WorldWideScience

Sample records for classical mechanics

  1. Classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Benacquista, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to classical mechanics at a level intermediate between the typical undergraduate and advanced graduate level. This text describes the background and tools for use in the fields of modern physics, such as quantum mechanics, astrophysics, particle physics, and relativity. Students who have had basic undergraduate classical mechanics or who have a good understanding of the mathematical methods of physics will benefit from this book.

  2. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity

  3. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Olaf [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity.

  4. Supersymmetric classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.N.; Soni, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to construct a supersymmetric Lagrangian within the framework of classical mechanics which would be regarded as a candidate for passage to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. 5 refs. (author)

  5. Mathematical physics classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Knauf, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a limit theory of quantum mechanics, classical dynamics comprises a large variety of phenomena, from computable (integrable) to chaotic (mixing) behavior. This book presents the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and asymptotic completeness in classical scattering. Including a wealth of fascinating examples in physics, it offers not only an excellent selection of basic topics, but also an introduction to a number of current areas of research in the field of classical mechanics. Thanks to the didactic structure and concise appendices, the presentation is self-contained and requires only knowledge of the basic courses in mathematics. The book addresses the needs of graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and physics, and of researchers interested in approaching classical mechanics from a modern point of view.

  6. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  7. Generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometrical study of Classical Mechanics shows that the Hamiltonian (respectively, Lagrangian) formalism may be characterized by intrinsical structures canonically defined on the cotangent (respectively, tangent) bundle of a differentiable manifold. A generalized formalism for higher order Lagrangians is developed. Then the Hamiltonian form of the theory is developed. Finally, the Poisson brackets are defined and the conditions under which a mapping is a canonical transformation are studied. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this type of mechanics is established. (Auth.)

  8. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  9. Classical mechanics with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This textbook takes a broad yet thorough approach to mechanics, aimed at bridging the gap between classical analytic and modern differential geometric approaches to the subject. Developed by the authors from over 30 years of teaching experience, the presentation is designed to give students an overview of the many different models used through the history of the field—from Newton to Hamilton—while also painting a clear picture of the most modern developments. The text is organized into two parts. The first focuses on developing the mathematical framework of linear algebra and differential geometry necessary for the remainder of the book. Topics covered include tensor algebra, Euclidean and symplectic vector spaces, differential manifolds, and absolute differential calculus. The second part of the book applies these topics to kinematics, rigid body dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, Hamilton–Jacobi theory, completely integrable systems, statistical mechanics of equilibrium, and impulsive dyna...

  10. Dynamical systems in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V V

    1995-01-01

    This book shows that the phenomenon of integrability is related not only to Hamiltonian systems, but also to a wider variety of systems having invariant measures that often arise in nonholonomic mechanics. Each paper presents unique ideas and original approaches to various mathematical problems related to integrability, stability, and chaos in classical dynamics. Topics include… the inverse Lyapunov theorem on stability of equilibria geometrical aspects of Hamiltonian mechanics from a hydrodynamic perspective current unsolved problems in the dynamical systems approach to classical mechanics

  11. Classical Mechanics as Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, Hrvoje

    2007-01-01

    All measurable predictions of classical mechanics can be reproduced from a quantum-like interpretation of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The key observation leading to classical physics is the fact that a wave function that satisfies a linear equation is real and positive, rather than complex. This has profound implications on the role of the Bohmian classical-like interpretation of linear quantum mechanics, as well as on the possibilities to find a consistent interpretation of arbitrary nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics

  12. Quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.

  13. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  14. Teaching Classical Mechanics using Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Using a personal computer and a smartphone, iMecaProf is a software that provides a complete teaching environment for practicals associated to a Classical Mechanics course. iMecaProf proposes a visual, real time and interactive representation of data transmitted by a smartphone using the formalism of Classical Mechanics. Using smartphones is more than using a set of sensors. iMecaProf shows students that important concepts of physics they here learn, are necessary to control daily life smartp...

  15. Classical fracture mechanics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.; Heerens, J.; Landes, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive Structural Integrity is a reference work which covers all activities involved in the assurance of structural integrity. It provides engineers and scientists with an unparalleled depth of knowledge in the disciplines involved. The new online Volume 11 is dedicated to the mechanical characteristics of materials. This paper contains the chapter 11.02 of this volume and is structured as follows: Test techniques; Analysis; Fracture behavior; Fracture toughness tests for nonmetals

  16. Quantum Mechanics as Classical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Sebens, CT

    2015-01-01

    Here I explore a novel no-collapse interpretation of quantum mechanics which combines aspects of two familiar and well-developed alternatives, Bohmian mechanics and the many-worlds interpretation. Despite reproducing the empirical predictions of quantum mechanics, the theory looks surprisingly classical. All there is at the fundamental level are particles interacting via Newtonian forces. There is no wave function. However, there are many worlds.

  17. Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza]. E-mail: rafael@cfp.ufpb.br; Almeida, W. Pires de [Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; Fonseca Neto, I. [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-06-01

    We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, {phi}(t;{theta}). (author)

  18. Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…

  19. On obtaining classical mechanics from quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2007-01-01

    Constructing a classical mechanical system associated with a given quantum-mechanical one entails construction of a classical phase space and a corresponding Hamiltonian function from the available quantum structures and a notion of coarser observations. The Hilbert space of any quantum-mechanical system naturally has the structure of an infinite-dimensional symplectic manifold ('quantum phase space'). There is also a systematic, quotienting procedure which imparts a bundle structure to the quantum phase space and extracts a classical phase space as the base space. This works straightforwardly when the Hilbert space carries weakly continuous representation of the Heisenberg group and one recovers the linear classical phase space R 2N . We report on how the procedure also allows extraction of nonlinear classical phase spaces and illustrate it for Hilbert spaces being finite dimensional (spin-j systems), infinite dimensional but separable (particle on a circle) and infinite dimensional but non-separable (polymer quantization). To construct a corresponding classical dynamics, one needs to choose a suitable section and identify an effective Hamiltonian. The effective dynamics mirrors the quantum dynamics provided the section satisfies conditions of semiclassicality and tangentiality

  20. Theoretical physics 1 classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. The book starts with a thorough introduction to the mathematical tools needed, to make this textbook self-contained for learning. The second part of the book introduces the mechanics of the free mass point and details conservation principles. The third part expands the previous to mechanics of many particle systems. Finally the mechanics of the rigid body is illustrated with rotational forces, inertia and gyroscope movement. Ideally suited to undergraduate students in their first year, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series...

  1. Teaching classical mechanics using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf.4 Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming."5 Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics teachers could add that smartphones are "perfect for teaching science." The software iMecaProf displays in real time the measured data on a screen. The visual representation is built upon the formalism of classical mechanics. iMecaProf receives data 100 times a second from iPhone sensors through a Wi-Fi connection using the application Sensor Data.6 Data are the three components of the acceleration vector in the smartphone frame and smartphone's orientation through three angles (yaw, pitch, and roll). For circular motion (uniform or not), iMecaProf uses independent measurements of the rotation angle θ, the angular speed dθ/dt, and the angular acceleration d2θ/dt2.

  2. 'Leonard pairs' in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhedanov, Alexei; Korovnichenko, Alyona

    2002-01-01

    Leonard pairs (LP) are matrices with the property of mutual tri-diagonality. We introduce and study a classical analogue of LP. We show that corresponding classical 'Leonard' dynamical variables satisfy non-linear relations of the AW-type with respect to Poisson brackets. (author)

  3. The relation between classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Peter.

    1984-01-01

    The thesis examines the relationship between classical and quantum mechanics from philosophical, mathematical and physical standpoints. Arguments are presented in favour of 'conjectural realism' in scientific theories, distinguished by explicit contextual structure and empirical testability. The formulations of classical and quantum mechanics, based on a general theory of mechanics is investigated, as well as the mathematical treatments of these subjects. Finally the thesis questions the validity of 'classical limits' and 'quantisations' in intertheoretic reduction. (UK)

  4. Classical limit for quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Sengupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    The classical limit problem is discussed for the quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, free from the problem at the classical turning points. A proper perspective of the whole issue is sought to appreciate the significance of the discussion. It is observed that for bound states in arbitrary potential, appropriate limiting condition is definable in terms of a dimensionless classical limit parameter leading smoothly to all observable classical results. Most important results are the emergence of classical phase space, keeping the observable distribution functions non-zero only within the so-called classical region at the limit point and resolution of some well-known paradoxes. (author)

  5. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, A.O.

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)

  6. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, A.O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2{pi} {yields} 0. (author)

  7. The Dirac equation in classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ord, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    The Dirac equation, usually obtained by 'quantizing' a classical stochastic model is here obtained directly within classical statistical mechanics. The special underlying space-time geometry of the random walk replaces the missing analytic continuation, making the model 'self-quantizing'. This provides a new context for the Dirac equation, distinct from its usual context in relativistic quantum mechanics

  8. Emergence of quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual setting of quantum mechanics is subject to an ongoing debate from its beginnings until now. The consequences of the apparent differences between quantum statistics and classical statistics range from the philosophical interpretations to practical issues as quantum computing. In this note we demonstrate how quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistical systems. We discuss conditions and circumstances for this to happen. Quantum systems describe isolated subsystems of classical statistical systems with infinitely many states. While infinitely many classical observables 'measure' properties of the subsystem and its environment, the state of the subsystem can be characterized by the expectation values of only a few probabilistic observables. They define a density matrix, and all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem.

  9. Bohmian mechanics and the emergence of classicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzkin, A

    2009-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics is endowed with an ontological package that supposedly allows to solve the main interpretational problems of quantum mechanics. We are concerned in this work by the emergence of classicality from the quantum mechanical substrate. We will argue that although being superficially attractive, the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation does not shed new light on the quantum-to-classical transition. This is due to nature of the dynamical law of Bohmian mechanics by which the particles follow the streamlines of the probability flow. As a consequence, Bohmian trajectories can be highly non-classical even when the wavefunction propagates along classical trajectories, as happens in semiclassical systems. In order to account for classical dynamics, Bohmian mechanics needs non-spreading and non-interfering wave packets: this is achieved for practical purposes by having recourse to decoherence and dense measurements. However one then faces the usual fundamental problems associated with the meaning of reduced density matrices. Moreover the specific assets of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation - in particular the existence of point-like particles pursuing well-defined trajectories - would play no role in accounting for the emergence of classical dynamics.

  10. Classical Mechanics Experiments using Wiimotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexander; Ochoa, Romulo

    2010-02-01

    The Wii, a video game console, is a very popular device. Although computationally it is not a powerful machine by today's standards, to a physics educator the controllers are its most important components. The Wiimote (or remote) controller contains a three-axis accelerometer, an infrared detector, and Bluetooth connectivity at a relatively low price. Thanks to available open source code, such as GlovePie, any PC or Laptop with Bluetooth capability can detect the information sent out by the Wiimote. We present experiments that use two or three Wiimotes simultaneously to measure the variable accelerations in two mass systems interacting via springs. Normal modes are determined from the data obtained. Masses and spring constants are varied to analyze their impact on the accelerations of the systems. We present the results of our experiments and compare them with those predicted using Lagrangian mechanics. )

  11. Quantum mechanics as a natural generalization of classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Laizi; Qian Shangwu

    1994-01-01

    By comparison between equations of motion of geometrical optics (GO) and that of classical statistical mechanics (CSM), it is found that there should be an analogy between GO and CSM instead of GO and classical mechanics (CM). Furthermore, by comparison between the classical limit (CL) of quantum mechanics (QM) and CSM, the authors find that CL of QM is CSM not CM, hence they demonstrated that QM is a natural generalization of CSM instead of CM

  12. New mechanism for bubble nucleation: Classical transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T. Jr; Hui Lam; Lim, Eugene A.

    2009-01-01

    Given a scalar field with metastable minima, bubbles nucleate quantum mechanically. When bubbles collide, energy stored in the bubble walls is converted into kinetic energy of the field. This kinetic energy can facilitate the classical nucleation of new bubbles in minima that lie below those of the 'parent' bubbles. This process is efficient and classical, and changes the dynamics and statistics of bubble formation in models with multiple vacua, relative to that derived from quantum tunneling.

  13. Emergence of classical theories from quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájícek, P

    2012-01-01

    Three problems stand in the way of deriving classical theories from quantum mechanics: those of realist interpretation, of classical properties and of quantum measurement. Recently, we have identified some tacit assumptions that lie at the roots of these problems. Thus, a realist interpretation is hindered by the assumption that the only properties of quantum systems are values of observables. If one simply postulates the properties to be objective that are uniquely defined by preparation then all difficulties disappear. As for classical properties, the wrong assumption is that there are arbitrarily sharp classical trajectories. It turns out that fuzzy classical trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanics by taking the limit of high entropy. Finally, standard quantum mechanics implies that any registration on a quantum system is disturbed by all quantum systems of the same kind existing somewhere in the universe. If one works out systematically how quantum mechanics must be corrected so that there is no such disturbance, one finds a new interpretation of von Neumann's 'first kind of dynamics', and so a new way to a solution of the quantum measurement problem. The present paper gives a very short review of this work.

  14. The equivalence principle in classical mechanics and quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss our understanding of the equivalence principle in both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. We show that not only does the equivalence principle hold for the trajectories of quantum particles in a background gravitational field, but also that it is only because of this that the equivalence principle is even to be expected to hold for classical particles at all.

  15. Classical- and quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratzl, W.

    1987-01-01

    Because in textbooks the quantum mechanical Coulomb scattering is either ignored or treated unsatisfactory, the present work attempts to present a physically plausible, mathematically correct but elementary treatment in a way that it can be used in textbooks and lectures on quantum mechanics. Coulomb scattering is derived as a limiting case of a screened Coulomb potential (finite range) within a time dependent quantum scattering theory. The difference in the asymptotic conditions for potentials of finite versus infinite range leads back to the classical Coulomb scattering. In the classical framework many concepts of the quantum theory can be introduced and are useful in an intuitive understanding of the quantum theory. The differences between classical and quantum scattering theory are likewise useful for didactic purposes. (qui)

  16. Discrete gradients in discrete classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renna, L.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model of discrete classical mechanics is given where, starting from the continuous Hamilton equations, discrete equations of motion are established together with a proper discrete gradient definition. The conservation laws of the total discrete momentum, angular momentum, and energy are demonstrated

  17. Classical mechanics and electromagnetism in accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2018-01-01

    This self-contained textbook with exercises discusses a broad range of selected topics from classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory that inform key issues related to modern accelerators. Part I presents fundamentals of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism for mechanical systems, canonical transformations, action-angle variables, and then linear and nonlinear oscillators. The Hamiltonian for a circular accelerator is used to evaluate the equations of motion, the action, and betatron oscillations in an accelerator. From this base, we explore the impact of field errors and nonlinear resonances. This part ends with the concept of the distribution function and an introduction to the kinetic equation to describe large ensembles of charged particles and to supplement the previous single-particle analysis of beam dynamics. Part II focuses on classical electromagnetism and begins with an analysis of the electromagnetic field from relativistic beams, both in vacuum and in a resistive pipe. Plane electromagne...

  18. Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Raya, Alfredo; Fernandez, Francisco M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics

  19. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  20. Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…

  1. On the Galilean covariance of classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Kempczynski, J.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1991-08-01

    A Galilean covariant approach to classical mechanics of a single interacting particle is described. In this scheme constitutive relations defining forces are rejected and acting forces are determined by some fundamental differential equations. It is shown that total energy of the interacting particle transforms under Galilean transformations differently from the kinetic energy. The statement is illustrated on the exactly solvable examples of the harmonic oscillator and the case of constant forces and also, in the suitable version of the perturbation theory, for the anharmonic oscillator. (author)

  2. Dynamical chaos: systems of classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskutov, A Yu

    2007-01-01

    This article is a methodological manual for those who are interested in chaotic dynamics. An exposition is given on the foundations of the theory of deterministic chaos that originates in classical mechanics systems. Fundamental results obtained in this area are presented, such as elements of the theory of nonlinear resonance and the Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser theory, the Poincare-Birkhoff fixed-point theorem, and the Mel'nikov method. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the phenomena underlying the self-similarity and nature of chaos: splitting of separatrices and homoclinic and heteroclinic tangles. Important properties of chaotic systems - unpredictability, irreversibility, and decay of temporal correlations - are described. Models of classical statistical mechanics with chaotic properties, which have become popular in recent years - billiards with oscillating boundaries - are considered. It is shown that if a billiard has the property of well-developed chaos, then perturbations of its boundaries result in Fermi acceleration. But in nearly-integrable billiard systems, excitations of the boundaries lead to a new phenomenon in the ensemble of particles, separation of particles in accordance their velocities. If the initial velocity of the particles exceeds a certain critical value characteristic of the given billiard geometry, the particles accelerate; otherwise, they decelerate. (methodological notes)

  3. Analogies between classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, M.

    1986-01-01

    Some analogies between nonequilibrium classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, at the level of the Liouville equation and at the kinetic level, are commented on. A theorem, related to the Vlasov equation applied to a plasma, is proved. The theorem presents an analogy with Ehrenfest's theorem of quantum mechanics. An analogy between the plasma kinetic theory and Bohm's quantum theory with 'hidden variables' is also shown. (Author) [pt

  4. Experiments and video analysis in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    de Jesus, Vitor L B

    2017-01-01

    This book is an experimental physics textbook on classical mechanics focusing on the development of experimental skills by means of discussion of different aspects of the experimental setup and the assessment of common issues such as accuracy and graphical representation. The most important topics of an experimental physics course on mechanics are covered and the main concepts are explored in detail. Each chapter didactically connects the experiment and the theoretical models available to explain it. Real data from the proposed experiments are presented and a clear discussion over the theoretical models is given. Special attention is also dedicated to the experimental uncertainty of measurements and graphical representation of the results. In many of the experiments, the application of video analysis is proposed and compared with traditional methods.

  5. Bertrand's theorem and virial theorem in fractional classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui-Yan; Wang, Towe

    2017-09-01

    Fractional classical mechanics is the classical counterpart of fractional quantum mechanics. The central force problem in this theory is investigated. Bertrand's theorem is generalized, and virial theorem is revisited, both in three spatial dimensions. In order to produce stable, closed, non-circular orbits, the inverse-square law and the Hooke's law should be modified in fractional classical mechanics.

  6. Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…

  7. Integrable models in classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.

    1991-01-01

    Integrable systems are investigated, especially the rational and trigonometric Gaudin models. The Gaudin models are diagonalized for the case of classical Lie algebras. Their relation to the other integrable models and to the quantum inverse scattering method is investigated. Applications in quantum optics and plasma physics are discussed. (author). 94 refs

  8. Unified treatment of the classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, Yu.M.

    1979-01-01

    Classical and Quantum Mechanics are unified in the sense that almost all axioms of both mechanics are identical. The only distinction is the explicit form of one algebraic identity. The unified theory is applied to scattering problem. (Z.M.)

  9. Classical and quantum mechanics of non-abelian gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvidy, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    Classical and quantum mechanics of non-abelian gauge fields are investigated both with and without spontaneous symmetry breaking. The fundamental subsystem (FS) of Yang-Mills classical mechanics (YMCM) is considered. It is shown to be a Kolmogorov K-system, and hence to have strong statistical properties. Integrable systems are also found, to which in terms of KAM theory Yang-Mills-Higgs classical mechanics (YMHCM) is close. Quantum-mechanical properties of the YM system and their relation to the problem of confinement are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Biophysical mechanisms complementing "classical" cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H W

    2018-01-01

    This overview addresses phenomena in cell- and molecular biology which are puzzling by their fast and highly coordinated way of organization. Generally, it appears that informative processes probably involved are more on the biophysical than on the classical biochemical side. The coordination problem is explained within the first part of the review by the topic of endogenous electrical phenomena. These are found e.g. in fast tissue organization and reorganization processes like development, wound healing and regeneration. Here, coupling into classical biochemical signaling and reactions can be shown by modern microscopy, electronics and bioinformatics. Further, one can follow the triggered reactions seamlessly via molecular biology till into genetics. Direct observation of intracellular electric processes is very difficult because of e.g. shielding through the cell membrane and damping by other structures. Therefore, we have to rely on photonic and photon - phonon coupling phenomena like molecular vibrations, which are addressed within the second part. Molecules normally possess different charge moieties and thus small electromagnetic (EMF) patterns arise during molecular vibration. These patterns can now be measured best within the optical part of the spectrum - much less in the lower terahertz till kHz and lower Hz part (third part of this review). Finally, EMFs facilitate quantum informative processes in coherent domains of molecular, charge and electron spin motion. This helps to coordinate such manifold and intertwined processes going on within cells, tissues and organs (part 4). Because the phenomena described in part 3 and 4 of the review still await really hard proofs we need concerted efforts and a combination of biophysics, molecular biology and informatics to unravel the described mysteries in "physics of life".

  11. Perturbation theory via Feynman diagrams in classical mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Penco, R.; Mauro, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we show how Feynman diagrams, which are used as a tool to implement perturbation theory in quantum field theory, can be very useful also in classical mechanics, provided we introduce also at the classical level concepts like path integrals and generating functionals.

  12. Classical mechanics Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Deriglazov, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    This account of the fundamentals of Hamiltonian mechanics also covers related topics such as integral invariants and the Noether theorem. With just the elementary mathematical methods used for exposition, the book is suitable for novices as well as graduates.

  13. Functional methods underlying classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, A

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the physical content of a recently proposed mathematical framework that unifies the standard formalisms of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum theory. In the framework states of a classical particle are identified with Dirac delta functions. The classical space is ''made'' of these functions and becomes a submanifold in a Hilbert space of states of the particle. The resulting embedding of the classical space into the space of states is highly non-trivial and accounts for numerous deep relations between classical and quantum physics and relativity. One of the most striking results is the proof that the normal probability distribution of position of a macroscopic particle (equivalently, position of the corresponding delta state within the classical space submanifold) yields the Born rule for transitions between arbitrary quantum states.

  14. Comments on microscopic mechanics, generalizations of classical mechanics and Planck's oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1983-05-01

    The new microscopic mechanics removes the dichotomy of physics into classical and quantum phenomena. Its physical picture and connections with generalizations of classical mechanics are discussed. It gives a new meaning to Bohr's frequency relation and Planck's oscillators. (author)

  15. The Weyl representation in classical and quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Alfredo M.O. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare

    1996-09-01

    The position representation of the evolution operator in quantum mechanics is analogous to the generating function formalism of classical mechanics. Similarly, the Weyl representation is connected to new generating functions described by chords and centres. Both classical and quantal theories rely on the group of translations and reflections through a point in phase space. The composition of small time evolutions leads to new versions of the classical variational principle and to path integrals in quantum mechanics. The restriction of the motion to the energy shell in classical mechanics is the basis for a full review of the semiclassical Wigner function and the theory of scars of periodic orbits. By embedding the theory of scars in a fully uniform approximation, it is shown that the region in which the scar contribution is oscillatory is separated from a decaying region by a caustic that touches the shell along the periodic orbit and widens quadratically within the energy shell. (author). 56 refs., 35 figs.

  16. A remark on the classical mechanics of colored particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.

    1982-04-01

    Examples of the motion of a wave packet in external SU(2) gauge fields are analyzed. It is found that the classical mechanics of colored particles gives a wrong qualitative description of this motion. (Auth.)

  17. The Weyl representation in classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Alfredo M.O. de; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1996-09-01

    The position representation of the evolution operator in quantum mechanics is analogous to the generating function formalism of classical mechanics. Similarly, the Weyl representation is connected to new generating functions described by chords and centres. Both classical and quantal theories rely on the group of translations and reflections through a point in phase space. The composition of small time evolutions leads to new versions of the classical variational principle and to path integrals in quantum mechanics. The restriction of the motion to the energy shell in classical mechanics is the basis for a full review of the semiclassical Wigner function and the theory of scars of periodic orbits. By embedding the theory of scars in a fully uniform approximation, it is shown that the region in which the scar contribution is oscillatory is separated from a decaying region by a caustic that touches the shell along the periodic orbit and widens quadratically within the energy shell. (author). 56 refs., 35 figs

  18. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM (Italy)

    2010-06-04

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  19. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2010-06-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  20. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  1. Classical mechanics systems of particles and Hamiltonian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This textbook Classical Mechanics provides a complete survey on all aspects of classical mechanics in theoretical physics. An enormous number of worked examples and problems show students how to apply the abstract principles to realistic problems. The textbook covers Newtonian mechanics in rotating coordinate systems, mechanics of systems of point particles, vibrating systems and mechanics of rigid bodies. It thoroughly introduces and explains the Lagrange and Hamilton equations and the Hamilton-Jacobi theory. A large section on nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of systems takes Classical Mechanics to newest development in physics. The new edition is completely revised and updated. New exercises and new sections in canonical transformation and Hamiltonian theory have been added.

  2. A wave equation interpolating between classical and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, W. P.; Greenberger, D. M.; Kobe, D. H.; Scully, M. O.

    2015-10-01

    We derive a ‘master’ wave equation for a family of complex-valued waves {{Φ }}\\equiv R{exp}[{{{i}}S}({cl)}/{{\\hbar }}] whose phase dynamics is dictated by the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the classical action {S}({cl)}. For a special choice of the dynamics of the amplitude R which eliminates all remnants of classical mechanics associated with {S}({cl)} our wave equation reduces to the Schrödinger equation. In this case the amplitude satisfies a Schrödinger equation analogous to that of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field where the roles of the scalar and the vector potentials are played by the classical energy and the momentum, respectively. In general this amplitude is complex and thereby creates in addition to the classical phase {S}({cl)}/{{\\hbar }} a quantum phase. Classical statistical mechanics, as described by a classical matter wave, follows from our wave equation when we choose the dynamics of the amplitude such that it remains real for all times. Our analysis shows that classical and quantum matter waves are distinguished by two different choices of the dynamics of their amplitudes rather than two values of Planck’s constant. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Richard Lewis Arnowitt—a pioneer of many-body theory, a path finder at the interface of gravity and quantum mechanics, and a true leader in non-relativistic and relativistic quantum field theory.

  3. Classical particle limit of non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, R.

    1984-01-01

    We study the classical particle limit of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show that the unitary group describing the evolution of the quantum fluctuation around any classical phase orbit has a classical limit as h → 0 in the strong operator topology for a very large class of time independent scalar and vector potentials, which in practice covers all physically interesting cases. We also show that the mean values of the quantum mechanical position and velocity operators on suitable states, obtained by time evolution of the product of a Weyl operator centred around the large coordinates and momenta and a fixed n-independent wave function, converge to the solution of the classical equations with initial data as h → 0 for a broad class of repulsive interactions

  4. On quantization, the generalised Schroedinger equation and classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.R.W.

    1991-01-01

    A ψ-dependent linear functional operator, was defined, which solves the problem of quantization in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Weyl ordering is implemented automatically and permits derivation of many of the quantum to classical correspondences. The parameter λ presents a natural C ∞ deformation of the dynamical structure of quantum mechanics via a non-linear integro-differential 'Generalised Schroedinger Equation', admitting an infinite family of soliton solutions. All these solutions are presented and it is shown that this equation gives an exact dynamic and energetic reproduction of classical mechanics with the correct measurement theoretic limit. 23 refs

  5. Explicit integration of some integrable systems of classical mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Basak Gancheva, Inna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is the analytical and geometrical study of several integrable finite-dimentional dynamical systems of classical mechanics, which are closely related, namely: - the classical generalization of the Euler top: the Zhukovski-Volterra (ZV) system describing the free motion of a gyrostat, i.e., a rigid body carrying a symmetric rotator whose axis is fixed in the body; - the Steklov-Lyapunov integrable case of the Kirchhoff equations describing the motio...

  6. Regular behaviors in SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoming

    1997-01-01

    In order to study regular behaviors in high-energy nucleon-nucleon collisions, a representation of the vector potential A i a is defined with respect to the (a,i)-dependence in the SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics. Equations of the classical infrared field as well as effective potentials are derived for the elastic or inelastic collision of two plane wave in a three-mode model and the decay of an excited spherically-symmetric field

  7. Nonlinear wave mechanics from classical dynamics and scale covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear Schroedinger equations proposed by Kostin and by Doebner and Goldin are rederived from Nottale's prescription for obtaining quantum mechanics from classical mechanics in nondifferentiable spaces; i.e., from hydrodynamical concepts and scale covariance. Some soliton and plane wave solutions are discussed

  8. Losing energy in classical, relativistic and quantum mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David

    A Zenonian supertask involving an infinite number of colliding balls is considered, under the restriction that the total mass of all the balls is finite. Classical mechanics leads to the conclusion that momentum, but not necessarily energy, must be conserved. In relativistic mechanics, however,

  9. Quantum and classical mechanics in the phase space representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, Yu.M.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of the hamiltonian mechanical systems has been formulated in terms of only such physical and mathematical concepts which are meaningful in both mechanics. For instance the observables in both mechanics are represented as c-number functions of coordinates and momenta. The operations of the usual multiplication of observables as well as Poisson bracket (also treated as a sort of multiplication) are singled out as separate objects which can possess their own structure including h-dependence. This leads to the conclusion that the only primary distinction between classical and quantum mechanics is reduced to the distinction in the form of the algebraic identity for the multiplication operations. All other distinctions are proved to be of the secondary origin. The formalism developed in the paper is especially useful for quantizations and for the transitions (including partial ones) to the classical limits. The transitions in both directions are transparent and accessible for analysis for any quantity at any step of calculations. The unified quantum-classical scattering theory is constructed. The integral quantum Lippman-Schwinder type equation is derived where the free solution term is replaced by the solution of the corresponding classical problem. The iteration of this equation gives the quantum corrections to the classical solution

  10. A stepping stone from classical to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzara, C.

    1984-01-01

    A microscopic mechanics is constructed in order to incorporate the Planck constant while retaining the concept of particle location. In the one-dimensional stationary case, the first integral of the equation of motion can be solved explicitly with the help of the Schroedinger equation. It is thus shown that, in describing bound-state motions, this mechanics meets a serious difficulty. It can be overcome only by renouncing the classical concepts of trajectories and opting for quantum mechanics

  11. Classical mechanics from Newton to Einstein : a modern introduction

    CERN Document Server

    McCall, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This new edition of Classical Mechanics, aimed at undergraduate physics and engineering students, presents in a user-friendly style an authoritative approach to the complementary subjects of classical mechanics and relativity.   The text starts with a careful look at Newton's Laws, before applying them in one dimension to oscillations and collisions. More advanced applications - including gravitational orbits and rigid body dynamics - are discussed after the limitations of Newton's inertial frames have been highlighted through an exposition of Einstein's Special Relativity. Examples gi

  12. Assessing learning outcomes in middle-division classical mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Marcos D.; Doughty, Leanne; Turnbull, Anna M.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2017-06-01

    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics and math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  13. Assessing learning outcomes in middle-division classical mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Caballero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1 at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (CCMI builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics and math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  14. Novel Evasion Mechanisms of the Classical Complement Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Brandon L; Zwarthoff, Seline A; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2016-09-15

    Complement is a network of soluble and cell surface-associated proteins that gives rise to a self-amplifying, yet tightly regulated system with fundamental roles in immune surveillance and clearance. Complement becomes activated on the surface of nonself cells by one of three initiating mechanisms known as the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. Evasion of complement function is a hallmark of invasive pathogens and hematophagous organisms. Although many complement-inhibition strategies hinge on hijacking activities of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, an increasing number of uniquely evolved evasion molecules have been discovered over the past decade. In this review, we focus on several recent investigations that revealed mechanistically distinct inhibitors of the classical pathway. Because the classical pathway is an important and specific mediator of various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, in-depth knowledge of novel evasion mechanisms could direct future development of therapeutic anti-inflammatory molecules. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Classical and quantum mechanics of complex Hamiltonian systems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 73, No. 2. — journal of. August 2009 physics pp. 287–297. Classical and quantum mechanics of complex. Hamiltonian systems: An extended complex phase space ... 1Department of Physics, Ramjas College (University Enclave), University of Delhi,. Delhi 110 ... 1.1 Motivation behind the study of complex Hamiltonians.

  16. Classical and quantum mechanics of complex Hamiltonian systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Certain aspects of classical and quantum mechanics of complex Hamiltonian systems in one dimension investigated within the framework of an extended complex phase space approach, characterized by the transformation = 1 + 2, = 1 + 2, are revisited. It is argued that Carl Bender inducted P T symmetry in ...

  17. Anyons as spin particles: from classical mechanics to field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    1995-01-01

    (2+1)-dimensional relativistic fractional spin particles are considered within the framework of the group-theoretical approach to anyons starting from the level of classical mechanics and concluding by the construction of the minimal set of linear differential field equations.

  18. Rotating fluid models in classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieu, R.; Troudet, T.

    1979-01-01

    To describe the behavior of high-spin nuclei it is necessary to refer back to the classical mechanics of fluids in rotation where some results are general enough to apply to the rotational nuclear fluid. It is then shown that the quantum model of rotational oscillator gives a simple classification of rotating configurations [fr

  19. A Primer on Elliptic Functions with Applications in Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2009-01-01

    The Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic functions used to be part of the standard mathematical arsenal of physics students. They appear as solutions of many important problems in classical mechanics: the motion of a planar pendulum (Jacobi), the motion of a force-free asymmetric top (Jacobi), the motion of a spherical pendulum (Weierstrass) and the…

  20. Mathematica for Theoretical Physics Classical Mechanics and Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Classical Mechanics and Nonlinear Dynamics This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by students and researchers alike. A...

  1. The classical limit in the framework of stochastic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claverie, P.

    1976-01-01

    Thorough qualitative understanding of microphysical phenomena is not really obtained by usual quantum mechanics (QM), whereas statistical mechanics (SM) appears able to bring in substantial conceptual progress. These conceptual improvements in a fringe area of quantum mechanics, namely the so-called transition region to classical mechanics, are described. The difficulties which appear in the framework of usual QM are surveyed and then it is shown how they would disappear in the framework of SM, provided that appropriate dynamical laws are found such that, by using them, SM actually gives the main results of QM (position and velocity probability distributions, mean values of energy, angular momentum, etc.)

