, as the PET field continues to expand, we will need to monitor international efforts and share experiences to improve radionuclide production, RaPh compounding processes and QC procedures. (author)

  7. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  8. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  9. DCHAIN: code for analysis of build-up and decay of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DCHAIN is a one-point depletion code which solves the coupled equations of radioactive growth and decay for a large number of nuclides by the Bateman method. The present code has the following characteristics: (1) The code can treat any type of transmutation through decays or neutron induced reactions. (2) The code constructs the decay scheme of each nuclide in the code and breaks it up into linear chains. Nuclide names, decay types and branching ratios of mother nuclides are necessary as the input data for each nuclide. Order of nuclides in the library is arbitrary because each nuclide is distinguished by its nuclide name. (3) The code can treat cyclic chains by an approximation. (4) The code performs calculation even if two nuclides with equal decay constants exist in a chain. (5) Cumulative fission yield is used for the top nuclide in each linear chain so that the abundance of each nuclide can be calculated accurately even if the chain length is limited. (6) Power, neutron flux, neutron spectrum, and fission ratio and fission energy of each fissile nuclide can be varied for each time step. (7) Abundances can be calculated for the selected nuclides in the nuclear data library. (8) The code uses variable dimension arrays and there is little limitation in number of nuclides or length of a chain. A library of the nuclear data has been prepared for 1170 fission products, including the data for half-lives and decay schemes, neutron absorption cross sections, fission yields, and disintegration energies. While DCHAIN is used to compute the compositions, radioactivity and decay heat of fission products, the gamma-ray spectrum of fission products can be computed also by a separate code FPGAM using the compositions obtained from DCHAIN. (J.P.N.)

  10. PET in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, Stefan (ed.) [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-07-01

    In the management of oncologic diseases, modern imaging modalities contribute heavily to the decision of which form of treatment - local or systemic, surgical or interdisciplinary - will be most efficient. The addition of functional image information to conventional staging procedures helps improve the diagnostic pathway. The information needed for therapeutic management and for follow-up can be provided by correlative imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) or PET/CT. This book is a comprehensive compilation of the accumulated knowledge on PET and PET/CT in oncology, covering the entire spectrum from solidly documented indications, such as staging and monitoring of lung and colorectal cancer, to the application of PET/CT in head and neck surgery, gynecology, radiation therapy, urology, pediatrics etc. It is aimed at nuclear medicine and radiology specialists as well as physicians interested in the possibilities and limitations of PET and PET/CT in oncology. (orig.)

  11. Nuclide Transport and Diffusion for Vein and Fracture Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modelling radionuclide transport through crystalline rock is usually based on a small water flow in a system of narrow fractures. This flow is denoted as fracture flow. In our model, it implies planar water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. According to the constitution of the rock, it can be necessary to consider additionally a vein flow being characterized by cylindrical water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. Transport calculations, based on a dual porosity concept, were performed for vein as well as for fracture flow. An extensive discussion of the results provides an overview on important parameter dependencies and on the major vein flow effects. Formulae for quick estimates are given to guide quantitative interpretation of break-through curves. The discussion of analytical results for nuclide diffusion from a planar and from a cylindrical boundary backs up the comments on matrix diffusion. The following effects of vein flow onto the break-through curves are illustrative examples of useful findings: (1) The peak height can be very strongly reduced compared to fracture flow. The peak arrival time, however, is only slightly changed. (2) The asymptotic part of the tail is flatter than the well-known t-3/2 decrease for fracture flow. (3) The bump at the end of the tail, generated by the limitation of the diffusion zones, is substantially larger than for fracture flow. A double-peak break-through curve, therefore, can emerge from many cases of nuclide transport. (4) Sorption on the surfaces of diffusion-accessible pores can substantially change the break-through curves. The vein to fracture flow ratios of the break-through peak data, however, remain essentially equal. This holds for the whole range of investigated retardation factors from 7 to 27'000. The investigations presented contribute to sophisticated interpretations of break-through curves and improve the physical understanding of nuclide

  12. Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guides Reports Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ) Originally posted August 9, 2010; Updated August ... as a result of the outbreak. “Natural” pet treats , such as pig ears and dehydrated/dried beef ...

  13. What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2010-01-01

    Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum and signifies a break with the Copenhagen interpretation-for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shine some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum-classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classical...

  14. Nuclides having ENDF/B-V questionable data or errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All of the ENDF/B fission-product and actinide data have been incorporated into summation codes, including decay spectra, and aggregate comparisons were made with available measurements. Additional comparisons of many individual cross section and decay parameters with measurements and other evaluations have been made, and various consistency checks (e.g., the comparisons between average energies and values derived from spectra) have been made. Based on these comparisons and tests, we itemize here those nuclides and their parameters that should be reviewed for the next version of ENDF/B or before using the current Version-V data

  15. Atomic and nuclear parameters of single electron capture decaying nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic and nuclear parameters of the following nuclides which decay by electron capture have been calculated: 37Ar, 41Ca, 49V, 53Mn, 55Fe,59Ni, 68Ge,82Sr, 97Tc, 118Te, 131Cs, 137La, 140Nd, 157Tb, 165Er, 193pt, 194Hg, and 205Ph The evaluation rules are included in the first part of the paper. The values and the associated uncertainties of the following parameters have been tabulated: decay energy, electron capture probabilities, fluorescence yield, electron emission and X-ray emission. (Author) 27 refs

  16. Formation of new actinide nuclides and their reaction cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium jet transfer system, which had been designed and constructed for the study of actinide nuclides, was examined for the transfer efficiency of recoils and fission products formed in the nuclear reaction induced by α particles. The efficiency was found to be close to unity for products coming out of a 232Th target bombarded with 110 MeV α particles of intensity less than 40 nA. Residual radio-activities of a target chamber and a collection chamber were also measured. (author)

  17. Amaranthus gengaticus : the suitable vegetable for radioactive nuclide absorption in soil (K-40 and Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by vegetables in Khon Kaen Province. The suitable vegetable would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities (K-40 and Cs-137) in soil. Ten kinds of vegetables in the same market were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450οc. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect and analyze radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of vegetables. According to this study, amaranthus gengaticus, from ten vegetables, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The amaranthus gengaticus, aged 45-60 days, can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  18. Water hyacinth : the suitable aquatic weed for radioactive nuclide absorption in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by aquatic weeds in Khon Kaen Province. The best aquatic weed would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities in natural water resources. Seven kinds of aquatic weeds in the same site were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450 οC. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of aquatic weeds. According to this study, water hyacinth, from seven aquatic weeds, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The water hyacinth with 30 cm leaves in length can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  19. Distributions of transuranium nuclides in sediment and biota of the North Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the interaction of marine sediments with their biotic population on the penetration, redistribution, sediment association and biotic availability of delivered transuranium nuclides are discussed as a function of both sedimentation regimes and in-fauna populations. Data on the penetration and redistribution patterns of fall-out transuranium nuclides in the shallow sediments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, are discussed in terms of the known parameters of sedimentation and 'in sediment' biological activity. In this (and most common) type of sedimentation regime, translocation of bioturbationally downmixed transuranium nuclides back toward (and probable loss from) the sediment surface is demonstrated. Various biological and biochemical mechanisms are advanced that may act on these nuclides within sediments. The increased availability to marine biota of sediment transuranium nuclides by these remobilization processes, is indicated by data showing accumulations of these nuclides in marine invertebrates and fish. (author)

  20. Distributions of transuranium nuclides in sediments and biota of the North Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the interaction of marine sediments with their biotic population on the penetration, redistribution, sediment association and biotic availability of delivered transuranium nuclides are discussed as a function of both sedimentation regimes and in-fauna populations. Data on the penetration and redistribution patterns of fallout transuranium nuclides in the shallow sediments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, are discussed in terms of the known parameters of sedimentation and in sediment biological activity. In this (and most common) type of sedimentation regime, translocation of bioturbationally downmixed transuranium nuclides back toward (and probable loss from) the sediment surface is demonstrated. Various biological and biochemical mechanisms are advanced that may act on these nuclides within sediments. The increased availability to marine biota of sediment transuranium nuclides by these remobilization processes is indicated by data showing accumulations of these nuclides in marine invertebrates and fish. Data are included on the distribution of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs, and 55Fe in the samples

  1. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography: January 1974--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography (Volume II) follows the format of the first bibliography. Nuclides used therapeutically have not been included. References to medical application of the various nuclides of iodine, gallium, and indium have been excluded as being beyond the scope of this bibliography (and to keep its size to manageable proportions). For nuclides having fifteen or fewer references there is no breakdown into subcategories. For the others they have been subdivided as follows: (1) Production methods, (2) Compound syntheses, and (3) Medical uses. The first part of the bibliography contains references of general interest of various types. Where specific nuclides are involved, these references are also cross-indexed to each nuclide. The original reference number is always used for cross-indexing. The nuclide section is arranged in alphabetical order, and within each section alphabetically by first author. The author index lists each reference once for each author, with no indication of cross-referencing given

  2. ICoN, the Interactive Chart of Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. The chart of nuclides is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We have created ICoN (simply short for Interactive Chart of Nuclides), an API which can be used to visualize theoretical and experimental datasets. This visualization is achieved by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the elements and color them accordingly. ICoN features many customization options that users can access that are dynamically applied to the chart without reloading the page. Users can save the customized chart they create to various formats. We have constructed these features in order to provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. ICoN can also be used on all electronic devices without loss of support. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.

  3. Dual nuclides SPECT for ventrilation and perfusion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual nuclides SPECT using 81mKr and 99mTc-MAA for ventilation and perfusion study was performed in 24 subjects. Cross talk of 81mKr to 99mTc-energy window was about 7.5% when ventilation and perfusion study were performed by 370 MBq of 81mKr gas and 185 MBq of 99mTc-MAA. Areas of low V/Q was significantly larger in SPECT study than in planar study, in 11 cases of various pulmonary diseases. High V/Q mismatches were also more clearly delineated in SPECT than in planar study. Dual nuclides SPECT study has advantages of obtaining V/Q distribution without movement artifacts and of simultaneous acquisition of ventilation and perfusion image. Area of high V/Q became larger in SPECT with cross talk than in SPECT without cross talk, but in the low V/Q area no significant difference was noted between SPECT with cross talk and without cross talk. (author)

  4. Exact error estimation for solutions of nuclide chain equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact solution of nuclide chain equations within arbitrary figures is obtained for a linear chain by employing the Bateman method in the multiple-precision arithmetic. The exact error estimation of major calculation methods for a nuclide chain equation is done by using this exact solution as a standard. The Bateman, finite difference, Runge-Kutta and matrix exponential methods are investigated. The present study confirms the following. The original Bateman method has very low accuracy in some cases, because of large-scale cancellations. The revised Bateman method by Siewers reduces the occurrence of cancellations and thereby shows high accuracy. In the time difference method as the finite difference and Runge-Kutta methods, the solutions are mainly affected by the truncation errors in the early decay time, and afterward by the round-off errors. Even though the variable time mesh is employed to suppress the accumulation of round-off errors, it appears to be nonpractical. Judging from these estimations, the matrix exponential method is the best among all the methods except the Bateman method whose calculation process for a linear chain is not identical with that for a general one. (author)

  5. Simulation of experimental spectra for medium-heavy nuclides in accelerator mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-Juan; GUAN Yong-Jing; HE Ming; RUAN Xiang-Dong; DONG Ke-Jun; LI Guo-Qiang; Wu Shao-Yong; WU Wei-Ming; JIANG Shan

    2005-01-01

    Some interferences are often encountered in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, especially for medium-heavy nuclide measurement. It is difficult for online discrimination of the nuclide of interest from the interfering ones. In order to solve this problem, we developed a method to simulate the experimental spectra of medium-heavy nuclides in AMS measurements. The results obtained from this method are in good agreement with experimental values.

  6. Nuclear masses and properties of nuclei close to remote magical nuclide 100Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of different nuclear properties are presented for nuclides close to the neutron deficient doubly magic 100Sn, which are intensively experimentally studied at the present time. Considered different nuclear properties include mass values for 25 nuclides around the core as well as the properties of excited states of the core and the core plus two quasiparticles nuclides. The problem of effective quadrupole charges and of the weak axial constant in nuclei close to 100Sn are also examined

  7. Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides along the astrophysical rp- and νp- process paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason

    2009-10-01

    X-ray bursters and supernovae are examples of explosive stellar phenomena in which nuclides are quickly produced in great quantities. Observed as x-ray bursts, thermonuclear runaways on the surface of neutron stars accreting material from its binary star companion create elements by a nucleosynthetic procoess which involves a series of rapid proton-capture reactions, termed the rp process. The timescale, nuclides produced, and energy released during the rp process are very sensitive to delays encountered at waiting-point nuclides, nuclides in which their slow β decay is more probable than net proton capture. A possible mechanism to bypass the waiting-point nuclides is through the νp process, in which (n,p) and (n,γ) reactions on the waiting-point nuclides, in addition to the proton-capture reactions, are possible. Supernovae are possible sites for the νp process as the proton-rich ejecta can absorb antineutrinos to produce the required free neutrons. It is this νp process which may resolve the long-standing discrepancy between the observed and predicted abundances of ^92Mo and ^94Mo. Proton-capture Q values of nuclides along the rp- and νp- process paths are required to accurately model the nucleosynthesis, especially at the waiting-point nuclides. In recent years, Penning traps have become the preferred tool to make precise mass measurements of stable and unstable nuclides. To make the best use of these devices in measuring the masses of radioactive nuclides, systems have been developed to quickly, cleanly, and efficiently transport the short-lived, weakly produced nuclides to the Penning traps. This talk will discuss the rp and νp nucleosynthetic processes and will highlight the precise Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides along these process paths.

  8. Clinical PET application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Hong, Song W.; Choi, Chang W.; Yang, Seong Dae [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    PET gives various methabolic images, and is very important, new diagnostic modality in clinical oncology. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, PET is installed as a research tool of long-mid-term atomic research project. For the efficient use of PET for clinical and research projects, income from the patients should be managed to get the raw material, equipment, manpower, and also for the clinical PET research. 1. Support the clinical application of PET in oncology. 2. Budgetary management of income, costs for raw material, equipment, manpower, and the clinical PET research project. In this year, 250 cases of PET images were obtained, which resulted total income of 180,000,000 won. 50,000,000 won was deposited for the 1998 PET clinical research. Second year PET clinical research should be managed under unified project. Increased demand for {sup 18}FDG in and outside KCCH need more than 2 times production of {sup 18}FDG in a day purchase of HPLC pump and {sup 68}Ga pin source which was delayed due to economic crisis, should be done early in 1998. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. HIV and pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, D

    1995-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that there is no evidence that dogs, cats or non-primate animals can contract the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or transmit it to human beings. When the immune system is suppressed through disease, age, or medical treatments, a person becomes more vulnerable to infections. Pets Are Wonderful Support (PAWS) has developed guidelines for having pets. Proper pet selection, proper pet care and good personal hygiene of the owner can eliminate almost any possible risk a pet poses. New pets pose more of a health risk because health history and vaccination records are usually not known. Adult pets are often safer, and are less likely to be involved in playful activities that include biting and scratching. There is a slim chance of contracting toxoplasmosis from cats, but certain precautions can minimize risk. Annual veterinarian examinations are recommended to keep vaccinations current. The CDC does not recommend keeping a cat with feline leukemia virus or feline immunodeficiency virus since these diseases can make the cat more susceptible to other illnesses which can be passed on to a person with a compromised immune system. Turtles and birds are not recommended since they may harbor diseases. Several services are available to pet owners and are listed in the article. PMID:11362398

  10. Efficient and accurate depletion calculations via two-block decomposition of nuclide concentration vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Nuclide density vector is decomposed into two blocks by effective decay constant. ► Short-lived nuclide block is solved by the general Bateman solution method. ► An importance concept, related to Bateman solution method, is introduced to reduce computational burden. ► Long-lived nuclide block is solved by the method of variation of parameters with matrix exponential with reduced norm. ► The new method shows significantly improved results compared to existing methods. - Abstract: A new method of depletion calculation is introduced by decomposing nuclide concentration vector into two blocks (short-lived nuclide block and long-lived nuclide block). For short-lived nuclide block calculation, general Bateman solution of each short-lived nuclide is used. An “importance” concept is introduced for selecting important parents for producing a particular short-lived nuclide so that computational burden for Bateman solution calculation is reduced. Long-lived nuclide block is solved by the method of variation of parameters, in which matrix exponentials are calculated efficiently since the norm of long-lived nuclide block matrix is small. The two-block decomposition method is tested on UO2 PWR fuel depletion problems and compared to existing depletion methods, i.e., ORIGEN code and Krylov subspace methods. The numerical results show that the two-block decomposition method gives much more accurate results than those of the ORIGEN code for similar computing time. For similar accuracy computing time of the two-block decomposition method is ∼10 times less than that of the Krylov subspace method

  11. Influence of Arm Movement on Lesion Detection in PET/CT Imaging: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Parlak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arm movement after the CT scan is a common artifact in PET/CT scanning. Motion artifacts may lead to difficulties in interpreting PET/CT images accurately. We report a 66 year old male patient with gastric cancer who underwent PET/CT for primary staging. He had a previous history of papillary thyroid cancer. In PET scan, there were striking cold artifacts at the level of arms. This is a classical sign of an accidental arm motion. A second scan was performed with the arms down due to the history of papillary thyroid cancer. The results were discussed.

  12. Influence of Arm Movement on Lesion Detection in PET/CT Imaging: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin Parlak; Gozde Mutevelizade; Gul Gumuser

    2015-01-01

    Arm movement after the CT scan is a common artifact in PET/CT scanning. Motion artifacts may lead to difficulties in interpreting PET/CT images accurately. We report a 66 year old male patient with gastric cancer who underwent PET/CT for primary staging. He had a previous history of papillary thyroid cancer. In PET scan, there were striking cold artifacts at the level of arms. This is a classical sign of an accidental arm motion. A second scan was performed with the arms down due to ...

  13. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis: PET/CT for initial workup and treatment response evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Neil J; Hankins, Jordan H

    2015-02-01

    A 40-year-old man underwent pan-endoscopy owing to abdominal pain. Biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract demonstrated diffuse Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PET/CT was done, with CT demonstrating classic pulmonary manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that had association with intense FDG uptake on PET. Bowel appeared normal. Treatment was initiated with smoking cessation and 6 cycles of cytarabine. Follow-up PET/CT after initial treatment demonstrated improvement of parenchymal abnormalities seen on CT, with resolution of hypermetabolic activity. Maintenance chemotherapy was initiated. PET/CT is increasingly being used for initial staging and treatment response assessment in this rare disorder. PMID:24999688

  14. PET and PET/CT for imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article provides an overview of the current literature data regarding the value of PET and PET/CT for imaging of prostate cancer. Most widely used PET tracers for prostate cancer imaging are 11C-acetate and 11C- or 18F-labeled choline. Available literature data on the performance of PET and PET/CT in the detection of the primary malignancy as well as local or distant metastases are presented and discussed. In addition, our own preliminary results regarding the diagnostic efficacy of 11C-choline PET and PET/CT in 43 patients with suspected prostate cancer are provided. The prevalence of prostate cancer in this patient sample was 55.8%. PET and PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 88% with a specificity of 63% in the detection of the primary prostate cancer. The sensitivity in the detection of metastatic spread was 77% and no false-positives were found. The possible value and limitations of combined PET/CT systems when compared to stand alone PET scanners are discussed. PET and PET/CT is at present the single imaging modality providing functional information not only regarding the primary malignancy but also its metastases. This unique feature distinguishes PET from MRI complemented with magnetic resonance spectroscopy - a competing procedure. Our own results as well as the still limited literature data suggest, that PET and PET/CT may prove to be useful methods for imaging of prostate cancer. (orig.)

  15. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  16. Multi-nuclide AMS system at the University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-nuclide AMS system on the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba (Tsukuba AMS system) can measure environmental levels of long-lived radioisotopes of 14C, 26Al, 36Cl and 129I by employing a molecular pilot beam. AMS is an ultrasensitive technique for the study of long-lived radioisotopes, and stable isotopes at very low abundances. The high terminal voltage has an advantage in the detection of heavy radioisotopes. Much progress has been made in the development of new AMS techniques. For example, a standard deviation of the fluctuation for the 36Cl/Cl ratio is ± 2%, and the effective detection limit is better than 1x10-15. In recent years, the main research field of the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has shifted to accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) research from nuclear physics. This report presents an overview of the Tsukuba AMS system.

  17. Nuclide creation and annealing reactor waste in neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider chemical elements in the Universe (their properties and transmutations) as a fuel powering an evolution of stars, galaxies, etc. The nuclear fusion reactions represent an energy source of stars and, in particular, the Sun fitting the life on the Earth. This brings a question on an origin and conditions for creation of life. We discuss some specific features of nuclear reaction chains at the hydrostatic burning of nuclides in stars and treaties for development of thermonuclear fusion reactors at the Earth based environment. The nova and supernova give promising astrophysical site candidates for synthesis of heavy atomic nuclei and renewing other nuclear components. Such an explosive nucleosynthesis yields the actinides containing basic fuel for nuclear fission reactors, among others. We briefly outline the e-, s-, and r-processes while accounting for ultra-strong stellar magnetization, and discuss some ideas for annealing the radioactive toxic nuclear waste

  18. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the analytical and technical procedures that are required for routine application of both the 230Th/234U disequilibrium dating method for peat and the 210Pb dating method for lake sediments. Its principal aim is to test, refine and discuss the reliability and validity of these methods. On the other hand, the analytical procedures that were introduced open a wide range of other interesting fields of research that are not necessarily restricted to geological problems only. Chapter 5 reports an obviously not foreseen application: detection of alpha emitting nuclides released in the first weeks of May, 1986 during the accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR. 128 refs.; 43 figs.; 15 tabs

  19. INTRACOIN: an international nuclide transport code intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the understanding of various strategies for geospheric radionuclide tranport modelling an international cooperation project with ten participating organizations has been set up. In the project - INTRACOIN (Internatonal Nuclide Transport COde INtercomparison) study - a comparison between models is made on three levels with increasing complexity. Calculations are performed with some 20 computer codes representing different modelling strategies. The INTRACOIN study is limited in its scope to far-field radionuclide geosphere transport models. Thus, near-field models, groundwater hydraulics and models for transort in the biosphere are not included. However, since the geological barrier is an important part of the safety system the study should contribute to the understanding of important phenomena related to long-term safety assessments. In addition it provides a forum for discussion and for direct exchange of experience between experts in the field

  20. Method of eluting radioactive nuclide from spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly radioactive spent ion exchange resins containing a great amount of cesium or strontium as radioactive nuclides are immersed in an eluting solution and, by stirring solution, cesium or strontium adsorbed to the spent ion exchange resins are eluted. The eluting solution is passed through a zeolite bed to selectively remove cesium and/or strontium. As an eluent for the eluting solution to be used, sodium salts such as sodium hydroxide or sodium sulfate is preferred. Zeolite having radiation resistance and not suffering from reduction in the absorbent performance by the presence of boric acid or sodium are used. Since the zeolite is highly stabilized with inorganic material by cement or glass solidification, the amount is remarkably reduced as compared with that of the spent resins and the administration is facilitated. (K.M.)

