High-frequency binaural beats increase cognitive flexibility: evidence from dual-task crosstalk
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Bernhard Hommel
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing. We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style towards flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm. We replicated earlier findings that the reaction time in the first-performed task is sensitive to the compatibility between the responses in the first and the second task—an indication of crosstalk. As predicted, exposing participants to binaural beats in the gamma range increased this effect as compared to a control condition in which participants were exposed to a continuous tone of 340 Hz. These findings provide converging evidence that the cognitive-control style can be systematically biased by inducing particular internal states; that high-frequency binaural beats bias the control style towards more flexibility; and that different styles are implemented by changing the strength of local competition and top-down bias.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gillis, Steven; Souman, Agnita; Dhollander, Sim
-year-olds to 9-year-olds. The experiment was also administered with a control group of adults. Procedure: The procedure consists of a classical set-up in which the subjects are shown pictures of objects. On presenting each object, the test leader says: "Here is a X (name of the object)". The next...... articulated: Prediction 1: a global analysis of the plural forms provided by the subjects is expected to show an increase of the correct responses as children grow older. Prediction 2: As to suffix selection, we expect that the plural of nouns selecting a fully predictable suffix will be more readily mastered...
The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity
Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander
2017-04-01
Objective. Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain’s frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain’s response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. Approach. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. Main results. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant’s accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Significance. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.
Statistics of natural binaural sounds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wiktor Młynarski
Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.
The technology of binaural listening
2013-01-01
This book reports on the application of advanced models of the human binaural hearing system in modern technology, among others, in the following areas: binaural analysis of aural scenes, binaural de-reverberation, binaural quality assessment of audio channels, loudspeakers and performance spaces, binaural perceptual coding, binaural processing in hearing aids and cochlea implants, binaural systems in robots, binaural/tactile human-machine interfaces, speech-intelligibility prediction in rooms and/or multi-speaker scenarios. An introduction to binaural modeling and an outlook to the future are provided. Further, the book features a MATLAB toolbox to enable readers to construct their own dedicated binaural models on demand.
The impact of binaural beats on creativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susan A. Reedijk
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Human creativity relies on a multitude of cognitive processes, some of which are influenced by the neurotransmitter dopamine. This suggests that creativity could be enhanced by interventions that either modulate the production or transmission of dopamine directly, or affect dopamine-driven processes. In the current study we hypothesized that creativity can be influenced by means of binaural beats, an auditory illusion that is considered a form of cognitive entrainment that operates through stimulating neuronal phase locking. We aimed to investigate whether binaural beats affect creative performance at all, whether they affect divergent thinking, convergent thinking, or both, and whether possible effects may be mediated by the individual striatal dopamine level. Binaural beats were presented at alpha and gamma frequency. Participants completed a divergent and a convergent thinking task to assess two important functions of creativity, and filled out the Positive And Negative Affect Scale – mood State questionnaire (PANAS-S and affect grid to measure current mood. Dopamine levels in the striatum were estimated using spontaneous eye blink rates (EBRs. Results showed that binaural beats, regardless of the presented frequency, can affect divergent but not convergent thinking. Individuals with low EBRs mostly benefitted from alpha binaural beat stimulation, while individuals with high EBR were unaffected or even impaired by both alpha and gamma binaural beats. This suggests that binaural beats, and possibly other forms of cognitive entrainment, are not suited for a one-size-fits-all approach, and that individual cognitive-control systems need to be taken into account when studying cognitive enhancement methods.
Usage of measured reverberation tail in a binaural room impulse response synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Madsen, Esben
2011-01-01
utilizing correct acoustical properties of the specific environments. Binaural room impulse response (BRIR) synthesis represents one of the main tasks in the binaural auralization. When the BRIRs are simulated, high order reflections (reverberation tail) are usually modeled statistically because of the high...
Impact of monaural frequency compression on binaural fusion at the brainstem level.
Klauke, Isabelle; Kohl, Manuel C; Hannemann, Ronny; Kornagel, Ulrich; Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I
2015-08-01
A classical objective measure for binaural fusion at the brainstem level is the so-called β-wave of the binaural interaction component (BIC) in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). However, in some cases it appeared that a reliable detection of this component still remains a challenge. In this study, we investigate the wavelet phase synchronization stability (WPSS) of ABR data for the analysis of binaural fusion and compare it to the BIC. In particular, we examine the impact of monaural nonlinear frequency compression on binaural fusion. As the auditory system is tonotopically organized, an interaural frequency mismatch caused by monaural frequency compression could negatively effect binaural fusion. In this study, only few subjects showed a detectable β-wave and in most cases only for low ITDs. However, we present a novel objective measure for binaural fusion that outperforms the current state-of-the-art technique (BIC): the WPSS analysis showed a significant difference between the phase stability of the sum of the monaurally evoked responses and the phase stability of the binaurally evoked ABR. This difference could be an indicator for binaural fusion in the brainstem. Furthermore, we observed that monaural frequency compression could indeed effect binaural fusion, as the WPSS results for this condition vary strongly from the results obtained without frequency compression.
Instructional Multiple Binaural Stethoscope
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Catalina C. Platon
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation where human ear plays significant part. Long before doctors practiced immediate auscultation meaning placing ear directly on patient’s body by Salinsky (1990, then monaural introduced by Laennec; later binaural, Comins’s invention and Cammann developed further. Several decades numerous innovations made predominantly over chestpiece some had drawbacks. Dr Littman introduced teaching stethoscope with two headset and researcher utilized as prior art.Experimental research method used and the study aimed to determine accuracy and measurement of speed of the device in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and acceptability of user. The subjects were 19 clients and 27 nursing students, government /private registered nurses. The device are comparable to single binaural stethoscope in accuracy performance; speed of sound, former is slightly higher than the latter but still considered as normal; the device are acceptable to users; the utility model have no significant difference in accuracy performance and speed measurements of systolic and diastolic. The utility model may be tried in any acoustic activities and may be pilot tested to the Universities animal science courses, veterinary medicine other Colleges of Nursing and all health allied courses.
Language Helps Children Succeed on a Classic Analogy Task
Christie, Stella; Gentner, Dedre
2014-01-01
Adult humans show exceptional relational ability relative to other species. In this research, we trace the development of this ability in young children. We used a task widely used in comparative research--the relational match-to-sample task, which requires participants to notice and match the identity relation: for example, AA should match BB…
Monaural and interaural intensity discrimination: Level effects and the ``binaural advantage''
Stellmack, Mark A.; Viemeister, Neal F.; Byrne, Andrew J.
2004-08-01
This study examined whether the level effects seen in monaural intensity discrimination (Weber's law and the ``near miss'') in a two-interval task are also observed in discrimination of interaural intensity differences (IIDs) in a single-interval task. Both tasks were performed for various standard levels of 4-kHz pure tones and broadband noise. The Weber functions (10 log ΔI/I versus I in dB) in the monaural and binaural conditions were parallel. For noise, the Weber functions had slopes close to zero (Weber's law) while the Weber functions for the tones had a mean slope of -0.089 (near miss). The near miss for the monaural and binaural tasks with tones was eliminated when a high-pass masker was gated with the listening intervals. The near-miss was also observed for 250- and 1000-Hz tones in the binaural task despite overall decreased sensitivity to changes in IID at 1000 Hz. The binaural thresholds showed a small (about 2-dB) advantage over monaural thresholds only in the broadband noise conditions. More important, however, is the fact that the level effects seen monaurally are also seen binaurally. This suggests that the basic mechanisms responsible for Weber's law and the near miss are common to monaural and binaural processing.
Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround
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Kristofer Kjörling
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate Ã¢Â€Âœbinaural parametersÃ¢Â€Â that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.
A high-density EEG investigation into steady state binaural beat stimulation.
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Peter Goodin
Full Text Available Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that has been suggested to alter physiological and cognitive processes including vigilance and brainwave entrainment. Some personality traits measured by the NEO Five Factor Model have been found to alter entrainment using pulsing light stimuli, but as yet no studies have examined if this occurs using steady state presentation of binaural beats for a relatively short presentation of two minutes. This study aimed to examine if binaural beat stimulation altered vigilance or cortical frequencies and if personality traits were involved. Thirty-one participants were played binaural beat stimuli designed to elicit a response at either the Theta (7 Hz or Beta (16 Hz frequency bands while undertaking a zero-back vigilance task. EEG was recorded from a high-density electrode cap. No significant differences were found in vigilance or cortical frequency power during binaural beat stimulation compared to a white noise control period. Furthermore, no significant relationships were detected between the above and the Big Five personality traits. This suggests a short presentation of steady state binaural beats are not sufficient to alter vigilance or entrain cortical frequencies at the two bands examined and that certain personality traits were not more susceptible than others.
Control of earphone produced binaural signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.
2011-01-01
While most people keep a high attention to the significance of the binaural recording method, whether it is e.g. individual or non-individual (as e.g. artificial head recording), many pay less attention to the type of earphone used to reproduce the binaural signals, and to the accurate control of...
Musical training enhances neural processing of binaural sounds.
Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina
2013-10-16
While hearing in noise is a complex task, even in high levels of noise humans demonstrate remarkable hearing ability. Binaural hearing, which involves the integration and analysis of incoming sounds from both ears, is an important mechanism that promotes hearing in complex listening environments. Analyzing inter-ear differences helps differentiate between sound sources--a key mechanism that facilitates hearing in noise. Even when both ears receive the same input, known as diotic hearing, speech intelligibility in noise is improved. Although musicians have better speech-in-noise perception compared with non-musicians, we do not know to what extent binaural processing contributes to this advantage. Musicians often demonstrate enhanced neural responses to sound, however, which may undergird their speech-in-noise perceptual enhancements. Here, we recorded auditory brainstem responses in young adult musicians and non-musicians to a speech stimulus for which there was no musician advantage when presented monaurally. When presented diotically, musicians demonstrated faster neural timing and greater intertrial response consistency relative to non-musicians. Furthermore, musicians' enhancements to the diotically presented stimulus correlated with speech-in-noise perception. These data provide evidence for musical training's impact on biological processes and suggest binaural processing as a possible contributor to more proficient hearing in noise.
Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten
2012-01-01
The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception...... were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch...... sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural...
Leak detection utilizing analog binaural (VLSI) techniques
Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
A detection method and system utilizing silicon models of the traveling wave structure of the human cochlea to spatially and temporally locate a specific sound source in the presence of high noise pandemonium. The detection system combines two-dimensional stereausis representations, which are output by at least three VLSI binaural hearing chips, to generate a three-dimensional stereausis representation including both binaural and spectral information which is then used to locate the sound source.
Setup for demonstrating interactive binaural synthesis for telepresence applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos;
2011-01-01
3 main tasks: Tracking coordinates are combined to calculate directions. This is handled by sharing "global" coordinates across the sites and adding local changes with a low latency, ending with a "direction of sound" for each source. Audio is recorded and transmitted over network. Here bandwidth....... The combined system was evaluated by the user experience at the demonstration, with the overall conclusion that interactive binaural synthesis is an important aspect of a fully immersive telepresence application and that we should continue in this direction examining different approaches....
Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II
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Regina M. Baumgärtel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50 were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users.
Behavioral sensitivity to broadband binaural localization cues in the ferret.
Keating, Peter; Nodal, Fernando R; Gananandan, Kohilan; Schulz, Andreas L; King, Andrew J
2013-08-01
Although the ferret has become an important model species for studying both fundamental and clinical aspects of spatial hearing, previous behavioral work has focused on studies of sound localization and spatial release from masking in the free field. This makes it difficult to tease apart the role played by different spatial cues. In humans and other species, interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) play a critical role in sound localization in the azimuthal plane and also facilitate sound source separation in noisy environments. In this study, we used a range of broadband noise stimuli presented via customized earphones to measure ITD and ILD sensitivity in the ferret. Our behavioral data show that ferrets are extremely sensitive to changes in either binaural cue, with levels of performance approximating that found in humans. The measured thresholds were relatively stable despite extensive and prolonged (>16 weeks) testing on ITD and ILD tasks with broadband stimuli. For both cues, sensitivity was reduced at shorter durations. In addition, subtle effects of changing the stimulus envelope were observed on ITD, but not ILD, thresholds. Sensitivity to these cues also differed in other ways. Whereas ILD sensitivity was unaffected by changes in average binaural level or interaural correlation, the same manipulations produced much larger effects on ITD sensitivity, with thresholds declining when either of these parameters was reduced. The binaural sensitivity measured in this study can largely account for the ability of ferrets to localize broadband stimuli in the azimuthal plane. Our results are also broadly consistent with data from humans and confirm the ferret as an excellent experimental model for studying spatial hearing.
Development of binaural speech transmission index
Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Drullman, R.
2006-01-01
Although the speech transmission index (STI) is a well-accepted and standardized method for objective prediction of speech intelligibility in a wide range of-environments and applications, it is essentially a monaural model. Advantages of binaural hearing to the intelligibility of speech are disrega
Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources
2016-08-18
feedback was provided to the listener about their rotation, so there was no cognitive information based on experience that was related to their rotation...overlap on sensitivity to interaural time differences, EL : Possible Role of Binaural Interference, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 137
Usage of measured reverberation tail in a binaural room impulse response synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Madsen, Esben;
2011-01-01
utilizing correct acoustical properties of the specific environments. Binaural room impulse response (BRIR) synthesis represents one of the main tasks in the binaural auralization. When the BRIRs are simulated, high order reflections (reverberation tail) are usually modeled statistically because of the high...... measurement in a real room is performed. In the second one, synthesized BRIRs are used. BRIRs synthesis is realized using the image-source method for the early reflections and the artificial reverberation algorithm for the reverberation tail. The third case combines modeled early reflections from the second...... case and measured late reverberation from the first one. All three cases are evaluated and compared objectively based on the obtained room acoustic parameters as well as subjectively by listening tests....
Comparison of binaural microphones for externalization of sounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cubick, Jens; Sánchez Rodríguez, C.; Song, Wookeun;
2015-01-01
or with microphones placed inside the ear canals of a person. In this study, binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were measured with several commercially available binaural microphones, both placed inside the listeners’ ears (individual BRIR) and on a head and torso simulator (generic BRIR). The degree...
Older Adults Do Not Notice Their Names: A New Twist to a Classic Attention Task
Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C.; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson
2014-01-01
Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an…
Comparisons between Binaural In-situ Recordings and Auralizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saher, Konca; Rindel, Jens Holger; Nijs, Lau
2006-01-01
-architectural design. This paper deals with comparison between binaural in-situ recordings and auralizations obtained from computer simulations. Listening tests and questionnaires were prepared from auralizations to compare with the reference binaural recordings. The difficulties in evaluation of auralization quality...... are discussed. The results indicate that although auralizations and binaural recordings evoke different aural perception auralization is a strong tool to assess the acoustical environment before the space is built. Two commercial programs are used for the auralizations. (ODEON and CATT-Acoustics)...
Zakay, Dan
2014-01-01
The musical Stroop task is analyzed and compared to the classical Stroop task. The analysis indicates that the two tasks differ in the following significant characteristics: ecological validity, the interrelations between the two perceptual dimensions involved, the nature of the automatic process and the existence of a potential Garner interference. It is concluded that the musical task has no advantage over the classical task.
Binaural masking level differences with a variety of waveforms.
Henning, G B; Gaskell, H
1981-05-01
Binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) were measured in a standard two-interval forced-choice detection task. The signals were (a) 250-ms bursts of pure tones, (b) amplitude-modulated waveforms with either high- or low-frequency carriers, and (c) 20-microseconds clicks. The pure tones and clicks were presented either eith zero phase difference between the ears or with an 180 degrees phase difference between the ears: the AM tones were presented in several different interaural phase conditions, only some of which lead to changes in the apparent location of the signal source. The noise against which all the signals were detected was white, broad-band, and identical at the ears. BMLDs were invariably small with high-frequency signals and with clicks. Although the magnitude of the BMLD obtained with low-frequency signals appeared to be related to the Observers' ability to lateralize the signal, there is a simpler explanation based on the assumption that detection of low-frequency AM signals is determined by independent detection of its components.
A binaural Web-based tour of the acoustics of Troy Music Hall
Torres, Rendell R.; Cooney, James; Shimizu, Yasushi
2001-05-01
For classical music to become more widely enjoyed, it must sound exciting. We hypothesize that if people could hear examples of truly exciting acoustics, classical music would be perceived less as a rarefied delicacy and more as a viscerally engaging listening experience. The Troy Savings Bank Music Hall in Troy, New York, is a legendary 1200-seat concert hall famous for its acoustics. Such landmarks are commonly documented architecturally but with few attempts to document their acoustics in a way that it is listenable. Thus, the goal is to capture and sonically disseminate the hall's acoustics through a Web-based acoustical tour, where one can click on various seats to hear binaural auralizations of different instruments and see corresponding views of the stage. The hope is that these auralizations will not only sonically document the acoustics of the hall but also tantalize even geographically distant listeners with binaural samples of how exciting music can be in excellent acoustics. The fun and challenges of devising (let alone standardizing) such an auralization-based system of documentation will be discussed, and a demonstration given. This process can be applied to other historically and acoustically significant spaces. [Work supported by the National Endowment for the Arts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guilherme Machado de Carvalho
2013-06-01
Full Text Available O implante coclear é um grande avanço no tratamento da surdez. Há grandes evidências que a audição bilateral traz diversas vantagens ao ser humano e muito mais quando se trata de audição binaural. OBJETIVO: Este artigo tem por objetivo descrever o primeiro caso operado no Brasil, sendo o terceiro país das Américas (México e Colômbia a realizar, com implante binaural Neurelec Digisonic SP® demonstrando a técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Descrição da técnica cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: Ver técnica cirúrgica. Procedimento ocorreu sem intercorrências. DISCUSSÃO: O efeito "squelch", a somação binaural, a localização da fonte sonora e o efeito sombra da cabeça são umas das principais razões que justificam a superioridade da reabilitação binaural. O custo do tratamento deve ser levado em conta em políticas de saúde pública. CONCLUSÃO: Custo do implante coclear é um dos grandes limitadores da bilateralidade na reabilitação desse grupo de pacientes, porém, com essa tecnologia, é possível solucionar esse problema, expondo o paciente a poucos riscos, com o uso de uma técnica cirúrgica pouco invasiva.Cochlear implants represent a significant breakthrough in the treatment of hearing loss. Evidence indicates bilateral hearing brings significant benefits to patients, particularly when binaural hearing is offered. OBJECTIVE: To describe the first case of implantation of a Digisonic SP® Binaural Neurelec device in Brazil (the third implant placed in the Americas, after Mexico and Colombia and the chosen surgical approach. METHOD: Description of a surgical approach. RESULTS: The procedure was successfully completed. DISCUSSION: The squelch effect, binaural summation, location of the sound source, and the shadow effect of the head are listed among the reasons to explain the superiority of binaural rehabilitation. Cost of treatment must be considered in the development of public health policies. CONCLUSION: The cost of cochlear
Monaural and binaural subjective modulation transfer functions in simple reverberation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2008-01-01
, M.R. (1981) Modulation transfer-functions: Definition and measurement, Acustica, 49, 179-182]. The envelope of a speech signal is critical for intelligibility, and the speech transmission index (STI) predicts the intelligibility of speech through a given transmission channel based on its MTF...... [Houtgast, T. and Steeneken, H.J.M. (1973) Modulation transfer-function in room acoustics as a predictor of speech intelligibility, Acustica, 28, 66-73]. In the present study, the results of intensity modulation detection experiments with broad-band noise carriers are reported in monaural and binaural...... give a binaural advantage in detecting the intensity modulation. This binaural advantage could be used to enhance speech intelligibility over purely monaural listening....
A Binaural Neuromorphic Auditory Sensor for FPGA: A Spike Signal Processing Approach.
Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Cerezuela-Escudero, Elena; Miro-Amarante, Lourdes; Dominguez-Moralse, Manuel Jesus; de Asis Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel
2017-04-01
This paper presents a new architecture, design flow, and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation analysis of a neuromorphic binaural auditory sensor, designed completely in the spike domain. Unlike digital cochleae that decompose audio signals using classical digital signal processing techniques, the model presented in this paper processes information directly encoded as spikes using pulse frequency modulation and provides a set of frequency-decomposed audio information using an address-event representation interface. In this case, a systematic approach to design led to a generic process for building, tuning, and implementing audio frequency decomposers with different features, facilitating synthesis with custom features. This allows researchers to implement their own parameterized neuromorphic auditory systems in a low-cost FPGA in order to study the audio processing and learning activity that takes place in the brain. In this paper, we present a 64-channel binaural neuromorphic auditory system implemented in a Virtex-5 FPGA using a commercial development board. The system was excited with a diverse set of audio signals in order to analyze its response and characterize its features. The neuromorphic auditory system response times and frequencies are reported. The experimental results of the proposed system implementation with 64-channel stereo are: a frequency range between 9.6 Hz and 14.6 kHz (adjustable), a maximum output event rate of 2.19 Mevents/s, a power consumption of 29.7 mW, the slices requirements of 11141, and a system clock frequency of 27 MHz.
Calibration aspects of binaural sound reproduction over insert earphones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup
2012-01-01
in earphone-based reproduction, binaural reproduction can be applied directly. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and practical aspects relevant to the correct reproduction of binaural signals over insert earphones. To this purpose, a theoretical model originally developed to explain the acoustic......Earphones are nowadays widely adopted for the reproduction of audio material in mobile multimedia and communication platforms, e.g. smartphones. Reproduction of high-quality spatial sound on such platforms can dramatically improve their applicability, and since two channels are always available...
Comparison of binaural microphones for externalization of sounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cubick, Jens; Sánchez Rodríguez, C.; Song, Wookeun
2015-01-01
or with microphones placed inside the ear canals of a person. In this study, binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were measured with several commercially available binaural microphones, both placed inside the listeners’ ears (individual BRIR) and on a head and torso simulator (generic BRIR). The degree...... of externalization of speech and noise stimuli was tested in a listening experiment with a multi-stimulus test. No influence was found for the stimulus signal, but the externalization scores were found to be lower for 0◦ incidence. With all microphones, relatively high externalization scores were achieved...
Binaural pitch perception in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten
2007-01-01
-pitch perception and performance in measures of spectral and temporal resolution. Reduced frequency discrimination appeared to be linked to poorer melody recognition skills. Reduced frequency selectivity was also found to impede the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli. Overall, binaural-pitch stimuli might......The effects of hearing impairment on the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli were investigated. Several experiments were performed with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, including detection and discrimination of binaural pitch, and melody recognition using different types of binaural...
A novel binaural pitch elicited by phase-modulated noise: MEG and psychophysical observations.
Witton, Caroline; Hillebrand, Arjan; Furlong, Paul L; Henning, G Bruce
2012-06-01
Binaural pitches are auditory percepts that emerge from combined inputs to the ears but that cannot be heard if the stimulus is presented to either ear alone. Here, we describe a binaural pitch that is not easily accommodated within current models of binaural processing. Convergent magnetoencephalography (MEG) and psychophysical measurements were used to characterize the pitch, heard when band-limited noise had a rapidly changing interaural phase difference. Several interesting features emerged: First, the pitch was perceptually lateralized, in agreement with the lateralization of the evoked changes in MEG spectral power, and its salience depended on dichotic binaural presentation. Second, the frequency of the pure tone that matched the binaural pitch lay within a lower spectral sideband of the phase-modulated noise and followed the frequency of that sideband when the modulation frequency or center frequency and bandwidth of the noise changed. Thus, the binaural pitch depended on the processing of binaural information in that lower sideband.
Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten
2009-01-01
hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...
Binaural intelligibility prediction based on the speech transmission index
Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Drullman, R.
2008-01-01
Although the speech transmission index STI is a well-accepted and standardized method for objective prediction of speech intelligibility in a wide range of environments and applications, it is essentially a monaural model. Advantages of binaural hearing in speech intelligibility are disregarded. In
Audibility of time switching in dynamic binaural synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik
2005-01-01
In binaural synthesis, signals are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). In dynamic systems, the update is often done by cross- fading between signals that have been filtered in parallel with two HRTFs. An alternative to cross-fading that is attractive in terms of computing powe...
Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Alipoor
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.
Rate-Constrained Beamforming in Binaural Hearing Aids
Srinivasan, Sriram; den Brinker, Albertus C.
2009-12-01
Recently, hearing aid systems where the left and right ear devices collaborate with one another have received much attention. Apart from supporting natural binaural hearing, such systems hold great potential for improving the intelligibility of speech in the presence of noise through beamforming algorithms. Binaural beamforming for hearing aids requires an exchange of microphone signals between the two devices over a wireless link. This paper studies two problems: which signal to transmit from one ear to the other, and at what bit-rate. The first problem is relevant as modern hearing aids usually contain multiple microphones, and the optimal choice for the signal to be transmitted is not obvious. The second problem is relevant as the capacity of the wireless link is limited by stringent power consumption constraints imposed by the limited battery life of hearing aids.
Rate-Constrained Beamforming in Binaural Hearing Aids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sriram Srinivasan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, hearing aid systems where the left and right ear devices collaborate with one another have received much attention. Apart from supporting natural binaural hearing, such systems hold great potential for improving the intelligibility of speech in the presence of noise through beamforming algorithms. Binaural beamforming for hearing aids requires an exchange of microphone signals between the two devices over a wireless link. This paper studies two problems: which signal to transmit from one ear to the other, and at what bit-rate. The first problem is relevant as modern hearing aids usually contain multiple microphones, and the optimal choice for the signal to be transmitted is not obvious. The second problem is relevant as the capacity of the wireless link is limited by stringent power consumption constraints imposed by the limited battery life of hearing aids.
Biologically inspired binaural hearing aid algorithms: Design principles and effectiveness
Feng, Albert
2002-05-01
Despite rapid advances in the sophistication of hearing aid technology and microelectronics, listening in noise remains problematic for people with hearing impairment. To solve this problem two algorithms were designed for use in binaural hearing aid systems. The signal processing strategies are based on principles in auditory physiology and psychophysics: (a) the location/extraction (L/E) binaural computational scheme determines the directions of source locations and cancels noise by applying a simple subtraction method over every frequency band; and (b) the frequency-domain minimum-variance (FMV) scheme extracts a target sound from a known direction amidst multiple interfering sound sources. Both algorithms were evaluated using standard metrics such as signal-to-noise-ratio gain and articulation index. Results were compared with those from conventional adaptive beam-forming algorithms. In free-field tests with multiple interfering sound sources our algorithms performed better than conventional algorithms. Preliminary intelligibility and speech reception results in multitalker environments showed gains for every listener with normal or impaired hearing when the signals were processed in real time with the FMV binaural hearing aid algorithm. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD Grant No. R21DC04840 and the Beckman Institute.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ignat’ev Aleksandr Vladimirovich
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The most widely used numerical method used in linear calculation of building structures is finite element method in traditional form of displacements. Different software is developed on its basis. Though it is only possible to check the certainty of these numerical solutions, especially of non-linear tasks of engineering structures’ deformation by the coincidence of the results obtained by two different methods. The authors solved geometrically nonlinear task of the static deformation of a flat hinged-rod system consisting of five linear elastic rods undergoing great tension-compression strains. The solution was obtained basing on the finite element method in the form of classical mixed method developed by the authors. The set of all equilibrium states of the system, both stable and unstable, and all the limit points were found. The certainty of the solution was approved by the coincidence of the results obtained by other authors basing on traditional finite element method in displacements.
Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin
2012-01-01
Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…
Binaural Integrated Active Noise Control and Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Serizel, Romain; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan;
2013-01-01
This paper presents a binaural approach to integrated active noise control and noise reduction in hearing aids and aims at demonstrating that a binaural setup indeed provides significant advantages in terms of the number of noise sources that can be compensated for and in terms of the causality...
Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Poelmans, Hanne
2010-01-01
found that a majority of dyslexic subjects were unable to hear binaural pitch, the latter obtained a clear response of dyslexic listeners to Huggins’ pitch (HP) (Cramer and Huggins, 1958). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Wierstorf, Hagen;
2015-01-01
This paper is concerned with machine localisation of multiple active speech sources in reverberant environments using two (binaural) microphones. Such conditions typically present a problem for ‘classical’ binaural models. Inspired by the human ability to utilise head movements, the current study...
Binaural integration abilities in bilateral cochlear implant user
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chie Obuchi; Masae Shiroma; Sayaka Ogane; Kimitaka Kaga
2015-01-01
Bilateral Cochlear implants (CIs) improved speech intelligibility, speech perception in background noise, and sound localization in quiet and noisy situations. However, it is unclear whether these advantages essentially result in binaural integration of acoustic stimuli from each ear. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of binaural integration by bilateral CIs placement using binaural hearing tests and subjective auditory perceptual assessment. A 61-year-old bilateral CIs subject underwent the following four tests:the Japanese Hearing in Noise Test (HINT-J), the dichotic listening test (DLT), the Rapidly Alternating Speech Perception (RASP) test, and subjective auditory perceptual assessment. The HINT-J score was significantly higher for bilateral CIs than for a unilateral CI. However, DLT and the RASP test revealed contradictory results. Subjective auditory perceptual assessment revealed active and bright impressions for bilateral hearing, which were also noisy and strong compared with those for unilateral hearing. The results of this study revealed that bilateral CIs improved speech perception in background noise and an improved auditory impression, although the bilateral integration abilities were not improved. This was probably because the patient was required to combine information from the two ears into a single perception in DLT and the RASP test. More longitudinal data should be collected and analyzed in future studies to evaluate the long-term effects of bilateral CIs. Copyright © 2016, PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. Production and hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Principles of modulation processing in monaural vs. binaural hearing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piechowiak, Tobias
2005-01-01
channels as a detection cue. Durlach [1] introduced the equalization-cancellation (EC) approach as an across-channel mechanism for explaining BMLD and it was recently used to quantitatively account for many binaural listening experiments. Buus [2] was the first to suggest that an EC-type mechanism could...... also be appropriate to account for CMR. However, it was never tested if such an approach is able to quantitatively predict CMR. The aim of the present study is to introduce an EC type model in monaural modulation processing and to test it with a certain stimulus configuration....
Prediction of binaural speech intelligibility against noise in rooms.
Lavandier, Mathieu; Culling, John F
2010-01-01
In the presence of competing speech or noise, reverberation degrades speech intelligibility not only by its direct effect on the target but also by affecting the interferer. Two experiments were designed to validate a method for predicting the loss of intelligibility associated with this latter effect. Speech reception thresholds were measured under headphones, using spatially separated target sentences and speech-shaped noise interferers simulated in virtual rooms. To investigate the effect of reverberation on the interferer unambiguously, the target was always anechoic. The interferer was placed in rooms with different sizes and absorptions, and at different distances and azimuths from the listener. The interaural coherence of the interferer did not fully predict the effect of reverberation. The azimuth separation of the sources and the coloration introduced by the room also had to be taken into account. The binaural effects were modeled by computing the binaural masking level differences in the studied configurations, the monaural effects were predicted from the excitation pattern of the noises, and speech intelligibility index weightings were applied to both. These parameters were all calculated from the room impulse responses convolved with noise. A 0.95-0.97 correlation was obtained between the speech reception thresholds and their predicted value.
Sound Source Distance Estimation in Rooms based on Statistical Properties of Binaural Signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Georganti, Eleftheria; May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven
2013-01-01
A novel method for the estimation of the distance of a sound source from binaural speech signals is proposed. The method relies on several statistical features extracted from such signals and their binaural cues. Firstly, the standard deviation of the difference of the magnitude spectra of the left...... and right binaural signals is used as a feature for this method. In addition, an extended set of additional statistical features that can improve distance detection is extracted from an auditory front-end which models the peripheral processing of the human auditory system. The method incorporates the above...
Characterizing the monaural and binaural processes underlying reflection masking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchholz, Jörg
2007-01-01
Reflection masked thresholds (RMTs) for the simple scenario of a test reflection masked by the direct sound (200 ms long broadband noise) were measured as a function of reflection delay for diotic and dichotic stimulus presentations. In order to discriminate between contributions to reflection...... masking from simultaneous versus forward masking, the simultaneous RMT was measured in addition to the traditional RMT. Simultaneous RM was realized by truncating the offset of the test reflection such that the test reflection and the direct sound had a common offset. By comparing the experimental results...... for the two RMTs, it is shown that forward masking effects only have a significant effect on reflection masking for delays above 7–10 ms. Moreover, binaural mechanisms were revealed which deteriorate auditory detection of test reflections for delays below 7–10 ms and enhance detection for larger delays...