  2. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  3. On q-deformed supersymmetric classical mechanical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colatto, L.P.; Matheus Valle, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    Based on the idea of quantum groups and paragrassmann variables, we present a generalization of supersymmetric classical mechanics with a deformation parameter q=exp 2πi/k dealing with the k=3 case. The coordinates of the q-superspace are a commuting parameter t and a paragrassmann variable θ, where θ 3 =0. The generator and covariant derivative are obtained, as well as the action for some possible superfields. (author). 13 refs

  4. The concept of 'optimal' path in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.J.V. de; Cruz, F.F. de S.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of the concept of 'optimal' path in the framework of classical mechanics is discussed. The derivation of the local harmonic approximation and self-consistent collective coordinate method equations of the optimal path is based on a careful study of the concepts of local maximal decoupling and global maximal decoupling respectively. This exhibits the nature of the differences between these two theories and allows one to establish the conditions under which they become equivalent. (author)

  5. Noncommutative configuration space. Classical and quantum mechanical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhecke, F. J.; Sigaud, C.; da Silva, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we examine noncommutativity of position coordinates in classical symplectic mechanics and its quantisation. In coordinates $\\{q^i,p_k\\}$ the canonical symplectic two-form is $\\omega_0=dq^i\\wedge dp_i$. It is well known in symplectic mechanics {\\bf\\cite{Souriau,Abraham,Guillemin}} that the interaction of a charged particle with a magnetic field can be described in a Hamiltonian formalism without a choice of a potential. This is done by means of a modified symplectic two-form $\\ome...

  6. Quantum mechanics as classical statistical mechanics with an ontic extension and an epistemic restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyono, Agung; Rohrlich, Daniel

    2017-11-03

    Where does quantum mechanics part ways with classical mechanics? How does quantum randomness differ fundamentally from classical randomness? We cannot fully explain how the theories differ until we can derive them within a single axiomatic framework, allowing an unambiguous account of how one theory is the limit of the other. Here we derive non-relativistic quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics within a common framework. The common axioms include conservation of average energy and conservation of probability current. But two axioms distinguish quantum mechanics from classical statistical mechanics: an "ontic extension" defines a nonseparable (global) random variable that generates physical correlations, and an "epistemic restriction" constrains allowed phase space distributions. The ontic extension and epistemic restriction, with strength on the order of Planck's constant, imply quantum entanglement and uncertainty relations. This framework suggests that the wave function is epistemic, yet it does not provide an ontic dynamics for individual systems.

  7. Classical and quantum mechanics of the damped harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, H.

    1981-01-01

    The relations between various treatments of the classical linearly damped harmonic oscillator and its quantization are investigated. In the course of a historical survey typical features of the problem are discussed on the basis of Havas' classical Hamiltonian and the quantum mechanical Suessmann-Hasse-Albrecht models as coined by the Muenchen/Garching nuclear physics group. It is then shown how by imposing a restriction on the classical trajectories in order to connect the Hamiltonian with the energy, the time-independent Bateman-Morse-Feshbach-Bopp Hamiltonian leads to the time-dependent Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian. Canonical quantization of either formulation entails a violation of Heisenberg's principle. By means of a unified treatment of both the electrical and mechanical semi-infinite transmission line, this defect is related to the disregard of additional quantum fluctuations that are intrinsically connected with the dissipation. The difficulties of these models are discussed. Then it is proved that the Bateman dual Hamiltonian is connected to a recently developed complex symplectic formulation by a simple canonical transformation. (orig.)

  8. Mean values and measures in quantum mechanics and classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.

    1980-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, for a system at a fixed time, the theory of operators associates to every physical quantity X a probability law. But it is not possible to associate a probability law to a pair (X, Y) of operators, when they do not commute. Therefore it is not possible to represent the physical quantities by the usual methods of probability theory. The aim of this paper is to show that, if X, Y are represented by non random functions which are oscillating in such a way that they generate temporal averages their exist pairs of functions X, Y which have properties similar to pairs of operators. To X and to Y it is possible to associate two measures analogous to probability measures, but that is not possible for the pair (X, Y). The functions satisfying to such conditions are the pseudo-random function, a class of stationary functions which is complementary of the class of almost-periodic functions. The construction of these functions makes use of uniformly distributed sequences of real numbers, which constitute a simulation of random variables uniformly distributed over [0, 1]. Their properties are consequences of the ergodic theorems of H. Weyl (1916) and are related to the properties of irrational numbers [fr

  9. Turbulent Evolution of a Plasma Described Through Classical Mechanics Only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, D.F.; Elskens, Y.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time an old dream of the XIXth century comes true: the non trivial evolution of a macroscopic many-body system is described through classical mechanics only. This is done for the relaxation of a warm electron beam in a plasma, which results in the generation of Langmuir turbulence and in the formation of a plateau in the velocity distribution function of the electrons. Our derivation starts from the hamiltonian describing the one-dimensional N-body system corresponding to the beam and plasma bulk electrons in electrostatic interaction. For such a system, the dynamics can be reduced to the resonant interaction of M Langmuir waves with N'( > 1 Langmuir waves with N' >> 1 beam particles. This yields the proof of the classical quasilinear equations describing the coupled evolution of the wave spectrum and of the beam velocity distribution function in the strongly nonlinear regime where their validity is the matter of a longstanding controversy

  10. Some studies on arithmetical chaos in classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolte, J.

    1993-04-01

    Several aspects of classical and quantum mechanics applied to a class of strongly chaotic systems are studied. The latter consists of single particles moving without external forces on surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature whose corresponding fundamental groups are supplied with an arithmetic structure. It is shown that the arithmetical features of the considered systems lead to exceptional properties of the corresponding spectra of lengths of closed geodesics (periodic orbits). The most significant one is an exponential growth of degeneracies in these geodesic length spectra. Furthermore, the arithmetical systems are distinguished by a structure that appears as a generalization of geometric symmetries. These pseudosymmetries occur in the quantization of the classical arithmetic systems as Hecke operators, which form an infinite algebra of self-adjoint operators commuting with the Hamiltonian. The statistical properties of quantum energies in the arithmetical systems have previously been identified as exceptional. They do not fit into the general scheme of random matrix theory. It is shown with the help of a simplified model for the spectral form factor how the spectral statistics in arithmetical quantum chaos can be understood by the properties of the corresponding classical geodesic length spectra. A decisive role is played by the exponentially increasing multiplicities of lengths. The model developed for the level spacings distribution and for the number variance is compared to the corresponding quantities obtained from quantum energies for a specific arithmetical system. Finally, the convergence properties of a representation for the Selberg zeta function as a Dirichlet series are studied. It turns out that the exceptional classical and quantum mechanical properties shared by the arithmetical systems prohibit a convergence of this important function in the physically interesting domain. (orig.)

  11. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... Polanyi's classic paper, co-authored by Henry Eyring, reproduced in this ... spatial conf guration of the atoms in terms of the energy function of the diatomic .... The present communication deals with the construction of such .... These three contributions are complemented by a fourth term if one takes into.

  12. Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jun, Ni

    2014-01-01

    This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...

  13. The difference between the classical and quantum mechanical definitions of scattering cross sections and the problem of the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Basu, A.N.; Sengupta, S.

    1994-01-01

    A critical analysis of the difference between the classical and quantum mechanical definitions of scattering cross sections for particles is presented. This leads to a clarification of the classical limit problem and suggests precise criteria for its validity. In particular these criteria are derived for both finite and infinite range potentials. (orig.)

  14. Stochastic theory for classical and quantum mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, L. de la; Cetto, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    From first principles a theory of stochastic processes in configuration space is formulated. The fundamental equations of the theory are an equation of motion which generalizes Newton's second law and an equation which expresses the condition of conservation of matter. Two types of stochastic motion are possible, both described by the same general equations, but leading in one case to classical Brownian motion behavior and in the other to quantum mechanical behavior. The Schroedinger equation, which is derived with no further assumption, is thus shown to describe a specific stochastic process. It is explicitly shown that only in the quantum mechanical process does the superposition of probability amplitudes give rise to interference phenomena; moreover, the presence of dissipative forces in the Brownian motion equations invalidates the superposition principle. At no point are any special assumptions made concerning the physical nature of the underlying stochastic medium, although some suggestions are discussed in the last section

  15. Particle spin dynamics as the grassmann variant of classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, F.A.; Marinov, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of the calssical mechanics is presented. The dynamical variables are assumed to be elements of an algebra with anticommuting generators (The Grassmann algebra). The action functional and the Poisson brackets are defined. The equations of motion are deduced from the variational principle. The dynamics is described also by means of the Liouville equation for the phase-space distribution. The canonical quantization lead phase-space path integral approach to the quantum theory is also formulated. The theory is applied to describe the particle spin. Classical description of the spin precession and of the spin-orbital forces is given. The phase-space distribution and the interaction with an external field are also considered

  16. Manifestations of classical phase space structures in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, O.; Ullmo, D.; Tomsovic, S.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay

    1992-11-01

    Using two coupled quartic oscillators for illustration, the quantum mechanics of simple systems whose classical analogues have varying degrees of non-integrability is investigated. By taking advantage of discrete symmetries and dynamical quasidegeneracies it is shown that Percival's semiclassical classification scheme, i.e. eigenstates may be separated into a regular or an irregular group, basically works. Some observations of intermediate status states are made. Generalized ensembles are constructed which apply equally well to both spectral and eigenstate properties. They typically show non-universal, but nevertheless characteristic level fluctuations. In addition, they predict 'semiclassical localization' of eigenfunctions and 'quantum suppression of chaos' which are quantitatively borne out in the quantum systems. (author) 101 refs.; 27 figs.; 6 tabs

  17. Some problems in classical mechanics and relativistic astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hut, P.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is indirectly related to high energy astrophysics. It concerns the study of binary systems consisting of a normal star and a neutronstar or a black hole. To interpret the observations from such a system; in X-ray, UV, optical, infrared and radio wavelengths; it is helpful to have a general idea of the evolution of the orbital and rotational parameters. Here we enter the old field of classical mechanics, in the form of celestial mechanics. In particular the effects of tidal interaction, precession, and sudden mass loss are treated. The second part starts with an article on thought experiments with a charged black hole enclosed in a huge box and in equilibrium with its own radiation. In this way the thermodynamic aspects of the Hawking radiation are fully explored. The connection between physical and kinematical cosmological parameters, as predicted by general relativity are explored. It is shown how the standard big bang model of cosmology restricts the possible properties of some elementary particle types. The theory of white dwarf structure is compared with observations in order to put low-energy constraints on (super) gravity theories. (Auth.)

  18. Mechanical and Thermal Analysis of Classical Functionally Graded Coated Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toudehdehghan Abdolreza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The governing equation of a classical rectangular coated beam made of two layers subjected to thermal and uniformly distributed mechanical loads are derived by using the principle of virtual displacements and based on Euler-Bernoulli deformation beam theory (EBT. The aim of this paper was to analyze the static behavior of clamped-clamped thin coated beam under thermo-mechanical load using MATLAB. Two models were considered for composite coated. The first model was consisting of ceramic layer as a coated and substrate which was metal (HC model. The second model was consisting of Functionally Graded Material (FGM as a coated layer and metal substrate (FGC model. From the result it was apparent that the superiority of the FGC composite against conventional coated composite has been demonstrated. From the analysis, the stress level throughout the thickness at the interface of the coated beam for the FGC was reduced. Yet, the deflection in return was observed to increase. Therefore, this could cater to various new engineering applications where warrant the utilization of material that has properties that are well-beyond the capabilities of the conventional or yesteryears materials.

  19. Integrable systems and lie symmetries in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, T.

    1986-01-01

    The interrelationship between integrability and symmetries in classical mechanics is studied. Two-dimensional time- and velocity-independent potentials form the domain of the study. It is shown that, contrary to folklore, existence of a single finite symmetry does not ensure integrability. A method due to Darboux is used to construct potentials that admit a time-independent invariant. All potentials admitting invariants linear or quadratic in the momentum coordinates are constructed. These are the only integrable potentials which can be expressed as arbitrary functions of certain arguments. A complete construction of potentials admitting higher-order invariants does not seem possible. However, the necessary general forms for potentials that admit a particular invariant of arbitrary order are found. These invariants must be spherically symmetric in the leading terms. Two kinds of symmetries are studied: point Lie symmetries of the Newtonian equations of motion for conservative potentials, and point Noether symmetries of the action functionals obtained from the standard Lagrangians associated with these potentials. All conservative potentials which admit these symmetries are constructed. The class of potentials admitting Noether symmetries is shown to be a subclass of those admitting Lie symmetries

  20. New application of functional integrals to classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherebtsov, Anton; Ilinski, Kirill

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter a new functional integral representation for classical dynamics is introduced. It is achieved by rewriting the Liouville picture in terms of bosonic creation-annihilation operators and utilizing the standard derivation of functional integrals for dynamical quantities in the coherent states representation. This results in a new class of functional integrals which are exactly solvable and can be found explicitly when the underlying classical systems are integrable

  1. Reformulating classical and quantum mechanics in terms of a unified set of consistency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordley, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper imposes consistency conditions on the path of a particle and shows that they imply Hamilton's principle in classical contexts and Schroedinger's equation in quantum mechanical contexts. Thus this paper provides a common, intuitive foundation for classical and quantum mechanics. It also provides a very new perspective on quantum mechanics. (author

  2. Some connections between relativistic classical mechanics, statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remler, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    A gauge-invariant version of the Wigner representation is used to relate relativistic mechanics, statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory in the context of the electrodynamics of scalar particles. A unified formulation of quantum field theory and statistical mechanics is developed which clarifies the physics interpretation of the single-particle Wigner function. A covariant form of Ehrenfest's theorem is derived. Classical electrodynamics is derived from quantum field theory after making a random-phase approximation. The validity of this approximation is discussed

  3. Logical reformulation of quantum mechanics. III. Classical limit and irreversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with two questions: (1) It contains a proof of the fact that consistent quantum representations of logic tend to the classical representation of logic when Planck's constant tends to zero. This result is obtained by using the microlocal analysis of partial differential equations and the Weyl calculus, which turn out to be the proper mathematical framework for this type of problems. (2) The analysis of the limitations of this proof turn out to be of physical significance, in particular when one considers quantum systems having for their classical version a Kolmogorov K-system. These limitations are used to show the existence of a best classical description for such a system leading to an objective definition of entropy. It is shown that in such a description the approach to equilibrium is strictly reduced to a Markov process

  4. Variational problems arising in classical mechanics and nonlinear elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis we consider two different classes of variational problems. First, one-dimensional problems arising from classical mechanics where the problem is to determine whether there is a unique function η 0 (x) which minimises the energy functional of the form I(η) = ∫ a b L(x,η(x), η'(x)) dx. We will investigate uniqueness by making a change of dependent and independent variables and showing that for a class of integrands L with a particular kind of scaling invariance the resulting integrand is completely convex. The change of variables arises by applying results from Lie group theory as applied in the study of differential equations and this work is motivated by [60] and [68]. Second, the problem of minimising energy functionals of the form E(u) = ∫ A W(∇u(x)) dx in the case of a nonlinear elastic body occupying an annular region A contains R 2 with u : A-bar → A-bar. This work is motivated by [57] (in particular the example of paragraph 4). We will consider rotationally symmetric deformations satisfying prescribed boundary conditions. We will show the existence of minimisers for stored energy functions of the form W(F) = g-tilde(vertical bar-F-vertical bar, det(F)) in a class of general rotationally symmetric deformations of a compressible annulus and for stored energy functions of the form W(F) = g-bar(vertical bar-F-vertical bar) in a class of rotationally symmetric deformations of an incompressible annulus. We will also show that in each case the minimisers are solutions of the full equilibrium equations. A model problem will be considered where the energy functional is the Dirichlet integral and it will be shown that the rotationally symmetric solution obtained is a minimiser among admissible non-rotationally symmetric deformations. In the case of an incompressible annulus, we will consider the Dirichlet integral as the energy functional and show that the rotationally symmetric equilibrium solutions in this case are weak local minimisers in

  5. On second quantization methods applied to classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Neto, A.; Vianna, J.D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of expressing statistical classical results in terms of mathematical entities usually associated to quantum field theoretical treatment of many particle systems (Fock space, commutators, field operators, state vector) is discussed. It is developed a linear response theory using the 'second quantized' Liouville equation introduced by Schonberg. The relationship of this method to that of Prigogine et al. is briefly analyzed. The chain of equations and the spectral representations for the new classical Green's functions are presented. Generalized operators defined on Fock space are discussed. It is shown that the correlation functions can be obtained from Green's functions defined with generalized operators. (Author) [pt

  6. Semi-classical limit of relativistic quantum mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the semi-classical limit of solutions to the Klein–Gordon equation gives the particle probability density that is in direct proportion to the inverse of the particle velocity. It is also shown that in the case of the Dirac equation a different result is obtained.

  7. Classical Yang-Mills mechanics. Nonlinear colour oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinyan, S.G.; Savvidi, G.K.; Ter-Arutyunyan-Savvidi, N.G.

    1981-01-01

    A novel class of solutions of the classical Yang-Mills equations in the Minkowsky space which leads to nonlinear colour oscillations is studied. The system discribing these oscillations is apparently stochastic. Periodic trajectories corresponding to the solutions are found and studied and it is demonstrated that they constitute at least an enumerable set [ru

  8. On singular interaction potentials in classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebnov, V.A.; Pastur, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    A classical system of particles with stable two-body interaction potential is considered. It is shown that for a certain class of highly singular stable two-body potentials a cut-off procedure preserves the stability of the potential. The thermodynamical potentials (pressure and free energy density) and correlation functions are proved to have the property of asymptotic independence with respect to the continuation of the interaction potentials near singularity

  9. Pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions: An introduction to classical and quantum-mechanical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In studies of light-ion induced nuclear reactions one distinguishes three different mechanisms: direct, compound and pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. These reaction processes can be subdivided according to time scales or, equivalently, the number of intranuclear collisions taking place before emission. Furthermore, each mechanism preferably excites certain parts of the nuclear level spectrum and is characterized by different types of angular distributions. This presentation includes description of the classical, exciton model, semi-classical models, with some selected results, and quantum mechanical models. A survey of classical versus quantum-mechanical pre-equilibrium reaction theory is presented including practical applications

  10. A derivation of the classical limit of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanapon, P.

    1985-01-01

    Instead of regarding the classical limit as the h → 0, an alternative view based on the physical interpretation of the elements of the density matrix is proposed. According to this alternative view, taking the classical limit corresponds to taking the diagonal elements and ignoring the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. As illustrations of this alternative approach, the classical limits of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics are derived. The derivation is carried out in two stages. First, the statistical classical limit is derived. Then with an appropriate initial condition, the deterministic classical limit is obtained. In the case of quantum mechanics, it is found that the classical limit of Schroedinger's wave mechanics is at best statistical, i.e., Schroedinger's wave mechanics does not reduce to deterministic (Hamilton's or Newton's) classical mechanics. In order to obtain the latter, it is necessary to start out initially with a mixture at the level of statistical quantum mechanics. The derivation hinges on the use of the Feynman path integral rigorously defined with the aid of nonstandard analysis. Nonstandard analysis is also applied to extend the method to the case of quantum electrodynamics. The fundamental decoupling problem arising form the use of Grassmann variables is circumvented by the use of c-number electron fields, but antisymmetrically tagged. The basic classical (deterministic) field equations are obtained in the classical limit with appropriate initial conditions. The result raises the question as to what the corresponding classical field equations obtained in the classical limit from the renormalized Lagrangian containing infinite counterterms really mean

  11. On possibility of agreement of quantum mechanics with classical probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Paper describes a scheme to carry out a construction of the quantum mechanics where the quantum system is assumed to be a pattern of the open classical subsystems. It enables to make use both of the formal classical logic and the classical probability theory in the quantum mechanics. On the other hand, in terms of the mentioned approach one manages to ensure complete reconstruction of the quantum mechanics standard mathematical tool specifying its application limits. The problem dealing with the quantum state reduction is scrutinized [ru

  12. Blow-up Mechanism of Classical Solutions to Quasilinear Hyperbolic Systems in the Critical Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the blow-up phenomenon, particularly, the geometric blow-up mechanism, of classical solutions to the Cauchy problem for quasilinear hyperbolic systems in the critical case. We prove that it is still the envelope of the same family of characteristics which yields the blowup of classical solutions to the Cauchy problem in the critical case.

  13. Comparative role of potential structure in classical, semiclassical, and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, R.S.; Shi, S.; Rabitz, H.

    1989-01-01

    The corresponding effects of features in the potential on classical, semiclassical, and quantum mechanics are probed using the technique of functional sensitivity analysis. It is shown that the classical and quantum functional sensitivities are equivalent in the classical (small (h/2π)) and harmonic limits. Classical and quantum mechanics are known to react in qualitatively similar ways provided that features on the potential are smooth on the length scale of oscillations in the quantum wave function. By using functional sensitivity analysis, we are able to show in detail how the classical and quantum dynamics differ in the way that they sense the potential. Two examples are given, the first of which is the harmonic oscillator. This problem is well understood by other means but is useful to examine because it illustrates the detailed information about the interaction of the potential and the dynamics which can be provided by functional sensitivity analysis, simplifying the analysis of more complex systems. The second example is the collinear H+H 2 reaction. In that case there are a number of detailed and striking differences between the ways that classical and quantum mechanics react to features on the potential. For features which are broad compared to oscillations in the wave function, the two react in qualitatively the same way. The sensitivities are oscillatory, however, and there are phasing differences between the classical and quantum sensitivity functions. This means that using classical mechanics plus experimental data in an inversion scheme intended to find the ''true'' potential will necessarily introduce sizeable errors

  14. A Comparison of Kinetic Energy and Momentum in Special Relativity and Classical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic energy and momentum are indispensable dynamical quantities in both the special theory of relativity and in classical mechanics. Although momentum and kinetic energy are central to understanding dynamics, the differences between their relativistic and classical notions have not always received adequate treatment in undergraduate teaching.…

  15. Fundamentals of continuum mechanicsclassical approaches and new trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenbach, H.

    2018-04-01

    Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous manifold. Continuum mechanics models begin mostly by introducing of three-dimensional Euclidean space. The points within this region are defined as material points with prescribed properties. Each material point is characterized by a position vector which is continuous in time. Thus, the body changes in a way which is realistic, globally invertible at all times and orientation-preserving, so that the body cannot intersect itself and as transformations which produce mirror reflections are not possible in nature. For the mathematical formulation of the model it is also assumed to be twice continuously differentiable, so that differential equations describing the motion may be formulated. Finally, the kinematical relations, the balance equations, the constitutive and evolution equations and the boundary and/or initial conditions should be defined. If the physical fields are non-smooth jump conditions must be taken into account. The basic equations of continuum mechanics are presented following a short introduction. Additionally, some examples of solid deformable continua will be discussed within the presentation. Finally, advanced models of continuum mechanics will be introduced. The paper is dedicated to Alexander Manzhirov’s 60th birthday.

  16. Signaling pathways and immune evasion mechanisms in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W Robert; Shipp, Margaret A

    2017-11-23

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is an unusual B-cell-derived malignancy in which rare malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells are surrounded by an extensive but ineffective inflammatory/immune cell infiltrate. This striking feature suggests that malignant HRS cells escape immunosurveillance and interact with immune cells in the cancer microenvironment for survival and growth. We previously found that cHLs have a genetic basis for immune evasion: near-uniform copy number alterations of chromosome 9p24.1 and the associated PD-1 ligand loci, CD274/PD-L1 and PDCD1LG2/PD-L2, and copy number-dependent increased expression of these ligands. HRS cells expressing PD-1 ligands are thought to engage PD-1 receptor-positive immune effectors in the tumor microenvironment and induce PD-1 signaling and associated immune evasion. The genetic bases of enhanced PD-1 signaling in cHL make these tumors uniquely sensitive to PD-1 blockade. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Classical mechanics in non-commutative phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Long Chaoyun; Long Zhengwen; Qin Shuijie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the laws of motion of classical particles have been investigated in a non-commutative phase space. The corresponding non-commutative relations contain not only spatial non-commutativity but also momentum non-commutativity. First, new Poisson brackets have been defined in non-commutative phase space. They contain corrections due to the non-commutativity of coordinates and momenta. On the basis of this new Poisson brackets, a new modified second law of Newton has been obtained. For two cases, the free particle and the harmonic oscillator, the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified second law of Newton and the linear transformation (Phys. Rev. D, 2005, 72: 025010). The consistency between both methods is demonstrated. It is shown that a free particle in commutative space is not a free particle with zero-acceleration in the non-commutative phase space, but it remains a free particle with zero-acceleration in non-commutative space if only the coordinates are non-commutative. (authors)

  18. Limiting processes in non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancel, R.

    1983-01-01

    After a recall of the basic principles of the statistical mechanics, the results of ergodic theory, the transient at the thermodynamic limit and his link with the transport theory near the equilibrium are analyzed. The fundamental problems put by the description of non-equilibrium macroscopic systems are investigated and the kinetic methods are stated. The problems of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are analyzed: irreversibility and coarse-graining, macroscopic variables and kinetic description, autonomous reduced descriptions, limit processes, BBGKY hierarchy, limit theorems [fr

  19. Symmetry of Hamiltonian and conserved quantity for a system of generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a new symmetry of Hamiltonian and its conserved quantity for a system of generalized classical mechanics. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and the criterion of the symmetry of Hamiltonian of the system are given. A conserved quantity directly derived from the symmetry of Hamiltonian of the generalized classical mechanical system is given. Since a Hamilton system is a special case of the generalized classical mechanics, the results above are equally applicable to the Hamilton system. The results of the paper are the generalization of a theorem known for the existing nonsingular equivalent Lagrangian. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. On the hypothesis that quantum mechanism manifests classical mechanics: Numerical approach to the correspondence in search of quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Bong.

    1993-09-01

    Quantum manifestation of classical chaos has been one of the extensively studied subjects for more than a decade. Yet clear understanding of its nature still remains to be an open question partly due to the lack of a canonical definition of quantum chaos. The classical definition seems to be unsuitable in quantum mechanics partly because of the Heisenberg quantum uncertainty. In this regard, quantum chaos is somewhat misleading and needs to be clarified at the very fundamental level of physics. Since it is well known that quantum mechanics is more fundamental than classical mechanics, the quantum description of classically chaotic nature should be attainable in the limit of large quantum numbers. The focus of my research, therefore, lies on the correspondence principle for classically chaotic systems. The chaotic damped driven pendulum is mainly studied numerically using the split operator method that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. For classically dissipative chaotic systems in which (multi)fractal strange attractors often emerge, several quantum dissipative mechanisms are also considered. For instance, Hoover's and Kubo-Fox-Keizer's approaches are studied with some computational analyses. But the notion of complex energy with non-Hermiticity is extensively applied. Moreover, the Wigner and Husimi distribution functions are examined with an equivalent classical distribution in phase-space, and dynamical properties of the wave packet in configuration and momentum spaces are also explored. The results indicate that quantum dynamics embraces classical dynamics although the classicalquantum correspondence fails to be observed in the classically chaotic regime. Even in the semi-classical limits, classically chaotic phenomena would eventually be suppressed by the quantum uncertainty

  1. Emergence of classical reality from a quantum mechanical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, Hanns

    2009-01-01

    A model for the process of knowledge acquisition is presented that shows how naive realism emerges from a quantum mechanical background. We formalise this process of emergence and obtain in this way an illustrative insight to some of the most fundamental physical theories: GRW-theory and E ∞ -theory.

  2. Emergence of classical reality from a quantum mechanical background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Hanns [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kassel, 34109 Kassel, Moenchebergstr 7 (Germany)], E-mail: hanns.sommer@mrt.uni-kassel.de

    2009-02-15

    A model for the process of knowledge acquisition is presented that shows how naive realism emerges from a quantum mechanical background. We formalise this process of emergence and obtain in this way an illustrative insight to some of the most fundamental physical theories: GRW-theory and E{sup {infinity}}-theory.

  3. Comment on ''a classical model of EPR experiment with quantum mechanical correlations and Bell inequalities''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspect, A.

    1986-01-01

    The author states that ''It is impossible to mimick the quantum mechanical predictions for the EPR correlations, with a reasonable classical-looking model, in the spirit of Einstein's ideas''. The author feels that if he is wrong somebody could make a classical model (i.e. following the laws of classical physics) mimicking all the quantum mechanical predictions for the EPR correlations. He attempts to show that it is not the case for Barut's model for the following reasons: the first version of his model is classical, but doesn't mimick at all an EPR type experiment; and by reinterpretation one can get a model that does mimick the experiment, but this model is no longer ''reasonably classical looking'' since it involves negative probabilities. The claim is put in the form of a challenge. It is shown that the model under discussion can be reinterpreted by adding a chip converting the continuous outputs into two-valved outputs

  4. Classical and quantum mechanical studies of HF in an intense laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardi, P.S.; Gray, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of an HF molecule in an intense laser field is investigated with both classical trajectories and quantum dynamics. Vibration-rotation transition probabilities and energy absorption as a function of laser pulse time are calculated for the diatomic initially in its ground state. For comparison, results are also reported for a model nonrotating HF molecule. It is found that classical mechanics does not predict the correct time behavior of the system, nor does it predict the correct rotational state distributions. Classical mechanics does, however, predict pulse time averaged quantities to be the correct order of magnitude. There is also a correct general trend of increased multiphoton excitation for laser frequencies red-shifted from the one-photon resonance, although multiphoton resonance peaks are not observed in the classical results and far too little multiphoton excitation is predicted. The effect of laser phase has also been investigated and shown to be relatively unimportant in both the classical and quantum dynamics

  5. Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Kulkarni, Ravi [Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.i [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, Franco [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.

  6. Classical and quantum Fisher information in the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Kulkarni, Ravi; Man'ko, V.I.; Marmo, Giuseppe; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ventriglia, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.

  7. On the new notion of mass in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Kempczynski, J.

    1991-01-01

    Many textbooks in physics introduce the notion of momentum rvec p = m rvec v (1) where m is the inertial mass of a body and rvec p its velocity. Such treatment of momentum contradicts the general spirit of Newton mechanics, because the basic Newton equation of motion, d rvec p/dt = rvec F (2) requires from the momentum to be a primary physical quantity. As a matter of fact, relation (1) is not a general law of physics. It has to be considered as a kind of a constitutive relation valid or invalid for a given body and as such it has to be experimentally checked. Recently F. Herrmann and M. Schubert have proposed a new technique of measuring momentum without using the relation (1). Their experiment provides a clear operational definition of momentum independent form other mechanical quantities. The only assumption which they adopted without any comment is the requirement that momentum vanishes for bodies at rest. The aim of the present paper is to show that this assumption does not follow from any general law of physics and, independently from its wide use, it may not be valid under some condition

  8. From classical to quantum mechanics: ``How to translate physical ideas into mathematical language''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, H.

    2001-09-01

    Following previous works by E. Prugovečki [Physica A 91A, 202 (1978) and Stochastic Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Space-time (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1986)] on common features of classical and quantum mechanics, we develop a unified mathematical framework for classical and quantum mechanics (based on L2-spaces over classical phase space), in order to investigate to what extent quantum mechanics can be obtained as a simple modification of classical mechanics (on both logical and analytical levels). To obtain this unified framework, we split quantum theory in two parts: (i) general quantum axiomatics (a system is described by a state in a Hilbert space, observables are self-adjoints operators, and so on) and (ii) quantum mechanics proper that specifies the Hilbert space as L2(Rn); the Heisenberg rule [pi,qj]=-iℏδij with p=-iℏ∇, the free Hamiltonian H=-ℏ2Δ/2m and so on. We show that general quantum axiomatics (up to a supplementary "axiom of classicity") can be used as a nonstandard mathematical ground to formulate physical ideas and equations of ordinary classical statistical mechanics. So, the question of a "true quantization" with "ℏ" must be seen as an independent physical problem not directly related with quantum formalism. At this stage, we show that this nonstandard formulation of classical mechanics exhibits a new kind of operation that has no classical counterpart: this operation is related to the "quantization process," and we show why quantization physically depends on group theory (the Galilei group). This analytical procedure of quantization replaces the "correspondence principle" (or canonical quantization) and allows us to map classical mechanics into quantum mechanics, giving all operators of quantum dynamics and the Schrödinger equation. The great advantage of this point of view is that quantization is based on concrete physical arguments and not derived from some "pure algebraic rule" (we exhibit also some limit of the correspondence

  9. From the attempt of certain classical reformulations of quantum mechanics to quasi-probability representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulpe, Werner

    2014-01-01

    The concept of an injective affine embedding of the quantum states into a set of classical states, i.e., into the set of the probability measures on some measurable space, as well as its relation to statistically complete observables is revisited, and its limitation in view of a classical reformulation of the statistical scheme of quantum mechanics is discussed. In particular, on the basis of a theorem concerning a non-denseness property of a set of coexistent effects, it is shown that an injective classical embedding of the quantum states cannot be supplemented by an at least approximate classical description of the quantum mechanical effects. As an alternative approach, the concept of quasi-probability representations of quantum mechanics is considered

  10. Principles of classical statistical mechanics: A perspective from the notion of complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Abad, Luisberis

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics are two physical theories that share several analogies in their mathematical apparatus and physical foundations. In particular, classical statistical mechanics is hallmarked by the complementarity between two descriptions that are unified in thermodynamics: (i) the parametrization of the system macrostate in terms of mechanical macroscopic observablesI=(I i ), and (ii) the dynamical description that explains the evolution of a system towards the thermodynamic equilibrium. As expected, such a complementarity is related to the uncertainty relations of classical statistical mechanics ΔI i Δη i ≥k. Here, k is the Boltzmann constant, η i =∂S(I|θ)/∂I i are the restituting generalized forces derived from the entropy S(I|θ) of a closed system, which is found in an equilibrium situation driven by certain control parameters θ=(θ α ). These arguments constitute the central ingredients of a reformulation of classical statistical mechanics from the notion of complementarity. In this new framework, Einstein postulate of classical fluctuation theory dp(I|θ)∼exp[S(I|θ)/k]dI appears as the correspondence principle between classical statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in the limit k→0, while the existence of uncertainty relations can be associated with the non-commuting character of certain operators. - Highlights: ► There exists a direct analogy between quantum and classical statistical mechanics. ► Statistical form of Le Chatellier principle leads to the uncertainty principle. ► Einstein postulate is simply the correspondence principle. ► Complementary quantities are associated with non-commuting operators.