  1. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ({sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient {sup 228}U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by {sup 19}F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous {gamma}-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  2. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  3. Selection of an optimized control nuclide to halt primary pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary pumps are indispensable equipment to a nuclear power station. Besides maintaining the safe operation a unit, they play an un-replaceable function to control radiation source term. Selecting an optimized radionuclide to control the halt of primary pumps is an essential guide to deal with the problem between outage duration and reduction of radiation source term to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) unit. From operational experiences of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (NPS), the author points out that 110mAg is the key nuclide which contributes largely to the radiation on the reactor unload/reload pool surface. The author also recommends a limit of 110mAg for halt of the primary pumps

  4. WWER-1000 spent fuel nuclide inventory at the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a presentation and discussion of selected isotope inventory results for different types of WWER-1000 spent fuel assemblies. Nuclide inventory calculations of spent fuel assemblies at the Kozloduy NPP are routinely performed using the SCALE 4.4a computer code system. Besides the standard 17x17 ORIGEN-S library, a specific library developed at the Kozloduy NPP for each different fuel type at typical irradiation conditions is used. The evaluated concentrations of the most important isotopes - 235U, 236U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu - depending on burnup, are compared with fuel supplier data and with data calculated using the HELIOS-1.5 lattice code. The buildup of some other isotopes (237Np, 241Am, 243Am) is presented, too. (authors)

  5. WWER-1000 spent fuel nuclide inventory at the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a presentation and discussion of selected isotope inventory results for different types of WWER-1000 spent fuel assemblies. Nuclide inventory calculations of spent fuel assemblies at Kozloduy NPP are routinely performed using the SCALE 4.4a computer code system. Besides the standard 17x17 ORIGEN-S library, a specific library developed at the Kozloduy NPP for each different fuel type at typical irradiation conditions is used. The evaluated concentrations of the most important isotopes-235U, 236U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu-depending on burnup, are compared with fuel supplier data and with data calculated using the HELIOS-1.5 lattice code. The buildup of some other isotopes (237Np, 241Am, 243Am) is presented, too (Authors)

  6. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography, 1939--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliography of more than 1300 references on accelerator-produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine is presented. The information is arranged by subject and by specific nuclide. An author index is included. Appendices are provided of medical uses of specific elements and of radioisotopes not included in the main bibliography. (U.S.)

  7. Interactive information system on the transmutation of nuclides in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An information system which can be used to calculate nuclide transmutation in nuclear reactors is described. The algorithms developed are based on a directed nuclide transformation graph and improve the speed of the calculations. The calculations are performed using a nuclear physics constants database with the latest evaluations which improves the reliability of the results obtained. (author)

  8. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  9. Erosion of mountain plateaus along Sognefjord, Norway, constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David L.; Knudsen, Mads F.; Linge, Henriette; Jansen, John D.

    2016-04-01

    Norway is famous for its deeply incised, steep-sided fjords, carved out by glacial erosion. The high relief of the fjords stands in contrast to the extensive areas of relatively low relief found between the fjords. The origin and development of these low-relief areas remain debated. The classical interpretation relates them to a Mesozoic peneplanation surface, uplifted to the current high elevation in the early Cenozoic (e.g. Nesje, 1994). The validity of this interpretation has, however, been repeatedly questioned in recent times (e.g. Nielsen et al. 2009, Steer et al. 2012). Recent studies point instead to a significant impact of glacial and periglacial erosion processes on the long-term development of the low-relief surfaces (Egholm et al. 2015). Here, we present a large new dataset of in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in bedrock and boulders from the high, flat summit surfaces along a transect from the coast to the inner parts of Sognefjorden in Norway. Our results indicate substantial glacial modification of the sampled low-relief surfaces within the last 50 ka. Close to the coast, at an elevation of around 700 meters, the cosmogenic nuclide signal was reset around the Younger Dryas due to extensive glacial erosion. Regarding the higher surfaces further inland, our results indicate a maximum cosmogenic nuclide inheritance of 20-30 ka prior to the last deglaciation. We do not find any signs of exceptional longevity of the low-relief landscape. In contrast, our results indicate that the low-relief areas were continuously eroded by glacial and periglacial processes in the Quaternary. Nesje & Whillans. Erosion of Sognefjord, Norway. Geomorphology 9(1), 33-45, 1994. Nielsen et al. The evolution of western Scandinavian topography: a review of Neogene uplift versus the ICE (isostasy-climate-erosion) hypothesis. Journal of Geodynamics 47(2), 72-95, 2009. Steer et al. Bimodal Plio-Quaternary glacial erosion of fjords and low-relief surfaces in Scandinavia

  10. Measurements of airborne short-lived radioactivity concentration in a PET facility at a national University hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National universities in Japan became under regulation of Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2004FY. One of the legal obligations is working environment measurements such as airborne radioactivity concentration in the rooms where employees handle unsealed radiation sources. Both in 2004FY and in 2005FY, measurements of airborne radioactivity concentration were carried out by two different agencies. The most prominent difference among them is the measurement for short-lived PET nuclides. In 2004FY, one agency measured the radioactivity with a Ge spectrometer at its own laboratory, whereas, in 2005FY, the other agency brought a NaI scintillation counter for gross gamma counting to the Hospital. It can be shown that detection limits for short-lived PET nuclides are in principle almost the same in both methods. It is also found that, in the actual case, gamma spectrometry with a Ge spectrometer is superior in judgement of detection of the radioactivity. (author)

  11. Nuclides and pathways of relevance to the environmental monitoring programme for the Wackersdorf fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevant 14 nuclides (leading nuclides) have been determined that are to be observed within the radiological monitoring programme set up for normal operation of the Wackersdorf fuel reprocessing plant. These nuclides contribute about 99 p.c. of the total radiation exposure expected in the environs of the plant. Dispersion calculations have been made for these leading nuclides in accordance with the general instructions concerning the assessment of radiation exposure from radioactive effluents (Directives for the implementation of sec. 45, Radiation Protection Ordinance). Apart from the pathways mentioned in the above Directives, site-specific, additional pathways have been examined (as e.g. fish culture). An analysis of the various pathways of the individual nuclides shows the environmental materials to be observed by the monotoring programme. The results are explained in detail. (orig./PW)

  12. The introduction of radio nuclides over the atmosphere into the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is barely possible to provide exact data concerning the aerosol entry and the quantities of precipitation in the region of the North Sea, in the following an attempt will be made to estimate the annual entry of radio nuclides in the North Sea. As data for the calculations, available estimations of the quantity of precipitation over the sea, the content of radio nuclides in the air and in the rain over land and the activities conveyed thereby to the earth, as well as the emission quantities of radio nuclides with the exhaust air from nuclear energy plants, are applied. It is quite clear that Tritium represents by far the main part of the radio nuclides which enter the sea via the precipitation. The majority of the other artificial radio nuclides, on the other hand, are to be viewed as being quantitatively insignificant. (orig.)

  13. Approach to establishing safety margin for uncertainty in measurement and nuclide spectrum in clearance level inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the monitoring for compliance with the clearance level, the concentrations of objective nuclides, such as alpha or low-energy beta emitters, can be estimated without direct gamma measurement by assuming the existence of objective nuclides at geometric mean concentrations or by using previously assessed information on nuclide spectra and measurement results for a key gamma nuclide. To determine whether clearance can be carried out, the uncertainty in the mean concentrations and concentration ratios to the key gamma nuclide should be appropriately considered, in addition to the measurement uncertainty. In this work, the concept of the clearance level has been reconsidered and a new approach to establishing an appropriate safety factor of the monitoring for compliance with the clearance level has been proposed. This approach was adopted in the draft of standard of 'Monitoring for Compliance with Clearance Level' prepared by the Standards Committee (SC) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). (author)

  14. Analysis of the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the%Analysis of the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丰群; 宋月丽; 拓飞; 孔祥忠

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, according to the regulation of growth and decay of radioactive nuclides produced in reactions, a formula used to calculate the total activation cross section of all possible reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for the same element is

  15. Bidirectional coherent classical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.

    2005-01-01

    A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...

  16. Entanglement in Classical Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Partha; Mukherjee, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate betw...

  17. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  18. Teleportation via classical entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Boyd, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    We present a classical counterpart to quantum teleportation that uses classical entanglement instead of quantum entanglement. In our implementation we take advantage of classical entanglement among three parties: orbital angular momentum (OAM), polarization, and the radial degrees of freedom of a beam of light. We demonstrate the teleportation of arbitrary OAM states, in the subspace spanned by any two OAM states, to the polarization of the same beam. Our letter presents the first classical demonstration of a commonly-perceived--quantum phenomenon that requires entanglement among more than two parties.

  19. Your Pet's Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources VMA Resource Center Tools for K-12 ... infection because giving the preventive to a heartworm-positive pet will not treat the infection and could ...

  20. Clinical application of PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomena, Francisco [Hospital Clinico Villarroel, Barcelona (Spain). Nuclear Medicine]. E-mail: flomena@clinic.ub.es; Soler, Marina [CETIR Grup Medic. Esplkugues de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain). PET Unit

    2005-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging modality that gives information on tissue metabolism and functionalism, different from other imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide anatomical or structural information. PET has reached its development in biomedical research because of its capacity to use analogous compounds of many endogenous substance as tracers, and to measure, in vivo and in a non-invasive way, their consumption by the different organs and tissues of the mammalian body. Fluorodeoxyglucose-F 18 (FDG) PET has been proven to be a tracer adequate for clinical use in oncology and in many neurological diseases, with an excellent cost-efficiency ratio. The current PET-CT scanners can come to be the best tools for exploring patients who suffer from cancer.(author)

  1. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Cold Weather Pet Safety Client Handout Available for download ... in hot cars , but did you know that cold weather also poses serious threats to your pets’ ...

  2. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...... February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology......, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both...

  3. Clinical application of pet

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Lomeña; Marina Soler

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging modality that gives information on tissue metabolism and functionalism, different from other imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide anatomical or structural information. PET has reached its development in biomedical research because of its capacity to use analogous compounds of many endogenous substance as tracers, and to measure, in vivo and in a non-invasive way, their consumption ...

  4. Lectures on Classical Integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the lectures consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schroedinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.

  5. DCHAIN 2: a computer code for calculation of transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DCHAIN2 is a one-point depletion code which solves the coupled equation of radioactive growth and decay for a large number of nuclides by the Bateman method. A library of nuclear data for 1170 fission products has been prepared for providing input data to this code. The Bateman method surpasses the matrix exponential method in computational accuracies and in saving computer storage for the code. However, most existing computer codes based on the Bateman method have shown serious drawbacks in treating cyclic chains and more than a few specific types of decay chains. The present code has surmounted the above drawbacks by improving the code FP-S, and has the following characteristics: (1) The code can treat any type of transmutation through decays or neutron induced reactions. Multiple decays and reactions are allowed for a nuclide. (2) Unknown decay energy in the nuclear data library can be estimated. (3) The code constructs the decay scheme of each nuclide in the code and breaks it up into linear chains. Nuclide names, decay types and branching ratios of mother nuclides are necessary as the input data for each nuclide. Order of nuclides in the library is arbitrary because each nuclide is destinguished by its nuclide name. (4) The code can treat cyclic chains by an approximation. A library of the nuclear data has been prepared for 1170 fission products, including the data for half-lives, decay schemes, neutron absorption cross sections, fission yields, and disintegration energies. While DCHAIN2 is used to compute the compositions, radioactivity and decay heat of fission products, the gamma-ray spectrum of fission products can be computed also by a separate code FPGAM using the composition obtained from DCHAIN2. (J.P.N.)

  6. User manual of nuclide dispersion in phreatic aquifers model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclide Dispersion in Phreatic Aquifers (DRAF) model was developed in the 'Division Estudios Ambientales' of the 'Gerencia de Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica' (1991), for the Safety Assessment of Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Afterwards, it was modified in several opportunities, adapting it to a number of application conditions. The 'Manual del usuario del codigo DRAF' here presented is a reference document for the use of the last three versions of the code developed for the 'Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear' between 1995 and 1996. The DRAF model solves the three dimension's solute transport equation for porous media by the finite differences method. It takes into account the advection, dispersion, radioactive decay, and retention in the solid matrix processes, and has multiple possibilities for the source term. There are three versions of the model, two of them for the saturated zone and one for the unsaturated zone. All the versions have been verified in different conditions, and have been applied in exercises of the International Atomic Energy Agency and also in real cases. (author)

  7. Production and Recoil Loss of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappitsch, Reto; Leya, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Presolar grains are small particles that condensed in the vicinity of dying stars. Some of these grains survived the voyage through the interstellar medium (ISM) and were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies at the formation of the Solar System. An important question is when these stellar processes happened, i.e., how long presolar grains were drifting through the ISM. While conventional radiometric dating of such small grains is very difficult, presolar grains are irradiated with galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the ISM, which induce the production of cosmogenic nuclides. This opens the possibility to determine cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, i.e., how long presolar grains were irradiated in the ISM. Here, we present a new model for the production and loss of cosmogenic 3He, 6,7Li, and 21,22Ne in presolar SiC grains. The cosmogenic production rates are calculated using a state-of-the-art nuclear cross-section database and a GCR spectrum in the ISM consistent with recent Voyager data. Our findings are that previously measured 3He and 21Ne CRE ages agree within the (sometimes large) 2σ uncertainties and that the CRE ages for most presolar grains are smaller than the predicted survival times. The obtained results are relatively robust since interferences from implanted low-energy GCRs into the presolar SiC grains and/or from cosmogenic production within the meteoroid can be neglected.

  8. Baseline concentrations of nuclear fuel waste nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of the environment is a key issue in the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. To assess the implications of undergound disposal, transport models are commonly used to predict radionuclide concentrations in soil and water. However, an appropriate framework needs to be established to ensure that the predicted concentrations do not impose unacceptable environmental impacts. Here, we suggest baseline environmental concentrations of the most important radionuclides in nuclear fuel waste. We summarize background concentrations of the nuclides in soil and surface water, and suggest Environmental Increments (EI) that could be added to soil and water without causing detectable effects. The EI values are based mostly on natural variability, but some alternative methods are used for radionuclides that are very rare in nature. The background concentrations and EI values are most useful as a screening tool to help identify potentially unacceptable concentrations arising from a disposal concept. When available, we also report data on concentrations that have been measured in the environment without causing an observable effect. This review focuses especially on concentrations applicable to the Canadian Precambrian Shield, as part of the Canadian concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a deep, stable geological formation

  9. Computer models for nuclide migration from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this study is to assess the possible release of radionuclides from shallow trench repositories by interaction with groundwater. To achieve this aim an appreciation of the strategy of computer modelling was required and in the course of this work some calculations will be carried out using a simple computer model. A review of the literature on nuclide migration models was therefore carried out which covered the basic theory, data requirements and limitations of use of such models. This review is by no means a complete survey of existing codes but is intended as a guide to the mathematical basis of the models for the non-specialist, indicating those parameters which influence the eventual radionuclide release. At this stage a very sophisticated model is not required, and therefore this review has concentrated mainly on simple, one dimensional codes. Two such codes have been run for five test cases in order to compare their results with each other and with the results of other codes published in the literature. (author)

  10. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  11. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Haruo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs.

  12. Grassmannians of classical buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Pankov, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are combinatorial constructions successfully exploited to study groups of various types. The vertex set of a building can be naturally decomposed into subsets called Grassmannians. The book contains both classical and more recent results on Grassmannians of buildings of classical types. It gives a modern interpretation of some classical results from the geometry of linear groups. The presented methods are applied to some geometric constructions non-related to buildings - Grassmannians of infinite-dimensional vector spaces and the sets of conjugate linear involutions. The book is self

  13. Davidson and classical pragmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rossi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003 and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914 and William James (1842-1910. I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect briefly on the relevance –often unrecognized- of classical pragmatist ideas in the context of contemporary philosophi-cal discussions.

  14. AX-PET: A novel PET concept with G-APD readout

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, M; Casella, C; Chesi, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Fanti, V; Gillam, J E; Joram, C; Lustermann, W; Nappi, E; Oliver, J F; Pauss, F; Rafecas, M; Rudge, A; Ruotsalainen, U; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Seguinot, J; Solevi, P; Stapnes, S; Tuna, U; Weilhammer, P

    2012-01-01

    The AX-PET collaboration has developed a novel concept for high resolution PET imaging to overcome some of the performance limitations of classical PET cameras, in particular the compromise between spatial resolution and sensitivity introduced by the parallax error. The detector consists of an arrangement of long LYSO scintillating crystals axially oriented around the field of view together with arrays of wave length shifter strips orthogonal to the crystals. This matrix allows a precise 3D measurement of the photon interaction point. This is valid both for photoelectric absorption at 511 key and for Compton scattering down to deposited energies of about 100 keV. Crystals and WLS strips are individually read out using Geiger-mode Avalanche Photo Diodes (G-APDs). The sensitivity of such a detector can be adjusted by changing the number of layers and the resolution is defined by the crystal and strip dimensions. Two AX-PET modules were built and fully characterized in dedicated test set-ups at CERN, with point-...

  15. PET and PET/CT in neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper three modes of PET diagnostics are analyzed. Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)18F is recommended for evaluation of the most solid tumours. 18F DOPA PET with an aromatic aminoacid radiotracer is promising for studying neuroendocrine tumours (NET). Successes of PET of somatostatin receptors (SS-RPET) recently reported were mainly connected with high diagnostic accuracy achieved in NET tumours

  16. Nuclides.net: An integrated environment for computations on radionuclides and their radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Nuclides.net computational package is of direct interest in the fields of environment monitoring and nuclear forensics. The 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclide chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The main emphasis in Nuclides.net is on nuclear science applications, such as health physics, radioprotection and radiochemistry, rather than nuclear data for which excellent sources already exist. In contrast to the CD-based Nuclides 2000 predecessor, Nuclides.net applications run over the internet on a web server. The user interface to these applications is via a web browser. Information submitted by the user is sent to the appropriate applications resident on the web server. The results of the calculations are returned to the user, again via the browser. The product is aimed at both students and professionals for reference data on radionuclides and computations based on this data using the latest internet technology. It is particularly suitable for educational purposes in the nuclear industry, health physics and radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, nuclear physics, astrophysics, etc. The Nuclides.net software suite contains the following modules/features: a) A new user interface to view the nuclide charts (with zoom features). Additional nuclide charts are based on spin, parity, binding energy etc. b) There are five main applications: (1) 'Decay Engine' for decay calculations of numbers, masses, activities, dose rates, etc. of parent and daughters. (2) 'Dosimetry and Shielding' module allows the calculation of dose rates from both unshielded and shielded point sources. A choice of 10 shield materials is available. (3) 'Virtual Nuclides' allows the user to do decay and dosimetry and shielding calculations on mixtures of

  17. Fate of nuclides in natural water systems. Annual progress report, April 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of the behavior of nuclides in natural water systems is divided into studies of atmospheric aerosols, soils, groundwater, rivers, estuaries and coastal zones, the carbon cycle and the growth rates of marine organisms

  18. Calculation of fissile nuclides and fission products inventory applied to ETRR-1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the nuclear reactor fuel safety implies studying physical mechanical, thermal and chemical proportions of the fuel during normal operation and accident conditions. A model was developed to calculate the fissile nuclides and fission products inventory in an operating reactor. The model considers the production and removal of different radionuclides leaking into account the decay schemes of each. The mathematical formulas were treated without any approximations. A decay model was developed for the period after reactor shutdown. The amount of different nuclides was evaluated for a given cooling time. Egypt test and research reactor number 1, ETRR-1. Was chosen to apply the model. The amount of about 200 nuclides was calculated. A certain nuclides was chosen to be presented based on their poisoning ratios. Criticality calculations were carried out to investigate the criticality condition of the reactor at different operating times. 4 fig

  19. Cosmogenic neutron-capture-produced nuclides in stony meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of neutrons with energies below 15 MeV in spherical stony meteoroids is calculated using the ANISN neutron-transport code. The source distributions and intensities of neutrons are calculated using cross sections for the production of tritium. The meteoroid's radius and chemical composition strongly influence the total neutron flux and the neutron energy spectrum, while the location within a meteoroid only affects the relative neutron intensities. Meteoroids need to have radii of more than 50 g/cm2 before they have appreciable fluxes of neutrons near thermal energies. Meteoroids with high hydrogen or low iron contents can thermalize neutrons better than chondrites. Rates for the production of 60Co, 59Ni, and 36Cl are calculated with evaluated neutron-capture cross sections and neutron fluxes determined for carbonaceous chondrites with high hydrogen contents, L-chondrites, and aubrites. For most meteoroids with radii 2, the production rates of these neutron-capture nuclides increase monotonically with depth. The highest calculated 60Co production rate in an ordinary chondrite is 375 atoms/(min g-Co) at the center of a meteoroid with a 250 g/cm2 radius. The production rates calculated for spallogenic 60Co and 59Ni are greater than the neutron-capture rates for radii less than approx.50-75 g/cm2. Only for very large meteoroids and chlorine-rich samples is the neutron-capture production of 36Cl important. The results of these calculations are compared with those of previous calculations and with measured activities in many meteorites. 44 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  20. Physics of classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    The classical electromagnetism described by the Maxwell equations constitutes a fundamental law in contemporary physics. Even with the advent of sophisticated new materials, the principles of classical electromagnetism are still active in various applied areas in today’s advanced communication techniques. Physics of Classical Electromagnetism, by Minoru Fujimoto, is written with concise introductory arguments emphasizing the original field concept, with an aim at understanding objectives in modern information technology. Following basic discussions of electromagnetism with a modernized approach, this book will provide readers with an overview of current problems in high-frequency physics. To further the reader’s understanding of the concepts and applications discussed, each illustration within the book shows the location of all active charges, and the author has provided many worked-out examples throughout the book. Physics of Classical Electromagnetism is intended for students in physics and engineering ...

  1. Injuries in classical ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, R

    1984-11-01

    The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832

  2. Classical and Quantum Intertwine

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Ph.; Jadczyk, A.

    1993-01-01

    Model interactions between classical and quantum systems are briefly discussed. These include: general measurement-like couplings, Stern-Gerlach experiment, model of a counter, quantum Zeno effect, SQUID-tank model.

  3. Medical application of PET technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, C. W.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S. and others

    1999-04-01

    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [{sup 18}F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals.

  4. Medical application of PET technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [18F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals

  5. Classical confined particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward

    1993-01-01

    An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.

  6. Davidson and classical pragmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Rossi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003) and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) and William James (1842-1910). I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect brie...

  7. Constraining landscape development of the Sri Lankan escarpment with cosmogenic nuclides in river sediment

    OpenAIRE

    V. Vanacker; Friedhelm von Blanckenburg; T. Hewawasam; P. W. Kubik;  ,

    2007-01-01

    Escarpments are prominentmorphological features along high-elevation passive margins. Recent studies integrating geomorphology, thermochronology, and cosmogenic nuclide-based denudation rate estimates suggest a rapid phase of denudation immediately after the earliest stages of seafloor spreading, and subsequent slow denudation rates since. To constrain the geomorphic evolution of passive margins, we have examined the development of the Sri Lankan escarpment. Cosmogenic nuclide data on river s...