Capturing blocked-entrance binaural signals from open-entrance recordings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Olesen, Søren Krarup
2008-01-01
interfering the individual's hearing and doing. In this work we propose a strategy for the recording of binaural audio with minimal hearing interference, and for transforming these recordings to blocked-entrance versions that are more suitable for analysis and reproduction of binaural audio in a more general...... context. To this purpose, equalization filters are derived from the ratio between blocked and open ear canal transfer functions. Different transfer-function measuring techniques and inverse filtering methods are evaluated....
Mapp, Peter A.
2004-10-01
Binaural measurements have been made in a number of acoustic environments, and the results from different binaural heads and stereo microphones are compared. The object of the study was not only to establish what practical differences occurred between the various head formats, but also to see if a stereo microphone or pseudohead could be used for making auditorium binaural measurements. Five measurement platforms were employed. These included two binaural dummy heads, binaural in-ear probe microphones, an SAAS pseudohead stereo microphone and a M-S (midside) stereo microphone. In the latter case, three different midside ratios were employed and compared. The measurements were made in a reverberant recital hall (2.5-s RT) and small acoustically treated listening room (RT 0.2 s). Whereas relatively minor differences were found to occur between the heads, significant differences were found to occur with the stereo microphones. It is concluded that while useful information can be obtained from a stereo microphone, it is far from being the same as binaural.
Time-Varying Distortions of Binaural Information by Bilateral Hearing Aids
Rodriguez, Francisco A.; Portnuff, Cory D. F.; Goupell, Matthew J.; Tollin, Daniel J.
2016-01-01
In patients with bilateral hearing loss, the use of two hearing aids (HAs) offers the potential to restore the benefits of binaural hearing, including sound source localization and segregation. However, existing evidence suggests that bilateral HA users’ access to binaural information, namely interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), can be compromised by device processing. Our objective was to characterize the nature and magnitude of binaural distortions caused by modern digital behind-the-ear HAs using a variety of stimuli and HA program settings. Of particular interest was a common frequency-lowering algorithm known as nonlinear frequency compression, which has not previously been assessed for its effects on binaural information. A binaural beamforming algorithm was also assessed. Wide dynamic range compression was enabled in all programs. HAs were placed on a binaural manikin, and stimuli were presented from an arc of loudspeakers inside an anechoic chamber. Stimuli were broadband noise bursts, 10-Hz sinusoidally amplitude-modulated noise bursts, or consonant–vowel–consonant speech tokens. Binaural information was analyzed in terms of ITDs, ILDs, and interaural coherence, both for whole stimuli and in a time-varying sense (i.e., within a running temporal window) across four different frequency bands (1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz). Key findings were: (a) Nonlinear frequency compression caused distortions of high-frequency envelope ITDs and significantly reduced interaural coherence. (b) For modulated stimuli, all programs caused time-varying distortion of ILDs. (c) HAs altered the relationship between ITDs and ILDs, introducing large ITD–ILD conflicts in some cases. Potential perceptual consequences of measured distortions are discussed. PMID:27698258
Directional hearing aid using hybrid adaptive beamformer (HAB) and binaural ITE array
Shaw, Scott T.; Larow, Andy J.; Gibian, Gary L.; Sherlock, Laguinn P.; Schulein, Robert
2002-05-01
A directional hearing aid algorithm called the Hybrid Adaptive Beamformer (HAB), developed for NIH/NIA, can be applied to many different microphone array configurations. In this project the HAB algorithm was applied to a new array employing in-the-ear microphones at each ear (HAB-ITE), to see if previous HAB performance could be achieved with a more cosmetically acceptable package. With diotic output, the average benefit in threshold SNR was 10.9 dB for three HoH and 11.7 dB for five normal-hearing subjects. These results are slightly better than previous results of equivalent tests with a 3-in. array. With an innovative binaural fitting, a small benefit beyond that provided by diotic adaptive beamforming was observed: 12.5 dB for HoH and 13.3 dB for normal-hearing subjects, a 1.6 dB improvement over the diotic presentation. Subjectively, the binaural fitting preserved binaural hearing abilities, giving the user a sense of space, and providing left-right localization. Thus the goal of creating an adaptive beamformer that simultaneously provides excellent noise reduction and binaural hearing was achieved. Further work remains before the HAB-ITE can be incorporated into a real product, optimizing binaural adaptive beamforming, and integrating the concept with other technologies to produce a viable product prototype. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.
Binaurality and azimuth tun-ing of neurons in the auditorycortex of the big brown bat
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
By using a combined closed and free-field stimulation system, binaurality and azimuth tuning of the neurons in the auditory cortex of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, were studied. A variety of azimuth-tuning functions were demonstrated for the binaural neurons. The large majority of EE (contralateral and ipsilateral excitatory) neurons exhibited azimuth selectivity with the best azimuths (BA) at contralateral 30(- 40(, some at ipsilateral 20(-40( and preferred azimuth ranges (PAR, response amplitude ≥75% of maximum) between 8( and 40(. Sound source azimuths strongly modulate spike counts with a mean modulation depth of 83.8% for EE neurons. EI (contralateral excitatory and ipsilateral inhibitory) neurons have simple azimuth tuning with BA located at contralateral 20(-40( and a broad PAR ranged from 30( to 55(. The present results suggest that azimuth-tuning characteristics of binaural neurons in the auditory cortex of the bat are of significance for acoustic behaviour.
Ayllón, David; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel
2013-12-01
A recent trend in hearing aids is the connection of the left and right devices to collaborate between them. Binaural systems can provide natural binaural hearing and support the improvement of speech intelligibility in noise, but they require data transmission between both devices, which increases the power consumption. This paper presents a novel sound source separation algorithm for binaural speech enhancement based on supervised machine learning and time-frequency masking. The system is designed considering the power restrictions in hearing aids, constraining both the computational cost of the algorithm and the transmission bit rate. The transmission schema is optimized using a tailored evolutionary algorithm that assigns a different number of bits to each frequency band. The proposed algorithm requires less than 10% of the available computational resources for signal processing and obtains good separation performance using bit rates lower than 64 kbps.
Entanglement in Classical Optics
Ghose, Partha
2013-01-01
The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate between separable and nonseparable states in classical wave optics where no discreteness is involved. The influence of the Pancharatnam phase on a classical Bell-like state is deived. Finally, to what extent classical polarization optics can be used to simulate quantum information processing tasks is also discussed. This should be of great practical importance because coherence and entanglement are robust in classical optics but not in quantum systems.
Tracking EEG changes in response to alpha and beta binaural beats.
Vernon, D; Peryer, G; Louch, J; Shaw, M
2014-07-01
A binaural beat can be produced by presenting two tones of a differing frequency, one to each ear. Such auditory stimulation has been suggested to influence behaviour and cognition via the process of cortical entrainment. However, research so far has only shown the frequency following responses in the traditional EEG frequency ranges of delta, theta and gamma. Hence a primary aim of this research was to ascertain whether it would be possible to produce clear changes in the EEG in either the alpha or beta frequency ranges. Such changes, if possible, would have a number of important implications as well as potential applications. A secondary goal was to track any observable changes in the EEG throughout the entrainment epoch to gain some insight into the nature of the entrainment effects on any changes in an effort to identify more effective entrainment regimes. Twenty two healthy participants were recruited and randomly allocated to one of two groups, each of which was exposed to a distinct binaural beat frequency for ten 1-minute epochs. The first group listened to an alpha binaural beat of 10 Hz and the second to a beta binaural beat of 20 Hz. EEG was recorded from the left and right temporal regions during pre-exposure baselines, stimulus exposure epochs and post-exposure baselines. Analysis of changes in broad-band and narrow-band amplitudes, and frequency showed no effect of binaural beat frequency eliciting a frequency following effect in the EEG. Possible mediating factors are discussed and a number of recommendations are made regarding future studies, exploring entrainment effects from a binaural beat presentation.
Palanca-Castan, Nicolas; Laumen, Geneviève; Reed, Darrin; Köppl, Christine
2016-12-01
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an evoked potential that reflects the responses to sound by brainstem neural centers. The binaural interaction component (BIC) is obtained by subtracting the sum of the monaural ABR responses from the binaural response. Its latency and amplitude change in response to variations in binaural cues. The BIC is thus thought to reflect the activity of binaural nuclei and is used to non-invasively test binaural processing. However, any conclusions are limited by a lack of knowledge of the relevant processes at the level of individual neurons. The aim of this study was to characterize the ABR and BIC in the barn owl, an animal where the ITD-processing neural circuits are known in great detail. We recorded ABR responses to chirps and to 1 and 4 kHz tones from anesthetized barn owls. General characteristics of the barn owl ABR were similar to those observed in other bird species. The most prominent peak of the BIC was associated with nucleus laminaris and is thus likely to reflect the known processes of ITD computation in this nucleus. However, the properties of the BIC were very similar to previously published mammalian data and did not reveal any specific diagnostic features. For example, the polarity of the BIC was negative, which indicates a smaller response to binaural stimulation than predicted by the sum of monaural responses. This is contrary to previous predictions for an excitatory-excitatory system such as nucleus laminaris. Similarly, the change in BIC latency with varying ITD was not distinguishable from mammalian data. Contrary to previous predictions, this behavior appears unrelated to the known underlying neural delay-line circuitry. In conclusion, the generation of the BIC is currently inadequately understood and common assumptions about the BIC need to be reconsidered when interpreting such measurements.
Relating the absence of binaural pitch percept to retro-cochlear impairment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten
. The results from two stimulus configurations, namely Huggins’ pitch stimuli and pure tones presented in diotic white noise, were compared. In addition to the pitch detection experiment, measures of frequency selectivity, fine structure and envelope processing, binaural interaction, and cognitive abilities...
Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santurette, Sébastien; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen
2010-01-01
of dyslexic listeners to Huggins' pitch (HP). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch contour identification test, performed in 31 dyslexic listeners and 31 matched controls, clearly showed that dyslexics perceived HP as well...
Binaural Model-Based Speech Intelligibility Enhancement and Assessment in Hearing Aids
Schlesinger, A.
2012-01-01
The enhancement of speech intelligibility in noise is still the main subject in hearing aid research. Based on the advanced results obtained with the hearing glasses, in the present research the speech intelligibility is even further improved by the application of binaural post-filters. The function
The role of reverberation-related binaural cues in the externalization of speech
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten
2015-01-01
for the externalization of a lateral sound source. In contrast, for a frontal source, an increased amount of binaural cues from reflections was required in order to obtain well externalized sound images. It was demonstrated that the interaction between the interaural cues of the direct sound and the reverberation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a new approach for estimating the number of active speech sources in the presence of interfering noise sources and reverberation. First, a binaural front-end is used to detect the spatial positions of all active sound sources, resulting in a binary mask for each candidate...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toledo, Daniela
Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are the filters used in binaural synthesis that provide the necessary cues to localize virtual sound sources in virtual 3D space. HRTFs are recorded at the ears of either humans or dummy-heads and are usually implemented as non-individual filters. The succe...
A Binaural Grouping Model for Predicting Speech Intelligibility in Multitalker Environments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Mi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Spatially separating speech maskers from target speech often leads to a large intelligibility improvement. Modeling this phenomenon has long been of interest to binaural-hearing researchers for uncovering brain mechanisms and for improving signal-processing algorithms in hearing-assistive devices. Much of the previous binaural modeling work focused on the unmasking enabled by binaural cues at the periphery, and little quantitative modeling has been directed toward the grouping or source-separation benefits of binaural processing. In this article, we propose a binaural model that focuses on grouping, specifically on the selection of time-frequency units that are dominated by signals from the direction of the target. The proposed model uses Equalization-Cancellation (EC processing with a binary decision rule to estimate a time-frequency binary mask. EC processing is carried out to cancel the target signal and the energy change between the EC input and output is used as a feature that reflects target dominance in each time-frequency unit. The processing in the proposed model requires little computational resources and is straightforward to implement. In combination with the Coherence-based Speech Intelligibility Index, the model is applied to predict the speech intelligibility data measured by Marrone et al. The predicted speech reception threshold matches the pattern of the measured data well, even though the predicted intelligibility improvements relative to the colocated condition are larger than some of the measured data, which may reflect the lack of internal noise in this initial version of the model.
A Binaural Grouping Model for Predicting Speech Intelligibility in Multitalker Environments.
Mi, Jing; Colburn, H Steven
2016-10-03
Spatially separating speech maskers from target speech often leads to a large intelligibility improvement. Modeling this phenomenon has long been of interest to binaural-hearing researchers for uncovering brain mechanisms and for improving signal-processing algorithms in hearing-assistive devices. Much of the previous binaural modeling work focused on the unmasking enabled by binaural cues at the periphery, and little quantitative modeling has been directed toward the grouping or source-separation benefits of binaural processing. In this article, we propose a binaural model that focuses on grouping, specifically on the selection of time-frequency units that are dominated by signals from the direction of the target. The proposed model uses Equalization-Cancellation (EC) processing with a binary decision rule to estimate a time-frequency binary mask. EC processing is carried out to cancel the target signal and the energy change between the EC input and output is used as a feature that reflects target dominance in each time-frequency unit. The processing in the proposed model requires little computational resources and is straightforward to implement. In combination with the Coherence-based Speech Intelligibility Index, the model is applied to predict the speech intelligibility data measured by Marrone et al. The predicted speech reception threshold matches the pattern of the measured data well, even though the predicted intelligibility improvements relative to the colocated condition are larger than some of the measured data, which may reflect the lack of internal noise in this initial version of the model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.
1997-03-01
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.
Costella, J P; Rawlinson, A A; Costella, John P.; Kellar, Bruce H. J. Mc; Rawlinson, Andrew A.
1997-01-01
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain.
Litovsky, Ruth Y; Goupell, Matthew J; Godar, Shelly; Grieco-Calub, Tina; Jones, Gary L; Garadat, Soha N; Agrawal, Smita; Kan, Alan; Todd, Ann; Hess, Christi; Misurelli, Sara
2012-06-01
This report highlights research projects relevant to binaural and spatial hearing in adults and children. In the past decade we have made progress in understanding the impact of bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) on performance in adults and children. However, BiCI users typically do not perform as well as normal hearing (NH) listeners. In this article we describe the benefits from BiCIs compared with a single cochlear implant (CI), focusing on measures of spatial hearing and speech understanding in noise. We highlight the fact that in BiCI listening the devices in the two ears are not coordinated; thus binaural spatial cues that are available to NH listeners are not available to BiCI users. Through the use of research processors that carefully control the stimulus delivered to each electrode in each ear, we are able to preserve binaural cues and deliver them with fidelity to BiCI users. Results from those studies are discussed as well, with a focus on the effect of age at onset of deafness and plasticity of binaural sensitivity. Our work with children has expanded both in number of subjects tested and age range included. We have now tested dozens of children ranging in age from 2 to 14 yr. Our findings suggest that spatial hearing abilities emerge with bilateral experience. While we originally focused on studying performance in free field, where real world listening experiments are conducted, more recently we have begun to conduct studies under carefully controlled binaural stimulation conditions with children as well. We have also studied language acquisition and speech perception and production in young CI users. Finally, a running theme of this research program is the systematic investigation of the numerous factors that contribute to spatial and binaural hearing in BiCI users. By using CI simulations (with vocoders) and studying NH listeners under degraded listening conditions, we are able to tease apart limitations due to the hardware/software of the CI
Bernstein, Leslie R; Trahiotis, Constantine
2016-11-01
This study assessed whether audiometrically-defined "slight" or "hidden" hearing losses might be associated with degradations in binaural processing as measured in binaural detection experiments employing interaurally delayed signals and maskers. Thirty-one listeners participated, all having no greater than slight hearing losses (i.e., no thresholds greater than 25 dB HL). Across the 31 listeners and consistent with the findings of Bernstein and Trahiotis [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL474-EL479] binaural detection thresholds at 500 Hz and 4 kHz increased with increasing magnitude of interaural delay, suggesting a loss of precision of coding with magnitude of interaural delay. Binaural detection thresholds were consistently found to be elevated for listeners whose absolute thresholds at 4 kHz exceeded 7.5 dB HL. No such elevations were observed in conditions having no binaural cues available to aid detection (i.e., "monaural" conditions). Partitioning and analyses of the data revealed that those elevated thresholds (1) were more attributable to hearing level than to age and (2) result from increased levels of internal noise. The data suggest that listeners whose high-frequency monaural hearing status would be classified audiometrically as being normal or "slight loss" may exhibit substantial and perceptually meaningful losses of binaural processing.
A dynamic binaural synthesis system for investigation into situational awareness for truck drivers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Flemming; Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hammershøi, Dorte
2016-01-01
communicating over a network protocol (UDP) enabling distribution on several hardware devices. The modules are: Graphical user interface, head tracking server, truck tracking, and binaural synthesis module. The function of the individual modules as well as overall topology of the system will be presented...... into the reason for this point to cognitive phenomena such as change blindness, where more visual information won’t help. For other professional vehicle operators such as pilots, auditory solutions adding to a higher situational awareness has proven valuable. This paper describes the development of a dynamic...... are monitored and taken into account in the binaural sound synthesis. To enable experiments in real traffic, the system facilitates an operator interface where the investigator can position the auditory objects according to real bicycles appearing in the traffic. The software is organized in a number of modules...
Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband reproducible noise maskers: II. Results for rabbit
Zheng, Ling; Early, Susan J.; Mason, Christine R.; Idrobo, Fabio; Harrison, J. Michael; Carney, Laurel H.
2002-01-01
Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband noise maskers was examined by using a Pavlovian-conditioned eyeblink response in rabbits. The target was a tone at 500 Hz, and the maskers were ten individual noise samples having one of two bandwidths, 200 Hz (410 Hz to 610 Hz) or 2900 Hz (100 Hz to 3 kHz). The narrowband noise maskers were created by filtering the wideband noise maskers such that the two sets of maskers had identical spectra in the 200-Hz frequency region surrounding the tone. The responses across the set of noise maskers were compared across bandwidths and across interaural configurations (N0S0 and N0Sπ). Responses across the set of noise waveforms were not strongly correlated across bandwidths; this result is inconsistent with models for binaural detection that depend only upon the narrow band of energy centered at the frequency of the target tone. Responses were correlated across interaural configurations for the wideband masker condition, but not for the narrowband masker. All of these results were consistent with the companion study of human listeners [Evilsizer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 336-345 (2002)] and with the results of human studies of binaural detection that used only wideband [Gilkey et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 78, 1207-1219 (1985)] or narrowband [Isabelle and Colburn, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 352-259 (1991)] individual noise maskers.
A Link Loss Model for the On-Body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids
Chandra, Rohit; Johansson, Anders J.
2013-12-01
Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from the transceiver in one ear to the transceiver in other ear and the effect of the protruding part of the outer ear called pinna. Simulations are done to validate the model using in-the-ear (ITE) placement of antennas at 2.45 GHz on two heterogeneous phantoms of different age-group and body size. The model agrees with the simulations. The ear-to-ear link loss between the antennas for the binaural hearing aids in the homogeneous SAM phantom is compared with a heterogeneous phantom. It is found that the absence of the pinna and the lossless shell in the SAM phantom underestimate the link loss. This is verified by the measurements on a phantom where we have included the pinnas fabricated by 3D-printing.
A Link Loss Model for the On-body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids
Chandra, Rohit
2013-01-01
Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from the transceiver in one ear to the transceiver in other ear and the effect of the protruding part of the outer ear called pinna. Simulations are done to validate the model using in-the-ear (ITE) placement of antennas at 2.45 GHz on two heterogeneous phantoms of different age-group and body size. The model agrees with the simulations. The ear-to-ear link loss between the antennas for the binaural hearing aids in the homogeneous SAM phantom is compared with a heterogeneous phantom. It is found that the absence of the pinna an...
Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun
2012-01-01
Past research suggested that negative numbers could be represented in terms of their components in the visual modality. The present study examined the processing of negative numbers in the auditory modality and whether it is affected by context. Experiment 1 employed a stimuli detection task where only negative numbers were presented binaurally. Experiment 2 employed the same task, but both positive and negative numbers were mixed as cues. A reverse attentional spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect for negative numbers was obtained in these two experiments. Experiment 3 employed a number classification task where only negative numbers were presented binaurally. Experiment 4 employed the same task, but both positive and negative numbers were mixed. A reverse SNARC effect for negative numbers was obtained in these two experiments. These findings suggest that negative numbers in the auditory modality are generated from the set of positive numbers, thus supporting a components representation.
About the modern house - and the classical
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hauberg, Jørgen
2010-01-01
In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965).......In text and illustrations describes the classical house and the classical city, represented by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), and the modern house, the modern city and building task, represented by Le Corbusier (1857-1965)....
Clayman, Dee L.
1995-01-01
Appraises several databases devoted to classical literature. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) contains the entire extant corpus of ancient Greek literature, including works on lexicography and historiography, extending into the 15th century. Other works awaiting completion are the Database of Classical Bibliography and a CD-ROM pictorial dictionary…
Torrielli, Alessandro
2016-08-01
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
McConnell, Patrick A; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L; Ives, Jeffrey C; Sforzo, Gary A
2014-01-01
Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats ('wide-band' theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.
Kataria, Saurabh; Gaultier, Clément; Deleforge, Antoine
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a new framework for supervised sound source localization referred to as virtually-supervised learning. An acoustic shoe-box room simulator is used to generate a large number of binaural single-source audio scenes. These scenes are used to build a dataset of spatial binaural features annotated with acoustic properties such as the 3D source position and the walls' absorption coefficients. A probabilis-tic high-to low-dimensional regression framework is used to learn a mapp...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Brown, Guy
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of localising multiple competing speakers in the presence of room reverberation, where sound sources can be positioned at any azimuth on the horizontal plane. To reduce the amount of front-back confusions which can occur due to the sim- ilarity of interaural time...... differences (ITDs) and interaural level dif- ferences (ILDs) in the front and rear hemifield, a machine hearing system is presented which combines supervised learning of binaural cues using multi-conditional training (MCT) with a head movement strategy. A systematic evaluation showed that this approach...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
May, Tobias; van de Par, Steven
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a new approach for estimating the number of active speech sources in the presence of interfering noise sources and reverberation. First, a binaural front-end is used to detect the spatial positions of all active sound sources, resulting in a binary mask for each candidate...... on a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. A systematic analysis shows that the proposed algorithm is able to blindly determine the number and the corresponding spatial positions of speech sources in multisource scenarios and generalizes well to unknown acoustic conditions...
Gallavotti, Giovanni
2012-01-01
This is the English version of a friendly graduate course on Classical Mechanics, containing about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. For the Spanish version, see physics/9906066
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang
2006-01-01
The effect of sound incidence angle on loudness was investigated using real sound sources positioned in an anechoic chamber. Eight normal-hearing listeners produced loudness matches between a frontal reference location and seven sources placed at other directions, both in the horizontal and media...... on the at-ear signals favored a sound-power summation model, according to which the maximum binaural gain is only 3dB, over competing models based on larger gains, or on the summation of monaural loudness indices....... planes. Matches were obtained via a two-interval, adaptive forced-choice (2AFC) procedure for three center frequencies (0.4, 1 and 5 kHz) and two overall levels (45 and 65 dB SPL). The results showed that loudness is not constant over sound incidence angles, with directional sensitivity varying over...... a range of up to 10 dB, exhibiting considerable frequency dependence, but only minor effects of overall level. The pattern of results varied substantially between subjects, but was largely accounted for by variations in individual head-related transfer functions. Modeling of binaural loudness based...
A Combined Feedback and Noise Cancellation Algorithm for Binaural Hearing Aids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LEE, H.-W.
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive algorithm for the combined acoustic feedback and noise cancellation in the binaural hearing aids. The proposed algorithm is based on dual microphones for feedback cancellation and the beamforming method for noise cancellation. The coefficients of feedback canceller are updated after subtracting the speech signal from the input signal by dual microphones. And the noise canceller reduces the noise signal in the residual signal excluding the speech by the beamforming method. Firstly, the feedback canceller operates to cancel the feedback signal in the microphone signal, and then the noise canceller operates to reduce the noise in the residual signal. Also, to assure the stable convergence of binaural hearing aids in the training mode, the coefficients of the left hearing aid are firstly updated, then the coefficients of the right hearing aid are updated. In the normal mode, the feedback and the noise canceller are operated without updating coefficients except an unstable case. To verify performances of the proposed algorithm, we analyzed its convergence behavior and simulated for real speech. From the results of simulations, it was proved that we can advance 14.43dB SFR(speech-to-feedback ratio on average in the feedback canceller, 10.19dB SNR(speech-to-noise ratio improvement on average in the noise canceller, in the case of applying the proposed algorithm.
Rennies, Jan; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger
2011-11-01
Reverberation usually degrades speech intelligibility for spatially separated speech and noise sources since spatial unmasking is reduced and late reflections decrease the fidelity of the received speech signal. The latter effect could not satisfactorily be predicted by a recently presented binaural speech intelligibility model [Beutelmann et al. (2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 2479-2497]. This study therefore evaluated three extensions of the model to improve its predictions: (1) an extension of the speech intelligibility index based on modulation transfer functions, (2) a correction factor based on the room acoustical quantity "definition," and (3) a separation of the speech signal into useful and detrimental parts. The predictions were compared to results of two experiments in which speech reception thresholds were measured in a reverberant room in quiet and in the presence of a noise source for listeners with normal hearing. All extensions yielded better predictions than the original model when the influence of reverberation was strong, while predictions were similar for conditions with less reverberation. Although model (3) differed substantially in the assumed interaction of binaural processing and early reflections, its predictions were very similar to model (2) that achieved the best fit to the data.
Using a binaural biomimetic array to identify bottom objects ensonified by echolocating dolphins
Heiweg, D.A.; Moore, P.W.; Martin, S.W.; Dankiewicz, L.A.
2006-01-01
The development of a unique dolphin biomimetic sonar produced data that were used to study signal processing methods for object identification. Echoes from four metallic objects proud on the bottom, and a substrate-only condition, were generated by bottlenose dolphins trained to ensonify the targets in very shallow water. Using the two-element ('binaural') receive array, object echo spectra were collected and submitted for identification to four neural network architectures. Identification accuracy was evaluated over two receive array configurations, and five signal processing schemes. The four neural networks included backpropagation, learning vector quantization, genetic learning and probabilistic network architectures. The processing schemes included four methods that capitalized on the binaural data, plus a monaural benchmark process. All the schemes resulted in above-chance identification accuracy when applied to learning vector quantization and backpropagation. Beam-forming or concatenation of spectra from both receive elements outperformed the monaural benchmark, with higher sensitivity and lower bias. Ultimately, best object identification performance was achieved by the learning vector quantization network supplied with beam-formed data. The advantages of multi-element signal processing for object identification are clearly demonstrated in this development of a first-ever dolphin biomimetic sonar. ?? 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Akeroyd, Michael A.
2004-08-01
The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.
Seven Steps Towards the Classical World
Allori, Valia; Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Shelly; Zanghí, Nino
2001-01-01
Classical physics is about real objects, like apples falling from trees, whose motion is governed by Newtonian laws. In standard Quantum Mechanics only the wave function or the results of measurements exist, and to answer the question of how the classical world can be part of the quantum world is a rather formidable task. However, this is not the case for Bohmian mechanics, which, like classical mechanics, is a theory about real objects. In Bohmian terms, the problem of the classical limit be...
Classical planning and causal implicatures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana
In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...
Liubarskiĭ, G Iu
2006-01-01
The sequence of classic paradigms in taxonomy that partly replaced each other and partly co-exist is given as follows: the theory of "organ and organism similarity", the naturalistic theory, the descriptive theory, and the phylogenetic theory. The naturalistic classics accepted the notion of "the plan of creation". The rejection of appealing to this plan brought forth certain problems in the formulation of the purpose of taxonomy; these problems were differently solved by the descriptive and the phylogenetic classic traditions. The difficulties of the current paradigms arising from the loss of a "strong purpose", a problem to be solved by taxonomists that is to be clear and interesting to a wide range of non-professionals. The paradox of formalization led to the losing of content of the methods due to their formalization. To attract attention to taxonomy, a new "image of the results" of its work that would be interesting to the non-professionals is necessary. The co-existence of different methods of reseach applied to different groups of facts leads to the loss of integrity of the research. It is not only that the taxon becomes a hypothesis and such hypotheses multiply. The comparison of these hypotheses is problematic, because each of them is supported by its own independent scope of facts. Because of the existence of a fundamental meronotaxonomic discrepancy, taxonomic systems based on different groups of characters appear to be incomparable, being rather systems of characters than systems of taxa. Systems of characters are not directly comparable with each other; they can be compared only through appealing to taxa, but taxa themselves exist only in the form of a number of hypotheses. Consequently, each separate taxonomic approach creates its own nature, its own subject of research. Therefore, it is necessary to describe the subject of research correctly (and indicate the purpose of research), as well as to distinguish clearly between results achieved through
The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones from 125 Hz to 16 kHz
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Torben; Han, Loc A
2000-01-01
The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones has been measured for thirty-one otologically normal test subjects in the age range 18 to 25 years. The frequencies were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz. The signal duration was 1 s measured b...
Synthetic Aperture Computation as the Head is Turned in Binaural Direction Finding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duncan Tamsett
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Binaural systems measure instantaneous time/level differences between acoustic signals received at the ears to determine angles λ between the auditory axis and directions to acoustic sources. An angle λ locates a source on a small circle of colatitude (a lamda circle on a sphere symmetric about the auditory axis. As the head is turned while listening to a sound, acoustic energy over successive instantaneous lamda circles is integrated in a virtual/subconscious field of audition. The directions in azimuth and elevation to maxima in integrated acoustic energy, or to points of intersection of lamda circles, are the directions to acoustic sources. This process in a robotic system, or in nature in a neural implementation equivalent to it, delivers its solutions to the aurally informed worldview. The process is analogous to migration applied to seismic profiler data, and to that in synthetic aperture radar/sonar systems. A slanting auditory axis, e.g., possessed by species of owl, leads to the auditory axis sweeping the surface of a cone as the head is turned about a single axis. Thus, the plane in which the auditory axis turns continuously changes, enabling robustly unambiguous directions to acoustic sources to be determined.
Ho, Cheng-Yu; Li, Pei-Chun; Chiang, Yuan-Chuan; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Chu, Woei-Chyn
2015-01-01
Binaural hearing involves using information relating to the differences between the signals that arrive at the two ears, and it can make it easier to detect and recognize signals in a noisy environment. This phenomenon of binaural hearing is quantified in laboratory studies as the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD). Mandarin is one of the most commonly used languages, but there are no publication values of BMLD or BILD based on Mandarin tones. Therefore, this study investigated the BMLD and BILD of Mandarin tones. The BMLDs of Mandarin tone detection were measured based on the detection threshold differences for the four tones of the voiced vowels /i/ (i.e., /i1/, /i2/, /i3/, and /i4/) and /u/ (i.e., /u1/, /u2/, /u3/, and /u4/) in the presence of speech-spectrum noise when presented interaurally in phase (S0N0) and interaurally in antiphase (SπN0). The BILDs of Mandarin tone recognition in speech-spectrum noise were determined as the differences in the target-to-masker ratio (TMR) required for 50% correct tone recognitions between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions. The detection thresholds for the four tones of /i/ and /u/ differed significantly (pMandarin tones were all lower in the SπN0 condition than in the S0N0 condition, and the BMLDs ranged from 7.3 to 11.5 dB. The TMR for 50% correct Mandarin tone recognitions differed significantly (pMandarin tone detection and recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise are improved when phase inversion is applied to the target speech. The average BILDs of Mandarin tones are smaller than the average BMLDs of Mandarin tones.
Seven Steps Towards the Classical World
Allori, V; Goldstein, S; Zanghì, N; Allori, Valia; Goldstein, Shelly; Zangh\\'{\\i}, Nino
2001-01-01
Classical physics is about real objects, like apples falling from trees, whose motion is governed by Newtonian laws. In standard Quantum Mechanics only the wave function or the results of measurements exist, and to answer the question of how the classical world can be part of the quantum world is a rather formidable task. However, this is not the case for Bohmian mechanics, which, like classical mechanics, is a theory about real objects. In Bohmian terms, the problem of the classical limit becomes very simple: when do the Bohmian trajectories look Newtonian?