  11. Alcohol Withdrawal and Brain Injuries: Beyond Classical Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna E. Jung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanaged sudden withdrawal from the excessive consumption of alcohol (ethanol adversely alters neuronal integrity in vulnerable brain regions such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, or cortex. In addition to well known hyperexcitatory neurotransmissions, ethanol withdrawal (EW provokes the intense generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the activation of stress-responding protein kinases, which are the focus of this review article. EW also inflicts mitochondrial membranes/membrane potential, perturbs redox balance, and suppresses mitochondrial enzymes, all of which impair a fundamental function of mitochondria. Moreover, EW acts as an age-provoking stressor. The vulnerable age to EW stress is not necessarily the oldest age and varies depending upon the target molecule of EW. A major female sex steroid, 17β-estradiol (E2, interferes with the EW-induced alteration of oxidative signaling pathways and thereby protects neurons, mitochondria, and behaviors. The current review attempts to provide integrated information at the levels of oxidative signaling mechanisms by which EW provokes brain injuries and E2 protects against it. Unmanaged sudden withdrawal from the excessive consumption of alcohol (ethanol adversely alters neuronal integrity in vulnerable brain regions such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, or cortex. In addition to well known hyperexcitatory neurotransmissions, ethanol withdrawal (EW provokes the intense generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the activation of stress-responding protein kinases, which are the focus of this review article. EW also inflicts mitochondrial membranes/membrane potential, perturbs redox balance, and suppresses mitochondrial enzymes, all of which impair a fundamental function of mitochondria. Moreover, EW acts as an age-provoking stressor. The vulnerable age to EW stress is not necessarily the oldest age and varies depending upon the target molecule of EW. A major female sex steroid, 17

  12. Real-time dynamics of matrix quantum mechanics beyond the classical approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buividovich, Pavel; Hanada, Masanori; Schäfer, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    We describe a numerical method which allows to go beyond the classical approximation for the real-time dynamics of many-body systems by approximating the many-body Wigner function by the most general Gaussian function with time-dependent mean and dispersion. On a simple example of a classically chaotic system with two degrees of freedom we demonstrate that this Gaussian state approximation is accurate for significantly smaller field strengths and longer times than the classical one. Applying this approximation to matrix quantum mechanics, we demonstrate that the quantum Lyapunov exponents are in general smaller than their classical counterparts, and even seem to vanish below some temperature. This behavior resembles the finite-temperature phase transition which was found for this system in Monte-Carlo simulations, and ensures that the system does not violate the Maldacena-Shenker-Stanford bound λL < 2πT, which inevitably happens for classical dynamics at sufficiently small temperatures.

  13. Classical treatments of quantum mechanical effects in collisions of weakly bound complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Jose G.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2005-01-01

    Classical and quantum simulations of Ne + Ar 2 collision dynamics are performed in order to investigate where quantum mechanical effects are most important and where classical simulations provide good descriptions of the dynamics. It is found that when Ar 2 is in a low-lying vibrational state, the differences between the results of quantum and quasiclassical simulations are profound. However, excellent agreement between the results of the quantum and classical simulations can be achieved when the initial conditions for the classical trajectories are sampled from the quantum phase space distribution given by the Wigner function. These effects are largest when collisions occur under constrained geometries or when Ar 2 is in its ground vibrational state. The results of this work suggest that sampling the initial conditions using the Wigner function provides a straightforward way to incorporate the most important quantum mechanical effects in simulations of collisions involving very cold weakly bound complexes

  14. Classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corben, H C

    1994-01-01

    Applications not usually taught in physics courses include theory of space-charge limited currents, atmospheric drag, motion of meteoritic dust, variational principles in rocket motion, transfer functions, much more.

  15. Quantum and classical control of single photon states via a mechanical resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Myers, Casey R; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, G J

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical systems typically use light to control the quantum state of a mechanical resonator. In this paper, we propose a scheme for controlling the quantum state of light using the mechanical degree of freedom as a controlled beam splitter. Preparing the mechanical resonator in non-classical states enables an optomechanical Stern–Gerlach interferometer. When the mechanical resonator has a small coherent amplitude it acts as a quantum control, entangling the optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. As the coherent amplitude of the resonator increases, we recover single photon and two-photon interference via a classically controlled beam splitter. The visibility of the two-photon interference is particularly sensitive to coherent excitations in the mechanical resonator and this could form the basis of an optically transduced weak-force sensor. (paper)

  16. Visualizing the solutions for the circular infinite well in quantum and classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinett, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The classical and quantum mechanical problem of a particle in the infinite circular well has recently surfaced in two quite different manifestations: (i) the observation of open-quote open-quote electron standing waves close-quote close-quote in circular open-quote open-quote corrals close-quote close-quote of atoms adsorbed on surfaces and (ii) as a benchmark example of an integrable system for comparison to the classical and quantum chaotic behavior of the open-quote open-quote stadium billiards close-quote close-quote problem. Motivated by this, we review the quantum and classical probability distributions for both position and momentum for this familiar problem, focusing on the visualization of the quantum wave functions and classical trajectories as well as the semiclassical connections between the two. copyright 1996 American Association of Physics Teachers

  17. Unconstrained SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, B.; Raabe, B.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of contraints in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills classical mechanics is performed. Expect for the SU(2) case with spatial angular momenta they turn out to be nonholonomic. The complete elimination of the unphysical gauge and rotatinal degrees of freedom is achieved using Dirac's constraint formalism. We present an effective unconstrained formulation of the general SU(2) Yang-Mills classical mechanics as well as for SU(3) in the subspace of vanishing spatial angular momenta that is well suited for further explicit dynamical investigations. (orig.)

  18. Stochasticity of Yang-Mills classical mechanics and its elimination by higgs mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinyan, S.G.; Savvidy, G.K.; Ter-Arutunyan-Savvidy, N.G.

    1981-01-01

    Phases of classical gauge systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are considered. The two-dimensional case is studied in detail. The critical value of the parameter πsub(c) which determines phase transformations is calculated

  19. Is classical mechanics based on Newton's laws or Eulers analytical equations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Iro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In an example I illustrate how my picture of physics is enriched due to my frequent conversations with Reinhard Folk. The subject is: Who wrote down the basic equations of motion of classical mechanics for the first time? (To be sure, it was not Newton.

  20. Angular distribution of electrons ejected by charged particles. IV. Combined classical and quantum-mechanical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.G.J.; Bonsen, T.F.M.

    1975-01-01

    Angular distributions of electrons ejected from helium by 100 and 300 keV protons have been calculated by a method which is a comination of the classical three-body collision theory and the quantum-mechanical Born approximation. The results of this theory have been compared with the corresponding

  1. How to quantize forces (?): An academic essay on how the strings could enter classical mechanics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kochan, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2010), s. 219-229 ISSN 0393-0440 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Line element contact bundle * Classical mechanics * Dissipative systems Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.652, year: 2010

  2. That's why, sort of ....; Classical Mechanics derived from Self-evident Axioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.

    2015-01-01

    Classical point-mechanics is derived from three principles —called axioms— that are based on observations of simple kinematical phenomena. Predefined concepts of ‘force’ and ‘mass’ are not required. The concept ’mass’ and corresponding concepts of momentum and energy follow from the first and second

  3. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  4. Axioms for quantum mechanics: relativistic causality, retrocausality, and the existence of a classical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrlich, Daniel

    Y. Aharonov and A. Shimony both conjectured that two axioms - relativistic causality (``no superluminal signalling'') and nonlocality - so nearly contradict each other that only quantum mechanics reconciles them. Can we indeed derive quantum mechanics, at least in part, from these two axioms? No: ``PR-box'' correlations show that quantum correlations are not the most nonlocal correlations consistent with relativistic causality. Here we replace ``nonlocality'' with ``retrocausality'' and supplement the axioms of relativistic causality and retrocausality with a natural and minimal third axiom: the existence of a classical limit, in which macroscopic observables commute. That is, just as quantum mechanics has a classical limit, so must any generalization of quantum mechanics. In this limit, PR-box correlations violaterelativistic causality. Generalized to all stronger-than-quantum bipartite correlations, this result is a derivation of Tsirelson's bound (a theorem of quantum mechanics) from the three axioms of relativistic causality, retrocausality and the existence of a classical limit. Although the derivation does not assume quantum mechanics, it points to the Hilbert space structure that underlies quantum correlations. I thank the John Templeton Foundation (Project ID 43297) and the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 1190/13) for support.

  5. Reason of method of density functional in classical and quantum statistical mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinariev, O.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction between phenomenological description of a multi-component mixture on the basis of entropy functional with members, square in terms of component density gradients and temperature, on the one hand, and description in the framework of classical and quantum statistical mechanics, on the other hand, was investigated. Explicit expressions for the entropy functional in the classical and quantum theory were derived. Then a square approximation for the case of minor disturbances of uniform state was calculated. In the approximation the addends square in reference to the gradient were singlet out. It permits calculation of the relevant phenomenological coefficients from the leading principles [ru

  6. Atomic collision experiments at the border line between classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilanti, V.

    1984-01-01

    In order to understand atomic and molecular interactions, one has to learn how to live with the wave-particle duality, considering classical nuclei and quantum electrons. A better way, illustrated by reference to experiments, is by quasiclassical (or semi-classical) mechanics, governing a world with a quasi-zero Planck's constant. One thus explains optical analogs (shadows, rainbows, glories) as interference effects in atomic collisions. Reference is also made to Wheeler's 'black bird' on the inversion problem from spectroscopy and scattering to molecular structure. The paper concludes outlining a journey in the hyperspace to escape from Einstein's torus and to find interferences and resonances in three body scattering and reactions. (Auth.)

  7. Why irreversibility? The formulation of classical and quantum mechanics for nonintegrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigogine, I.

    1995-01-01

    Nonintegrable Poincare systems with a continuous spectrum lead to the appearance of diffusive terms in the frame of classical or quantum dynamics. These terms break time symmetry. They lead, therefore, to limitations to classical trajectory theory and of wave-function formalism. These diffusive terms correspond to well-defined classes of dynamical processes. The diffusive effects are amplified in situations corresponding to persistent interactions. As a result, we have to include, already, in the fundamental dynamical description the two basic aspects, probability and irreversibility, which are so conspicuous on the macroscopic level. We have to formulate both classical and quantum mechanics on the Liouville level of probability distributions. For integrable systems, we recover the usual formulation of classical or quantum mechanics. Instead of being primitive concepts, which cannot be further analyzed, trajectories and wave functions appear as special solutions of the Liouville-von Neumann equations. This extension of classical and quantum dynamics permits us to unify the two concepts of nature that we inherited from the nineteenth century, based, on the one hand, on dynamical time-reversible laws and, on the other, on an evolutionary view associated to entropy. It leads also to a unified formulation of quantum theory, avoiding the conventional dual structure based on Schroedinger's equation, on the one hand, and on the open-quotes collapseclose quotes of the wave function, on the other. A dynamical interpretation is given to processes such as decoherence or approach to equilibrium without any appeal to extra dynamic considerations. There is a striking parallelism between classical and quantum theory. For large Poincare systems (LPS), we have, in general, both a open-quotes collapseclose quotes of trajectories and of wave functions. In both cases, we need a generalized formulation of dynamics in terms of probability distributions or density matrices

  8. Classical antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors)

  9. A unified treatment of dynamics and scattering in classical and quantum statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugovecki, E.

    1978-01-01

    The common formal features of classical and quantum statistical mechanics are investigated at three separate levels: at the level of L 2 spaces of wave-packets on GAMMA-space, of Liouville spaces B 2 consisting of density operators constructed from such wave-packets, and of phase-space representation spaces P of GAMMA distribution functions. It is shown that at the last level the formal similarities become so outstanding that all key quantities in P-space, such as Liouville operators, Hamiltonian functions, position and momentum observables, etc., are represented by expressions which to the zeroth order in (h/2π) coincide in the classical and quantum case, and in some instances coincide completely. Scattering theory on the B 2 Liouville spaces takes on the same formal appearance for classical and quantum statistical mechanics, and to the zeroth order in (h/2π) it coincides in both cases. This makes possible the formulation of a classical approximation to quantum scattering, and of a computational scheme for determining rhosup(out) from rhosup(in) for successive order of (h/2π). (Auth.)

  10. An alternative formulation of classical mechanics based on an analogy with thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruel, Ginés R Pérez

    2013-01-01

    We study new Legendre transforms in classical mechanics and investigate some of their general properties. The behaviour of the new functions is analysed under coordinate transformations. When invariance under different kinds of transformations is considered the new formulation is found to be completely equivalent to the usual Lagrangian formulation, recovering well-established results such as conservation of angular momentum. Furthermore, a natural generalization of the Poisson bracket is found to be inherent to the formalism introduced. On the other hand, we find that with a convenient redefinition of the Lagrangian, L ' =-L, it is possible to establish an exact one-to-one mathematical correspondence between the thermodynamic potentials and the new potentials of classical mechanics. (paper)

  11. The statistical mechanics of the classical two-dimensional Coulomb gas is exactly solved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaj, L

    2003-01-01

    The model under consideration is a classical 2D Coulomb gas of pointlike positive and negative unit charges, interacting via a logarithmic potential. In the whole stability range of temperatures, the equilibrium statistical mechanics of this fluid model is exactly solvable via an equivalence with the integrable 2D sine-Gordon field theory. The exact solution includes the bulk thermodynamics, special cases of the surface thermodynamics and the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-body correlation functions

  12. A morphing approach to couple state-based peridynamics with classical continuum mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2016-01-04

    A local/nonlocal coupling technique called the morphing method is developed to couple classical continuum mechanics with state-based peridynamics. State-based peridynamics, which enables the description of cracks that appear and propagate spontaneously, is applied to the key domain of a structure, where damage and fracture are considered to have non-negligible effects. In the rest of the structure, classical continuum mechanics is used to reduce computational costs and to simultaneously satisfy solution accuracy and boundary conditions. Both models are glued by the proposed morphing method in the transition region. The morphing method creates a balance between the stiffness tensors of classical continuum mechanics and the weighted coefficients of state-based peridynamics through the equivalent energy density of both models. Linearization of state-based peridynamics is derived by Taylor approximations based on vector operations. The discrete formulation of coupled models is also described. Two-dimensional numerical examples illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed technique. It is shown that the morphing method, originally developed for bond-based peridynamics, can be successfully extended to state-based peridynamics through the original developments presented here.

  13. A morphing approach to couple state-based peridynamics with classical continuum mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles; Azdoud, Yan; Askari, Abe

    2016-01-01

    A local/nonlocal coupling technique called the morphing method is developed to couple classical continuum mechanics with state-based peridynamics. State-based peridynamics, which enables the description of cracks that appear and propagate spontaneously, is applied to the key domain of a structure, where damage and fracture are considered to have non-negligible effects. In the rest of the structure, classical continuum mechanics is used to reduce computational costs and to simultaneously satisfy solution accuracy and boundary conditions. Both models are glued by the proposed morphing method in the transition region. The morphing method creates a balance between the stiffness tensors of classical continuum mechanics and the weighted coefficients of state-based peridynamics through the equivalent energy density of both models. Linearization of state-based peridynamics is derived by Taylor approximations based on vector operations. The discrete formulation of coupled models is also described. Two-dimensional numerical examples illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed technique. It is shown that the morphing method, originally developed for bond-based peridynamics, can be successfully extended to state-based peridynamics through the original developments presented here.

  14. The conservation laws of nonrelativistic classical and quantum mechanics for a system of interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, P.

    1978-01-01

    The various classical or quantum mechanical equations describing a system of N particles with central two-body interactions are invariant under the 10 transformations of the Galilei group, and for interaction potential inversely proportional to the squares of the particle separations also under two further transformations. From the invariance of the corresponding classical and quantum mechanical variation principles under this 12-parameter conformal extension of the Galilei group, the 'Jacobi-Schroedinger group', the 12 well-known conservation laws of Newtonian dynamics as well as 12 local conservation laws implied by the Schroedinger equation are obtained via Noether's theorem. Under appropriate conditions on the wave functions, these local laws yield 12 global conservation laws which are analogous to the Newtonian ones. The Hamiltonian-Jacobi equation implies a classical equation differing from the Schroedinger equation only by a potential-like term involving the Van Vleck determinant, from which 12 local balance equations and the corresponding global equations are obtained, which under certain conditions reduce the true conservation laws. (Auth.)

  15. Introductory quantum mechanics a traditional approach emphasizing connections with classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a basic introduction to quantum mechanics at the undergraduate level. Depending on the choice of topics, it can be used for a one-semester or two-semester course. An attempt has been made to anticipate the conceptual problems students encounter when they first study quantum mechanics. Wherever possible, examples are given to illustrate the underlying physics associated with the mathematical equations of quantum mechanics. To this end, connections are made with corresponding phenomena in classical mechanics and electromagnetism. The problems at the end of each chapter are intended to help students master the course material and to explore more advanced topics. Many calculations exploit the extraordinary capabilities of computer programs such as Mathematica, MatLab, and Maple. Students are urged to use these programs, just as they had been urged to use calculators in the past. The treatment of various topics is rather complete, in that most steps in derivations are included. Several of the ch...

  16. On the connections between the classical and quantum-mechanical Kepler problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, J.P.; Jorgensen, T.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Runge-Lenz vector, which accounts for the accidental degeneracy of the non-relativistic Kepler problem, has been the subject matter of many studies, both in quantum mechanics and in classical mechanics. Much less attention has been paid to the Johnson-Lippmann operator which accounts for the accidental degeneracy of the relativistic Kepler problem in Dirac's quantum-mechanical description. In the present communication we discuss the properties of the Johnson-Lippmann operator. We show its relation to the non-relativistic Runge-Lenz vector and draw a connection to Sommerfield's early discussion of the relativistic Kepler problem. This enables us, inter alia, to give an explanation of the apparent coincidence of the energy expressions of the two theories

  17. Hannay angle. Yet another symmetry-protected topological order parameter in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The topological way of thinking now goes beyond quantum solids, and topological characters of classical mechanical systems obeying Newton's law are attracting current interest. To provide a physical insight into the topological numbers in mechanics, we demonstrate the use of the Hannay angle, a “classical” Berry phase, as a symmetry-protected topological order parameter. The Hannay angle is derived using a canonical transformation that maps Newton's equation to a Schrödinger-type equation, and the condition for the quantization is discussed in connection with the symmetry in mechanics. Also, we demonstrate the use of the Hannay angle for a topological characterization of a spring-mass model focusing on the bulk-edge correspondence. (author)

  18. Mechanisms explaining Coulomb's electric force & Lorentz's magnetic force from a classical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Dan S.

    2018-06-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the fundamental electric and magnetic forces are not clear in current models; they are mainly mathematical constructs. This study examines the underlying physics from a classical viewpoint to explain Coulomb's electric force and Lorentz's magnetic force. This is accomplished by building upon already established physics. Although no new physics is introduced, extension of existing models is made by close examination. We all know that an electron carries a bound cylindrical B-field (CBF) as it translates. Here, we show how the electron CBF plays an intrinsic role in the generation of the electric and magnetic forces.

  19. Evolution of the Stability Work from Classic Retaining Walls to Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Stanciu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the consolidation of soil mass and the construction of the stability works for roads infrastructure it was studied the evolution of these kinds of works from classical retaining walls - common concrete retaining walls, to the utilization in our days of the modern and competitive methods - mechanically stabilized earth walls. Like type of execution the variety of the reinforced soil is given by the utilization of different types of reinforcing inclusions (steel strips, geosynthetics, geogrids or facing (precast concrete panels, dry cast modular blocks, metal sheets and plates, gabions, and wrapped sheets of geosynthetics.

  20. Advances in classical and analytical mechanics: A reviews of author’s results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih-Stevanović Katica R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A review, in subjective choice, of author’s scientific results in area of: classical mechanics, analytical mechanics of discrete hereditary systems, analytical mechanics of discrete fractional order system vibrations, elastodynamics, nonlinear dynamics and hybrid system dynamics is presented. Main original author’s results were presented through the mathematical methods of mechanics with examples of applications for solving problems of mechanical real system dynamics abstracted to the theoretical models of mechanical discrete or continuum systems, as well as hybrid systems. Paper, also, presents serries of methods and scientific results authored by professors Mitropolyski, Andjelić and Rašković, as well as author’s of this paper original scientific research results obtained by methods of her professors. Vector method based on mass inertia moment vectors and corresponding deviational vector components for pole and oriented axis, defined in 1991 by K. Hedrih, is presented. Results in construction of analytical dynamics of hereditary discrete system obtained in collaboration with O. A. Gorosho are presented. Also, some selections of results author’s postgraduate students and doctorantes in area of nonlinear dynamics are presented. A list of scientific projects headed by author of this paper is presented with a list of doctoral dissertation and magister of sciences thesis which contain scientific research results obtained under the supervision by author of this paper or their fist doctoral candidates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON174001: Dynamics of hybrid systems with complex structures

  1. Classical to quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism crossover in thermal transitions between magnetic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Sergei; Bessarab, Pavel F; Uzdin, Valery M; Jónsson, Hannes

    2016-12-22

    Transitions between states of a magnetic system can occur by jumps over an energy barrier or by quantum mechanical tunneling through the energy barrier. The rate of such transitions is an important consideration when the stability of magnetic states is assessed for example for nanoscale candidates for data storage devices. The shift in transition mechanism from jumps to tunneling as the temperature is lowered is analyzed and a general expression derived for the crossover temperature. The jump rate is evaluated using a harmonic approximation to transition state theory. First, the minimum energy path for the transition is found with the geodesic nudged elastic band method. The activation energy for the jumps is obtained from the maximum along the path, a saddle point on the energy surface, and the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix at that point as well as at the initial state minimum used to estimate the entropic pre-exponential factor. The crossover temperature for quantum mechanical tunneling is evaluated from the second derivatives of the energy with respect to orientation of the spin vector at the saddle point. The resulting expression is applied to test problems where analytical results have previously been derived, namely uniaxial and biaxial spin systems with two-fold anisotropy. The effect of adding four-fold anisotropy on the crossover temperature is demonstrated. Calculations of the jump rate and crossover temperature for tunneling are also made for a molecular magnet containing an Mn 4 group. The results are in excellent agreement with previously reported experimental measurements on this system.

  2. Solved problems in classical mechanics analytical and numerical solutions with comments

    CERN Document Server

    de Lange, O L

    2010-01-01

    Apart from an introductory chapter giving a brief summary of Newtonian and Lagrangian mechanics, this book consists entirely of questions and solutions on topics in classical mechanics that will be encountered in undergraduate and graduate courses. These include one-, two-, and three- dimensional motion; linear and nonlinear oscillations; energy, potentials, momentum, and angular momentum; spherically symmetric potentials; multi-particle systems; rigid bodies; translation androtation of the reference frame; the relativity principle and some of its consequences. The solutions are followed by a set of comments intended to stimulate inductive reasoning and provide additional information of interest. Both analytical and numerical (computer) techniques are used to obtain andanalyze solutions. The computer calculations use Mathematica (version 7), and the relevant code is given in the text. It includes use of the interactive Manipulate function which enables one to observe simulated motion on a computer screen, and...

  3. Quantization in classical mechanics and its relation to the Bohmian Ψ-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusov, V.D.; Vlasenko, D.S.; Mavrodiev, S.Cht.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: →The Schroedinger equation is derived from the classical Hamiltonian mechanics. →This derivation is based on the Chetaev theorem on stable dynamical trajectories. →The conditions for correctness of trajectory quantum mechanics are discussed. - Abstract: Based on the Chetaev theorem on stable dynamical trajectories in the presence of dissipative forces, we obtain the generalized condition for stability of Hamilton systems in the form of the Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the energy of dissipative forces, which generate the Chetaev generalized condition of stability, coincides exactly with the Bohm 'quantum' potential. Within the frame-work of Bohmian quantum mechanics supplemented by the generalized Chetaev theorem and on the basis of the principle of least action for dissipative forces, we show that the squared amplitude of a wave function in the Schroedinger equation is equivalent semantically and syntactically to the probability density function for the number of particle trajectories, relative to which the velocity and the position of the particle are not hidden parameters. The conditions for the correctness of trajectory interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed.

  4. Modeling the classical nova outburst. I. Exploring the physics of a new mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutter, G.S.; Sparks, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Model calculations were performed to describe a mechanism that produces classical nova outbursts on white dwarfs of 1 solar mass or less and for accretion rates of 4 x 10 to the -10th solar mass/yr or greater, i.e., the parameters corresponding to observed data of nova systems. Calculations point to four factors that can induce nuclear runaways of sufficient strength to eject about 0.0001 solar mass at speeds of several hundred to a few thousand km per second, as is observed in classical novae. These are (1) the effects of storage of angular momentum in the star's envelope during the accretion phase; (2) the reduction of centrifugal forces in the star's outer layers during the early nuclear runaway phase, through the inward transport of angular momentum; (3) the inward movement of the zone of peak nuclear burning through the convectively induced shear instability during the runaway phase; and (4) the mixing of original CO stellar matter and H-rich matter, also through the convectively induced shear instability. 58 refs

  5. Photonic Rutherford scattering: A classical and quantum mechanical analogy in ray and wave optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmke, Markus; Cichos, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Using Fermat's least-optical-path principle, the family of ray trajectories through a special (but common) type of a gradient refractive index lens n(r)=n0+ΔnR /r is solved analytically. The solution gives a ray equation r(ϕ) that is closely related to Rutherford scattering trajectories; we therefore refer to this refraction process as "photonic Rutherford scattering." It is shown that not only do the classical limits correspond but also the wave-mechanical pictures coincide—the time-independent Schrödingier equation and the Helmholtz equation permit the same mapping between the scattering of massive particles and optical scalar waves. Scattering of narrow beams of light finally recovers the classical trajectories. The analysis suggests that photothermal single-particle microscopy measures photonic Rutherford scattering in specific limits and allows for an individual single-scatterer probing. A macroscopic experiment is demonstrated to directly measure the scattering angle to impact parameter relation, which is otherwise accessible only indirectly in Rutherford-scattering experiments.

  6. Classical mechanics with calculus of variations and optimal control an intuitive introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Levi, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This is an intuitively motivated presentation of many topics in classical mechanics and related areas of control theory and calculus of variations. All topics throughout the book are treated with zero tolerance for unrevealing definitions and for proofs which leave the reader in the dark. Some areas of particular interest are: an extremely short derivation of the ellipticity of planetary orbits; a statement and an explanation of the "tennis racket paradox"; a heuristic explanation (and a rigorous treatment) of the gyroscopic effect; a revealing equivalence between the dynamics of a particle and statics of a spring; a short geometrical explanation of Pontryagin's Maximum Principle, and more. In the last chapter, aimed at more advanced readers, the Hamiltonian and the momentum are compared to forces in a certain static problem. This gives a palpable physical meaning to some seemingly abstract concepts and theorems. With minimal prerequisites consisting of basic calculus and basic undergraduate physics, this boo...

  7. On Conservation Forms and Invariant Solutions for Classical Mechanics Problems of Liénard Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Gün Polat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we apply partial Noether and λ-symmetry approaches to a second-order nonlinear autonomous equation of the form y′′+fyy′+g(y=0, called Liénard equation corresponding to some important problems in classical mechanics field with respect to f(y and g(y functions. As a first approach we utilize partial Lagrangians and partial Noether operators to obtain conserved forms of Liénard equation. Then, as a second approach, based on the λ-symmetry method, we analyze λ-symmetries for the case that λ-function is in the form of λ(x,y,y′=λ1(x,yy′+λ2(x,y. Finally, a classification problem for the conservation forms and invariant solutions are considered.

  8. Gauge fixings, evolution generators and world-line conditions in relativistic classical mechanics with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, L.

    1981-01-01

    After a review of the main models for classical relativistic N-particle systems based upon Dirac's theory of constraints, a detailed study of their Hamiltonian formulation is made. The choice of the arbitrary functions and of the gauge-fixing constraints and the associated realizations of the reduced phase-space and of the observables by means of Dirac brackets are examined in detail. The restrictions on the gauge fixings to obtain compatibility between the evolution in the reduced phase space, generated by the total energy of the system, and the one in the constraint hypersurface, generated by the Dirac Hamiltonian, are found. It is also demonstrated that these restrictions are nothing else than the world-line conditions, i.e. gauge transformations are needed to ensure the objective existence of the world-lines and manifest covariance is broken. This is due to the property of the Dirac brackets of preserving the gauge fixings in every frame of reference. Predictive mechanics and the Currie-Hill world-line conditions are not in contradiction with the previous results: avoiding the Dirac-bracket mechanism, they save the manifest covariance but at the price of using accelerations which are complicated functions of the original potentials depending upon the whole history of the system. (author)

  9. Quantum epistemology from subquantum ontology: Quantum mechanics from theory of classical random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2017-02-01

    The scientific methodology based on two descriptive levels, ontic (reality as it is) and epistemic (observational), is briefly presented. Following Schrödinger, we point to the possible gap between these two descriptions. Our main aim is to show that, although ontic entities may be unaccessible for observations, they can be useful for clarification of the physical nature of operational epistemic entities. We illustrate this thesis by the concrete example: starting with the concrete ontic model preceding quantum mechanics (the latter is treated as an epistemic model), namely, prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), we propose the natural physical interpretation for the basic quantum mechanical entity-the quantum state ("wave function"). The correspondence PCSFT ↦ QM is not straightforward, it couples the covariance operators of classical (prequantum) random fields with the quantum density operators. We use this correspondence to clarify the physical meaning of the pure quantum state and the superposition principle-by using the formalism of classical field correlations. In classical mechanics the phase space description can be considered as the ontic description, here states are given by points λ =(x , p) of phase space. The dynamics of the ontic state is given by the system of Hamiltonian equations.We can also consider probability distributions on the phase space (or equivalently random variables valued in it). We call them probabilistic ontic states. Dynamics of probabilistic ontic states is given by the Liouville equation.In classical physics we can (at least in principle) measure both the coordinate and momentum and hence ontic states can be treated as epistemic states as well (or it is better to say that here epistemic states can be treated as ontic states). Probabilistic ontic states represent probabilities for outcomes of joint measurement of position and momentum.However, this was a very special, although very important, example of

  10. The physical vulnerability of elements at risk: a methodology based on fluid and classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, B.; Fuchs, S.; Levaggi, L.

    2012-04-01

    The impacts of the flood events occurred in autumn 2011 in the Italian regions Liguria and Tuscany revived the engagement of the public decision makers to enhance in synergy flood control and land use planning. In this context, the design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation critically relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of both, the immobile and mobile elements at risk potentially exposed to flood hazards. Based on fluid and classical mechanics notions we developed computation schemes enabling for a dynamic vulnerability and risk analysis facing a broad typological variety of elements at risk. The methodological skeleton consists of (1) hydrodynamic computation of the time-varying flood intensities resulting for each element at risk in a succession of loading configurations; (2) modelling the mechanical response of the impacted elements through static, elasto-static and dynamic analyses; (3) characterising the mechanical response through proper structural damage variables and (4) economic valuation of the expected losses as a function of the quantified damage variables. From a computational perspective we coupled the description of the hydrodynamic flow behaviour and the induced structural modifications of the elements at risk exposed. Valuation methods, suitable to support a correct mapping from the value domains of the physical damage variables to the economic loss values are discussed. In such a way we target to complement from a methodological perspective the existing, mainly empirical, vulnerability and risk assessment approaches to refine the conceptual framework of the cost-benefit analysis. Moreover, we aim to support the design of effective flood risk mitigation strategies by diminishing the main criticalities within the systems prone to flood risk.

  11. First order mean field games - explicit solutions, perturbations and connection with classical mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-06

    We present recent developments in the theory of first-order mean-field games (MFGs). A standard assumption in MFGs is that the cost function of the agents is monotone in the density of the distribution. This assumption leads to a comprehensive existence theory and to the uniqueness of smooth solutions. Here, our goals are to understand the role of local monotonicity in the small perturbation regime and the properties of solutions for problems without monotonicity. Under a local monotonicity assumption, we show that small perturbations of MFGs have unique smooth solutions. In addition, we explore the connection between first-order MFGs and classical mechanics and KAM theory. Next, for non-monotone problems, we construct non-unique explicit solutions for a broad class of first-order mean-field games. We provide an alternative formulation of MFGs in terms of a new current variable. These examples illustrate two new phenomena: the non-uniqueness of solutions and the breakdown of regularity.

  12. First order mean field games - explicit solutions, perturbations and connection with classical mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Prazeres, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    We present recent developments in the theory of first-order mean-field games (MFGs). A standard assumption in MFGs is that the cost function of the agents is monotone in the density of the distribution. This assumption leads to a comprehensive existence theory and to the uniqueness of smooth solutions. Here, our goals are to understand the role of local monotonicity in the small perturbation regime and the properties of solutions for problems without monotonicity. Under a local monotonicity assumption, we show that small perturbations of MFGs have unique smooth solutions. In addition, we explore the connection between first-order MFGs and classical mechanics and KAM theory. Next, for non-monotone problems, we construct non-unique explicit solutions for a broad class of first-order mean-field games. We provide an alternative formulation of MFGs in terms of a new current variable. These examples illustrate two new phenomena: the non-uniqueness of solutions and the breakdown of regularity.