  8. The control mechanisms of erosion and weathering at basin scale from cosmogenic nuclides in river sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Friedhelm von Blanckenburg;  

    2005-01-01

    The study of a sample of river sediment enables the determination of spatially averaged denudation rates that provide an exceptional perspective on erosion and weathering processes that have taken place within a landscape. These measurements are done with in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides (e.g. 10Be, 26Al), mostly in quartz from alluvial sediment. Cosmogenic nuclides are produced when secondary cosmic rays interact with the very uppermost layer of the Earth’s surface. They are produced wit...

  9. Determination of ultra-trace amounts of nuclides by sensitive inorganic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) mass spectrometry has a potential to detect very tiny amounts of radioactive nuclides owing to its high sensitivity. The detection of long-lived nuclides such as 236U, 135Cs, and 129I has been reported in the recent years. In this review, principle of inorganic mass spectrometry (MS) and characteristics of ICP are explained, and their detection limits are compared with those obtained by conventional radiation measurements. (author)

  10. Measurement of specific radioactivity of 125I, 139Ce, etc 7 kinds of nuclide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay characteristic of 125I, 139Ce, 88Y, 57Co, 60Co, 137Cs and 134Cs radio-nuclide and the principle for measurement of specific activity of the seven kinds of nuclide with coincidence method, 4πγ ionization room method, spectroscopy method and summing peak method are simply is described. The results compare with the measurement result from National Institute of Metrology P.R. China, they are agreeable within uncertainty. (authors)

  11. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  12. Application of activable stable nuclide tracers to the soil erosion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present application of activable stable nuclide tracers to the study of soil erosion is discussed. The rare earth element tracers are taken as an example and the emphasis is placed on the application and prospect of the activable nuclide tracer method. Experimental results have shown that the method has a great future in the studies on spatial and temporal distributions of soil erosion, sediment movement and deposition process as well as the sediment origin in small watershed

  13. Saturation condition and evolution of the nuclides for sub-critical system driven by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present work, under initial inventory with 232Th and natU, the evolution of nuclides in subcritical devices under given thermal, fast, hardening fast and fission neutron field are studied without the detail structure of sub-critical device and the burn-up being considered. It is supposed that the subcritical reactor consists of uniform in which the flux of neutron is homogeneous. The fissile nuclides breeding, equilibrium condition, minor activity (MA) accumulation and transmutation, are studied. (author)

  14. Partitioning of long-lived nuclides from radioactive waste. FY 1975 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E.J.

    1976-04-01

    The status of the following studies is reported: characterization and treatment of solids in high-level waste; removal of long-lived nuclides from solidified waste and non-high-level wastes; development of low-additive flowsheets for removing long-lived nuclides from the fission products; evaluation of incentives for partitioning; and comparison of waste management systems with and without partitioning. (LK)

  15. Effects of up scattering by heavy nuclides on Doppler changes of resonance adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for handling energy changes of neutrons accurately in a Monte Carlo code, within the large resonances of heavy nuclides, is discussed. The procedure has been applied in the MCNP program to sample problem which relates to PWR unit cells. The statistical uncertainties in estimating the effect of neutron up scattering in pronounced resonances of heavy nuclides on resonance absorption rates, and their temperature changes, are discussed. (author). 10 refs

  16. Role of PET in Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Schwaiger; Hinrich Wieder

    2005-01-01

    In Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), PET imaging should be performed in all patients, particularlyin stage I or II disease where change in staging will alter management. For aggressiveNon-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), PET imaging is valuable to provide a baseline forresponse evaluation. For indolent NHL, it is concluded that PET imaging is not generallyindicated. For HL, a negative FDG-PET scan is highly indicative of long-term, disease-freesurvival and is particularly useful in the presence of residual C...

  17. A Study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated the properties of geochemical reactions and sorption of high-level radionuclides (U, Th, Am, and Np), constructed databases for the geochemical reactions and sorption of the high-level radionuclides, and developed application methodologies of the databases. For the investigation on the nuclide migration and retardation through fractured rocks in KURT, in-situ solute migration system and on-line monitoring system were installed. The migration and retardation behaviors of nuclides were investigated annually for non-sorbing, simply sorbing and multi-valent sorbing nuclides, respectively, and interactions with fracture-filling materials were also analyzed. Besides, researches difficult to perform in KURT were carried out in foreign underground research facilities as joint studies for nuclide and colloid migration. The results from domestic and foreign underground facilities were compared each other and the reliability of the domestic results were assured from this. Diffusion depths of high-level radionuclides into rock matrix were measured in KURT conditions and their diffusion properties were analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the effects of bio-mineralization and redox reactions of a nuclide and microbe on nuclide behaviors were carried out to study the effects of combined interactions between minerals and microbes on the radionuclide migration and retardation

  18. PET imaging of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory diseases are common place and often chronic. Most inflammatory cells have increased uptake of glucose which is enhanced in the presence of local cytokines. Therefore, imaging glucose metabolism by the means of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) holds significant promise in imaging focal inflammation. Most of the work published involved small series of patients with either vasculitis, sarcoid or rheumatoid arthritis. It would appear that FDG PET is a simple and effective technique to identify inflammatory tissue in these conditions. There is even some work to suggest that by comparing baseline and early post therapy scans clinical outcome can be predicted. This would appear to be true with vasculitis as well as retroperitoneal fibrosis. The number of patients in each study is small but the evidence is compelling enough to recommend FDG PET imaging in the routine care of these patients.

  19. Novel PET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the design, synthesis and evaluation of novel molecular sensors that utilize the phenomena of Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET). PET design can be incorporated into molecules to allow them to selectively bind certain guest molecules. PET works by the modulation of electron potentials within a molecule. Binding events between a host and guest can, if designed suitably, change these potentials enough to cause a transfer of electronic charge within the molecular sensor. This event can be accurately and sensitively monitored by the use of ultra violet or fluorescence spectroscopy. A sensor molecule can be constructed by matching the guest to a suitable receptor site and incorporating this into a molecule containing a fluorophore with the correct electron potential characteristics. By using existing synthetic routes as well as exploiting new pathways these sensor molecules C n be constructed to contain a fluorophore separated from a guest receptor(s) by suitable spacers units. When put together these facets go to creating molecules that by design are sensitive and selective for certain guest molecules or functional groups. This methodology allows the synthetic chemist to rationally design and synthesise PET sensors, tailored to the needs of the guest. In this thesis the synthesis and evaluation of a novel PET sensors for D-glucosamine, disaccharides and fluoride is presented. It is believed that the novel sensors using the PET phenomenon presented in this thesis are a worthwhile extension of previous works undertaken by other groups around the world and shows new pathways to increasingly complex and sophisticated sensor molecular design. (author)

  20. PET-CT; PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, O. [Univeritaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Heindel, W. [Univeritaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2008-07-01

    Positron emission tomography - computerized tomography (PET-CT) is the fusion of two modern imaging techniques. The book includes the following chapters: 1. fundamentals: radiation protection aspects, radionuclide production, contrast agents, patient preparation, image interpretation; 2. diagnostics of carcinomas: carcinomas in brain, head-throat, thyroid, lungs, intestinal tract, gynecological carcinomas, urinary tract and bladder carcinomas, prostate carcinomas, malignant lymphomas, malignant malinomas, carcinomas in the skeletal system; 3. infections; 4. diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases; 5. diagnostics of neurodegenerative diseases; 6. developments and perspectives, 7. attachments: internet links, glossary, abbreviations.

  1. Clinical application of pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lomeña

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is an imaging modality that gives information on tissue metabolism and functionalism, different from other imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which provide anatomical or structural information. PET has reached its development in biomedical research because of its capacity to use analogous compounds of many endogenous substance as tracers, and to measure, in vivo and in a non-invasive way, their consumption by the different organs and tissues of the mammalian body. Fluordeoxyglucose-F18 (FDG PET has been proven to be a tracer adequate for clinical use in oncology and in many neurological diseases, with an excellent cost-efficiency ratio. The current PET-CT scanners can come to be the best tools for exploring patients who suffer from cancer.A tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET é uma técnica de diagnóstico por imagem que fornece informação sobre o metabolismo e funcionamento dos tecidos, diferente de outras técnicas de imagens como tomografia computadorizada (TC e ressonância magnética (RM, as quais fornecem informações estruturais ou anatômicas. O PET alcançou seu desenvolvimento em investigação biomédica devido à sua capacidade de usar traçadores análogos a muitas substâncias endógenas e de medir in vivo e de forma não invasiva seu consumo em diferentes órgãos e tecidos dos mamíferos 18Fluordesoxiglicose (FDG PET tem provado ser uma exploração de uso clínico com excelente relação custo benefício em oncologia e em muitas doenças neurológicas. Os atuais tomógrafos por PET-CT podem chegar a ser a melhor ferramenta de diagnóstico nos pacientes que sofrem de câncer.

  2. PET imaging of hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia in tumors has been related to poor response to conventional therapies. This paper will discuss the methods, both invasive and non-invasive, used to determine hypoxia levels within tumors. PET imaging with two lead compounds 18F-fluoro misonidazole (18FMISO) and Cu-(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone (Cu-ATSM) and their relative effectiveness in delineating hypoxic regions will be discussed. The advantages of Cu-ATSM-PET over existing imaging agents will be discussed along with its potential application as a direct-and/or surrogate marker for the determination of oncological hypoxia in vivo

  3. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a prototype PET detector which is compatible with a clinical MRI system to provide simultaneous PET and MR imaging. This single-slice PET system consists of 48 2x2x10mm3 LSO crystals in a 38 mm diameter ring configuration that can be placed inside the receiver coil of the MRI system, coupled to three multi-channel photomultipliers housed outside the main magnetic field via 4 m long and 2 mm diameter optical fibres. The PET system exhibits 2 mm spatial resolution, 41% energy resolution at 511 keV and 20 ns timing resolution. Simultaneous PET and MR phantom images were successfully acquired. (author)

  4. Classically-Controlled Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Perdrix, Simon; Jorrand, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Quantum computations usually take place under the control of the classical world. We introduce a Classically-controlled Quantum Turing Machine (CQTM) which is a Turing Machine (TM) with a quantum tape for acting on quantum data, and a classical transition function for a formalized classical control. In CQTM, unitary transformations and measurements are allowed. We show that any classical TM is simulated by a CQTM without loss of efficiency. The gap between classical and quantum computations, ...

  5. AX-PET: A novel PET concept with G-APD readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, E.; Casella, C.; Chesi, E.; De Leo, R.; Dissertori, G.; Fanti, V.; Gillam, J. E.; Heller, M.; Joram, C.; Lustermann, W.; Nappi, E.; Oliver, J. F.; Pauss, F.; Rafecas, M.; Rudge, A.; Ruotsalainen, U.; Schinzel, D.; Schneider, T.; Séguinot, J.; Solevi, P.; Stapnes, S.; Tuna, U.; Weilhammer, P.

    2012-12-01

    The AX-PET collaboration has developed a novel concept for high resolution PET imaging to overcome some of the performance limitations of classical PET cameras, in particular the compromise between spatial resolution and sensitivity introduced by the parallax error. The detector consists of an arrangement of long LYSO scintillating crystals axially oriented around the field of view together with arrays of wave length shifter strips orthogonal to the crystals. This matrix allows a precise 3D measurement of the photon interaction point. This is valid both for photoelectric absorption at 511 keV and for Compton scattering down to deposited energies of about 100 keV. Crystals and WLS strips are individually read out using Geiger-mode Avalanche Photo Diodes (G-APDs). The sensitivity of such a detector can be adjusted by changing the number of layers and the resolution is defined by the crystal and strip dimensions. Two AX-PET modules were built and fully characterized in dedicated test set-ups at CERN, with point-like 22Na sources. Their performance in terms of energy (Renergy≈11.8% (FWMH) at 511 keV) and spatial resolution was assessed (σaxial≈0.65 mm), both individually and for the two modules in coincidence. Test campaigns at ETH Zurich and at the company AAA allowed the tomographic reconstructions of more complex phantoms validating the 3D reconstruction algorithms. The concept of the AX-PET modules will be presented together with some characterization results. We describe a count rate model which allows to optimize the planing of the tomographic scans.

  6. Quality control of PET labeled agents by TLC, GC and HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive nuclides emitting β+-radiation are used for labeling in PET diagnostic. Before the radioactive labeled agent can be used, the radiochemical purity has to be determined by means of two separate radio-chromatography methods. For HPLC, TLC, GC and CE special radioactivity detectors sensitive for β+-radiation are required, which fulfil the regulations of various international and national authorities. All conventional chromatography detectors in applications of HPLC, TLC, GC and CE like UV-absorption, fluorescence, reflective index, conductivity, amperometry etc. have an analog signal output 0-1 V. Therefore all signal recording and peak integration systems for chromatography have analog inputs of 0-1 V. (author)

  7. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Elena; Lecumberri, Pablo; Pagola, Miguel; Gómez, Marisol; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M.

    2012-06-01

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical 18F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools.

  8. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical 18F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools. (paper)

  9. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  10. A Single Classical Quark

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, V D

    1997-01-01

    The spherically symmetric solution in classical SU(3) Yang - Mills theory is found. It is supposed that such solution describes a classical quark. It is regular in origin and hence the interaction between two quarks is small on the small distance. The obtained solution has the singularity on infinity. It is possible that is the reason why the free quark cannot exist. Evidently, nonlocality of this object leads to the fact that in quantum chromodynamic the difficulties arise connected with investigation of quarks interaction on large distance.

  11. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  12. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  13. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  14. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  15. The classical nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab

  16. Removal of round off errors in the matrix exponential method for solving the heavy nuclide chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nodal codes for core simulation adopt the micro-depletion procedure for the depletion analysis. Unlike the macro-depletion procedure, the microdepletion procedure uses micro-cross sections and number densities of important nuclides to generate the macro cross section of a spatial calculational node. Therefore, it needs to solve the chain equations of the nuclides of interest to obtain their number densities. There are several methods such as the matrix exponential method (MEM) and the chain linearization method (CLM) for solving the nuclide chain equations. The former solves chain equations exactly even when the cycles that come from the alpha decay exist in the chain while the latter solves the chain approximately when the cycles exist in the chain. The former has another advantage over the latter. Many nodal codes for depletion analysis, such as MASTER, solve only the hard coded nuclide chains with the CLM. Therefore, if we want to extend the chain by adding some more nuclides to the chain, we have to modify the source code. In contrast, we can extend the chain just by modifying the input in the MEM because it is easy to implement the MEM solver for solving an arbitrary nuclide chain. In spite of these advantages of the MEM, many nodal codes adopt the chain linearization because the former has a large round off error when the flux level is very high or short lived or strong absorber nuclides exist in the chain. In this paper, we propose a new technique to remove the round off errors in the MEM and we compared the performance of the two methods

  17. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food and treats might include dry dog or cat food, dog biscuits, pig ears, beef hooves, and rodents ... after your pet, and before eating or preparing foods. Make sure to remove your ... contain dog or cat feces to prevent the spread of roundworms and ...

  18. Choosing a Pet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE capital boasts countless markets of all kinds,but some of its insect,bird and pet markets immortalize Beijing culture and folkloric traditions.Don’t miss it! The Huasheng Tianqiao Market,south of the famous Panjiayuan Antique Market, was moved a few years ago and rebuilt in the

  19. PET Bottles Recycling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Václav; Hanika, Jiří

    Praha : Ministry of Industry and Trade CR, 2008, s. 1-6. ISBN N. [Pollutec 2008. Lyon (FR), 02.12.2008-05.12.2008] R&D Projects: GA MPO FI-IM4/096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pet recycling * waste * technical appliances Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Total PET Recycling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Václav; Punčochář, Miroslav

    Bratislava : Slovak University of Technology, 2004 - (Markoš, J.; Štefuca, V.), s. 222 ISBN 80-227-2052-6. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /31./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 24.05.2004-28.05.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : recycling * waste management * pet Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. PET CT and lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is about Tc and lymphomas. Classification and clinical cases of various cancer such as gastro duodenal or ulcer, mama, medullary, lymph and neck, leukemia, nodular sclerosis. Metabolic information, anatomical nature of lymphoma and its clinical presentation determine the extent that PET should be used in the patient.

  2. PET's indsats under lup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik

    2006-01-01

    En undersøgelseskommission nedsat i 1999. Fem medlemmer skal undersøge PET's efterretningsvirksomhed i forhold til politiske partier, faglige konflikter og politisk ideologiske bevægelser i Danmark under den kolde krig. Kommissionens rapport forventes færdig næste år. Udgivelsesdato: 2. juli 2006...

  3. PET and PET/CT in malignant melanoma; PET y PET/CT en melanoma maligno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J.R. [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The advantages that it has the PET/CT are: 1. It diminishes mainly positive false lesions. It identifies physiologic accumulate places. 2. It diminishes in smaller grade false negative. Small injuries. Injuries with low grade concentration. Injure on intense activity areas. 3. Precise anatomical localization of accumulate places. 4. Reduction of the acquisition time. (Author)

  4. Polyesteramides based on PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Krista

    1999-01-01

    Engineering plastics have good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, and can be easily processed. Typical engineering plastics include polyamides (PA6,6, PA6, PA4,6) and polyesters (PBT, PET). Compared to polyesters of a similar structure, polyamides have a high glass transition (Tg) and me

  5. I Love Petting Zoos!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-23

    This Kidtastics podcast helps children learn about how to stay safe and healthy when visiting petting zoos and other animal exhibits.  Created: 3/23/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/23/2010.

  6. Nuclear motion is classical

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.

  7. Strong Coupling and Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2016-01-01

    Classicalization is a phenomenon in which a theory prevents itself from entering into a strong-coupling regime, by redistributing the energy among many weakly-interacting soft quanta. In this way, the scattering process of some initial hard quanta splits into a large number of soft elementary processes. In short, the theory trades the strong coupling for a high-multiplicity of quanta. At very high energies, the outcome of such a scattering experiment is a production of soft states of high occupation number that are approximately classical. It is evident that black hole creation in particle collision at super-Planckian energies is a result of classicalization, but there is no a priory reason why this phenomenon must be limited to gravity. If the hierarchy problem is solved by classicalization, the LHC has a chance of detecting a tower of new resonances. The lowest-lying resonances must appear right at the strong coupling scale in form of short-lived elementary particles. The heavier members of the tower must b...

  8. Classical Iterative Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2013 - (Björm, E.), s. 205-224 ISBN 978-3-540-70528-4 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : classical iterative methods * applied computational mathematics * encyclopedia Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.springerreference.com/docs/ navigation .do?m=Encyclopedia+of+Applied+and+Computational+Mathematics+%28Mathematics+and+Statistics%29-book224

  9. Classical and quantum satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    de Araújo, Anderson; 10.4204/EPTCS.81.6

    2012-01-01

    We present the linear algebraic definition of QSAT and propose a direct logical characterization of such a definition. We then prove that this logical version of QSAT is not an extension of classical satisfiability problem (SAT). This shows that QSAT does not allow a direct comparison between the complexity classes NP and QMA, for which SAT and QSAT are respectively complete.

  10. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  11. Classics in What Sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camic, Charles

    2008-01-01

    They seem the perfect bookends for the social psychologist's collection of "classics" of the field. Two volumes, nearly identical in shape and weight and exactly a century old in 2008--each professing to usher "social psychology" into the world as they both place the hybrid expression square in their titles but then proceed to stake out the field…

  12. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosu, H. C.

    1999-01-01

    First Internet graduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  13. Classical galactosaemia revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Bosch

    2006-01-01

    Classical galactosaemia (McKusick 230400) is an: autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.712). Most patients present in the neonatal period, after ingestion of galactose, with jaundice, hepatospl

  14. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  15. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  16. Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C

    1999-01-01

    First Internet undergraduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031

  17. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  18. The Classical Cake Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)

  19. Methods of testing PET regenerates properties

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The work presents an overview of the methods of testing poly(ethylene-terephthalate) (PET) regenerates: PET flakes, PET regranulates, PET preforms and PET bottles. All the methods have been included that are implemented for the quality testing of the mentioned products and allow constant control over the production process.

  20. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm/sup -2/. Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures.

  1. Study of the acceleration of nuclide burnup calculation using GPU with CUDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computation costs of neutronics calculation code become higher as physics models and methods are complicated. The degree of them in neutronics calculation tends to be limited due to available computing power. In order to open a door to the new world, use of GPU for general purpose computing, called GPGPU, has been studied [1]. GPU has multi-threads computing mechanism enabled with multi-processors which realize mush higher performance than CPUs. NVIDIA recently released the CUDA language for general purpose computation which is a C-like programming language. It is relatively easy to learn compared to the conventional ones used for GPGPU, such as OpenGL or CG. Therefore application of GPU to the numerical calculation became much easier. In this paper, we tried to accelerate nuclide burnup calculation, which is important to predict nuclides time dependence in the core, using GPU with CUDA. We chose the 4.-order Runge-Kutta method to solve the nuclide burnup equation. The nuclide burnup calculation and the 4.-order Runge-Kutta method were suitable to the first step of introduction CUDA into numerical calculation because these consist of simple operations of matrices and vectors of single precision where actual codes were written in the C++ language. Our experimental results showed that nuclide burnup calculations with GPU have possibility of speedup by factor of 100 compared to that with CPU. (authors)

  2. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...

  3. NKE 2.16, Nuclide Explorer tool for retrieving interactively detailed data on radionuclides properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The Nuclide Explorer (NKE) program is a tool for retrieving interactively detailed data on radionuclides properties. The data that can be retrieved are: a) elements information (average mass, density, neutron cross sections); b) nuclear ground/metastable states properties (half-life and decay channels percentage); c) decay alpha, beta, gamma, electron, positron radiation information (spectra and lines); d) fission products yields (for various fissionable target nuclides); e) thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals (capture and fission); f) fission spectrum average threshold neutron reactions cross sections for (n,p), (n,alpha), (n,2n), (n,n') and (n,gamma) reactions. Fast neutron fission has been added. It contains data on more than 3000 nuclides (approximately 3700 ground and metastable states). The data were mined from various public data bases. 2 - Methods: Users interact with the main program screen which is Segre nuclide chart to obtain detailed nuclide/element information. It contains a built-in decay calculator and filter utility. For instance users can filter data using various criteria (e.g. half-life, decay modes and particles energies)

  4. A nuclide transport model in the fractured rock medium using a continuous time markov process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stochastic way using continuous time Markov process is presented to model the one dimensional nuclide transport in fractured rock matrix as an extended study for previous work. A nuclide migration model by the continuous time Markov process for single planar fractured rock matrix, which is considered as a transient system where a process by which the nuclide is diffused into the rock matrix from the fracture may be on more time homogeneous, is compared with a conventional deterministic analytical solution. The primary desired quantities from a stochastic model are the expected values and variance of the state variables as a function of time. The time-dependent probability distributions of nuclides are presented for each discretized compartment of the medium given intensities of transition. Since this model is discrete in medium space, parameters which affect nuclide transport could be easily incorporated for such heterogeneous media as the fractured rock matrix and the layered porous media. Even though the model developed in this study was shown to be sensitive to the number of discretized compartment showing numerical dispersion as the number of compartments is decreased, with small compensating of dispersion coefficient, the model agrees well to analytical solution. (Author)

  5. The evaluation of the nuclides migration from Maishiagala radioactive waste repository taking into consideration the actual tritium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the nuclides migration from Maishiagala repository was performed taking into consideration the actual tritium release. The waste activity includes the activity of nuclides from the sealed containers. It was shown that the most dangerous nuclides are 3H, 36Cl and 239Pu which concentrations in the groundwater 35 m from the repository (at fence) and annual effective dose to population can exceed acceptable limits. (author)

  6. Quantum emulation of classical dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Margolus, Norman

    2011-01-01

    In statistical mechanics, it is well known that finite-state classical lattice models can be recast as quantum models, with distinct classical configurations identified with orthogonal basis states. This mapping makes classical statistical mechanics on a lattice a special case of quantum statistical mechanics, and classical combinatorial entropy a special case of quantum entropy. In a similar manner, finite-state classical dynamics can be recast as finite-energy quantum dynamics. This mapping...