Diehl, [No Value; Sextro, M; Franklin, J; Hansmann, ML; Harris, N; Jaffe, E; Poppema, S; Harris, M; Franssila, K; van Krieken, J; Marafioti, T; Anagnostopoulos, [No Value; Stein, H
1999-01-01
Purpose: Recent studies have suggested that lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease (LPHD) is both clinically and pathologically distinct from or her forms of Hodgkin's disease, including classical Hodgkin's disease (CHD), However, large-scale clinical studies were tacking, This multicenter, retros
Yousefian Jazi, Nima
Spatial filtering and directional discrimination has been shown to be an effective pre-processing approach for noise reduction in microphone array systems. In dual-microphone hearing aids, fixed and adaptive beamforming techniques are the most common solutions for enhancing the desired speech and rejecting unwanted signals captured by the microphones. In fact, beamformers are widely utilized in systems where spatial properties of target source (usually in front of the listener) is assumed to be known. In this dissertation, some dual-microphone coherence-based speech enhancement techniques applicable to hearing aids are proposed. All proposed algorithms operate in the frequency domain and (like traditional beamforming techniques) are purely based on the spatial properties of the desired speech source and does not require any knowledge of noise statistics for calculating the noise reduction filter. This benefit gives our algorithms the ability to address adverse noise conditions, such as situations where interfering talker(s) speaks simultaneously with the target speaker. In such cases, the (adaptive) beamformers lose their effectiveness in suppressing interference, since the noise channel (reference) cannot be built and updated accordingly. This difference is the main advantage of the proposed techniques in the dissertation over traditional adaptive beamformers. Furthermore, since the suggested algorithms are independent of noise estimation, they offer significant improvement in scenarios that the power level of interfering sources are much more than that of target speech. The dissertation also shows the premise behind the proposed algorithms can be extended and employed to binaural hearing aids. The main purpose of the investigated techniques is to enhance the intelligibility level of speech, measured through subjective listening tests with normal hearing and cochlear implant listeners. However, the improvement in quality of the output speech achieved by the
Quantum remnants in the classical limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, A.M., E-mail: kowalski@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Científicas (CIC) (Argentina); Plastino, A., E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Física (IFLP-CCT-Conicet), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Argentina' s National Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); SThAR, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2016-09-16
We analyze here the common features of two dynamical regimes: a quantum and a classical one. We deal with a well known semi-classic system in its route towards the classical limit, together with its purely classic counterpart. We wish to ascertain i) whether some quantum remnants can be found in the classical limit and ii) the details of the quantum-classic transition. The so-called mutual information is the appropriate quantifier for this task. Additionally, we study the Bandt–Pompe's symbolic patterns that characterize dynamical time series (representative of the semi-classical system under scrutiny) in their evolution towards the classical limit. - Highlights: • We investigate the classical limit (CL) of a well known semi classical model. • The study is made by reference to the Bandt Pompe symbolic approach. • The number and type of associated symbols changes as one proceeds towards the CL. • We ascertain which symbols pertaining to the quantum zone remain in the CL.
What classicality? Decoherence and Bohr's classical concepts
Schlosshauer, Maximilian
2010-01-01
Niels Bohr famously insisted on the indispensability of what he termed "classical concepts." In the context of the decoherence program, on the other hand, it has become fashionable to talk about the "dynamical emergence of classicality" from the quantum formalism alone. Does this mean that decoherence challenges Bohr's dictum and signifies a break with the Copenhagen interpretation-for example, that classical concepts do not need to be assumed but can be derived? In this paper we'll try to shine some light down the murky waters where formalism and philosophy cohabitate. To begin, we'll clarify the notion of classicality in the decoherence description. We'll then discuss Bohr's and Heisenberg's take on the quantum-classical problem and reflect on different meanings of the terms "classicality" and "classical concepts" in the writings of Bohr and his followers. This analysis will allow us to put forward some tentative suggestions for how we may better understand the relation between decoherence-induced classical...
Classical mechanics without determinism
Nikolic, H.
2005-01-01
Classical statistical particle mechanics in the configuration space can be represented by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Even without assuming the existence of deterministic particle trajectories, the resulting quantum-like statistical interpretation is sufficient to predict all measurable results of classical mechanics. In the classical case, the wave function that satisfies a linear equation is positive, which is the main source of the fundamental difference between classical and quantum...
Quantum computing classical physics.
Meyer, David A
2002-03-15
In the past decade, quantum algorithms have been found which outperform the best classical solutions known for certain classical problems as well as the best classical methods known for simulation of certain quantum systems. This suggests that they may also speed up the simulation of some classical systems. I describe one class of discrete quantum algorithms which do so--quantum lattice-gas automata--and show how to implement them efficiently on standard quantum computers.
Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise
Poor, H; Scully, Marlan
2012-01-01
David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...
Lectures on Classical Integrability
Torrielli, Alessandro
2016-01-01
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the lectures consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schroedinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin-Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
The Impact of Task Demands on Fixation-Related Brain Potentials during Guided Search
Ahrens, Barry; Connolly, Patrick
2016-01-01
Recording synchronous data from EEG and eye-tracking provides a unique methodological approach for measuring the sensory and cognitive processes of overt visual search. Using this approach we obtained fixation related potentials (FRPs) during a guided visual search task specifically focusing on the lambda and P3 components. An outstanding question is whether the lambda and P3 FRP components are influenced by concurrent task demands. We addressed this question by obtaining simultaneous eye-movement and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures during a guided visual search task while parametrically modulating working memory load using an auditory N-back task. Participants performed the guided search task alone, while ignoring binaurally presented digits, or while using the auditory information in a 0, 1, or 2-back task. The results showed increased reaction time and decreased accuracy in both the visual search and N-back tasks as a function of auditory load. Moreover, high auditory task demands increased the P3 but not the lambda latency while the amplitude of both lambda and P3 was reduced during high auditory task demands. The results show that both early and late stages of visual processing indexed by FRPs are significantly affected by concurrent task demands imposed by auditory working memory. PMID:27286248
Fermions from classical statistics
2010-01-01
We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states $\\tau$ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities $p_\\tau$ amounts to a rotation of the wave function $q_\\tau(t)=\\pm \\sqrt{p_\\tau(t)}$, we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fe...
Davidson and classical pragmatism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paula Rossi
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper I wish to trace some connections between Donald Davidson's work (1917-2003 and two major representatives of the classical pragmatist movement: Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914 and William James (1842-1910. I will start with a basic characterization of classical pragmatism; then, I shall examine certain conceptions in Peirce's and James' pragmatism, in order to establish affinities with Davidson´s thought. Finally, and bearing in mind the previous con-nections, I will reflect briefly on the relevance –often unrecognized- of classical pragmatist ideas in the context of contemporary philosophi-cal discussions.
Advanced classical field theory
Giachetta, Giovanni; Sardanashvily, Gennadi
2009-01-01
Contemporary quantum field theory is mainly developed as quantization of classical fields. Therefore, classical field theory and its BRST extension is the necessary step towards quantum field theory. This book aims to provide a complete mathematical foundation of Lagrangian classical field theory and its BRST extension for the purpose of quantization. Based on the standard geometric formulation of theory of nonlinear differential operators, Lagrangian field theory is treated in a very general setting. Reducible degenerate Lagrangian theories of even and odd fields on an arbitrary smooth manifold are considered. The second Noether theorems generalized to these theories and formulated in the homology terms provide the strict mathematical formulation of BRST extended classical field theory
On Noncommutative Classical Mechanics
Djemai, A E F
2003-01-01
In this work, I investigate the noncommutative Poisson algebra of classical observables corresponding to a proposed general Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics, \\cite{1}. I treat some classical systems with various potentials and some Physical interpretations are given concerning the presence of noncommutativity at large scales (Celeste Mechanics) directly tied to the one present at small scales (Quantum Mechanics) and its possible relation with UV/IR mixing.
2007-01-01
The relationship between classical and quantum theory is of central importance to the philosophy of physics, and any interpretation of quantum mechanics has to clarify it. Our discussion of this relationship is partly historical and conceptual, but mostly technical and mathematically rigorous, including over 500 references. On the assumption that quantum mechanics is universal and complete, we discuss three ways in which classical physics has so far been believed to emerge from quantum physic...
Kisil, Vladimir V.
2000-01-01
We describe an $p$-mechanical (see funct-an/9405002 and quant-ph/9610016) brackets which generate quantum (commutator) and classic (Poisson) brackets in corresponding representations of the Heisenberg group. We \\emph{do not} use any kind of semiclassic approximation or limiting procedures for $\\hbar \\to 0$. Harmonic oscillator considered within the approach. Keywords: Classic and quantum mechanics, Hamilton and Heisenberg equations, Poisson brackets, commutator, Heisenberg group.
Kim, Jinryoul; Nam, Kyoung Won; Yook, Sunhyun; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young; Hong, Sung Hwa
2015-06-01
For hearing support devices, it is important to minimize the negative effect of ambient noises for speech recognition but also, at the same time, supply natural ambient sounds to the hearing-impaired person. However, conventional fixed bilateral asymmetric directional microphone (DM) algorithms cannot perform in such a way when the DM-mode device and a dominant noise (DN) source are placed on the same lateral hemisphere. In this study, a new binaural asymmetric DM algorithm that can overcome the defects of conventional algorithms is proposed. The proposed algorithm can estimate the position of a specific DN in the 90°-270° range and switch directional- and omnidirectional-mode devices automatically if the DM-mode device and the DN are placed in opposite lateral hemispheres. Computer simulation and KEMAR mannequin recording tests demonstrated that the performance of the conventional algorithm deteriorated when the DM-mode device and the DN were placed in the opposite hemisphere; in contrast, the performance of the proposed algorithm was consistently maintained regardless of directional variations in the DN. Based on these experimental results, the proposed algorithm may be able to improve speech quality and intelligibility for hearing-impaired persons who have similar degrees of hearing impairment in both ears.
Database of Multichannel In-Ear and Behind-the-Ear Head-Related and Binaural Room Impulse Responses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Kayser
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An eight-channel database of head-related impulse responses (HRIRs and binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs is introduced. The impulse responses (IRs were measured with three-channel behind-the-ear (BTEs hearing aids and an in-ear microphone at both ears of a human head and torso simulator. The database aims at providing a tool for the evaluation of multichannel hearing aid algorithms in hearing aid research. In addition to the HRIRs derived from measurements in an anechoic chamber, sets of BRIRs for multiple, realistic head and sound-source positions in four natural environments reflecting daily-life communication situations with different reverberation times are provided. For comparison, analytically derived IRs for a rigid acoustic sphere were computed at the multichannel microphone positions of the BTEs and differences to real HRIRs were examined. The scenes' natural acoustic background was also recorded in each of the real-world environments for all eight channels. Overall, the present database allows for a realistic construction of simulated sound fields for hearing instrument research and, consequently, for a realistic evaluation of hearing instrument algorithms.
Discrete Classical Electromagnetic Fields
De Souza, M M
1997-01-01
The classical electromagnetic field of a spinless point electron is described in a formalism with extended causality by discrete finite transverse point-vector fields with discrete and localized point interactions. These fields are taken as a classical representation of photons, ``classical photons". They are all transversal photons; there are no scalar nor longitudinal photons as these are definitely eliminated by the gauge condition. The angular distribution of emitted photons coincides with the directions of maximum emission in the standard formalism. The Maxwell formalism and its standard field are retrieved by the replacement of these discrete fields by their space-time averages, and in this process scalar and longitudinal photons are necessarily created and added. Divergences and singularities are by-products of this averaging process. This formalism enlighten the meaning and the origin of the non-physical photons, the ones that violate the Lorentz condition in manifestly covariant quantization methods.
Landsman, N P
2005-01-01
The relationship between classical and quantum theory is of central importance to the philosophy of physics, and any interpretation of quantum mechanics has to clarify it. Our discussion of this relationship is partly historical and conceptual, but mostly technical and mathematically rigorous, including over 500 references. On the assumption that quantum mechanics is universal and complete, we discuss three ways in which classical physics has so far been believed to emerge from quantum physics, namely in the limit h -> 0 of small Planck's constant (in a finite system), in the limit of a large system, and through decoherence and consistent histores. The first limit is closely related to modern quantization theory and microlocal analysis, whereas the second involves methods of C*-algebras and the concepts of superselection sectors and macroscopic observables. In these limits, the classical world does not emerge as a sharply defined objective reality, but rather as an approximate appearance relative to certain "...
Randomness: Quantum versus classical
Khrennikov, Andrei
2016-05-01
Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory has led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g. quantum random generators. This development had stimulated a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is the elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of a quantum state. Closely related problem is the clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review, we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. We also discuss briefly “digital philosophy”, its role in physics (classical and quantum) and its coupling to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM).
Decision paths in complex tasks
Galanter, Eugene
1991-01-01
Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.
Classical mechanics with Maxima
Timberlake, Todd Keene
2016-01-01
This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.
Covariantizing Classical Field Theories
López, Marco Castrillón
2010-01-01
We show how to enlarge the covariance group of any classical field theory in such a way that the resulting "covariantized" theory is 'essentially equivalent' to the original. In particular, our technique will render any classical field theory generally covariant, that is, the covariantized theory will be spacetime diffeomorphism-covariant and free of absolute objects. Our results thus generalize the well-known parametrization technique of Dirac and Kucha\\v{r}. Our constructions apply equally well to internal covariance groups, in which context they produce natural derivations of both the Utiyama minimal coupling and St\\"uckelberg tricks.
Problems in classical mechanics
Katkar, L N
2014-01-01
Problems in classical mechanics presents a lucid treatment of the formulations of Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and the Principles of Calculus of Variations etc. important for the study of modern physics. The study of classical mechanics prepares students to apply the principles and the mathematical tools to solve real life problems. The book also incorporates and discusses in detail topics such as Central Force Motion, Rigid Body Motion and Canonical Transformations. KEY FEATURES: Around 200 solved examples with complete mathematical theory Around 70 examples given as an exercise to test and develop students understanding The physical interpretation of the Hamiltonian is highlighted
Classic Problems of Probability
Gorroochurn, Prakash
2012-01-01
"A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin
Brehm, Enrico M
2016-01-01
In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.
Learning Classical Music Club
2010-01-01
There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias eNeher
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1 performance on a measure of reading span (RS is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR strength, (2 similar relations exist for two different, nonverbal measures of executive function, (3 pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and microphone directionality (DIR also influence preferred NR strength, and (4 preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker relations between worse performance on one nonverbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.
Strong Coupling and Classicalization
Dvali, Gia
2016-01-01
Classicalization is a phenomenon in which a theory prevents itself from entering into a strong-coupling regime, by redistributing the energy among many weakly-interacting soft quanta. In this way, the scattering process of some initial hard quanta splits into a large number of soft elementary processes. In short, the theory trades the strong coupling for a high-multiplicity of quanta. At very high energies, the outcome of such a scattering experiment is a production of soft states of high occupation number that are approximately classical. It is evident that black hole creation in particle collision at super-Planckian energies is a result of classicalization, but there is no a priory reason why this phenomenon must be limited to gravity. If the hierarchy problem is solved by classicalization, the LHC has a chance of detecting a tower of new resonances. The lowest-lying resonances must appear right at the strong coupling scale in form of short-lived elementary particles. The heavier members of the tower must b...
Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.
Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.
Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…
Classical galactosaemia revisited
A.M. Bosch
2006-01-01
Classical galactosaemia (McKusick 230400) is an: autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; EC 2.7.712). Most patients present in the neonatal period, after ingestion of galactose, with jaundice, hepatospl
Huddleston, Gregory H.
1993-01-01
Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)
Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)
Rosu, H. C.
1999-01-01
First Internet graduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031
Frank, Irmgard
2016-01-01
The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.
Mecanica Clasica (Classical Mechanics)
Rosu, H C
1999-01-01
First Internet undergraduate course on Classical Mechanics in Spanish (Castellano). This is about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. English and Romanian versions are in (slow) progress and hopefully will be arXived. For a similar course on Quantum Mechanics, see physics/9808031
Classical Mechanics Laboratory
Brosing, Juliet W.
2006-12-01
At Pacific University we have included a lab with our upper division Classical Mechanics class. We do a combination of physical labs (air resistance, harmonic motion, amusement park physics), Maple labs (software), and projects. Presentation of some of the labs, results and challenges with this course will be included.
Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.
Jordan, Alice M.
"Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…
Classical Weyl Transverse Gravity
Oda, Ichiro
2016-01-01
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally-invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally-invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a "fake" symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields,...
Classical Diophantine equations
1993-01-01
The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...
Electrodynamics classical inconsistencies
De Souza, M M
1995-01-01
The problems of Classical Electrodynamics with the electron equation of motion and with non-integrable singularity of its self-field stress tensor are well known. They are consequences, we show, of neglecting terms that are null off the charge world line but that gives a non null contribution on its world line. The self-field stress tensor of a point classical electron is integrable, there is no causality violation and no conflict with energy conservation in its equation of motion, and there is no need of any kind of renormalization nor of any change in the Maxwell's theory for this. (This is part of the paper hep-th/9510160, stripped , for simplicity, of its non-Minkowskian geometrization of causality and of its discussion about the physical meaning of the Maxwell-Faraday concept of field).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.
Classical and statistical thermodynamics
Rizk, Hanna A
2016-01-01
This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.
Randomness: quantum versus classical
Khrennikov, Andrei
2015-01-01
Recent tremendous development of quantum information theory led to a number of quantum technological projects, e.g., quantum random generators. This development stimulates a new wave of interest in quantum foundations. One of the most intriguing problems of quantum foundations is elaboration of a consistent and commonly accepted interpretation of quantum state. Closely related problem is clarification of the notion of quantum randomness and its interrelation with classical randomness. In this short review we shall discuss basics of classical theory of randomness (which by itself is very complex and characterized by diversity of approaches) and compare it with irreducible quantum randomness. The second part of this review is devoted to the information interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) in the spirit of Zeilinger and Brukner (and QBism of Fuchs et al.) and physics in general (e.g., Wheeler's "it from bit") as well as digital philosophy of Chaitin (with historical coupling to ideas of Leibnitz). Finally, w...
Computation in Classical Mechanics
Timberlake, Todd
2007-01-01
There is a growing consensus that physics majors need to learn computational skills, but many departments are still devoid of computation in their physics curriculum. Some departments may lack the resources or commitment to create a dedicated course or program in computational physics. One way around this difficulty is to include computation in a standard upper-level physics course. An intermediate classical mechanics course is particularly well suited for including computation. We discuss the ways we have used computation in our classical mechanics courses, focusing on how computational work can improve students' understanding of physics as well as their computational skills. We present examples of computational problems that serve these two purposes. In addition, we provide information about resources for instructors who would like to include computation in their courses.
Lectures on classical electrodynamics
Englert, Berthold-Georg
2014-01-01
These lecture notes cover classical electrodynamics at the level of advanced undergraduates or postgraduates. There is a strong emphasis on the general features of the electromagnetic field and, in particular, on the properties of electromagnetic radiation. It offers a comprehensive and detailed, as well as self-contained, account of material that can be covered in a one-semester course for students with a solid undergraduate knowledge of basic electricity and magnetism.
Strong, John
2004-01-01
An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie
Rogers, Ibram
2008-01-01
As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…
Classicality from zero discord for continuous-variables bipartite systems
Arsenijevic, M; Dugic, M
2012-01-01
Quantum information resources quantified by non-zero discord are ubiquitous for the continuous-variables bipartite systems. Complementary to this, we investigate the zero-discord-defined classicality for the different structures (decompositions into subsystems) of such systems. We point out complexity and subtlety of the task and we construct a model-structure closely resembling the classical systems not supporting quantum information processing.
EEG Feature Under Binaural Beat Stimulation%双耳差频声刺激下的脑电特征
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周鹏; 高翔; 王晓璐; 綦宏志; 王学民; 明东
2015-01-01
为了研究双耳差频声刺激影响大脑状态的神经机制,采用功率谱、Lempel-Ziv复杂度(LZC)和基于互信息的脑网络等线性及非线性方法,深入探讨了两种不同模式的双耳差频声刺激(alpha & beta)对脑电的影响规律.13名受试者分别进行了alpha & beta差频刺激,结果表明自发脑电的功率谱并没有发现频率跟随响应效应,LZC也没有显著变化.而脑网络图则能够发现在 alpha 差频刺激下大脑皮层不同区域的信息连接性显著减弱,在 beta 差频声刺激下信息连接性则显著增强.因此,互信息脑网络图可以有效地监测大脑在双耳差频声刺激下的变化,为双耳差频声刺激的生物学效应提供了一种合理的解释.%In order to study the neural mechanism of brain state induced by binaural beat(BB),linear and nonlinear methods,such as power spectral density,Lempel-Ziv complexity(LZC)and brain network based on cross mutual information were applied to discuss the change of brain under two kinds of BB stimulations(alpha & beta). Thirteen subjects were involved in alpha & beta BB stimulations,and the results showed no frequency following re-sponse(FFR)by PSD of spontaneous electroencephalogram(EEG)and no obvious change by LZC. However,the information transmission among various cortical areas reduced under alpha BB stimulation but enhanced under beta BB stimulation by brain network. Therefore,brain network based on mutual information can effectively monitor the change of cerebral cortex under BB stimulation,which provides a new perspective for biological effects induced by BB stimulation.
Farhoudi, M.
1995-01-01
We seek an analogy of the mathematical form of the alternative form of Einstein's field equations for Lovelock's field equations. We find that the price for this analogy is to accept the existence of the trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor even in classical treatments. As an example, we take this analogy to any generic second order Lagrangian and exactly derive the trace anomaly relation suggested by Duff. This indicates that an intrinsic reason for the existence of such a relation sh...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2002-01-01
FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laurent Chusseau
2013-02-01
Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.
Semi-classical Electrodynamics
Lestone, John
2016-03-01
Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. We describe semi-classical approaches that can be used to obtain a more intuitive physical feel for several QED processes including electro-statics, Compton scattering, pair annihilation, the anomalous magnetic moment, and the Lamb shift, that could be taught easily to undergraduate students. Any physicist who brings their laptop to the talk will be able to build spread sheets in less than 10 minutes to calculate g/2 =1.001160 and a Lamb shift of 1057 MHz.
Classical cytogenetics: karyotyping techniques.
Bates, Steven E
2011-01-01
Classical cytogenetics by karyotyping has been utilized in clinical research laboratories for more than 50 years and remains the key method used in the stem cell laboratory to assess the genetic stability of stem cell cultures. It is currently the most readily accessible method for detecting chromosomal abnormalities in pluripotent stem cell cultures. This chapter will describe (1) how to prepare a culture to maximize the number of metaphase cells, (2) how to prepare slides containing chromosome spreads (3) methods used to stain chromosomes, and (4) how to interpret the cytogenetic report.
Mechanics classical and quantum
Taylor, T T
2015-01-01
Mechanics: Classical and Quantum explains the principles of quantum mechanics via the medium of analytical mechanics. The book describes Schrodinger's formulation, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and the Lagrangian formulation. The author discusses the Harmonic Oscillator, the generalized coordinates, velocities, as well as the application of the Lagrangian formulation to systems that are partially or entirely electromagnetic in character under certain conditions. The book examines waves on a string under tension, the isothermal cavity radiation, and the Rayleigh-Jeans result pertaining to the e
Probability representation of classical states
Man'ko, OV; Man'ko, [No Value; Pilyavets, OV
2005-01-01
Probability representation of classical states described by symplectic tomograms is discussed. Tomographic symbols of classical observables which are functions on phase-space are studied. Explicit form of kernel of commutative star-product of the tomographic symbols is obtained.
Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra
Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.
1996-01-01
A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.
Classical eyeblink conditioning in Parkinson's disease.
Daum, I; Schugens, M M; Breitenstein, C; Topka, H; Spieker, S
1996-11-01
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impairments of a range of motor learning tasks, including tracking or serial reaction time task learning. Our study investigated whether such deficits would also be seen on a simple type of motor learning, classic conditioning of the eyeblink response. Medicated and unmediated patients with PD showed intact unconditioned eyeblink responses and significant learning across acquisition; the learning rates did not differ from those of healthy control subjects. The overall frequency of conditioned responses was significantly higher in the medicated patients with PD relative to control subjects, and there was also some evidence of facilitation in the unmedicated patients with PD. Conditioning of electrodermal and electrocortical responses was comparable in all groups. The findings are discussed in terms of enhanced excitability of brainstem pathways in PD and of the involvement of different neuronal circuits in different types of motor learning.
Perspective: Quantum or classical coherence?
Miller, William H
2012-06-07
Some coherence effects in chemical dynamics are described correctly by classical mechanics, while others only appear in a quantum treatment--and when these are observed experimentally it is not always immediately obvious whether their origin is classical or quantum. Semiclassical theory provides a systematic way of adding quantum coherence to classical molecular dynamics and thus provides a useful way to distinguish between classical and quantum coherence. Several examples are discussed which illustrate both cases. Particularly interesting is the situation with electronically non-adiabatic processes, where sometimes whether the coherence effects are classical or quantum depends on what specific aspects of the process are observed.
Mechanical Systems, Classical Models
Teodorescu, Petre P
2009-01-01
This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...
Grassmannization of classical models
Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V; Svistunov, Boris V
2016-01-01
Applying Feynman diagrammatics to non-fermionic strongly correlated models with local constraints might seem generically impossible for two separate reasons: (i) the necessity to have a Gaussian (non-interacting) limit on top of which the perturbative diagrammatic expansion is generated by Wick's theorem, and (ii) the Dyson's collapse argument implying that the expansion in powers of coupling constant is divergent. We show that for arbitrary classical lattice models both problems can be solved/circumvented by reformulating the high-temperature expansion (more generally, any discrete representation of the model) in terms of Grassmann integrals. Discrete variables residing on either links, plaquettes, or sites of the lattice are associated with the Grassmann variables in such a way that the partition function (and correlations) of the original system and its Grassmann-field counterpart are identical. The expansion of the latter around its Gaussian point generates Feynman diagrams. A proof-of-principle implement...
Classical and quantum cosmology
Calcagni, Gianluca
2017-01-01
This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryann Wilson
2013-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.
Dynamics of the central bottleneck: dual-task and task uncertainty.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariano Sigman
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Why is the human brain fundamentally limited when attempting to execute two tasks at the same time or in close succession? Two classical paradigms, psychological refractory period (PRP and task switching, have independently approached this issue, making significant advances in our understanding of the architecture of cognition. Yet, there is an apparent contradiction between the conclusions derived from these two paradigms. The PRP paradigm, on the one hand, suggests that the simultaneous execution of two tasks is limited solely by a passive structural bottleneck in which the tasks are executed on a first-come, first-served basis. The task-switching paradigm, on the other hand, argues that switching back and forth between task configurations must be actively controlled by a central executive system (the system controlling voluntary, planned, and flexible action. Here we have explicitly designed an experiment mixing the essential ingredients of both paradigms: task uncertainty and task simultaneity. In addition to a central bottleneck, we obtain evidence for active processes of task setting (planning of the appropriate sequence of actions and task disengaging (suppression of the plan set for the first task in order to proceed with the next one. Our results clarify the chronometric relations between these central components of dual-task processing, and in particular whether they operate serially or in parallel. On this basis, we propose a hierarchical model of cognitive architecture that provides a synthesis of task-switching and PRP paradigms.
Planck's radiation law: is a quantum-classical perspective possible?
Marrocco, Michele
2016-05-01
Planck's radiation law provides the solution to the blackbody problem that marks the decline of classical physics and the rise of the quantum theory of the radiation field. Here, we venture to suggest the possibility that classical physics might be equally suitable to deal with the blackbody problem. A classical version of the Planck's radiation law seems to be achievable if we learn from the quantum-classical correspondence between classical Mie theory and quantum-mechanical wave scattering from spherical scatterers (partial wave analysis). This correspondence designs a procedure for countable energy levels of the radiation trapped within the blackbody treated within the multipole approach of classical electrodynamics (in place of the customary and problematic expansion in terms of plane waves that give rise to the ultraviolet catastrophe). In turn, introducing the Boltzmann discretization of energy levels, the tools of classical thermodynamics and statistical theory become available for the task. On the other hand, the final result depends on a free parameter whose physical units are those of an action. Tuning this parameter on the value given by the Planck constant makes the classical result agree with the canonical Planck's radiation law.
2013-01-01
Introducción y objetivos. La audición binaural permite al sistema auditivo realizar un correcto análisis de la información que portan las ondas sonoras al posibilitar la comparación de la señal que llega a cada oído. La relación de ambos lados de la vía auditiva sucede casi desde el inicio de la misma, ya en el tronco cerebral, mediante decusaciones de fibras al lado contralateral de la vía auditiva. De esta manera, la estimulación sonora influye en la actividad del sistema nervioso y, pos...
Evaluating the TD model of classical conditioning.
Ludvig, Elliot A; Sutton, Richard S; Kehoe, E James
2012-09-01
The temporal-difference (TD) algorithm from reinforcement learning provides a simple method for incrementally learning predictions of upcoming events. Applied to classical conditioning, TD models suppose that animals learn a real-time prediction of the unconditioned stimulus (US) on the basis of all available conditioned stimuli (CSs). In the TD model, similar to other error-correction models, learning is driven by prediction errors--the difference between the change in US prediction and the actual US. With the TD model, however, learning occurs continuously from moment to moment and is not artificially constrained to occur in trials. Accordingly, a key feature of any TD model is the assumption about the representation of a CS on a moment-to-moment basis. Here, we evaluate the performance of the TD model with a heretofore unexplored range of classical conditioning tasks. To do so, we consider three stimulus representations that vary in their degree of temporal generalization and evaluate how the representation influences the performance of the TD model on these conditioning tasks.
Wang, Yuan; Sakano, Hitomi; Beebe, Karisa; Brown, Maile R; de Laat, Rian; Bothwell, Mark; Kulesza, Randy J; Rubel, Edwin W
2014-06-15
Neuronal dendrites are structurally and functionally dynamic in response to changes in afferent activity. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an mRNA binding protein that regulates activity-dependent protein synthesis and morphological dynamics of dendrites. Loss and abnormal expression of FMRP occur in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and some forms of autism spectrum disorders. To provide further understanding of how FMRP signaling regulates dendritic dynamics, we examined dendritic expression and localization of FMRP in the reptilian and avian nucleus laminaris (NL) and its mammalian analogue, the medial superior olive (MSO), in rodents and humans. NL/MSO neurons are specialized for temporal processing of low-frequency sounds for binaural hearing, which is impaired in FXS. Protein BLAST analyses first demonstrate that the FMRP amino acid sequences in the alligator and chicken are highly similar to human FMRP with identical mRNA-binding and phosphorylation sites, suggesting that FMRP functions similarly across vertebrates. Immunocytochemistry further reveals that NL/MSO neurons have very high levels of dendritic FMRP in low-frequency hearing vertebrates including alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human. Remarkably, dendritic FMRP in NL/MSO neurons often accumulates at branch points and enlarged distal tips, loci known to be critical for branch-specific dendritic arbor dynamics. These observations support an important role for FMRP in regulating dendritic properties of binaural neurons that are essential for low-frequency sound localization and auditory scene segregation, and support the relevance of studying this regulation in nonhuman vertebrates that use low frequencies in order to further understand human auditory processing disorders.
Grafakos, Loukas
2014-01-01
The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition. Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...
Extended symmetrical classical electrodynamics.
Fedorov, A V; Kalashnikov, E G
2008-03-01
In this paper, we discuss a modification of classical electrodynamics in which "ordinary" point charges are absent. The modified equations contain additional terms describing the induced charges and currents. The densities of the induced charges and currents depend on the vector k and the vectors of the electromagnetic field, E and B . It is shown that the vectors E and B can be defined in terms of two four-potentials and the components of k are the components of a four-tensor of the third rank. The Lagrangian of the modified electrodynamics is defined. The conditions are derived at which only one four-potential determines the behavior of the electromagnetic field. It is also shown that static modified electrodynamics can describe the electromagnetic field in the inner region of an electric monopole. In the outer region of the electric monopole the electric field is governed by the Maxwell equations. It follows from boundary conditions at the interface between the inner and outer regions of the monopole that the vector k has a discrete spectrum. The electric and magnetic fields, energy, and angular momentum of the monopole are found for different eigenvalues of k .
Grassmannization of classical models
Pollet, Lode; Kiselev, Mikhail N.; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V.; Svistunov, Boris V.
2016-11-01
Applying Feynman diagrammatics to non-fermionic strongly correlated models with local constraints might seem generically impossible for two separate reasons: (i) the necessity to have a Gaussian (non-interacting) limit on top of which the perturbative diagrammatic expansion is generated by Wick’s theorem, and (ii) Dyson’s collapse argument implying that the expansion in powers of coupling constant is divergent. We show that for arbitrary classical lattice models both problems can be solved/circumvented by reformulating the high-temperature expansion (more generally, any discrete representation of the model) in terms of Grassmann integrals. Discrete variables residing on either links, plaquettes, or sites of the lattice are associated with the Grassmann variables in such a way that the partition function (as well as all correlation functions) of the original system and its Grassmann-field counterpart are identical. The expansion of the latter around its Gaussian point generates Feynman diagrams. Our work paves the way for studying lattice gauge theories by treating bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom on equal footing.
Aniello, P.; Ciaglia, F. M.; Di Cosmo, F.; Marmo, G.; Pérez-Pardo, J. M.