  13. Transport cross sections based on a screened interaction potential: Comparison of classical and quantum-mechanical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, R.; Juaristi, J.I.; Nagy, I.

    2005-01-01

    Standard classical and quantum-mechanical methods are used to characterize the momentum-transfer cross section needed in energy-loss calculations and simulations for heavy, swift charges moving in an electron gas. By applying a well-known, finite-range screened Coulombic potential energy to model the two-body collision, the quantitative applicability range of the classical cross section is investigated as a function of charge (Z), screening length (R), and scattering relative velocity (v). The a posteriori condition (Z/R)/v 2 <1, as an upper bound for heavy charges, is deduced for this applicability range from the comparative study performed

  14. Computation of disordered system from the first principles of classical mechanics and ℕℙ hard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorkyan, A. S., E-mail: g-ashot@sci.am; Sahakyan, V. V. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems (Armenia)

    2017-03-15

    We study the classical 1D Heisenberg spin glasses in the framework of nearest-neighboring model. Based on the Hamilton equations we obtained the system of recurrence equations which allows to perform node-by-node calculations of a spin-chain. It is shown that calculations from the first principles of classical mechanics lead to ℕℙ hard problem, that however in the limit of the statistical equilibrium can be calculated by ℙ algorithm. For the partition function of the ensemble a new representation is offered in the form of one-dimensional integral of spin-chains’ energy distribution.

  15. Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2016-02-15

    In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, "Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?" The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call 'reasoning') to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player's brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences.

  16. Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S.; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2016-02-01

    In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, “Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?” The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call ‘reasoning’) to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player’s brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences.

  17. The dynamics of the H(+) + D(2) reaction: a comparison of quantum mechanical wavepacket, quasi-classical and statistical-quasi-classical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina, P G; Aoiz, F J; Bulut, N; Smith, Sean C; Balint-Kurti, G G; Hankel, M

    2010-02-07

    A detailed study of the proton exchange reaction H(+) + D(2)(v = 0, j = 0) --> HD + D(+) on its ground 1(1)A' potential energy surface has been carried out using 'exact' close-coupled quantum mechanical wavepacket (WP-EQM), quasi-classical trajectory (QCT), and statistical quasi-classical trajectory (SQCT) calculations for a range of collision energies starting from the reaction threshold to 1.3 eV. The WP-EQM calculations include all total angular momenta up to J(max) = 50, and therefore the various dynamical observables are converged up to 0.6 eV. It has been found that it is necessary to include all Coriolis couplings to obtain reliable converged results. Reaction probabilities obtained using the different methods are thoroughly compared as a function of the total energy for a series of J values. Comparisons are also made of total reaction cross sections as function of the collision energy, and rate constants. In addition, opacity functions, integral cross sections (ICS) and differential cross sections (DCS) are presented at 102 meV, 201.3 meV and 524.6 meV collision energy. The agreement between the three sets of results is only qualitative. The QCT calculations fail to describe the overall reactivity and most of the dynamical observables correctly. At low collision energies, the QCT method is plagued by the lack of conservation of zero point energy, whilst at higher collision energies and/or total angular momenta, the appearance of an effective repulsive potential associated with the centrifugal motion "over" the well causes a substantial decrease of the reactivity. In turn, the statistical models overestimate the reactivity over the whole range of collision energies as compared with the WP-EQM method. Specifically, at sufficiently high collision energies the reaction cannot be deemed to be statistical and important dynamical effects seem to be present. In general the WP-EQM results lie in between those obtained using the QCT and SQCT methods. One of the main

  18. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.

  19. Mechanism of the Glycosidic Bond Cleavage of Mismatched Thymine in Human Thymine DNA Glycosylase Revealed by Classical Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Natalia; Crehuet, Ramon; Imhof, Petra

    2015-09-24

    Base excision of mismatched or damaged nucleotides catalyzed by glycosylase enzymes is the first step of the base excision repair system, a machinery preserving the integrity of DNA. Thymine DNA glycosylase recognizes and removes mismatched thymine by cleaving the C1'-N1 bond between the base and the sugar ring. Our quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of this reaction in human thymine DNA glycosylase reveal a requirement for a positive charge in the active site to facilitate C1'-N1 bond scission: protonation of His151 significantly lowers the free energy barrier for C1'-N1 bond dissociation compared to the situation with neutral His151. Shuttling a proton from His151 to the thymine base further reduces the activation free energy for glycosidic bond cleavage. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of the H151A mutant suggest that the mutation to the smaller, neutral, residue increases the water accessibility of the thymine base, rendering direct proton transfer from the bulk feasible. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of the glycosidic bond cleavage reaction in the H151A mutant show that the activation free energy is slightly lower than in the wild-type enzyme, explaining the experimentally observed higher reaction rates in this mutant.

  20. On the Calculation of Quantum Mechanical Ground States from Classical Geodesic Motion on Certain Spaces of Constant Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1989-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are bounded and recurrent in both directions of the time evolution a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schrodinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories.

  1. On the calculation of quantum mechanical ground states from classical geodesic motion on certain spaces of constant negative curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, R.

    1989-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are recurrent in both directions of the time evolution t → +∞, t → -∞ a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schroedinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories. (orig.)

  2. Origin of Mass. Mass and Mass-Energy Equation from Classical-Mechanics Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-Johansson, J. X.; Johansson, P-I.

    2005-01-01

    We establish the classical wave equation for a particle formed of a massless oscillatory elementary charge generally also traveling, and the resulting electromagnetic waves, of a generally Doppler-effected angular frequency $\\w$, in the vacuum in three dimensions. We obtain from the solutions the total energy of the particle wave to be $\\eng=\\hbarc\\w$, $2\\pi \\hbarc$ being a function expressed in wave-medium parameters and identifiable as the Planck constant. In respect to the train of the wav...

  3. Gauge dependence of world lines and invariance of the S-matrix in relativistic classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, V.V.; Todorov, I.T.

    1980-07-01

    The notion of world lines is studied in the constraint Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic point particle dynamics. The particle world lines are shown to depend in general (in the presence of interaction) on the choice of the equal-time hyperplane (the only exception being the elastic scattering of rigid balls). However, the relative motion of a two-particle system and the (classical) S-matrix are indepent of this choice. (author)

  4. Mechanistic insights into Mg2+-independent prenylation by CloQ from classical molecular mechanics and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayse, Craig A; Merz, Kenneth M

    2014-08-05

    Understanding the mechanism of prenyltransferases is important to the design of engineered proteins capable of synthesizing derivatives of naturally occurring therapeutic agents. CloQ is a Mg(2+)-independent aromatic prenyltransferase (APTase) that transfers a dimethylallyl group to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in the biosynthetic pathway for clorobiocin. APTases consist of a common ABBA fold that defines a β-barrel containing the reaction cavity. Positively charged basic residues line the inside of the β-barrel of CloQ to activate the pyrophosphate leaving group to replace the function of the Mg(2+) cofactor in other APTases. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of CloQ, its E281G and F68S mutants, and the related NovQ were used to explore the binding of the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (4HPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate substrates in the reactive cavity and the role of various conserved residues. Hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potential of mean force (PMF) calculations show that the effect of the replacement of the Mg(2+) cofactor with basic residues yields a similar activation barrier for prenylation to Mg(2+)-dependent APTases like NphB. The topology of the binding pocket for 4HPP is important for selective prenylation at the ortho position of the ring. Methylation at this position alters the conformation of the substrate for O-prenylation at the phenol group. Further, a two-dimensional PMF scan shows that a "reverse" prenylation product may be a possible target for protein engineering.

  5. Heat control in opto-mechanical system using quantum non-classicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sushamana; Senwar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Cooling of matter to the quantum ground state is a primary directive of quantum control. In other words, to extract entropy from a quantum system, efficient indirect quantum measurements may be implemented. The main objective is the cooling of the oscillator either to its motional ground state or to non-classical states, such as low-number Fock states, squeezed states or entangled states. It is shown that the use of quantum control procedure is better choice for even experimental realizations because it leads to a squeezed steady state with less than one phonon on average. The steady state of system corresponds to cooling of the system.

  6. An investigation of student understanding of classical ideas related to quantum mechanics: Potential energy diagrams and spatial probability density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanik, Brian Michael

    This dissertation describes the results of two related investigations into introductory student understanding of ideas from classical physics that are key elements of quantum mechanics. One investigation probes the extent to which students are able to interpret and apply potential energy diagrams (i.e., graphs of potential energy versus position). The other probes the extent to which students are able to reason classically about probability and spatial probability density. The results of these investigations revealed significant conceptual and reasoning difficulties that students encounter with these topics. The findings guided the design of instructional materials to address the major problems. Results from post-instructional assessments are presented that illustrate the impact of the curricula on student learning.

  7. A study of quantum mechanical probabilities in the classical Hodgkin-Huxley model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, N; Scholkmann, F; Salari, V

    2015-03-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model is a powerful model to explain different aspects of spike generation in excitable cells. However, the HH model was proposed in 1952 when the real structure of the ion channel was unknown. It is now common knowledge that in many ion-channel proteins the flow of ions through the pore is governed by a gate, comprising a so-called "selectivity filter" inside the ion channel, which can be controlled by electrical interactions. The selectivity filter (SF) is believed to be responsible for the selection and fast conduction of particular ions across the membrane of an excitable cell. Other (generally larger) parts of the molecule such as the pore-domain gate control the access of ions to the channel protein. In fact, two types of gates are considered here for ion channels: the "external gate", which is the voltage sensitive gate, and the "internal gate" which is the selectivity filter gate (SFG). Some quantum effects are expected in the SFG due to its small dimensions, which may play an important role in the operation of an ion channel. Here, we examine parameters in a generalized model of HH to see whether any parameter affects the spike generation. Our results indicate that the previously suggested semi-quantum-classical equation proposed by Bernroider and Summhammer (BS) agrees strongly with the HH equation under different conditions and may even provide a better explanation in some cases. We conclude that the BS model can refine the classical HH model substantially.

  8. Dynamics of classical particles in oval or elliptic billiards with a dispersing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da; Dettmann, Carl P.; Oliveira, Juliano A. de; Leonel, Edson D.

    2015-01-01

    Some dynamical properties for an oval billiard with a scatterer in its interior are studied. The dynamics consists of a classical particle colliding between an inner circle and an external boundary given by an oval, elliptical, or circle shapes, exploring for the first time some natural generalizations. The billiard is indeed a generalization of the annular billiard, which is of strong interest for understanding marginally unstable periodic orbits and their role in the boundary between regular and chaotic regions in both classical and quantum (including experimental) systems. For the oval billiard, which has a mixed phase space, the presence of an obstacle is an interesting addition. We demonstrate, with details, how to obtain the equations of the mapping, and the changes in the phase space are discussed. We study the linear stability of some fixed points and show both analytically and numerically the occurrence of direct and inverse parabolic bifurcations. Lyapunov exponents and generalized bifurcation diagrams are obtained. Moreover, histograms of the number of successive iterations for orbits that stay in a cusp are studied. These histograms are shown to be scaling invariant when changing the radius of the scatterer, and they have a power law slope around −3. The results here can be generalized to other kinds of external boundaries

  9. Controlling the transport of an ion: classical and quantum mechanical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fürst, H A; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Singer, K; Goerz, M H; Koch, C P; Murphy, M; Montangero, S; Calarco, T

    2014-01-01

    The accurate transport of an ion over macroscopic distances represents a challenging control problem due to the different length and time scales that enter and the experimental limitations on the controls that need to be accounted for. Here, we investigate the performance of different control techniques for ion transport in state-of-the-art segmented miniaturized ion traps. We employ numerical optimization of classical trajectories and quantum wavepacket propagation as well as analytical solutions derived from invariant based inverse engineering and geometric optimal control. The applicability of each of the control methods depends on the length and time scales of the transport. Our comprehensive set of tools allows us make a number of observations. We find that accurate shuttling can be performed with operation times below the trap oscillation period. The maximum speed is limited by the maximum acceleration that can be exerted on the ion. When using controls obtained from classical dynamics for wavepacket propagation, wavepacket squeezing is the only quantum effect that comes into play for a large range of trapping parameters. We show that this can be corrected by a compensating force derived from invariant based inverse engineering, without a significant increase in the operation time. (paper)

  10. Coupling constant metamorphosis and Nth-order symmetries in classical and quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, E G [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Miller, W Jr; Post, S [School of Mathematics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)], E-mail: miller@ima.umn.edu

    2010-01-22

    We review the fundamentals of coupling constant metamorphosis (CCM) and the Staeckel transform, and apply them to map integrable and superintegrable systems of all orders into other such systems on different manifolds. In general, CCM does not preserve the order of constants of the motion or even take polynomials in the momenta to polynomials in the momenta. We study specializations of these actions which preserve polynomials and also the structure of the symmetry algebras in both the classical and quantum cases. We give several examples of non-constant curvature third- and fourth-order superintegrable systems in two space dimensions obtained via CCM, with some details on the structure of the symmetry algebras preserved by the transform action.

  11. Coupling constant metamorphosis and Nth-order symmetries in classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, E G; Miller, W Jr; Post, S

    2010-01-01

    We review the fundamentals of coupling constant metamorphosis (CCM) and the Staeckel transform, and apply them to map integrable and superintegrable systems of all orders into other such systems on different manifolds. In general, CCM does not preserve the order of constants of the motion or even take polynomials in the momenta to polynomials in the momenta. We study specializations of these actions which preserve polynomials and also the structure of the symmetry algebras in both the classical and quantum cases. We give several examples of non-constant curvature third- and fourth-order superintegrable systems in two space dimensions obtained via CCM, with some details on the structure of the symmetry algebras preserved by the transform action.

  12. MYC translocation-negative classical Burkitt lymphoma cases: an alternative pathogenetic mechanism involving miRNA deregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, E; Cocco, M; Onnis, A

    2008-01-01

    at the standardization of FISH procedures in lymphoma diagnosis, we found that five cases out of 35 classic endemic BLs were negative for MYC translocations by using a split-signal as well as a dual-fusion probe. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs predicted to target c-Myc, in BL cases, to clarify...... whether alternative pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for lymphomagenesis in cases lacking the MYC translocation. miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several studies have reported their involvement in cancer...

  13. Discrete allowed and forbidden states in the classical mechanical domain in the charged particle motion in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.K.; Punithavelu, A.M.; Banerjee, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of the motion of charged particles injected almost parallel to the magnetic field are studied by measuring the electron current as a function of the cathode voltage (electron energy), as electrons from the gun traverse a distance L to the detector. The plate current is found to exhibit oscillatory behaviour in contradistinction with the behaviour expected according to the standard classical mechanical paradigm, with the peaks fitting a relation obtained from a quantum like theory predicting such a behaviour. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  14. Comparison Of Quantum Mechanical And Classical Trajectory Calculations Of Cross Sections For Ion-Atom Impact Ionization of Negative - And Positive -Ions For Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Stripping cross sections in nitrogen have been calculated using the classical trajectory approximation and the Born approximation of quantum mechanics for the outer shell electrons of 3.2GeV I - and Cs + ions. A large difference in cross section, up to a factor of six, calculated in quantum mechanics and classical mechanics, has been obtained. Because at such high velocities the Born approximation is well validated, the classical trajectory approach fails to correctly predict the stripping cross sections at high energies for electron orbitals with low ionization potential

  15. Mechanics and analysis of beams, columns and cables. A modern introduction to the classic theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    The book illustrates the use of simple mathematical analysis techniques within the area of basic structural mechanics, in particular the elementary theories of beams, columns and cables. The focus is on: i) Identification of the physical background of the theories and their particular mathematical...... properties. ii) Demonstration of mathematical techniques for analysis of simple problems in structural mechanics, and identification of the relevant parameters and properties of the solution. iii) Derivation of the solutions to a number of basic problems of structural mechanics in a form suitable for later...

  16. The problem of the motion of bodies a historical view of the development of classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the way in which the problem of the motion of bodies has been viewed and approached over the course of human history. It is not another traditional history of mechanics but rather aims to enable the reader to fully understand the deeper ideas that inspired men, first in attempting to understand the mechanisms of motion and then in formulating theories with predictive as well as explanatory value. Given this objective, certain parts of the history of mechanics are neglected, such as fluid mechanics, statics, and astronomy after Newton. On the other hand, due attention is paid, for example, to the history of thermodynamics, which has its own particular point of view on motion. Inspired in part by historical epistemology, the book examines the various views and theories of a given historical period (synchronic analysis) and then makes comparisons between different periods (diachronic analysis). In each period, one or two of the most meaningful contributions are selected for particular attent...

  17. Advances in one-dimensional wave mechanics. Towards a unified classical view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhuangqi [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., (China). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Yin, Cheng [Hohai Univ., Changzhou, Jiangsu (China). College of IoT Engineering

    2014-06-01

    Introduces a completely new concept of the scattered sub-waves via the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. Develops a relatively simple method to accurately solve one-dimensional problems in quantum mechanics. Based on the analogy between the Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism, several interesting issues in quantum mechanics, such as tunneling, quantum reflection and scattering time are restudied. Advances in One-Dimensional Wave Mechanics provides a comprehensive description of the motion of microscopic particles in one-dimensional, arbitrary-shaped potentials based on the analogy between Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism. Utilizing a deeper understanding of the wave nature of matter, this book introduces the concept of the scattered sub-waves and a series of new analytical results using the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. This work will be useful for graduate students majoring in physics, mainly in basic quantum theory, as well as for academic researchers exploring electromagnetism, particle physics, and wave mechanics and for experts in the field of optical waveguide and integrated optics.

  18. Advances in one-dimensional wave mechanics. Towards a unified classical view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Zhuangqi; Yin, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Introduces a completely new concept of the scattered sub-waves via the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. Develops a relatively simple method to accurately solve one-dimensional problems in quantum mechanics. Based on the analogy between the Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism, several interesting issues in quantum mechanics, such as tunneling, quantum reflection and scattering time are restudied. Advances in One-Dimensional Wave Mechanics provides a comprehensive description of the motion of microscopic particles in one-dimensional, arbitrary-shaped potentials based on the analogy between Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism. Utilizing a deeper understanding of the wave nature of matter, this book introduces the concept of the scattered sub-waves and a series of new analytical results using the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. This work will be useful for graduate students majoring in physics, mainly in basic quantum theory, as well as for academic researchers exploring electromagnetism, particle physics, and wave mechanics and for experts in the field of optical waveguide and integrated optics.

  19. Advances in one-dimensional wave mechanics towards a unified classical view

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Zhuangqi

    2014-01-01

    Advances in One-Dimensional Wave Mechanics provides a comprehensive description of the motion of microscopic particles in one-dimensional, arbitrary-shaped potentials based on the analogy between Quantum Mechanics and Electromagnetism. Utilizing a deeper understanding of the wave nature of matter, this book introduces the concept of the scattered sub-waves and a series of new analytical results using the Analytical Transfer Matrix (ATM) method. This work will be useful for graduate students majoring in physics, mainly in basic quantum theory, as well as for academic researchers exploring electromagnetism, particle physics, and wave mechanics and for experts in the field of optical waveguide and integrated optics. Prof. Zhuangqi Cao is a Professor of Physics at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. Dr. Cheng Yin is a teacher at Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Power Transmission and Distribution Equipment Technology, Hohai University, China.

  20. Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur

    2013-01-01

    A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.

  1. Hybrid Quantum Mechanical-Quasi-Classical Model for Evaluating Ionization and Stripping Cross Sections in Atom-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kaganovich, I D; Startsev, E

    2005-01-01

    Ion-atom ionization cross sections are needed in many applications employing the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data or full-scale theoretical calculations are non-existent, approximate methods must be used. The most robust and easy-to-use approximations include the Born approximation of quantum mechanics and the quasi-classical approach utilizing classical mechanics together with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule.* The simplest method to extend the validity of both approaches is to combine them, i.e., use the two different approaches but only for the regions of impact parameters in which they are valid, and sum the results to obtain the total cross section. We have recently investigated theoretically and experimentally the stripping of more than 18 different pairs of projectile and target atoms in the range of 3-38 MeV/amu to study the range of validity of various approximations. The results of the modified approach agree better with the experimental data than either the Born ...

  2. Mechanics of neurulation: From classical to current perspectives on the physical mechanics that shape, fold, and form the neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayraghavan, Deepthi S; Davidson, Lance A

    2017-01-30

    Neural tube defects arise from mechanical failures in the process of neurulation. At the most fundamental level, formation of the neural tube relies on coordinated, complex tissue movements that mechanically transform the flat neural epithelium into a lumenized epithelial tube (Davidson, 2012). The nature of this mechanical transformation has mystified embryologists, geneticists, and clinicians for more than 100 years. Early embryologists pondered the physical mechanisms that guide this transformation. Detailed observations of cell and tissue movements as well as experimental embryological manipulations allowed researchers to generate and test elementary hypotheses of the intrinsic and extrinsic forces acting on the neural tissue. Current research has turned toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying neurulation. Genetic and molecular perturbation have identified a multitude of subcellular components that correlate with cell behaviors and tissue movements during neural tube formation. In this review, we focus on methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied to the study of amphibian neurulation that can be used to determine how molecular and physical mechanisms are integrated and responsible for neurulation. We will describe how qualitative descriptions and quantitative measurements of strain, force generation, and tissue material properties as well as simulations can be used to understand how embryos use morphogenetic programs to drive neurulation. Birth Defects Research 109:153-168, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Formal Derivation of the Gibbs Entropy for Classical Systems Following the Schrodinger Quantum Mechanical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, M.; Zeron, E. S.; Del Rio-Correa, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    In the traditional statistical mechanics textbooks, the entropy concept is first introduced for the microcanonical ensemble and then extended to the canonical and grand-canonical cases. However, in the authors' experience, this procedure makes it difficult for the student to see the bigger picture and, although quite ingenuous, the subtleness of…

  4. Classical optics representation of the quantum mechanical translation operator via ABCD matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornigotti, Marco; Aiello, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The ABCD matrix formalism describing paraxial propagation of optical beams across linear systems is generalized to arbitrary beam trajectories. As a by-product of this study, a one-to-one correspondence between the extended ABCD matrix formalism presented here and the quantum mechanical translation operator is established. (paper)

  5. Classical and atypical agonists activate M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors through common mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Jakubík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, Jul 2015 (2015), s. 27-39 ISSN 1043-6618 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * atypical agonists * xanomeline * activation mechanism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.816, year: 2015

  6. 3D FDM production and mechanical behavior of polymeric sandwich specimens embedding classical and honeycomb cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischetto, Salvatore; Ferro, Carlo Giovanni; Torre, Roberto; Maggiore, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Desktop 3D FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) printers are usually employed for the production of nonstructural objects. In recent years, the present authors tried to use this technology also to produce structural elements employed in the construction of small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). Mechanical stresses are not excessive for small multirotor UAVs. Therefore, the FDM technique combined with polymers, such as the ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and the PLA(Poly Lactic Acid), can be successfully employed to produce structural components. The present new work is devoted to the production and preliminary structural analysis of sandwich configurations. These new lamination schemes could lead to an important weight reduction without significant decreases of mechanical properties. Therefore, it could be possible, for the designed application (e.g., a multifunctional small UAV produced via FDM), to have stiffener and lighter structures easy to be manufactured with a low-cost 3D printer. The new sandwich specimens here proposed are PLA sandwich specimens embedding a PLA honeycomb core produced by means of the same extruder, multilayered specimens with ABS external layers and an internal homogeneous PLA core using different extruders for the two materials, sandwich specimens with external ABS skins and an internal PLA honeycomb core using different extruders for the two materials, and sandwich specimens where two different extruders have been employed for PLA material used for skins and for the internal honeycomb core. For all the proposed configurations, a detailed description of the production activity is given.Moreover, several preliminary results about three-point bending tests, different mechanical behaviors and relative delamination problems for each sandwich configuration will be discussed in depth.

  7. Lagrangian analysis of invariant third-order equations of motion in relativistic classical particle mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsyuk, R.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    The problem on the existence of the invariant third-order Euler-Poisson equations in the pseudo-Euclidean space is investigated. The locally variational problem is determined by the Lagrangian density over the space of the second-order jets. The one - parameter family of the invariant third-order Euler-Poisson equations is groved to be the only one in the three-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. No invariant third-order Euler-Poisson equations exist in the four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. It is shown that the Mathisson equation and the equation of geodesic circles in particular cases may be considered in the context of the Ostrogradiskij mechanics and the Kavaguchi geometry

  8. Another Look at the Mechanisms of Hydride Transfer Enzymes with Quantum and Classical Transition Path Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierlenga, Michael W; Antoniou, Dimitri; Schwartz, Steven D

    2015-04-02

    The mechanisms involved in enzymatic hydride transfer have been studied for years, but questions remain due, in part, to the difficulty of probing the effects of protein motion and hydrogen tunneling. In this study, we use transition path sampling (TPS) with normal mode centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) to calculate the barrier to hydride transfer in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and human heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Calculation of the work applied to the hydride allowed for observation of the change in barrier height upon inclusion of quantum dynamics. Similar calculations were performed using deuterium as the transferring particle in order to approximate kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). The change in barrier height in YADH is indicative of a zero-point energy (ZPE) contribution and is evidence that catalysis occurs via a protein compression that mediates a near-barrierless hydride transfer. Calculation of the KIE using the difference in barrier height between the hydride and deuteride agreed well with experimental results.

  9. Applications of Classical and Quantum Mechanical Channeling in Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakenaasen, Randi

    1995-01-01

    The first part of this work involves ion channeling measurements on the high temperature superconductor rm YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O _{7-delta}(YBCO). The experiments were motivated by several previous reports of anomalous behavior in the displacements of the Cu and O atoms in the vicinity of the critical temperature rm(T _{c}) in several high temperature superconductors. Our measurements were complimentary to previous experiments in that we used thin film YBCO (as opposed to bulk single crystals) and focused on a small region around rm T_{c}. We mapped out the channeling parameters chi _{min} and Psi_ {1/2} in a 30 K region around rm T_{c} in 1-2 K steps in thin film YBCO(001) on MgO. Neither of our measurements showed any discontinuities in chi _{min} or Psi_ {1/2} near the superconducting phase transition, and we therefore have no reason to expect anything but a smooth increase in atomic vibrations in this region. We conclude that any anomalous behavior in atomic displacements deduced from previous channeling experiments is not essential to superconductivity. In the second part of the work positrons were used to study quantum mechanical channeling effects. We clearly observed and quantitatively accounted for quantum interference effects, including Bragg diffraction, in the forward transmission of channeled MeV positrons through a single crystal. Experimental scans across the (100), (110), and (111) planes in Si showed excellent agreement with theoretical dynamical diffraction calculations, giving us confidence that we can accurately predict the spatial and momentum distributions of channeled positrons. New experiments are envisioned in which the channeling effect is combined with 2 quantum annihilation in flight measurements to determine valence electron and magnetic spin distributions in a crystal. Since the channeling effect focuses the positrons to the interstices of the crystal, the annihilation rate will reflect the valence electron density. Furthermore, the

  10. Pathways and mechanisms for product release in the engineered haloalkane dehalogenases explored using classical and random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klvana, Martin; Pavlova, Martina; Koudelakova, Tana; Chaloupkova, Radka; Dvorak, Pavel; Prokop, Zbynek; Stsiapanava, Alena; Kuty, Michal; Kuta-Smatanova, Ivana; Dohnalek, Jan; Kulhanek, Petr; Wade, Rebecca C; Damborsky, Jiri

    2009-10-09

    Eight mutants of the DhaA haloalkane dehalogenase carrying mutations at the residues lining two tunnels, previously observed by protein X-ray crystallography, were constructed and biochemically characterized. The mutants showed distinct catalytic efficiencies with the halogenated substrate 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Release pathways for the two dehalogenation products, 2,3-dichloropropane-1-ol and the chloride ion, and exchange pathways for water molecules, were studied using classical and random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations. Five different pathways, denoted p1, p2a, p2b, p2c, and p3, were identified. The individual pathways showed differing selectivity for the products: the chloride ion releases solely through p1, whereas the alcohol releases through all five pathways. Water molecules play a crucial role for release of both products by breakage of their hydrogen-bonding interactions with the active-site residues and shielding the charged chloride ion during its passage through a hydrophobic tunnel. Exchange of the chloride ions, the alcohol product, and the waters between the buried active site and the bulk solvent can be realized by three different mechanisms: (i) passage through a permanent tunnel, (ii) passage through a transient tunnel, and (iii) migration through a protein matrix. We demonstrate that the accessibility of the pathways and the mechanisms of ligand exchange were modified by mutations. Insertion of bulky aromatic residues in the tunnel corresponding to pathway p1 leads to reduced accessibility to the ligands and a change in mechanism of opening from permanent to transient. We propose that engineering the accessibility of tunnels and the mechanisms of ligand exchange is a powerful strategy for modification of the functional properties of enzymes with buried active sites.

  11. General classical and quantum-mechanical description of magnetic resonance: an application to electric-dipole-moment experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silenko, Alexander J. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    A general theoretical description of a magnetic resonance is presented. This description is necessary for a detailed analysis of spin dynamics in electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings. General formulas describing a behavior of all components of the polarization vector at the magnetic resonance are obtained for an arbitrary initial polarization. These formulas are exact on condition that the nonresonance rotating field is neglected. The spin dynamics is also calculated at frequencies far from resonance with allowance for both rotating fields. A general quantum-mechanical analysis of the spin evolution at the magnetic resonance is fulfilled and the full agreement between the classical and quantum-mechanical approaches is shown. Quasimagnetic resonances for particles and nuclei moving in noncontinuous perturbing fields of accelerators and storage rings are considered. Distinguishing features of quasimagnetic resonances in storage ring electric-dipole-moment experiments are investigated in detail. The exact formulas for the effect caused by the electric dipole moment are derived. The difference between the resonance effects conditioned by the rf electric-field flipper and the rf Wien filter is found and is calculated for the first time. The existence of this difference is crucial for the establishment of a consent between analytical derivations and computer simulations and for checking spin tracking programs. The main systematical errors are considered. (orig.)

  12. Lagrange and Classical Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    over the 17th century by Galileo followed by Newton - the principle of inertia, the ... The importance of Lagrange's method can be appreciated in the following manner. Suppose one starts ... Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  13. Computational methods in the exploration of the classical and statistical mechanics of celestial scale strings: Rotating Space Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Steven; Golubovic, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    With the advent of ultra-strong materials, the Space Elevator has changed from science fiction to real science. We discuss computational and theoretical methods we developed to explore classical and statistical mechanics of rotating Space Elevators (RSE). An RSE is a loopy string reaching deep into outer space. The floppy RSE loop executes a motion which is nearly a superposition of two rotations: geosynchronous rotation around the Earth, and yet another faster rotational motion of the string which goes on around a line perpendicular to the Earth at its equator. Strikingly, objects sliding along the RSE loop spontaneously oscillate between two turning points, one of which is close to the Earth (starting point) whereas the other one is deeply in the outer space. The RSE concept thus solves a major problem in space elevator science which is how to supply energy to the climbers moving along space elevator strings. The exploration of the dynamics of a floppy string interacting with objects sliding along it has required development of novel finite element algorithms described in this presentation. We thank Prof. Duncan Lorimer of WVU for kindly providing us access to his computational facility.

  14. Classical Electrodynamics Coupled to Quantum Mechanics for Calculation of Molecular Optical Properties: a RT-TDDFT/FDTD Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hanning; McMahon, J. M.; Ratner, Mark A.; Schatz, George C.

    2010-09-02

    A new multiscale computational methodology was developed to effectively incorporate the scattered electric field of a plasmonic nanoparticle into a quantum mechanical (QM) optical property calculation for a nearby dye molecule. For a given location of the dye molecule with respect to the nanoparticle, a frequency-dependent scattering response function was first determined by the classical electrodynamics (ED) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach. Subsequently, the time-dependent scattered electric field at the dye molecule was calculated using the FDTD scattering response function through a multidimensional Fourier transform to reflect the effect of polarization of the nanoparticle on the local field at the molecule. Finally, a real-time time-dependent density function theory (RT-TDDFT) approach was employed to obtain a desired optical property (such as absorption cross section) of the dye molecule in the presence of the nanoparticle’s scattered electric field. Our hybrid QM/ED methodology was demonstrated by investigating the absorption spectrum of the N3 dye molecule and the Raman spectrum of pyridine, both of which were shown to be significantly enhanced by a 20 nm diameter silver sphere. In contrast to traditional quantum mechanical optical calculations in which the field at the molecule is entirely determined by intensity and polarization direction of the incident light, in this work we show that the light propagation direction as well as polarization and intensity are important to nanoparticle-bound dye molecule response. At no additional computation cost compared to conventional ED and QM calculations, this method provides a reliable way to couple the response of the dye molecule’s individual electrons to the collective dielectric response of the nanoparticle.

  15. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1984-01-01

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author) [pt

  16. Is Classical Statistical Mechanics Self-Consistent? (A paper in honor of C. F. von Weizsäcker, 1912-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enders P.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to his outstanding achievements in physics and activities in policy, C.-F. von Weizsäcker is famous for his talks, given as a member of the Academy Leopoldina. Due to the latter, I could learn quite a lot from his methodological writings. In particular, he is the only modern thinker I’m aware of who has pointed to the difference between Newton’s and Laplace’s notions of state. But this difference is essential for the relationship between classical and quantum physics. Moreover it is the clue to overcoming Gibbs’ paradox within classical statistical mechanics itself.