  7. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides 99-109Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides 112,114-121,123Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides 114,120,122-124,126,128Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of 99Cd and 123Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of 100Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for 115,117,119Ag and 123Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for 115,117,119Ag and 123Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH+] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass 96Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of 100In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of the rp process that will enable a more reliable determination of the composition

  8. The reactivity effects of nuclide buildup and decay during long-term fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of spent fuel reactivity over a 100,000-year cooling time. The goal of this work was to study the changes in reactivity and to recognize which nuclides contribute to such changes. The analysis employs the use of the effective one-group cross-section data of each nuclide studied. The primary contributors to K∞ changes during long-term spent fuel storage were identified as 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, and 235U. The approach presented here can be processed simply by spreadsheet-type calculations on a personal computer after performing only one SAS2H calculation to obtain one-group cross-section data and nuclide densities

  9. The protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the protection of radioactive nuclide and nursing management in DSA room. Methods: The clinical state of the protection of radioactive 131I nuclide and nursing management in DSA room was retrospectively summarized. Results: The standard management for the protection of radioactive nuclide in DSA room was established. The main management schemas included the management of personnel, the management of professional skills and, specialty, the management of radioactive drugs and abandoned odds and ends, preoperative health education, etc. Conclusion: The standard management can ensure that the patients get a good radionuclide therapy in DSA room, and, at the same time, the working environment can be effectively protected and the professional nursing staff can be well trained. (authors)

  10. Development of continuous monitor for multiple beta-ray nuclides in liquid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Uk Won; Seon, G. I.; Kong, G. N.; Chin, H.; Park, J. H.; Yuk, I. S.; Han, W. Y. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Continuous monitor system of multiple beta-ray nuclides was designed conceptually while keeping the optimization and the automation in mind. The conincidence MCA was designed to maintain, repair and upgrade with ease. DSP was adopted to realize hardware function using software and to miniaturize the coincidence Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). The MCA system showed 99% background rejection rate, and was applied well to gamma-ray system using {sup 60}C0. An algorithm using least square method was developed for simultaneous radioassay of multiple beta-ray nuclides. The algorithm was tested using the simulation and was applied to experimental data. The results show that the algorithm is suitable to continous monitor system of multiple beta-ray nuclides.

  11. Reevaluation of decay energies of fission product nuclides in JNDC FP Decay Data File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay data of all experimentally identified fission product nuclides included in the JNDC FP Decay Data File are reviewed in detail, since the missing of beta-transition to unobserved highly excited states in the daughter nucleus is considered to be probable in some cases even for nuclides with small Qβ. Thus the decay energies of 127 nuclides or metastable states except for 88Rb and 143La revised previously are reevaluated. The results of summation calculations based on the revised JNDC FP Decay Data File modified by the present evaluation are in much better agreement with experimentally measured decay power curves than previous ones. Especially, the discrepancy remained for cooling times from a few hundreds to about 1500 seconds is removed. And the agreement is kept within about 5 % for wide range of cooling times. (author)

  12. Low-energy structure of neutron-rich S, Cl and Ar nuclides through β decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed nuclear structure studies of 20≤N≤28, 14≤Z≤20 nuclides have been limited until recently due to the lack of a good production mechanism. With the advent of projectile fragmentation facilities these nuclides can now be produced, separated, and studied in detail using several different techniques. Two recent experiments conducted at the NSCL have provided information on the β decays of 39,40,41P, 40,41,42,43S, and 42,43,44,45Cl, which will be used to establish level schemes for the daughter nuclides. These will provide a better understanding of the systematic change from spherical to deformed shapes within the proton sd and neutron fp shells. Presented here are preliminary results from these experiments with an emphasis placed on the structure of the deformed nucleus 40S

  13. Investigation of heavy neutron-rich nuclides with time-resolved Schottky mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron-rich heavy nuclides, which were produced by fragmentation of a 197Au primary beam and separated in the FRS, were investigated with Schottky Mass Spectrometry (SMS) using the GSI ESR. Masses for nine nuclides were measured for the first time: 181,183Lu, 185,186Hf, 187,188Ta, 191W and 192,193Re. Also, the accuracy of the mass values for three other nuclides (189,190W and 195Os) was significantly improved. The new data was used for nuclear structure investigations by studying the behavior of two neutron separation energies, S2n, and comparing them with the energies of the first excited 2+ states.

  14. Low-energy structure of neutron-rich S, Cl and Ar nuclides through [beta] decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winger, J.A.; Yousif, H.H.; Ma, W.C.; Ravikumar, V.; Lui, W.; Phillips, S.K.; Piercey, R.B. (Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States) National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States))

    1998-12-01

    Detailed nuclear structure studies of 20[le]N[le]28, 14[le]Z[le]20 nuclides have been limited until recently due to the lack of a good production mechanism. With the advent of projectile fragmentation facilities these nuclides can now be produced, separated, and studied in detail using several different techniques. Two recent experiments conducted at the NSCL have provided information on the [beta] decays of [sup 39,40,41]P, [sup 40,41,42,43]S, and [sup 42,43,44,45]Cl, which will be used to establish level schemes for the daughter nuclides. These will provide a better understanding of the systematic change from spherical to deformed shapes within the proton sd and neutron fp shells. Presented here are preliminary results from these experiments with an emphasis placed on the structure of the deformed nucleus [sup 40]S. [copyright] [ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Low-energy structure of neutron-rich S, Cl and Ar nuclides through {beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winger, J.A.; Yousif, H.H.; Ma, W.C.; Ravikumar, V.; Lui, W.; Phillips, S.K.; Piercey, R.B. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)]|[National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Detailed nuclear structure studies of 20{le}N{le}28, 14{le}Z{le}20 nuclides have been limited until recently due to the lack of a good production mechanism. With the advent of projectile fragmentation facilities these nuclides can now be produced, separated, and studied in detail using several different techniques. Two recent experiments conducted at the NSCL have provided information on the {beta} decays of {sup 39,40,41}P, {sup 40,41,42,43}S, and {sup 42,43,44,45}Cl, which will be used to establish level schemes for the daughter nuclides. These will provide a better understanding of the systematic change from spherical to deformed shapes within the proton sd and neutron fp shells. Presented here are preliminary results from these experiments with an emphasis placed on the structure of the deformed nucleus {sup 40}S. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Fast-Neutron Activation of Long-Lived Nuclides in Natural Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Guiseppe, V E; Fields, N E; Hixon, D

    2012-01-01

    We measured the production of the long-lived nuclides Bi-207, Pb-202, and Hg-194 in a sample of natural Pb due to high-energy neutron interactions using a neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The activated sample was counted by a HPGe detector to measure the amount of radioactive nuclides present. These nuclides are critical in understanding potential backgrounds in low background experiments utilizing large amounts of Pb shielding due to cosmogenic neutron interactions in the Pb while residing on the Earth's surface. By scaling the LANSCE neutron flux to a cosmic neutron flux, we measure the sea level cosmic ray production rates of 8.0 +/- 1.3 atoms/kg/day of Hg-194, 120 +/- 25 atoms/kg/day Pb-202, and 0.17 +/- 0.04 atoms/kg/day Bi-207.

  17. Measurement of activity of surfaces contaminated by beta-emitting nuclides and 55Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responses of a variety of different types of surface contamination monitoring probes to both small area and distributed sources of the β-emitting nuclides, 90Sr/90Y, 204Tl, 147Pm, 14C and 63Ni, have been measured. The responses to the low-energy X-ray emitting electron-capture nuclide, 55Fe, have also been measured. A figure of merit for the comparison of different types of probe has been derived and applied to the measured responses. The responses of a beryllium-window sodium iodide scintillation probe to 55Fe with integral and differential bias is described in detail; calculated responses to the electron-capture nuclides, 109Cd and 125I, are also included in this report. (author)

  18. Vertical transfer of several nuclides in the soil of a region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the vertical transfer of the artificial nuclide (137Cs) and the natural nuclides (238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in the soil of a region, a number of undisturbed soil samples in points A and B of this region are collected. The specific activities of these samples are obtained by using low background multichannel anti-Compton γ spectrum microcomputer measurement and analysis system to directly measure the γ spectrum of the samples. The simulated curves showing the changes of these nuclide specific activities with the depths are described, the possible compositions of the soil in this region are speculated. Finally, the vertical transfer velocity of 137Cs suggests to be 0.6-1.2 cm/a according to two measured results. (authors)

  19. Targeting mTOR in HIV-Negative Classic Kaposi's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Merimsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year old female with HIV-negative classic Kaposi's sarcoma responded to mTOR targeting by rapamycin. The response was well documented by PET-CT. This case provides supporting evidence that the mTOR pathway may be important in the tumorigenesis of KS and that rapamycin may have activity in this disease.

  20. Randomness: quantum versus classical

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g., quantum random generators. This development stimulates a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of quantum state. Closely related problem is clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. The second part of this review is devoted to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) in the spirit of Zeilinger and Brukner (and QBism of Fuchs et al.) and physics in general (e.g., Wheeler's "it from bit") as well as digital philosophy of Chaitin (with historical coupling to ideas of Leibnitz). Finally, w...

  1. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  2. Computation in Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that physics majors need to learn computational skills, but many departments are still devoid of computation in their physics curriculum. Some departments may lack the resources or commitment to create a dedicated course or program in computational physics. One way around this difficulty is to include computation in a standard upper-level physics course. An intermediate classical mechanics course is particularly well suited for including computation. We discuss the ways we have used computation in our classical mechanics courses, focusing on how computational work can improve students' understanding of physics as well as their computational skills. We present examples of computational problems that serve these two purposes. In addition, we provide information about resources for instructors who would like to include computation in their courses.

  3. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  4. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  5. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  6. PET in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary clinical application of FDG-PET is in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer and includes diagnosis, staging and restaging of non-small cell lung cancer. PET has a very high accuracy (sensitivity=97%, specificity=78%) for characterizing nodules that are indeterminate by chest radiograph and computed tomography. The major utility of PET in the evaluation of patients with lung cancer is the staging of the entire body. PET is more accurate than the conventional imaging modalities of CT and bone scans in the detection of metastatic disease. PET is accurate in the staging of the mediastinum, adrenal glands, and the skeletal system. PET is not as accurate in the detection of brain metastases because of their small size and the normal cortical accumulation

  7. Are Pets Good For Us?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2006-01-01

    A pet animal keeps us feel happy.Pets can staywith us when we are left by ourselves,and pets in-vite us to love and be loved.Often a cat or dog cankeep us easy at time when human words don’t help.Pets also keep us get close to the more natural animalworld.Learning to care for a pet helps a child to growup into a loving man or woman who feels responsible(有责任的) towards those dependent (依靠) on him.A pet dog can make us believe in others for we cansee faithfulness (忠诚) in the dog.In fact,we keeppets not only fo...

  8. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    a number of different MRI techniques, such as DWI-MR (diffusion weighted imaging MR), DCE-MR (dynamic contrast enhanced MR), MRS (MR spectroscopy) and MR for attenuation correction of PET. All MR techniques presented in this paper have shown promising results in the treatment of patients with solid......After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some of...... the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to...

  9. Are superparamagnetic spins classical?

    OpenAIRE

    Garanin, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Effective giant spins of magnetic nanoparticles are considered classically in the conventional theory of superparamagnetism based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Langevin equation. However, microscopic calculations for a large spin with uniaxial anisotropy, coupled to the lattice via the simplest generic mechanism, show that the results of the conventional theory are not reproduced in the limit S ->\\infty. In particular, the prefactor Gamma_0 in the Arrhenius escape rate over the barrier Gamma =Gamma_...

  10. Injuries in classical ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães; Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external ...

  11. A Classic's New Charm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ North Korea's Phibada Opera Troupe arrived in Beijing on May3,bringing with it a Korean opera adapted from China's classic novel A Dream of Red Mansions written by Cao Xueqin(around 1715-63),a great novelist of the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911).The troupe,invited by the Chinese Ministry of Culture,is one of the largest performing groups having visited China in recent years.

  12. Computation in Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Timberlake, Todd; Hasbun, Javier E.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that physics majors need to learn computational skills, but many departments are still devoid of computation in their physics curriculum. Some departments may lack the resources or commitment to create a dedicated course or program in computational physics. One way around this difficulty is to include computation in a standard upper-level physics course. An intermediate classical mechanics course is particularly well suited for including computation. We discuss th...

  13. Sociology and Classical Liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    KLEIN, Daniel; Stern, Lotta

    2005-01-01

    We advocate the development of a classical-liberal character within professional sociology. The American Sociological Association (ASA) is taken as representative of professional sociology in the United States. We review the ASA’s activities and organizational statements, to show the association’s leftist character. Internal criticism is often very uneasy about leftist domination of the field. We present survey results establishing that, in voting and in policy views, the ASA membership is mo...

  14. Revisiting a Classic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…

  15. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    2004-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  16. Diffusion of Classical Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, J.; Zakrzewski, W.

    1998-01-01

    We study the diffusion and deformation of classical solitons coupled to thermal noise. The diffusion coefficient for kinks in the $\\phi^4$ theory is predicted up to the second order in $kT$. The prediction is verified by numerical simulations. Multiskyrmions in the vector O(3) sigma model are studied within the same formalism. Thermal noise results in a diffusion on the multisoliton collective coordinate space (moduli space). There are entropic forces which tend, for example, to bind pairs of...

  17. Cosmogenic nuclide production rate systematics in terrestrial materials: Present knowledge, needs and future actions for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing applications of cosmogenic nuclides produced in the Earth's atmosphere, and in situ in a variety of terrestrial materials, as tracers in a wide ranging Earth science problems, has put a greater demand on accurate determination of the nuclide production rates in a variety of targets exposed in different settings on the Earth in the troposphere. The present state of our knowledge of cosmogenic production rates is reviewed briefly, in conjunction with the phenomenological and theoretical framework for: (i) the cosmic ray flux incident in the near Earth environment, (ii) the nucleonic cascade set off in the Earth's atmosphere by the primary cosmic radiation, and (iii) the rate for production of nuclides in terrestrial materials, in widely different settings. These considerations set the stage for the diverse questions, which must be taken into account for determining the source functions of isotopic changes in terrestrial materials. We discuss the different approaches which have been adopted earlier to obtain the source strengths of nuclear interacting particles of the cosmic radiation, and direct measurements of nuclide production rates made by exposing targets to cosmic radiation at sea level and at mountain altitudes. We show that rapid progress in determining nuclide source functions with sufficient information on temporal variability is indeed expected in the near future as a result of: (i) dramatic improvements in the past 2-3 decades in our understanding of the character of propagation of cosmic radiation within the heliosphere, (ii) experiments now being conducted by a few groups to determine the source strengths of cosmic ray slow neutrons, and nuclide production rates in cosmic ray exposed targets, and finally (iii) the emergence of better nuclear codes which deal with the development of nucleonic cascades in the Earth's atmosphere

  18. Cyclotron/PET project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Positron Computed Tomography (PET) is a tri dimensional image technique which shows biochemical information. PET is used in neurology and cardiology diseases. The National Center Cyclotron PET has been found to research, development and health science applications.

  19. What was classical genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, C Kenneth

    2004-12-01

    I present an account of classical genetics to challenge theory-biased approaches in the philosophy of science. Philosophers typically assume that scientific knowledge is ultimately structured by explanatory reasoning and that research programs in well-established sciences are organized around efforts to fill out a central theory and extend its explanatory range. In the case of classical genetics, philosophers assume that the knowledge was structured by T. H. Morgan's theory of transmission and that research throughout the later 1920s, 30s, and 40s was organized around efforts to further validate, develop, and extend this theory, I show that classical genetics was structured by an integration of explanatory reasoning (associated with the transmission theory) and investigative strategies (such as the 'genetic approach'). The investigative strategies, which have been overlooked in historical and philosophical accounts, were as important as the so-called laws of Mendelian genetics. By the later 1920s, geneticists of the Morgan school were no longer organizing research around the goal of explaining inheritance patterns; rather, they were using genetics to investigate a range of biological phenomena that extended well beyond the explanatory domain of transmission theories. Theory-biased approaches in history and philosophy of science fail to reveal the overall structure of scientific knowledge and obscure the way it functions. PMID:15682554

  20. PET studies in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik and Max-Planck-Inst. fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ({sup 18}F-F-DOPA) and for ({sup 11}C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs.

  1. PET: active lymphoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presented case, the PET (Positron Emission Tomography) has expired with several rolls. Firstly, it has been capable of detecting so much the infra-diaphragmatic illness not suspected after the initial treatment, as the persistence of illness in mediastinum. Later, it was helpful to face on the best place of biopsy in the mediastinum and to evaluate the situation of the patient after the treatment chemotherapeutic and the bone marrow transplantation

  2. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ebru Tayyar; Sevcan Üstün

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bot...

  3. PET studies in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis (18F-F-DOPA) and for (11C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs

  4. Pet Overpopulation: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coate, Stephen; Knight, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of pet overpopulation. It develops a tractable dynamic model whose positive predictions square well with key features of the current U.S. market for pets. The model is used to understand, from a welfare economic perspective, the sense in which there is \\overpopulation" of pets and the underlying causes of the problem. The paper also employs the model to consider what policies might be implemented to deal with the problem. A calibrated example is developed to i...

  5. PETS 2014: dataset and challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Patino, Luis; Ferryman, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the dataset and vision challenges that form part of the PETS 2014 workshop. The datasets are multisensor sequences containing different activities around a parked vehicle in a parking lot. The dataset scenarios were filmed from multiple cameras mounted on the vehicle itself and involve multiple actors. In PETS2014 workshop, 22 acted scenarios are provided of abnormal behaviour around the parked vehicle. The aim in PETS 2014 is to provide a standard benchmark that indicate...

  6. Accelerator experiments on the contribution of secondary particles to the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P.; Dragovitsch, P.

    1985-01-01

    Through the interaction of galactic cosmic particle radiation (GCR) a wide variety of cosmogenic nuclides is produced in meteorites. They provide historical information about the cosmic radiation and the bombarded meteorites. An important way to understand the production mechanisms of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites is to gather information about the depth and size dependence of the build-up of Galactic Rays Cosmic-secondary particles within meteorites of different sizes and chemical compositions. Simulation experiments with meteorite models offer an alternative to direct observation providing a data basis to describe the development and action of the secondary cascade induced by the GCR in meteorites.

  7. Cosmogenic Nuclide Budgeting of Floodplain Sediment Transfer and Examples from the Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    H. Wittmann; F. von Blanckenburg; P. Kubik

    2009-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides measured in river sediment can be used to provide basin-wide, spatially-averaged denudation rates over time scales meaningful to rock weathering and erosion itself, thus bridging the gap between long-term denudation rates from thermo-chronology and lake fills and short-term river loads [1-4]. In this study, we assess the effects of sediment deposition and storage on this method, because cosmogenic nuclides may be prone to additional irradiation or decay during long-term st...

  8. Recent developments in short-lived nuclide activation analysis and analytical efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In various applications of neutron activation analysis, wide element concentration and nuclide half-life ranges, overlapping peaks and other interferences in the gamma-spectrum and the request for isotope abundance determination as well as other special problems are encountered which led to the development of a flexible analytical system for the optimization and differentiation of the experimental conditions in order to solve properly these multiparameter problems. The new features were introduced mainly in the analysis of short-lived nuclides with high throughput capability, enhancing also the analytical efficiency and broadening the application range of neutron activation analysis. (author) 4 refs.; 6 figs

  9. Self-absorption correction in γ-ray efficiency calibration of fission gas nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to solve the problem of self-absorption correction in γ-ray efficiency calibration of fission gas nuclide, the parameters about source container, detector and source matrix etc.were described, and Monte-Carlo model and program of efficiency computation for HPGe detector were established according to experiment layout. The efficiency of fission gas nuclides was calculated in the different source matrices, and the corresponding self-absorption coefficients were obtained. The reliability of the model was validated by the experiment data. (authors)

  10. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg-1, respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  11. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  12. Positron emission tomography (PET) for cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenstein, S; Apestegui, C.; Clavien, P.-A.

    2008-01-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with computed tomography (PET-CT) provides simultaneous metabolic and anatomic information on tumors in the same imaging session. Sensitivity of PET/PET-CT is higher for intrahepatic (>90%) than for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (about 60%). The detection rate of distant metastasis is 100%. PET, and particularly PET-CT, improves the results and impacts on the oncological management in CCA compared with other imaging modalities. The...

  13. RPC PET: Status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couceiro, M.; Blanco, A.; Ferreira, Nuno C.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.

    2007-10-01

    The status of the resistive plate chamber (RPC)-PET technology for small animals is briefly reviewed and its sensitivity performance for human PET studied through Monte-Carlo simulations. The cost-effectiveness of these detectors and their very good timing characteristics open the possibility to build affordable Time of Flight (TOF)-PET systems with very large fields of view. Simulations suggest that the sensitivity of such systems for human whole-body screening, under reasonable assumptions, may exceed the present crystal-based PET technology by a factor up to 20.

  14. Extended suicide with a pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases. PMID:24051598

  15. Impact of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography staging in newly diagnosed classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, T. C.; Hutchings, M.; Juul Mylam, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a highly accurate staging method in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). We retrospectively compared the staging results obtained in two large cohorts of patients with cHL diagnosed before (n = 324) and after (n = 406......) the introduction of PET/CT staging in a retrospective study. In PET/CT staged patients, stage I disease was less frequent (16% vs. 27%, p <0.001) while stage IV disease was more frequent (17% vs. 10%, p = 0.02). Imaging-detected skeletal involvement was recognized more often in PET/CT staged patients...... (17% vs. 2%, p <0.001), and the presence of focal skeletal PET/CT lesions was associated with higher risk of progression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-3.36). The German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) risk classification (early, intermediate, advanced disease) predicted...