2016-10-01
We propose a new point of view regarding the problem of time in quantum mechanics, based on the idea of replacing the usual time operator T with a suitable real-valued function T on the space of physical states. The proper characterization of the function T relies on a particular relation with the dynamical evolution of the system rather than with the infinitesimal generator of the dynamics (Hamiltonian). We first consider the case of classical hamiltonian mechanics, where observables are functions on phase space and the tools of differential geometry can be applied. The idea is then extended to the case of the unitary evolution of pure states of finite-level quantum systems by means of the geometric formulation of quantum mechanics. It is found that T is a function on the space of pure states which is not associated with any self-adjoint operator. The link between T and the dynamical evolution is interpreted as defining a simultaneity relation for the states of the system with respect to the dynamical evolution itself. It turns out that different dynamical evolutions lead to different notions of simultaneity, i.e., the notion of simultaneity is a dynamical notion.
Crowder, Martin J
2001-01-01
If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...
Sullivan, Woodruff Turner
1982-01-01
Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...
The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.
Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S
2009-12-01
This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.
Experimental device-independent tests of classical and quantum dimensions
Ahrens, Johan; Badziag, Piotr; Cabello, Adán; Bourennane, Mohamed
2012-08-01
A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. The classical information encoded in a set of states is limited by the number of distinguishable states or classical dimension dc of the set. The sets used in quantum communication and information processing contain states that are neither identical nor distinguishable, and the quantum dimension dq of the set is the dimension of the Hilbert space spanned by these states. An important challenge is to assess the (classical or quantum) dimension of a set of states in a device-independent way, that is, without referring to the internal working of the device generating the states. Here we experimentally test dimension witnesses designed to efficiently determine the minimum dimension of sets of (three or four) photonic states from the correlations originated from measurements on them, and distinguish between classical and quantum sets of states.
Improving Zero-Error Classical Communication with Entanglement
Cubitt, Toby S.; Leung, Debbie; Matthews, William; Winter, Andreas
2010-06-01
Given one or more uses of a classical channel, only a certain number of messages can be transmitted with zero probability of error. The study of this number and its asymptotic behavior constitutes the field of classical zero-error information theory. We show that, given a single use of certain classical channels, entangled states of a system shared by the sender and receiver can be used to increase the number of (classical) messages which can be sent without error. In particular, we show how to construct such a channel based on any proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem. We investigate the connection to pseudotelepathy games. The use of generalized nonsignaling correlations to assist in this task is also considered. In this case, an elegant theory results and, remarkably, it is sometimes possible to transmit information with zero error using a channel with no unassisted zero-error capacity.
Innovation: the classic traps.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss
2006-11-01
Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding
Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.
Cohn, Jack
1980-01-01
Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)
Dynamical Symmetries in Classical Mechanics
Boozer, A. D.
2012-01-01
We show how symmetries of a classical dynamical system can be described in terms of operators that act on the state space for the system. We illustrate our results by considering a number of possible symmetries that a classical dynamical system might have, and for each symmetry we give examples of dynamical systems that do and do not possess that…
Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.
Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter
1989-01-01
Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…
Classic writings on instructional technology
Ely, Donald P.; Plomp, Tjeerd
1996-01-01
This paper describes the selection process of 17 articles for inclusion in the book, "Classic Writings on Instructional Technology." The book brings together original "classic" educational technology articles into one volume to document the history of the field through its literature. It is also an
COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW
Mihaela Cornelia Sandu
2013-01-01
Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.
Classic African American Children's Literature
McNair, Jonda C.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2002-01-01
The heyday of Beijing’s classical music beganin 1993, when top-quality sound equipment andrecords were imported. Also in that year, BeijingMusic Radio presented a classical music programtitled "Fan’s Club" and founded the "Music and
Refining the DCT: Comparing Open Questionnaires and Dialogue Completion Tasks.
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Hartford, Beverly S.
A study compared the influence of two forms of discourse completion test (DCT) on the elicitation of rejection of advice. An open questionnaire providing scenarios alone was compared with a classic dialogue completion task in which a conversational turn is provided. The tasks were given to 32 graduate students, 19 native and 13 non-native…
Classical approach in quantum physics
Solov'ev, Evgeni A
2010-01-01
The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the help of Poincar$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$ section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treating as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semicla...
Classical dynamics a modern perspective
Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George
2016-01-01
Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...
Improving zero-error classical communication with entanglement
Cubitt, Toby S; Matthews, William; Winter, Andreas
2009-01-01
Given one or more uses of a classical channel, only a certain number of messages can be transmitted with zero probability of error. The study of this number and its asymptotic behaviour constitutes the field of classical zero-error information theory, the quantum generalisation of which has started to develop recently. We show that, given a single use of certain classical channels, entangled states of a system shared by the sender and receiver can be used to increase the number of (classical) messages which can be sent with no chance of error. In particular, we show how to construct such a channel based on any proof of the Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem. This is a new example of the use of quantum effects to improve the performance of a classical task. We investigate the connection between this phenomenon and that of ``pseudo-telepathy'' games. The use of generalised non-signalling correlations to assist in this task is also considered. In this case, a particularly elegant theory results and, remarkably, it is s...
Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E
2010-11-01
Unlike humans, not all mammals use both of the binaural cues for sound localization. Whether an animal uses these cues can be determined by testing its ability to localize pure tones; specifically, low frequencies are localized using time-difference cues, and high frequencies are localized using intensity-difference cues. We determined the ability to use binaural cues in 2 New World bats, Phyllostomus hastatus, large omnivores, and Carollia perspicillata, small frugivores, by testing their tone-localization ability using a conditioned avoidance procedure. Both species easily localized high-frequency tones, indicating that they could use the interaural intensity-difference cue. However, neither species was able to use the phase-difference cue to localize either low-frequency pure tones or amplitude-modulated tones (which provided an envelope for additional time analysis). We now know of 3 bat species that cannot use binaural time cues and 2 that can. Further exploration of localization in bats may provide insight into the neural analysis of time cues in species that do not hear low frequencies.
Classical Knowledge for Quantum Security
D'Hondt, Ellie
2008-01-01
We propose a decision procedure for analysing security of quantum cryptographic protocols, combining a classical algebraic rewrite system for knowledge with an operational semantics for quantum distributed computing. As a test case, we use our procedure to reason about security properties of a recently developed quantum secret sharing protocol that uses graph states. We analyze three different scenarios based on the safety assumptions of the classical and quantum channels and discover the path of an attack in the presence of an adversary. The epistemic analysis that leads to this and similar types of attacks is purely based on our classical notion of knowledge.
Quantum localization of Classical Mechanics
Batalin, Igor A
2016-01-01
Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.
Quantum localization of classical mechanics
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2016-07-01
Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.
The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolivar, A.O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2001-08-01
Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2{pi} {yields} 0. (author)
Seedhouse, Paul
2005-01-01
The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…
Multi-party zero-error classical channel coding with entanglement
Piovesan, T.; Scarpa, G.; Schaffner, C.
2014-01-01
We study the effects of quantum entanglement on the performance of two classical zero-error communication tasks among multiple parties. Both tasks are generalizations of the two-party zero-error channel-coding problem, where a sender and a receiver want to perfectly communicate messages through a on
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkwood, Brent Christopher
2005-01-01
subjects listened to recordings presented via headphones and to the live presentation of wooden dowels of various lengths being dropped on a linoleum floor behind the screen. The subjects were asked to produce estimates of the rod lengths by positioning a moveable surface in such a way that it corresponded......In an attempt to understand the influence of stimulus presentation method for a typical everyday listening task, test subject performance in a dropped-rod length-estimate experiment was compared for three cases: 1) live presentation of stimuli, 2) playback of binaural stimuli as recorded from...... an acoustic head and torso simulator, and 3) diotic presentation of monaurally recorded stimuli. Live presentation of stimuli has already been used by C. Carello, et al. [Psychological Science 9, 211-214 (1998)] to demonstrate that humans can hear reasonably well the length of wooden dowels dropped onto hard...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkwood, Brent Christopher
subjects listened to recordings presented via headphones and to the live presentation of wooden dowels of various lengths being dropped on a linoleum floor behind the screen. The subjects were asked to produce estimates of the rod lengths by positioning a moveable surface in such a way that it corresponded......In an attempt to understand the influence of stimulus presentation method for a typical everyday listening task, test subject performance in a dropped-rod length-estimate experiment was compared for three cases: 1) live presentation of stimuli, 2) playback of binaural stimuli as recorded from...... an acoustic head and torso simulator, and 3) diotic presentation of monaurally recorded stimuli. Live presentation of stimuli has already been used by C. Carello, et al. [Psychological Science 9, 211-214 (1998)] to demonstrate that humans can hear reasonably well the length of wooden dowels dropped onto hard...
New perspectives on classical electromagnetism
Cote, Paul J.
2009-01-01
The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.
Soundscape of classical Chinese garden
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
With deep humanized connotation,the classical Chinese garden uses human intuitive sensation and personal poetic observation to express natural sound phenomena.It differs from the rational modern soundscape in western countries.
Invariants from classical field theory
Diaz, Rafael
2007-01-01
We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from classical field theories depending on external parameters. We apply our method to several field theories such as abelian BF, Chern-Simons and 2-dimensional Yang-Mills theory.
From Classical to Quantum Transistor
Sanjeev Kumar
2009-01-01
In this article the classical transistor and the basic physics underlying the operation of single electron transistor are presented; a brief history of transistor and current technological issues are discussed.
From Classical to Quantum Transistor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjeev Kumar
2009-05-01
Full Text Available In this article the classical transistor and the basic physics underlying the operation of single electron transistor are presented; a brief history of transistor and current technological issues are discussed.
Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.
2005-01-01
Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...
The neurodynamics underlying attentional control in set shifting tasks.
Stemme, Anja; Deco, Gustavo; Busch, Astrid
2007-09-01
In this work we address key phenomena observed with classical set shifting tasks as the "Wisconsin Card Sorting Test" or the "Stroop" task: Different types of errors and increased response times reflecting decreased attention. A component of major importance in these tasks is referred to as the "attentional control" thought to be implemented by the prefrontal cortex which acts primarily by an amplification of task relevant information. This mode of operation is illustrated by a neurodynamical model developed for a new kind of set shifting experiment: The Wisconsin-Delayed-Match-to-Sample task combines uninstructed shifts as investigated in Wisconsin-like tasks with a Delayed-Match-to-Sample paradigm. These newly developed WDMS experiments in conjunction with the neurodynamical simulations are able to explain the reason for decreased attention in set shifting experiments as well the different consequences of decreased attention in tasks requiring bivalent yes/no responses compared to tasks requiring multivalent responses.
Sound source localization based on binaural cross-correlation functions%基于双耳互相关函数的声源定位算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
万新旺; 吴镇扬
2011-01-01
为了提高受生物启发的定位算法的定位成功率,提出了一种基于双耳互相关函数的声源定位算法.该算法包括2个阶段:离线阶段和在线阶段.在离线阶段,测量与头相关脉冲响应(HRIR),并计算所有HRIR的双耳互相关函数(BCCF).当处于在线阶段时,首先,计算接收信号的BCCF;然后,计算接收信号的BCCF与所有HRIR的BCCF之间的Pearson相关系数;最后,将最大的Pearson相关系数对应的方位作为估计的声源方位.实验结果表明,在有2个声源同时存在的情况下,相对于互通道(cross-channel)定位算法,该算法把主峰定位成功率和次峰定位成功率分别提高了约1.64%和26.48%.%To improve the successful localization rate of the biologically inspired sound source localization method, a sound source localization algorithm based on binaural cross-correlation functions is proposed. The proposed method contains two phases: offline phase and online phase. During the offline phase, the head-related impulse responses (HRIR) are measured, and the binaural cross-correlation functions (BCCF) of the HRIRs are calculated. During the online phase, first, the BCCF of the received signals is computed; then Pearson correlation coefficient between the BCCF of the received signals and that of the HRIRs are calculated; finally, the azimuth corresponding to the largest Pearson correlation coefficient is regarded as the azimuth of the sound source. The experimental results show that when two sound sources are simultaneously present, compared with the cross-channel sound source localization method, the proposed algorithm increases the successful localization rate of the main peak and that of the second peak by about 1.64% and 26.48% , respectively.
Brainwave Acousto-Optic Adjuster Based on Binaural Auditory Beat%基于双声拍的脑电波声光调节装置
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张晓磊; 姚俊强; 沈斌; 应家顺; 彭雪峰
2013-01-01
A brainwave acousto-optic adjuster based on binaural auditory beat was designed by the use of the ATmega8.When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears,the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones,which was known as "Binaural Auditory Beats (BAT)".The BAT within the brainwave frequency range can affect brain activity and states of consciousness,so we can adjust the brainwave by the BAT.Make use of this law,we product two auditory signals with different frequency by ATmega8,after low pass filter,presented separately to the left and right ear,formed BAT,then set two LEDs flash with the same frequency as the BAT before the left and right eyes.The combined action of light and BAT with the same frequency could adjust the brainwave arbitrarily.%利用ATmega8单片机制作了一种基于双声拍的脑电波光电调节装置.两列频率差别较小的声波分别输入人的左右耳中,会产生一种振幅周期性变化的新的声波,新声波的频率为原来两列声波的频率差,这种现象称为“双声拍”.双声拍的频率位于人脑电波范围时会影响大脑的活跃程度和意识状态,通过调节双声拍的频率即可调节脑电波.基于这一原理,本文利用ATmega8单片机产生两列声波,低通滤波后将不同频率的声波通过左右耳输入大脑,形成“双声拍”；再将双眼前放置两个闪烁频率与双声拍频相同的LED,在声光的共同作用下,可以达到任意调节脑电波频率的目的.
Electrostatics interactions in classical simulations.
Cisneros, G Andrés; Babin, Volodymyr; Sagui, Celeste
2013-01-01
Electrostatic interactions are crucial for both the accuracy and performance of atomistic biomolecular simulations. In this chapter we review well-established methods and current developments aiming at efficiency and accuracy. Specifically, we review the classical Ewald summations, particle-particle particle-method particle-method Ewald algorithms, multigrid, fast multipole, and local methods. We also highlight some recent developments targeting more accurate, yet classical, representation of the molecular charge distribution.
Classical Transitions for Flux Vacua
Deskins, J Tate; Yang, I-Sheng
2012-01-01
We present the simplest model for classical transitions in flux vacua. A complex field with a spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry is embedded in $M_2\\times S_1$. We numerically construct different winding number vacua, the vortices interpolating between them, and simulate the collisions of these vortices. We show that classical transitions are generic at large boosts, independent of whether or not vortices miss each other in the compact $S_1$.
New Perspective on Classical Electromagnetism
2013-04-01
R. Feynman , R. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures in Physics vol II (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1964). 6. W.K.H. Panofsky and M...of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing a previously overlooked law of induction as well as the physical reality of the...classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing a previously overlooked law of induction as well as the physical reality of the vector potential
Classical theory of radiating strings
Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.
1990-01-01
The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.
Draper, Franklin Gno
This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.
Allocation of cognitive processing capacity during human autonomic classical conditioning.
Dawson, M E; Schell, A M; Beers, J R; Kelly, A
1982-09-01
In each of two experiments, allocation of cognitive processing capacity was measured in college-student subjects during autonomic discrimination classical conditioning. A 7.0-sec delay paradigm was used to establish classically conditioned responses to a reinforced visual conditioned stimulus (CS+). Electrodermal responses were the primary measures of autonomic classical conditioning. Allocation of processing capacity was measured by monitoring performance on a secondary reaction-time (RT) task. The auditory secondary-task RT signal was presented before, and 300, 500, 3500, 6500, and 7500 msec following CS onset. The RT signal was also presented following properly and improperly cued shock unconditioned stimuli (UCSs). Significant discrimination classical conditioning was obtained in both experiments. Comparison with control subjects who did not receive the RT signals indicated that the presence of the RT signals did not interfere with the development of classical conditioning. Four principal findings were obtained with the secondary-task RT measure. First, RTs to signals presented during CS+ were consistently slower than RTs to signals presented during CS-. This finding indicates that greater capacity allocation occurred during CS+ than CS- and is consistent with recent cognitive interpretations of classical conditioning. Second, the largest capacity allocation (i.e., slowing of RTs) occurred 300 msec following CS+ onset. This finding is consistent with the notion that subjects are actively processing the signal properties of the CS+ at 300 msec following CS+ onset. Third, presentation of the UCS when improperly cued (following CS-) significantly increased capacity allocation, whereas presentation of the same UCS when properly cued (following CS+) did not affect capacity allocation. These findings indicate that subjects were actively prepared for the UCS following CS+ but not following CS- and that a surprising UCS elicits greater capacity allocation than does an
Hermeneutic reading of classic texts.
Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å
2013-09-01
The purpose of this article is to broaden the understandinfg of the hermeneutic reading of classic texts. The aim is to show how the choice of a specific scientific tradition in conjunction with a methodological approach creates the foundation that clarifies the actual realization of the reading. This hermeneutic reading of classic texts is inspired by Gadamer's notion that it is the researcher's own research tradition and a clearly formulated theoretical fundamental order that shape the researcher's attitude towards texts and create the starting point that guides all reading, uncovering and interpretation. The researcher's ethical position originates in a will to openness towards what is different in the text and which constantly sets the researcher's preunderstanding and research tradition in movement. It is the researcher's attitude towards the text that allows the text to address, touch and arouse wonder. Through a flexible, lingering and repeated reading of classic texts, what is different emerges with a timeless value. The reading of classic texts is an act that may rediscover and create understanding for essential dimensions and of human beings' reality on a deeper level. The hermeneutic reading of classic texts thus brings to light constantly new possibilities of uncovering for a new envisioning and interpretation for a new understanding of the essential concepts and phenomena within caring science.
Does classical liberalism imply democracy?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Ellerman
2015-12-01
Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.
No Return to Classical Reality
Jennings, David
2015-01-01
At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of Nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurement-uncertainty, measurement-disturbance, complementarity, noncommutativity, interference, the no-cloning theorem, and the collapse of the wave-packet) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understandi...
Classical approach in atomic physics
Solov'ev, E. A.
2011-12-01
The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincaré section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormgroup symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well.
Classical approach in atomic physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solov' ev, E.A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)
2011-12-15
The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)
Population in the classic economics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adnan Doğruyol
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In addition to population made it established. The aim of this study is analyzing the mental relationship between Malthus whose name has been identified with relation between population-growth and Smith who discussed this subject first time but put it off on process of theorisation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik
1998-01-01
Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...
Negative Priming Effect after Inhibition of Weight/Number Interference in a Piaget-Like Task
Schirlin, Olivier; Houde, Olivier
2007-01-01
Piagetian tasks have more to do with the child's ability to inhibit interference than they do with the ability to grasp their underlying logic. Here we used a chronometric paradigm with 11-year-olds, who succeed in Piaget's conservation-of-weight task, to test the role of cognitive inhibition in a priming version of this classical task. The…
Morey, Candice C.; Morey, Richard D.; van der Reijden, Madeleine; Holweg, Margot
2013-01-01
Observations of higher dual-task costs for within-domain than cross-domain task combinations constitute classic evidence for multi-component models of working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 1986; Logie, 2011). However, we report an asymmetric pattern of interference between verbal and visual-spatial tasks,
Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine
Denny, Mark
2009-01-01
The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…
Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)
Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...
Comparing classical and quantum equilibration
Malabarba, Artur S L; Short, Anthony J
2016-01-01
By using a physically-relevant and theory independent definition of measurement-based equilibration, we show quantitatively that equilibration is easier for quantum systems than for classical systems, in the situation where the initial state of the system is completely known (pure state). This shows that quantum equilibration is a fundamental, nigh unavoidable, aspect of physical systems, while classical equilibration relies on experimental ignorance. When the state is not completely known, a mixed state, this framework also shows quantum equilibration requires weaker conditions.
Principal bundles the classical case
Sontz, Stephen Bruce
2015-01-01
This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles. While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.
Quantum teleportation without classical channel
Al Amri, M.; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-11-01
For the first time, we show how quantum teleportation can be achieved without the assistance of classical channels. Our protocol does not need any pre-established entangled photon pairs beforehand. Just by utilizing quantum Zeno effect and couterfactual communication idea, we can achieve two goals; entangling a photon and an atom and also disentangling them by non-local interaction. Information is completely transferred from atom to photon with controllable disentanglement processes. More importantly, there is no need to confirm teleportation results via classical channels.
Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…
Dominguez-Martinez, S.
2009-01-01
An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching fr
[Influence of music on a decision of mathematical logic tasks].
Pavlygina, R A; Karamysheva, N N; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I
2012-01-01
Accompaniment of a decision of mathematical logical tasks by music (different style and power) influenced on the time of the decision. Classical music 35 and 65 dB and roc-music 65 and 85 dB decreased the time of the decision. More powerful classical music (85 dB) did not effect like that. The decision without the musical accompaniment led to increasing of coherent values especially in beta1, beta2, gamma frequency ranges in EEG of occipital cortex. The intrahemispheric and the interhemispheric coherences of frontal EEG increased and EEG asymmetry (in a number of Coh-connections in left and right hemispheres) arose during the tasks decision accompanied by music. Application of classical music 35 and 65 dB caused left-side asymmetry in EEG. Using of more powerful classical or rock music led to prevalence of quantity of Coh-connections in a right hemisphere.
Classical simulation of commuting quantum computations implies collapse of the polynomial hierarchy
Bremner, Michael J; Shepherd, Dan J
2010-01-01
We consider quantum computations comprising only commuting gates, known as IQP computations, and provide compelling evidence that the task of sampling their output probability distributions is unlikely to be achievable by any efficient classical means. More specifically we introduce the class post-IQP of languages decided with bounded error by uniform families of IQP circuits with post-selection, and prove first that post-IQP equals the classical class PP. Using this result we show that if the output distributions of uniform IQP circuit families could be classically efficiently sampled, even up to 41% multiplicative error in the probabilities, then the infinite tower of classical complexity classes known as the polynomial hierarchy, would collapse to its third level. We mention some further results on the classical simulation properties of IQP circuit families, in particular showing that if the output distribution results from measurements on only O(log n) lines then it may in fact be classically efficiently ...
Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones
Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad
2013-01-01
A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…
Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza]. E-mail: rafael@cfp.ufpb.br; Almeida, W. Pires de [Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; Fonseca Neto, I. [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2001-06-01
We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, {phi}(t;{theta}). (author)
Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borowiecki, Karol Jan
2015-01-01
This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...
Classical and quantum Coulomb crystals
Bonitz, M; Baumgartner, H; Henning, C; Filinov, A; Block, D; Arp, O; Piel, A; Kading, S; Ivanov, Y; Melzer, A; Fehske, H; Filinov, V
2008-01-01
Strong correlation effects in classical and quantum plasmas are discussed. In particular, Coulomb (Wigner) crystallization phenomena are reviewed focusing on one-component non-neutral plasmas in traps and on macroscopic two-component neutral plasmas. The conditions for crystal formation in terms of critical values of the coupling parameters and the distance fluctuations and the phase diagram of Coulomb crystals are discussed.
Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy student...
On classical and quantum liftings
Accardi, L; Kossakowski, A; Matsuoka, T; Ohya, M
2011-01-01
We analyze the procedure of lifting in classical stochastic and quantum systems. It enables one to `lift' a state of a system into a state of `system+reservoir'. This procedure is important both in quantum information theory and the theory of open systems. We illustrate the general theory of liftings by a particular class related to so called circulant states.
Relative Clauses in Classical Nahuatl
Langacker, Ronald W.
1975-01-01
Jane Rosenthal's paper on relative clauses in Classical Nahuatl is discussed, and it is argued that she misses an important generalization. An alternative analysis to a class of relative pronouns and new rules for the distribution of relative pronouns are proposed. (SC)
On Classical and Quantum Cryptography
Volovich, I V; Volovich, Ya.I.
2001-01-01
Lectures on classical and quantum cryptography. Contents: Private key cryptosystems. Elements of number theory. Public key cryptography and RSA cryptosystem. Shannon`s entropy and mutual information. Entropic uncertainty relations. The no cloning theorem. The BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. Security proofs. Bell`s theorem. The EPRBE quantum cryptographic protocol.
Minimum signals in classical physics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓文基; 许基桓; 刘平
2003-01-01
The bandwidth theorem for Fourier analysis on any time-dependent classical signal is shown using the operator approach to quantum mechanics. Following discussions about squeezed states in quantum optics, the problem of minimum signals presented by a single quantity and its squeezing is proposed. It is generally proved that all such minimum signals, squeezed or not, must be real Gaussian functions of time.
Classical and molecular genetic mapping
A brief history of classical genetic mapping in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is described. Detailed descriptions are given of the development of molecular genetic linkage maps based upon various types of DNA markers Like many plant and animal species, the first molecular map of soybean was bas...
Classical Music as Enforced Utopia
Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel
2016-01-01
In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…
No return to classical reality
Jennings, David; Leifer, Matthew
2016-01-01
At a fundamental level, the classical picture of the world is dead, and has been dead now for almost a century. Pinning down exactly which quantum phenomena are responsible for this has proved to be a tricky and controversial question, but a lot of progress has been made in the past few decades. We now have a range of precise statements showing that whatever the ultimate laws of nature are, they cannot be classical. In this article, we review results on the fundamental phenomena of quantum theory that cannot be understood in classical terms. We proceed by first granting quite a broad notion of classicality, describe a range of quantum phenomena (such as randomness, discreteness, the indistinguishability of states, measurement-uncertainty, measurement-disturbance, complementarity, non-commutativity, interference, the no-cloning theorem and the collapse of the wave-packet) that do fall under its liberal scope, and then finally describe some aspects of quantum physics that can never admit a classical understanding - the intrinsically quantum mechanical aspects of nature. The most famous of these is Bell's theorem, but we also review two more recent results in this area. Firstly, Hardy's theorem shows that even a finite-dimensional quantum system must contain an infinite amount of information, and secondly, the Pusey-Barrett-Rudolph theorem shows that the wave function must be an objective property of an individual quantum system. Besides being of foundational interest, results of this sort now find surprising practical applications in areas such as quantum information science and the simulation of quantum systems.
Does classical mechanics always adequately describe "classical physical reality"
Shemi-zadeh, V E
2002-01-01
The article is dedicated to discussion of irreversibility and foundation of statistical mechanics "from the first principles". Taking into account infinitesimal and, as it seems, neglectful for classical mechanics fluctuations of the physical vacuum, makes a deterministic motion of unstable dynamic systems is broken ("spontaneous determinism breaking", "spontaneous stochastization"). Vacuum fluctuations play part of the trigger, starting the powerful mechanism of exponent instability. The motion of the dynamic systems becomes irreversible and stochastic. Classical mechanics turns out to be applicable only for a small class of stable dynamic systems with zero Kolmogorov-Sinay entropy $h=0$. For alternative "Stochastic mechanics" there are corresponding equations of motion and Master Equation, describing irreversible evolution of the initial distribution function to equilibrium state.
Why Can We Copy Classical Information?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Yao; HAO Liang; LONG Gui-Lu
2011-01-01
It is pointed out that the noncloning theorem in quantum mechanics also holds for unknown state in linear classical physics. The apparent capability of copying of a classical state is essentially the capability of perfect measurement in classical physics. The difference in copying between quantum and classical physics is the difference in measurement between the two theories. A classical copying process is the combined action of measurement of an unknown state and the preparation of this state onto another system. Hence perfect measurability in classical physics enables the copying of a classical state.
Teaching Classical Mechanics using Smartphones
Chevrier, Joel; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad
2012-01-01
Using a personal computer and a smartphone, iMecaProf is a software that provides a complete teaching environment for practicals associated to a Classical Mechanics course. iMecaProf proposes a visual, real time and interactive representation of data transmitted by a smartphone using the formalism of Classical Mechanics. Using smartphones is more than using a set of sensors. iMecaProf shows students that important concepts of physics they here learn, are necessary to control daily life smartphone operations. This is practical introduction to mechanical microsensors that are nowadays a key technology in advanced trajectory control. First version of iMecaProf can be freely downloaded. It will be tested this academic year in Universit\\'e Joseph Fourier (Grenoble, France)
Classical Equations for Quantum Systems
Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.
1993-01-01
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e. such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of t...
Classical databases and knowledge organization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2015-01-01
This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...... examines this claim and argues for the continued value of Boolean systems, which suggests two further considerations: (1) the important role of human expertise in searching (expert searchers and “information literate” users) and (2) the role of library and information science and knowledge organization (KO......) in the design and use of classical databases. An underlying issue is the kind of retrieval system for which one should aim. Warner’s (2010) differentiation between the computer science traditions and an older library-oriented tradition seems important; the former aim to transform queries automatically...
From classical to quantum physics
Stehle, Philip
2017-01-01
Suitable for lay readers as well as students, this absorbing survey explores the twentieth-century transition from classical to quantum physics. Author Philip Stehle traces the shift in the scientific worldview from the work of Galileo, Newton, and Darwin to the modern-day achievements of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, and others of their generation. His insightful overview examines not only the history of quantum physics but also the ways that progress in the discipline changed our understanding of the physical world and forces of nature. This chronicle of the second revolution in the physical sciences conveys the excitement and suspense that new developments produced in the scientific community. The narrative ranges from the classical physics of the seventeenth-century to the emergence of quantum mechanics with the entrance of the electron, the rise of relativity theory, the development of atomic theory, and the recognition of wave-particle duality. Relevant mathematical details...
A Companion to Classical Receptions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. De Villiers
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This recent addition to the excellent Blackwell Companions series looks at the various forms of classical reception currently being researched as well as those deemed to have future importance. The diversity and volume of the themes and approaches contained in this book are truly impressive. As Hardwick and Stray state in their introduction, this collection “has been constructed on the basis that the activators of reception are many and varied and that we all gain from encountering examples from outside our own immediate areas of knowledge” (p. 4. Throughout the book they stay true to this motto and traditional approaches to classical reception are not given prominence over more recent (sometimes contentious approaches such as film studies, cultural politics and photography. The same goes for the various cultures involved and there is even a chapter on Greek drama in South Africa.
Quantum Models of Classical World
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Hájíček
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper is a review of our recent work on three notorious problems of non-relativistic quantum mechanics: realist interpretation, quantum theory of classical properties, and the problem of quantum measurement. A considerable progress has been achieved, based on four distinct new ideas. First, objective properties are associated with states rather than with values of observables. Second, all classical properties are selected properties of certain high entropy quantum states of macroscopic systems. Third, registration of a quantum system is strongly disturbed by systems of the same type in the environment. Fourth, detectors must be distinguished from ancillas and the states of registered systems are partially dissipated and lost in the detectors. The paper has two aims: a clear explanation of all new results and a coherent and contradiction-free account of the whole quantum mechanics including all necessary changes of its current textbook version.
Classical Corrections in String Cosmology
Brustein, Ram; Brustein, Ram; Madden, Richard
1999-01-01
An important element in a model of non-singular string cosmology is a phase in which classical corrections saturate the growth of curvature in a deSitter-like phase with a linearly growing dilaton (an `algebraic fixed point'). As the form of the classical corrections is not well known, here we look for evidence, based on a suggested symmetry of the action, scale factor duality and on conformal field theory considerations, that they can produce this saturation. It has previously been observed that imposing scale factor duality on the $O(\\alpha')$ corrections is not compatible with fixed point behavior. Here we present arguments that these problems persist to all orders in $\\alpha'$. We also present evidence for the form of a solution to the equations of motion using conformal perturbation theory, examine its implications for the form of the effective action and find novel fixed point structure.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marchalot, Tanguy; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, Eigil V.
The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price.......com, 2011). CRC floats could be a very cost-effective technology with enhanced loading capacity and environmental resistance, and very low maintenance requirements, affecting directly the final energy price. The project involves DEXA Wave Energy Ltd, Wave Star A/S, Aalborg University and Hi-Con A....../S. It is divided in 4 tasks: Task 1: Preliminary float design and economic considerations Task 2: Material characteristics Task 3: Preliminary experiences Task 4: The importance for wave energy The present report covers Task 1....
Potential Theory in Classical Electrodynamics
Engelhardt, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
In Maxwell's classical theory of electrodynamics the fields are frequently expressed by potentials in order to facilitate the solution of the first order system of equations. This method obscures, however, that there exists an inconsistency between Faraday's law of induction and Maxwell's flux law. As a consequence of this internal contradiction there is neither gauge invariance, nor exist unique solutions in general. It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous wave equations cannot be solved by retarded integrals.
Semi-classical signal analysis
Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Sorine, Michel
2010-01-01
This study introduces a new signal analysis method called SCSA, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in the SCSA is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schr\\"odinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms.