  17. Lewis pair polymerization by classical and frustrated Lewis pairs: Acid, base and monomer scope and polymerization mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuetao

    2012-01-01

    Classical and frustrated Lewis pairs (LPs) of the strong Lewis acid (LA) Al(C 6F 5) 3 with several Lewis base (LB) classes have been found to exhibit exceptional activity in the Lewis pair polymerization (LPP) of conjugated polar alkenes such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) as well as renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) and γ-methyl- α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γ-MMBL), leading to high molecular weight polymers, often with narrow molecular weight distributions. This study has investigated a large number of LPs, consisting of 11 LAs as well as 10 achiral and 4 chiral LBs, for LPP of 12 monomers of several different types. Although some more common LAs can also be utilized for LPP, Al(C 6F 5) 3-based LPs are far more active and effective than other LA-based LPs. On the other hand, several classes of LBs, when paired with Al(C 6F 5) 3, can render highly active and effective LPP of MMA and γ-MMBL; such LBs include phosphines (e.g., P tBu 3), chiral chelating diphosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), and phosphazene superbases (e.g., P 4- tBu). The P 4- tBu/Al(C 6F 5) 3 pair exhibits the highest activity of the LP series, with a remarkably high turn-over frequency of 9.6 × 10 4 h -1 (0.125 mol% catalyst, 100% MMA conversion in 30 s, M n = 2.12 × 10 5 g mol -1, PDI = 1.34). The polymers produced by LPs at RT are typically atactic (P γMMBL with ∼47% mr) or syndio-rich (PMMA with ∼70-75% rr), but highly syndiotactic PMMA with rr ∼91% can be produced by chiral or achiral LPs at -78 °C. Mechanistic studies have identified and structurally characterized zwitterionic phosphonium and imidazolium enolaluminates as the active species of the current LPP system, which are formed by the reaction of the monomer·Al(C 6F 5) 3 adduct with P tBu 3 and NHC bases, respectively. Kinetic studies have revealed that the MMA polymerization by the tBu 3P/ Al(C 6F 5) 3 pair is zero-order in monomer concentration after an initial induction period, and the polymerization

  18. Quantum models of classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájíček, P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (paper)

  19. Classical and Quantum Models in Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: Moment Methods and Long-Time Approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon F. Alvarez-Estrada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider non-equilibrium open statistical systems, subject to potentials and to external “heat baths” (hb at thermal equilibrium at temperature T (either with ab initio dissipation or without it. Boltzmann’s classical equilibrium distributions generate, as Gaussian weight functions in momenta, orthogonal polynomials in momenta (the position-independent Hermite polynomialsHn’s. The moments of non-equilibrium classical distributions, implied by the Hn’s, fulfill a hierarchy: for long times, the lowest moment dominates the evolution towards thermal equilibrium, either with dissipation or without it (but under certain approximation. We revisit that hierarchy, whose solution depends on operator continued fractions. We review our generalization of that moment method to classical closed many-particle interacting systems with neither a hb nor ab initio dissipation: with initial states describing thermal equilibrium at T at large distances but non-equilibrium at finite distances, the moment method yields, approximately, irreversible thermalization of the whole system at T, for long times. Generalizations to non-equilibrium quantum interacting systems meet additional difficulties. Three of them are: (i equilibrium distributions (represented through Wigner functions are neither Gaussian in momenta nor known in closed form; (ii they may depend on dissipation; and (iii the orthogonal polynomials in momenta generated by them depend also on positions. We generalize the moment method, dealing with (i, (ii and (iii, to some non-equilibrium one-particle quantum interacting systems. Open problems are discussed briefly.

  20. Collagen V haploinsufficiency in a murine model of classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is associated with deficient structural and mechanical healing in tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica M; Connizzo, Brianne K; Shetye, Snehal S; Robinson, Kelsey A; Huegel, Julianne; Rodriguez, Ashley B; Sun, Mei; Adams, Sheila M; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2017-12-01

    Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) patients suffer from connective tissue hyperelasticity, joint instability, skin hyperextensibility, tissue fragility, and poor wound healing due to heterozygous mutations in COL5a1 or COL5a2 genes. This study investigated the roles of collagen V in establishing structure and function in uninjured patellar tendons as well as in the injury response using a Col5a1 +/- mouse, a model for classic EDS. These analyses were done comparing tendons from a classic EDS model (Col5a1 +/- ) with wild-type controls. Tendons were subjected to mechanical testing, histological, and fibril analysis before injury as well as 3 and 6 weeks after injury. We found that Col5a1 +/- tendons demonstrated diminished recovery of mechanical competency after injury as compared to normal wild-type tendons, which recovered their pre-injury values by 6 weeks post injury. Additionally, the Col5a1 +/- tendons demonstrated altered fibril morphology and diameter distributions compared to the wild-type tendons. This study indicates that collagen V plays an important role in regulating collagen fibrillogenesis and the associated recovery of mechanical integrity in tendons after injury. In addition, the dysregulation with decreased collagen V expression in EDS is associated with a diminished injury response. The results presented herein have the potential to direct future targeted therapeutics for classic EDS patients. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2707-2715, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Geometry-based approach to studying the semi-classical limit in quantum dynamics by the coherent states and quantum mechanics on the torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, F.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis deals with problems linked to the study of the semi-classical limit in quantum dynamics. The first part presents a geometrical formulation which is tantamount to the time dependent variational principle. The classical dynamics is considered as an orthogonal projection of the quantum dynamics on the family of coherent states. The angle of projection provides an information on the validity of the approximation. This angle is studied in an illustrating example. In the second part, we study quantum mechanics on the torus as a phase space, and particularly degeneracies in the spectrum of Harper like models or kicked Harper like models which manifest chaotic dynamics. These models find direct applications in solid state physics, especially with the quantum Hall effect. In this study, we use the Chern index, which is a topological characterization of the localization of the eigenfunctions as some periodicity conditions are changed. The use of the Husimi distribution provides a phase space representation of the quantum states. We discuss the role played by separatrix-states, by the effects of quantum tunneling, and by a classically chaotic dynamics. (orig.)

  2. Polarizable Force Field for DNA Based on the Classical Drude Oscillator: I. Refinement Using Quantum Mechanical Base Stacking and Conformational Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkul, Justin A; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-05-09

    Empirical force fields seek to relate the configuration of a set of atoms to its energy, thus yielding the forces governing its dynamics, using classical physics rather than more expensive quantum mechanical calculations that are computationally intractable for large systems. Most force fields used to simulate biomolecular systems use fixed atomic partial charges, neglecting the influence of electronic polarization, instead making use of a mean-field approximation that may not be transferable across environments. Recent hardware and software developments make polarizable simulations feasible, and to this end, polarizable force fields represent the next generation of molecular dynamics simulation technology. In this work, we describe the refinement of a polarizable force field for DNA based on the classical Drude oscillator model by targeting quantum mechanical interaction energies and conformational energy profiles of model compounds necessary to build a complete DNA force field. The parametrization strategy employed in the present work seeks to correct weak base stacking in A- and B-DNA and the unwinding of Z-DNA observed in the previous version of the force field, called Drude-2013. Refinement of base nonbonded terms and reparametrization of dihedral terms in the glycosidic linkage, deoxyribofuranose rings, and important backbone torsions resulted in improved agreement with quantum mechanical potential energy surfaces. Notably, we expand on previous efforts by explicitly including Z-DNA conformational energetics in the refinement.

  3. Wave Mechanics or Wave Statistical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Shangwu; Xu Laizi

    2007-01-01

    By comparison between equations of motion of geometrical optics and that of classical statistical mechanics, this paper finds that there should be an analogy between geometrical optics and classical statistical mechanics instead of geometrical mechanics and classical mechanics. Furthermore, by comparison between the classical limit of quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics, it finds that classical limit of quantum mechanics is classical statistical mechanics not classical mechanics, hence it demonstrates that quantum mechanics is a natural generalization of classical statistical mechanics instead of classical mechanics. Thence quantum mechanics in its true appearance is a wave statistical mechanics instead of a wave mechanics.

  4. Exploring surface waves vortex interaction in deep water: a classical analog of the Quantum Mechanics Aharonov-Bohm effect

    CERN Document Server

    Vivanco, F

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple experiment to study the interaction of surface waves with a vertical vortex in the deep water regime. Similarly to what occurs in the Quantum Mechanics Aharonov-Bohm problem for electron interacting with a magnetic potential, the effect of the vortex circulation is to introduce dislocations in the wavefront. These defects are explained taken into account the effects of advection on the propagating wavefront, due to the fluid motion. (Author)

  5. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  6. Collaborative Simulation Grid: Multiscale Quantum-Mechanical/Classical Atomistic Simulations on Distributed PC Clusters in the US and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Shuji; Kouno, Takahisa; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Tsuruta, Kanji; Saini, Subhash; hide

    2002-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, collaborative simulation has been performed on a Grid of geographically distributed PC clusters. The multiscale simulation approach seamlessly combines i) atomistic simulation backed on the molecular dynamics (MD) method and ii) quantum mechanical (QM) calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT), so that accurate but less scalable computations are performed only where they are needed. The multiscale MD/QM simulation code has been Grid-enabled using i) a modular, additive hybridization scheme, ii) multiple QM clustering, and iii) computation/communication overlapping. The Gridified MD/QM simulation code has been used to study environmental effects of water molecules on fracture in silicon. A preliminary run of the code has achieved a parallel efficiency of 94% on 25 PCs distributed over 3 PC clusters in the US and Japan, and a larger test involving 154 processors on 5 distributed PC clusters is in progress.

  7. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  8. Classical trajectory methods in molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.N.; Raff, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The discussion of classical trajectory methods in molecular collisions includes classical dynamics, Hamiltonian mechanics, classical scattering cross sections and rate coefficients, statistical averaging, the selection of initial states, integration of equations of motion, analysis of final states, consecutive collisions, and the prognosis for classical molecular scattering calculations. 61 references

  9. Scalability of a Low-Cost Multi-Teraflop Linux Cluster for High-End Classical Atomistic and Quantum Mechanical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Saini, Subhash

    2003-01-01

    Scalability of a low-cost, Intel Xeon-based, multi-Teraflop Linux cluster is tested for two high-end scientific applications: Classical atomistic simulation based on the molecular dynamics method and quantum mechanical calculation based on the density functional theory. These scalable parallel applications use space-time multiresolution algorithms and feature computational-space decomposition, wavelet-based adaptive load balancing, and spacefilling-curve-based data compression for scalable I/O. Comparative performance tests are performed on a 1,024-processor Linux cluster and a conventional higher-end parallel supercomputer, 1,184-processor IBM SP4. The results show that the performance of the Linux cluster is comparable to that of the SP4. We also study various effects, such as the sharing of memory and L2 cache among processors, on the performance.

  10. The nature of free electrons in superfluid helium - a test of quantum mechanics and a basis to review its foundations and make a comparison to classical theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, R.L. [BlackLight Power, Inc., Cranbury, NJ (United States)

    2001-10-01

    addressed. It is time for the physical rather than the mathematical nature of the wave function to be determined. A theory of classical quantum mechanics (CQM) was derived from first principles by Mills (The grand unified theory of classical quantum mechanics. January 2000 ed; Cranbury, NJ, 2000, BlackLight Power, Inc., (Distributed by Amazon.com; Posted at www.blacklightpower.com)) that successfully applies physical laws on all scales. Using the classical wave equation with the constraint of nonradiation based on Maxwell's equations, CQM gives closed form physical solutions for the electron in atoms, the free electron, and the free electron in superfluid helium. The prediction of fractional principal quantum energy states of the electron in liquid helium match the photoconductivity and mobility observations without requiring that the electron is divisible. (author)

  11. Mathematical methods of classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cortés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    This short primer, geared towards students with a strong interest in mathematically rigorous approaches, introduces the essentials of classical physics, briefly points out its place in the history of physics and its relation to modern physics, and explains what benefits can be gained from a mathematical perspective. As a starting point, Newtonian mechanics is introduced and its limitations are discussed. This leads to and motivates the study of different formulations of classical mechanics, such as Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which are the subjects of later chapters. In the second part, a chapter on classical field theories introduces more advanced material. Numerous exercises are collected in the appendix.

  12. The atomic world spooky? It ain't necessarily so! emergent quantum mechanics, how the classical laws of nature can conspire to cause quantum-like behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    van Holten, Theo

    2017-01-01

    The present book takes the discovery that quantum-like behaviour is not solely reserved to atomic particles one step further. If electrons are modelled as vibrating droplets instead of the usually assumed point objects, and if the classical laws of nature are applied, then exactly the same behaviour as in quantum theory is found, quantitatively correct! The world of atoms is strange and quantum mechanics, the theory of this world, is almost magic. Or is it? Tiny droplets of oil bouncing round on a fluid surface can also mimic the world of quantum mechanics. For the layman - for whom the main part of this book is written - this is good news. If the everyday laws of nature can conspire to show up quantum-like phenomena, there is hope to form mental pictures how the atomic world works. The book is almost formula-free, and explains everything by using many sketches and diagrams. The mathematical derivations underlying the main text are kept separate in a -peer reviewed - appendix. The author, a retired professor ...

  13. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  14. Non-classical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by the vitamin D receptor: insights into calcium homeostasis, immune system regulation and cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Vassil; Salehi-Tabar, Reyhaneh; An, Beum-Soo; White, John H

    2014-10-01

    Hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] signals through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor. Gene expression profiling studies have revealed that 1,25(OH)2D signaling through the VDR can lead to activation or repression of target gene transcription in roughly equal proportions. Classically, transcriptional regulation by the VDR, similar to other nuclear receptors, has been characterized by its capacity to recognize high affinity cognate vitamin D response elements (VDREs), located in the regulatory regions of target genes. Several biochemical studies revealed that the VDRE-bound receptor recruits a series of coregulatory proteins, leading to transactivation of adjacent target genes. However, genome-wide and other analyses of VDR binding have revealed that a subset of VDR binding sites does not contain VDREs, and that VDREs are not associated with transcriptionally repressed VDR target genes. Work over the last ∼20 years and in particular recent findings have revealed a diverse array of mechanisms by which VDR can form complexes with several other classes of transcriptional activators, leading to repression of gene transcription. Moreover, these efforts have led to several insights into the molecular basis for the physiological regulation of calcium homeostasis, immune system function and cancer chemoprevention by 1,25(OH)2D/VDR signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Quantum of Solace: Guzman on the Classical Mechanics of International Law - Book Review: Andrew Guzman, How International Law Works. A Rational Choice Theory (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Goldmann

    2009-02-01

    class="ArticleText">Compared to the discipline of international law, scholars of physics are blessed. While the principles of classical mechanics were theorized several centuries ago, quantum theory and the theory of relativity offer supplementary ways for describing how material objects and energy interact where classical mechanics does not provide an explanation. Thus, even in the absence of an all-comprising “world theory”, physicists have a wide array of workable theories at their service. By contrast, the “classical mechanics” of international law, i.e. the explanation of the most basic causal relationships between international legal norms and the behaviour of states as the main subjects of international law, are still subject to deep theoretical controversies. International legal doctrine presupposes that international law does have an impact and does not aim at questioning or further explaining this assumption. Traditional legal theories that see the essence of legal normativity in the possibility to trigger mechanisms of physical constraint often come to the conclusion that international law, in the absence of central enforcement mechanisms, is at best a primitive form of law. More recent enquiries into international legal theory from very different theoretical angles come to even less uplifting conclusions. Some argue that international legal norms are either entirely devoid of content because of their inherent indeterminacy and therefore prone to be captured by special interests. Others consider international law to be merely epiphenomenal because rational states would only consent to legal norms if, and as long as, they describe a behaviour they would choose anyway because it promises higher payoffs. In particular the latter critique put forward so forcefully by Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner sent considerable shock waves through the invisible college of international lawyers. This is the background that needs to be kept

  16. On the mechanical stability of the body-centered cubic phase and the emergence of a metastable cI16 phase in classical hard sphere solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshavsky, Vadim B.; Ford, David M.; Monson, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    The stability of the body-centered cubic (bcc) solid phase of classical hard spheres is of intrinsic interest and is also relevant to the development of perturbation theories for bcc solids of other model systems. Using canonical ensemble Monte Carlo, we simulated systems initialized in a perfect bcc lattice at various densities in the solid region. We observed that the systems rapidly evolved into one of four structures that then persisted for the duration of the simulation. Remarkably, one of these structures was identified as cI16, a cubic crystalline structure with 16 particles in the unit cell, which has recently been observed experimentally in lithium and sodium solids at high pressures. The other three structures do not exhibit crystalline order but are characterized by common patterns in the radial distribution function and bond-orientational order parameter distribution; we refer to them as bcc-di, with i ranging from 1 to 3. We found similar outcomes when employing any of the three single occupancy cell (SOC) restrictions commonly used in the literature. We also ran long constant-pressure simulations with box shape fluctuations initiated from bcc and cI16 initial configurations. At lower pressures, all the systems evolved to defective face-centered cubic (fcc) or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures. At higher pressures, most of the systems initiated as bcc evolved to cI16 with some evolving to defective fcc/hcp. High pressure systems initiated from cI16 remained in that structure. We computed the chemical potential of cI16 using the Einstein crystal reference method and found that it is higher than that of fcc by ˜0.5kT-2.5kT over the pressure range studied, with the difference increasing with pressure. We find that the undistorted bcc solid, even with constant-volume and SOC restrictions applied, is so mechanically unstable that it is unsuitable for consideration as a metastable phase or as a reference system for studying bcc phases of other systems

  17. Quantum formalism for classical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-06-01

    In static classical statistical systems the problem of information transport from a boundary to the bulk finds a simple description in terms of wave functions or density matrices. While the transfer matrix formalism is a type of Heisenberg picture for this problem, we develop here the associated Schrödinger picture that keeps track of the local probabilistic information. The transport of the probabilistic information between neighboring hypersurfaces obeys a linear evolution equation, and therefore the superposition principle for the possible solutions. Operators are associated to local observables, with rules for the computation of expectation values similar to quantum mechanics. We discuss how non-commutativity naturally arises in this setting. Also other features characteristic of quantum mechanics, such as complex structure, change of basis or symmetry transformations, can be found in classical statistics once formulated in terms of wave functions or density matrices. We construct for every quantum system an equivalent classical statistical system, such that time in quantum mechanics corresponds to the location of hypersurfaces in the classical probabilistic ensemble. For suitable choices of local observables in the classical statistical system one can, in principle, compute all expectation values and correlations of observables in the quantum system from the local probabilistic information of the associated classical statistical system. Realizing a static memory material as a quantum simulator for a given quantum system is not a matter of principle, but rather of practical simplicity.

  18. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  19. Evolution operator equation: Integration with algebraic and finite difference methods. Applications to physical problems in classical and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Torre, Amalia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Ottaviani, Pier Luigi [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy); Vasquez, Luis [Madris, Univ. Complutense (Spain). Dept. de Matemateca Aplicado

    1997-10-01

    The finite-difference based integration method for evolution-line equations is discussed in detail and framed within the general context of the evolution operator picture. Exact analytical methods are described to solve evolution-like equations in a quite general physical context. The numerical technique based on the factorization formulae of exponential operator is then illustrated and applied to the evolution-operator in both classical and quantum framework. Finally, the general view to the finite differencing schemes is provided, displaying the wide range of applications from the classical Newton equation of motion to the quantum field theory.

  20. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  1. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  2. Seven steps towards the classical world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allori, Valia; Duerr, Detlef; Goldstein, Shelly; Zanghi, Nino

    2002-01-01

    Classical physics is about real objects, like apples falling from trees, whose motion is governed by Newtonian laws. In standard quantum mechanics only the wavefunctions or the results of measurements exist, and to answer the question of how the classical world can be part of the quantum world is a rather formidable task. However, this is not the case for Bohmian mechanics which, like classical mechanics, is a theory about real objects. In Bohmian terms, the problem of the classical limit becomes very simple: when do the Bohmian trajectories look Newtonian?

  3. Classical Limit and Quantum Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.

  4. Classical group theory adapted to the mechanism of Pt3Ni nanoparticle growth: the role of W(CO)6 as the "shape-controlling" agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, M; Ignaszak, A

    2016-01-07

    Classical group theory was applied to prove the Pt3Ni crystallographic transformation from Platonic cubic to Archimedean cuboctahedral structures and the formation of Pt3Ni polypods. The role of W(CO)6 as a shape-controlling agent is discussed with respect to the crystallographic features of the clusters and superstructures generated as control samples.

  5. Zwitters: Particles between quantum and classical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe both quantum particles and classical particles in terms of a classical statistical ensemble, with a probability distribution in phase space. By use of a wave function in phase space both can be treated in the same quantum formalism. Quantum particles are characterized by a specific choice of observables and time evolution of the probability density. Then interference and tunneling are found within classical statistics. Zwitters are (effective) one-particle states for which the time evolution interpolates between quantum and classical particles. Experimental bounds on a small parameter can test quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: ► Quantum particles can be described within classical statistics. ► Classical particles are formulated in quantum formalism. ► Zwitters interpolate between classical and quantum particles. ► Zwitters allow for quantitative tests of quantum mechanics. ► Zwitters could be effective one-particle descriptions of droplets.

  6. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  7. Tensor calculus and analytical dynamics a classical introduction to holonomic and nonholonomic tensor calculus ; and its principal applications to the Lagrangean dynamics of constrained mechanical systems : for engineers, physicists, and mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Papastavridis, John G

    1999-01-01

    Tensor Calculus and Analytical Dynamics provides a concise, comprehensive, and readable introduction to classical tensor calculus - in both holonomic and nonholonomic coordinates - as well as to its principal applications to the Lagrangean dynamics of discrete systems under positional or velocity constraints. The thrust of the book focuses on formal structure and basic geometrical/physical ideas underlying most general equations of motion of mechanical systems under linear velocity constraints.

  8. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  9. Continuous quantum measurement and the quantum to classical transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Habib, Salman; Jacobs, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    While ultimately they are described by quantum mechanics, macroscopic mechanical systems are nevertheless observed to follow the trajectories predicted by classical mechanics. Hence, in the regime defining macroscopic physics, the trajectories of the correct classical motion must emerge from quantum mechanics, a process referred to as the quantum to classical transition. Extending previous work [Bhattacharya, Habib, and Jacobs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4852 (2000)], here we elucidate this transition in some detail, showing that once the measurement processes that affect all macroscopic systems are taken into account, quantum mechanics indeed predicts the emergence of classical motion. We derive inequalities that describe the parameter regime in which classical motion is obtained, and provide numerical examples. We also demonstrate two further important properties of the classical limit: first, that multiple observers all agree on the motion of an object, and second, that classical statistical inference may be used to correctly track the classical motion

  10. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  11. Quantum-classical hybrid dynamics – a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A summary of a recently proposed description of quantum-classical hybrids is presented, which concerns quantum and classical degrees of freedom of a composite object that interact directly with each other. This is based on notions of classical Hamiltonian mechanics suitably extended to quantum mechanics.

  12. Setting the anomeric effect against steric effects in simple acyclic acetals. Non-anomeric non-classical conformations. An n.m.r. and molecular mechanics investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, J. Edgar; Heki, Katsuhiko; Hirota, Minoru

    1987-01-01

    N.m.r. parameters for a series of simple aliphatic acetals indicate that the preferred conformation changes from the anomeric one found in formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (formal), to a new one whose structure is suggested by molecular mechanics calculations.......N.m.r. parameters for a series of simple aliphatic acetals indicate that the preferred conformation changes from the anomeric one found in formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (formal), to a new one whose structure is suggested by molecular mechanics calculations....

  13. Quantum Models of Classical World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájíček

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of our recent work on three notorious problems of non-relativistic quantum mechanics: realist interpretation, quantum theory of classical properties, and the problem of quantum measurement. A considerable progress has been achieved, based on four distinct new ideas. First, objective properties are associated with states rather than with values of observables. Second, all classical properties are selected properties of certain high entropy quantum states of macroscopic systems. Third, registration of a quantum system is strongly disturbed by systems of the same type in the environment. Fourth, detectors must be distinguished from ancillas and the states of registered systems are partially dissipated and lost in the detectors. The paper has two aims: a clear explanation of all new results and a coherent and contradiction-free account of the whole quantum mechanics including all necessary changes of its current textbook version.

  14. Solvation Mechanism of Task-Specific Ionic Liquids in Water: A Combined Investigation Using Classical Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, Surya V J; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Rodion V; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Subbotin, Oleg S; Kanie, Kiyoshi; Funaki, Kenji; Muramatsu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2015-10-08

    The solvation behavior of task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) containing a common, L-histidine derived imidazolium cation [C20H28N3O3](+) and different anions, bromide-[Br](-) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide-[NTF2](-), in water is examined, computationally. These amino acid functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) are taken into account because of their ability to react with rare earth metal salts. It has been noted that the TSIL with [Br](-) is more soluble than its counterpart TSIL with [NTF2](-), experimentally. In this theoretical work, the combined classical molecular dynamics (CMD) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to study the behavior of the bulk phase of these two TSILs in the vicinity of water (H2O) molecules with different concentrations. Initially, all the constructed systems are equilibrated using the CMD method. The final structures of the equilibrated systems are extracted for DFT calculations. Under CMD operation, the radial distribution function (RDF) plots and viscosity of TSILs are analyzed to understand the effect of water on TSILs. In the DFT regime, binding energy per H2O, charge transfer, charge density mapping, and electronic density of states (EDOS) analyses are done. The CMD results along with the DFT results are consolidated to support the hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of the TSILs. Interestingly, we have found a strong correlation between the viscosity and the EDOS results that leads to an understanding of the hydration properties of the TSILs.

  15. Bohmian measures and their classical limit

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter; Paul, Thierry; Sparber, Christof

    2010-01-01

    We consider a class of phase space measures, which naturally arise in the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. We study the classical limit of these so-called Bohmian measures, in dependence on the scale of oscillations and concentrations

  16. Quantum manifestations of classical resonance zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, N.; Davis, M.J.; Heller, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    We examine the concept of nodal breakup of wave functions as a criterion for quantum mechanical ergodicity. We find that complex nodal structure of wave functions is not sufficient to determine quantum mechanical ergodicity. The influence of classical resonances [which manifest themselves as classical resonance zones (CRZ)] may also be responsible for the seeming complexity of nodal structure. We quantify this by reexamining one of the two systems studied by Stratt, Handy, and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 71, 3311 (1974)] from both a quantum mechanical and classical point of view. We conclude that quasiperiodic classical motion can account for highly distorted quantum eigenstates. One should always keep this in mind when addressing questions regarding quantum mechanical ergodicity

  17. Stabilization of classic and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the mechanism of quantum whirligig can be successfully used for stabilization of classical systems. In particular, the conditions for stabilization of charged particles and radiation fluxes in plasma are found.

  18. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  19. Interaction between classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, T.N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1977-10-01

    An unconventional approach to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered--the apparatus is treated as a classical system, belonging to the macro-world. In order to have a measurement the apparatus must interact with the quantum system. As a first step, the classical apparatus is embedded into a large quantum mechanical structure, making use of a superselection principle. The apparatus and system are coupled such that the apparatus remains classical (principle of integrity), and unambiguous information of the values of a quantum observable are transferred to the variables of the apparatus. Further measurement of the classical apparatus can be done, causing no problems of principle. Thus interactions causing pointers to move (which are not treated) can be added. The restrictions placed by the principle of integrity on the form of the interaction between classical and quantum systems are examined and illustration is given by means of a simple example in which one sees the principle of integrity at work

  20. Classical tokamak transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Aldo

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative treatment of the classical transport theory of a magnetically confined, toroidal, axisymmetric, two-species plasma is presented. The 'weakly collisional' ('banana' and 'plateau') and 'collision dominated' ('Pfirsch-Schlueter' and 'highly collisional') regimes, as well as the Ware effect are discussed. The method used to evaluate the diffusion coffieicnts of particles and heat in the weakly collisional regime is based on stochastic argument, that requires an analysis of the characteristic collision frequencies and lengths for particles moving in a tokamak-like magnetic field. The same method is used to evaluate the Ware effect. In the collision dominated regime on the other hand, the particle and heat fluxes across the magnetic field lines are dominated by macroscopic effects so that, although it is possible to present them as diffusion (in fact, the fluxes turn out to be proportional to the density and temperature gradients), a macroscopic treatment is more appropriate. Hence, fluid equations are used to inveatigate the collision dominated regime, to which particular attention is devoted, having been shown relatively recently that it is more complicated than the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The whole analysis presented here is qualitative, aiming to point out the relevant physical mechanisms involved in the various regimes more than to develop a rigorous mathematical derivation of the diffusion coefficients, for which appropriate references are given. (author)

  1. Classical spins in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K

    1968-08-01

    It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.

  2. Classic-Ada(TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Lois

    1989-01-01

    The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.

  3. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  4. More Gamma More Predictions: Gamma-Synchronization as a Key Mechanism for Efficient Integration of Classical Receptive Field Inputs with Surround Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinck, Martin; Bosman, Conrado A.

    2016-01-01

    During visual stimulation, neurons in visual cortex often exhibit rhythmic and synchronous firing in the gamma-frequency (30–90 Hz) band. Whether this phenomenon plays a functional role during visual processing is not fully clear and remains heavily debated. In this article, we explore the function of gamma-synchronization in the context of predictive and efficient coding theories. These theories hold that sensory neurons utilize the statistical regularities in the natural world in order to improve the efficiency of the neural code, and to optimize the inference of the stimulus causes of the sensory data. In visual cortex, this relies on the integration of classical receptive field (CRF) data with predictions from the surround. Here we outline two main hypotheses about gamma-synchronization in visual cortex. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization reflects the extent to which CRF data can be accurately predicted by the surround. Second, we hypothesize that different cortical columns synchronize to the extent that they accurately predict each other’s CRF visual input. We argue that these two hypotheses can account for a large number of empirical observations made on the stimulus dependencies of gamma-synchronization. Furthermore, we show that they are consistent with the known laminar dependencies of gamma-synchronization and the spatial profile of intercolumnar gamma-synchronization, as well as the dependence of gamma-synchronization on experience and development. Based on our two main hypotheses, we outline two additional hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization shows, in general, a negative dependence on RF size. In support, we review evidence showing that gamma-synchronization decreases in strength along the visual hierarchy, and tends to be more prominent in species with small V1 RFs. Second, we hypothesize that gamma-synchronized network dynamics facilitate the emergence of spiking output that

  5. Classical dynamics of particles and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, Jerry B

    1965-01-01

    Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems presents a modern and reasonably complete account of the classical mechanics of particles, systems of particles, and rigid bodies for physics students at the advanced undergraduate level. The book aims to present a modern treatment of classical mechanical systems in such a way that the transition to the quantum theory of physics can be made with the least possible difficulty; to acquaint the student with new mathematical techniques and provide sufficient practice in solving problems; and to impart to the student some degree of sophistication in handl

  6. New derivation of quantum equations from classical stochastic arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, H.

    2003-01-01

    In a previous article [H. Bergeron, J. Math. Phys. 42, 3983 (2001)], we presented a method to obtain a continuous transition from classical to quantum mechanics starting from the usual phase space formulation of classical mechanics. This procedure was based on a Koopman-von Neumann approach where classical equations are reformulated into a quantumlike form. In this article, we develop a different derivation of quantum equations, based on purely classical stochastic arguments, taking some elem...

  7. A course in classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bettini, Alessandro

    This first volume covers the mechanics of point particles, gravitation, extended systems (starting from the two-body system), the basic concepts of relativistic mechanics and the mechanics of rigid bodies and fluids. The four-volume textbook, which covers electromagnetism, mechanics, fluids and thermodynamics, and waves and light, is designed to reflect the typical syllabus during the first two years of a calculus-based university physics program. Throughout all four volumes, particular attention is paid to in-depth clarification of conceptual aspects, and to this end the historical roots of the principal concepts are traced. Writings by the founders of classical mechanics, G. Galilei and I. Newton, are reproduced, encouraging students to consult them. Emphasis is also consistently placed on the experimental basis of the concepts, highlighting the experimental nature of physics. Whenever feasible at the elementary level, concepts relevant to more advanced courses in modern physics are included. Each chapter b...

  8. From classical psychodynamics to evidence synthesis: the motif of repression and a contemporary understanding of a key mediatory mechanism in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mick P; Martin, Colin R

    2012-06-01

    The stress vulnerability model has proven to be a politically important model for two reasons. It has provided the framework that defines a temporal and dynamic process whereby a person's uniquely determined biopsychosocial vulnerability to schizophrenia symptoms interacts with his or her capacity to manage stress and the amount and type of stress experienced in such a way that the person experiences schizophrenia symptoms. Second, the development of this framework promoted the notion of inherited and acquired vulnerability. Implicit was that vulnerability was individually determined and that there was a role for psychosocial factors in the development/maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. This proved to be a catalyst for the development of studies implicating psychosocial factors in the etiology of schizophrenia symptoms. Studies derived from cognitive-behavioral theories have proven the most successful in identifying thinking patterns, emotional disturbances, and neurocognitive and defensive vulnerability factors inherent in the development of schizophrenia symptoms. Historically, within the psychoanalytic school there has been debate regarding the role of repressive coping mechanisms in schizophrenia development. Psychoanalytic theories have always appeared incapable of providing etiologic explanations of schizophrenia symptoms, with the possible exception of Melanie Klein, than other more salient psychosocial schools. Mechanisms within the process of repressive coping are consistent with evidence and mechanisms supporting the stress vulnerability models and existing cognitive-behavioral theories regarding development of paranoid delusions. These mechanisms are less consistent with social cognitive explanations of schizophrenia symptoms.

  9. CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kozlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from

  10. Quantum flesh on classical bones: Semiclassical bridges across the quantum-classical divide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokulich, Alisa [Center for Philosophy and History of Science, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally quantum mechanics is viewed as having made a sharp break from classical mechanics, and the concepts and methods of these two theories are viewed as incommensurable with one another. A closer examination of the history of quantum mechanics, however, reveals that there is a strong sense in which quantum mechanics was built on the backbone of classical mechanics. As a result, there is a considerable structural continuity between these two theories, despite their important differences. These structural continuities provide a ground for semiclassical methods in which classical structures, such as trajectories, are used to investigate and model quantum phenomena. After briefly tracing the history of semiclassical approaches, I show how current research in semiclassical mechanics is revealing new bridges across the quantum-classical divide.