  16. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (5). ''Development of imaging technology in life sciences''. I. PET radiopharmaceuticals and animal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes PET radiopharmaceuticals (Rp) for imaging of functions of brain and heart and of tumors as well as PET devices for animals. Nuclides in PET are positron emitters with short half-lives like 15O, 13N, 11C, 18F and 62Cu, and Rp contains the nuclide in its chemical structure. For the brain functional studies in animals and man, regional cerebral blood volume, its flow, energy metabolism, neurotransmission/receptor and others are measured with use of a Rp like, typically, 15O2 gas, H215O/123I-IMP, 15O2 gas/18F-FDG, 11C-methylspiperone and 18F-DDNP (a fluorescent dye binding to amyloids), respectively. (123I is not a positron emitter). Rp for early PET diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is awaited. For the cardiac function, energy metabolism, myocardial blood flow and nerve functions are by 18F-FDG/11C-palmitate, 13N-ammonia, and 11C-GB67 (for alpha-receptor imaging), respectively. For tumor imaging, 18F-FDG is a representative Rp and derivatives of nucleic acids, amino acids and choline are now under investigation. PET devices for experimental animals involve small machines like microPET, planar positron imaging system by Hamamatsu Photonics Co., and those for dynamic positron autoradiography of Rp uptake in the living specimen like tissue slices. PET studies in animals have a potential for the development of new drugs, physiological and pathological analyses and novel treatment of diseases as well as for clinical application. (T.I.)

  17. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren; Schifter, Søren; Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer...

  18. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  19. Mechanics classical and quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mechanics: Classical and Quantum explains the principles of quantum mechanics via the medium of analytical mechanics. The book describes Schrodinger's formulation, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the Lagrangian formulation. The author discusses the Harmonic Oscillator, the generalized coordinates, velocities, as well as the application of the Lagrangian formulation to systems that are partially or entirely electromagnetic in character under certain conditions. The book examines waves on a string under tension, the isothermal cavity radiation, and the Rayleigh-Jeans result pertaining to the e

  20. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  1. PET/CT of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulwin, Robert; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an exceedingly rare genetic disorder of connective tissue characterized by extensive and irreversible heterotopic ossification of soft-tissue masses that develop in response to inflammation or trauma. Successful management relies on preventative measures and avoidance of invasive procedures such as intramuscular injections and biopsies. Early diagnosis can prevent extensive heterotopic ossification and is possible with recognition of the classic clinical findings in the feet in association with rapidly evolving soft-tissue masses of the trunk and extremities. Unfortunately, in 87% of the 269 previously reported cases, the diagnosis was not considered initially. Patients are often subjected to biopsy of the soft-tissue masses. The pathology of the fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is often confused with sarcoma. These patients might be imaged with PET as part of a standard oncological work-up. We present the first reported PET/CT images of a patient with FOP in order to alert radiologists to this diagnostic pathway. Awareness of the disorder might prevent further unnecessary interventions that can lead to extensive deformity and suffering. (orig.)

  2. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tables of specific gamma-ray dose constants (the unshielded gamma-ray dose equivalent rate at 1 m from a point source) have been computed for approximately 500 nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. The half life, the mean attenuation coefficient, and thickness for a lead shield providing 95% dose equivalent attenuation are also listed

  3. Individual radiation doses from nuclides contained in a WP-cave repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual radiation doses to man were calculated from leakage of radionuclides from a WP-cave repository for spent nuclear fuel. This study is a part of a safety analysis of a WP-cave repository performed by SKB. It was assumed that the nuclides reach the biosphere by inflow to a well and/or a lake. Therefore calculations were performed for three different critical groups. The turnover in the biosphere and the exposure to man was modelled by a compartment model using the BIOPATH-code. The nuclides dominating the total dose were identified. These were C-14, Se-79, Sn-126, I-129, Pa-231, Th-229 and Np-237. Maximum doses were about 3E-6 Sv/year. Uncertainty analysis was carried out using the PRISM-code for the dose dominant nuclides. For all nuclides and cases the ranges of the doses are within three orders of magnitude for 90% confidence interval. The main parameters to the uncertainty in the case with outflow to a well are the volume of the well, the amount of water consumed or the migration in the soil. For the lake case major contributions to the uncertainty arise from the sedimentation, bioaccumulation in fish and the amount of consumption of fish. (authors) (33 refs.)

  4. Impact of burnable absorber Gd on nuclide composition for VVER-440 fuel (Gd-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest version of Russian fuel VVER-440 includes burnable absorber in 6 pins. In this article is impact of burnable absorber on nuclide composition and criticality analyzed. In part 1 was analyzed whole burnup interval 0-50 MWd/kgU. In present part 2 are detailed analysis only for first cycle (burnup 0-10 MWd/kgU). (Authors)

  5. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  6. WebCN: A web-based computation tool for in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmogenic nuclide techniques are increasingly being utilized in geoscience research. For this it is critical to establish an effective, easily accessible and well defined tool for cosmogenic nuclide computations. We have been developing a web-based tool (WebCN) to calculate surface exposure ages and erosion rates based on the nuclide concentrations measured by the accelerator mass spectrometry. WebCN for 10Be and 26Al has been finished and published at http://www.physics.purdue.edu/primelab/for_users/rockage.html. WebCN for 36Cl is under construction. WebCN is designed as a three-tier client/server model and uses the open source PostgreSQL for the database management and PHP for the interface design and calculations. On the client side, an internet browser and Microsoft Access are used as application interfaces to access the system. Open Database Connectivity is used to link PostgreSQL and Microsoft Access. WebCN accounts for both spatial and temporal distributions of the cosmic ray flux to calculate the production rates of in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides at the Earth's surface

  7. Spins and magnetic moments of rubidium and cesium nuclides far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies at ISOLDE have concerned spins and magnetic moments of neutron-deficient rubidium and cesium isotopes. Here, the main results obtained, and, in the case of cesium, new moment measurements are briefly discussed also the results from measurements on neutron-rich nuclides of rubidium and cesium. (orig./AH)

  8. Contribution of some food categories on intakes of U, Th and other nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of radiation dose in human from radioactive 232Th, 238U, 137Cs, and 90Sr are important because those nuclides are the largest contributors to committed internal doses. A market basket study was conducted to clarify the food pathways of the nuclides in Japanese subjects. Foodstuffs of 336 were purchased from markets in the vicinity of Mito-City during 1994-1995. Statistical consumption data were used for collection of the food samples. Thorium-232, 238U, and stable isotope (133Cs) in eighteen food groups were determined by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Radioisotopes (137Cs) was analyzed by γ-spectrometry. Stable strontium (88Sr) was also analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Big contributors to the nuclide intakes in Japanese were as follows: 232Th fishes and shellfishes (44%) and green vegetables (11%); 238U seaweeds (50%) and fishes and shellfishes (26%); 88Sr seaweeds (53%) and fishes and shellfishes (14%); 137Cs mushrooms (17%), fishes and shell fishes (15%), milk products (11%), meats (9%), and potatoes (7%). The food categories of oil and fats, eggs and cooked meals were minor contributors in those nuclides. Dietary intake studies by using eighteen or more food categories should be effective procedure to resolve critical food and critical pathway for Japanese. Furthermore, critical pathways of radionuclides could be estimated by the analyses of stable isotopes. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional nuclide decay chain transport behavior in the deep geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a three-dimensional numerical code, B3Rch developed for nuclide transport of an arbitrary length of decay chain in the media including buffer between canister and adjacent rock in a deep geological high-level radioactive waste repository, some illustrative calculations for a case of decay chain of 234 U → 230 Th 226 Ra, which is one of the most important chain as far as the human environment is concerned, are introduced. A finite difference method utilizing the control-volume scheme is adopted assuming a linear sorption isotherm, nuclide transport due to diffusion in the buffer and the rock matrix, and advection and dispersion along thin rigid parallel fractures existing in a saturated porous rock matrix as well as diffusion through the fracture wall into the matrix. To show how visualization of nuclide behavior can be made to see the effects of buffer and rock matrix on nuclide transport in HLW repository and also to demonstrate usefulness of B3R, several cases of three-dimensional concentration isopleths associated with these disposal system barriers are plotted

  10. Mass measurement of halo nuclides and beam cooling with the mass spectrometer Mistral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halo nuclides are a spectacular drip-line phenomenon and their description pushes nuclear theories to their limits. The most critical input parameter is the nuclear binding energy; a quantity that requires excellent measurement precision, since the two-neutron separation energy is small at the drip-line by definition. Moreover halo nuclides are typically very short-lived. Thus, a high accuracy instrument using a quick method of measurement is necessary. MISTRAL is such an instrument; it is a radiofrequency transmission mass spectrometer located at ISOLDE/CERN. In July 2003 we measured the mass of the Li11, a two-neutron halo nuclide. Our measurement improves the precision by a factor 6, with an error of 5 keV. Moreover the measurement gives a two-neutron separation energy 20% higher than the previous value. This measurement has an impact on the radius of the nucleus, and on the state of the two valence neutrons. At the same time, a measurement of the Be11 was performed with an uncertainty of 4 keV, in excellent agreement with previous measurements. In order to measure the mass of the two-neutron halo nuclide Be14, an ion beam cooling system is presently under development which will increase the sensitivity of the spectrometer. The second part of this work presents the development of this beam cooler using a gas-filled Paul trap. (author)

  11. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target (238U and 232Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 1025 neutrons /cm2. Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 1010 atoms of 257Fm, which is 102 times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., :254Cf, 251Cf, 255-Es, and 250Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of 298114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  12. Numerical calculation of classical and non-classical electrostatic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, D; Neyenhuis, B; Christensen, Dan; Durfee, Dallin S.; Neyenhuis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    We present a numerical exercise in which classical and non-classical electrostatic potentials were calculated. The non-classical fields take into account effects due to a possible non-zero photon rest mass. We show that in the limit of small photon rest mass, both the classical and non-classical potential can be found by solving Poisson's equation twice, using the first calculation as a source term in the second calculation. Our results support the assumptions in a recent proposal to use ion interferometry to search for a non-zero photon rest mass.

  13. Get Set for a Pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill

    1987-01-01

    Describes a game in which students deal with some of the factors involved in being a responsible pet owner. Includes a list of the materials needed for the game and provides the game board and the game pieces, along with a fold-out poster about neutering and spaying pets. (TW)

  14. Innovations in PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Klausen, T; Høgild Keller, S; Vinter Olesen, O;

    2012-01-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with computed tomography (CT). Mostly because of the lack of structural information in PET which makes it difficult to assess the precise location of tissue with metabolic uptake, whereas CT can provide im...

  15. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D2 receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D1 receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D2 receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [11C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [11C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D2 receptors. [11C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D2 receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D2 occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D2 receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D2, dopamine D1 receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors have been studied with [11C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT1A receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [11C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly been developed, and serotonin transporters have recently begun to be examined. GABA has been

  16. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D{sub 2} receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D{sub 1} receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [{sup 11}C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors. [{sup 11}C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D{sub 2} receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D{sub 2} occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D{sub 2} receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D{sub 2}, dopamine D{sub 1} receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors have been studied with [{sup 11}C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [{sup 11}C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly

  17. Fano Interference in Classical Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, S.; Roy, A.; Mohapatra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the…

  18. ORIGEN-JR, Radiation Source and Nuclide Transmutation with In-Core Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORIGIN-JR, which has been developed from ORIGEN, calculates radiation sources and analyses nuclide transmutations. The calculation of neutron source spectra has been revised extensively. In addition to the spectrum indices adopted in ORIGEN, one-group cross sections for each reaction can be used to treat precisely the burnup conditions in a reactor core. Neutron and gamma-ray source data are generated in the same format as in the shielding codes QAD-PS, ANISN and DOT. 2 - Method of solution: The code solves the equations of radioactive nuclide transmutation and calculates radiation sources. Energy spectra of neutron sources in spontaneous fission and (alpha, n) reactions of eight nuclides (9Be, 10B, 11B, 13C, 14N, 17O, 18O and 19F) are available. Complex decay and transmutation schemes and one-group reaction cross sections can be treated. A Matrix Exponential method is used to solve the resultant large system of coupled, linear, first-order, ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The code will handle 850 nuclides of which no more than 500 are described as light elements, no more than 120 are actinides and their decay daughters, and no more than 500 are fission products. Fission products are produced by fission rates of five different actinides. In addition, there may be no more than 3000 non-zero elements in the nuclear transmutation matrix. Numerical inaccuracies due to too coarse a time spacing are indicated by a warning message. Neutron spectra due to (alpha, n) reaction can be calculated by no more than 61 actinides and 8 light nuclides

  19. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  20. Grassmannization of classical models

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V; Svistunov, Boris V

    2016-01-01

    Applying Feynman diagrammatics to non-fermionic strongly correlated models with local constraints might seem generically impossible for two separate reasons: (i) the necessity to have a Gaussian (non-interacting) limit on top of which the perturbative diagrammatic expansion is generated by Wick's theorem, and (ii) the Dyson's collapse argument implying that the expansion in powers of coupling constant is divergent. We show that for arbitrary classical lattice models both problems can be solved/circumvented by reformulating the high-temperature expansion (more generally, any discrete representation of the model) in terms of Grassmann integrals. Discrete variables residing on either links, plaquettes, or sites of the lattice are associated with the Grassmann variables in such a way that the partition function (and correlations) of the original system and its Grassmann-field counterpart are identical. The expansion of the latter around its Gaussian point generates Feynman diagrams. A proof-of-principle implement...

  1. Effectiveness examination of requirements shown in interim report about clearance of solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When radiation facility for various unsealed radioisotopes intends to execute clearance of solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide, a necessary strategy to prevent from contamination of long half-life nuclide has been shown in technical examination interim. We established our radiation facility as a model for classification management of nuclide according to length of half-life and examined the effectiveness of the classification management of the interim report as index nuclides, tritium and Phosphorus-32, based on the example of our classification management of the nuclide in facilities. In this report it was found that the classification management of the nuclide by half-life prevented effectively long half-life nuclide from mixing with the solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide. (author)

  2. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides {sup 99-109}Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides {sup 112,114-121,123}Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of {sup 99}Cd and {sup 123}Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of {sup 100}Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH{sup +}] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass {sup 96}Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of {sup 100}In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of

  3. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  4. FDG PET imaging dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School and Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia.

  5. Neuropsychiatry: PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional brain imaging with PET and SPECT have a definitive and well established role in the investigation of a variety of conditions such as dementia, epilepsy and drug addiction. With these methods it is possible to detect early rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow) changes seen in dementia (even before clinical symptoms) and differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other dementias by means of the rCBF pattern change. 18-F-FDG PET imaging is a useful tool in partial epilepsy because both rCBF and brain metabolism are compromised at the epileptogenic focus. During the seizure, rCBF dramatically increases locally. Using SPECT it is possible to locate such foci with 97% accuracy. In drug addiction, particularly with cocaine, functional imaging has proven to be very sensitive to detect brain flow and metabolism derangement early in the course of this condition. These findings are important in many ways: prognostic value, they are used as a powerful reinforcement tool and to monitor functional recovery with rehabilitation. There are many other conditions in which functional brain imaging is of importance such as acute stroke treatment assessment, trauma rehabilitation and in psychiatric and abnormal movement diseases specially with the development of receptor imaging (au)

  6. FDG PET imaging dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia

  7. PET AND PET-CT: PHYSICAL PRINCIPLE AND MEDICAL APLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Rusu, V.; Cipriana Ştefănescu

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive imaging method that can “see” the metabolisms inside the living cells. It involves the acquisition of functional images based on the detection of radiation coming from the positron emission of a radiotracer administered to the patient. This radiotracer can be a metabolic analog, like is the case of glucose analog 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG), the most commonly used PET radiotracer. PET images of the human body are used to...

  8. Quantitative imaging of bromine-76 and yttrium-86 with PET: A method for the removal of spurious activity introduced by cascade gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography of bromine-76 and yttrium-86 results in the detection of coincident events that are not strictly associated with annihilation photon pairs. Instead, these coincidences occur because prompt gamma rays emitted by these nuclides result in cascades of photons that are emitted within the timing window of the PET scanner. Pairs of detected photons from these cascades are not angularly correlated and therefore contain little information regarding the location of their source. Furthermore, these coincidences are not removed by correction procedures (e.g., randoms, scatter) routinely applied to PET data. If left uncorrected, the cascade coincidences will result in spurious apparent activity within the PET images. A correction, applied within projection space, that removes the cascade coincidence signal from septa-in (i.e., two-dimensional) datasets is proposed and tested on phantom data

  9. Classicalization of quantum variables and quantum–classical hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of classical degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics is studied in the stochastic variational method. By using this classicalization, a hybrid model constructed from quantum and classical variables (quantum–classical hybrids) is derived. In this procedure, conservation laws such as energy are maintained, and Ehrenfest's theorem is still satisfied with modification. The criterion for the applicability of quantum–classical hybrids is also discussed. - Highlights: • The new derivation of a quantum–classical hybrid (QCH) model is discussed based on a variational principle. • Any conserved quantities are automatically defined as the invariant transforms of a stochastic action. • The quantitative criterion to determine the validity of QCH is proposed. • Ehrenfest's theorem is satisfied in a modified way

  10. PET i prekirurgisk evaluering av epilepsi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    PET in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Background: Today, at Rikshospitalet PET medical center, FDG is used as a tracer in the PET investigations during the presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. The purpose of this paper is to see if FGD-PET gives additional information compared with EEG and MR. Another purpose was to find out whether there is a need for new ligands, and which ones. Material and methods: All epilepsy order forms to FDG-PET at Rikshopitalet, during 2007...

  11. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic nuclide production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate nuclide-specific scaling

  12. PET/CT - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From autoradiography to planar X rays, computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR), morphology and structure has been the mainstay of biological and medical imaging for over a century. While structural changes may suggest the presence of disease, functional changes are more sensitive indicators of early-stage pathology, and with cancer, early detection is the key to a favorable prognosis. Since molecular imaging offers the potential to quantitatively image functional changes in vivo, it is assuming an increasingly important role in the identification, staging and re-staging of human disease. Specifically, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are sensitive techniques to map human physiology non-invasively through the use of high-resolution imaging devices and appropriate radioactively-labeled biomarkers. However, such metabolic maps do not offer the structural detail associated with anatomical imaging techniques such as CT and MR and therefore dual modality devices such as PET/CT, SPECT/CT or PET/MR that combine both structural and functional information offer a more complete and accurate assessment of the status of disease. PET/CT instrumentation, for example, was first introduced into the clinic in 2001 and since then, progress has been rapid. Technological advances in each modality, CT and PET, have been consistently incorporated into the combined device ensuring state-of-the-art performance for PET/CT. Recent advances in CT include an increase in the number of detector rows or slices (from 1 to 64), a reduction in rotation times (to less than 0.5 s), and the emergence of the first CT scanner incorporating dual X ray sources. Paralleling these advances, PET instrumentation has witnessed the introduction of new faster scintillators, higher resolution detectors, increased sensitivity through extended axial coverage, and the resurgence of time-of-flight information to improve image signal-to-noise. A

  13. Scintillation crystals required for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In PET, inorganic scintillator crystals are used to record γ rays produced by the annihilation of positrons emitted by injected tracers. The ultimate performance of the camera is strongly tied to both the physical and scintillation properties of the crystals. For this reason, researchers have investigated virtually all known scintillator crystals for possible use in PET. Despite this massive research effort, only a few different scintillators have been found that have a suitable use. Two recently developed scintillator crystals (LSO and GSO), appears to surpass all previously used materials in most respects and promises to be the basis for the next generation of PET cameras. (authors)

  14. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  15. PET/TAC in Oncology; PET/TAC en Oncologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, A.M. [Especialista en Medicina Nuclear, Profa. Depto. Radiologia de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy.

  16. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  17. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  18. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  19. NEMA NU 4-2008 validation and applications of the PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulations platform for the geometry of the Inveon PET preclinical scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo-based simulation of positron emission tomography (PET) data plays a key role in the design and optimization of data correction and processing methods. Our first aim was to adapt and configure the PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulation program for the geometry of the widely distributed Inveon PET preclinical scanner manufactured by Siemens Preclinical Solutions. The validation was carried out against actual measurements performed on the Inveon PET scanner at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation in Australia and at the Brain and Mind Research Institute and by strictly following the NEMA NU 4-2008 standard. The comparison of simulated and experimental performance measurements included spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rates, image quality and Derenzo phantom studies. Results showed that PET-SORTEO reliably reproduces the performances of this Inveon preclinical system. In addition, imaging studies showed that the PET-SORTEO simulation program provides raw data for the Inveon scanner that can be fully corrected and reconstructed using the same programs as for the actual data. All correction techniques (attenuation, scatter, randoms, dead-time, and normalization) can be applied on the simulated data leading to fully quantitative reconstructed images. In the second part of the study, we demonstrated its ability to generate fast and realistic biological studies. PET-SORTEO is a workable and reliable tool that can be used, in a classical way, to validate and/or optimize a single PET data processing step such as a reconstruction method. However, we demonstrated that by combining a realistic simulated biological study ([11C]Raclopride here) involving different condition groups, simulation allows one also to assess and optimize the data correction, reconstruction and data processing line flow as a whole, specifically for each biological study, which is our ultimate intent. (paper)

  20. NEUROPSIQUIATRIA: PET Y SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintana F

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen numerosas indicaciones claramente establecidas para el uso del SPECT y PET en patología neuro-psiquiátrica, particularmente en el estudio de demencias, epilepsia y adicción a drogas. Estos métodos permiten detectar precozmente (aun antes de las manifestaciones clínicas cambios en la perfusión y metabolismo cerebral en pacientes con demencias. Es posible además diferenciar la enfermedad de Alzheimer de otras causas de demencia, analizando el patrón de la alteración neuro- funcional. En epilepsia parcial, tanto el metabolismo como la perfusión están alterados en el foco epileptogénico, lo que puede ser detectado con F-18FDG PET. Durante la crisis epiléptica, el flujo sanguíneo puede aumentar dramáticamente en el foco epileptogénico, lo que puede ser detectado con SPECT con 97% de certeza. En pacientes drogadictos, especialmente a la cocaína, estos métodos han demostrado ser muy sensibles para la detección precoz de cambios en el flujo y metabolismo cerebral, lo que es clínicamente importante en varios aspectos: 1 Tiene valor pronóstico (neuro-funcional, 2 Se puede usar para aumentar la adherencia a la terapia y 3 Permite evaluar objetivamente la recuperación funcional. Existen muchas otras indicaciones presentes y futuras, por ejemplo: en la monitorización de la revascularización en accidentes vasculares cerebrales agudos, rehabilitación post TEC, estudio de patología psiquiátrica y movimientos anormales especialmente con el desarrollo de radioligandosFunctional brain imaging with PET and SPECT have a definitive and well established role in the investigation of a variety of conditions such as dementia, epilepsy and drug addiction. With these methods it is possible to detect early rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow changes seen in dementia (even before clinical symptoms and differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other dementias by means of the rCBF pattern change. 18-F-FDG PET imaging is a useful tool in partial

  1. Measuring PET scanner sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity parameters derived from a plot of a scanner's true coincidence count (TCC) rates as a function of activity in a 20 cm cylindrical phantom have no direct link to image quality. Noise equivalent count (NEC) rate curves, which incorporate the noise effects of subtracting the randoms and scatter count components provide a direct link between image signal-to-noise ratios and the scatter, randoms and trues coincidence count rates. The authors have measured TCC and NEC curves with a standardized 20 cm diameter nylon cylinder for five different PET scanners with several scanner-collimator combinations. In addition, the authors have compared TCC and NEC curves on one scanner with those from an Alderson brain phantom

  2. Classical and quantum effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    A generalization of the action principle of classical mechanics, motivated by the Closed Time Path (CTP) scheme of quantum field theory, is presented to deal with initial condition problems and dissipative forces. The similarities of the classical and the quantum cases are underlined. In particular, effective interactions which describe classical dissipative forces represent the system-environment entanglement. The relation between the traditional effective theories and their CTP extension is briefly discussed and few qualitative examples are mentioned.