Quantum manifolds with classical limit
Hohmann, Manuel; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R
2008-01-01
We propose a mathematical model of quantum spacetime as an infinite-dimensional manifold locally homeomorphic to an appropriate Schwartz space. This extends and unifies both the standard function space construction of quantum mechanics and the manifold structure of spacetime. In this picture we demonstrate that classical spacetime emerges as a finite-dimensional manifold through the topological identification of all quantum points with identical position expectation value. We speculate on the possible relevance of this geometry to quantum field theory and gravity.
Semi-classical signal analysis
Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2012-09-30
This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator for the analysis of the signal. We present some numerical examples and the first results obtained with this method on the analysis of arterial blood pressure waveforms. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.
A Brief Analysis of Communication Tasks in Task- based Teaehing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Xiaoying
2011-01-01
Task -Based Language Teaching （TBLT） aims at proving opportunities for the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities. This passage further exam if the following four communicative tasks jigsaw tasks, role - play tasks, problem solving tasks, and information gap tasks can assist classroom learning.
Quantum-Classical Correspondence: Dynamical Quantization and the Classical Limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2004-11-12
In only 150 pages, not counting appendices, references, or the index, this book is one author's perspective of the massive theoretical and philosophical hurdles in the no-man's-land separating the classical and quantum domains of physics. It ends with him emphasizing his own theoretical contribution to this area. In his own words, he has attempted to answer: 1. How can we obtain the quantum dynamics of open systems initially described by the equations of motion of classical physics (quantization process) 2. How can we retrieve classical dynamics from the quantum mechanical equations of motion by means of a classical limiting process (dequantization process). However, this monograph seems overly ambitious. Although the publisher's description refers to this book as an accessible entre, we find that this author scrambles too hastily over the peaks of information that are contained in his large collection of 272 references. Introductory motivating discussions are lacking. Profound ideas are glossed over superficially and shoddily. Equations morph. But no new convincing understanding of the physical world results. The author takes the viewpoint that physical systems are always in interaction with their environment and are thus not isolated and, therefore, not Hamiltonian. This impels him to produce a method of quantization of these stochastic systems without the need of a Hamiltonian. He also has interest in obtaining the classical limit of the quantized results. However, this reviewer does not understand why one needs to consider open systems to understand quantum-classical correspondence. The author demonstrates his method using various examples of the Smoluchowski form of the Fokker--Planck equation. He then renders these equations in a Wigner representation, uses what he terms an infinitesimality condition, and associates with a constant having the dimensions of an action. He thereby claims to develop master equations, such as the Caldeira
Quantum Transitions Between Classical Histories: Bouncing Cosmologies
Hartle, James
2015-01-01
In a quantum theory of gravity spacetime behaves classically when quantum probabilities are high for histories of geometry and field that are correlated in time by the Einstein equation. Probabilities follow from the quantum state. This quantum perspective on classicality has important implications: (a) Classical histories are generally available only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the state lives. (b) In a given patch states generally predict relative probabilities for an ensemble of possible classical histories. (c) In between patches classical predictability breaks down and is replaced by quantum evolution connecting classical histories in different patches. (d) Classical predictability can break down on scales well below the Planck scale, and with no breakdown in the classical equations of motion. We support and illustrate (a)-(d) by calculating the quantum transition across the de Sitter like throat connecting asymptotically classical, inflating histories in the no-boundary quantu...
Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals
Dittrich, Walter
2016-01-01
Graduate students who want to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find here both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name a few. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate the perturbation theory, canonical transformations, the action principle and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. This new edition has been revised and enlarged with chapters on quantum electrodynamics, high energy physics, Green’s functions and strong interaction.
Intuitionism vs. classicism a mathematical attack on classical logic
Haverkamp, Nick
2015-01-01
In the early twentieth century, the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer launched a powerful attack on the prevailing mathematical methods and theories. He developed a new kind of constructive mathematics, called intuitionism, which seems to allow for a rigorous refutation of widely accepted mathematical assumptions including fundamental principles of classical logic. Following an intense mathematical debate esp. in the 1920s, Brouwer's revolutionary criticism became a central philosophical concern in the 1970s, when Michael Dummett tried to substantiate it with meaning-theoretic considerations.
The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Bacelar Valente
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.
Johnson, Keith
2000-01-01
Describes a research project that is concerned with the design procedures followed by those engaged in designing pedagogic tasks for use in classrooms. Focuses on the part of the project that involves actual observation of designers in the process of developing one specific task for class use. Findings are presented under three headers: control…
Supporting complex search tasks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;
2015-01-01
There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...
Supporting complex search tasks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo
2015-01-01
There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is fragme......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together...
Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.
Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J
2009-05-25
Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.
Experimental Device-independent Tests of Classical and Quantum Dimensions
Badziag, Johan Ahrens Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed
2011-01-01
A fundamental resource in any communication and computation task is the amount of information that can be transmitted and processed. Information encoded in a classical system is limited by the dimension d_c of the system, i.e., the number of distinguishable states. A system with d_c=2^n classical states can carry n bits of classical information. Information encoded in a quantum system is limited by the dimension d_q of the Hilbert space of the system, i.e., the number of perfectly distinguishable quantum states. A system with d_q=2^n perfectly distinguishable quantum states can carry n qubits of quantum information. Physical systems of higher dimensions may enable more efficient and powerful information processing protocols. The dimension is fundamental in quantum cryptography and random number generation, where the security of many schemes [1,2,3] crucially relies on the system's dimension. From a fundamental perspective, the dimension can be used to quantify the non-classicality of correlations, since class...
Classical Optics and its Applications
Mansuripur, Masud
2009-02-01
Preface; Introduction; 1. Abbe's sine condition; 2. Fourier optics; 3. Effect of polarization on diffraction in systems of high numerical aperture; 4. Gaussian beam optics; 5. Coherent and incoherent imaging; 6. First-order temporal coherence in classical optics; 7. The Van Cittert-Zernike theorem; 8. Partial polarization, Stokes parameters, and the Poincarè Sphere; 9. Second-order coherence and the Hanbury Brown - Twiss experiment; 10. What in the world are surface plasmons?; 11. Surface plasmon polaritons on metallic surfaces; 12. The Faraday effecy; 13. The magneto-optical Kerr effect; 14. The Sagnac interferometer; 15. Fabry-Perot etalons in polarized light; 16. The Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem; 17. Reciprocity in classical Linear optics; 18. Optical pulse compression; 19. The uncertainty principle in classical optics; 20. Omni-directional dielectric mirrors; 21. Optical vortices; 22. Geometric-optical rays, Poynting's vector, and field momenta; 23. Doppler shift, stellar aberration, and convection of light by moving Media; 24. Diffraction gratings; 25. Diffractive optical elements; 26. The talbot effect; 27. Some quirks of total internal reflection; 28. Evanescent coupling; 29. Internal and external conical refraction; 30. Transmission of light through small elliptical apertures; 31. The method of Fox and Li; 32. The beam propagation method; 33. Launching light into a Fiber; 34. The optics of demiconductor fiode Laser; 35. Michelson's dtellar interferometer; 36. Bracewell's interferometric telescope; 37. Scanning optical microscopy; 38. Zernike's method of phase contrast; 39. Polarization microscopy; 40. Nomarski's differential interference contrast microscope; 41. The Van Leeuwenhoek microscope; 42. Projection photolithography; 43. Interaction of light with subwavelength structures; 44 The Ronchi test; 45. The Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor; 46. Ellipsometry; 47. Holography and holographic interferometry; 48. Self-focusing in non-linear optical media; 49
Classical trajectories and quantum tunneling
Ivlev, B I
2003-01-01
The problem of inter-band tunneling in a semiconductor (Zener breakdown) in a nonstationary and homogeneous electric field is solved exactly. Using the exact analytical solution, the approximation based on classical trajectories is studied. A new mechanism of enhanced tunneling through static non-one-dimensional barriers is proposed in addition to well known normal tunneling solely described by a trajectory in imaginary time. Under certain conditions on the barrier shape and the particle energy, the probability of enhanced tunneling is not exponentially small even for non-transparent barriers, in contrast to the case of normal tunneling.
Motions of Classical Charged Tachyons
Davidson, M P
2001-01-01
It is shown by numerical simulation that classical charged tachyons have self-orbiting helical solutions in a narrow neighborhood of certain discrete values for the velocity when the electromagnetic interaction is described by Feynman-Wheeler electrodynamics. The force rapidly oscillates between attractive and repulsive as a function of velocity in this neighborhood. Causal electrodynamics is also considered, and in this case it is found that when the force is attractive the tachyon loses energy to radiation. Only certain narrow ranges of velocity give attractive forces, and a geometrical derivation of these special velocities is given. Possible implications of these results for hidden variable theories of quantum mechanics are conjectured.
Solar Activity and Classical Physics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This review of solar physics emphasizes several of the more conspicuous scientific puzzles posed by contemporary observational knowledge of the magnetic activity of the Sun. The puzzles emphasize how much classical physics we have yet to learn from the Sun. The physics of solar activity is based on the principles of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Boltzmann, et. al., along with the principles of radiative transfer. In the large, these principles are expressed by magnetohydrodynamics. A brief derivation of the magnetohydrodynamic induction and momentum equations is provided, with a discussion of popular misconceptions.
Classical databases and knowledge organization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjørland, Birger
2015-01-01
examines this claim and argues for the continued value of Boolean systems, which suggests two further considerations: (1) the important role of human expertise in searching (expert searchers and “information literate” users) and (2) the role of library and information science and knowledge organization (KO......) in the design and use of classical databases. An underlying issue is the kind of retrieval system for which one should aim. Warner’s (2010) differentiation between the computer science traditions and an older library-oriented tradition seems important; the former aim to transform queries automatically...
Lectures on classical differential geometry
Struik, Dirk J
1988-01-01
Elementary, yet authoritative and scholarly, this book offers an excellent brief introduction to the classical theory of differential geometry. It is aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students who will find it not only highly readable but replete with illustrations carefully selected to help stimulate the student's visual understanding of geometry. The text features an abundance of problems, most of which are simple enough for class use, and often convey an interesting geometrical fact. A selection of more difficult problems has been included to challenge the ambitious student.Writ
Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source
Task-baseret kommunikativ sprogundervisning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Michael Svendsen
2015-01-01
Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-......Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-...
The revision of classical stock model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YE Bai-qing; WANG Hong-li
2001-01-01
On the basis of the analysis of classical stock model, according to th e limitation of the model, the article puts forward the revision of classical mo del and enforces the applicability of the stock model.
The revision of classical stock model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶柏青; 王洪利
2001-01-01
On the basis of the analysis of classical stock model, according to the limitation of the model, the article puts forward the revision of classical model and enforces the applicability of the stock model.
Overuse injuries in classical ballet.
Khan, K; Brown, J; Way, S; Vass, N; Crichton, K; Alexander, R; Baxter, A; Butler, M; Wark, J
1995-05-01
Successful management of classical ballet dancers with overuse injuries requires an understanding of the art form, precise knowledge of anatomy and awareness of certain conditions. Turnout is the single most fundamental physical attribute in classical ballet and 'forcing turnout' frequently contributes to overuse injuries. Common presenting conditions arising from the foot and ankle include problems at the first metatarsophalangeal joint, second metatarsal stress fractures, flexor hallucis longus tendinitis and anterior and posterior ankle impingement syndromes. Persistent shin pain in dancers is often due to chronic compartment syndrome, stress fracture of the posteromedial or anterior tibia. Knee pain can arise from patellofemoral syndrome, patellar tendon insertional pathologies, or a combination of both. Hip and back problems are also prevalent in dancers. To speed injury recovery of dancers, it is important for the sports medicine team to cooperate fully. This permits the dancer to benefit from accurate diagnosis, technique correction where necessary, the full range of manual therapies to joint and soft tissue, appropriate strengthening programmes and maintenance of dance fitness during any time out of class with Pilates-based exercises and nutrition advice. Most overuse ballet conditions respond well to a combination of conservative therapies. Those dancers that do require surgical management still depend heavily on ballet-specific rehabilitation for a complete recovery.
Classical equations for quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gell-Mann, M. (Theoretical Astrophysics Group (T-6), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545) (United States) (Santa Fe Institute, 1660 Old Pecos Trail, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501); Hartle, J.B. (Department of Physics, University of California enSanta Barbara, Santa Barbara, (California) 93106)
1993-04-15
The origin of the phenomenological deterministic laws that approximately govern the quasiclassical domain of familiar experience is considered in the context of the quantum mechanics of closed systems such as the universe as a whole. A formulation of quantum mechanics is used that predicts probabilities for the individual members of a set of alternative coarse-grained histories that [ital decohere], which means that there is negligible quantum interference between the individual histories in the set. We investigate the requirements for coarse grainings to yield decoherent sets of histories that are quasiclassical, i.e., such that the individual histories obey, with high probability, effective classical equations of motion interrupted continually by small fluctuations and occasionally by large ones. We discuss these requirements generally but study them specifically for coarse grainings of the type that follows a distinguished subset of a complete set of variables while ignoring the rest. More coarse graining is needed to achieve decoherence than would be suggested by naive arguments based on the uncertainty principle. Even coarser graining is required in the distinguished variables for them to have the necessary inertia to approach classical predictability in the presence of the noise consisting of the fluctuations that typical mechanisms of decoherence produce. We describe the derivation of phenomenological equations of motion explicitly for a particular class of models.
Physiological characteristics of classical ballet.
Schantz, P G; Astrand, P O
1984-10-01
The aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during professional training sessions ("classes") of classical ballet as well as during rehearsed and performed ballets has been studied by means of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration determinations on professional ballet dancers from the Royal Swedish Ballet in Stockholm. The measured oxygen uptake during six different normal classes at the theatre averaged about 35-45% of the maximal oxygen uptake, and the blood lactate concentration averaged 3 mM (N = 6). During 10 different solo parts of choreographed dance (median length = 1.8 min) representative for moderately to very strenuous dance, an average oxygen uptake (measured during the last minute) of 80% of maximum and blood lactate concentration of 10 mM was measured (N = 10). In addition, heart rate registrations from soloists in different ballets during performance and final rehearsals frequently indicated a high oxygen uptake relative to maximum and an average blood lactate concentration of 11 mM (N = 5). Maximal oxygen uptake, determined in 1971 (N = 11) and 1983 (N = 13) in two different groups of dancers, amounted to on the average 51 and 56 ml X min-1 X kg-1 for the females and males, respectively. In conclusion, classical ballet is a predominantly intermittent type of exercise. In choreographed dance each exercise period usually lasts only a few minutes, but can be very demanding energetically, while during the dancers' basic training sessions, the energy yield is low.
Curiel, Erik
2014-01-01
In the early 1970s it is was realized that there is a striking formal analogy between the Laws of black-hole mechanics and the Laws of classical thermodynamics. Before the discovery of Hawking radiation, however, it was generally thought that the analogy was only formal, and did not reflect a deep connection between gravitational and thermodynamical phenomena. It is still commonly held that the surface gravity of a stationary black hole can be construed as a true physical temperature and its area as a true entropy only when quantum effects are taken into account; in the context of classical general relativity alone, one cannot cogently construe them so. Does the use of quantum field theory in curved spacetime offer the only hope for taking the analogy seriously? I think the answer is `no'. To attempt to justify that answer, I shall begin by arguing that the standard argument to the contrary is not physically well founded, and in any event begs the question. Looking at the various ways that the ideas of "tempe...
Fluctuations in classical sum rules.
Elton, John R; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven
2010-10-01
Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.
Lesion Neuroanatomy of the Sustained Attention to Response Task
Molenberghs, Pascal; Gillebert, Celine R.; Schoofs, Hanne; Dupont, Patrick; Peeters, Ronald; Vandenberghe, Rik
2009-01-01
The Sustained Attention to Response task is a classical neuropsychological test that has been used by many centres to characterize the attentional deficits in traumatic brain injury, ADHD, autism and other disorders. During the SART a random series of digits 1-9 is presented repeatedly and subjects have to respond to each digit (go trial) except…
Self compensation of classical non abelian charge
Bartnik, E. A.
2009-01-01
A new classical, non singular solution with arbitrarily low energy is found for SU(2) non abelian fields in the presence of a static charge. Physically it means that a classical charge coupled to any SU(N) non abelian gauge field will develop a pure gauge field, carrying no energy, that will completely screen it - there are no visible classical non abelian charges.
Quantum-classical hybrid dynamics - a summary
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2013-01-01
A summary of a recently proposed description of quantum-classical hybrids is presented, which concerns quantum and classical degrees of freedom of a composite object that interact directly with each other. This is based on notions of classical Hamiltonian mechanics suitably extended to quantum mechanics.
Collection of problems in classical mechanics
Kotkin, G L; ter Haar, D
1971-01-01
Collection of Problems in Classical Mechanics presents a set of problems and solutions in physics, particularly those involving mechanics. The coverage of the book includes 13 topics relevant to classical mechanics, such as integration of one-dimensional equations of motion; the Hamiltonian equations of motion; and adiabatic invariants. The book will be of great use to physics students studying classical mechanics.
运动声源的双耳录音声像定位效果分析%Spatial Localization Performances of Moving Sound in Binaural Recording
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
仝欣; 齐娜
2015-01-01
分析了不同运动方式下双耳录音的声像定位效果，录音采用的声学头模是由中国传媒大学自行研制的，头部尺寸符合中国人的平均生理参数。共录制、评价了三种声源状态下的定位效果：静止、射线运动和横向运动。主观评价实验结果表明运动声源有助于将声像定位在头外，在一定程度上改善了头中定位效应，但声源运动并不能有效地减少声像前后混淆率和上下混淆率。此外，不同的声源运动方式也影响着声像定位的正确率，横向运动比射线运动的声像方向定位正确率高9%。%The spatial localization performance with different moving patterns in binaural recording was analyzed. The acoustical dummy head used here was designed by Communication University of China. The size of the dummy head kept meeting the national standards and was in accordance with the average phys-iological parameters of Chinese people. Three kinds of sound sources were recorded and analyzed:station-ary sound,radial-straightline-movement sound and crosswise-straightline-movement sound. The re-sult of subjective listening test showed that the movement of the sound contributes to localize the sound image outside the head and weaken inside-the-head effect to some extent. However,the movement of the sound cannot reduce the front-back confusion and up-down confusion effectively. Besides,different movement styles of sound source will affect the localization accuracy,and the rate of accuracy was 9%higher when sound source moving linearly in crosswise direction than in radial direction.
Simulating the classical XY model with a laser network
Tamate, Shuhei; Marandi, Alireza; McMahon, Peter; Utsunomiya, Shoko
2016-01-01
Drawing fair samples from the Boltzmann distribution of a statistical model is a challenging task for modern digital computers. We propose a physical implementation of a Boltzmann sampler for the classical XY model by using a laser network. The XY spins are mapped onto the phases of multiple laser pulses in a fiber ring cavity and the steady-state distribution of phases naturally realizes the Boltzmann distribution of the corresponding XY model. We experimentally implement the laser network by using an actively mode-locked fiber laser with optical delay lines, and demonstrate Boltzmann sampling for a one-dimensional XY ring.
Zhen, Shanshan; Yu, Rongjun
2016-07-20
Human risk-taking attitudes can be influenced by two logically equivalent but descriptively different frames, termed the framing effect. The classic hypothetical vignette-based task (Asian disease problem) and a recently developed reward-based gambling task have been widely used to assess individual differences in the framing effect. Previous studies treat framing bias as a stable trait that has genetic basis. However, these two paradigms differ in terms of task domain (loss vs. gain) and task context (vignette-based vs. reward-based) and the convergent validity of these measurements remains unknown. Here, we developed a vignette-based task and a gambling task in both gain and loss domains and tested correlations of the framing effect among these tasks in 159 young adults. Our results revealed no significant correlation between the vignette-based task in the loss domain and the gambling task in the gain domain, indicating low convergent validity. The current findings raise the question of how to measure the framing effect precisely, especially in individual difference studies using large samples and expensive neuroscience methods. Our results suggest that the framing effect is influenced by both task domain and task context and future research should be cautious about the operationalization of the framing effect.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld
2014-01-01
The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boll, Karen
Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt
. Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....
Inflation and classical scale invariance
Racioppi, Antonio
2014-01-01
BICEP2 measurement of primordial tensor modes in CMB suggests that cosmological inflation is due to a slowly rolling inflaton taking trans-Planckian values and provides further experimental evidence for the absence of large $M_{\\rm P}$ induced operators. We show that classical scale invariance solves the problem and allows for a remarkably simple scale-free inflaton model without any gauge group. Due to trans-Planckian inflaton values and VEVs, a dynamically induced Coleman-Weinberg-type inflaton potential of the model can predict tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ in a large range. Precise determination of $r$ in future experiments will allow to test the proposed field-theoretic framework.
Theoretical physics 1 classical mechanics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. The book starts with a thorough introduction to the mathematical tools needed, to make this textbook self-contained for learning. The second part of the book introduces the mechanics of the free mass point and details conservation principles. The third part expands the previous to mechanics of many particle systems. Finally the mechanics of the rigid body is illustrated with rotational forces, inertia and gyroscope movement. Ideally suited to undergraduate students in their first year, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series...
A Classical Model of Gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wagener P.
2008-07-01
Full Text Available A classical model of gravitation is proposed with time as an independent coordinate. The dynamics of the model is determined by a proposed Lagrangian. Applying the canonical equations of motion to its associated Hamiltonian gives conservation equa- tions of energy, total angular momentum and the z component of the angular momen- tum. These lead to a Keplerian orbit in three dimensions, which gives the observed values of perihelion precession and bending of light by a massive object. An expression for gravitational redshift is derived by accepting the local validity of special relativity at all points in space. Exact expressions for the GEM relations, as well as their associated Lorentz-type force, are derived. An expression for Mach’s Principle is also derived.
Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell
Garg, Anupam
2012-01-01
This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.
Bettini, Alessandro
This first volume covers the mechanics of point particles, gravitation, extended systems (starting from the two-body system), the basic concepts of relativistic mechanics and the mechanics of rigid bodies and fluids. The four-volume textbook, which covers electromagnetism, mechanics, fluids and thermodynamics, and waves and light, is designed to reflect the typical syllabus during the first two years of a calculus-based university physics program. Throughout all four volumes, particular attention is paid to in-depth clarification of conceptual aspects, and to this end the historical roots of the principal concepts are traced. Writings by the founders of classical mechanics, G. Galilei and I. Newton, are reproduced, encouraging students to consult them. Emphasis is also consistently placed on the experimental basis of the concepts, highlighting the experimental nature of physics. Whenever feasible at the elementary level, concepts relevant to more advanced courses in modern physics are included. Each chapter b...
Classical mechanics of nonconservative systems.
Galley, Chad R
2013-04-26
Hamilton's principle of stationary action lies at the foundation of theoretical physics and is applied in many other disciplines from pure mathematics to economics. Despite its utility, Hamilton's principle has a subtle pitfall that often goes unnoticed in physics: it is formulated as a boundary value problem in time but is used to derive equations of motion that are solved with initial data. This subtlety can have undesirable effects. I present a formulation of Hamilton's principle that is compatible with initial value problems. Remarkably, this leads to a natural formulation for the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of generic nonconservative systems, thereby filling a long-standing gap in classical mechanics. Thus, dissipative effects, for example, can be studied with new tools that may have applications in a variety of disciplines. The new formalism is demonstrated by two examples of nonconservative systems: an object moving in a fluid with viscous drag forces and a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment.
Introducing Newton and classical physics
Rankin, William
2002-01-01
The rainbow, the moon, a spinning top, a comet, the ebb and flood of the oceans ...a falling apple. There is only one universe and it fell to Isaac Newton to discover its secrets. Newton was arguably the greatest scientific genius of all time, and yet he remains a mysterious figure. Written and illustrated by William Rankin, "Introducting Newton and Classical Physics" explains the extraordinary ideas of a man who sifted through the accumulated knowledge of centuries, tossed out mistaken beliefs, and single-handedly made enormous advances in mathematics, mechanics and optics. By the age of 25, entirely self-taught, he had sketched out a system of the world. Einstein's theories are unthinkable without Newton's founding system. He was also a secret heretic, a mystic and an alchemist, the man of whom Edmund Halley said "Nearer to the gods may no man approach!". This is an ideal companion volume to "Introducing Einstein".
Scientific Realism and Classical Physics
Singh, Virendra
2008-01-01
We recount the successful long career of classical physics, from Newton to Einstein, which was based on the philosophy of scientific realism. Special emphasis is given to the changing status and number of ontological entitities and arguments for their necessity at any time. Newton, initially, began with (i) point particles, (ii) aether, (iii) absolute space and (iv) absolute time. The electromagnetic theory of Maxwell and Faraday introduced `fields' as a new ontological entity not reducible to earlier ones. Their work also unified electricity, magnetism and optics. Repeated failure to observe the motion of earth through aether led Einstein to modify the Newtonian absolute space and time concepts to a fused Minkowski space-time and the removal of aether from basic ontological entities in his special theory of relativity. Later Einstein in his attempts to give a local theory of gravitation was led to further modify flat Minkowski space-time to the curved Riemannian space time. This reduced gravitational phenome...
Classical scattering from oscillating targets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papachristou, P.K.; Diakonos, F.K.; Constantoudis, V.; Schmelcher, P.; Benet, L
2002-12-30
We study planar classical scattering from an oscillating heavy target whose dynamics defines a five-dimensional phase space. Although the system possesses no periodic orbits, and thus topological chaos is not present, the scattering functions display a variety of structures on different time scales. These structures are due to scattering events with a strong energy transfer from the projectile to the moving disk resulting in low-velocity peaks. We encounter initial conditions for which the projectile exhibits infinitely many bounces with the oscillating disk. Our numerical investigations are supported by analytical results on a specific model with a simple time-law. The observed properties possess universal character for scattering off oscillating targets.
Classic ballet dancers postural patterns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseani Paulini Neves Simas
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate classic ballet practice and its influence on postural patterns and (a identify the most frequent postural changes; (b determine the postural pattern; (c verify the existence of association of practice time and postural changes. The investigation was carried out in two stages: one, description in which 106 dancers participated; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a questionnaire; (b a checkerboard; (c postural chart; (d measure tape; (e camera and (f pedoscope were used as instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analysis. The results revealed the most frequent postural changes such as hyperlordosis, unleveled shoulders and pronated ankles. Ballet seems to have negative implications in the postural development , affecting especially the vertebral spine, trunk and feet. The practice time was not a parameter to indicate the increase in postural changes. In conclusion, ballet may be associated with postural changes and determining a characteristic postural pattern.
GALK inhibitors for classic galactosemia.
Lai, Kent; Boxer, Matthew B; Marabotti, Anna
2014-06-01
Classic galactosemia is an inherited metabolic disease for which, at present, no therapy is available apart from galactose-restricted diet. However, the efficacy of the diet is questionable, since it is not able to prevent the insurgence of chronic complications later in life. In addition, it is possible that dietary restriction itself could induce negative side effects. Therefore, there is a need for an alternative therapeutic approach that can avert the manifestation of chronic complications in the patients. In this review, the authors describe the development of a novel class of pharmaceutical agents that target the production of a toxic metabolite, galactose-1-phosphate, considered as the main culprit for the cause of the complications, in the patients.
Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation
Scivetti, I
2003-01-01
The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position
From classical to quantum fields
Baulieu, Laurent; Sénéor, Roland
2017-01-01
Quantum Field Theory has become the universal language of most modern theoretical physics. This introductory textbook shows how this beautiful theory offers the correct mathematical framework to describe and understand the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. The book begins with a brief reminder of basic classical field theories, electrodynamics and general relativity, as well as their symmetry properties, and proceeds with the principles of quantisation following Feynman's path integral approach. Special care is used at every step to illustrate the correct mathematical formulation of the underlying assumptions. Gauge theories and the problems encountered in their quantisation are discussed in detail. The last chapters contain a full description of the Standard Model of particle physics and the attempts to go beyond it, such as grand unified theories and supersymmetry. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book could also serve as a re...
Gastrointestinal Health in Classic Galactosemia.
Shaw, Kelly A; Mulle, Jennifer G; Epstein, Michael P; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L
2016-07-01
Classic galactosemia (CG) is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism that affects approximately 1/50,000 live births in the USA. Following exposure to milk, which contains large quantities of galactose, affected infants may become seriously ill. Early identification by newborn screening with immediate dietary galactose restriction minimizes or prevents the potentially lethal acute symptoms of CG. However, more than half of individuals with CG still experience long-term complications including cognitive disability, behavioral problems, and speech impairment. Anecdotal reports have also suggested frequent gastrointestinal (GI) problems, but this outcome has not been systematically addressed. In this study we explored the prevalence of GI symptoms among 183 children and adults with CG (cases) and 190 controls. Cases reported 4.5 times more frequent constipation (95% CI 1.8-11.5) and 4.2 times more frequent nausea (95% CI 1.2-15.5) than controls. Cases with genotypes predicting residual GALT activity reported less frequent constipation than cases without predicted GALT activity but this difference was not statistically significant. Because the rigor of dietary galactose restriction varies among individuals with galactosemia, we further tested whether GI symptoms associated with diet in infancy. Though constipation was almost four times as common among cases reporting a more restrictive diet in infancy, this difference was not statistically significant. These data confirm that certain GI symptoms are more common in classic galactosemia compared to controls and suggest that future studies should investigate associations with residual GALT activity and dietary galactose restriction in early life.
Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
RAJAGOPAL A K; GHOSE PARTHA
2016-06-01
Classical electrodynamics is reformulated in terms of wave functions in the classical phase space of electrodynamics, following the Koopman–von Neumann–Sudarshan prescription for classical mechanics on Hilbert spaces sans the superselection rule which prohibits interference effects in classical mechanics. This is accomplished by transforming from a set of commutingobservables in one Hilbert space to another set of commuting observables in a larger Hilbert space. This is necessary to clarify the theoretical basis of the much recent work on quantum-like features exhibited by classical optics. Furthermore, following Bondar et al, {\\it Phys. Rev.} A 88, 052108 (2013), it is pointed out that quantum processes that preserve the positivity or nonpositivity of theWigner function can be implemented by classical optics. This may be useful in interpreting quantum information processing in terms of classical optics.
Borg, Charmaine; Bosman, Renske C; Engelhard, Iris; Olatunji, Bunmi O; de Jong, Peter J
2015-01-01
Earlier studies provided preliminary support for the role of classical conditioning as a pathway of disgust learning, yet this evidence has been limited to self-report. This study included facial electromyographical (EMG) measurements (corrugator and levator muscles) and a behavioural approach task
Recurrent Spiking Networks Solve Planning Tasks
Rueckert, Elmar; Kappel, David; Tanneberg, Daniel; Pecevski, Dejan; Peters, Jan
2016-02-01
A recurrent spiking neural network is proposed that implements planning as probabilistic inference for finite and infinite horizon tasks. The architecture splits this problem into two parts: The stochastic transient firing of the network embodies the dynamics of the planning task. With appropriate injected input this dynamics is shaped to generate high-reward state trajectories. A general class of reward-modulated plasticity rules for these afferent synapses is presented. The updates optimize the likelihood of getting a reward through a variant of an Expectation Maximization algorithm and learning is guaranteed to convergence to a local maximum. We find that the network dynamics are qualitatively similar to transient firing patterns during planning and foraging in the hippocampus of awake behaving rats. The model extends classical attractor models and provides a testable prediction on identifying modulating contextual information. In a real robot arm reaching and obstacle avoidance task the ability to represent multiple task solutions is investigated. The neural planning method with its local update rules provides the basis for future neuromorphic hardware implementations with promising potentials like large data processing abilities and early initiation of strategies to avoid dangerous situations in robot co-worker scenarios.
Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric
2004-01-01
This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…
Religious ecstasy in classical Sufism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Göran Ogén
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to shed some light on the phenomenon of religious ecstasy as met within Islamic mysticism and there particularly during its classical period. In this case, the expression "classical Sufism" refers to the period of Sufi history from about 850 A.D. until circa 1100 A.D. In the Sufi vocabulary there is even a rather differentiated terminology concerning these ecstatic experiences or states; whether different descriptions of one and the same experience are involved or whether the terms actually describe different experiences is a question that we must set aside for the present. There are, however, Sufis expressing the opinion that these different states of mind are based on one single experience in spite of the difference in terms. A generic term for these experiences or states is not to be found in the Sufi terminology however, so the problem of which of these phenomena must be present in order for ecstasy to be evidenced—or which of them would be sufficient— does not therefore arise for the Sufis. So instead of speaking of religious ecstasy in general, they either refer to the single specific terms in question or else use the plural of one of the words employed to designate one of the terms we include in "religious ecstasy". They thus speak of "ecstasies", mawagid from the singular form wagd—if one should at all attempt a translation of this plural. This plural is a genuine Sufi construction and does not otherwise seem to occur in the Arabic language, except as a later borrowing. Psalmody based on the Koranic vocabulary remains the main procedure for putting oneself in ecstasy. If we add 'and listening to psalmody', we then obtain a fairly satisfactory picture of the external conditions for the Sufis' ecstasy until the eleventh century, when various innovations begin to appear. As far as the darwiš-dance is concerned, it is not until the thirteenth century with Rumi that it becomes transformed from an expression
The KUSC Classical Music Dataset for Audio Key Finding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ching-Hua Chuan
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a benchmark dataset based on the KUSC classical music collection and provide baseline key-finding comparison results. Audio key finding is a basic music information retrieval task; it forms an essential component of systems for music segmentation, similarity assessment, and mood detection. Due to copyright restrictions and a labor-intensive annotation process, audio key finding algorithms have only been evaluated using small proprietary datasets to date. To create a common base for systematic comparisons, we have constructed a dataset comprising of more than 3,000 excerpts of classical music. The excerpts are made publicly accessible via commonly used acoustic features such as pitch-based spectrograms and chromagrams. We introduce a hybrid annotation scheme that combines the use of title keys with expert validation and correction of only the challenging cases. The expert musicians also provide ratings of key recognition difficulty. Other meta-data include instrumentation. As demonstration of use of the dataset, and to provide initial benchmark comparisons for evaluating new algorithms, we conduct a series of experiments reporting key determination accuracy of four state-of-the-art algorithms. We further show the importance of considering factors such as estimated tuning frequency, key strength or confidence value, and key recognition difficulty in key finding. In the future, we plan to expand the dataset to include meta-data for other music information retrieval tasks.
Classical topology and quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A P Balachandran
2001-02-01
Any two inﬁnite-dimensional (separable) Hilbert spaces are unitarily isomorphic. The sets of all their self-adjoint operators are also therefore unitarily equivalent. Thus if all self-adjoint operators can be observed, and if there is no further major axiom in quantum physics than those formulated for example in Dirac’s ‘quantum mechanics’, then a quantum physicist would not be able to tell a torus from a hole in the ground. We argue that there are indeed such axioms involving observables with smooth time evolution: they contain commutative subalgebras from which the spatial slice of spacetime with its topology (and with further reﬁnements of the axiom, its - and ∞ - structures) can be reconstructed using Gel’fand–Naimark theory and its extensions. Classical topology is an attribute of only certain quantum observables for these axioms, the spatial slice emergent from quantum physics getting progressively less differentiable with increasingly higher excitations of energy and eventually altogether ceasing to exist. After formulating these axioms, we apply them to show the possibility of topology change and to discuss quantized fuzzy topologies. Fundamental issues concerning the role of time in quantum physics are also addressed.
Pembrolizumab in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Maly, Joseph; Alinari, Lapo
2016-09-01
Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a key immune-inhibitory molecule expressed on T cells and implicated in CD4+ T-cell exhaustion and tumor immune-escape mechanisms. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) is a unique B-cell malignancy in the sense that malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells represent a small percentage of cells within an extensive immune cell infiltrate. PD-1 ligands are upregulated on RS cells as a consequence of both chromosome 9p24.1 amplification and Epstein-Barr virus infection and by interacting with PD-1 promote an immune-suppressive effect. By augmenting antitumor immune response, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, another monoclonal antibody against PD-1, have shown significant activity in patients with relapsed/refractory cHL as well as an acceptable toxicity profile with immune-related adverse events that are generally manageable. In this review, we explore the rationale for targeting PD-1 in cHL, review the clinical trial results supporting the use of checkpoint inhibitors in this disease, and present future directions for investigation in which this approach may be used.
Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism
Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.
2011-06-01
It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.
THE BUREAUCRATIC PHENOMENON: CLASSICAL CONCEPTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Дама Ибрагима
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Aim of this article - to analyze Hegel and Karl Marx’s classic bureaucracy theories and also Max Weber’s concept of rational bureaucracy and its development in the works of Herbert Simon, Robert Merton, Peter Blau and Michel Crozier. It shows that the above listed researchers only undertook a change of terminology within the same theoretical tradition. The article describes different approaches to the bureaucratic system of administrative schools of the late 1950s and early 1980s. Major conclusions in the article include the following: administering the state apparatus consists in the organization of government on the basis of regulated rights, mandatory procedures that are invoked to ensure balance in the interest of man and society; bad effectiveness of government, infringement of the rights and freedoms of the individual is the result of dysfunction in the state apparatus; the struggle against it can be carried out with the help of administrative, economical and legal methods.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-45
Observation of Quantum Fingerprinting Beating the Classical Limit.
Guan, Jian-Yu; Xu, Feihu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Li; You, Li-Xing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-06-17
Quantum communication has historically been at the forefront of advancements, from fundamental tests of quantum physics to utilizing the quantum-mechanical properties of physical systems for practical applications. In the field of communication complexity, quantum communication allows the advantage of an exponential reduction in the transmitted information over classical communication to accomplish distributed computational tasks. However, to date, demonstrating this advantage in a practical setting continues to be a central challenge. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting protocol that for the first time surpasses the ultimate classical limit to transmitted information. Ultralow noise superconducting single-photon detectors and a stable fiber-based Sagnac interferometer are used to implement a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the classical proven lower bound over 20 km standard telecom fiber for input sizes of up to 2 Gbits. The results pave the way for experimentally exploring the advanced features of quantum communication and open a new window of opportunity for research in communication complexity and testing the foundations of physics.
Observation of Quantum Fingerprinting Beating the Classical Limit
Guan, Jian-Yu; Xu, Feihu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Li; You, Li-Xing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-06-01
Quantum communication has historically been at the forefront of advancements, from fundamental tests of quantum physics to utilizing the quantum-mechanical properties of physical systems for practical applications. In the field of communication complexity, quantum communication allows the advantage of an exponential reduction in the transmitted information over classical communication to accomplish distributed computational tasks. However, to date, demonstrating this advantage in a practical setting continues to be a central challenge. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting protocol that for the first time surpasses the ultimate classical limit to transmitted information. Ultralow noise superconducting single-photon detectors and a stable fiber-based Sagnac interferometer are used to implement a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the classical proven lower bound over 20 km standard telecom fiber for input sizes of up to 2 Gbits. The results pave the way for experimentally exploring the advanced features of quantum communication and open a new window of opportunity for research in communication complexity and testing the foundations of physics.
Reed, Nat
2011-01-01
For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets
Reed, Nat
2011-01-01
For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets
Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional W-algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suh, Uhi Rinn, E-mail: uhrisu1@math.snu.ac.kr [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, GwanAkRo 1, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine W-algebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine W-algebras can be considered as quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-algebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional W-algebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional W-algebra has two compatible λ-brackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional W-algebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λ-brackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional W-algebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.
Locking classical correlation in quantum states
Di Vincenzo, D P; Leung, D; Smolin, J A; Terhal, B M; Vincenzo, David Di; Horodecki, Michal; Leung, Debbie; Smolin, John; Terhal, Barbara
2003-01-01
We show that there exist bipartite quantum states which contain large hidden classical correlation that can be unlocked by a disproportionately small amount of classical communication. In particular, there are $(2n+1)$-qubit states for which a one bit message doubles the optimal classical mutual information between measurement results on the subsystems, from $n/2$ bits to $n$ bits. States exhibiting this behavior need not be entangled. We study the range of states exhibiting this phenomenon and bound its magnitude.
Classical information capacity of superdense coding
Bowen, G H
2001-01-01
Classical communication through quantum channels may be enhanced by sharing entanglement. Superdense coding allows the encoding, and transmission, of up to two classical bits of information in a single qubit. In this paper, the maximum classical channel capacity for states that are not maximally entangled is derived. Particular schemes are then shown to attain this capacity, firstly for pairs of qubits, and secondly for pairs of qutrits.
Digital Classics Outside the Echo-Chamber
Bodard, Gabriel; Romanello, Matteo
2016-01-01
This volume, edited by the organizers of the “Digital Classicist” seminars series, presents research in classical studies, digital classics and digital humanities, bringing together scholarship that addresses the impact of the study of classical antiquity through computational methods on audiences such as scientists, heritage professionals, students and the general public. Within this context, chapters tackle particular aspects, from epigraphy, papyrology and manuscripts, via Greek language, ...
Pilati, Nadia; Linley, Deborah M.; Selvaskandan, Haresh; Uchitel, Osvaldo; Hennig, Matthias H.; Kopp‐Scheinpflug, Cornelia
2016-01-01
prehearing animals to 2.6 ± 0.4 ms in adults, as GluN2C expression increased. In vivo induction of AT at around P20 disrupted IPSC and EPSC integration in the LSO, so that 1 week later the AMPA receptor (AMPAR)‐EPSC decay was slowed and mRNA for GluA1 increased while GluA4 decreased. In contrast, GlyR IPSC and NMDAR‐EPSC decay times were unchanged. Computational modelling confirmed that matched IPSC and EPSC kinetics are required to generate mature interaural level difference functions, and that longer‐lasting EPSCs compensate to maintain binaural function with raised auditory thresholds after AT. We conclude that LSO excitatory and inhibitory synaptic drive matures to identical time‐courses, that AT changes synaptic AMPARs by expression of subunits with slow kinetics (which recover over 2 months) and that loud sounds reversibly modify excitatory synapses in the brain, changing synaptic function for several weeks after exposure. PMID:27104476
On the tomographic description of classical fields
Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Sudarshan, E C G; Ventriglia, F
2012-01-01
After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so called Gauss--Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.
Classical Fields and the Quantum Concept
De Souza, M M
1996-01-01
We do a critical review of the Faraday-Maxwell concept of classical field and of its quantization process. With the hindsight knowledge of the essentially quantum character of the interactions, we use a naive classical model of field, based on exchange of classical massless particles, for a comparative and qualitative analysis of the physical content of the Coulomb's and Gauss's laws. It enlightens the physical meaning of a field singularity and of a static field. One can understand the problems on quantizing a classical field but not the hope of quantizing the gravitational field right from General Relativity.
Primitive Ontology and the Classical World
Allori, Valia
In this chapter, I present the common structure of quantum theories with a primitive ontology (PO), and discuss in what sense the classical world emerges from quantum theories as understood in this framework. In addition, I argue that the PO approach is better at analyzing the classical limit than the rival wave function ontology approach or any other approach in which the classical world is non-reductively "emergent:" even if the classical limit within this framework needs to be fully developed, the difficulties are technical rather than conceptual, while this is not true for the alternatives.
Limitations on Cloning in Classical Mechanics
Fenyes, Aaron
2010-01-01
In this paper, we show that a result precisely analogous to the traditional quantum no-cloning theorem holds in classical mechanics. This classical no-cloning theorem does not prohibit classical cloning, we argue, because it is based on a too-restrictive definition of cloning. Using a less popular, more inclusive definition of cloning, we give examples of classical cloning processes. We also prove that a cloning machine must be at least as complicated as the object it is supposed to clone.
Directional dependence of binaural loudness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Sivonen, Ville Pekka
2006-01-01
Even though there is a vast body of literature on spatial hearing, little is known on how the location of a sound source affects its loudness. The pertinent research on head-related transfer functions(HRTFs) primarily deals with issues of localization and spatial discriminability. The literature ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG ZHIPING
2010-01-01
@@ Despite steady economic growth for three decades, China is still a developing country facing daunting poverty alleviation tasks. According to the poverty line of 1,196 yuan ($176) per capita net income in a year set in March 2009, the country still has a poverty population of more than 40 million, mainly living in rural areas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bell, J.W.
1994-12-31
Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.
Classical and semiclassical aspects of chemical dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gray, S.K.
1982-08-01
Tunneling in the unimolecular reactions H/sub 2/C/sub 2/ ..-->.. HC/sub 2/H, HNC ..-->.. HCN, and H/sub 2/CO ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + CO is studied with a classical Hamiltonian that allows the reaction coordinate and transverse vibrational modes to be considered directly. A combination of classical perturbation theory and the semiclassical WKB method allows tunneling probabilities to be obtained, and a statistical theory (RRKM) is used to construct rate constants for these reactions in the tunneling regime. In this fashion, it is found that tunneling may be important, particularly for low excitation energies. Nonadiabatic charge transfer in the reaction Na + I ..-->.. Na /sup +/ + I/sup -/ is treated with classical trajectories based on a classical Hamiltonian that is the analogue of a quantum matrix representation. The charge transfer cross section obtained is found to agree reasonably well with the exact quantum results. An approximate semiclassical formula, valid at high energies, is also obtained. The interaction of radiation and matter is treated from a classical viewpoint. The excitation of an HF molecule in a strong laser is described with classical trajectories. Quantum mechanical results are also obtained and compared to the classical results. Although the detailed structure of the pulse time averaged energy absorption cannot be reproduced classically, classical mechanics does predict the correct magnitude of energy absorption, as well as certain other qualitative features. The classical behavior of a nonrotating diatomic molecule in a strong laser field is considered further, by generating a period advance map that allows the solution over many periods of oscillation of the laser to be obtained with relative ease. Classical states are found to form beautiful spirals in phase space as time progresses. A simple pendulum model is found to describe the major qualitative features. (WHM)
Wigner phase space distribution via classical adiabatic switching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bose, Amartya [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Makri, Nancy [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2015-09-21
Evaluation of the Wigner phase space density for systems of many degrees of freedom presents an extremely demanding task because of the oscillatory nature of the Fourier-type integral. We propose a simple and efficient, approximate procedure for generating the Wigner distribution that avoids the computational difficulties associated with the Wigner transform. Starting from a suitable zeroth-order Hamiltonian, for which the Wigner density is available (either analytically or numerically), the phase space distribution is propagated in time via classical trajectories, while the perturbation is gradually switched on. According to the classical adiabatic theorem, each trajectory maintains a constant action if the perturbation is switched on infinitely slowly. We show that the adiabatic switching procedure produces the exact Wigner density for harmonic oscillator eigenstates and also for eigenstates of anharmonic Hamiltonians within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We generalize the approach to finite temperature by introducing a density rescaling factor that depends on the energy of each trajectory. Time-dependent properties are obtained simply by continuing the integration of each trajectory under the full target Hamiltonian. Further, by construction, the generated approximate Wigner distribution is invariant under classical propagation, and thus, thermodynamic properties are strictly preserved. Numerical tests on one-dimensional and dissipative systems indicate that the method produces results in very good agreement with those obtained by full quantum mechanical methods over a wide temperature range. The method is simple and efficient, as it requires no input besides the force fields required for classical trajectory integration, and is ideal for use in quasiclassical trajectory calculations.
Bin-picking new approaches for a classical problem
Buchholz, Dirk
2016-01-01
This book is devoted to one of the most famous examples of automation handling tasks – the “bin-picking” problem. To pick up objects, scrambled in a box is an easy task for humans, but its automation is very complex. In this book three different approaches to solve the bin-picking problem are described, showing how modern sensors can be used for efficient bin-picking as well as how classic sensor concepts can be applied for novel bin-picking techniques. 3D point clouds are firstly used as basis, employing the known Random Sample Matching algorithm paired with a very efficient depth map based collision avoidance mechanism resulting in a very robust bin-picking approach. Reducing the complexity of the sensor data, all computations are then done on depth maps. This allows the use of 2D image analysis techniques to fulfill the tasks and results in real time data analysis. Combined with force/torque and acceleration sensors, a near time optimal bin-picking system emerges. Lastly, surface normal maps are empl...
Factors Influencing the Learning of Classical Mechanics.
Champagne, Audrey B.; And Others
1980-01-01
Describes a study investigating the combined effect of certain variables on student achievement in classical mechanics. The purpose was to (1) describe preinstructional knowledge and skills; (2) correlate these variables with the student's success in learning classical mechanics; and (3) develop hypothesis about relationships between these…
Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
On entanglement-assisted classical capacity
Holevo, A. S.
2002-09-01
We give a modified proof of the recent result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin, and A. V. Thapliyal concerning entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel and discuss the relation between entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities.
Classical Conditioning: Eliciting the Right Response.
Tauber, Robert T.
1990-01-01
Classical conditioning is responsible for students' positive and negative feelings, whether directed toward subject matter, peers, teachers, or education in general. This article explains how educators can use classical conditioning principles (such as reinforcement, extinction, and paired stimuli) to create an anxiety-free learning environment.…
Classical Music, liveness and digital technologies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steijn, Arthur
2014-01-01
Performances of classical composition music have seen a decline in their audiences for some years. Does the classical concert ritual scare people off? This notion has spurred off a development of design concepts directed at rethinking concert rituals in order to create new audience experiences. T...
Isomorphic Formulae in Classical Propositional Logic
Dosen, K
2009-01-01
Isomorphism between formulae is defined with respect to categories formalizing equality of deductions in classical propositional logic and in the multiplicative fragment of classical linear propositional logic caught by proof nets. This equality is motivated by generality of deductions. Characterizations are given for pairs of isomorphic formulae, which lead to decision procedures for this isomorphism.
Why Do We See a Classical World?
Roemer, Hartmann
2011-01-01
From a general abstract system theoretical perspective, a quantum-like system description in the spirit of a generalized quantum theory may appear to be simpler and more natural than a classically inspired description. We investigate the reasons why we nevertheless conceive ourselves embedded into a classically structured world.
Classical Swine Fever Virus-Rluc Replicons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham J.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the etiologic agent of the severe porcine disease, classical swine fever. Unraveling the molecular determinants of efficient replication is crucial for gaining proper knowledge of the pathogenic traits of this virus. Monitoring the replication competence within...
Milgram's Obedience Study: A Contentious Classic Reinterpreted
Griggs, Richard A.
2017-01-01
Given the many older criticisms of Milgram's obedience study and the more damning recent criticisms based on analyses of materials available in the Milgram archives at Yale, this study has become a contentious classic. Yet, current social psychology textbooks present it as an uncontentious classic, with no coverage of the recent criticisms and…
Converting Projects from STK Classic to STK
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foucar, James G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-08-01
The version of STK (Sierra ToolKit) that has long been provided with Trilinos is no longer supported by the core develop- ment team. With the introduction of a the new STK library into Trilinos, the old STK has been renamed to stk classic. This document contains a rough guide of how to port a stk classic code to STK.
Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator
Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.
2016-07-01
Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almost-ideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.
New Classical and New Keynesian Macroeconomics.
Vane, Howard; Snowdon, Brian
1992-01-01
Summarizes underlying tenets and policy implications of new classical and new Keynesian macroeconomics. Compares new approaches with orthodox Keynesian and monetarist schools of thought. Identifies the fundamental difference between new classical and new Keynesian models as the assumption regarding the speed of wage and price adjustment following…
Introducing quantum effects in classical theories
Fabris, J C; Rodrigues, D C; Daouda, M H
2015-01-01
In this paper, we explore two different ways of implementing quantum effects in a classical structure. The first one is through an external field. The other one is modifying the classical conservation laws. In both cases, the consequences for the description of the evolution of the universe are discussed.
Classical transport in disordered systems
Papaioannou, Antonios
This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the
Brembs, Björn; Heisenberg, Martin
2000-01-01
Ever since learning and memory have been studied experimentally, the relationship between operant and classical conditioning has been controversial. Operant conditioning is any form of conditioning that essentially depends on the animal's behavior. It relies on operant behavior. A motor output is called operant if it controls a sensory variable. The Drosophila flight simulator, in which the relevant behavior is a single motor variable (yaw torque), fully separates the operant and classical components of a complex conditioning task. In this paradigm a tethered fly learns, operantly or classically, to prefer and avoid certain flight orientations in relation to the surrounding panorama. Yaw torque is recorded and, in the operant mode, controls the panorama. Using a yoked control, we show that classical pattern learning necessitates more extensive training than operant pattern learning. We compare in detail the microstructure of yaw torque after classical and operant training but find no evidence for acquired behavioral traits after operant conditioning that might explain this difference. We therefore conclude that the operant behavior has a facilitating effect on the classical training. In addition, we show that an operantly learned stimulus is successfully transferred from the behavior of the training to a different behavior. This result unequivocally demonstrates that during operant conditioning classical associations can be formed. PMID:10753977
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bo HU; Xi LIN; Lushuai HUANG; Li YANG; Hua FENG; Jianfeng SUI
2009-01-01
Aim:The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of the ipsilateral and contralateral cerebellum to the acquisition of unilateral classical eyeblink conditioning (EBCC).Methods: The unilateral EBCC was achieved using a binaural tone conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a left airpuff unconditioned stimulus (US).A high-resolution potentiometer was used to monitor eyeblink responses.Guinea pigs received one CS-US session followed by three CS-US sessions (sessions 2 to 4),during which microinjections of muscimol,a GABAA receptor agonist,were performed to reversibly inactivate the cerebellum unilaterally prior to training.To test whether any learning had occurred during these inactivation sessions,training was continued for six more CS-US sessions (sessions 5 to 10) without any inactivation.Results: Animals with inactivation of the left cerebellum had no signs of left conditioned response (CR) during sessions 2 to 4,and their CR acquisition during sessions 5 to 10 was not distinguishable from that of control animals during sessions 2 to 7.In contrast,animals with inactivation of the right cerebellum acquired left CRs during sessions 2 to 4,although their CR acquisition was significantly retarded during session 2.In addition,microinjections of muscimol into the right cerebellum did not affect left neuro-behavioral activity.Finally,microinjections of muscimol into either the left or the right cerebellum did not affect the performance of tone-airpuff evoked unconditioned response (UR).Conclusion: In contrast to the essential role of the ipsilateral cerebellum,the contralateral cerebellum is potentially involved in the acquisition of unilateral EBCC during the early stage of training.
Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......, one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...
2010-05-01
Additionally, the Task Force consulted with the Samueli Institute, a non-profit research organization that supports the scientific investigation of healing...and its role in medicine and health care. The Samueli Institute has been working on several research projects related to military and Veterans’ pain... Samueli communication). The CAM subgroup of the TF studied the issues surrounding credentialing and licensing of CAM providers. The tiered
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heilesen, Simon
In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks...... that the user has to perform rather than just focusing on technical features (and adapting system use to them)....
Lissuaer, D
One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...
Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.
2013-01-01
The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.
Driven topological systems in the classical limit
Duncan, Callum W.; Öhberg, Patrik; Valiente, Manuel
2017-03-01
Periodically driven quantum systems can exhibit topologically nontrivial behavior, even when their quasienergy bands have zero Chern numbers. Much work has been conducted on noninteracting quantum-mechanical models where this kind of behavior is present. However, the inclusion of interactions in out-of-equilibrium quantum systems can prove to be quite challenging. On the other hand, the classical counterpart of hard-core interactions can be simulated efficiently via constrained random walks. The noninteracting model, proposed by Rudner et al. [Phys. Rev. X 3, 031005 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevX.3.031005], has a special point for which the system is equivalent to a classical random walk. We consider the classical counterpart of this model, which is exact at a special point even when hard-core interactions are present, and show how these quantitatively affect the edge currents in a strip geometry. We find that the interacting classical system is well described by a mean-field theory. Using this we simulate the dynamics of the classical system, which show that the interactions play the role of Markovian, or time-dependent disorder. By comparing the evolution of classical and quantum edge currents in small lattices, we find regimes where the classical limit considered gives good insight into the quantum problem.
Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average
Bénet, L; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H
2003-01-01
Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.
Classical Gravitational Interactions and Gravitational Lorentz Force
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
In quantum gauge theory of gravity, the gravitational field is represented by gravitational gauge field.The field strength of gravitational gauge field has both gravitoelectric component and gravitomagnetic component. In classical level, gauge theory of gravity gives classical Newtonian gravitational interactions in a relativistic form. Besides,it gives gravitational Lorentz force, which is the gravitational force on a moving object in gravitomagnetic field The direction of gravitational Lorentz force is not the same as that of classical gravitational Newtonian force. Effects of gravitational Lorentz force should be detectable, and these effects can be used to discriminate gravitomagnetic field from ordinary electromagnetic magnetic field.
A Classical Introduction to Galois Theory
Newman, Stephen C
2012-01-01
This book provides an introduction to Galois theory and focuses on one central theme - the solvability of polynomials by radicals. Both classical and modern approaches to the subject are described in turn in order to have the former (which is relatively concrete and computational) provide motivation for the latter (which can be quite abstract). The theme of the book is historically the reason that Galois theory was created, and it continues to provide a platform for exploring both classical and modern concepts. This book examines a number of problems arising in the area of classical mathematic
Effective Privacy Amplification for Secure Classical Communications
Horvath, Tamas; Scheuer, Jacob
2011-01-01
We study the effectiveness of privacy amplification for classical key-distribution schemes. We find that, unlike quantum key distribution schemes, the high fidelity of the raw key in classical systems allow the users to always sift a secure shorter key, given that they have an upper bound of eavesdropper probability to correctly guess the exchanged key-bits. We establish the number of privacy amplification iterations needed to achieve information leak of 10^-8 in several classical systems and highlight the inherent tradeoff between the number of iterations and the security of the raw key.
Classical dynamics of particles and systems
Marion, Jerry B
1965-01-01
Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems presents a modern and reasonably complete account of the classical mechanics of particles, systems of particles, and rigid bodies for physics students at the advanced undergraduate level. The book aims to present a modern treatment of classical mechanical systems in such a way that the transition to the quantum theory of physics can be made with the least possible difficulty; to acquaint the student with new mathematical techniques and provide sufficient practice in solving problems; and to impart to the student some degree of sophistication in handl
Classical thermodynamics of non-electrolyte solutions
Van Ness, H C
1964-01-01
Classical Thermodynamics of Non-Electrolyte Solutions covers the historical development of classical thermodynamics that concerns the properties of vapor and liquid solutions of non-electrolytes. Classical thermodynamics is a network of equations, developed through the formal logic of mathematics from a very few fundamental postulates and leading to a great variety of useful deductions. This book is composed of seven chapters and begins with discussions on the fundamentals of thermodynamics and the thermodynamic properties of fluids. The succeeding chapter presents the equations of state for
Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benet, L [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Flores, J [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Hernandez-Saldana, H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Izrailev, F M [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Leyvraz, F [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Seligman, T H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
2003-02-07
Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.
Classical realizability in the CPS target language
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frey, Jonas
2016-01-01
Motivated by considerations about Krivine's classical realizability, we introduce a term calculus for an intuitionistic logic with record types, which we call the CPS target language. We give a reformulation of the constructions of classical realizability in this language, using the categorical...... techniques of realizability triposes and toposes. We argue that the presentation of classical realizability in the CPS target language simplifies calculations in realizability toposes, in particular it admits a nice presentation of conjunction as intersection type which is inspired by Girard's ludics....
Classical Statistical Mechanics and Landau Damping
1997-01-01
We study the retarded response function in scalar $\\phi^4$-theory at finite temperature. We find that in the high-temperature limit the imaginary part of the self-energy is given by the classical theory to leading order in the coupling. In particular the plasmon damping rate is a purely classical effect to leading order, as shown by Aarts and Smit. The dominant contribution to Landau damping is given by the propagation of classical fields in a heat bath of non-interacting fields.
Applying classical geometry intuition to quantum spin
Durfee, Dallin S.; Archibald, James L.
2016-09-01
Using concepts of geometric orthogonality and linear independence, we logically deduce the form of the Pauli spin matrices and the relationships between the three spatially orthogonal basis sets of the spin-1/2 system. Rather than a mathematically rigorous derivation, the relationships are found by forcing expectation values of the different basis states to have the properties we expect of a classical, geometric coordinate system. The process highlights the correspondence of quantum angular momentum with classical notions of geometric orthogonality, even for the inherently non-classical spin-1/2 system. In the process, differences in and connections between geometrical space and Hilbert space are illustrated.
Deduction of Lorentz Transformations from Classical Thermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela M. Ares de Parga
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Lorentz transformations are obtained by assuming that the laws of classical thermodynamics are invariant under changes of inertial reference frames. As Maxwell equations are used in order to deduce a wave equation that shows the constancy of the speed of light, by means of the laws of classical thermodynamics, the invariance of the Carnot cycle is deduced under reference frame changes. Starting with this result and the blackbody particle number density in a rest frame, the Lorentz transformations are obtained. A discussion about the universality of classical thermodynamics is given.
Bohmian measures and their classical limit
Markowich, Peter
2010-09-01
We consider a class of phase space measures, which naturally arise in the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics. We study the classical limit of these so-called Bohmian measures, in dependence on the scale of oscillations and concentrations of the sequence of wave functions under consideration. The obtained results are consequently compared to those derived via semi-classical Wigner measures. To this end, we shall also give a connection to the theory of Young measures and prove several new results on Wigner measures themselves. Our analysis gives new insight on oscillation and concentration effects in the semi-classical regime. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Children's mathematical performance: five cognitive tasks across five grades.
Moore, Alex M; Ashcraft, Mark H
2015-07-01
Children in elementary school, along with college adults, were tested on a battery of basic mathematical tasks, including digit naming, number comparison, dot enumeration, and simple addition or subtraction. Beyond cataloguing performance to these standard tasks in Grades 1 to 5, we also examined relationships among the tasks, including previously reported results on a number line estimation task. Accuracy and latency improved across grades for all tasks, and classic interaction patterns were found, for example, a speed-up of subitizing and counting, increasingly shallow slopes in number comparison, and progressive speeding of responses especially to larger addition and subtraction problems. Surprisingly, digit naming was faster than subitizing at all ages, arguing against a pre-attentive processing explanation for subitizing. Estimation accuracy and speed were strong predictors of children's addition and subtraction performance. Children who gave exponential responses on the number line estimation task were slower at counting in the dot enumeration task and had longer latencies on addition and subtraction problems. The results provided further support for the importance of estimation as an indicator of children's current and future mathematical expertise.
Assignment of Cooperating UAVs to Simultaneous Tasks using Genetic Algorithms
2005-08-18
multiple task assignment problem TSP travelling salesman problem UAV unmanned aerial vehicle VRP vehicle routing problem I. Introduction Many...assignment problem (GAP),3 and the vehicle routing problem (VRP).4 In all of these classical problems the minimum cost assignment is sought, where: in...17–23. 16Baker, B. M. and Ayechew, M. A., “A Genetic Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem ,” Computers and Operations Research, Vol. 30, 2003, pp
The composite complex span: French validation of a short working memory task.
Gonthier, Corentin; Thomassin, Noémylle; Roulin, Jean-Luc
2016-03-01
Most studies in individual differences in the field of working memory research use complex span tasks to measure working memory capacity. Various complex span tasks based on different materials have been developed, and these tasks have proven both reliable and valid; several complex span tasks are often combined to provide a domain-general estimate of working memory capacity with even better psychometric properties. The present work sought to address two issues. Firstly, having participants perform several full-length complex span tasks in succession makes for a long and tedious procedure. Secondly, few complex span tasks have been translated and validated in French. We constructed a French working memory task labeled the Composite Complex Span (CCS). The CCS includes shortened versions of three classic complex span tasks: the reading span, symmetry span, and operation span. We assessed the psychometric properties of the CCS, including test-retest reliability and convergent validity, with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and with an alpha span task; the CCS demonstrated satisfying qualities in a sample of 1,093 participants. This work provides evidence that shorter versions of classic complex span tasks can yield valid working memory estimates. The materials and normative data for the CCS are also included.
ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN FRANCE. BETWEEN SINGULARITY AND CLASSICISM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Flavier
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The administrative justice in France oscillates between classicism and singularity. Multiple factors explain how administrative justice has come to occupy a particular place in French administrative law. Administrative justice has not only settled disputes between administration and private persons, but as well, built the French administrative law. One of the main tasks during 19th and 20th century consisted in strengthen the independence from the executive branch and the efficiency in order to satisfy the idea of good justice. Many reforms have been led since the 1990’s. That is why we propose to depict the French system and evaluate the activity of French administrative justice concerning the judicial organization, its jurisdiction and the remedies before the administrative judge. We will enlighten also our paper with a comparative approach and some statistical elements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bell, J.W.
1993-09-30
Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.
Abdullin, Salavat; Banerjee, Sunanda; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bhatti, Anwar; Chlebana, Frank; Cossutti, Fabio; Hirschauer, James; Ivanchenko, V; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Kunori, Shuichi; Kroeger, Rob; Liu, Yanwen; Moeller, Anthony; Paulini, Manfred; Piperov, Stefan; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rovelli, Chiara; Safronov, Grigory; Sharma, Seema; Spiropulu, Maria; Yetkin, Taylan
2010-01-01
In this note we summarize the progress made by the calorimeter simulation task force (CaloTF) over the past year. The CaloTF was established in February 2008 in order to understand and reconcile the discrepancies observed between the CMS calorimetry simulation and test beam data recorded during 2004 and 2006. The simulation has been significantly improved by using a newer version of Geant4 and an improved physics list for the full CMS detector simulation. Simulation times have been reduced by introducing flexible parameterizations to describe showering in the calorimeter (using a Gflash-like approach) which have been tuned to the test beam data.