  11. Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.K.

    1982-08-01

    Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H 2 C 2 → HC 2 H, HNC → HCN, and H 2 CO → H 2 + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I → Na + + I - is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features

  12. The classical behavior of measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper constructs a quantum mechanical model of a counter monitoring the decay of an unstable microsystem. In spite of its quantum mechanical nature, the counter may be assumed to behave classically during the measurement. The relevance of this result for a particular interpretation of quantum mechanics is discussed. The quantum mechanical nature of the model counter could be easily detected in measurements of counter observables which do not commute with the observable P/sub +/. The statistical predictions for such measurements will be definitely incompatible with classical concepts

  13. Classical counterexamples to Bell's inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows that a classical system containing a conventional yes/no decision-making component can behave like a quantum system of spin measurements in many ways (although it lacks a wave function) when, in principle, there are no deterministic decision procedures to govern the decision making, and when probabilistic decision procedures consistent with the system are introduced. Most notably, the system violates Bell's inequalities. Moreover, since the system is simple and macroscopic, its similarities to quantum systems arguably provide an insight into quantum mechanics and, in particular, EPR experiments. Thus, from the qualitative correspondences, decisions↔quantum measurements and the impossibility of deterministic decision procedures↔quantum noncommutativity, we conclude that the violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum mechanics does not require the existence of an unknown nonclassical nonlocality. It can merely be a result of local noncommutativity combined with nonlocalities of the classical type. The proposed classical decision-making system is a nonquantum theoretical construct possessing complementarity features in Bohr's sense

  14. Quantum-mechanical vs. semi-classical spectral-line widths and shifts from the line core in the non-impact region for the Ar-perturbed/ K-radiator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreye, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    New quantum-mechanical (QM) and semi-classical (SC) shifts (d's) and widths (HWHM's, w's) were measured from the line core of computed full spectral-line shapes for the Ar-perturbed/K-radiator system (K/Ar). The initial state of our model was based on a 4p 2 P 3/2,1/2 pseudo-potential for the K/Ar system, and the final state on a zero potential. The Fourier transform of the line shape formed the basis for the computations. Excellent agreement was found between the QM and SC values of d and of w in a high-pressure (P) non-impact region, which was characterized by a √P dependence of w and a P dependence of d. These agreements were shown to be another example of a correspondence between classical (SC) quantities and QM quantities in the limit of large quantum numbers. Typically at P=1x10 6 Torr and T=400 K, w QM =448 cm -1 and w SC =479 cm -1 , where the deviation from the mean is ±3.3%. Also, d QM =-3815 cm -1 and d SC =-3716 cm -1 , where the deviation from the mean is ±1.3%. A new general method was formulated which yielded a definite pressure P 0 , which was defined as an upper limit to the low-pressure impact approximation and a lower limit to the non-impact region

  15. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.

  16. Persistent entanglement in the classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everitt, M J [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Clark, T D [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Stiffell, P B [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom); Ralph, J F [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Liverpool University, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Bulsara, A R [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 2363, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Harland, C J [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QT (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    The apparent difficulty in recovering classical nonlinear dynamics and chaos from standard quantum mechanics has been the subject of a great deal of interest over the last 20 years. For open quantum systems-those coupled to a dissipative environment and/or a measurement device-it has been demonstrated that chaotic-like behaviour can be recovered in the appropriate classical limit. In this paper, we investigate the entanglement generated between two nonlinear oscillators, coupled to each other and to their environment. Entanglement-the inability to factorize coupled quantum systems into their constituent parts-is one of the defining features of quantum mechanics. Indeed, it underpins many of the recent developments in quantum technologies. Here, we show that the entanglement characteristics of two 'classical' states (chaotic and periodic solutions) differ significantly in the classical limit. In particular, we show that significant levels of entanglement are preserved only in the chaotic-like solutions.

  17. Bohmian measures and their classical limit

    KAUST Repository

    Markowich, Peter

    2010-09-01

    We consider a class of phase space measures, which naturally arise in the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. We study the classical limit of these so-called Bohmian measures, in dependence on the scale of oscillations and concentrations of the sequence of wave functions under consideration. The obtained results are consequently compared to those derived via semi-classical Wigner measures. To this end, we shall also give a connection to the theory of Young measures and prove several new results on Wigner measures themselves. Our analysis gives new insight on oscillation and concentration effects in the semi-classical regime. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Factorizations of one-dimensional classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuru, Senguel; Negro, Javier

    2008-01-01

    A class of one-dimensional classical systems is characterized from an algebraic point of view. The Hamiltonians of these systems are factorized in terms of two functions that together with the Hamiltonian itself close a Poisson algebra. These two functions lead directly to two time-dependent integrals of motion from which the phase motions are derived algebraically. The systems so obtained constitute the classical analogues of the well known factorizable one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems

  19. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  20. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  1. Mathematics of classical and quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Byron, Frederick W

    Well-organized text designed to complement graduate-level physics texts in classical mechanics, electricity, magnetism, and quantum mechanics. Topics include theory of vector spaces, analytic function theory, Green's function method of solving differential and partial differential equations, theory of groups, more. Many problems, suggestions for further reading.

  2. Existence of dark matter with observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation substantiates three conservation laws of classical physics and all principles of quantum mechanics as creates the value of Planck’s constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    Astronomical data indicate a presence of dark matter (DM) in the space, what is necessary for explanation of observed dynamics of the galaxies within Newtonian mechanics. DM, at its very low density (∼10-26kg/m3), constitutes main part of the matter in the Universe, 10 times the mass of all visible cosmic bodies. No doubt, namely properties of DM, which fills space, must determine its physical properties and fundamental physical laws. Taking into account observed properties of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), whose energy is ∼90% of all cosmic radiation, and understanding that this radiation is produced by DM motion, conservation laws of classical physics and principles of quantum mechanics receive their materialistic substantiation. Thus, CMBR high homogeneity and isotropy (∼10-4), and hence the same properties of DM (and space) justify momentum and angular momentum conservation laws, respectively, according to E. Noether's theorems. CMBR has black body spectrum at ∼2.7K with maximum wavelength ∼1.9·10-3m, what allows calculate the value of mechanical action produced by DM thermal motion (∼7·10-34 J·s). This value corresponds well to the Planck’s constant, which is the mechanical action too, what gives materialistic basis for all principles of quantum mechanics. Obtained results directly confirm the reality of DM existence, and show that CMBR is an observed display of DM thermal motion. Understanding that namely from DM occur known creation of electron-positron pairs as contrarily rotating material vortexes (according to their spins) let substantiate positron nature of ball lightning what first explains all its observed specific properties.

  3. Scaling, scattering, and blackbody radiation in classical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2017-01-01

    Here we discuss blackbody radiation within the context of classical theory. We note that nonrelativistic classical mechanics and relativistic classical electrodynamics have contrasting scaling symmetries which influence the scattering of radiation. Also, nonrelativistic mechanical systems can be accurately combined with relativistic electromagnetic radiation only provided the nonrelativistic mechanical systems are the low-velocity limits of fully relativistic systems. Application of the no-interaction theorem for relativistic systems limits the scattering mechanical systems for thermal radiation to relativistic classical electrodynamic systems, which involve the Coulomb potential. Whereas the naive use of nonrelativistic scatterers or nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics leads to the Rayleigh–Jeans spectrum, the use of fully relativistic scatterers leads to the Planck spectrum for blackbody radiation within classical physics. (paper)

  4. The CLASSIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Iselin, F Christoph

    1996-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Clas Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty.

  5. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  6. The classical nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab

  7. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  8. Classical Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Judith W.

    2009-01-01

    The article identifies some key findings in pedagogical research over recent decades, placing them within a framework of logical curriculum development and current practice in quality assurance and enhancement. Throughout, the ideas and comments are related to the practice of teaching classics in university. (Contains 1 figure and 3 notes.)

  9. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  10. Classical solutions in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaklini, N.S.; Ferrara, S.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.

    1977-06-01

    Classical solutions of supergravity are obtained by making finite global supersymmetry rotation on known solutions of the field equations of the bosonic sector. The Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstoem solutions of general relativity are extended to various supergravity systems and the modification to the perihelion precession of planets is discussed

  11. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  12. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  13. Teaching Tomorrow's Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)

  14. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  15. Quantum dynamics of classical stochastic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casati, G

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that one hand Quantum Mechanics introduces limitations to the manifestations of chaotic motion resulting, for the case of the periodically kicked rotator, in the limitation of energy growth; also, as it is confirmed by numerical experiments, phenomena like the exponential instability of orbits, inherent to strongly chaotic systems, are absent here and therefore Quantum Mechanics appear to be more stable and predictable than Classical Mechanics. On the other hand, we have seen that nonrecurrent behavior may arise in Quantum Systems and it is connected to the presence of singular continuous spectrum. We conjecture that the classical chaotic behavior is reflected, at least partially, in the nature of the spectrum and the singular-continuity of the latter may possess a self-similar structure typical of classical chaos.

  16. Driven topological systems in the classical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Callum W.; Öhberg, Patrik; Valiente, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Periodically driven quantum systems can exhibit topologically nontrivial behavior, even when their quasienergy bands have zero Chern numbers. Much work has been conducted on noninteracting quantum-mechanical models where this kind of behavior is present. However, the inclusion of interactions in out-of-equilibrium quantum systems can prove to be quite challenging. On the other hand, the classical counterpart of hard-core interactions can be simulated efficiently via constrained random walks. The noninteracting model, proposed by Rudner et al. [Phys. Rev. X 3, 031005 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevX.3.031005], has a special point for which the system is equivalent to a classical random walk. We consider the classical counterpart of this model, which is exact at a special point even when hard-core interactions are present, and show how these quantitatively affect the edge currents in a strip geometry. We find that the interacting classical system is well described by a mean-field theory. Using this we simulate the dynamics of the classical system, which show that the interactions play the role of Markovian, or time-dependent disorder. By comparing the evolution of classical and quantum edge currents in small lattices, we find regimes where the classical limit considered gives good insight into the quantum problem.

  17. State-dependent classical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, M.

    2001-01-01

    As alternative treatment to the potential operators of standard quantum mechanics is presented. The method is derived from Bohm's mechanics. The operator scalar (V) and vector (A) potential functions are replaced by a quantum potential. It is argued that the classical potential is a special limiting case of a more general quantum potential. The theory is illustrated by deriving an equivalent single-particle equation for the i-th particle of an n-body Bohmian system. The resulting effective state-dependent potential holds the interaction between the single-particle self-wave ψ s and the environment wave ψ e of the n - 1 remaining particles. The effective state-dependent potential is offered as a resolution to the Aharonov-Bohm effect where the phase difference is shown to result from the presence of ψ e . Finally, the interaction between ψ s and ψ e is illustrated graphically

  18. Classical dynamics and its quantum analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.

    1979-01-01

    In this book the author establishes mathematical connections between classical and quantum mechanics, between ray optics and wave optics. The approach is to consider classical mechanics as a limiting case of quantum mechanics, and ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics. The conceptual background is discussed where necessary, so the reader should be already fairly familiar with it. The main goal of this approach is the revelation that classical and quantum theory are not so different conceptually as one thinks at first exposure. The first chapters recall the basic facts about light waves and light rays and demonstrate the construction of Newtonian orbits from Schroedinger waves. In the following the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of few-body system is developed showing as often as possible the relations to the corresponding quantum systems. To illustrate the theory planetary motion using perturbation theory is treated in some detail and several calculations in general relativity such as the deflection and retardation of light by the sun and the precession of planetary perikelia are included. The final parts deal with the motions of systems of many particles. The quantum mechanics of rigid bodies is presented in analogy with the classical theory and contrasts are noted. There is also a discussion of the roles of spinors in the two theories. The book is intended as a text in classical mechanics for readers which have already some knowledge in classical and quantum mechanics. It may help to deepen their understanding of the relation between the old and new theory and show something of the ways in which new discoveries are made. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 BRE

  19. Quantum vertex model for reversible classical computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, C; Mucciolo, E R; Ruckenstein, A E; Yang, Z-C

    2017-05-12

    Mappings of classical computation onto statistical mechanics models have led to remarkable successes in addressing some complex computational problems. However, such mappings display thermodynamic phase transitions that may prevent reaching solution even for easy problems known to be solvable in polynomial time. Here we map universal reversible classical computations onto a planar vertex model that exhibits no bulk classical thermodynamic phase transition, independent of the computational circuit. Within our approach the solution of the computation is encoded in the ground state of the vertex model and its complexity is reflected in the dynamics of the relaxation of the system to its ground state. We use thermal annealing with and without 'learning' to explore typical computational problems. We also construct a mapping of the vertex model into the Chimera architecture of the D-Wave machine, initiating an approach to reversible classical computation based on state-of-the-art implementations of quantum annealing.

  20. The Wigner transform and the semi-classical approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Wigner transform provides a reformulation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical concepts. Some properties of the Wigner transform of the density matrix which justify its interpretation as the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical phase-space distribution function are presented. Considering some applications, it is demonstrated that the Wigner distribution function serves as a good starting point for semi-classical approximations to properties of the (nuclear) many-body system

  1. Classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Classical field theory, which concerns the generation and interaction of fields, is a logical precursor to quantum field theory, and can be used to describe phenomena such as gravity and electromagnetism. Written for advanced undergraduates, and appropriate for graduate level classes, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to field theories, with a focus on their relativistic structural elements. Such structural notions enable a deeper understanding of Maxwell's equations, which lie at the heart of electromagnetism, and can also be applied to modern variants such as Chern–Simons and Born–Infeld. The structure of field theories and their physical predictions are illustrated with compelling examples, making this book perfect as a text in a dedicated field theory course, for self-study, or as a reference for those interested in classical field theory, advanced electromagnetism, or general relativity. Demonstrating a modern approach to model building, this text is also ideal for students of theoretic...

  2. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  3. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, F. Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  4. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  5. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  6. Invitation to classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differ

  7. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    1958-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  8. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  9. Classical algebraic chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    I develop an extension of the usual equations of SU(n) chromodynamics which permits the consistent introduction of classical, noncommuting quark source charges. The extension involves adding a singlet gluon, giving a U(n) -based theory with outer product P/sup a/(u,v) = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc)(u/sup b/v/sup c/ - v/sup b/u/sup c/) which obeys the Jacobi identity, inner product S (u,v) = (1/2)(u/sup a/v/sup a/ + v/sup a/u/sup a/), and with the n 2 gluon fields elevated to algebraic fields over the quark color charge C* algebra. I show that provided the color charge algebra satisfies the condition S (P (u,v),w) = S (u,P (v,w)) for all elements u,v,w of the algebra, all the standard derivations of Lagrangian chromodynamics continue to hold in the algebraic chromodynamics case. I analyze in detail the color charge algebra in the two-particle (qq, qq-bar, q-barq-bar) case and show that the above consistency condition is satisfied for the following unique (and, interestingly, asymmetric) choice of quark and antiquark charges: Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi/sup a/, Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi-bar/sup a/ + delta/sup a/0(n/2)/sup 3/2/1, with xi/sup a/xi/sup b/ = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc) xi/sup c/, xi-bar/sup a/xi-bar/sup b/ = -(1/2)(d/sup a/bc - if/sup a/bc) xi-bar/sup c/. The algebraic structure of the two-particle U(n) force problem, when expressed on an appropriately diagonalized basis, leads for all n to a classical dynamics problem involving an ordinary SU(2) Yang-Mills field with uniquely specified classical source charges which are nonparallel in the color-singlet state. An explicit calculation shows that local algebraic U(n) gauge transformations lead only to a rigid global rotation of axes in the overlying classical SU(2) problem, which implies that the relative orientations of the classical source charges have physical significance

  10. The nonlinear dynamics of the classical few body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, M.

    1981-01-01

    The complicated behavior that small dynamical systems can display is reviewed and its relevance to such diverse fields as celestial mechanics, semi-classical mechanics and fluid dynamics is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Gonadal function in male and female patients with classic galactosemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E.; Gubbels, C. S.; Bakker, J. A.; Menheere, P. P. C. A.; Wodzig, W. K. W. H.; Land, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic infertility is the most burdensome complication for females suffering from classic galactosemia. In contrast, male gonadal function seems less affected. The underlying mechanism is not understood and several pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Timing of the

  12. On the paramagnetism of spin in the classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogreve, H.

    1985-12-01

    We consider particles with spin 1/2 in external electromagnetic fields. Although in many quantum mechanical situations they show a paramagnetic behaviour, within non-relativistic quantum theory a universal paramagnetic influence of spin fails to be true in general. Here we investigate the paramagnetism of spin in the framework of a classical theory. Applying previous results for the classical limit slash-h→O we obtain a classical expression corresponding to the quantum partition function of Hamiltonians with spin variables. For this classical partition function simple estimates lead to a paramagnetic inequality which demonstrates that indeed in the classical limit the spin shows a general paramagnetic behaviour. (author)

  13. Quantum-Classical Correspondence: Dynamical Quantization and the Classical Limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L

    2004-01-01

    In only 150 pages, not counting appendices, references, or the index, this book is one author's perspective of the massive theoretical and philosophical hurdles in the no-man's-land separating the classical and quantum domains of physics. It ends with him emphasizing his own theoretical contribution to this area. In his own words, he has attempted to answer: 1. How can we obtain the quantum dynamics of open systems initially described by the equations of motion of classical physics (quantization process) 2. How can we retrieve classical dynamics from the quantum mechanical equations of motion by means of a classical limiting process (dequantization process). However, this monograph seems overly ambitious. Although the publisher's description refers to this book as an accessible entre, we find that this author scrambles too hastily over the peaks of information that are contained in his large collection of 272 references. Introductory motivating discussions are lacking. Profound ideas are glossed over superficially and shoddily. Equations morph. But no new convincing understanding of the physical world results. The author takes the viewpoint that physical systems are always in interaction with their environment and are thus not isolated and, therefore, not Hamiltonian. This impels him to produce a method of quantization of these stochastic systems without the need of a Hamiltonian. He also has interest in obtaining the classical limit of the quantized results. However, this reviewer does not understand why one needs to consider open systems to understand quantum-classical correspondence. The author demonstrates his method using various examples of the Smoluchowski form of the Fokker--Planck equation. He then renders these equations in a Wigner representation, uses what he terms an infinitesimality condition, and associates with a constant having the dimensions of an action. He thereby claims to develop master equations, such as the Caldeira-Leggett equation, without

  14. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  15. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  16. Classical system underlying a diffracting quantum billiard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manan Jain

    2018-01-05

    Jan 5, 2018 ... Wave equation; rays; quantum chaos. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 05.45.Mt; 42.25.Fx. 1. Introduction. Diffraction [1] is a complex wave phenomenon which manifests classically and quantum mechanically. Among a wide range of systems where diffraction becomes important, there is an interesting situation of.

  17. Nanotribology investigations with classical molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a number of nanotribological problems investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, within the context of the applicability of continuum mechanics contact theories at the atomic scale. Along these lines, three different themes can be recognized herein:

  18. Some recent progress in classical general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2000-06-01

    In this short survey paper, we shall discuss certain recent results in classical gravity. Our main attention will be restricted to two topics in which we have been involved; the positive mass conjecture and its extensions to the case with horizons, including the Penrose conjecture (Part I), and the interaction of gravity with other force fields and quantum-mechanical particles (Part II).

  19. Maxwell and the classical wave particle dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J T

    2008-05-28

    Maxwell's equations are one of the greatest theoretical achievements in physics of all times. They have survived three successive theoretical revolutions, associated with the advent of relativity, quantum mechanics and modern quantum field theory. In particular, they provide the theoretical framework for the understanding of the classical wave particle dualism.

  20. Introducing Newton and classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rankin, William

    2002-01-01

    The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".

  1. Quantum and classical gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Terashima, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    The use of the mass term of the gauge field as a gauge fixing term, which was discussed by Zwanziger, Parrinello and Jona-Lasinio in a large mass limit, is related to the non-linear gauge by Dirac and Nambu. We have recently shown that this use of the mass term as a gauge fixing term is in fact identical to the conventional local Faddeev-Popov formula without taking a large mass limit, if one takes into account the variation of the gauge field along the entire gauge orbit. This suggests that the classical massive vector theory, for example, could be re-interpreted as a gauge invariant theory with a gauge fixing term added in suitably quantized theory. As for massive gauge particles, the Higgs mechanics, where the mass term is gauge invariant, has a more intrinsic meaning. We comment on several implications of this observation. (author)

  2. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  3. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  4. Classical dynamics on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, F.; Gaspard, P.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the classical evolution of a particle on a graph by using a time-continuous Frobenius-Perron operator that generalizes previous propositions. In this way, the relaxation rates as well as the chaotic properties can be defined for the time-continuous classical dynamics on graphs. These properties are given as the zeros of some periodic-orbit zeta functions. We consider in detail the case of infinite periodic graphs where the particle undergoes a diffusion process. The infinite spatial extension is taken into account by Fourier transforms that decompose the observables and probability densities into sectors corresponding to different values of the wave number. The hydrodynamic modes of diffusion are studied by an eigenvalue problem of a Frobenius-Perron operator corresponding to a given sector. The diffusion coefficient is obtained from the hydrodynamic modes of diffusion and has the Green-Kubo form. Moreover, we study finite but large open graphs that converge to the infinite periodic graph when their size goes to infinity. The lifetime of the particle on the open graph is shown to correspond to the lifetime of a system that undergoes a diffusion process before it escapes

  5. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  6. Beam structures classical and advanced theories

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Beam theories are exploited worldwide to analyze civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures. Many beam approaches have been proposed during the last centuries by eminent scientists such as Euler, Bernoulli, Navier, Timoshenko, Vlasov, etc.  Most of these models are problem dependent: they provide reliable results for a given problem, for instance a given section and cannot be applied to a different one. Beam Structures: Classical and Advanced Theories proposes a new original unified approach to beam theory that includes practically all classical and advanced models for be

  7. Hidden invariance of the free classical particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.

    1994-01-01

    A formalism describing the dynamics of classical and quantum systems from a group theoretical point of view is presented. We apply it to the simple example of the classical free particle. The Galileo group G is the symmetry group of the free equations of motion. Consideration of the free particle Lagrangian semi-invariance under G leads to a larger symmetry group, which is a central extension of the Galileo group by the real numbers. We study the dynamics associated with this group, and characterize quantities like Noether invariants and evolution equations in terms of group geometric objects. An extension of the Galileo group by U(1) leads to quantum mechanics

  8. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  9. Classical and quantum ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously. (paper)

  10. Temperature Dependences of the Quantum-Mechanical and Semi-Classical Spectral-Line Widths and the Separation 0 of the Impact and Non-Impact Regions for an Ar-Perturbed/K-Radiator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Kreye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-mechanical and semi-classical spectral-line shapes are computed at =400, 800, and 1000 K for the line core of the 5802 Å line of the Ar-Perturbed/K-Radiator system. HWHMs ('s are measured from computed full spectral-line shapes. The final-state pseudopotential is for the 721/2 state, and the initial-state potential is for the 423/2,3/2 state. Three high-pressure (P log(—versus—log( curves, corresponding to the non-impact region, intersect a similar set of low-P, impact-region curves at intersections, 0's. Similarly, for two sets of log(—versus—log( curves, which yield intersections, 0's, where is the perturber density. These 0's and 0's separate the two regions and represent the upper limits of the impact regions. A specific validity condition for the impact region is given by the equation ≤0. From an earlier spectroscopic, Fabry-Perot paper, expt=0.021 cm−1 at =400 K and =10 torr. Two theoretical values, theor=0.025 and 0.062 cm−1 corresponding to two different pseudo-potentials, are reported. Two -dependent figures are given, in which the first shows an increase in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter, and the second which shows a decrease in the impact region with , based on as the basic parameter.

  11. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  12. Classical-quantum correspondence in electron-positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chott, N. I.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the creation of electron-positron pairs in a very strong force field. Using numerical solutions to quantum field theory we calculate the spatial and momentum probability distributions for the created particles. A comparison with classical mechanical phase space calculations suggests that despite the fully relativistic and quantum mechanical nature of the matter creation process, most aspects can be reproduced accurately in terms of classical mechanics

  13. Comparison of Classical and Quantum Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; Uskov, D.B.; Korol, A.V.; Obolensky, O.I.

    2003-01-01

    Classical features persist in bremsstrahlung at surprisingly high energies, while quantum features are present at low energies. For Coulomb bremsstrahlung this is related to the similar properties of Coulomb scattering. For bremsstrahlung in a screened potential, the low energy spectrum and angular distribution exhibit structures. In quantum mechanics these structures are associated with zeroes of particular angular-momentum transfer matrix elements at particular energies, a continuation of the Cooper minima in atomic photoeffect. They lead to transparency windows in free-free absorption. The trajectories of these zeroes in the plane of initial and final transition energies (bound and continuum) has been explored. Corresponding features have now been seen in classical bremsstrahlung, resulting from reduced contributions from particular impact parameters at particular energies. This has suggested the possibility of a more unified treatment of classical and quantum bremsstrahlung, based on the singularities of the scattering amplitude in angular momentum

  14. CLASSICS Imagination in Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Dutch version of the lecture to English, “... presenting here a most ... By means of the first, observation, one tries to obtain accurate knowledge of .... required by this mechanism will nevertheless remain without any significance if he lacks the.

  15. Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity

  16. Classical motion and coherent states for Poeschl-Teller potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz y Cruz, S.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.

    2008-01-01

    The trigonometric and hyperbolic Poeschl-Teller potentials are dealt with from the point of view of classical and quantum mechanics. We show that there is a natural correspondence between the algebraic structure of these two approaches for both kind of potentials. Then, the coherent states are constructed and the appropriate classical variables are compared with the expected values of their corresponding quantum operators

  17. Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.

  18. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  19. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  20. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  1. Understanding the Planck blackbody spectrum and Landau diamagnetism within classical electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetism is a relativistic theory, and one must exercise care in coupling this theory with nonrelativistic classical mechanics and with nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics. Indeed historically, both the blackbody radiation spectrum and diamagnetism within classical theory have been misunderstood because of two crucial failures: (1) the neglect of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the use of erroneous combinations of nonrelativistic mechanics with relativistic electrodynamics. Here we review the treatment of classical blackbody radiation, and show that the presence of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation can explain both the Planck blackbody spectrum and Landau diamagnetism at thermal equilibrium within classical electromagnetic theory. The analysis requires that relativistic electromagnetism is joined appropriately with simple nonrelativistic mechanical systems which can be regarded as the zero-velocity limits of relativistic systems, and that nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics is applied only in the low-frequency limit when zero-point energy makes no contribution. (paper)

  2. Quantum symmetries of classical spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Jyotishman; Goswami, Debashish; Roy, Subrata Shyam

    2009-01-01

    We give a general scheme for constructing faithful actions of genuine (noncommutative as $C^*$ algebra) compact quantum groups on classical topological spaces. Using this, we show that: (i) a compact connected classical space can have a faithful action by a genuine compact quantum group, and (ii) there exists a spectral triple on a classical connected compact space for which the quantum group of orientation and volume preserving isometries (in the sense of \\cite{qorient}) is a genuine quantum...

  3. Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.

  4. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  5. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding

  6. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  7. Classical Antipyretic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a contemporary view on the mechanisms of fever development in infectious diseases in children, characterized adverse effects of antipyretic agents, which should be taken into consideration in differentiated selection of the preparation. The choice of ibuprofen in the treatment of hyperthermic syndrome in children is substantiated.

  8. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  9. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  10. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired by ...

  11. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  12. Classical models for Regge trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Van Dam, H.; Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.; Samuel, J.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two classical models for particles with internal structure and which describe Regge trajectories are developed. The remarkable geometric and other properties of the two internal spaces are highlighted. It is shown that the conditions of positive time-like four-velocity and energy momentum for the classical system imply strong and physically reasonable conditions on the Regge mass-spin relationship

  13. Classicalization of Gravitons and Goldstones

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We establish a close parallel between classicalization of gravitons and derivatively-coupled Nambu-Goldstone-type scalars. We show, that black hole formation in high energy scattering process represents classicalization with the classicalization radius given by Schwarzschild radius of center of mass energy, and with the precursor of black hole entropy being given by number of soft quanta composing this classical configuration. Such an entropy-equivalent is defined for scalar classicalons also and is responsible for exponential suppression of their decay into small number of final particles. This parallel works in both ways. For optimists that are willing to hypothesize that gravity may indeed self-unitarize at high energies via black hole formation, it illustrates that the Goldstones may not be much different in this respect, and they classicalize essentially by similar dynamics as gravitons. In the other direction, it may serve as an useful de-mystifier of via-black-hole-unitarization process and of the role...

  14. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  15. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The book is on quantum mechanics. The emphasis is on the basic concepts and the methodology. The chapters include: Breakdown of classical concepts; Quantum mechanical concepts; Basic postulates of quantum mechanics; solution of problems in quantum mechanics; Simple harmonic oscillator; and Angular Momentum

  16. Conjugate dynamical systems: classical analogue of the quantum energy translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Vega, Gabino

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of quantum mechanics that has not been fully understood is the energy shift generated by the time operator. In this study, we introduce the use of the eigensurfaces of dynamical variables and commutators in classical mechanics to study the classical analogue of the quantum translation of energy. We determine that there is a conjugate dynamical system that is conjugate to Hamilton's equations of motion, and then we generate the analogue of the time operator and use it in the translation of points along the energy direction, i.e. the classical analogue of the Pauli theorem. The theory is illustrated with a nonlinear oscillator model. (paper)

  17. Unraveling Quantum Annealers using Classical Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealing optimizers that contain hundreds of quantum bits. These optimizers, commonly referred to as ‘D-Wave’ chips, promise to solve practical optimization problems potentially faster than conventional ‘classical’ computers. Attempts to quantify the quantum nature of these chips have been met with both excitement and skepticism but have also brought up numerous fundamental questions pertaining to the distinguishability of experimental quantum annealers from their classical thermal counterparts. Inspired by recent results in spin-glass theory that recognize ‘temperature chaos’ as the underlying mechanism responsible for the computational intractability of hard optimization problems, we devise a general method to quantify the performance of quantum annealers on optimization problems suffering from varying degrees of temperature chaos: A superior performance of quantum annealers over classical algorithms on these may allude to the role that quantum effects play in providing speedup. We utilize our method to experimentally study the D-Wave Two chip on different temperature-chaotic problems and find, surprisingly, that its performance scales unfavorably as compared to several analogous classical algorithms. We detect, quantify and discuss several purely classical effects that possibly mask the quantum behavior of the chip. PMID:26483257

  18. Classical probabilities for Majorana and Weyl spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Map of classical statistical Ising model to fermionic quantum field theory. → Lattice-regularized real Grassmann functional integral for single Weyl spinor. → Emerging complex structure characteristic for quantum physics. → A classical statistical ensemble describes a quantum theory. - Abstract: We construct a map between the quantum field theory of free Weyl or Majorana fermions and the probability distribution of a classical statistical ensemble for Ising spins or discrete bits. More precisely, a Grassmann functional integral based on a real Grassmann algebra specifies the time evolution of the real wave function q τ (t) for the Ising states τ. The time dependent probability distribution of a generalized Ising model obtains as p τ (t)=q τ 2 (t). The functional integral employs a lattice regularization for single Weyl or Majorana spinors. We further introduce the complex structure characteristic for quantum mechanics. Probability distributions of the Ising model which correspond to one or many propagating fermions are discussed explicitly. Expectation values of observables can be computed equivalently in the classical statistical Ising model or in the quantum field theory for fermions.

  19. Classical or equilibrium thermodynamics: basic conceptual aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Calvo Tiritan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Classical or Equilibrium Thermodynamics is one of the most consolidated fields of Physics. It is synthesized by a well-known and self coherent knowledge structure. The essence of the Classical Thermodynamics theoretical structure consists of a set of natural laws that rule the macroscopic physical systems behavior. These laws were formulated based on observations generalizations and are mostly independent of any hypotheses concerning the microscopic nature of the matter. In general, the approaches established for the Classical Thermodynamics follow one of the following alternatives: the historical approach that describes chronologically the evolution of ideas, concepts and facts, and the postulational approach in which postulates are formulated but are not demonstrated a priori but can be confirmed a posteriori. In this work, a brief review of the pre-classical historical approach conceptual evolution is elaborated, from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. As for this, the following themes are dealt with in an evolutionary and phenomenological way: heat nature, thermometry, calorimetry, Carnot’s heat engine, heat mechanical equivalent and the first and second laws. The Zeroth law that was formulated afterwards is included in the discussion.

  20. Loire Classics: Reviving Classicism in some Loire Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Verbaal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'Loire poets' has come to refer to a rather undefinable group of poets that in the second half of the eleventh century distinguishes itself through its refined poetics. They are often characterized as medieval humanists thanks to their renewed interest in the classics. Sometimes their movement is labelled a 'classicist' one. But what does this 'classicism' mean? Is it even permitted to speak of medieval 'classicisms'? This contribution approaches the question of whether we can apply this modern label to pre-modern phenomena. Moreover, it explores the changes in attitude towards the classics that sets the Loire poets off from their predecessors and contemporaries. The article focuses on poems by Hildebert of Lavardin, Baudri of Bourgueil, Marbod of Rennes, and Geoffrey of Reims. They are compared with some contemporary poets, such as Reginald of Canterbury and Sigebert of Gembloux.

  1. Quantum dynamics in open quantum-classical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Raymond

    2015-02-25

    Often quantum systems are not isolated and interactions with their environments must be taken into account. In such open quantum systems these environmental interactions can lead to decoherence and dissipation, which have a marked influence on the properties of the quantum system. In many instances the environment is well-approximated by classical mechanics, so that one is led to consider the dynamics of open quantum-classical systems. Since a full quantum dynamical description of large many-body systems is not currently feasible, mixed quantum-classical methods can provide accurate and computationally tractable ways to follow the dynamics of both the system and its environment. This review focuses on quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, one of several quantum-classical descriptions, and discusses the problems that arise when one attempts to combine quantum and classical mechanics, coherence and decoherence in quantum-classical systems, nonadiabatic dynamics, surface-hopping and mean-field theories and their relation to quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, as well as methods for simulating the dynamics.