  3. Population in the classic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-01-01

    Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In ad...

  4. Coherent Communication of Classical Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.

    2003-01-01

    We define "coherent communication" in terms of a simple primitive, show it is equivalent to the ability to send a classical message with a unitary or isometric operation, and use it to relate other resources in quantum information theory. Using coherent communication, we are able to generalize super-dense coding to prepare arbitrary quantum states instead of only classical messages. We also derive single-letter formulae for the classical and quantum capacities of a bipartite unitary gate assi...

  5. Theoretical calculation of decay data of short-lived nuclides for JNDC FP decay data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is one of unique features of the JNDC FP Decay Data File that theoretical values of E-bar sub(β) and E-bar sub(γ), average beta- and gamma-ray energies, are fully adopted for short-lived nuclides. Here, details of the theoretical estimation method of E-bar sub(β) and E-bar sub(γ) based on 'gross theory' of beta-decay are described and the numerical tables of the estimated decay data for short-lived nuclides are presented. Further, discussion is made for justification of adoption of the theoretical values instead of values derived from decay schemes from the viewpoint of the energy profile of the beta-strength function. (author)

  6. Determination of Concentrations of Radioactive Nuclides in Soil Samples using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Arsalan; Weaver, Joshua

    2015-10-01

    A hyper-pure Germanium detector system was used to determine the contents and concentrations of various nuclides in soil samples collected from different parts of the United States. These include areas in close proximity to nuclear power plants, areas susceptible to nuclear fallout from weapons testing from the pre Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) period, and areas vulnerable to fallout from Fukushima from the west coast. The concentrations of naturally occurring nuclides in the 238U, 232Th, and 40K decay chains as well as that of synthetic isotopes of 137Cs and 60Co were measured with the aid of Genie-2000 and Radware (gf3m). An efficiency curve was obtained by designing a simulation and compared with standard sources. The research, now in its next stage, aims to do the same in samples from Karachi (Pakistan) which is home to three nuclear power plant projects but has no available baseline radioactivity measurements. University of Richmond.

  7. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 1. Experiments on leys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E

    1998-12-31

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout. The aim was to get a description of the relative transfer to the harvest products of new clover-grass leys and old grass leys after initial depositions of tracer nuclides at different times during the growth period. The reduction in transfer with time, from deposition to sampling, depends partly on dilution by growth and partly on fall-off to the ground. The reduction half-time for the nuclide content showed a range 10 - 14 days. The data obtained in the experiments can extend the basis for prediction of the consequences of fallout events at different times to new as well as to old leys in the field 8 refs, 18 figs, 12 tabs

  8. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  9. Librarian driven analysis with graphic user interface for nuclides quantification by gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma-ray line(s). An a priori determined list of nuclides is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of the database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma-ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma-energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by ICRP

  10. Cosmogenic nuclides principles, concepts and applications in the earth surface sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dunai, Tibor J

    2010-01-01

    This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and...

  11. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  12. Mass mapping of a new area of neutron-deficient suburanium nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, Y N; Bosch, F; Falch, M; Geissel, H; Hausmann, M; Kerscher, T; Klepper, O; Kluge, H J; Kozhuharov, C; Litvinov, Y A; Löbner, K E G; Münzenberg, G; Patyk, Z; Radon, T; Scheidenberger, C; Wapstra, A H; Wollnik, H

    2002-01-01

    The masses of 64 short-lived neutron-deficient nuclides covering the element range from tungsten to uranium have been obtained for the first time. They have been evaluated by combining directly measured masses from Schottky mass spectrometry with linked experimental Q-values in alpha-decay chains. Based on these new mass data we have determined the one-proton and two-proton drip-lines as well as the size of the 'littoral shallow' of the sea of instability. No evidence of a Thomas-Ehrman shift has been found in the region of the investigated heavy nuclides. A peculiar behavior of two-proton separation energies has been observed in the lead region. The predictive power of various mass models is investigated.

  13. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406. PMID:19727989

  14. Determination and declaration of critical nuclide inventories in Belgian NPP radwaste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plants (NPPs) managed by ELECTRABEL are located at the Doel (4 units) and the Tihange (3 units) sites and have a total capacity of 5700 MW(e). All the units are of the PWR type. Taking into account the need for retrievability and reliability of all requested waste data, the operator ELECTRABEL has subcontracted a complete study to the engineering company TRACTEBEL ENERGY ENGINEERING (TEE) in order to elaborate a computer code for the determination of critical nuclides in the different waste streams. This program should guarantee retrievability and reliability of all information related to the waste packages produced at the NPP. Two computer codes, LLWAA and DECL, have therefore been developed by TEE. The first code (LLWAA: low level waste activity assessment code), enables to predict the global inventories and/or the scaling factors of the critical nuclides in the conditioned and in the non-conditioned waste generated by the operation of a PWR. This code is site-specific as it takes into account the plant design characteristics and operating conditions. A version for BWR plants is under development. The second code 'DECL', deals mainly with the complete database management of each waste package produced in order to guarantee full retrievability. LLWAA and DECL are implemented as an integrated software package called 'DECLARE' at the sites of Doel and Tihange. Furthermore, the LLWAA-code has been extended for the determination of the critical nuclides activities in ashes produced by incineration (LLWAA-Ashes) and for the assessment of the critical nuclides activities deposited on equipment of the nuclear auxiliary systems (LLWAA-Decom). (author)

  15. Nuclide transport models for HLW repository safety assessment in Finland, Japan, Sweden, and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal and design concepts in such countries as Sweden, Finland, Canada and Japan which have already published safety assessment reports for the HLW repositories have been reviewed mainly in view of nuclide transport models used in their assessment. This kind of review would be very helpful in doing similar research in Korea where research program regarding HLW has been just started. (author). 44 refs., 2 tabs., 30 figs

  16. Nuclide transport models for HLW repository safety assessment in Finland, Japan, Sweden, and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Kim, Sung Gi; Koh, Won Il

    1997-10-01

    Disposal and design concepts in such countries as Sweden, Finland, Canada and Japan which have already published safety assessment reports for the HLW repositories have been reviewed mainly in view of nuclide transport models used in their assessment. This kind of review would be very helpful in doing similar research in Korea where research program regarding HLW has been just started. (author). 44 refs., 2 tabs., 30 figs

  17. Four shells atomic model to computer the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper develops a four-shells atomic model in order to obtain the efficiency of detection in liquid scintillation courting, Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of the 229 different atomic rearrangements so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit the study of the influence of the different parameters upon the counting efficiency for nuclides of high atomic number. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Three L-subshells atomic model to compute counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper develops a three L-subshell a and K, M-a hells atomic model in order to obtain the counting efficiency in liquid scintillation counting. Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of 264 different atomic rearrangement way so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit to test the influence of the different atomic and nuclear parameters upon the counting efficiency nuclides of low and medium atomic number decaying by electron capture. (Author) 8 refs

  19. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides, KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electron-capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high

  20. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives of the uranium and plutonium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for the various long-lived nuclides of interest. Recommended values are presented for 232U, 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U, 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, 242Pu, and 244Pu. The uncertainties are provided at the 95% confidence limit for each of the recommended values

  1. Uranium and thorium series nuclides in river sediments and river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volume suspended sediment samples were taken from Rio Grande, Mississippi and Suwannee Rivers. These rivers drain arid, moderate and subtropical regions, respectively. The samples were taken to provide enough material to use for chemical fractionation leaching studies of the relationship between Pu and other nuclides with various components of the sediment. This work is still in progress and is described in detail in a separate section of the progress report

  2. Investigation on the nuclear track techniques for the screening of the fissile nuclides in swipe samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear track techniques were investigated for the screening of fissile nuclides in swipe samples. The characteristics of fission and alpha track analysis for the uranium particles were investigated in this study. The estimation of 235U enrichment for the uranium particles was performed by the fission track analysis. After identifying the uranium particles with fission track analysis in swipe samples, the 235U enrichment of the uranium particles was measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS).

  3. Interactive information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of a computerized information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains. The main difference between the system presented here and those already in existence is that these evaluated databases of nuclear physics constants are linked to a set of programs, thus enabling analysis of a wide range of problems regarding various nuclear physics applications. (author)

  4. Interactive information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyaskin, V.I.; Kosilov, R.A. [Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Manturov, G.N. [Russian Federation National Research Centre - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2002-08-01

    A brief review is given of a computerized information system on the nuclear physics properties of nuclides and radioactive decay chains. The main difference between the system presented here and those already in existence is that these evaluated databases of nuclear physics constants are linked to a set of programs, thus enabling analysis of a wide range of problems regarding various nuclear physics applications. (author)

  5. Is it possible to quantify pebble abrasion and velocity in rivers using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides ?

    OpenAIRE

    Carretier, Sébastien; Regard, V.

    2011-01-01

    Attrition rates and mean transport velocities of coarse fluvial sediments averaged over long periods of time (>> 100 a) are yet to be fully quantified. A knowledge of long-term transport rates would allow us to predict the response of fluvial systems to changes in external conditions, while determining clast attrition rates would improve our understanding of fluvial abrasion processes. The concentration of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCNs) in boulders can be modified during river transpo...

  6. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  7. Nuclide analysis at domestic Nuclear Power Plant with CZT Detector during the overhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AEP (American Electric Power) also introduced another type CZT detector to perform source term monitoring and they had announced the results through the ISOE (Information System on Occupational Exposure). A CZT semiconductor detector is good to monitor source terms at a NPP in that it is possible to make a portable type because it does not need any cooling system at room temperature and it has good energy resolution. To follow up global atmosphere, KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) has been trying to use CZT monitoring system at a domestic NPP. This study shows a result of the kinds of nuclides between Before H2O2 and After Clean-Up process for primary reactor coolant system nearby a steam generator during the overhaul for the first time. The detected source terms were the same for all measurement conditions, but the measurement was not quantitative analysis. It needs Spectrum Analysis Program to acquire quantitative analysis and we are developing the system. If the system is set-up in the CZT monitoring system, we will be able to know detail information of nuclides more. The result of spectra was the same regardless of measurement conditions and the intensity of the major nuclides is different obviously according to the measurement points. Even though the results only give US the information of the kinds of nuclides without any other information, the meaning is very significant to US, because the measurement is performed for the first time all over country. Especially, the result of both Red Plot and Blue Plot is very interesting in that the primary coolant is (Red plot) inside the pipe whereas it is not (Blue plot) inside the steam generator. Our study will be continued to find the reasons

  8. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes

  9. Progress of nuclide tracing technique in the study of soil erosion in recent decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade nuclide tracing technique has been widely employed in the investigation of soil erosion, which makes the studies of soil erosion into a new and rapid development period. This paper tried to review the recent progress of using 137Cs, 210Pbex, 7Be, composite tracers and REE-INAA in soil erosion rate, sedimentation rate, sediment source and soil erosion processes study, and also the existing research results. The trends for future development and questions are also discussed. (authors)

  10. Pets and the immunocompromised person

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the cat's immune system. This puts your cat at risk of other infections that may be spread to humans. Feed your pet only commercially prepared food and treats. Animals can get sick from undercooked ...

  11. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  12. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin; PET y PET/CT en tumor de origen indeterminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J.R. [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  13. 89Zr Radiochemistry for PET

    OpenAIRE

    Severin, G. W.; Engle, J W; Nickles, R.J.; Barnhart, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The positron emitting isotope 89Zr is an ideal radiolabel for PET imaging of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This article reviews the chemistry and physics involved in production, separation, chelation, and labeling of 89Zr mAbs.

  14. Selecting Safe Pets (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's ... pets. If you're interested in rabbits, the House Rabbit Society is an excellent resource — visit its ...

  15. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Preventing ticks on your pets Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... your cats without first consulting your veterinarian! Kill Ticks on Dogs A pesticide product that kills ticks ...

  16. PET/CT and PET - application in pediatric oncology; PET/CT und PET - Einsatz in der paediatrischen Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzius, C.; Lang, K.; Schober, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Wormanns, D. [Inst. fuer klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Vormoor, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin - Paediatrische Haematologie und Onkologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    PET-CT is a new imaging technology with a high capability to improve oncologic imaging. Introduction into clinical practise started approximately 3 years ago. Consequently, the available literature data are preliminary. There are no studies concerning PET-CT in pediatric patients. Nevertheless, it can already be supposed that the synthesis of structural and metabolic information improves the accuracy of staging and has the realistic potential to change patient management in a relevant percentage rate in pediatric patients. In this article, the advantages and special features of the application of PET-CT in young oncologic patients are pointed out. Potential clinical applications of PET-CT in this patient group include Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, Ewing tumors, osteosarcomas, rhabdomyosarcomas and neuroblastomas. (orig.)

  17. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not let your pet interact with other animals Use disinfectant to clean the cage and litter box Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease found in the urine of infected animals that can cause kidney damage and affect other ...

  18. Radiation monitoring of PET staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) is becoming a common diagnostic tool in hospitals, often located in and employing staff from the Nuclear Medicine or Radiology departments. Although similar in some ways, staff in PET departments are commonly found to have the highest radiation doses in the hospital environment due to unique challenges which PET tracers present in administration as well as production. The establishment of a PET centre with a dedicated cyclotron has raised concerns of radiation protection to the staff at the WA PET Centre and the Radiopharmaceutical Production and Development (RAPID) team. Since every PET centre has differing designs and practices, it was considered important to closely monitor the radiation dose to our staff so that improvements to practices and design could be made to reduce radiation dose. Electronic dosimeters (MGP DMC 2000XB), which have a facility to log time and dose at 10 second intervals, were provided to three PET technologists and three PET nurses. These were worn in the top pocket of their lab coats throughout a whole day. Each staff member was then asked to note down their duties throughout the day and also note the time they performed each duty. The duties would then correlate with the dose with which the electronic monitor recorded and an estimate of radiation dose per duty could be given. Also an estimate of the dose per day to each staff member could be made. PET nurses averaged approximately 20 μ8v per day getting their largest dose from caring for occasional problematic patients. Smaller doses of a 1-2 μ8v were recorded for injections and removing cannulas. PET technologists averaged approximately 15 μ8v per day getting their largest dose of 1-5μ8v mainly from positioning of patients and sometimes larger doses due to problematic patients. Smaller doses of 1-2 μ5v were again recorded for injections and removal of cannulas. Following a presentation given to staff, all WA PET Centre and RAPID staff

  19. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  20. Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan was the worst nuclear disaster following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Fission products (nuclides) released from the Fukushima plant site since March 12, 2011 had been detected around the northern hemisphere in about two weeks and also in the southern hemisphere about one month later. We report here detailed time series of radioiodine and radiocesium isotopes monitored in a regional network around Taiwan, including one high-mountain and three ground-level sites. Our results show several pulses of emission from a sequence of accidents in the Fukushima facility, with the more volatile 131I released preferentially over 134Cs and 137Cs at the beginning. In the middle of the time series, there was a pronounced peak of radiocesium observed in northern Taiwan, with activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs far exceeding that of 131I during that episode. From the first arrival time of these fission nuclides and their spatial and temporal variations at our sampling sites and elsewhere, we suggest that Fukushima-derived radioactive nuclides were transported to Taiwan and its vicinity via two pathways at different altitudes. One was transported in the free troposphere by the prevailing westerly winds around the globe; the other was transported in the planetary boundary layer by the northeast monsoon wind directly toward Taiwan.

  1. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  2. Continuous time markov process model for nuclide decay chain transport in the fractured rock medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stochastic approach using continuous time Markov process is presented to model the one dimensional nuclide transport in fractured rock media as a further extension for previous works. Nuclide transport of decay chain of arbitrary length in the single planar fractured rock media in the vicinity of the radioactive waste repository is modeled using a continuous time Markov process. While most of analytical solutions for nuclide transport of decay chain deal with the limited length of decay chain, do not consider the case of having rock matrix diffusion, and have very complicated solution form, the present model offers rather a simplified solution in the form of expectance and its variance resulted from a stochastic modeling. As another deterministic way, even numerical models of decay chain transport, in most cases, show very complicated procedure to get the solution and large discrepancy for the exact solution as opposed to the stochastic model developed in this study. To demonstrate the use of the present model and to verify the model by comparing with the deterministic model, a specific illustration was made for the transport of a chain of three member in single fractured rock midium with constant groundwater flow rate in the fracture, which ignores the rock matrix diffusion and shows good capability to model the fractured media around the repository. (Author)

  3. Quantifying Holocene and Anthropocene erosion rates with cosmogenic and fallout nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-lived cosmogenic nuclides, such as in-situ produced 14C in quartz, and fallout nuclides, such as 137Cs and 239,240Pu, are particularly suited to determine Holocene and/or anthropogenic rates of soil erosion. While fallout 137Cs has been widely used to study erosion processes, the methodology and application of the in-situ produced 14C and 239,240Pu are still somewhat experimental. In the case of in-situ 14C it are experimental/methodological obstacles that stand in the way of wider application, in the case of fallout plutonium it is down to neglect. This experimental/neglected status is a pity, since in situ 14C has the potential to allow resolving Holocene from longer-term Earth-surface process rates, whereas fallout Pu can be used to overcome difficulties in 137Cs methodology arising from the Chernobyl fallout (particularly in Europe) and the relative short half-life of radionuclides of Cs. The presentation will (i) introduce the intrinsic methodological benefits of in-situ produced radiocarbon and fallout plutonium, (ii) report on developmental work at CologneAMS to establish routine use of these nuclides and (iii) present a showcase application for fallout plutonium. (author)

  4. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  5. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs

  6. Neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in JENDL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report concerning the evaluated neutron cross sections of 28 fission product nuclides adopted in the first version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-1). These 28 nuclides were selected as being most important for fast reactor calculations, and are 90Sr, 93Zr, 95Mo, 97Mo, 99Tc, 101Ru, 102Ru, 103Rh, 104Ru, 105Pd, 106Ru, 107Pd, 109Ag, 129I, 131Xe, 133Cs, 135Cs, 137Cs, 143Nd, 144Ce, 144Nd, 145Nd, 147Pm, 147Sm, 149Sm, 151Sm, 153Eu and 155Eu. The status of the experimental data was reviewed over the whole energy range. The present evaluation was performed on the basis of the measured data with the aid of theoretical calculations. The optical and statical models were used for evaluation of the smooth cross sections. An improved method was developed in treating the multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the resonance region. Various physical parameters and the level schemes, adopted in the present work are discussed by comparing with those used in the other evaluations such as ENDF/B-IV, CEA, CNEN-2 and RCN-2. Furthermore, the evaluation method and results are described in detail for each nuclide. The evaluated total, capture and inelastic scattering cross sections are compared with the other evaluated data and some recent measured data. Some problems of the present work are pointed out and ways of their improvement are suggested. (author)

  7. Biometric Recognition for Pet Animal

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Missing, swapping, false insurance claims and reallocation of pet animals (dog) are global problems throughout the world and research done to solve this problem is minimal. Traditional biometrics and non-biometrics methods have their own boundaries and they fail to provide competent level of security to pet animal (dog). The work on animal identification based on their phenotype appearance (coat patterns) has been an active research area in recent years and automatic face recognition for...

  8. PET/TAC in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy

  9. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  10. Selection of nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria for selecting nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste are given. The reduced chains recommended for use with SYVAC are described. (author)

  11. Nuclide transport of decay chain in the fractured rock medium: a model using continuous time Markov process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model using continuous time Markov process for nuclide transport of decay chain of arbitrary length in the fractured rock medium has been developed. Considering the fracture in the rock matrix as a finite number of compartments, the transition probability for nuclide from the transition intensity between and out of the compartments is represented utilizing Chapman-Kolmogorov equation, with which the expectation and the variance of nuclide distribution for the fractured rock medium could be obtained. A comparison between continuous time Markov process model and available analytical solutions for the nuclide transport of three decay chains without rock matrix diffusion has been made showing comparatively good agreement. Fittings with experimental breakthrough curves obtained with nonsorbing materials such as NaLS and uranine in the artificial fractured rock are also made. (author)

  12. PET AND PET-CT: PHYSICAL PRINCIPLE AND MEDICAL APLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Rusu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a noninvasive imaging method that can “see” the metabolisms inside the living cells. It involves the acquisition of functional images based on the detection of radiation coming from the positron emission of a radiotracer administered to the patient. This radiotracer can be a metabolic analog, like is the case of glucose analog 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG, the most commonly used PET radiotracer. PET images of the human body are used to evaluate a variety of diseases, most often to detect cancer and to examine the effects of cancer therapy by characterizing cell viability and biochemical changes in the cell. It is potentially useful in cancer imaging because the increased metabolism of tumor cells leads to increased uptake of glucose, and, therefore, uptake of 18FDG, also. PET-CT is the fusion of functional and anatomic information acquired almost simultaneously, that lets us see both the structural anatomy and the functional data on the same image. They complete each other: if PET scan is powerful in evaluating the functional characteristics of the tissues, CT is a powerful structural resolution imaging method. The highly sensitive PET scan detects the metabolic signal of actively growing cancer cells in the body and the CT scan provides a detailed picture of the internal anatomy that reveals sites, size and shape of cancer tissue. Alone, each imaging test has particular benefits and limitations but when the results of PET and CT scans are "fused" together, the combined image provides complete information on cancer location and metabolism.