A classical case of the Gasul phenomenon.
Sabnis, Girish R; Phadke, Milind S; Kerkar, Prafulla G
2016-02-01
This case demonstrates the development of secondary infundibular stenosis in a 10-year-old male child with documented large non-restrictive perimembranous ventricular septal defect in infancy - the classical Gasul phenomenon.
The Zoology of the classical islamic culture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Provencal, Philippe; Aarab, Ahmed
2014-01-01
This article brings a survey of research on the science of zoology in the Classical Arabic/Islamic Culture as revealed in texts on this subject written in Classical Arabic from the second half of the 8th century to the 15th century A.D. In the light of recent research and by use of examples from ...... the Arabic texts themselves, a new evaluation on the scientific content of these texts will be proposed.......This article brings a survey of research on the science of zoology in the Classical Arabic/Islamic Culture as revealed in texts on this subject written in Classical Arabic from the second half of the 8th century to the 15th century A.D. In the light of recent research and by use of examples from...
Chaos in effective classical and quantum dynamics
Casetti, L; Modugno, M; Casetti, Lapo; Gatto, Raoul; Modugno, Michele
1998-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of classical and quantum N-component phi^4 oscillators in presence of an external field. In the large N limit the effective dynamics is described by two-degree-of-freedom classical Hamiltonian systems. In the classical model we observe chaotic orbits for any value of the external field, while in the quantum case chaos is strongly suppressed. A simple explanation of this behaviour is found in the change in the structure of the orbits induced by quantum corrections. Consistently with Heisenberg's principle, quantum fluctuations are forced away from zero, removing in the effective quantum dynamics a hyperbolic fixed point that is a major source of chaos in the classical model.
Classical and quantum wormholes with tachyon field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高长军; 沈有根
2003-01-01
The wormhole equations are presented in the presence of tachyon field. Specializing at some values of ω (the ratio of pressure to energy density), we find a family of classical and quantum wormhole solutions.
A new supersymmetric classical Boussinesq equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Meng-Xia; Liu Qing-Ping; Wang Juan; Wu Ke
2008-01-01
In this paper,we obtain a supersymmetric generalization for the classical Boussinesq equation.We show that the supersymmetric equation system passes the Painlevé test and we also calculate its one- and two-soliton solutions.
Classical algebra its nature, origins, and uses
Cooke, Roger L
2008-01-01
This insightful book combines the history, pedagogy, and popularization of algebra to present a unified discussion of the subject. Classical Algebra provides a complete and contemporary perspective on classical polynomial algebra through the exploration of how it was developed and how it exists today. With a focus on prominent areas such as the numerical solutions of equations, the systematic study of equations, and Galois theory, this book facilitates a thorough understanding of algebra and illustrates how the concepts of modern algebra originally developed from classical algebraic precursors. This book successfully ties together the disconnect between classical and modern algebraand provides readers with answers to many fascinating questions that typically go unexamined, including: What is algebra about? How did it arise? What uses does it have? How did it develop? What problems and issues have occurred in its history? How were these problems and issues resolved? The author answers these questions and more,...
Rough sets: the classical and extended views
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZIARKO Wojciech
2008-01-01
The article is a comprehensive review of two major approaches to rough set theory: the classic rough setmodel introduced by Pawlak and the probabilistic approaches. The classic model is presented as a staging ground to the discussion of two varieties of the probabilistic approach, i.e. of the variable precision and Bayesian rough set models. Both of these models extend the classic model to deal with stochastic interactions while preserving the basicideas of the original rough set theory, such as set approximations, data dependencies, reducts etc. The probabilistic models are able to handle weaker data interactions than the classic model, thus extending the applicability of the rough set paradigm. The extended models are presented in considerable detail with some illustrative examples.
Observable Signatures of a Classical Transition
Johnson, Matthew C
2015-01-01
Eternal inflation arising from a potential landscape predicts that our universe is one realization of many possible cosmological histories. One way to access different cosmological histories is via the nucleation of bubble universes from a metastable false vacuum. Another way to sample different cosmological histories is via classical transitions, the creation of pocket universes through the collision between bubbles. Using relativistic numerical simulations, we examine the possibility of observationally determining if our observable universe resulted from a classical transition. We find that classical transitions produce spatially infinite, approximately open Friedman-Robertson-Walker universes. The leading set of observables in the aftermath of a classical transition are negative spatial curvature and a contribution to the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature quadrupole. The level of curvature and magnitude of the quadrupole are dependent on the position of the observer, and we determine the possible ran...
Hermite polynomials and quasi-classical asymptotics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, S. Twareque, E-mail: twareque.ali@concordia.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Engliš, Miroslav, E-mail: englis@math.cas.cz [Mathematics Institute, Silesian University in Opava, Na Rybníčku 1, 74601 Opava, Czech Republic and Mathematics Institute, Žitná 25, 11567 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)
2014-04-15
We study an unorthodox variant of the Berezin-Toeplitz type of quantization scheme, on a reproducing kernel Hilbert space generated by the real Hermite polynomials and work out the associated quasi-classical asymptotics.
Quantum-classical crossover in electrodynamics
Polonyi, J
2006-01-01
A classical field theory is proposed for the electric current and the electromagnetic field interpolating between microscopic and macroscopic domains. It represents a generalization of the density functional for the dynamics of the current and the electromagnetic field in the quantum side of the crossover and reproduces standard classical electrodynamics on the other side. The effective action derived in the closed time path formalism and the equations of motion follow from the variational principle. The polarization of the Dirac-see can be taken into account in the quadratic approximation of the action by the introduction of the deplacement field strengths as in conventional classical electrodynamics. Decoherence appears naturally as a simple one-loop effect in this formalism. It is argued that the radiation time arrow is generated from the quantum boundary conditions in time by decoherence at the quantum-classical crossover and the Abraham-Lorentz force arises from the accelerating charge or from other char...
Classical enhancement of quantum vacuum fluctuations
De Lorenci, V A
2016-01-01
We propose a mechanism for the enhancement of vacuum fluctuations by means of a classical field. The basic idea is that if an observable quantity depends quadratically upon a quantum field, such as the electric field, then the application of a classical field produces a cross term between the classical and quantum fields. This cross term may be significantly larger than the purely quantum part, but also undergoes fluctuations driven by the quantum field. We illustrate this effect in a model for lightcone fluctuations involving pulses in a nonlinear dielectric. Vacuum electric field fluctuations produce fluctuations in the speed of a probe pulse, and form an analog model for quantum gravity effects. If the material has a nonzero third-order susceptibility, then the fractional light speed fluctuations are proportional to the square of the fluctuating electric field. Hence the application of a classical electric field can enhance the speed fluctuations. We give an example where this enhancement can be an increas...
Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.
Pearl, Shela
1986-01-01
Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)
Classical and quantum resonances for hyperbolic surfaces
Guillarmou, Colin; Hilgert, Joachim; Weich, Tobias
2016-01-01
For compact and for convex co-compact oriented hyperbolic surfaces, we prove an explicit correspondence between classical Ruelle resonant states and quantum resonant states, except at negative integers where the correspondence involves holomorphic sections of line bundles.
Ambiguities in Quantizing a Classical System
Redmount, I H; Young, K; Redmount, Ian; Suen, Wai-Mo; Young, Kenneth
1999-01-01
One classical theory, as determined by an equation of motion or set of classical trajectories, can correspond to many unitarily {\\em in}equivalent quantum theories upon canonical quantization. This arises from a remarkable ambiguity, not previously investigated, in the construction of the classical (and hence the quantized) Hamiltonian or Lagrangian. This ambiguity is illustrated for systems with one degree of freedom: An arbitrary function of the constants of motion can be introduced into this construction. For example, the nonrelativistic and relativistic free particles follow identical classical trajectories, but the Hamiltonians or Lagrangians, and the canonically quantized versions of these descriptions, are inequivalent. Inequivalent descriptions of other systems, such as the harmonic oscillator, are also readily obtained.
Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel
Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.
2016-10-01
We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.
Equilibration properties of classical integrable field theories
De Luca, Andrea; Mussardo, Giuseppe
2016-06-01
We study the equilibration properties of classical integrable field theories at a finite energy density, with a time evolution that starts from initial conditions far from equilibrium. These classical field theories may be regarded as quantum field theories in the regime of high occupation numbers. This observation permits to recover the classical quantities from the quantum ones by taking a proper \\hslash \\to 0 limit. In particular, the time averages of the classical theories can be expressed in terms of a suitable version of the LeClair-Mussardo formula relative to the generalized Gibbs ensemble. For the purposes of handling time averages, our approach provides a solution of the problem of the infinite gap solutions of the inverse scattering method.
Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory
Hadasz, L; Piatek, M; Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew; Piatek, Marcin
2005-01-01
Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.
Classical geometry from the quantum Liouville theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadasz, Leszek [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Piatek, Marcin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of WrocIaw, pl. M. Borna, 950-204 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: piatek@ift.uni.wroc.pl
2005-09-26
Zamolodchikov's recursion relations are used to analyze the existence and approximations to the classical conformal block in the case of four parabolic weights. Strong numerical evidence is found that the saddle point momenta arising in the classical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory are simply related to the geodesic length functions of the hyperbolic geometry on the 4-punctured Riemann sphere. Such relation provides new powerful methods for both numerical and analytical calculations of these functions. The consistency conditions for the factorization of the 4-point classical Liouville action in different channels are numerically verified. The factorization yields efficient numerical methods to calculate the 4-point classical action and, by the Polyakov conjecture, the accessory parameters of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere.
Quantum Reading of a Classical Memory
Pirandola, Stefano
2009-01-01
We consider a digital memory where each memory cell is a mirror with two possible reflectivities (used to encode a bit of information). Adopting this model, we show that a non-classical source of light, possessing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, can retrieve the stored information more efficiently than every classical source. The improvement brought by this quantum reading of the memory can be dramatic for high reflectivities and can be tested with current technology.
Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields
Good, Roland H
1971-01-01
Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma
Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective
Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W
2014-01-01
Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p
Voice disorders in children with classic galactosemia
2010-01-01
Children with classic galactosemia are at risk for motor speech disorders resulting from disruptions in motor planning and programming (childhood apraxia of speech or CAS) or motor execution (dysarthria). In the present study of 33 children with classic galactosemia, 21% were diagnosed with CAS, 3% with ataxic dysarthria, and 3% with mixed CAS-dysarthria. Voice disorders due to laryngeal insufficiency were common in children with dysarthria and co-occurred with CAS. Most (58%) of the children...
FSH isoform pattern in classic galactosemia
Gubbels, C.S.; Thomas, C. M.; Wodzig, K.W.H.; Olthaar, A. J.; Jaeken, J.; Sweep, F.C.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.
2010-01-01
Female classic galactosemia patients suffer from primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The cause for this long-term complication is not fully understood. One of the proposed mechanisms is that hypoglycosylation of complex molecules, a known secondary phenomenon of galactosemia, leads to FSH dysfunction. An earlier study showed less acidic isoforms of FSH in serum samples of two classic galactosemia patients compared to controls, indicating hypoglycosylation. In this study, FSH isoform patterns...
A classical approach to smooth supermanifolds
2014-01-01
This is the author's Master's thesis written under the supervision of Dr. Gregor Weingart at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The purpose of this study is to rewrite differential supergeometry in terms of classical differential geometry. This rewriting from "first principles" has two main motivations: 1 avoid using local (and usually not very well-defined) odd coordinates; 2 use both the language and the tools (both highly-developed) of classical differential geometry to state an...
On entanglement-assisted classical capacity
Holevo, A S
2001-01-01
This paper is essentially a lecture from the author's course on quantum information theory, which is devoted to the result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin and A. V. Thapliyal (quant-ph/0106052) concerning entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel. A modified proof of this result is given and relation between entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities is discussed.
Principles of Communicative Task Design.
Nunan, David
The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…
Rees, James
2012-01-01
In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…
From Quantum to Classical in the Sky
Singh, Suprit
2016-01-01
Inflation has by-far set itself as one of the prime ideas in the current cosmological models that seemingly has an answer for every observed phenomenon in cosmology. More importantly, it serves as a bridge between the early quantum fluctuations and the present-day classical structures. Although the transition from quantum to classical is still not completely understood till date, there are two assumptions made in the inflationary paradigm in this regard: (i) the modes (metric perturbations or fluctuations) behave classically once they are well outside the Hubble radius and, (ii) once they become classical they stay classical and hence can be described by standard perturbation theory after they re-enter the Hubble radius. We critically examine these assumptions for the tensor modes of (linear) metric perturbations in a toy three stage universe with (i) inflation, (ii) radiation-dominated and (iii) late-time accelerated phases. The quantum-to-classical transition for these modes is evident from the evolution of...
Creativity and personality in classical, jazz and folk musicians.
Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Kruse-Weber, Silke
2014-06-01
The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more frequently engaged in extracurricular musical activities, and also complete a higher number of creative musical achievements. Additionally, jazz musicians show higher ideational creativity as measured by divergent thinking tasks, and tend to be more open to new experiences than classical musicians. This study provides first empirical evidence that jazz musicians show particularly high creativity with respect to domain-specific musical accomplishments but also in terms of domain-general indicators of divergent thinking ability that may be relevant for musical improvisation. The findings are further discussed with respect to differences in formal and informal learning approaches between music genres.
Creativity and personality in classical, jazz and folk musicians
Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Kruse-Weber, Silke
2014-01-01
The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more frequently engaged in extracurricular musical activities, and also complete a higher number of creative musical achievements. Additionally, jazz musicians show higher ideational creativity as measured by divergent thinking tasks, and tend to be more open to new experiences than classical musicians. This study provides first empirical evidence that jazz musicians show particularly high creativity with respect to domain-specific musical accomplishments but also in terms of domain-general indicators of divergent thinking ability that may be relevant for musical improvisation. The findings are further discussed with respect to differences in formal and informal learning approaches between music genres. PMID:24895472
Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evren ePamir
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3,298 animals. We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.
Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.
Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela
2015-08-07
Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients.
Modelling Of Flotation Processes By Classical Mathematical Methods - A Review
Jovanović, Ivana; Miljanović, Igor
2015-12-01
Flotation process modelling is not a simple task, mostly because of the process complexity, i.e. the presence of a large number of variables that (to a lesser or a greater extent) affect the final outcome of the mineral particles separation based on the differences in their surface properties. The attempts toward the development of the quantitative predictive model that would fully describe the operation of an industrial flotation plant started in the middle of past century and it lasts to this day. This paper gives a review of published research activities directed toward the development of flotation models based on the classical mathematical rules. The description and systematization of classical flotation models were performed according to the available references, with emphasize exclusively given to the flotation process modelling, regardless of the model application in a certain control system. In accordance with the contemporary considerations, models were classified as the empirical, probabilistic, kinetic and population balance types. Each model type is presented through the aspects of flotation modelling at the macro and micro process levels.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨栋
2014-01-01
目的：探讨双耳听力对称性的急性耳鸣临床诊治。方法对我院于2011年7月至2013年5月收治的22例双耳听力对称性急性耳鸣患者、经纯音测听均为双耳听力正常患者，作为实验组；另外选取同期一般资料不存在显著差异的20例听力正常无耳鸣健康体检者作为对照组，分析和对比对照组和实验组的畸变产物耳声发射检查情况。结果实验组在1.00、2.00、4.00和8.00 kHz中的检出率均低于对照组，差异有统计学意义（P＜0.05）。并且经治疗后，实验组除1.00 kHz外，其余频率点的耳声发射反应幅值明显要优于治疗前（P＜0.05）。结论给予双耳听力对称性的急性耳鸣患者应用耳声发射检查，能够对患者的耳蜗病变情况进行尽早诊断和及时治疗，临床应用价值相对较高，值得进一步推广和使用。%Objective To explore the diagnosis and treatment for acute tinnitus with Binaural hearing symmetry. Methods From July 2011 to May 2013, 22 cases of Patients who were suffered from acute tinnitus with Binaural hearing symmetry and via the pure tone audiometer confirmed to be normal were divided into the experimental group;while selected 20 cases of patients with normal hearing and at the same period and no significant difference as the control group. Results The detection rate of the experimental group in 1.00 kHz,2.00 kHz,4.00 kHz and 8.00 kHz were all lower than the control group, and the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05). And after the treatment, the amplitude frequency points of oases reaction in the experimental group were all better than before except at 1.00 kHz. Conclusion Giving the binaural hearing symmetry of acute tinnitus patients an application of ear acoustic emission inspection can help diagnosis early and timely treatment. And this inspection can obtain higher clinical value, and it is worthy of further promotion.
Fisher information and quantum-classical field theory: classical statistics similarity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syska, J. [Department of Field Theory and Particle Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)
2007-07-15
The classical statistics indication for the impossibility to derive quantum mechanics from classical mechanics is proved. The formalism of the statistical Fisher information is used. Next the Fisher information as a tool of the construction of a self-consistent field theory, which joins the quantum theory and classical field theory, is proposed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
An introduction to quantum discord and non-classical correlations beyond entanglement
Adesso, Gerardo; Bromley, Thomas R
2016-01-01
In this didactic article we explore the concept of quantum correlations beyond entanglement. We begin by introducing and motivating the classically correlated states and then showing how to quantify the quantum correlations using an entropic approach, arriving at a well known measure called the quantum discord. Quantum correlations and discord are then operationally linked with the task of local broadcasting. We conclude by providing some alternative perspectives on quantum correlations and how to measure them.
Finite-block-length analysis in classical and quantum information theory.
Hayashi, Masahito
2017-01-01
Coding technology is used in several information processing tasks. In particular, when noise during transmission disturbs communications, coding technology is employed to protect the information. However, there are two types of coding technology: coding in classical information theory and coding in quantum information theory. Although the physical media used to transmit information ultimately obey quantum mechanics, we need to choose the type of coding depending on the kind of information device, classical or quantum, that is being used. In both branches of information theory, there are many elegant theoretical results under the ideal assumption that an infinitely large system is available. In a realistic situation, we need to account for finite size effects. The present paper reviews finite size effects in classical and quantum information theory with respect to various topics, including applied aspects.
Classical Theory, Postmodernism, and the Sociology Liberal Arts Curriculum.
Lembcke, Jerry Lee
1993-01-01
Discusses classical theory as a modernist endeavor to apprehend the phenomenon of "unity of disunity." Presents three ways that classical theory approaches the philosophy views of Durkheim, Marx, and Weber. Concludes that postmodernism validates the relevancy of classical theory. (CFR)
Classical theory of the hydrogen atom
Rashkovskiy, Sergey
2016-01-01
It is shown that all of the basic properties of the hydrogen atom can be consistently described in terms of classical electrodynamics instead of taking the electron to be a particle; we consider an electrically charged classical wave field, an "electron wave", which is held in a limited region of space by the electrostatic field of the proton. It is shown that quantum mechanics must be considered to be not a theory of particles but a classical field theory in the spirit of classical electrodynamics. In this case, we are not faced with difficulties in interpreting the results of the theory. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, all of the well-known regularities of the spontaneous emission of the hydrogen atom are obtained, which is usually derived in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that there are no discrete states and discrete energy levels of the atom: the energy of the atom and its states change continuously. An explanation of the conventional corpuscular-statistical interpre...
A Case of Classic Raymond Syndrome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas George Zaorsky
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Classic Raymond syndrome consists of ipsilateral abducens impairment, contralateral central facial paresis, and contralateral hemiparesis. However, subsequent clinical observations argued on the presentation of facial involvement. To validate this entity, we present a case of classic Raymond syndrome with contralateral facial paresis. A 50 year-old man experienced acute onset of horizontal diplopia, left mouth drooling and left-sided weakness. Neurological examination showed he had right abducens nerve palsy, left-sided paresis of the lower part of the face and limbs, and left hyperreflexia. A brain MRI showed a subacute infarct in the right mid-pons. The findings were consistent with those of classic Raymond syndrome. To date, only a few cases of Raymond syndrome, commonly without facial involvement, have been reported. Our case is a validation of classic Raymond syndrome with contralateral facial paresis. We propose the concept of two types of Raymond syndrome: (1 the classic type, which may be produced by a lesion in the mid-pons involving the ipsilateral abducens fascicle and undecussated corticofacial and corticospinal fibers; and (2 the common type, which may be produced by a lesion involving the ipsilateral abducens fascicle and undecussated corticospinal fibers but sparing the corticofacial fibers.
Population structure of the Classic period Maya.
Scherer, Andrew K
2007-03-01
This study examines the population structure of Classic period (A.D. 250-900) Maya populations through analysis of odontometric variation of 827 skeletons from 12 archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. The hypothesis that isolation by distance characterized Classic period Maya population structure is tested using Relethford and Blangero's (Hum Biol 62 (1990) 5-25) approach to R matrix analysis for quantitative traits. These results provide important biological data for understanding ancient Maya population history, particularly the effects of the competing Tikal and Calakmul hegemonies on patterns of lowland Maya site interaction. An overall F(ST) of 0.018 is found for the Maya area, indicating little among-group variation for the Classic Maya sites tested. Principal coordinates plots derived from the R matrix analysis show little regional patterning in the data, though the geographic outliers of Kaminaljuyu and a pooled Pacific Coast sample did not cluster with the lowland Maya sites. Mantel tests comparing the biological distance matrix to a geographic distance matrix found no association between genetic and geographic distance. In the Relethford-Blangero analysis, most sites possess negative or near-zero residuals, indicating minimal extraregional gene flow. The exceptions were Barton Ramie, Kaminaljuyu, and Seibal. A scaled R matrix analysis clarifies that genetic drift is a consideration for understanding Classic Maya population structure. All results indicate that isolation by distance does not describe Classic period Maya population structure.
Task Prioritization in Dual-Tasking: Instructions versus Preferences
Jansen, Reinier J.; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib
2016-01-01
The role of task prioritization in performance tradeoffs during multi-tasking has received widespread attention. However, little is known on whether people have preferences regarding tasks, and if so, whether these preferences conflict with priority instructions. Three experiments were conducted with a high-speed driving game and an auditory memory task. In Experiment 1, participants did not receive priority instructions. Participants performed different sequences of single-task and dual-task conditions. Task performance was evaluated according to participants’ retrospective accounts on preferences. These preferences were reformulated as priority instructions in Experiments 2 and 3. The results showed that people differ in their preferences regarding task prioritization in an experimental setting, which can be overruled by priority instructions, but only after increased dual-task exposure. Additional measures of mental effort showed that performance tradeoffs had an impact on mental effort. The interpretation of these findings was used to explore an extension of Threaded Cognition Theory with Hockey’s Compensatory Control Model. PMID:27391779
FREEDOM FRANCHISING AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE CLASSIC FRANCHISING
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L. A. Solovova
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the model of freedom franchising and to its comparison with the classic franchising model. The aim of the article is to systemize and enrich the knowledge in the sphere of the franchising model evolution. The author’s task was to identify the key features of the freedom franchising model, to compare the freedom franchising with classic franchising and to formulate the conditions under which the freedom franchising model can be developed. To achieve this the analysis, synthesis, comparison and longitude methods were used. Classic franchising model includes the transfer of both visible (design, brand style and invisible to the customers (business processes, know-how elements from the franchisor to the franchisee. Such a business model enables the franchise to preserve the high quality of products and services and to grow the net at high rate. The drawback of the classic model is the complexity of bringing up innovations by the franchisee – new ideas are strictly chosen by the franchisor and then implemented within the network only after the successful experience in control points of contact. Nevertheless, there is the franchising business model in which franchisees can experiment with front-of-house (visible elements of the system (such as point’s of contact design on the one hand, and on the other – in which new ideas and initiatives from the franchisee are welcomed by the franchisor. The model is called “freedom franchising”. It is important to point out that key system elements are standardized in both models as standardized production processes help preserve high quality within the franchising net. Freedom franchising model is not applicable in the spheres where full business standardization is needed as well as in the business that is focusing on fast growth. But it helps franchisees to implement new ideas within the whole network. The article would be of interest to franchisors for creating franchise
Origin of classical structure from inflation
Kiefer, C
2000-01-01
According to the inflationary scenario, all structure in the Universe can be traced back to quantum fluctuations of the metric and scalar field(s) during inflation. The seeds of this structure can be observed as classical anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. I briefly review how the transition from the inherent quantum nature of these fluctuations to classical behaviour comes about. Two features play a crucial role: Firstly, the quantum state of the fluctuations becomes highly squeezed for wavelengths that exceed the Hubble radius. Secondly, decoherence due to other fields distinguishes the field-amplitude basis as the classical pointer basis. I also discuss the entropy of the fluctuations and make a brief comparison with chaotic systems.
Quantum approach to classical statistical mechanics.
Somma, R D; Batista, C D; Ortiz, G
2007-07-20
We present a new approach to study the thermodynamic properties of d-dimensional classical systems by reducing the problem to the computation of ground state properties of a d-dimensional quantum model. This classical-to-quantum mapping allows us to extend the scope of standard optimization methods by unifying them under a general framework. The quantum annealing method is naturally extended to simulate classical systems at finite temperatures. We derive the rates to assure convergence to the optimal thermodynamic state using the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics. For simulated and quantum annealing, we obtain the asymptotic rates of T(t) approximately (pN)/(k(B)logt) and gamma(t) approximately (Nt)(-c/N), for the temperature and magnetic field, respectively. Other annealing strategies are also discussed.
Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia
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Henry Kodrat
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Trigeminal neuralgia is a debilitating pain syndrome with a distinct symptom mainly excruciating facial pain that tends to come and go unpredictably in sudden shock-like attacks. Medical management remains the primary treatment for classical trigeminal neuralgia. When medical therapy failed, surgery with microvascular decompression can be performed. Radiosurgery can be offered for classical trigeminal neuralgia patients who are not surgical candidate or surgery refusal and they should not in acute pain condition. Radiosurgery is widely used because of good therapeutic result and low complication rate. Weakness of this technique is a latency period, which is time required for pain relief. It usually ranges from 1 to 2 months. This review enlightens the important role of radiosurgery in the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia.
Modeling Classical Heat Conduction in FLAG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hendon, Raymond Cori [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-01-12
The Los Alamos National Laboratory FLAG code contains both electron and ion heat conduction modules; these have been constructed to be directly relevant to user application problems. However, formal code verification of these modules requires quantitative comparison to exact solutions of the underlying mathematical models. A wide variety of exact solutions to the classical heat conduction equation are available for this purpose. This report summarizes efforts involving the representation of the classical heat conduction equation as following from the large electron-ion coupling limit of the electron and ion 3T temperature equations, subject to electron and ion conduction processes. In FLAG, this limiting behavior is quantitatively verified using a simple exact solution of the classical heat conduction equation. For this test problem, both heat conduction modules produce nearly identical spatial electron and ion temperature profiles that converge at slightly less than 2nd order to the corresponding exact solution.
Molecular dynamics simulations of classical stopping power.
Grabowski, Paul E; Surh, Michael P; Richards, David F; Graziani, Frank R; Murillo, Michael S
2013-11-22
Molecular dynamics can provide very accurate tests of classical kinetic theory; for example, unambiguous comparisons can be made for classical particles interacting via a repulsive 1/r potential. The plasma stopping power problem, of great interest in its own right, provides an especially stringent test of a velocity-dependent transport property. We have performed large-scale (~10(4)-10(6) particles) molecular dynamics simulations of charged-particle stopping in a classical electron gas that span the weak to moderately strong intratarget coupling regimes. Projectile-target coupling is varied with projectile charge and velocity. Comparisons are made with disparate kinetic theories (both Boltzmann and Lenard-Balescu classes) and fully convergent theories to establish regimes of validity. We extend these various stopping models to improve agreement with the MD data and provide a useful fit to our results.
Learning, Realizability and Games in Classical Arithmetic
Aschieri, Federico
2010-01-01
In this dissertation we provide mathematical evidence that the concept of learning can be used to give a new and intuitive computational semantics of classical proofs in various fragments of Predicative Arithmetic. First, we extend Kreisel modified realizability to a classical fragment of first order Arithmetic, Heyting Arithmetic plus EM1 (Excluded middle axiom restricted to Sigma^0_1 formulas). We introduce a new realizability semantics we call "Interactive Learning-Based Realizability". Our realizers are self-correcting programs, which learn from their errors and evolve through time. Secondly, we extend the class of learning based realizers to a classical version PCFclass of PCF and, then, compare the resulting notion of realizability with Coquand game semantics and prove a full soundness and completeness result. In particular, we show there is a one-to-one correspondence between realizers and recursive winning strategies in the 1-Backtracking version of Tarski games. Third, we provide a complete and fully...
General linear dynamics - quantum, classical or hybrid
Elze, H-T; Vallone, F
2011-01-01
We describe our recent proposal of a path integral formulation of classical Hamiltonian dynamics. Which leads us here to a new attempt at hybrid dynamics, which concerns the direct coupling of classical and quantum mechanical degrees of freedom. This is of practical as well as of foundational interest and no fully satisfactory solution of this problem has been established to date. Related aspects will be observed in a general linear ensemble theory, which comprises classical and quantum dynamics in the form of Liouville and von Neumann equations, respectively, as special cases. Considering the simplest object characterized by a two-dimensional state-space, we illustrate how quantum mechanics is special in several respects among possible linear generalizations.
Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits
Geraci, Joseph; Lidar, Daniel A.
2010-07-01
We exploit a recently constructed mapping between quantum circuits and graphs in order to prove that circuits corresponding to certain planar graphs can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof uses an expression for the Ising model partition function in terms of quadratically signed weight enumerators (QWGTs), which are polynomials that arise naturally in an expansion of quantum circuits in terms of rotations involving Pauli matrices. We combine this expression with a known efficient classical algorithm for the Ising partition function of any planar graph in the absence of an external magnetic field, and the Robertson-Seymour theorem from graph theory. We give as an example a set of quantum circuits with a small number of non-nearest-neighbor gates which admit an efficient classical simulation.
Quantum state smoothing for classical mixtures
Tan, D; Mølmer, K; Murch, K W
2016-01-01
In quantum mechanics, wave functions and density matrices represent our knowledge about a quantum system and give probabilities for the outcomes of measurements. If the combined dynamics and measurements on a system lead to a density matrix $\\rho(t)$ with only diagonal elements in a given basis $\\{|n\\rangle\\}$, it may be treated as a classical mixture, i.e., a system which randomly occupies the basis states $|n\\rangle$ with probabilities $\\rho_{nn}(t)$. Fully equivalent to so-called smoothing in classical probability theory, subsequent probing of the occupation of the states $|n\\rangle$ improves our ability to retrodict what was the outcome of a projective state measurement at time $t$. Here, we show with experiments on a superconducting qubit that the smoothed probabilities do not, in the same way as the diagonal elements of $\\rho$, permit a classical mixture interpretation of the state of the system at the past time $t$.
Voice disorders in children with classic galactosemia.
Potter, Nancy L
2011-04-01
Children with classic galactosemia are at risk for motor speech disorders resulting from disruptions in motor planning and programming (childhood apraxia of speech or CAS) or motor execution (dysarthria). In the present study of 33 children with classic galactosemia, 21% were diagnosed with CAS, 3% with ataxic dysarthria, and 3% with mixed CAS-dysarthria. Voice disorders due to laryngeal insufficiency were common in children with dysarthria and co-occurred with CAS. Most (58%) of the children with classic galactosemia had decreased respiratory-phonatory support for speech, and 33% had disturbed vocal quality that was indicative of cerebellar dysfunction. Three children, two diagnosed with CAS and one not diagnosed with a motor speech disorder, had vocal tremors. Treatment of voice dysfunction in neurogenic speech disorders is discussed.
Quantum field theory from classical statistics
Wetterich, C
2011-01-01
An Ising-type classical statistical model is shown to describe quantum fermions. For a suitable time-evolution law for the probability distribution of the Ising-spins our model describes a quantum field theory for Dirac spinors in external electromagnetic fields, corresponding to a mean field approximation to quantum electrodynamics. All quantum features for the motion of an arbitrary number of electrons and positrons, including the characteristic interference effects for two-fermion states, are described by the classical statistical model. For one-particle states in the non-relativistic approximation we derive the Schr\\"odinger equation for a particle in a potential from the time evolution law for the probability distribution of the Ising-spins. Thus all characteristic quantum features, as interference in a double slit experiment, tunneling or discrete energy levels for stationary states, are derived from a classical statistical ensemble. Concerning the particle-wave-duality of quantum mechanics, the discret...