  2. Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meter, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classica...

  3. Beyond quantum-classical analogies: high time for agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Michele

    Lately, many quantum-classical analogies have been investigated and published in many acknowledged journals. Such a surge of research on conceptual connections between quantum and classical physics forces us to ask whether the correspondence between the quantum and classical interpretation of the reality is deeper than the correspondence principle stated by Bohr. Here, after a short introduction to quantum-classical analogies from the recent literature, we try to examine the question from the perspective of a possible agreement between quantum and classical laws. A paradigmatic example is given in the striking equivalence between the classical Mie theory of electromagnetic scattering from spherical scatterers and the corresponding quantum-mechanical wave scattering analyzed in terms of partial waves. The key features that make the correspondence possible are examined and finally employed to deal with the fundamental blackbody problem that marks the initial separation between classical and quantum physics. The procedure allows us to recover the blackbody spectrum in classical terms and the proof is rich in consequences. Among them, the strong analogy between the quantum vacuum and its classical counterpart.

  4. Classicality of quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, David

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the classicality program is to quantify the amount of quantumness of certain processes. Here, classicality is studied for a restricted type of process: quantum information processing (QIP). Under special conditions, one can force some qubits of a quantum computer into a classical state without affecting the outcome of the computation. The minimal set of conditions is described and its structure is studied. Some implications of this formalism are the increase of noise robustness, a proof of the quantumness of mixed state quantum computing, and a step forward in understanding the very foundation of QIP

  5. Quantum versus classical dynamics in the optical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Tsafrir; Friedland, Lazar

    2017-09-01

    The interplay between classical and quantum-mechanical evolution in the optical centrifuge (OC) is discussed. The analysis is based on the quantum-mechanical formalism starting from either the ground state or a thermal ensemble. Two resonant mechanisms are identified, i.e., the classical autoresonance and the quantum-mechanical ladder climbing, yielding different dynamics and rotational excitation efficiencies. The rotating-wave approximation is used to analyze the two resonant regimes in the associated dimensionless two-parameter space and calculate the OC excitation efficiency. The results show good agreement between numerical simulations and theory and are relevant to existing experimental setups.

  6. Information transport in classical statistical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-02-01

    For "static memory materials" the bulk properties depend on boundary conditions. Such materials can be realized by classical statistical systems which admit no unique equilibrium state. We describe the propagation of information from the boundary to the bulk by classical wave functions. The dependence of wave functions on the location of hypersurfaces in the bulk is governed by a linear evolution equation that can be viewed as a generalized Schrödinger equation. Classical wave functions obey the superposition principle, with local probabilities realized as bilinears of wave functions. For static memory materials the evolution within a subsector is unitary, as characteristic for the time evolution in quantum mechanics. The space-dependence in static memory materials can be used as an analogue representation of the time evolution in quantum mechanics - such materials are "quantum simulators". For example, an asymmetric Ising model on a Euclidean two-dimensional lattice represents the time evolution of free relativistic fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space.

  7. There is no quantum ontology without classical ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Helmut [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The relation between quantum physics and classical physics is still under debate. In his recent book ''Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics'', Peter Mittelstaedt explores a route from classical to quantum mechanics by reduction and elimination of (some of) the ontological hypotheses underlying classical mechanics. While, according to Mittelstaedt, classical mechanics describes a fictitious world that does not exist in reality, he claims to achieve a universal quantum ontology that can be improved by incorporating unsharp properties and equipped with Planck's constant without any need to refer to classical concepts. In this talk, we argue that quantum ontology in Mittelstaedt's sense is not enough. Quantum ontology can never be universal as long as the difference between potential and real properties is not represented adequately. Quantum properties are potential, not (yet) real, be they sharp or unsharp. Hence, preparation and measurement presuppose classical concepts, even in quantum theory. We end up with a classical-quantum sandwich ontology, which is still less extravagant than Bohmian or many-worlds ontologies are.

  8. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  9. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

  10. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; Roa-Neri, J.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge

  11. Classical trajectories and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Salerno

    2005-01-01

    The density matrix and the Wigner function formalism requires the doubling of the degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum field theory (QFT). The doubled degrees of freedom play the role of the thermal bath or environment degrees of freedom and are entangled with the system degrees of freedom. They also account for quantum noise in the fluctuating random forces in the system-environment coupling. The algebraic structure of QFT turns out to be the one of the deformed Hopf algebra. In such a frame, the trajectories in the space of the unitarily inequivalent representations of the canonical commutation relations turn out to be classical trajectories and, under convenient conditions, they may exhibit properties typical of classical chaotic trajectories in nonlinear dynamics. The quantum Brownian motion and the two-slit experiment in QM are discussed in connection with the doubling of the degrees of freedom. (author)

  12. Global aspects of classical integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a uniquely complete description of the geometry of the energy momentum mapping of five classical integrable systems: the 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator, the geodesic flow on the 3-sphere, the Euler top, the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. It presents for the first time in book form a general theory of symmetry reduction which allows one to reduce the symmetries in the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. Also the monodromy obstruction to the existence of global action angle coordinates is calculated for the spherical pendulum and the Lagrange top. The book addresses professional mathematicians and graduate students and can be used as a textbook on advanced classical mechanics or global analysis.

  13. Classical trajectory in non-relativistic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    With the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics as a guide, the classical trajectory is incorporated into quantum scattering theory. The Feynman path integral formalism is used as a starting point, and classical transformation theory is applied to the phase of the wave function so derived. This approach is then used to derive an expression for the scattering amplitude for potential scattering. It is found that the amplitude can be expressed in an impact parameter representation similar to the Glauber formalism. Connections are then made to the Glauber approximation and to semiclassical approximations derived from the Feynman path integral formalism. In extending this analysis to projectile-nucleus scattering, an approximation scheme is given with the first term being the same as in Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Higher-order approximations, thus, are found to give corrections to the fixed scatterer form of the impulse approximation inherent in the Glauber theory

  14. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  15. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  16. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  17. Fundamental theories of waves and particles formulated without classical mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.

    2010-12-01

    Quantum and classical mechanics are two conceptually and mathematically different theories of physics, and yet they do use the same concept of classical mass that was originally introduced by Newton in his formulation of the laws of dynamics. In this paper, physical consequences of using the classical mass by both theories are explored, and a novel approach that allows formulating fundamental (Galilean invariant) theories of waves and particles without formally introducing the classical mass is presented. In this new formulation, the theories depend only on one common parameter called 'wave mass', which is deduced from experiments for selected elementary particles and for the classical mass of one kilogram. It is shown that quantum theory with the wave mass is independent of the Planck constant and that higher accuracy of performing calculations can be attained by such theory. Natural units in connection with the presented approach are also discussed and justification beyond dimensional analysis is given for the particular choice of such units.

  18. Classical limit of the quantum inverse scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the passage to the limit of classical mechanics which is realized in the formalism of Marchenko's method for a spherically symmetric inverse problem of quantum scattering for fixed angular momentum. The limit is considered for the general case of partial waves with arbitrary values of the orbital number 1>0 in the lowest order of perturbation theory. It is shown how in the limit h→0 in the quantum inverse problem the integral Able transformation characteristic of classical inverse problems arises. The classical inversion formula with delay time is derived from the Marchenko equation

  19. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  20. Doing classical theology in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Neven

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about doing classical theology in context. The weight of my argument is that classical text of Karl Barth’s theology is great intellectual text means: being addressed by this text in the context in which one lives. The basic keywords that constitute a rule for reading those texts are “equality”, “event” and “re-contextualisation”. The article contains two sections: The first section elaborates statements about the challenge of the event and the project of rereading classics by way of recontextualisation. The word “event” refers to true and innovating moments in history which one can share, or which one can betray. Classical texts always share in those liberative moments. The question then is in what sense do they present a challenge to the contemporary reader. The second section elaborates the position of man as central and all decisive for doing theology in context now. In this section, the author appeals for a renewal of the classical anthropology as an anthropology of hope. This anthropology contradicts postmodern concepts of otherness.

  1. Classical approach in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

  2. The Classic: On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John

    2009-09-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by John Hilton, On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV. An accompanying biographical sketch on John Hilton, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-0927-2 . The Classic Article is reprinted with courtesy from Hilton J. On The Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the Treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, England: Bell and Daldy; 1863.

  3. Unbiased estimators for spatial distribution functions of classical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    We use a statistical-mechanical identity closely related to the familiar virial theorem, to derive unbiased estimators for spatial distribution functions of classical fluids. In particular, we obtain estimators for both the fluid density ρ(r) in the vicinity of a fixed solute and the pair correlation g(r) of a homogeneous classical fluid. We illustrate the utility of our estimators with numerical examples, which reveal advantages over traditional histogram-based methods of computing such distributions.

  4. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available equally well to both classical and quantum optical systems. A projective measurement, in the context of quantum mechanics, is understood to be the process where a projection operator operates on some input state. Often this projection operator is composed...) Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems Filippus S. Roux* and Yingwen Zhang CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Received 3 July 2014; published 22 September 2014) Experimental setups for the optical...

  5. The semi classical laser theory and some applications of laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Abbaker Ali

    1995-04-01

    The semi classical laser theory is concerned with the interaction between light and matter in such a way that the matter is treated quantum-mechanically whereas light is treated in terms of the classical electromagnetic equations. In this work the Maxwell-Bloch equations are employed to describe the interaction between light and matter. Applications of the theory as well as different types of lasers are reviewed. (Author)

  6. Classical and sequential limit analysis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Kondo, Djimédo; Morin, Léo; Remmal, Almahdi

    2018-04-01

    Classical limit analysis applies to ideal plastic materials, and within a linearized geometrical framework implying small displacements and strains. Sequential limit analysis was proposed as a heuristic extension to materials exhibiting strain hardening, and within a fully general geometrical framework involving large displacements and strains. The purpose of this paper is to study and clearly state the precise conditions permitting such an extension. This is done by comparing the evolution equations of the full elastic-plastic problem, the equations of classical limit analysis, and those of sequential limit analysis. The main conclusion is that, whereas classical limit analysis applies to materials exhibiting elasticity - in the absence of hardening and within a linearized geometrical framework -, sequential limit analysis, to be applicable, strictly prohibits the presence of elasticity - although it tolerates strain hardening and large displacements and strains. For a given mechanical situation, the relevance of sequential limit analysis therefore essentially depends upon the importance of the elastic-plastic coupling in the specific case considered.

  7. The Diversity of Classical Archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , settlement patterns, landscape archaeology, historiography, and urban archaeology. Additionally, essays on topics such as the early Islamic period and portraiture in the Near East serve to broaden the themes encompassed by this work, and demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary knowledge in the field......This book is the first volume in the series Studies in Classical Archaeology, founded and edited by professors of classical archaeology, Achim Lichtenberger and Rubina Raja. This volume sets out the agenda for this series. It achieves this by familiarizing readers with a wide range of themes...... and material groups, and highlighting them as core areas of traditional classical archaeology, despite the fact that some have hitherto been neglected. Themes presented in this volume include Greek and Roman portraiture and sculpture, iconography, epigraphy, archaeology, numismatics, the Mediterranean...

  8. Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We observe that probing certain classical field theories by external sources uncovers the underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation, at purely-classical level. We perform this study on an example of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory and unravel asymptotic freedom and triviality for negative and positives signs of $\\lambda$ respectively. We derive exact classical $\\beta$ function equation. Solving this equation we find that an isolated source has an infinite energy and therefore cannot exist as an asymptotic state. On the other hand a dipole, built out of two opposite charges, has finite positive energy. At large separation the interaction potential between these two charges grows indefinitely as a distance in power one third.

  9. Classical and quantum fingerprinting strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Walgate, J.; Sanders, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Fingerprinting enables two parties to infer whether the messages they hold are the same or different when the cost of communication is high: each message is associated with a smaller fingerprint and comparisons between messages are made in terms of their fingerprints alone. When the two parties are forbidden access to a public coin, it is known that fingerprints composed of quantum information can be made exponentially smaller than those composed of classical information. We present specific constructions of classical fingerprinting strategies through the use of constant-weight codes and provide bounds on the worst-case error probability with the help of extremal set theory. These classical strategies are easily outperformed by quantum strategies constructed from line packings and equiangular tight frames. (author)

  10. Dynamics of electrically charged extended bodies: classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberge, T.

    1987-01-01

    The author present generalizations of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics that make it possible to describe N charged extended bodies.In particular, we are able to write down a set of coupled equations for the system of N bodies plus field. The theory is based on a theory for the description of N charged chemical fluid components

  11. Imaging learning and memory: classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, B G; Alkon, D L

    2001-12-15

    The search for the biological basis of learning and memory has, until recently, been constrained by the limits of technology to classic anatomic and electrophysiologic studies. With the advent of functional imaging, we have begun to delve into what, for many, was a "black box." We review several different types of imaging experiments, including steady state animal experiments that image the functional labeling of fixed tissues, and dynamic human studies based on functional imaging of the intact brain during learning. The data suggest that learning and memory involve a surprising conservation of mechanisms and the integrated networking of a number of structures and processes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Classical limit for semirelativistic Hartree systems

    KAUST Repository

    Aki, Gonca L.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the three-dimensional semirelativistic Hartree model for fast quantum mechanical particles moving in a self-consistent field. Under appropriate assumptions on the initial density matrix as a (fully) mixed quantum state we prove by using Wigner transformation techniques that its classical limit yields the well known relativistic Vlasov-Poisson system. The result holds for the case of attractive and repulsive mean-field interactions, with an additional size constraint in the attractive case. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  14. Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  15. Resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuti, Mine; Aikawa, Toshiki

    1981-01-01

    To investigate resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids, the non-linear radial oscillation of stars is studied based on the assumption that the non-adiabatic perturbation is expressed in terms of van der Pol's type damping. Two- and three-wave resonance in this system is applied to classical cepheids to describe their bump and double-mode behavior. The phase of bump and the depression of amplitude are explained for bump cepheids. The double-periodicity is shown by the enhancement of the third overtone in three-wave resonance. Non-linear effect on resonant period is also discussed briefly. (author)

  16. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  17. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  18. Classical resonances and quantum scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderfeld, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    We study the correspondence between phase-space localization of quantum (quasi-)energy eigenstates and classical correlation decay, given by Ruelle-Pollicott resonances of the Frobenius-Perron operator. It will be shown that scarred (quasi-)energy eigenstates are correlated: pairs of eigenstates strongly overlap in phase space (scar in same phase-space regions) if the difference of their eigenenergies is close to the phase of a leading classical resonance. Phase-space localization of quantum states will be measured by L 2 norms of their Husimi functions

  19. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired...... by the Higher-Order Π-calculus. The key to our calculus is that sequents are asymmetric: one side types sessions as in CP and the other types process variables, which can be instantiated with process values. The controlled interaction between the two sides ensures that process variables can be used at will......, but always respecting the linear usage of sessions expected by the environment....

  20. Classical solutions and extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alfaro, V.; Fubini, S.; Furlan, G.

    1980-03-01

    The existence and properties of classical solutions for gravity coupled to matter fields have been investigated previously with the limitation to conformally flat solutions. In the search for a guiding criterion to determine the form of the coupling among the fields, one is led to consider supersymmetric theories, and the question arises whether classical solutions persist in these models. It is found that a discrepancy persists between supergravity and standard meron solutions. Owing to the appearance of the scalar field, a new set of meron solutions exists for particular Lagrangian models. In conclusion, the form of solutions in Minkowski space is discussed

  1. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our primary source of information on Prof. Ruchi Ram Sahni is his typed autobiography, copies of which have been available with his descendants. Because of typing errors, illegibility, and other disabilities, their use had so far been limited. Now, his great-granddaughter, Neera Burra (whose article appears elsewhere.

  2. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    gravitational acceleration, the physical properties of air and water, and so forth. ... system, I will consider aspects of the physical world and ask what organisms, ..... speed should have little or no direct effect on water loss by transpiration.

  3. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    words, the origin (0;0) of the (x; y)-plane blows-up into the line x0 = 0 of the (x0 ... This is where I entered the picture. .... Especially I remember the tasty salads made with .... vacation cottage that I must do a better job in my introduction, because.

  4. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would say various things to make me give up insisting upon my request. But as I was .... I then asked him not to leave the observatory till further orders, ... I have yet to mention another incident when under very strange circumstances, luck.

  5. Matricial theory in classical photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, D.

    1980-01-01

    The matrix calculus in classical photoelasticity is used. Transfer functions for different polariscope arrangements are calculated. Linear polariscopes, circular polariscopes, double-exposure method to obtain isochromatics and Tardy and Senarmont method of measuring fractional relative retardations are analysed using coherency matrix formalism. (author)

  6. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  7. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  8. Doing classical theology in context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    It is a critical concept, because it involves a break with ... question of the sense in which our context and culture have been interrupted by acts of ... challenge of reading a classical text is not only intellectual but also moral or existential. ..... and an opponent of pragmatic and relativistic conceptions8 I want to stress the.

  9. Classical Music as Enforced Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…

  10. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Cré peau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum

  11. Classical databases and knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...

  12. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, T.E.

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  13. Integration of classical and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisza, L.

    1989-01-01

    The perennial aspect of the Newtonian foundation of mathematical physics is that the concept of ''motion,'' that is, ''kinematics,'' is to serve as the interface between mathematics and physics. Kinematics subdivides into the theory of orbital translation and that of undulation and spinning. Newtonian mechanics is based on giving to translational kinematics a priority over the other modes, since planetary revolution can be represented as translation modified by gravitation. The so-called breakdown of classical physics stems from giving the translational priority a canonical status and extending it to the constituents of matter. We claim that in this case the priority is to be reversed. The main content of this paper is to establish the algebraic model for an indivisible, undulating entity that we call a ''wave simplex.'' It is used as the point of departure for a non-Newtonian quantum dynamics in which physical and algebraic concepts are in close correspondence. The postulates of the classical phenomenological theories and those of the canonical theories based on translational priority are established as theorems under the proper limiting conditions, and forces are constructed rather than postulated. While the formal structure of two-level quantum mechanics is established as well, exception is taken to treating spin as a property of a point particle. It is considered self-evident that a spinning object is orientable, a property accounted for in terms of a unitary triplet. This is the point of departure for an intrinsic particle dynamics. A main result is the integration of classical and quantum physics, thus closing the gap created by the heuristic method of canonical quantization

  14. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  15. Introduction to Classical and Quantum Harmonic Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latal, H

    1997-01-01

    As the title aptly states, this book deals with harmonic oscillators of various kinds, from classical mechanical and electrical oscillations up to quantum oscillations. It is written in a lively language, and occasional interspersed anecdotes make the reading of an otherwise mathematically oriented text quite a pleasure. Although the author claims to have written an 'elementary introduction', it is certainly necessary to have a good deal of previous knowledge in physics (mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum theory), electrical engineering and, of course, mathematics in order to follow the general line of his arguments. The book begins with a thorough treatment of classical oscillators (free, damped, forced) that is followed by an elaboration on Fourier analysis. Lagrange and Hamilton formalisms are then introduced before the problem of coupled oscillations is attacked. A chapter on statistical perspectives leads over to the final discussion of quantum oscillations. With the book comes a diskette containing a number of worksheets (Microsoft Excel) that can be used by the reader for instant visualization to get a better qualitative and quantitative understanding of the material. To the reviewer it seems difficult to pinpoint exactly the range of prospective readership of the book. It can certainly not be intended as a textbook for students, but rather as a reference book for teachers of physics or researchers, who want to look up one or other aspect of harmonic oscillations, for which purpose the diskette represents a very valuable tool. (book review)

  16. From classical to quantum plasmonics: Classical emitter and SPASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balykin, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    The key advantage of plasmonics is in pushing our control of light down to the nanoscale. It is possible to envision lithographically fabricated plasmonic devices for future quantum information processing or cryptography at the nanoscale in two dimensions. A first step in this direction is a demonstration of a highly efficient nanoscale light source. Here we demonstrate two types of nanoscale sources of optical fields: 1) the classical metallic nanostructure emitter and 2) the plasmonic nanolaser - SPASER.

  17. [Today's meaning of classical authors of political thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinacht, Paul-Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    How can classical political authors be actualised? The question is asked in a discipline which is founded in old traditions: the political science. One of its great matters is the history of political ideas. Classic authors are treated in many books, but they are viewed in different perspectives; colleagues do not agree with shining and bad examples. For actualising classic we have to go a methodically reflected way: historic not historicistic, with sensibility for classic and christian norms without dogmatism or scepticism. Searching the permanent problems we try to translate the original concepts of the classic authors carefully in our time. For demonstrating our method of actualising, we choose the French classical author Montesquieu. His famous concept of division of powers is misunderstood as a "liberal" mechanism which works in itself in favour of freedom (such as Kant made work a "natural mechanism" in a people of devils in favour of their legality); in reality Montesquieu acknoledges that constitutional und organisational work cannot stabilise themselves but must be found in social character and in human virtues.

  18. Quantum-classical correspondence for the inverted oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamache, Mustapha; Ryeol Choi, Jeong

    2017-11-01

    While quantum-classical correspondence for a system is a very fundamental problem in modern physics, the understanding of its mechanism is often elusive, so the methods used and the results of detailed theoretical analysis have been accompanied by active debate. In this study, the differences and similarities between quantum and classical behavior for an inverted oscillator have been analyzed based on the description of a complete generalized Airy function-type quantum wave solution. The inverted oscillator model plays an important role in several branches of cosmology and particle physics. The quantum wave packet of the system is composed of many sub-packets that are localized at different positions with regular intervals between them. It is shown from illustrations of the probability density that, although the quantum trajectory of the wave propagation is somewhat different from the corresponding classical one, the difference becomes relatively small when the classical excitation is sufficiently high. We have confirmed that a quantum wave packet moving along a positive or negative direction accelerates over time like a classical wave. From these main interpretations and others in the text, we conclude that our theory exquisitely illustrates quantum and classical correspondence for the system, which is a crucial concept in quantum mechanics. Supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1A09919503)

  19. Ensembles and Experiments in Classical and Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumaier, Arnold

    A philosophically consistent axiomatic approach to classical and quantum mechanics is given. The approach realizes a strong formal implementation of Bohr's correspondence principle. In all instances, classical and quantum concepts are fully parallel: the same general theory has a classical realization and a quantum realization. Extending the ''probability via expectation'' approach of Whittle to noncommuting quantities, this paper defines quantities, ensembles, and experiments as mathematical concepts and shows how to model complementarity, uncertainty, probability, nonlocality and dynamics in these terms. The approach carries no connotation of unlimited repeatability; hence it can be applied to unique systems such as the universe. Consistent experiments provide an elegant solution to the reality problem, confirming the insistence of the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation on that there is nothing but ensembles, while avoiding its elusive reality picture. The weak law of large numbers explains the emergence of classical properties for macroscopic systems.

  20. From classical to quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavsky, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis is done for the quantum properties of systems that possess dynamical chaos in classical limit. Two main topics are considered: (i) the problem of quantum macroscopical description of the system and the Ehrenfest-Einstein problem of the validity of the classical approximation; and (ii) the problem of levels spacing distribution for the nonintegrable case. For the first topic the method of projecting on the coherent states base is considered and the ln 1/(h/2π) time for the quasiclassical approximation breaking is described. For the second topic the discussion of GOE and non-GOE distributions is done and estimations and simulations for the non-GOE case are reviewed. (author). 44 refs, 2 figs

  1. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  2. Classical and multilinear harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Muscalu, Camil

    2013-01-01

    This two-volume text in harmonic analysis introduces a wealth of analytical results and techniques. It is largely self-contained and useful to graduates and researchers in pure and applied analysis. Numerous exercises and problems make the text suitable for self-study and the classroom alike. The first volume starts with classical one-dimensional topics: Fourier series; harmonic functions; Hilbert transform. Then the higher-dimensional Calderón-Zygmund and Littlewood-Paley theories are developed. Probabilistic methods and their applications are discussed, as are applications of harmonic analysis to partial differential equations. The volume concludes with an introduction to the Weyl calculus. The second volume goes beyond the classical to the highly contemporary and focuses on multilinear aspects of harmonic analysis: the bilinear Hilbert transform; Coifman-Meyer theory; Carleson's resolution of the Lusin conjecture; Calderón's commutators and the Cauchy integral on Lipschitz curves. The material in this vo...

  3. THE BUREAUCRATIC PHENOMENON: CLASSICAL CONCEPTS

    OpenAIRE

    Дама Ибрагима

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this article - to analyze Hegel and Karl Marx’s classic bureaucracy theories and also Max Weber’s concept of rational bureaucracy and its development in the works of Herbert Simon, Robert Merton, Peter Blau and Michel Crozier. It shows that the above listed researchers only undertook a change of terminology within the same theoretical tradition. The article describes different approaches to the bureaucratic system of administrative schools of the late 1950s and early 1980s. Major concl...

  4. Classical music and the teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth.

  5. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-09-30

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

  6. Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Santos Paim; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Duarte, Gleison Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Evidence shows an association of psoriasis with arthritis, depression, inflammatory bowel disease and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several other comorbid conditions have been proposed as related to the chronic inflammatory status of psoriasis. The understanding of these conditions and their treatments will certainly lead to better management of the disease. The present article aims to synthesize the knowledge in the literature about the classical and emerging comorbidities related to psoriasis. PMID:25672294

  7. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  8. Classical-limit S-matrix for heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donangelo, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    An integral representation for the classical limit of the quantum mechanical S-matrix is developed and applied to heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb-nuclear interference. The method combines the quantum principle of superposition with exact classical dynamics to describe the projectile-target system. A detailed consideration of the classical trajectories and of the dimensionless parameters that characterize the system is carried out. The results are compared, where possible, to exact quantum mechanical calculations and to conventional semiclassical calculations. It is found that in the case of backscattering the classical limit S-matrix method is able to almost exactly reproduce the quantum-mechanical S-matrix elements, and therefore the transition probabilities, even for projectiles as light as protons. The results also suggest that this approach should be a better approximation for heavy-ion multiple Coulomb excitation than earlier semiclassical methods, due to a more accurate description of the classical orbits in the electromagnetic field of the target nucleus. Calculations using this method indicate that the rotational excitation probabilities in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region should be very sensitive to the details of the potential at the surface of the nucleus, suggesting that heavy-ion rotational excitation could constitute a sensitive probe of the nuclear potential in this region. The application to other problems as well as the present limits of applicability of the formalism are also discussed

  9. A derivation of the Derbenev-Kondratenko formula using semi-classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    1985-11-01

    We present a detailed exposition of the mechanism for the build-up of polarization in electron storage rings. A semi-classical approach is used to derive the rate of growth and asymptotic degree of polarization in an electron storage ring (the Derbenev-Kondratenko formula). Statistical mechanical concepts used to obtain as classical an understanding as possible of this phenomenon. (orig.)

  10. Extending In Vitro Conditioning in "Aplysia" to Analyze Operant and Classical Processes in the Same Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Bjorn; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Operant and classical conditioning are major processes shaping behavioral responses in all animals. Although the understanding of the mechanisms of classical conditioning has expanded significantly, the understanding of the mechanisms of operant conditioning is more limited. Recent developments in "Aplysia" are helping to narrow the gap in the…

  11. Intuitionism vs. classicism a mathematical attack on classical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Haverkamp, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer launched a powerful attack on the prevailing mathematical methods and theories. He developed a new kind of constructive mathematics, called intuitionism, which seems to allow for a rigorous refutation of widely accepted mathematical assumptions including fundamental principles of classical logic. Following an intense mathematical debate esp. in the 1920s, Brouwer's revolutionary criticism became a central philosophical concern in the 1970s, when Michael Dummett tried to substantiate it with meaning-theoretic considerations.

  12. Aspects of a representation of quantum theory in terms of classical probability theory by means of integration in Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, A.

    1981-01-01

    A representation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical probability theory by means of integration in Hilbert space is discussed. This formal hidden-variables representation is analysed in the context of impossibility proofs concerning hidden-variables theories. The structural analogy of this formulation of quantum theory with classical statistical mechanics is used to elucidate the difference between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. (author)

  13. Photosynthetic Energy Transfer at the Quantum/Classical Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Nir; Paltiel, Yossi

    2018-06-01

    Quantum mechanics diverges from the classical description of our world when very small scales or very fast processes are involved. Unlike classical mechanics, quantum effects cannot be easily related to our everyday experience and are often counterintuitive to us. Nevertheless, the dimensions and time scales of the photosynthetic energy transfer processes puts them close to the quantum/classical border, bringing them into the range of measurable quantum effects. Here we review recent advances in the field and suggest that photosynthetic processes can take advantage of the sensitivity of quantum effects to the environmental 'noise' as means of tuning exciton energy transfer efficiency. If true, this design principle could be a base for 'nontrivial' coherent wave property nano-devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breakdown of the classical description of a local system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Nielsen, Bo Melholt

    2012-01-01

    We provide a straightforward demonstration of a fundamental difference between classical and quantum mechanics for a single local system: namely, the absence of a joint probability distribution of the position x and momentum p. Elaborating on a recently reported criterion by Bednorz and Belzig...... of the breakdown of a classical description of the underlying state. Most importantly, the criterion used does not rely on quantum mechanics and can thus be used to demonstrate nonclassicality of systems not immediately apparent to exhibit quantum behavior. The criterion is directly applicable to any system...... [ Phys. Rev. A 83 052113 (2011)] we derive a simple criterion that must be fulfilled for any joint probability distribution in classical physics. We demonstrate the violation of this criterion using the homodyne measurement of a single photon state, thus proving a straightforward signature...

  15. Decoherence and the quantum-to-classical transition

    CERN Document Server

    Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate introduction, textbook, and reference on decoherence and the quantum-to-classical transition. This detailed but accessible text describes the concepts, formalism, interpretation, and experimental observation of decoherence and explains how decoherence is responsible for the emergence, from the realm of quantum mechanics, of the classical world of our experience. Topics include: • Foundational problems at the quantum–classical border; • The role of the environment and entanglement; • Environment-induced loss of coherence and superselection; • Scattering-induced decoherence and spatial localization; • Master equations; • Decoherence models; • Experimental realization of "Schrödinger kittens" and their decoherence; • Quantum computing, quantum error correction, and decoherence-free subspaces; • Implications of decoherence for interpretations of quantum mechanics and for the "measurement problem"; • Decoherence in the brain. Written in a lucid and concise style that is accessib...

  16. The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.

  17. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukerman, Igor, E-mail: igor@uakron.edu

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  18. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  19. Complex trajectories in a classical periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Alexander G; Bender, Carl M

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the complex trajectories of a classical particle in the potential V(x) = −cos (x). Almost all the trajectories describe a particle that hops from one well to another in an erratic fashion. However, it is shown analytically that there are two special classes of trajectories x(t) determined only by the energy of the particle and not by the initial position of the particle. The first class consists of periodic trajectories; that is, trajectories that return to their initial position x(0) after some real time T. The second class consists of trajectories for which there exists a real time T such that x(t + T) = x(t) ± 2π. These two classes of classical trajectories are analogous to valence and conduction bands in quantum mechanics, where the quantum particle either remains localized or else tunnels resonantly (conducts) through a crystal lattice. These two special types of trajectories are associated with sets of energies of measure 0. For other energies, it is shown that for long times the average velocity of the particle becomes a fractal-like function of energy. (paper)

  20. Complex trajectories in a classical periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexander G.; Bender, Carl M.

    2012-11-01

    This paper examines the complex trajectories of a classical particle in the potential V(x) = -cos (x). Almost all the trajectories describe a particle that hops from one well to another in an erratic fashion. However, it is shown analytically that there are two special classes of trajectories x(t) determined only by the energy of the particle and not by the initial position of the particle. The first class consists of periodic trajectories; that is, trajectories that return to their initial position x(0) after some real time T. The second class consists of trajectories for which there exists a real time T such that x(t + T) = x(t) ± 2π. These two classes of classical trajectories are analogous to valence and conduction bands in quantum mechanics, where the quantum particle either remains localized or else tunnels resonantly (conducts) through a crystal lattice. These two special types of trajectories are associated with sets of energies of measure 0. For other energies, it is shown that for long times the average velocity of the particle becomes a fractal-like function of energy.

  1. Casimir effect: The classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, J.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the high temperature (or classical) limit of the Casimir effect. A useful quantity which arises naturally in our discussion is the 'relative Casimir energy', which we define for a configuration of disjoint conducting boundaries of arbitrary shapes, as the difference of Casimir energies between the given configuration and a configuration with the same boundaries infinitely far apart. Using path integration techniques, we show that the relative Casimir energy vanishes exponentially fast in temperature. This is consistent with a simple physical argument based on Kirchhoff's law. As a result the 'relative Casimir entropy', which we define in an obviously analogous manner, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the boundaries. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary, in the classical limit, is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations in temperature from the behavior just described. These logarithmic deviations seem to arise due to our difficulty to separate the Casimir energy (and the other thermodynamical quantities) from the 'electromagnetic' self-energy of each of the connected components of the boundary in a well defined manner. Our approach to the Casimir effect is not to impose sharp boundary conditions on the fluctuating field, but rather take into consideration its interaction with the plasma of 'charge carriers' in the boundary, with the plasma frequency playing the role of a physical UV cutoff. This also allows us to analyze deviations from a perfect conductor behavior

  2. Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy students...... have a tendency correctly to assess valid syllogisms as such more often than correctly assessing invalid syllogisms as such. It is also investigated to what extent the students have improved their skills in practical reasoning by attending the logic courses. Finally, some open questions regarding...