  13. Formulation of Relationships between the Radiation Exposure of Tissues and the Excretion Rate of Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of protection against undue occupational exposure to internal radiation involves several processes: 1 1. Decisions as to the highest dose-rates, for the body or for particular organs-, that can be regarded as permissible; 2. Estimation, for all relevant nuclides, of the intakes, and of the body burdens, which would cause any such dose-rates to be reached or sustained; 3. Monitoring of exposed individuals to determine what fraction of a permissible body burden of any nuclide is retained in the body. Techniques of monitoring by whole-body counting, or by data on excretion or exhalation rates, are relevant to the Symposium. Several major problems are involved: (a) For most radionuclides, insufficient metabolic data are available to link tissue dose-rates either with body burdens or with excretion rates, at least as based on adequately large numbers of normal human subjects; (b) The large variability between different subjects in physiological functions, such as excretion or clearance rates, limits severely the inferences that can be made from isolated human observations, and restricts also the deductions as to body burden that can be drawn from the excretion rates observed in any individual; (c) The complex variation of excretion rate with time after a single intake cf many, nuclides prevents any direct deduction of body burden from excretion rate when the time course of intake is unknown, except in the special case of a nuclide which is excreted at a rate which decreases (mono-) exponentially with time since intake; (d) In particular, many radionuclides which are of particular importance because they are highly concentrated and long retained in certain organs, may show initial rapid excretion of the fraction of intake which is not so concentrated, and much slower and more prolonged excretion of the retained part. A small recent intake will thus contribute preponderating to the excretion as compared with that from a much larger and more important

  14. Considerations on the activity concentration determination method for low-level waste packages and nuclide data comparison between different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low-level waste disposal, acceptable activity concentration limits are regulated for individual nuclides and groups of nuclides according to the conditions of each disposal site. Such regulated limits principally concern total alpha and beta /gamma activity as well as nuclides such as C-14, Ni-63, and Pu-238 which are long-lived and difficult to measure (hereinafter referred to as difficult-to-measure nuclides). Before waste packages are transported to the disposal site, the activities or activity concentrations of the regulated nuclides and groups of nuclides in the waste packages must be assessed and declared. A generally applicable theoretical method to determine these activities is lacking at present. Therefore, to meet this requirement, for NPP waste each country independently samples actual waste and carries out radiochemical analyses on these samples. The activity concentrations of difficult-to-measure nuclides are then determined by statistical correlation of the measured data between difficult-to-measure nuclides and Co-60 and Cs-137 which are measurable from outside the waste packages (hereinafter referred to as key nuclides). This method is called 'Scaling Factor Method'. It is widely adopted as a method for determining the activity concentrations of the limited nuclides in low-level waste packages from NPP, and it is also approved by responsible authorities in the respective country. In the past, each country independently determined scaling factors based on measurements on samples from the local NPPs. In the first part of this study, the possibility of an international scaling factor assessment using a database integrating data from different countries was studied by comparing radiochemical analysis data between Germany, Japan, and the United States. These countries have accumulated a large number of those nuclide data required to determine scaling factors. Statistical values such as correlation coefficients change with an accumulation of data. In

  15. Classical Music Fan Chen Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The heyday of Beijing’s classical music beganin 1993, when top-quality sound equipment andrecords were imported. Also in that year, BeijingMusic Radio presented a classical music programtitled "Fan’s Club" and founded the "Music and

  16. Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…

  17. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  18. The Role Of PET/CT In Diagnosis And Treatment Strategy Of Malignant Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms of the lymphoid system. Their treatment and prognosis, aside from other factors, depends on precise staging and assessment of the treatment efficacy. In comparison to the classical standard diagnostic procedure, x-ray computer tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F fluoro deoxy-glucose (18FDG) and combined PET/CT, as functional-metabolic imaging methods, have significantly higher sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pathological changes especially in aggressive types of malignant lymphomas. Current international guidelines for response criteria incorporated PET and PET/CT as routine imaging modalities and strongly recommend their use in Hodgkin's lymphoma and aggressive subtypes of non-Hodgkins lymphomas for initial staging and verification of the disease remission. The benefit of PET and PET/CT in early mid-treatment re staging, their influence on long-term disease remission and overall patient survival has to be confirmed by ongoing clinical trials. (author)

  19. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based (CB) PET. CBPET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CBPET in operation than cPET in the USA. CBPET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  20. Parasites in pet reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavri Urška

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  1. Production of strontium-82 for the Cardiogen trademark PET generator: a project of the Department of Energy Virtual Isotope Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December of 1989, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved 82Rb chloride in saline solution for cardiological perfusion imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The solution is derived from a 82Sr generator system that is presently manufactured by Bristol Myers Squibb and distributed for clinical application in the United States by Bracco Diagnostics, Inc. Many years of research and development by people in several institutions led up to the approval for clinical use. Currently, there are about 15 sites in the U.S. that perform clinical myocardial perfusion imaging by PET using 82Rb chloride from the generator. In order to manufacture the generators, Bristol Myers Squibb requires about 1600 mCi of 82Sr every 30 days. The United States Department of Energy and MDS Nordion, Canada are the current suppliers with qualified Drug Master Files for the production and distribution of this nuclide for the Cardiogen trademark generator. These two entities have worked together over the years to assure the regular, reliable supply of the 82Sr. Here we describe the facilities and methods used by the Department of Energy in its Virtual Isotope Center to make and distribute the nuclide. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner

  3. PET and PET/CT in oncology: the key of diagnostic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation authors present use of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology. This lecture is divided to the following parts: (1) Assessment of treatment response; (2) Treatment monitoring by PET: clinical examples; (3) PET for early response assessment; (4) Use of PET in Radiotherapy planning

  4. Entanglement assisted classical communication simulates "classical communication" without causal order

    OpenAIRE

    Akibue, Seiseki; Owari, Masaki; Kato, Go; Murao, Mio

    2016-01-01

    Phenomena induced by the existence of entanglement, such as nonlocal correlations, exhibit characteristic properties of quantum mechanics distinguishing from classical theories. When entanglement is accompanied by classical communication, it enhances the power of quantum operations jointly performed by two spatially separated parties. Such a power has been analyzed by the gap between the performances of joint quantum operations implementable by local operations at each party connected by clas...

  5. Children's drawings and attachment to pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, A H; Kidd, R M

    1995-08-01

    To help confirm the concept that distances placed between the self and other figures in children's drawings represent emotional distances, 242 pet-owning and 35 nonpet-owning kindergartners through eighth graders drew pictures of themselves, a pet, and/or a family member. Owners drew pets significantly closer than family-figures although the younger the child, the greater the distance between self and pet. Older children drew themselves holding pets significantly more often, but younger children placed the family-figure between the self and the pet significantly more often. There were no significant gender differences in self-figure/pet-figure distances, but cats, dogs, caged animals, and farm animals were placed significantly closer to self-figures than were fish. Over-all, owners were clearly emotionally closer to pets than to family members, but nonowners were as close emotionally to family members as were owners. PMID:7501763

  6. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian;

    2013-01-01

    described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision......Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... Medicine & PET at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen we installed an integrated PET/MRI in December 2011. Here, we describe our first clinical PET/MR cases and discuss some of the areas within oncology where we envision promising future application of integrated PET/MR imaging in clinical routine. Cases...

  7. Quantum localization of Classical Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Batalin, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  8. Quantum localization of classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  9. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)

  10. Proton Therapy Verification with PET Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xuping; Fakhri, Georges El

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy is very sensitive to uncertainties introduced during treatment planning and dose delivery. PET imaging of proton induced positron emitter distributions is the only practical approach for in vivo, in situ verification of proton therapy. This article reviews the current status of proton therapy verification with PET imaging. The different data detecting systems (in-beam, in-room and off-line PET), calculation methods for the prediction of proton induced PET activity distributions...

  11. The rise and fall of PET and PET/CT. A German perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET is being considered a diagnostic commodity in clinical practice worldwide and thus receives increasing attention by health insurances and governmental organizations. In Germany, however, neither PET nor PET/CT are subject to reimbursement. This renders clinical PET and PET/CT imaging a challenge both in general hospital environment and in private practice. This article describes briefly these challenges, which are not solely related to turf battles and associated costs. (orig.)

  12. Classical and stochastic Laplacian growth

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Björn; Vasil’ev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This monograph covers a multitude of concepts, results, and research topics originating from a classical moving-boundary problem in two dimensions (idealized Hele-Shaw flows, or classical Laplacian growth), which has strong connections to many exciting modern developments in mathematics and theoretical physics. Of particular interest are the relations between Laplacian growth and the infinite-size limit of ensembles of random matrices with complex eigenvalues; integrable hierarchies of differential equations and their spectral curves; classical and stochastic Löwner evolution and critical phenomena in two-dimensional statistical models; weak solutions of hyperbolic partial differential equations of singular-perturbation type; and resolution of singularities for compact Riemann surfaces with anti-holomorphic involution. The book also provides an abundance of exact classical solutions, many explicit examples of dynamics by conformal mapping as well as a solid foundation of potential theory. An extensive biblio...

  13. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  14. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  15. Fano interference in classical oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We seek to illustrate Fano interference in a classical coupled oscillator by using classical analogues of the atom-laser interaction. We present an analogy between the dressed state picture of coherent atom-laser interaction and a classical coupled oscillator. The Autler-Townes splitting due to the atom-laser interaction is analogous to the splitting of normal-mode frequencies of a coupled oscillator. Using this analogy, we simulate and experimentally demonstrate Fano interference and the associated phenomena in three-level atoms in a coupled electrical resonator circuit. This work aims to highlight analogies between classical and quantum systems for students at the postgraduate and graduate levels. Also, the reported technique can be easily realized in undergraduate laboratories. (paper)

  16. Elementary charges in classical electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    KAPU'{S}CIK, Edward

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of classical electrodynamics elementary particles are treated as capacitors. The electrostatic potentials satisfy equations of the Schrödinger type. An interesting "quantization condition" for elementary charges is derived.

  17. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær; Hansen, Anders E;

    2014-01-01

    used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET...

  18. Pet care during preadolescence: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J H

    1987-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated pet care in relation to psychosocial development during preadolescence. A group of male and female preadolescents (n = 22) at appropriate grade level for age completed a dog care responsibility inventory. The results revealed that preadolescents in general do not routinely care for pets. Mothers appear to assume most pet care tasks. PMID:3664972

  19. Saying Goodbye: Pet Loss and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Thelma

    2005-01-01

    Pets can be loyal, loving, and entertaining members of a family. Their deaths are generally experienced as painful losses by the people who love them, even though the grief experience is often culturally disenfranchised. In this manuscript, we discuss the role that pets can play in a person's life; the effects that pet loss can have on the people…

  20. 36 CFR 13.1234 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pets. 13.1234 Section 13.1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK... § 13.1234 Pets. Possessing a pet in the BCDA is prohibited....

  1. Probabilities for classically forbidden transitions using classical and classical path methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limits are established for the applicability of purely classical methods for calculating nonreactive, inelastic transition probabilities in collinear collisions of a structureless atom and a harmonic oscillator. These limits, obtained by comparison with previous exact quantum mechanical results, indicate that such methods are inappropriate not only for ''classically forbidden'' but for many ''classically allowed'' transitions (in spite of the fact that they are widely used to calculate probabilities for such processes). A classical path method in the context of infinite-order time-dependent perturbation theory is described which yields extremely accurate transition probabilities even for the most classically forbidden transitions in the collinear atom--harmonic oscillator system. The essential features of this method are: (1) the use of the expectation value of the total interaction potential in determining the atom--oscillator (central force) trajectory, and (2) the use of the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocities of relative motion in the (elastic) central force trajectory. This choice of interaction potential allows the relative motion to be coupled to changes in the internal state of the oscillator. The present classical method is further applied to three-dimensional atom-breathing sphere collisions, and exact quantum mechanical calculations are also carried out. Comparison of the classical path and exact quantum results shows excellent agreement both in the specific inelastic cross section and in the individual partial-wave contributions

  2. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Hagsgaard, S. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Swensson, A. [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1966-11-15

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the {beta} {gamma}-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other {beta} {gamma}-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier.

  3. Transfer of nuclides from the water phase to the sediments during normal and extraordinary hydrological cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atucha I and Atucha II nuclear power plants are located on the right margin of the Parana de las Palmas river. This river belongs to the Cuenca del Plata, whose 1982-1983 hydrologic cycle registered the greatest freshets of the century. Works and studies previously fixed had to be altered and investigations were adapted to the possibilities and the particular hydric conditions verified. Considerations on the transfer of nuclides between water and sediments are presented. The floods reduce the water-sediments contact time on the bed of the river. In outer areas, the waters labelled by the nuclear power plant effluent discharge favor the infiltration in alluvial soils, as well as the exchange with the sediments. The investigations carried out for the phase near to the discharge of liquid effluents (related to the critical group) made possible to prove the characteristics of the path of the liquid wastes released, the distribution coefficient and the fixation or penetrability of some nuclides in soils of the floody valley. In this manner, a balance of radioactive nuclides incorporated to soils and sediments from the neighbourhood of Atucha and the water-course of Parana de las Palmas river is obtained. The presence of 60Co and 137Cs in the floody soils on the right margin of this river was detected and measured during the greatest flood of the century. On the other hand, 144Ce, 51Cr, 106Ru and 90Sr have not been detected. The detection of artificial radioisotopes turns out to be impossible in normal hydrological years, even in the sorroundings of the nuclear power plant or the critical group (from the point of view of the surface waters, The Fishing Club, 3 km down stream). (M.E.L.)

  4. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the β γ-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other β γ-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier

  5. Statistical effects in beta-delayed neutron emission from fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed neutron spectra for the precursors Rb-93, 94, 95, 96, 97 and Cs-145 were measured by use of the on-line isotope separator facility TRISTAN and a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. Flight paths were used that provided, for energies below 70 keV, a FWHM energy resolution between 2 and 4 percent. Each spectrum showed discrete neutron peaks below 156 keV, with as many as 26 in the Rb-95 spectra. Level densities near the neutron binding energy in the neutron-emitting nuclide were deduced using a missing-level indicator based on a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron peak intensities. The resulting level density data were compared to the predictions of the Gilbert and Cameron formulism and to those of Dilg, Schantl, Vonach and Uhl. Comparisons were made between the empirically-based level parameter a and the values predicted by each model for Sr-93, 94, 95, 97 and Ba-145. The two models appear, within the uncertainties, to be equally capable of describing these neutron-rich nuclides and equally as capable for them as they are for nuclides in the valley of beta stability. Measurements of the neutron strength function are sometimes possible with the present TOF system for neutron decays with competing neutron branches to levels in the grandchild nucleus. A value for the d-wave strength function of Sr-96 is found to be (4.2 +- 1.1)/104. Improvements in the TOF system, allowing the measurement of the neutron strength function for the more general case, are discussed. 72 refs., 56 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Impact of vegetation change on the mobility of uranium- and thorium-series nuclides in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontier, A.; Rihs, S.; Turpault, M.-P.; Chabaux, F.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of land cover change on chemical mobility and soil response was investigated using short- and long-lived nuclides from the U- and Th series. Indeed, the matching of these nuclides half-live to the pedogenic processes rates make these nuclides especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. This study was carried out from the experimental Breuil-Chenue site (Morvan mountains, France). The native forest (150 year-old) was partially clear-felled and replaced in 1976 by mono-specific plantations distributed in different stands. Following this cover-change, some mineralogical changes in the acid brown soil were recognized (Mareschal, 2008). Three soil sections were sampled under the native forest and the replanted oak and Douglas spruce stands respectively. The (238U), (234U), (230Th), (226Ra), (232Th) and (228Ra) activities were analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and gamma spectrometry. Significant differences in U, Th, and Ra activities were observed between the soils located under the native forest or the replanted-trees stands, mostly dominated by a large uranium mobilization from the replanted soils. Moreover, all the investigated U and Th-series activity ratios show a contrasted trend between the shallowest horizons (0-50cm) and the deepest one (below 50cm), demonstrating the chemical effect of the vegetation change on the shallow soil layers. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the coupled radioactive disequilibria measured in the different soil layers permit to quantify the rate of the radionuclides mobilities. Reference: Mareschal, L., 2008. Effet des substitutions d'essences forestières sur l'évolution des sols et de leur minéralogie : bilan après 28 ans dans le site expérimental de Breuil (Morvan) Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy-I.

  7. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R G

    1994-04-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective. PMID:8076285

  8. Promoting the exotic pet practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Don J

    2005-09-01

    The marketing and promotion of an exotic pet veterinary practice allows the use of strategies that are not necessarily available in other veterinary disciplines. The advantage that an exotics practice enjoys is that it is able to capitalize not only on the unique nature of the species being attended but also on the specialized features of the hospital itself that make it specifically appropriate in caring for exotic pets. Before marketing, however, comes the responsibility that the practice live up to the claims made in promotional materials. A practice cannot ethically be presented as an "exotics" practice if it is nothing more than a dog and cat facility that is willing to attend to exotic pets. It is the competence of the veterinary staff and the appropriateness of the facility that determines the suitability of the practice for exotics management. PMID:16129354

  9. Anderson localization from classical trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We show that Anderson localization in quasi-one dimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively descri...

  10. Gaussian Dynamics is Classical Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Salman

    2004-01-01

    A direct comparison of quantum and classical dynamical systems can be accomplished through the use of distribution functions. This is useful for both fundamental investigations such as the nature of the quantum-classical transition as well as for applications such as quantum feedback control. By affording a clear separation between kinematical and dynamical quantum effects, the Wigner distribution is particularly valuable in this regard. Here we discuss some consequences of the fact that when...

  11. Quantum systems as classical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cassa, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    A characteristical property of a classical physical theory is that the observables are real functions taking an exact outcome on every (pure) state; in a quantum theory, at the contrary, a given observable on a given state can take several values with only a predictable probability. However, even in the classical case, when an observer is intrinsically unable to distinguish between some distinct states he can convince himself that the measure of its ''observables'' can have several values in ...

  12. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  13. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  14. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  15. Quantitative imaging with PET. Performance and applications of sup 7 sup 6 Br, sup 5 sup 2 F sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup m In and sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 La

    CERN Document Server

    Lubberink, M

    2001-01-01

    count rates are considerably lower for sup 7 sup 6 Br than for sup 1 sup 8 F at clinically relevant radioactivity concentrations. A method to correct sup 5 sup 2 Fe patient data for the contribution of the decay daughter sup 5 sup 2 sup m Mn is discussed. The use of sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup m In is evaluated in a patient study and compared to SPECT imaging with sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In. A dosimetric and PET evaluation of the of use sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 Ce/ sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 La for radionuclide therapy and dosimetry is presented. Dosimetry of sup 7 sup 6 Br-labelled antibodies is evaluated in an animal study. Finally, the possibility to use PET for dosimetry during radionuclide therapy is studied and a dose image calculation program, based on PET measurements, is presented The use of positron emission tomography (PET) has so far been limited to a few nuclides with short half-lives such as sup 1 sup 8 F and sup 1 sup 1 C. Certain applications require nuclides with longer half-lives, such as sup 7 sup 6 Br and sup 5 sup 2...

  16. Attempt of concentrating a new natural spontaneously fissile nuclide from geothermal brine of the Cheleken peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is aimed at concentration of yet nonidentified spontaneous fission nuclide (NSFN), discovered in geothermal brines of the Cheleken peninsula, when coprecipitation with inorganic collectors (metal hydroxides, ZnS, FeS, BaSO4; ionic exchange on organic and inorganic sorbents, as well as reduction by metals (Fe, Al) are used. The NSFN enrichment level turns out to be insufficient to identify its atomic number by physical methods. However, using the obtained data and measurement results of NSFN spontaneous fission activity in different concentrates, some of its chemical properties are studied. A certain analogy in chemical behaviour of NSFN and noble metals like Au and Hg is noted

  17. Calibration techniques and error analysis for phoswich counting of actinide nuclides at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most difficult and demanding areas of low-level counting is the detection of actinides in vivo. In the case of inhalation of these nuclides, it is common practice at many installations to determine the resulting lung burden by external counting of low-intensity L X-rays from the daughter nucleus with either a phoswich detector or a proportional counter. Calibration techniques using these detectors are examined and possible uncertainties in the determination of lung burden by using standard techniques are discussed. The use of phoswich detectors is discussed in detail

  18. Probing the nuclide 180W for neutrinoless double-electron capture exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass difference of the nuclides 180W and 180Hf has been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP to investigate 180W as a possible candidate for the search for neutrinoless double-electron capture. The Qεε-value was measured to 143.20(27) keV. This value in combination with the calculations of the atomic electron wave functions and other parameters results in a half-life of the 0+→0+ ground-state to ground-state double-electron capture transition of approximately 5×1027 years/〈mεε[eV]〉2.

  19. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  20. Database on nuclide content of coal and gangue in Chinese coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designing ides, structure, interface and basic function of a database are introduced of nuclide content of coal or gangue in Chinese coal mine. The design of the database adopts Sybase database system, and the database has the functions of making inquiries of keyword, classification and statistics, printing, data input which are achieved by using Power builder Language program. At the present, in this database, the data are collected on the radioactivity of natural radionuclide of 2043 coal, gangue and the other relative samples from various coal miners of all over the country. The database will provide the basic data for the environmental impact assessment of Chinese coal energy. (authors)

  1. Carborane Derivatives for Nuclide Therapy and Imaging : Synthesis and Radio-labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Winberg, Karl Johan

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes synthesis and radiohalogenation of closo-carborane and nido-carborate derivatives for application in nuclide therapy and imaging. The work could be divided in to four sections. In the first section, the synthesis of three boronated DNA-intercalators – 1–(N-9-acridinyl-3-aminopropyl)-para-carborane-12-carboxylic acid hydrogen chloride, 1-[1-(N-9-acridinyl-3-aminopropyl)-para-carborane 12-(3-propyloxi)]-1,3-propanediol, 1-(N-9-acridinyl-3-amino-propyl)-1-ortho-carborane-2-...

  2. Electron capture of nuclides 52,53,54,55,56Fe in magnetars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Jing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of relativity in superstrong magnetic fields (SMFs),we have carried out an estimation on electron capture (EC) rates of nuclides 52,53,54,55,56Fe in the SMFs in magnetars.The rates of change of electronic fraction (RCEF) in the EC process are also discussed.The results show that the EC rates increase greatly and even exceeds by 4 orders of magnitude (e.g.54Fe,55Fe and 56Fe) in SMF.On the contrary,the RCEF decreases largely and even exceeds by 5 orders of magnitude in the SMF.

  3. Geochemical behaviour of natural uranium-series nuclides in geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research and investigation show that the Tono uranium deposit and its natural uranium-series nuclides have been preserved, without any significant changes like re-migration or reconcentration, throughout geological events such as upheaval-submergence, marine transgression-regression, and faulting which can readily change geological, hydrogeological, and geochemical conditions. This situation might have come about as a result of being kept in a geometrical closure system, with reducing and milk alkalic geochemical conditions, from the hydrogeological and geochemical point of view. (author)

  4. An in-situ RBS system for measuring nuclides adsorbed at the liquid-solid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K.; Yuhara, J.; Ishigami, R. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    An in-situ RBS system has been developed in which heavier nuclides adsorbed at the inner surface of a thin lighter window specimen of liquid container in order to determine the rate constants for their sorption and release at the interface. The testing of a thin silicon window of the sample assembly, in which Xe gas of one atmosphere was enclosed, against the bombardment of the probing ion beam has been performed. A desorption behavior of a lead layer adsorbed at the SiO{sub 2} layer of silicon window surface into deionized water has been measured as a preliminary experiment. (author)

  5. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  6. Stable nuclide tracer studies and human amino acid requirements. A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutritional requirements for proteins have been estimated for various age groups. The current status of knowledge concerning the quantitative needs for specific indispensable amino acids was reviewed and it was concluded that, except for infants, current values for pre-school children, school age children and healthy adults are based on limited experimental data and/or on results from nitrogen balance determinations which are open to serious question regarding their nutritional significance. A review of 13C-labelled tracer studies carried out in MIT laboratories was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of stable nuclide tracer studies for purposes of determining the amino acid requirements of humans. 5 refs

  7. Spectroscopy of the neutron-deficient nuclide sup 1 sup 7 sup 1 Pt

    CERN Document Server

    Baeck, T; Lagergren, K; Wyss, R; Johnson, A; Greenlees, P T; Jones, P; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Keenan, A; Kettunen, H; Kuusiniemi, P; Leino, M; Leppaenen, A P; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J; Rahkila, P; Uusitalo, J; Jenkins, D; Joss, D T; Muikku, M

    2003-01-01

    A number of previously unobserved gamma-rays emitted from the neutron-deficient nuclide sup 1 sup 7 sup 1 Pt have been identified using the recoil decay tagging technique. The level scheme has been updated using information from gamma-gamma coincidences and angular distribution measurements. To further confirm the assignments of the gamma-rays to sup 1 sup 7 sup 1 Pt, the events were correlated with the alpha-decay of the daughter nucleus sup 1 sup 6 sup 7 Os. (orig.)