Non-Classical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase
Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert
2016-01-01
Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoform-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical CAIs, primarily sulfonamide-based compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to off-target inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamide-based compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, CAIs must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also non-classical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of non-classical CAIs and the recent advances in the development of isoform-specific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828
Classical Ergodicity and Modern Portfolio Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geoffrey Poitras
2015-01-01
Full Text Available What role have theoretical methods initially developed in mathematics and physics played in the progress of financial economics? What is the relationship between financial economics and econophysics? What is the relevance of the “classical ergodicity hypothesis” to modern portfolio theory? This paper addresses these questions by reviewing the etymology and history of the classical ergodicity hypothesis in 19th century statistical mechanics. An explanation of classical ergodicity is provided that establishes a connection to the fundamental empirical problem of using nonexperimental data to verify theoretical propositions in modern portfolio theory. The role of the ergodicity assumption in the ex post/ex ante quandary confronting modern portfolio theory is also examined.
The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.
Tscherne, H
2013-09-01
This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a classical particle
Sánchez, L A; Sanchez, Luis Alberto; Mahecha, Jorge
2003-01-01
Due to the fact that only matter fields have phase, frequently is believed that the gauge principle can induce gauge fields only in quantum systems. But this is not necessary. This paper, of pedagogical scope, presents a classical system constituted by a particle in a classical potential, which is used as a model to illustrate the gauge principle and the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Those concepts appear in the study of second order phase transitions. Ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, plasmons in a free electron gas, and the mass of vector bosons in the gauge field Yang-Mills theories, are some of the phenomena in which these transitions occur.
Thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics.
Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E
2011-12-14
We present a new method for calculating quantum mechanical corrections to classical free energies, based on thermodynamic integration from classical to quantum mechanics. In contrast to previous methods, our method is numerically stable even in the presence of strong quantum delocalization. We first illustrate the method and its relationship to a well-established method with an analysis of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We then show that our method can be used to calculate the quantum mechanical contributions to the free energies of ice and water for a flexible water model, a problem for which the established method is unstable.
Dynamics of Non-Classical Interval Exchanges
Gadre, Vaibhav S
2009-01-01
Train tracks with a single vertex are a generalization of interval exchange maps. Here, we consider non-classical interval exchanges: complete train tracks with a single vertex. These can be studied as a dynamical system by considering Rauzy induction in this context. This gives a refinement process on the parameter space similar to Kerckhoff's simplicial systems. We show that the refinement process gives an expansion that has a key dynamical property called uniform distortion. We use uniform distortion to prove normality of the expansion. Consequently we prove an analog of Keane's conjecture: almost every non-classical interval exchange is uniquely ergodic.
Beam structures classical and advanced theories
Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco
2011-01-01
Beam theories are exploited worldwide to analyze civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures. Many beam approaches have been proposed during the last centuries by eminent scientists such as Euler, Bernoulli, Navier, Timoshenko, Vlasov, etc. Most of these models are problem dependent: they provide reliable results for a given problem, for instance a given section and cannot be applied to a different one. Beam Structures: Classical and Advanced Theories proposes a new original unified approach to beam theory that includes practically all classical and advanced models for be
Classical particle exchange: a quantitative treatment
Lancaster, Jarrett L; Titus, Aaron P
2015-01-01
The "classic" analogy of classical repulsive interactions via exchange of particles is revisited with a quantitative model and analyzed. This simple model based solely upon the principle of momentum conservation yields a nontrivial, conservative approximation at low energies while also including a type of "relativistic" regime in which the conservative formulation breaks down. Simulations are presented which are accessible to undergraduate students at any level in the physics curriculum as well as analytic treatments of the various regimes which should be accessible to advanced undergraduate physics majors.
Exact Classical Correspondence in Quantum Cosmology
John, Moncy V
2014-01-01
We find a Friedmann model with appropriate matter/energy density such that the solution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation exactly corresponds to the classical evolution. The well-known problems in quantum cosmology disappear in the resulting coasting evolution. The exact quantum-classical correspondence is demonstrated with the help of the de Broglie-Bohm and modified de Broglie-Bohm approaches to quantum mechanics. It is reassuring that such a solution leads to a robust model for the universe, which agrees well with cosmological expansion indicated by SNe Ia data.
Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belhadi, Z. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Laboratoire de physique théorique, Faculté des sciences exactes, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Menas, F. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Ecole Nationale Préparatoire aux Etudes d’ingéniorat, Laboratoire de physique, RN 5 Rouiba, Alger (Algeria); Bérard, A. [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France); Mohrbach, H., E-mail: herve.mohrbach@univ-lorraine.fr [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France)
2014-12-15
The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.
Knot Invariants from Classical Field Theories
Leal, L C
1999-01-01
We consider the Non-Abelian Chern-Simons term coupled to external particles, in a gauge and diffeomorphism invariant form. The classical equations of motion are perturbativelly studied, and the on-shell action is shown to produce knot-invariants associated with the sources. The first contributions are explicitly calculated, and the corresponding knot-invariants are recognized. We conclude that the interplay between Knot Theory and Topological Field Theories is manifested not only at the quantum level, but in a classical context as well.
On the Classical and Quantum Momentum Map
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esposito, Chiara
In this thesis we study the classical and quantum momentum maps and the theory of reduction. We focus on the notion of momentum map in Poisson geometry and we discuss the classification of the momentum map in this framework. Furthermore, we describe the so-called Poisson Reduction, a technique...... that allows us to reduce the dimension of a manifold in presence of symmetries implemented by Poisson actions. Using techniques of deformation quantization and quantum groups, we introduce the quantum momentum map as a deformation of the classical momentum map, constructed in such a way that it factorizes...
Classical Higgs fields on gauge gluon bundles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palese Marcella
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Classical Higgs fields and related canonical conserved quantities are defined by invariant variational problems on suitably defined gauge gluon bundles. We consider Lagrangian field theories which are assumed to be invariant with respect to the action of a gauge-natural group. As an illustrative example we exploit the ‘gluon Lagrangian’, i.e. a Yang-Mills Lagrangian on the (1, 1-order gauge-natural bundle of SU(3-principal connections. The kernel of the gauge-natural Jacobi morphism for such a Lagrangian, by inducing a reductive split structure, canonically defines a ‘gluon classical Higgs field’.
CLASSICAL RISK MODEL WITH THRESHOLD DIVIDEND STRATEGY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Ming; Guo Junyi
2008-01-01
In this article, a threshold dividend strategy is used for classical risk model.Under this dividend strategy, certain probability of ruin, which occurs in case of constant barrier strategy, is avoided. Using the strong Markov property of the surplus process and the distribution of the deficit in classical risk model, the survival probability for this model is derived, which is more direct than that in Asmussen(2000, P195, Proposition 1.10). The occupation time of non-dividend of this model is also discussed by means of Martingale method.
Hidden invariance of the free classical particle
García, S
1993-01-01
A formalism describing the dynamics of classical and quantum systems from a group theoretical point of view is presented. We apply it to the simple example of the classical free particle. The Galileo group $G$ is the symmetry group of the free equations of motion. Consideration of the free particle Lagrangian semi-invariance under $G$ leads to a larger symmetry group, which is a central extension of the Galileo group by the real numbers. We study the dynamics associated with this group, and characterize quantities like Noether invariants and evolution equations in terms of group geometric objects. An extension of the Galileo group by $U(1)$ leads to quantum mechanics.
Point vortex dynamics: A classical mathematics playground
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aref, Hassan
2007-01-01
The idealization of a two-dimensional, ideal flow as a collection of point vortices embedded in otherwise irrotational flow yields a surprisingly large number of mathematical insights and connects to a large number of areas of classical mathematics. Several examples are given including the integr...... participation in the exploration of this intriguing dynamical system from the mathematical physics community.......The idealization of a two-dimensional, ideal flow as a collection of point vortices embedded in otherwise irrotational flow yields a surprisingly large number of mathematical insights and connects to a large number of areas of classical mathematics. Several examples are given including...
Classical codes for quantum broadcast channels
Savov, Ivan
2011-01-01
We discuss two techniques for transmitting classical information over quantum broadcast channels. The first technique is a quantum generalization of the superposition coding scheme for the classical broadcast channel. We use a quantum simultaneous nonunique decoder and obtain a simpler proof of the rate region recently published by Yard et al. in independent work. Our second result is a quantum Marton coding scheme, which gives the best known achievable rate region for quantum broadcast channels. Both results exploit recent advances in quantum simultaneous decoding developed in the context of quantum interference channels.
Decoherence, chaos, the quantum and the classical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zurek, W.H.; Paz, J.P.
1994-04-01
The key ideas of the environment-induced decoherence approach are reviewed. Application of decoherence to the transition from quantum to classical in open quantum systems with chaotic classical analogs is described. The arrow of time is, in this context, a result of the information loss to the correlations with the environment. The asymptotic rate of entropy production (which is reached quickly, on the dynamical timescale) is independent of the details of the coupling of the quantum system to the environment, and is set by the Lyapunov exponents. We also briefly outline the existential interpretation of quantum mechanics, justifying the slogan ``No information without representation.``
A covariant formulation of classical spinning particle
Cho, J H; Kim, J K; Jin-Ho Cho; Seungjoon Hyun; Jae-Kwan Kim
1994-01-01
Covariantly we reformulate the description of a spinning particle in terms of the which entails all possible constraints explicitly; all constraints can be obtained just from the Lagrangian. Furthermore, in this covariant reformulation, the Lorentz element is to be considered to evolve the momentum or spin component from an arbitrary fixed frame and not just from the particle rest frame. In distinction with the usual formulation, our system is directly comparable with the pseudo-classical formulation. We get a peculiar symmetry which resembles the supersymmetry of the pseudo-classical formulation.
Dynamics of Coupled Quantum-Classical Oscillators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Wei-Zhong; XU Liu-Su; ZOU Feng-Wu
2004-01-01
@@ The dynamics of systems consisting of coupled quantum-classical oscillators is numerically investigated. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the quantum oscillator exhibits chaos. When the mass of the classical oscillator increases, the chaos will be suppressed; if the energy of the system and/or the coupling strength between the two oscillators increases, chaotic behaviour of the system appears. This result will be helpful to understand the probability of the emergence of quantum chaos and may be applied to explain the spectra of complex atoms qualitatively.
Classical and semi-classical solutions of the Yang--Mills theory. [Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jackiw, R.; Nohl, C.; Rebbi, C.
1977-12-01
This review summarizes what is known at present about classical solutions to Yang-Mills theory both in Euclidean and Minkowski space. The quantal meaning of these solutions is also discussed. Solutions in Euclidean space expose multiple vacua and tunnelling of the quantum theory. Those in Minkowski space-time provide a semi-classical spectrum for a conformal generator.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dohn, Anders Høeg
In a modern society, manpower can be both a scarce and an expensive resource. Skilled personnel is usually in high demand and accounts for a significant part of total expenses in many companies. When the work is divided in shifts, a roster is compiled to allocate these to the employees. The roste......In a modern society, manpower can be both a scarce and an expensive resource. Skilled personnel is usually in high demand and accounts for a significant part of total expenses in many companies. When the work is divided in shifts, a roster is compiled to allocate these to the employees....... The rostering process is non-trivial and especially when service is required around the clock, rostering may involve considerable effort from a designated planner. Therefore, in order to minimize costs and overstaffing, to maximize the utilization of available staff, and to ensure a high level of satisfaction...... among the employees, sophisticated scheduling methods are required. When approaching the day of operation, the detail level of the planning becomes finer. With a given allocation of shifts to employees, the focus is turned to tasks scheduling within those shifts. The objective is to assign as much work...
Satin, Seema
2015-01-01
We attempt to introduce an new approach towards study of certain interesting issues in classical gravity. This can be done for few confined, but interesting and meaningful physical situations, which can be modeled by a classical stochastic Einstein equation. The Einstein equation can be looked upon as an equation of motion, while introducing to it a classical stochastic source or classical fluctuations as driving source. This is analogous to the Langevin equation formalism, in Brownian motion studies. A justification for the validity of such an ansatz for classical gravity is given. The regime of validity of such an approach and the consequences and possible outcomes of this formulation are discussed. We also mention, further relevant directions and applications of the same,that act as motivation towards the new proposal. This field of study can be seen to emerge out of well established ideas and results in Brownian motion theory as well as the Stochastic Semiclassical Gravity (which is already an active area...
Relationship of quantum mechanics to classical electromagnetism and classical relativistic mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, J H [Departement de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire, Universite de Geneve, 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2004-05-14
Some connections between quantum mechanics and classical physics are explored. The Planck-Einstein and De Broglie relations, the wavefunction and its probabilistic interpretation, the canonical commutation relations and the Maxwell-Lorentz equation may be understood in a simple way by comparing classical electromagnetism and the photonic description of light provided by classical relativistic kinematics. The method used may be described as 'inverse correspondence' since quantum phenomena become apparent on considering the low photon number density limit of classical electromagnetism. Generalization to massive particles leads to the Klein-Gordon and Schroedinger equations. The difference between the quantum wavefunction of the photon and a classical electromagnetic wave is discussed in some detail.
Lost in secular evolution: the case of a low mass classical bulge
Saha, Kanak
2015-01-01
The existence of a classical bulge in disk galaxies holds important clue to the assembly history of galaxies. Finding observational evidence of very low mass classical bulges particularly in barred galaxies including our Milky Way, is a challenging task as the bar driven secular evolution might bring significant dynamical change to these bulges alongside the stellar disk. Using high-resolution N-body simulation, we show that if a cool stellar disk is assembled around a non-rotating low-mass classical bulge, the disk rapidly grows a strong bar within a few rotation time scales. Later, the bar driven secular process transform the initial classical bulge into a flattened rotating stellar system whose central part also have grown a bar-like component rotating in sync with the disk bar. During this time, a boxy/peanut (hereafter, B/P) bulge is formed via the buckling instability of the disk bar and the vertical extent of this B/P bulge being slightly higher than that of the classical bulge, it encompasses the whol...
An alternative formulation of classical electromagnetic duality
Li, K; Li, Kang; Naón, Carlos M.
2001-01-01
By introducing a doublet of electromagnetic four dimensional vector potentials, we set up a manifestly Lorentz covariant and SO(2) duality invariant classical field theory of electric and magnetic charges. In our formulation one does not need to introduce the concept of Dirac string.
Entanglement in Quantum-Classical Hybrid
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
It is noted that the phenomenon of entanglement is not a prerogative of quantum systems, but also occurs in other, non-classical systems such as quantum-classical hybrids, and covers the concept of entanglement as a special type of global constraint imposed upon a broad class of dynamical systems. Application of hybrid systems for physics of life, as well as for quantum-inspired computing, has been outlined. In representing the Schroedinger equation in the Madelung form, there is feedback from the Liouville equation to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the form of the quantum potential. Preserving the same topology, the innovators replaced the quantum potential with other types of feedback, and investigated the property of these hybrid systems. A function of probability density has been introduced. Non-locality associated with a global geometrical constraint that leads to an entanglement effect was demonstrated. Despite such a quantum like characteristic, the hybrid can be of classical scale and all the measurements can be performed classically. This new emergence of entanglement sheds light on the concept of non-locality in physics.
Metal Ion Modeling Using Classical Mechanics.
Li, Pengfei; Merz, Kenneth M
2017-02-08
Metal ions play significant roles in numerous fields including chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and materials science. With computational tools increasingly becoming important in chemical research, methods have emerged to effectively face the challenge of modeling metal ions in the gas, aqueous, and solid phases. Herein, we review both quantum and classical modeling strategies for metal ion-containing systems that have been developed over the past few decades. This Review focuses on classical metal ion modeling based on unpolarized models (including the nonbonded, bonded, cationic dummy atom, and combined models), polarizable models (e.g., the fluctuating charge, Drude oscillator, and the induced dipole models), the angular overlap model, and valence bond-based models. Quantum mechanical studies of metal ion-containing systems at the semiempirical, ab initio, and density functional levels of theory are reviewed as well with a particular focus on how these methods inform classical modeling efforts. Finally, conclusions and future prospects and directions are offered that will further enhance the classical modeling of metal ion-containing systems.
Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.
Barnabei, Fred; And Others
This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…
The Role of Contingency in Classical Conditioning.
Papini, Mauricio R.; Bitterman, M. E.
1990-01-01
Early experiments suggesting that classical conditioning depends on the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) are reconsidered along with later evidence that shows conditioning of the CS and its context in random training. CS-US contingency is neither necessary nor sufficient for conditioning. (SLD)
Priority in the Classical Conditioning of Children.
Windholz, George; Lamal, P. A.
1986-01-01
Contrary to widely held belief, Watons and Rayner's (1920) experiment with Little Albert is not first reported case of classical conditioning of a child. Their work was preceded by that of Bogen and of Krasnogorskii. Mateer's work either preceded or coincided with Watons and Rayner's. This article clarifies chronology of these early studies of…
Stimulus Configuration, Classical Conditioning, and Hippocampal Function.
Schmajuk, Nestor A.; DiCarlo, James J.
1991-01-01
The participation of the hippocampus in classical conditioning is described in terms of a multilayer network portraying stimulus configuration. A model of hippocampal function is presented, and computer simulations are used to study neural activity in the various brain areas mapped according to the model. (SLD)
"Scars" connect classical and quantum theory
Monteiro, T
1990-01-01
Chaotic systems are unstable and extremely sensitive to initial condititions. So far, scientists have been unable to demonstrate that the same kind of behaviour exists in quantum or microscopic systems. New connections have been discovered though between classical and quantum theory. One is the phenomena of 'scars' which cut through the wave function of a particle (1 page).
Quantum dynamical entropies in discrete classical chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benatti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Cappellini, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Zertuche, Federico [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Unidad Cuernavaca, AP 273-3, Admon. 3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2004-01-09
We discuss certain analogies between quantization and discretization of classical systems on manifolds. In particular, we will apply the quantum dynamical entropy of Alicki and Fannes to numerically study the footprints of chaos in discretized versions of hyperbolic maps on the torus.
Classics in Psychoanalysis: I. Publications Through 1939.
Rubinton, Phyllis
1984-01-01
This examination of bibliographies of four leading psychoanalytic journals (1974-79) yielded articles and books that could be called classics in psychoanalysis. The nine books and 21 articles listed in order of frequency are examined further by type of authorship, psychoanalytic specialty dealt with, language of publication, and availability. (7…
The Strange World of Classical Physics
Green, David
2010-01-01
We have heard many times that the commonsense world of classical physics was shattered by Einstein's revelation of the laws of relativity. This is certainly true; the shift from our everyday notions of time and space to those revealed by relativity is one of the greatest stretches the mind can make. What is seldom appreciated is that the laws of…
Wave-particle duality in classical mechanics
Davydov, Alexander Y.
2012-05-01
Until recently, wave-particle duality has been thought of as quantum principle without a counterpart in classical physics. This belief was challenged after (i) finding that average dynamics of a classical particle in a strong inhomogeneous oscillating field resembles that of a quantum object and (ii) experimental discovery of "walkers" - macroscopic droplets that bounce on a vertically vibrating bath of the same fluid and can self-propel via interaction with the surface waves they generate. This paper exposes a new family of objects that can display both particle and wave features all together while strictly obeying laws of the Newtonian mechanics. In contrast to the previously known duality examples in classical physics, oscillating field or constant inflow of energy are not required for their existence. These objects behave deterministically provided that all their degrees of freedom are known to an observer. If, however, some degrees of freedom are unknown, an observer can describe such objects only probabilistically and they manifest weird features similar to that of quantum particles. We show new classical counterparts of such quantum phenomena as particle interference, tunneling, above-barrier reflection, trapping on top of a barrier, and spontaneous emission of radiation. In the light of these findings, we hypothesize that quantum mechanics may emerge as approximation from a more profound theory on a deeper level.
Classical Music Struggles to Be Heard
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGXUEYING
2005-01-01
CHRISTMAS and New Year is high classical music season; there are four or five performances every evening at theaters in Beijing,Shanghai and Guangzhou. Even the Chinese Central Opera Theater Symphony Orchestra, which rarely has chance to give commercial performances, works flat out at year-end playing in numerous Chinese provinces and municipalities. At other times of the year, however,
Geometric Integrators for Classical Spin Systems
Frank, J.E.; Huang, W.; Leimkuhler, B.J.
1997-01-01
Practical, structure-preserving methods for integrating classical Heisenberg spin systems are discussed. Two new integrators are derived and compared, including (1) a symmetric energy and spin-length preserving integrator based on a Red-Black splitting of the spin sites combined with a staggered tim
Classical statistical computation of the Schwinger mechanism
Gelis, F
2013-01-01
In this paper, we show how classical statistical field theory techniques can be used to efficiently perform the numerical evaluation of the non-perturbative Schwinger mechanism of particle production by quantum tunneling. In some approximation, we also consider the back-reaction of the produced particles on the external field, as well as the self-interactions of the produced particles.
Classical or equilibrium thermodynamics: basic conceptual aspects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Augusto Calvo Tiritan
2008-08-01
Full Text Available The Classical or Equilibrium Thermodynamics is one of the most consolidated fields of Physics. It is synthesized by a well-known and self coherent knowledge structure. The essence of the Classical Thermodynamics theoretical structure consists of a set of natural laws that rule the macroscopic physical systems behavior. These laws were formulated based on observations generalizations and are mostly independent of any hypotheses concerning the microscopic nature of the matter. In general, the approaches established for the Classical Thermodynamics follow one of the following alternatives: the historical approach that describes chronologically the evolution of ideas, concepts and facts, and the postulational approach in which postulates are formulated but are not demonstrated a priori but can be confirmed a posteriori. In this work, a brief review of the pre-classical historical approach conceptual evolution is elaborated, from the beginning of the seventeenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century. As for this, the following themes are dealt with in an evolutionary and phenomenological way: heat nature, thermometry, calorimetry, Carnot’s heat engine, heat mechanical equivalent and the first and second laws. The Zeroth law that was formulated afterwards is included in the discussion.
Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, R A
1977-01-01
A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...
Mathematics of classical and quantum physics
Byron, Frederick W
Well-organized text designed to complement graduate-level physics texts in classical mechanics, electricity, magnetism, and quantum mechanics. Topics include theory of vector spaces, analytic function theory, Green's function method of solving differential and partial differential equations, theory of groups, more. Many problems, suggestions for further reading.
A Beautiful Screen Tells a Classic Story
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1996-01-01
Scenes from Dream of Red Mansions, a masterpiece of classic Chinese literature, have been recreated in stone. Entitled "Stories from Dream of Red Mansions," the new work of fine workmanship took some three years and more than 80,000 working hours to complete. Fifty-two screens are linked to each other. stretching 70 meters in length, 2.3 meters in
Dynamics of the classical planar spin chain
Raedt, Bart De; Raedt, Hans De
1978-01-01
In this paper we pay attention to the classical one-dimensional planar spin system and, in particular, to the dynamics of such a model. We use the Monte Carlo method to calculate the static correlation functions, needed to determine the relaxation functions completely. We are then able to give the r
Treatment of classical Kaposi's sarcoma with gemcitabine
Brambilla, L; Labianca, R; Ferrucci, SM; Taglioni, M; Boneschi, [No Value
2001-01-01
Background: Several drugs are active in aggressive classical Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS); chemotherapeutic agents with fewer side-effects, more rapid response and able to overcome resistance to previous treatment are advisable when treating patients in a second line. Gemcitabine, an analogue of deoxycyti
Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?
Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer
2011-01-01
Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…
Unified classical path theories of pressure broadening.
Bottcher, C.
1971-01-01
Derivation of a unified classical path theory of pressure broadening, using only elementary concepts. It is shown that the theory of Smith, Cooper and Vidal (1969) is only correct at all frequencies to first order in the number density of perturbers.
Neo-classical principles for information integrity
Christiaanse, R.; Hulstijn, J.
2011-01-01
Abstract: For inter-organizational systems, integrity of information is crucial: how to make sure that the information represented in a system will continue to faithfully represent business reality? In this paper we present a neo-classical approach to information integrity. We apply „classic‟ princi
Gender and the Classics Curriculum: A Survey
Blundell, Sue
2009-01-01
A survey was carried out in 2006 of all the UK universities where Classics and Ancient History degrees are taught at undergraduate level. The results reveal that nearly half of these courses include at least one dedicated gender module, and that the great majority also have gender embedded in the content of modules dealing with other topics.…
Classical Ising Models Realised on Optical Lattices
Cirio, Mauro; Brennen, G. K.; Twamley, J.; Iblisdir, S.; Boada, O.
2012-02-01
We describe a simple quantum algorithm acting on a register of qubits in d spatial dimensions which computes statistical properties of d+1 dimensional classical Ising models. The algorithm works by measuring scattering matrix elements for quantum processes and Wick rotating to provide estimates for real partition functions of classical systems. This method can be implemented in a straightforward way in ensembles of qubits, e.g. three dimensional optical lattices with only nearest neighbor Ising like interactions. By measuring noise in the estimate useful information regarding location of critical points and scaling laws can be extracted for classical Ising models, possibly with inhomogeneity. Unlike the case of quantum simulation of quantum hamiltonians, this algorithm does not require Trotter expansion of the evolution operator and thus has the advantage of being amenable to fault tolerant gate design in a straightforward manner. Through this setting it is possible to study the quantum computational complexity of the estimation of a classical partition function for a 2D Ising model with non uniform couplings and magnetic fields. We provide examples for the 2 dimensional case.
The classical theory of fields electromagnetism
Helrich, Carl S
2012-01-01
The study of classical electromagnetic fields is an adventure. The theory is complete mathematically and we are able to present it as an example of classical Newtonian experimental and mathematical philosophy. There is a set of foundational experiments, on which most of the theory is constructed. And then there is the bold theoretical proposal of a field-field interaction from James Clerk Maxwell. This textbook presents the theory of classical fields as a mathematical structure based solidly on laboratory experiments. Here the student is introduced to the beauty of classical field theory as a gem of theoretical physics. To keep the discussion fluid, the history is placed in a beginning chapter and some of the mathematical proofs in the appendices. Chapters on Green’s Functions and Laplace’s Equation and a discussion of Faraday’s Experiment further deepen the understanding. The chapter on Einstein’s relativity is an integral necessity to the text. Finally, chapters on particle motion and waves in a dis...
FSH isoform pattern in classic galactosemia
Gubbels, C.S.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Wodzig, W.K.; Olthaar, A.J.; Jaeken, J.; Sweep, F.C.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.
2011-01-01
Female classic galactosemia patients suffer from primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The cause for this long-term complication is not fully understood. One of the proposed mechanisms is that hypoglycosylation of complex molecules, a known secondary phenomenon of galactosemia, leads to FSH dysfuncti
Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients.
van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela
2013-07-16
Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.
Frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisandro E. Muñoz-Alonzo
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana (Chile and the association of these abnormal behaviors with age and sex of the animals. All resident endurance horses from 8 equestrian centres of the Región Metropolitana were studied (n=107. A description of classic stereotipies (crib-biting, weaving and box-walking was given to each horse keeper and then they were asked for this presence or absence, along the name, sex, age and breed, of every horse under their care. To analyze the data, horses were divided by age into 3 groups: 3 to 6 years (n=28, 7 to 9 years (n=42 and 10 to 18 years (n=37. Based on their sex, they were divided into 3 groups: stallions (n =11, geldings (n=64 and mares (n=32. Results are expressed as percentages. Fisher`s test with p < 0.05 was used for statistical analysis of the variables age and sex. A 12.2% of all horses presented stereotypies: crib -biting (0.9%, weaving (6.5% and box-walking (4.7%. No relationship was found between the presence of stereotypies and variables age and sex. This study evidence a high frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana, mostly weaving, and no found association between classic stereotypies and the variables age and sex of horses.
Maxwell and the classical wave particle dualism.
Mendonça, J T
2008-05-28
Maxwell's equations are one of the greatest theoretical achievements in physics of all times. They have survived three successive theoretical revolutions, associated with the advent of relativity, quantum mechanics and modern quantum field theory. In particular, they provide the theoretical framework for the understanding of the classical wave particle dualism.
Hemoptysis with a classical radiological sign
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sameer Gulati
2011-01-01
Full Text Available There can be various causes for hemoptysis. We present here a case of hemoptysis in which the chest X-ray helped us to arrive at the diagnosis because of a classical sign. This highlights the need of identifying this finding for prompt recognition of the cause of hemoptysis.
The classical essence of black hole radiation
Nouri-Zonoz, M
1998-01-01
We show that the mathematics of Hawking process can be interpreted classically as the Fourier analysis of an exponentially redshifted wave mode which scatters off the black hole and travels to infinity at late times. We use this method to derive the Planckian power spectrum for Schwarzchild, Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr black holes.
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Ensemble simulations with discrete classical dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toxværd, Søren
2013-01-01
For discrete classical Molecular dynamics (MD) obtained by the "Verlet" algorithm (VA) with the time increment $h$ there exist a shadow Hamiltonian $\\tilde{H}$ with energy $\\tilde{E}(h)$, for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for $\\tilde{H}$. $\\tilde...
Creation of Magnetic Monopoles in Classical Scattering
Vachaspati, Tanmay
2016-01-01
We consider the creation of 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopoles by scattering classical wave packets of gauge fields. An example with eight clearly separated magnetic poles created with parity violating helical initial conditions is shown. No clear separation of topological charge is observed with corresponding parity symmetric initial conditions.
Classical Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Alzar, C L G; Nussenzveig, P
2002-01-01
We present a classical analog for Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). In a system of just two coupled harmonic oscillators subject to a harmonic driving force we can reproduce the phenomenology observed in EIT. We describe a simple experiment performed with two linearly coupled RLC circuits which can be taught in an undergraduate laboratory class.
Fisher Information of Wavefunctions: Classical and Quantum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Shun-Long
2006-01-01
A parametric quantum mechanical wavefunction naturally induces parametric probability distributions by taking absolute square, and we can consider its classical Fisher information. On the other hand, it also induces parametric rank-one projections which may be viewed as density operators, and we can talk about its quantum Fisher information. Among many versions of quantum Fisher information, there are two prominent ones. The first,deiined via a quantum score function, was introduced by Helstrom in 1967 and is well known. The second,defined via the square root of the density operator, has its origin in the skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase in 1963 and remains relatively unnoticed. This study is devoted to investigating the relationships between the classical Fisher information and these two versions of quantum Fisher information for wavefunctions.It is shown that the two versions of quantum Fisher information differ by a factor 2 and that they dominate the classical Fisher information. The non-coincidence of these two versions of quantum Fisher information may be interpreted as a manifestation of quantum discord. We further calculate the difference between the Helstrom quantum Fisher information and the classical Fisher information, and show that it is precisely the instantaneous phase fluctuation of the wavefunctions.
Metal Ion Modeling Using Classical Mechanics
2017-01-01
Metal ions play significant roles in numerous fields including chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and materials science. With computational tools increasingly becoming important in chemical research, methods have emerged to effectively face the challenge of modeling metal ions in the gas, aqueous, and solid phases. Herein, we review both quantum and classical modeling strategies for metal ion-containing systems that have been developed over the past few decades. This Review focuses on classical metal ion modeling based on unpolarized models (including the nonbonded, bonded, cationic dummy atom, and combined models), polarizable models (e.g., the fluctuating charge, Drude oscillator, and the induced dipole models), the angular overlap model, and valence bond-based models. Quantum mechanical studies of metal ion-containing systems at the semiempirical, ab initio, and density functional levels of theory are reviewed as well with a particular focus on how these methods inform classical modeling efforts. Finally, conclusions and future prospects and directions are offered that will further enhance the classical modeling of metal ion-containing systems. PMID:28045509
Classical Physics Experiments in the Amusement Park
Bagge, Sara; Pendrill, Ann-Marie
2002-01-01
An amusement park is a large physics laboratory, full of rotating and accelerated coordinate systems. The forces are experienced throughout the body and can be studied with simple equipment or with electronics depending on age and experience. In this paper, we propose adaptations of classical physics experiments for use on traditional rides.…
Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.
Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W
2016-01-01
Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction.
Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching
Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard
2006-01-01
We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials (e
Putting Mathematical Tasks into Context
Nagle, Courtney R.; Styers, Jodie L.
2015-01-01
Although many factors affect students' mathematical activity during a lesson, the teacher's selection and implementation of tasks is arguably the most influential in determining the level of student engagement. Mathematical tasks are intended to focus students' attention on a particular mathematical concept and it is the careful developing and…
Designing for dynamic task allocation
Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van
2005-01-01
Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make co
Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks
Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania
2014-01-01
This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…
Schraagen, J.M.C.
2005-01-01
The Dutch Ministry of Defence research programme Human-System Task Integration aims at acquiring knowledge for the optimal cooperation between human and computer, under the following constraints: freedom of choice in decisions to automate and multiple, dynamic task distributions. This paper describe