  3. Metastable gravity on classical defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeval, Christophe; Rombouts, Jan-Willem

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the realization of metastable gravity on classical defects in infinite-volume extra dimensions. In dilatonic Einstein gravity, it is found that the existence of metastable gravity on the defect core requires violation of the dominant energy condition for codimension N c =2 defects. This is illustrated with a detailed analysis of a six-dimensional hyperstring minimally coupled to dilaton gravity. We present the general conditions under which a codimension N c >2 defect admits metastable modes, and find that they differ from lower codimensional models in that, under certain conditions, they do not require violation of energy conditions to support quasilocalized gravity

  4. Nonlinear classical theory of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisello, D.

    1977-01-01

    A topological theory of electric charge is given. Einstein's criteria for the completion of classical electromagnetic theory are summarized and their relation to quantum theory and the principle of complementarity is indicated. The inhibiting effect that this principle has had on the development of physical thought is discussed. Developments in the theory of functions on nonlinear spaces provide the conceptual framework required for the completion of electromagnetism. The theory is based on an underlying field which is a continuous mapping of space-time into points on the two-sphere. (author)

  5. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Marshall W; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2017-03-15

    The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience.

  6. Classical and quantum chaotic scattering in a muffin tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we study the classical mechanics, the quantum mechanics and the semi-classical approximation of the 2-dimensional scattering from a muffin tin potential. The classical dynamical system for Coulombic muffin tins is proven to be chaotic by explicit construction of the exponentially increasing number of periodic orbits. These are all shown to be completely unstable (hyperbolic). By methods of the thermodynamic formalism we can determine the Hausdorff dimension, escape rate and Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy of the system. An extended KKR-method is developed to determine the quantum mechanical S-matrix. We compare a few integrable scattering examples with the results of the muffin tin scattering. Characteristic features of the spectrum of eigenphases turn out to be the level repulsion and long range rigidity as compared to a completely random spectrum. In the semiclassical analysis we can rederive the regularized Gutzwiller trace formula directly from the exact KKR-determinant to prove that no further terms contribute in the case of the muffin tin potential. The periodic orbit sum allows to draw some qualitative conclusions about the effects of classical chaos on the quantum mechanics. In the context of scaling systems the theory of almost periodic functions is discussed as a possible mathematical foundation for the semiclassical periodic orbit sums. Some results that can be obtained from this analysis are developed in the context of autocorrelation functions and distribution functions for chaotic scattering systems. (orig.)

  7. Classical and quantum position-dependent mass harmonic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz y Cruz, S.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The position-dependent mass oscillator is studied from both, classical and quantum mechanical points of view, in order to discuss the ambiguity on the operator ordering of the kinetic term in the quantum framework. The results are illustrated by some examples of specific mass functions

  8. Isomorph invariance of the structure and dynamics of classical crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Dan; Olsen, Andreas Elmerdahl; Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows by computer simulations that some crystalline systems have curves in their thermodynamic phase diagrams, so-called isomorphs, along which structure and dynamics in reduced units are invariant to a good approximation. The crystals are studied in a classical-mechanical framework...

  9. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  10. On the suppression of chaos in quantum and classical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, H.M.; Gabellini, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A brief outline is presented of an example of potential-theory quantum chaos, which is suppressed by the full radiative corrections of quantum field theory. A similar mechanism may be devised and applied to classically chaotic systems, and provides an example in which an explicit diminution of the original chaos becomes apparent. (author)

  11. A Simple Explanation of the Classic Hydrostatic Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the…

  12. A classical model explaining the OPERA velocity paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Broda, Boguslaw

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the paradoxical results of the OPERA Collaboration, we have proposed a classical mechanics model yielding the statistically measured velocity of a beam higher than the velocity of the particles constituting the beam. Ingredients of our model necessary to obtain this curious result are a non-constant fraction function and the method of the maximum-likelihood estimation.

  13. Interferometric weak value deflections: Quantum and classical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, John C.; Starling, David J.; Dixon, P. Ben; Vudyasetu, Praveen K.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the weak value deflection given in an article by Dixon et al.[P. B. Dixon et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 173601 (2009)] both quantum mechanically and classically, including diffraction effects. This article is meant to cover some of the mathematical details omitted in that article owing to space constraints.

  14. How far can radiation from atoms be represented by classical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, D. Ter; Wergeland, H.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years some phenomena currently assumed to be essentially quantal have found an accurate description in classical terms. An example is Lamb's semiclassical theory of the laser. Consequently many physicists are discussing in how far a full quantum mechanical treatment is necessary. A good many of the formulae for the radiation from atoms can certainly be obtained by classical methods. But these methods fail already at the question of the line profiles. Even though the damping is a simple mechanism - classically speaking. It seems inevitible that the semi-classical formulae must be limited to those phenomena which essentially only involve the averages of photon numbers. (JIW)

  15. The Ups and Downs of Classical and Quantum Formulations of Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars G.

    2015-01-01

    in the connection between the seemingly very different classical and quantum descriptions. Such understanding is needed by students, authors, and lecturers, in particular. With limited complexity, the text introduces probabilistic classical and quantum mechanics with emphasis on similarities and differences......), which gives insight into the resonance phenomenon itself as well as spectral features resulting from intramolecular J-coupling of atomic nuclei. It is discussed how classical and quantum mechanics give rise to similar expectations for basic NMR and why a classical understanding is central....

  16. Classical orbits in power-law potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, A.K.; Rosner, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The motion of bodies in power-law potentials of the form V(r)=λr α has been of interest ever since the time of Newton and Hooke. Aspects of the relation between powers α and bar α, where (α+2)(bar α+2)=4, are derived for classical motion and the relation to the quantum-mechanical problem is given. An improvement on a previous expression for the WKB quantization condition for nonzero orbital angular momenta is obtained. Relations with previous treatments, such as those of Newton, Bertrand, Bohlin, Faure, and Arnold, are noted, and a brief survey of the literature on the problem over more than three centuries is given

  17. Particle swarm optimisation classical and quantum perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionOptimisation Problems and Optimisation MethodsRandom Search TechniquesMetaheuristic MethodsSwarm IntelligenceParticle Swarm OptimisationOverviewMotivationsPSO Algorithm: Basic Concepts and the ProcedureParadigm: How to Use PSO to Solve Optimisation ProblemsSome Harder Examples Some Variants of Particle Swarm Optimisation Why Does the PSO Algorithm Need to Be Improved? Inertia and Constriction-Acceleration Techniques for PSOLocal Best ModelProbabilistic AlgorithmsOther Variants of PSO Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimisation OverviewMotivation: From Classical Dynamics to Quantum MechanicsQuantum Model: Fundamentals of QPSOQPSO AlgorithmSome Essential ApplicationsSome Variants of QPSOSummary Advanced Topics Behaviour Analysis of Individual ParticlesConvergence Analysis of the AlgorithmTime Complexity and Rate of ConvergenceParameter Selection and PerformanceSummaryIndustrial Applications Inverse Problems for Partial Differential EquationsInverse Problems for Non-Linear Dynamical SystemsOptimal De...

  18. Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailagic, A.

    1981-08-01

    We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)

  19. Physiological characteristics of classical ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, P G; Astrand, P O

    1984-10-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during professional training sessions ("classes") of classical ballet as well as during rehearsed and performed ballets has been studied by means of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration determinations on professional ballet dancers from the Royal Swedish Ballet in Stockholm. The measured oxygen uptake during six different normal classes at the theatre averaged about 35-45% of the maximal oxygen uptake, and the blood lactate concentration averaged 3 mM (N = 6). During 10 different solo parts of choreographed dance (median length = 1.8 min) representative for moderately to very strenuous dance, an average oxygen uptake (measured during the last minute) of 80% of maximum and blood lactate concentration of 10 mM was measured (N = 10). In addition, heart rate registrations from soloists in different ballets during performance and final rehearsals frequently indicated a high oxygen uptake relative to maximum and an average blood lactate concentration of 11 mM (N = 5). Maximal oxygen uptake, determined in 1971 (N = 11) and 1983 (N = 13) in two different groups of dancers, amounted to on the average 51 and 56 ml X min-1 X kg-1 for the females and males, respectively. In conclusion, classical ballet is a predominantly intermittent type of exercise. In choreographed dance each exercise period usually lasts only a few minutes, but can be very demanding energetically, while during the dancers' basic training sessions, the energy yield is low.

  20. Modular forms a classical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  1. Quantum theory of the classical: quantum jumps, Born's Rule and objective classical reality via quantum Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2018-07-13

    The emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate of our Universe is a long-standing conundrum. In this paper, I describe three insights into the transition from quantum to classical that are based on the recognition of the role of the environment. I begin with the derivation of preferred sets of states that help to define what exists-our everyday classical reality. They emerge as a result of the breaking of the unitary symmetry of the Hilbert space which happens when the unitarity of quantum evolutions encounters nonlinearities inherent in the process of amplification-of replicating information. This derivation is accomplished without the usual tools of decoherence, and accounts for the appearance of quantum jumps and the emergence of preferred pointer states consistent with those obtained via environment-induced superselection, or einselection The pointer states obtained in this way determine what can happen-define events-without appealing to Born's Rule for probabilities. Therefore, p k =| ψ k | 2 can now be deduced from the entanglement-assisted invariance, or envariance -a symmetry of entangled quantum states. With probabilities at hand, one also gains new insights into the foundations of quantum statistical physics. Moreover, one can now analyse the information flows responsible for decoherence. These information flows explain how the perception of objective classical reality arises from the quantum substrate: the effective amplification that they represent accounts for the objective existence of the einselected states of macroscopic quantum systems through the redundancy of pointer state records in their environment-through quantum Darwinism This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Classical correlations, Bell inequalities, and communication complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Johannes; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Percival, Ian C. [Department of Physics, Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    A computer program is presented which is capable of exploring generalizations of Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of classical inputs and outputs. Thereby, polytopes can be described which represent classical local realistic theories, classical theories without signaling, or classical theories with explicit signaling. These latter polytopes may also be of interest for exploring basic problems of communication complexity. As a first application the influence of non-perfect detectors is discussed in simple Bell experiments.

  3. Origin of classical structure in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Claus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Lohmar, Ingo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Polarski, David [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, UMR 5207 CNRS, Universite de Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Starobinsky, Alexei A [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygina St. 2, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    We address the quantum-to-classical transition for primordial fluctuations, that is, the emergence of classical stochastic properties for these fluctuations. We discuss in particular the entanglement entropy for these fluctuations, the decoherence time, and the question of the classical basis (pointer basis) for them. The decoherence time for modes outside the Hubble scale is set by the Hubble parameter. The classical states are narrow Gaussians in the field amplitude.

  4. Local quantum channels preserving classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhihua; Cao Huaixin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss local quantum channels that preserve classical correlations. First, we give two equivalent characterizations of classical correlated states. Then we obtain the relationships among classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels, commutativity-preserving local quantum channels and commutativity-preserving quantum channels on each subsystem. Furthermore, for a two-qubit system, we show the general form of classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels. (paper)

  5. Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Classic Coffee Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...

  6. About the modern house - and the classical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965).......In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965)....

  7. Diminuendo: Classical Music and the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    How is the tradition of Western classical music faring on university campuses? Before answering this question, it is necessary to understand what has transpired with classical music in the wider culture, as the relationship between the two is so strong. In this article, the author discusses how classical music has taken a big cultural hit in…

  8. A classical view on nonclassical nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Paul J M; Finney, Aaron R; Habraken, Wouter J E M; Nudelman, Fabio; Friedrich, Heiner; Laven, Jozua; De Yoreo, James J; Rodger, P Mark; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2017-09-19

    Understanding and controlling nucleation is important for many crystallization applications. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) is often used as a model system to investigate nucleation mechanisms. Despite its great importance in geology, biology, and many industrial applications, CaCO 3 nucleation is still a topic of intense discussion, with new pathways for its growth from ions in solution proposed in recent years. These new pathways include the so-called nonclassical nucleation mechanism via the assembly of thermodynamically stable prenucleation clusters, as well as the formation of a dense liquid precursor phase via liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we present results from a combined experimental and computational investigation on the precipitation of CaCO 3 in dilute aqueous solutions. We propose that a dense liquid phase (containing 4-7 H 2 O per CaCO 3 unit) forms in supersaturated solutions through the association of ions and ion pairs without significant participation of larger ion clusters. This liquid acts as the precursor for the formation of solid CaCO 3 in the form of vaterite, which grows via a net transfer of ions from solution according to z Ca 2+ + z CO 3 2- → z CaCO 3 The results show that all steps in this process can be explained according to classical concepts of crystal nucleation and growth, and that long-standing physical concepts of nucleation can describe multistep, multiphase growth mechanisms.

  9. Análise estrutural de ciclodextrinas: um estudo comparativo entre métodos teóricos clássicos e quânticos Structural analysis of cyclodextrins: a comparative study of classical and quantum mechanical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta A. F. O. Britto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we analyzed the accuracy of distinct theoretical methods to reproduce the solid state structures of cyclodextrins. The a, b and g-cyclodextrins (CD were considered and also their hydrates with included water molecules: a-CD.2H2O, b-CD.10H2O and g-CD.12H2O. The geometries were fully optimized using Molecular Mechanics (MM2, semiempirical (AM1 and PM3 and ab initio (HF/3-21G methods and quantitatively compared with experimental data from X ray diffraction. The results obtained from the classical MM2 method were in best agreement with the experiment. The semiempirical and ab initio structures were also in satisfactory accordance with the experimental data. In general, the PM3 method was found to be more suitable than the AM1 to describe the CD geometries, mainly when the intramolecular hydrogen bonds are considered.

  10. 1000 Solved Problems in Classical Physics An Exercise Book

    CERN Document Server

    Kamal, Ahmad A

    2011-01-01

    This book basically caters to the needs of undergraduate and graduate physics students in classical physics, especially Classical Mechanics and Electricity and Electromagnetism. Lecturers/Tutors may use it as a resource book. The contents of the book are based on the syllabi currently used in the undergraduate courses in the USA, U.K., and other countries. The book consists of 15 chapters, each one beginning with a brief but adequate summary and necessary formulas and Line diagrams followed by a variety of typical problems useful for assignments and exams. Detailed solutions are provided at the end of each chapter.

  11. The significance of classical structures in quantum theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.J.

    1978-09-01

    The implications for the quantum theory of the presence of non-linear classical solutions of the equations of motion are investigated in various model systems under the headings: (1) Canonical quantisation of the soliton in lambdaphi 4 theory in two dimensions. (2) Bound for soliton masses in two dimensional field theories. (3) The canonical quantisation of a soliton like solution in the non-linear schrodinger equation. (4) The significance of the instanton classical solution in a quantum mechanical system. (U.K.)

  12. EPRB Gedankenexperiment and Entanglement with Classical Light Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkovskiy, Sergey A.

    2018-06-01

    In this article we show that results similar to those of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) Gedankenexperiment and entanglement of photons can be obtained using weak classical light waves if we take into account the discrete (atomic) structure of the detectors and a specific nature of the light-atom interaction. We show that the CHSH (Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt) criterion in the EPRB Gedankenexperiment with classical light waves can exceed not only the maximum value SHV=2 that is predicted by the local hidden-variable theories but also the maximum value S_{QM} = 2√2 predicted by quantum mechanics.

  13. Quantum tomography and classical propagator for quadratic quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, O.V.

    1999-03-01

    The classical propagator for tomographic probability (which describes the quantum state instead of wave function or density matrix) is presented for quadratic quantum systems and its relation to the quantum propagator is considered. The new formalism of quantum mechanics, based on the probability representation of the state, is applied to particular quadratic systems - the harmonic oscillator, particle's free motion, problems of an ion in a Paul trap and in asymmetric Penning trap, and to the process of stimulated Raman scattering. The classical propagator for these systems is written in an explicit form. (author)

  14. Classical dynamics of triatomic system: energized harmonic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, C.A.; Kuppermann, A.; Porter, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    The dynamical assumptions underlying the Slater and RRK classical-mechanical theories of unimolecular reaction rates are investigated. The predictions of these theories for several nonlinear, triatomic, harmonically-bonded molecular models are compared with the results obtained from the integration of the classical equations of motion. The accuracy of the small-vibration and weak-coupling assumptions are found to break down at energies above about one quarter of a bond dissociation energy. Nonetheless, the small-vibration approximation predicts reaction frequencies in good agreement with the exact results for the models. The effects of rotation on intramolecular energy exchange are examined and found to be significant

  15. Functional analysis of replication determinantsin classical swine fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadsbjerg, Johanne

    and animal pathogens should facilitate finding new approaches for efficient disease control. The principal aim of this thesis is to characterise determinants involved in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Classical swine fever is a highly contagious virus disease of domestic pigs and wild...... in cell culture. Knowledge of these sequence variations and putative long-range interactions will provide valuable insights into mechanisms underlying virustranslation and replication. In manuscript 3, a selection marker has been inserted into a CSFV-based replicon making it suitable for screening...

  16. Classical impurity ion confinement in a toroidal magnetized fusion plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S T A; Den Hartog, D J; Caspary, K J; Magee, R M; Mirnov, V V; Chapman, B E; Craig, D; Fiksel, G; Sarff, J S

    2012-03-23

    High-resolution measurements of impurity ion dynamics provide first-time evidence of classical ion confinement in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma. The density profile evolution of fully stripped carbon is measured in MST reversed-field pinch plasmas with reduced magnetic turbulence to assess Coulomb-collisional transport without the neoclassical enhancement from particle drift effects. The impurity density profile evolves to a hollow shape, consistent with the temperature screening mechanism of classical transport. Corroborating methane pellet injection experiments expose the sensitivity of the impurity particle confinement time to the residual magnetic fluctuation amplitude.

  17. Quantum correlations and dynamics from classical random fields valued in complex Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One of the crucial differences between mathematical models of classical and quantum mechanics (QM) is the use of the tensor product of the state spaces of subsystems as the state space of the corresponding composite system. (To describe an ensemble of classical composite systems, one uses random variables taking values in the Cartesian product of the state spaces of subsystems.) We show that, nevertheless, it is possible to establish a natural correspondence between the classical and the quantum probabilistic descriptions of composite systems. Quantum averages for composite systems (including entangled) can be represented as averages with respect to classical random fields. It is essentially what Albert Einstein dreamed of. QM is represented as classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. While the mathematical construction is completely rigorous, its physical interpretation is a complicated problem. We present the basic physical interpretation of prequantum classical statistical field theory in Sec. II. However, this is only the first step toward real physical theory.

  18. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  19. Classical imaging with undetected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A. C.; Berruezo, L. P.; Ávila, D. F.; Lemos, G. B.; Pimenta, W. M.; Monken, C. H.; Saldanha, P. L.; Pádua, S.

    2018-03-01

    We obtained the phase and intensity images of an object by detecting classical light which never interacted with it. With a double passage of a pump and a signal laser beams through a nonlinear crystal, we observe interference between the two idler beams produced by stimulated parametric down conversion. The object is placed in the amplified signal beam after its first passage through the crystal and the image is observed in the interference of the generated idler beams. High contrast images can be obtained even for objects with small transmittance coefficient due to the geometry of the interferometer and to the stimulated parametric emission. Like its quantum counterpart, this three-color imaging concept can be useful when the object must be probed with light at a wavelength for which detectors are not available.

  20. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  1. Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

    2010-05-01

    Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in pre-college science classes, or in public science education setting.

  2. From classical to quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, Laurent; Sénéor, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Field Theory has become the universal language of most modern theoretical physics. This introductory textbook shows how this beautiful theory offers the correct mathematical framework to describe and understand the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. The book begins with a brief reminder of basic classical field theories, electrodynamics and general relativity, as well as their symmetry properties, and proceeds with the principles of quantisation following Feynman's path integral approach. Special care is used at every step to illustrate the correct mathematical formulation of the underlying assumptions. Gauge theories and the problems encountered in their quantisation are discussed in detail. The last chapters contain a full description of the Standard Model of particle physics and the attempts to go beyond it, such as grand unified theories and supersymmetry. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book could also serve as a re...

  3. Classical and quantum thermal physics

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, R

    2016-01-01

    Covering essential areas of thermal physics, this book includes kinetic theory, classical thermodynamics, and quantum thermodynamics. The text begins by explaining fundamental concepts of the kinetic theory of gases, viscosity, conductivity, diffusion, and the laws of thermodynamics and their applications. It then goes on to discuss applications of thermodynamics to problems of physics and engineering. These applications are explained with the help of P-V and P-S-H diagrams where necessary and are followed by a large number of solved examples and unsolved exercises. The book includes a dedicated chapter on the applications of thermodynamics to chemical reactions. Each application is explained by taking the example of an appropriate chemical reaction, where all technical terms are explained and complete mathematical derivations are worked out in steps starting from the first principle.

  4. On causal nonrelativistic classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    The differential-difference (DD) motion equations of the causal nonrelativistic classical electrodynamics developed by the author in 1975 are shown to possess only nonrunaway, causal solutions with no discontinuities in particle velocity or position. As an example, the DD equation solution for the problem of an electromagnetic shock incident on an initially stationary charged particle is contrasted with the standard Abraham-Lorentz equation solution. The general Cauchy problem for these DD motion equations is discussed. In general, in order to uniquely determine a solution, the initial data must be more detailed than the standard Cauchy data of initial position and velocity. Conditions are given under which the standard Cauchy data will determine the DD equation solutions to sufficient practical accuracy

  5. Hydrogen: Beyond the Classic Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivetti, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  6. Quantum classical correspondence in nonrelativistic electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, B.; Weatherford, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    A form of classical electrodynamic field exists which gives exact agreement with the operator field of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for the Lamb shift of a harmonically bound point electron. Here it is pointed out that this form of classical theory, with its physically acceptable interpretation, is the result of an unconventional resolution of a mathematically ambiguous term in classical field theory. Finally, a quantum classical correspondence principle is shown to exist in the sense that the classical field and expectation value of the QED operator field are identical, if retardation is neglected in the latter

  7. Decoherence and the quantum-to-classical transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosshauer, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate introduction, textbook, and reference on decoherence and the quantum-to-classical transition. This detailed but accessible text describes the concepts, formalism, interpretation, and experimental observation of decoherence and explains how decoherence is responsible for the emergence, from the realm of quantum mechanics, of the classical world of our experience. Topics include: - Foundational problems at the quantum-classical border; - The role of the environment and entanglement; - Environment-induced loss of coherence and superselection; - Scattering-induced decoherence and spatial localization; - Master equations; - Decoherence models; - Experimental realization of ''Schroedinger's kittens'' and their decoherence; - Quantum computing, quantum error correction, and decoherence-free subspaces; - Implications of decoherence for interpretations of quantum mechanics and for the ''measurement problem''; - Decoherence in the brain. Written in a lucid and concise style that is accessible to all readers with a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics, this stimulating book tells the ''classical from quantum'' story in a comprehensive and coherent manner that brings together the foundational, technical, and experimental aspects of decoherence. It will be an indispensable resource for newcomers and experts alike. (orig.)

  8. Quantum healing of classical singularities in power-law spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helliwell, T M [Department of Physics, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Konkowski, D A [Department of Mathematics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)

    2007-07-07

    We study a broad class of spacetimes whose metric coefficients reduce to powers of a radius r in the limit of small r. Among these four-parameter 'power-law' metrics, we identify those parameters for which the spacetimes have classical singularities as r {yields} 0. We show that a large set of such classically-singular spacetimes is nevertheless non-singular quantum mechanically, in that the Hamiltonian operator is essentially self-adjoint, so that the evolution of quantum wave packets lacks the ambiguity associated with scattering off singularities. Using these metrics, the broadest class yet studied to compare classical with quantum singularities, we explore the physical reasons why some that are singular classically are 'healed' quantum mechanically, while others are not. We show that most (but not all) of the remaining quantum-mechanically singular spacetimes can be excluded if either the weak energy condition or the dominant energy condition is invoked, and we briefly discuss the effect of this work on the strong cosmic censorship conjecture.

  9. The Classical Isotropic bi-Dimensional Oscilator in the Eisenhart Formulation of Classical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Percoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con la Teoría de la Relatividad General, el movimi en- to de partículas por acción de su inercia y la gravedad es desc rito por geodésicas en el espacio-tiempo. Utilizamos la formulació n Geométrica de Eisenhart de la Mecánica Clásica para establecer una corres pondencia en- tre geodésicas y trayectorias en el espacio de fases del osci lador clásico isótropo. Se presentan los vectores de Killing y las constan tes de movimien- to asociadas, se comparan con las constantes de movimiento n o noetheriano calculadas por S. Hojman y colaboradores.

  10. Classical model of intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniadakis, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we present a classical kinetic model of intermediate statistics. In the case of Brownian particles we show that the Fermi-Dirac (FD) and Bose-Einstein (BE) distributions can be obtained, just as the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MD) distribution, as steady states of a classical kinetic equation that intrinsically takes into account an exclusion-inclusion principle. In our model the intermediate statistics are obtained as steady states of a system of coupled nonlinear kinetic equations, where the coupling constants are the transmutational potentials η κκ' . We show that, besides the FD-BE intermediate statistics extensively studied from the quantum point of view, we can also study the MB-FD and MB-BE ones. Moreover, our model allows us to treat the three-state mixing FD-MB-BE intermediate statistics. For boson and fermion mixing in a D-dimensional space, we obtain a family of FD-BE intermediate statistics by varying the transmutational potential η BF . This family contains, as a particular case when η BF =0, the quantum statistics recently proposed by L. Wu, Z. Wu, and J. Sun [Phys. Lett. A 170, 280 (1992)]. When we consider the two-dimensional FD-BE statistics, we derive an analytic expression of the fraction of fermions. When the temperature T→∞, the system is composed by an equal number of bosons and fermions, regardless of the value of η BF . On the contrary, when T=0, η BF becomes important and, according to its value, the system can be completely bosonic or fermionic, or composed both by bosons and fermions

  11. Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Essa, M.; Ozand, P.T.; Rashed, M.

    1998-01-01

    Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

  12. Classical foundations of quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garola, C.

    1991-01-01

    The author constructs a language L for a classical first-order predicate calculus with monadic predicates only, extended by means of a family of statistical quantifiers. Then, a formal semantic model M is put forward for L which is compatible with a physical interpretation and embodies a truth theory which provides the statistical quantifiers with properties that fit their interpretation; in this framework, the truth mode of physical laws is suitably characterized and a probability-frequency correlation principle is established. By making use of L and M, a set of basic physical laws is stated that hold both in classical physics (CP) and in quantum physics (QP), which allow the selection of suitable subsets of primitive predicates of L and the introduction on these subsets of binary relations. Two languages L E x and L E S are constructed that can be mapped into L; the mapping induces on them mathematical structures, some kind of truth function, an interpretation. The formulas of L E S can be endowed with two different interpretations as statements about the frequency of some physical property in some class (state) of physical objects; consequently, a two-valued truth function and a multivalued fuzzy-truth function are defined on L E S . In all cases the algebras of propositions of these 'logics' are complete ortho-complemented lattices isomorphic to (E E , prec). These results hold both in CP and in QP; further physical assumptions endow the lattice (E E , prec), hence L E x and L E s , with further properties, such as distributivity in CP and weak modularity and covering law in QP. In the latter case, L E x and L E s , together with their interpretations, can be considered different models of the same basic mathematical structure, and can be identified with standard (elementary) quantum logics

  13. Discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of time throughout all phases of mechanics: classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and relativistic quantum theory. As an example of the relativistic quantum field theory, the case of a massless scalar field interacting with an arbitrary external current is discussed. The comparison between the new discrete theory and the usual continuum formalism is presented. An example is given of a two-dimensional random lattice and its duel. The author notes that there is no evidence that the discrete mechanics is more appropriate than the usual continuum mechanics

  14. Dynamics of classical and quantum fields an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Setlur, Girish S

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of Classical and Quantum Fields: An Introduction focuses on dynamical fields in non-relativistic physics. Written by a physicist for physicists, the book is designed to help readers develop analytical skills related to classical and quantum fields at the non-relativistic level, and think about the concepts and theory through numerous problems. In-depth yet accessible, the book presents new and conventional topics in a self-contained manner that beginners would find useful. A partial list of topics covered includes: Geometrical meaning of Legendre transformation in classical mechanics Dynamical symmetries in the context of Noether's theorem The derivation of the stress energy tensor of the electromagnetic field, the expression for strain energy in elastic bodies, and the Navier Stokes equation Concepts of right and left movers in case of a Fermi gas explained Functional integration is interpreted as a limit of a sequence of ordinary integrations Path integrals for one and two quantum particles and for...

  15. The ambiguity of simplicity in quantum and classical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-04-01

    A system's perceived simplicity depends on whether it is represented classically or quantally. This is not so surprising, as classical and quantum physics are descriptive frameworks built on different assumptions that capture, emphasize, and express different properties and mechanisms. What is surprising is that, as we demonstrate, simplicity is ambiguous: the relative simplicity between two systems can change sign when moving between classical and quantum descriptions. Here, we associate simplicity with small model-memory. We see that the notions of absolute physical simplicity at best form a partial, not a total, order. This suggests that appeals to principles of physical simplicity, via Ockham's Razor or to the ;elegance; of competing theories, may be fundamentally subjective. Recent rapid progress in quantum computation and quantum simulation suggest that the ambiguity of simplicity will strongly impact statistical inference and, in particular, model selection.

  16. Generic emergence of classical features in quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Piani, Marco; Horodecki, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    Quantum Darwinism posits that only specific information about a quantum system that is redundantly proliferated to many parts of its environment becomes accessible and objective, leading to the emergence of classical reality. However, it is not clear under what conditions this mechanism holds true. Here we prove that the emergence of classical features along the lines of quantum Darwinism is a general feature of any quantum dynamics: observers who acquire information indirectly through the environment have effective access at most to classical information about one and the same measurement of the quantum system. Our analysis does not rely on a strict conceptual splitting between a system-of-interest and its environment, and allows one to interpret any system as part of the environment of any other system. Finally, our approach leads to a full operational characterization of quantum discord in terms of local redistribution of correlations.

  17. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2014-09-01

    The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

  18. Quantum magnification of classical sub-Planck phase space features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensinger, W.K.; Heckenberg, N.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Delande, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: To understand the relationship between quantum mechanics and classical physics a crucial question to be answered is how distinct classical dynamical phase space features translate into the quantum picture. This problem becomes even more interesting if these phase space features occupy a much smaller volume than ℎ in a phase space spanned by two non-commuting variables such as position and momentum. The question whether phase space structures in quantum mechanics associated with sub-Planck scales have physical signatures has recently evoked a lot of discussion. Here we will show that sub-Planck classical dynamical phase space structures, for example regions of regular motion, can give rise to states whose phase space representation is of size ℎ or larger. This is illustrated using period-1 regions of regular motion (modes of oscillatory motion of a particle in a modulated well) whose volume is distinctly smaller than Planck's constant. They are magnified in the quantum picture and appear as states whose phase space representation is of size h or larger. Cold atoms provide an ideal test bed to probe such fundamental aspects of quantum and classical dynamics. In the experiment a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded into a far detuned optical lattice. The lattice depth is modulated resulting in the emergence of regions of regular motion surrounded by chaotic motion in the phase space spanned by position and momentum of the atoms along the standing wave. Sub-Planck scaled phase space features in the classical phase space are magnified and appear as distinct broad peaks in the atomic momentum distribution. The corresponding quantum analysis shows states of size Ti which can be associated with much smaller classical dynamical phase space features. This effect may considered as the dynamical equivalent of the Goldstone and Jaffe theorem which predicts the existence of at least one bound state at a bend in a two or three dimensional spatial potential

  19. Two-slit experiment: quantum and classical probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Inter-relation between quantum and classical probability models is one of the most fundamental problems of quantum foundations. Nowadays this problem also plays an important role in quantum technologies, in quantum cryptography and the theory of quantum random generators. In this letter, we compare the viewpoint of Richard Feynman that the behavior of quantum particles cannot be described by classical probability theory with the viewpoint that quantum–classical inter-relation is more complicated (cf, in particular, with the tomographic model of quantum mechanics developed in detail by Vladimir Man'ko). As a basic example, we consider the two-slit experiment, which played a crucial role in quantum foundational debates at the beginning of quantum mechanics (QM). In particular, its analysis led Niels Bohr to the formulation of the principle of complementarity. First, we demonstrate that in complete accordance with Feynman's viewpoint, the probabilities for the two-slit experiment have the non-Kolmogorovian structure, since they violate one of basic laws of classical probability theory, the law of total probability (the heart of the Bayesian analysis). However, then we show that these probabilities can be embedded in a natural way into the classical (Kolmogorov, 1933) probability model. To do this, one has to take into account the randomness of selection of different experimental contexts, the joint consideration of which led Feynman to a conclusion about the non-classicality of quantum probability. We compare this embedding of non-Kolmogorovian quantum probabilities into the Kolmogorov model with well-known embeddings of non-Euclidean geometries into Euclidean space (e.g., the Poincaré disk model for the Lobachvesky plane). (paper)

  20. The ambiguity of simplicity in quantum and classical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simplicity depends on whether a system is represented classically or quantally. • We demonstrate that simplicity is unavoidably ambiguous. • Relative simplicity changes order moving between classical and quantum descriptions. • Ambiguity of simplicity bears directly on model selection. - Abstract: A system's perceived simplicity depends on whether it is represented classically or quantally. This is not so surprising, as classical and quantum physics are descriptive frameworks built on different assumptions that capture, emphasize, and express different properties and mechanisms. What is surprising is that, as we demonstrate, simplicity is ambiguous: the relative simplicity between two systems can change sign when moving between classical and quantum descriptions. Here, we associate simplicity with small model-memory. We see that the notions of absolute physical simplicity at best form a partial, not a total, order. This suggests that appeals to principles of physical simplicity, via Ockham's Razor or to the “elegance” of competing theories, may be fundamentally subjective. Recent rapid progress in quantum computation and quantum simulation suggest that the ambiguity of simplicity will strongly impact statistical inference and, in particular, model selection.