  8. ENDF/B-IV fission-product files: summary of major nuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major fission-product parameters [sigma/sub th/, RI, tau/sub 1/2/, E-bar/sub β/, E-bar/sub γ/, E-bar/sub α/, decay and (n,γ) branching, Q, and AWR] abstracted from ENDF/B-IV files for 824 nuclides are summarized. These data are most often requested by users concerned with reactor design, reactor safety, dose, and other sundry studies. The few known file errors are corrected to date. Tabular data are listed by increasing mass number

  9. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  10. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R G

    1994-01-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that prod...

  11. The Petit Rat (pet/pet), a New Semilethal Mutant Dwarf Rat with Thymic and Testicular Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-01-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and th...

  12. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved

  13. Performance of FDG PET/CT at initial diagnosis in a rare lymphoma: nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grellier, Jean Francois; Weinmann, Pierre [AP-HP- Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de medecine nucleaire, Paris (France); Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Berenger, Nathalie [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de medecine nucleaire, Paris (France); Leblanc, Thierry [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' immuno-hematologie, Paris (France); Thieblemont, Catherine [Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite - INSERM UMR-S1165, AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' hemato-Oncologie, Paris (France); Briere, Josette [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de pathologie, Paris (France); Brice, Pauline [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' hemato-Oncologie, Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare Hodgkin lymphoma distinguished from classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) by the nature of the neoplastic cells which express B-cell markers. We wanted to determine the diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT in initial assessment and its therapeutic impact on staging. We retrospectively studied a population of 35 patients with NLPHL (8 previously treated for NLHPL, 27 untreated). All patients underwent an initial staging by pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT. The impact on initial stage or relapse stage was assessed by an independent physician. In a per-patient analysis, the sensitivity of the pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT was 100 %. In a per-site analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT were 100 %, 99 %, 97 %, 100 % and 99 %, respectively. Pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT led to a change in the initial stage/relapse stage in 12 of the 35 patients (34 %). In contrast to previous results established without FDG PET/CT, 20 % of patient had osteomedullary lesions. Pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT has excellent performance for initial staging or relapse staging of NLPHL. (orig.)

  14. PET and PET/CT in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages that it has the PET/CT are: 1. It diminishes mainly positive false lesions. It identifies physiologic accumulate places. 2. It diminishes in smaller grade false negative. Small injuries. Injuries with low grade concentration. Injure on intense activity areas. 3. Precise anatomical localization of accumulate places. 4. Reduction of the acquisition time. (Author)

  15. Motion compensation for PET image reconstruction using deformable tetrahedral meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory-induced organ motion is a technical challenge to PET imaging. This motion induces displacements and deformation of the organs tissues, which need to be taken into account when reconstructing the spatial radiation activity. Classical image-based methods that describe motion using deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms cannot fully take into account the non-reproducibility of the respiratory internal organ motion nor the tissue volume variations that occur during breathing. In order to overcome these limitations, various biomechanical models of the respiratory system have been developed in the past decade as an alternative to DIR approaches. In this paper, we describe a new method of correcting motion artefacts in PET image reconstruction adapted to motion estimation models such as those based on the finite element method. In contrast with the DIR-based approaches, the radiation activity was reconstructed on deforming tetrahedral meshes. For this, we have re-formulated the tomographic reconstruction problem by introducing a time-dependent system matrix based calculated using tetrahedral meshes instead of voxelized images. The MLEM algorithm was chosen as the reconstruction method. The simulations performed in this study show that the motion compensated reconstruction based on tetrahedral deformable meshes has the capability to correct motion artefacts. Results demonstrate that, in the case of complex deformations, when large volume variations occur, the developed tetrahedral based method is more appropriate than the classical DIR-based one. This method can be used, together with biomechanical models controlled by external surrogates, to correct motion artefacts in PET images and thus reducing the need for additional internal imaging during the acquisition. (paper)

  16. Hybrid MR-PET in Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdas, S; Lá Fougere, C; Ernemann, U

    2015-10-01

    Hybrid magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) is a novel technology with advantages over sequential MR and PET imaging, allowing maintain full individual diagnostic performance with negligible mutual interference between the two hardware settings. Obvious synergies between MR and PET in acquisition of anatomical, functional, and molecular information for neurological diseases into one single image pave the way for establishing clear clinical indications for hybrid MR-PET as well as addressing unmet neuroimaging needs in future clinics and research. Further developments in attenuation correction, quantification, workflow, and effective MR-PET data management might unfold the full potential of integrated multimodality imaging. PMID:26227618

  17. FDG-PET response-adapted therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate tool for staging, treatment monitoring, and response evaluation in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Early determination of treatment sensitivity by FDG-PET is the best tool to guide individualized......, response-adapted treatment. Several ongoing or recently completed trials have investigated the use of FDG-PET/CT for early response-adapted HL therapy. The results are encouraging, but the data are immature, and PET response-adapted HL therapy is discouraged outside the setting of clinical trials. PET...

  18. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-709 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  19. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  20. The MiniPET: a didactic PET system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, R.; Silva, J.; Gurriana, L.; Silva, J. M.; Maio, A.; Soares Augusto, J.

    2013-03-01

    The MiniPET project aims to design and build a small PET system. It consists of two 4 × 4 matrices of 16 LYSO scintillator crystals and two PMTs with 16 channels resulting in a low cost system with the essential functionality of a clinical PET instrument. It is designed to illustrate the physics of the PET technique and to provide a didactic platform for the training of students and nuclear imaging professionals as well as for scientific outreach. The PET modules can be configured to test for the coincidence of 511 keV gamma rays. The model has a flexible mechanical setup [1] and can simulate 14 diferent ring geometries, from a configuration with as few as 18 detectors per ring (ring radius phi=51 mm), up to a geometry with 70 detectors per ring (phi=200 mm). A second version of the electronic system [2] allowed measurement and recording of the energy deposited in 4 detector channels by photons from a 137Cs radioactive source and by photons resulting of the annihilation of positrons from a 22Na radioactive source. These energy spectra are used for detector performance studies, as well as angular dependency studies. In this paper, the mechanical setup, the front-end high-speed analog electronics, the digital acquisition and control electronics implemented in a FPGA, as well as the data-transfer interface between the FPGA board and a host PC are described. Recent preliminary results obtained with the 4 active channels in the prototype are also presented.

  1. The MiniPET: a didactic PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MiniPET project aims to design and build a small PET system. It consists of two 4 × 4 matrices of 16 LYSO scintillator crystals and two PMTs with 16 channels resulting in a low cost system with the essential functionality of a clinical PET instrument. It is designed to illustrate the physics of the PET technique and to provide a didactic platform for the training of students and nuclear imaging professionals as well as for scientific outreach. The PET modules can be configured to test for the coincidence of 511 keV gamma rays. The model has a flexible mechanical setup [1] and can simulate 14 diferent ring geometries, from a configuration with as few as 18 detectors per ring (ring radius φ=51 mm), up to a geometry with 70 detectors per ring (φ=200 mm). A second version of the electronic system [2] allowed measurement and recording of the energy deposited in 4 detector channels by photons from a 137Cs radioactive source and by photons resulting of the annihilation of positrons from a 22Na radioactive source. These energy spectra are used for detector performance studies, as well as angular dependency studies. In this paper, the mechanical setup, the front-end high-speed analog electronics, the digital acquisition and control electronics implemented in a FPGA, as well as the data-transfer interface between the FPGA board and a host PC are described. Recent preliminary results obtained with the 4 active channels in the prototype are also presented.

  2. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and γ ray spectrum. FPGS90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting γ ray and β ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted γ ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library 'JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -', which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author)

  3. Sensitivity of radioactive nuclide leaching rate under the sub-surface disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to dispose of radioactive wastes generated from and stored in JAEA in the sub-surface disposal facility, JAEA has studied the safety assessment of sub-surface disposal considering likely scenario and less-likely scenario. Leaching rate of radionuclide from radioactive wastes to permeation water in sub-surface disposal facility is important parameter in the safety assessment because radionuclides contained in activated metal are released to permeation water by the corrosion of metal. In this report, we studied sensitivity of radionuclide leaching rate from radioactive wastes in the safety assessment of sub-surface disposal. As a result, it is confirmed that the dose due to Cl-36 which is dominant nuclide at groundwater scenario in the safety assessment is sensitive to radionuclide leaching rate from radioactive wastes, but the dose due to Nb-94 which is dominant nuclide at tunnel excavation scenario in the assessment is not sensitive to radionuclide leaching rate but to distribution coefficients of engineered barrier. (author)

  4. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  5. Investigations on Cerenkov effect application of β-radiating nuclides in transparent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles with higher energies are able to generate photons in transparent media by means of the Cerenkov effect. This can be used to detect β-radiading nuclides with more than 0.26 MeV maximum energy in aqueous solutions. Counter gain and impulse hight-spectra for different nuclides can be determined by means of a specially designed counter. The counter consists of two coincidence photomultipliers. It is possible to determine quantitatively β-radiating impurities in high activity γ-radiating solution. Further the possibility was examined to acquire spatial β-activity distributions by means of the Cerenkov effect. This yields a resolution, smaller than 1.3 mm for 32P and for superficially located sources. The intensity decreases exponentially with the depth (half-value-depth about 0.5 mm). With this the method is better than a semiconductor needle probe and has the advantage of a selective resolution of the surface distribution without a disturbing γ-influence, when compared with the conventional autoradiography. Advantageous applications of several Cerenkov counters in radiochemistry and nuclear medicine are described. (orig./HP)

  6. Finite medium Green's function solutions to nuclide transport in porous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to develop mathematical models to estimate the release of buried radioactive waste to the biosphere and its potential impact on man. A necessary link in simulating this process is a model that accurately represents the subsurface transport. Among the analytical techniques used to predict the transport of nuclides in porous materials is the Green's function approach, i.e., the response characteristics of a geologic pathway to an impulse function input. To data, the analyses all have set the boundary conditions needed to solve the 1-D transport equation as though each pathway were infinite in length. This paper critically examines the effects that the infinite pathway assumption has on Green's function models of nuclide transport in porous media. It treats the more difficult problem of obtaining suitable Green's functions for finite pathways whose dimensions may not be much greater than the diffusion length. Such pathways may occur in multipath representations of a waste repository. Because of the ease of treatment of stacked pipes and their more accurate representation of short pathways, finite medium Green's functions represent an improvement over current waste transport models and extend the range of applicability of the Green's function approach to solving radionuclide transport problems

  7. Isomers in neutron-rich A ∼ 190 nuclides from 208Pb fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of 208Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A ∼ 190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of gamma-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in 188Ta, 190W, 192Re, 193Re, 195Os, 197Ir, 198Ir, 200Pt, 201Pt, 202Pt and 203Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for 174Er, 175Er, 185Hf, 191Re, 194Re and 199Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles gamma-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In 200Pt and 201Pt, the assignments are supported by gamma-gamma coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics

  8. Declaration and checking of nuclide inventory in radioactive wastes within the framework of waste flow surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mai of 1989 the Federal Republic of Germany issued its 'Guideline on the Control of Radioactive Wastes with Negligible Heat Generation' (the so-called Waste Control Guideline) (1). With special regard to the safety of the intermediate waste storage and final disposal, the purpose of this guideline is to specify surveillance measures for all steps during waste removal such that the amount of waste, its location and state of treatment can be determined at all times. This guideline calls for a continual surveillance of the waste, from the time of its creation to its disposal. This surveillance entails the recording of specific safety related waste characteristics and the radioactivity of certain key nuclides. Either the originator of the waste or a third party on his behalf shall document and process these data and information in such a way that the information required by the proper authority can be presented without undue delay. To help in implementing the guideline specifically for nuclear power plants, a modular PC code, AVK, was developed (AVK is the German acronym for 'wasteflow surveillance and control'). An important part of this code is the module MOPRO which treats the declaration and checking of the nuclide inventory in individual nuclear wastes. The object of this presentation is to describe the basics of this specific code module

  9. Bernal liquid drop - alpha particle models of some heavy magic number nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Models of the bond structures of nickel 56, strontium 88, tin 120, cerium 140, lead 208 and uranium 240 nuclides based on Bernal's models of dense liquid drops, show good agreement between the binding energy data and shell structures when alpha particles are considered to be the densely packed hard spheres, of Bernal's models. These models, of the time-averaged structures of several closed shell nuclides have been developed as pedagogical aids for conceptualising some of the major aspects of nuclear matter and energy. These concepts include nuclear shape, size, charge density, quadrupole moment, viscosity, binding energy, coulomb repulsion, energy levels, magic numbers, shells and subshells; nucleon separation, bonding, pairing and clustering; nucleosynthesis, radioactivity and fission. The models discussed are based on those proposed by Bernal to account for the properties of normal liquids. Bernal's models have also been extended by others to explain the nature of metallic glasses considered as super cooled liquids. In Bernal's tetrahedral model of a normal liquid drop, a hard sphere representing an atom, ion, or molecule is added at whatever available position is closed to the centre of the existing cluster of spheres so that the densest possible configuration is created. Accordingly, two spheres form a dumbbell, three spheres form a triangle and four spheres form a tetrahedron and so on

  10. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author)

  11. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs

  12. Sand residence times of one million years in the Namib Sand Sea from cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, P.; Fenton, C. R.; Kober, F.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Bristow, C. S.; Xu, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Namib Sand Sea is one of the world's oldest and largest sand deserts, yet little is known about the source of the sand in this, or other large deserts. In particular, it is unclear whether the sand is derived from local sediment or comes from remote sources. The relatively uniform appearance of dune sands and low compositional variability within dune fields make it difficult to address this question. Here we combine cosmogenic-nuclide measurements and geochronological techniques to assess the provenance and migration history of sand grains in the Namib Sand Sea. We use U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons to show that the primary source of sand is the Orange River at the southern edge of the Namib desert. Our burial ages obtained from measurements of the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be, 26Al and 21Ne suggest that the residence time of sand within the sand sea is at least one million years. We therefore conclude that, despite large climatic changes in the Namib region associated with Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles, the area currently occupied by the Namib Sand Sea has never been entirely devoid of sand during the past million years.

  13. The standard facility for nuclide activity measurement by 4πγ high pressure ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard consists of 4πγ pressurized ionization chambers (IC/2C(1.0 MPa) and IG12/A20(2.0 MPa), small current measurement system, standard bottles, one set of long-live reference sources (226Ra), and lead shields. It has the following advantages: 1) long-term stability less than 0.1% per year; 2) fast speed for activity measurement; 3) Do allowing the direct measurement activity of solutions in ampoules; 4) permit measurement over a long range of activity (104-1010 Bq). For short-live nuclides, it is necessary to know the efficiency of the ionization chamber. The calibration factors can be calculated according to the efficiency curve and the probability of γ-ray emission. The calibration factors of some nuclides are calculated and the deviation of the calculation factors from experiment is less than +-3%. The half-life of 99Tcm is measured, the result is 6.0053 +- 0.0018 h

  14. Isomers in neutron-rich A∼190 nuclides from 208Pb fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of 208Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A∼190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of γ-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in 188Ta, 190W, 192Re, 193Re, 195Os, 197Ir, 198Ir, 200Pt, 201Pt, 202Pt and 203Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for 174Er, 175Er, 185Hf, 191Re, 194Re and 199Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles γ-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In 200Pt and 201Pt, the assignments are supported by γ-γ coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics. (orig.)

  15. Isomers in neutron-rich A{approx}190 nuclides from {sup 208}Pb fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caamano, M.; Podolyak, Z.; Garces Narro, J. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom); Walker, M. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom)]|[TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); Regan, P.H. [University of Surrey, Department of Physics, Guildford (United Kingdom)]|[Yale University, Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven (United States); Pfuetzner, M. [Warsaw University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Gerl, J.; Cortina Gil, D.; Doering, J.; Geissel, H. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Hellstroem, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Lund University, Div. of Nuclear Physics (Sweden); Mayet, P. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[KU Leuven, IKS, Leuven (Belgium); Mineva, M.N. [Lund University, Division of Nuclear Physics (Sweden); Aprahamian, A. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, South Bend (United States); Benlliure, J. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bruce, A.M. [University of Brighton, School of Engineering, Brighton (United Kingdom); Butler, P.A. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cullen, D.M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom)]|[University of Manchester, Schuster Lab., Manchester (United Kingdom); Enqvist, T. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Dept. of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Fox, C. [Univ. of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Lab., Liverpool (United Kingdom)]|[Duke Univ., TUNL, Durham (United States); Gelletly, M.; Giovinazzo, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Grzywacz, R.; Kleinboehl, A.H.; Korten, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lucas, R.; Mach, H.; O' Leary, C.D.; De Oliveira, F.; Pearson, C.J.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Sawicka, M.; Schaffner, H.; Schlegel, C.; Schmidt, K.; Schmidt, K.H.; Stevenson, P.D.; Theisen, C.; Vives, F.; Warner, D.D.; Wheldon, C.; Wollersheim, S.; Wooding, S.; Xu, F.; Yordanov, O.

    2005-02-01

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of {sup 208}Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A{approx}190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of {gamma}-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in {sup 188}Ta, {sup 190}W, {sup 192}Re, {sup 193}Re, {sup 195}Os, {sup 197}Ir, {sup 198}Ir, {sup 200}Pt, {sup 201}Pt, {sup 202}Pt and {sup 203}Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for {sup 174}Er, {sup 175}Er, {sup 185}Hf, {sup 191}Re, {sup 194}Re and {sup 199}Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles {gamma}-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In {sup 200}Pt and {sup 201}Pt, the assignments are supported by {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics. (orig.)

  16. Studies of heavy radioactive nuclides transmutation using relativistic particles at the JINR (Dubna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We overview briefly the investigations of the process of transmutation of long-lived fission products into short-lived or stable nuclides, which are conducted for several years at the synchrophasotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, using the beams of protons and 12C ions of 3.67 GeV and 18 GeV energy, respectively. As a result of these experiments it has been found that the measured transmutation rates for these nuclides irradiated with the help of rather simple and versatile experimental arrangement allows to estimate the transmutation rate capacity for a 10 m A -1.5 GeV proton accelerator coupled to a Pb target as: 4% of 129I into 130Xe for one year and 6% of 237Np into 238Np during one month. Current methodical and computational problems arising in the relevant works are also discussed. Some remarks concerning similar investigations conducted in other laboratories (in particular, at CERN [3]) are made, too

  17. Study on fitness functions of genetic algorithm for dynamically correcting nuclide atmospheric diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In radioactive nuclides atmospheric diffusion models, the empirical dispersion coefficients were deduced under certain experiment conditions, whose difference with nuclear accident conditions is a source of deviation. A better estimation of the radioactive nuclide's actual dispersion process could be done by correcting dispersion coefficients with observation data, and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an appropriate method for this correction procedure. Purpose: This study is to analyze the fitness functions' influence on the correction procedure and the forecast ability of diffusion model. Methods: GA, coupled with Lagrange dispersion model, was used in a numerical simulation to compare 4 fitness functions' impact on the correction result. Results: In the numerical simulation, the fitness function with observation deviation taken into consideration stands out when significant deviation exists in the observed data. After performing the correction procedure on the Kincaid experiment data, a significant boost was observed in the diffusion model's forecast ability. Conclusion: As the result shows, in order to improve dispersion models' forecast ability using GA, observation data should be given different weight in the fitness function corresponding to their error. (authors)

  18. An analysis of the correlation between dust storms in Korea and {sup 137}Cs nuclide concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo-won; Kim, Jeong-hun; Shin, Sang-hwa; Hwang, Joo-ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Dust storms occur in Korea during spring time when fine dust is blown in from the far western regions of western China and Mongolia. A fine powdery dust is blown up into the sky and enters the upper reaches of the atmosphere where it is carried easterly across China then slowly falls to the ground on the Korean peninsula and Japan. The dust originates mostly in the Gobi dessert of China, as well as the yellow earth regions in the middle and upper streams of the Yellow river in China. Previous studies on dust storms have been limited to following or estimating their courses, distribution and frequency, or distribution of the heavy metals they transmit. However, since radionuclides exist in the dust, they must also exist in the dust storms. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of :1{sup 37}Cs nuclide concentration based on a count of annual dust storm occurrence in the city of Suwon, South Korea and assessed seasonal differences of {sup 137}Cs nuclide concentration.

  19. Principles of PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disselhorst, Jonathan A; Bezrukov, Ilja; Kolb, Armin; Parl, Christoph; Pichler, Bernd J

    2014-05-12

    Hybrid PET/MR systems have rapidly progressed from the prototype stage to systems that are increasingly being used in the clinics. This review provides an overview of developments in hybrid PET/MR systems and summarizes the current state of the art in PET/MR instrumentation, correction techniques, and data analysis. The strong magnetic field requires considerable changes in the manner by which PET images are acquired and has led, among others, to the development of new PET detectors, such as silicon photomultipliers. During more than a decade of active PET/MR development, several system designs have been described. The technical background of combined PET/MR systems is explained and related challenges are discussed. The necessity for PET attenuation correction required new methods based on MR data. Therefore, an overview of recent developments in this field is provided. Furthermore, MR-based motion correction techniques for PET are discussed, as integrated PET/MR systems provide a platform for measuring motion with high temporal resolution without additional instrumentation. The MR component in PET/MR systems can provide functional information about disease processes or brain function alongside anatomic images. Against this background, we point out new opportunities for data analysis in this new field of multimodal molecular imaging. PMID:24819419

  20. An introduction to PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its introduction in 1998, dual-modality PET/CT imaging has received great attention in the medical community. Patients are examined with both CT and PET in a whole-body single examination in the same scanner and fusion can be obtained directly obviating the need for software registration. The CT images are used for anatomic reference of the tracer uptake patterns imaged in PET, as well as for attenuation correction of the PET data. This review discusses the technical background of PET with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose, CT and combined PET/CT devices. Clinical applications in oncology are considered. Fusion of the anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by PET in PET/CT imaging allows a higher diagnostic accuracy for lesion localisation than PET plus CT performed independently. Image artefacts can result from CT-based attenuation methodology that can overcorrect dense objects generating hot spot artefacts in attenuation correction PET images and mismatches in CT and PET studies due to respiratory movements and the different patient positioning between both examinations. (author)